Science.gov

Sample records for ahr antagonist ch-223191

  1. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor prevents Western diet-induced obesity. Model for AHR activation by kynurenine via oxidized-LDL, TLR2/4, TGFβ, and IDO1.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Benjamin J; Rojas, Itzel Y; Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S; Hazlett, Haley F; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Trask, Heidi W; West, Rachel J; Lupien, Leslie E; Collins, Alan J; Ringelberg, Carol S; Gimi, Barjor; Kinlaw, William B; Tomlinson, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem, yet, little is known about its causes and less is known how obesity can be effectively treated. We showed previously that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in the regulation of body mass in mice fed Western diet. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in a number of biological pathways, including xenobiotic metabolism and T cell polarization. This study was an investigation into whether inhibition of the AHR prevents Western diet-based obesity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control and Western diets with and without the AHR antagonist α-naphthoflavone or CH-223191, and a mouse hepatocyte cell line was used to delineate relevant cellular pathways. Studies are presented showing that the AHR antagonists α-naphthoflavone and CH-223191 significantly reduce obesity and adiposity and ameliorates liver steatosis in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a Western diet. Mice deficient in the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were also resistant to obesity. Using an AHR-directed, luciferase-expressing mouse hepatocyte cell line, we show that the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signaling pathway via PI3K and NF-κB and the toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) signaling pathway stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoproteins via NF-κB, each induce luciferase expression; however, TLR2/4 signaling was significantly reduced by inhibition of IDO1. At physiological levels, kynurenine but not kynurenic acid (both tryptophan metabolites and known AHR agonists) activated AHR-directed luciferase expression. We propose a hepatocyte-based model, in which kynurenine production is increased by enhanced IDO1 activity stimulated by TGFβ1 and TLR2/4 signaling, via PI3K and NF-κB, to perpetuate a cycle of AHR activation to cause obesity; and inhibition of the AHR, in turn, blocks the cycle's output to prevent obesity. The AHR with its broad ligand binding specificity

  2. Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Kočan, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Vaňková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-05-01

    European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483 pg TEQ/g lw, and between 82 and 337 pg TEQ/g lw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292 pg/g lw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223 pg/g lw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185 pg/g lw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. AHR-16303B, a novel antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.J.; Appell, K.C.; Kilpatrick, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro methods were used to characterize AHR-16303B, a novel compound with antagonistic action at 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels. The 5-HT2 receptor-antagonistic properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)ketanserin binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 165 nM); (b) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced foot edema in rats (minimum effective dose, (MED) = 0.32 mg/kg orally, p.o.); (c) 5-HT-induced vasopressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (ID50 = 0.18 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), 1.8 mg/kg p.o.), (d) 5-HT-induced antidiuresis in rats (MED = 1 mg/kg p.o.), and (e) platelet aggregation induced by 5-HT + ADPmore » (IC50 = 1.5 mM). The calcium antagonist properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)nimodipine binding to voltage-sensitive calcium channels on rabbit skeletal muscle membranes (IC50 = 15 nM), (b) KCl-stimulated calcium flux into cultured PC12 cells (IC50 = 81 nM), and (c) CaCl2-induced contractions of rabbit thoracic aortic strips (pA2 = 8.84). AHR-16303B had little or no effect on binding of radioligands to dopamine2 (DA2) alpha 1, alpha 2, H1, 5-HT1 alpha, beta 2, muscarinic M1, or sigma opioid receptors; had no effect on 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vagal bradycardia; and had only minor negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic effects on isolated guinea pig atria. In conscious SHR, 30 mg/kg p.o. AHR-16303B completely prevented the vasopressor responses to i.v. 5-HT, and decreased blood pressure (BP) by 24% 3 h after dosing.« less

  4. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    PubMed

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effects of folic acid on PM2.5-induced cardiac developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos by targeting AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Yue, Cong; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Leshuai W; Tong, Jian; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Our previous observations indicated that extractable organic matter (EOM) from PM2.5 induced malformations in the heart of zebrafish embryos by activating AhR and inhibiting canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. As a nutritional factor, folic acid (FA) is reported to prevent cardiac defects during embryo development. Hence, we hypothesize that FA may prevent PM2.5-induced heart defects by interfering with AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Our results showed that FA supplementation alleviated the EOM-induced heart defects in zebrafish embryos, and both AhR inhibitor CH223191 and Wnt activator CHIR99021 enhanced the protective efficiency of FA. Furthermore, FA supplementation attenuated the EOM-induced upregulation of AhR and its target genes including Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Ahrra, and Ahrrb. EROD assay confirmed that the EOM agonized Cyp1a1 activity was diminished by FA. The EOM-induced downregulation of β-catenin and its target genes including Nkx2.5, Axin2, Sox9b, and Cox2b were recovered or even overexpressed in embryos exposed to EOM plus FA. In conclusion, our study suggested that FA supplementation protected against PM2.5 cardiac development toxicity by targeting AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signal pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Potencies of red seabream AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation by dioxins: implication of both AHRs in dioxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bak, Su-Min; Iida, Midori; Hirano, Masashi; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2013-03-19

    To evaluate species- and isoform-specific responses to dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the red seabream ( Pagrus major ), we constructed a reporter gene assay system. Each expression plasmid of red seabream AHR1 (rsAHR1) and AHR2 (rsAHR2) together with a reporter plasmid containing red seabream CYP1A 5'-flanking region were transfected into COS-7 cells. The cells were treated with graded concentrations of seven DRC congeners including 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, and PCB126. Both rsAHR1 and rsAHR2 exhibited dose-dependent responses for all the tested congeners. The rsAHR isoform-specific TCDD induction equivalency factors (rsAHR1- and rsAHR2-IEFs) were calculated on the basis of 2,3,7,8-TCDD relative potency derived from the dose-response of each congener. The rsAHR1-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, and HxCDF were estimated as 0.17, 0.29, 2.5, 1.5, and 0.27, respectively. For PCB126, no rsAHR1-IEF was given because of less than 10% 2,3,7,8-TCDD maximum response. The rsAHR2-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, HxCDF, and PCB126 were estimated as 0.38, 0.13, 1.5, 0.93, 0.20, and 0.0085, respectively. The rsAHR1/2-IEF profiles were different from WHO toxic equivalency factors for fish. In silico docking simulations supported that both rsAHRs have potentials to bind to these congeners. These results suggest that dioxin toxicities may be mediated by both rsAHRs in red seabreams.

  7. UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.

  8. DDE and PCB 153 independently induce aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that compounds inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance AhR expression. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine if two pro-inflammatory compounds, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), independently affect AhR gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and (2) if affected, to determine whether the mechanism involved was due to AhR activation or to a pro-inflammatory effect of the chemicals. PBMC isolated from healthy individuals were incubated in the presence of DDE (10 µg/ml) and PCB 153 (20 ng/ml) over time and AhR and CYP1A1 expression was assessed with a real-time PCR technique. The results indicated there was over-expression of the AhR mRNA in PBMC when the cells were treated with DDE and PCB 153. No changes in expression levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were found. Importantly, when the cells were exposed to DDE and PCB 153 in the presence of an antagonist of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the over-expression of AhR was abolished; as expected, the expression of CYP1A1 was unaffected. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated for the first time an increment of AhR expression "in vitro" in PBMC treated with two pro-inflammatory environmental pollutants, DDE and PCB153. Moreover, the over-expression of AhR was dependent of TNFα induced by DDE and PCB 153 and was independent of AhR activation.

  9. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  10. Teratogenic impact of dioxin-activated AHR in laboratory animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    AHR and ARNT are expressed in mouse and human palatal shelves and in the urinary tract of the mouse fetus. AHR expression, translocation to the nucleus, binding to DRE, and activation are required for mediation of TCDD-induction of CP and HN. Although the human palate requires a ...

  11. AHR-dependent misregulation of Wnt signaling disrupts tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Lijoy K.; Simonich, Michel T.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The origins of molecular toxicology can be traced to understanding the interactions between halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The physiological consequences of activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor are diverse, and we are just beginning to understand the importance of the AHR signal transduction pathway in homeostasis and disease. The many downstream targets that mediate these biological responses remain undefined. Studies have exploited the power of the zebrafish model to elucidate the mechanisms by which AHR activation disrupts biological signaling. Recent genomic analysis performed in a zebrafish tissue regeneration model revealed functional cross talk between AHR and the well established Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway. This review focuses on the development of the zebrafish model of AHR biology and the application of in vivo toxicogenomics to unravel molecular mechanisms. PMID:18938144

  12. A Structural Switch between Agonist and Antagonist Bound Conformations for a Ligand-Optimized Model of the Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Arden; Phillips, Jessica L.; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Perdew, Gary H.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Bisson, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of a diverse group of genes. Exogenous AHR ligands include the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which is a potent agonist, and the synthetic AHR antagonist N-2-(1H-indol-3yl)ethyl)-9-isopropyl-2-(5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (GNF351). As no experimentally determined structure of the ligand binding domain exists, homology models have been utilized for virtual ligand screening (VLS) to search for novel ligands. Here, we have developed an “agonist-optimized” homology model of the human AHR ligand binding domain, and this model aided in the discovery of two human AHR agonists by VLS. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of an agonist TCDD-bound and antagonist GNF351-bound version of this model in order to gain insights into the mechanics of the AHR ligand-binding pocket. These simulations identified residues 307–329 as a flexible segment of the AHR ligand pocket that adopts discrete conformations upon agonist or antagonist binding. This flexible segment of the AHR may act as a structural switch that determines the agonist or antagonist activity of a given AHR ligand. PMID:25329374

  13. Genetic dissection of endothelial transcriptional activity of zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs)

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Wade W.; Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C.; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning. Here we dissect the contribution of the 3 zebrafish AHRs, ahr1a, ahr1b and ahr2, to endothelial cyp1a1/b1 gene regulation under physiologic conditions and upon exposure to the AHR ligand Beta-naphthoflavone. We show that in fish multiple AHRs are functional in the vasculature, with vessel-specific differences in the ability of ahr1b to compensate for the loss of ahr2 to maintain AHR signaling. We further provide evidence that AHR can regulate the expression of the chemokine receptor cxcr4a in endothelial cells, a regulatory mechanism that may provide insight into AHR function in the endothelium. PMID:28817646

  14. Genetic dissection of endothelial transcriptional activity of zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs).

    PubMed

    Sugden, Wade W; Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Siekmann, Arndt F

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning. Here we dissect the contribution of the 3 zebrafish AHRs, ahr1a, ahr1b and ahr2, to endothelial cyp1a1/b1 gene regulation under physiologic conditions and upon exposure to the AHR ligand Beta-naphthoflavone. We show that in fish multiple AHRs are functional in the vasculature, with vessel-specific differences in the ability of ahr1b to compensate for the loss of ahr2 to maintain AHR signaling. We further provide evidence that AHR can regulate the expression of the chemokine receptor cxcr4a in endothelial cells, a regulatory mechanism that may provide insight into AHR function in the endothelium.

  15. Regulation of subcellular localization of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Hannink, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxin and other xenobiotics. In the absence of exogenous ligand, AhR is cytosolic. We investigated how AhR is retained in the cytosol and how dioxin induces AhR to move to the nucleus. Disruption of nuclear export of AhR by the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) or by mutation of the AhR nuclear export signal resulted in nuclear accumulation of AhR in the absence of exogenous ligand. Mutation of the AhR nuclear localization signal resulted in defects in nuclear import of AhR in both the presence and the absence of exogenous ligand. Dioxin treatment caused a more rapid accumulation of AhR in the nucleus than LMB treatment. In the presence of both dioxin and LMB, nuclear accumulation of AhR was more rapid than in the presence of dioxin alone. Our results show that AhR shuttles between the nucleus and the cytosol in the absence of exogenous ligand. Binding of ligand induces an increase in the rate of nuclear import of AhR but does not eliminate nuclear export of AhR.

  16. The Role of AHR in Breast Cancer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    trypsin- EDTA, and heat inactivated FCS were supplied by Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). Galangin, indole - 3 - carbinol (13C), and cx-naphthoflavone (cc-NF) were...plasmid orpGudLuc plasmid and treated with vehicle, one of two AhR inhibitors (galangin; cc- naphthoflavone/ca-NF), or an AhR agonist ( indole - 3 - carbinol ...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-07-05 Annual Summary 07/01/04-06/30/05 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The

  17. Knockdown of AHR1A but not AHR1B exacerbates PAH and PCB-126 toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Lindsey V.T.; Brown, Daniel R.; Giulio, Richard T. Di

    2013-01-01

    Various environmental contaminants are known agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which is highly conserved across vertebrate species. Due to gene duplication events before and after the divergence of ray- and lobe-finned fishes, many teleosts have multiple AHR isoforms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has three identified AHRs: AHR1A and AHR1B, the roles of which are not yet well elucidated, and AHR2, which has been shown to mediate the toxicity of various anthropogenic compounds including dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we sought to explore the role of the two AHR1 isoforms in PAH- and PCB-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos utilizing morpholino gene knockdown of the AHR isoforms. Knockdown of AHR1B did not affect the toxicity of PAH mixtures or PCB-126, whereas knockdown of AHR1A exacerbated the cardiac toxicity caused by PAH mixtures and PCB-126. Knockdown of AHR1A did not impact the mRNA expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 in exposed embryos, but it did result in increased CYP1 activity in exposed embryos. As has been shown previously, knockdown of AHR2 resulted in protection from PAH- and PCB-induced cardiac deformities and prevented CYP1 enzyme activity in exposed embryos. Co-knockdown of AHR1A and AHR2 resulted in an intermediate response compared to knockdown of AHR1A and AHR2 individually; co-knockdown did not exacerbate nor protect from PAH-induced deformities and embryos exhibited an intermediate CYP1 enzyme activity response. In contrast, co-knockdown of AHR1A and AHR2 did protect from PCB-126-induced deformities. These results suggest that AHR1A is not a nonfunctional receptor as previously thought and may play a role in the normal physiology of zebrafish during development and/or the toxicity of environmental contaminants in early life stages. PMID:24084256

  18. Microbiome-Derived Tryptophan Metabolites and Their Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Agonist and Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ook; Sridharan, Gautham; Lee, Kyongbum; Davidson, Laurie A.; Jayaraman, Arul; Chapkin, Robert S.; Alaniz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolites indole, indole-3-acetate, and tryptamine were identified in mouse cecal extracts and fecal pellets by mass spectrometry. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and antagonist activities of these microbiota-derived compounds were investigated in CaCo-2 intestinal cells as a model for understanding their interactions with colonic tissue, which is highly aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)–responsive. Activation of Ah-responsive genes demonstrated that tryptamine and indole 3-acetate were AHR agonists, whereas indole was an AHR antagonist that inhibited TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)–induced CYP1A1 expression. In contrast, the tryptophan metabolites exhibited minimal anti-inflammatory activities, whereas TCDD decreased phorbol ester-induced CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] gene expression, and this response was AHR dependent. These results demonstrate that the tryptophan metabolites indole, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate modulate AHR-mediated responses in CaCo-2 cells, and concentrations of indole that exhibit AHR antagonist activity (100–250 μM) are detected in the intestinal microbiome. PMID:24563545

  19. AHR promoter variant modulates its transcription and downstream effectors by allele-specific AHR-SP1 interaction functioning as a genetic marker for vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowen; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Shi, Qiong; Song, Pu; Jian, Zhe; Guo, Sen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR −129C > T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that −129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with −129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-α concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than −129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo. PMID:26370050

  20. AHR promoter variant modulates its transcription and downstream effectors by allele-specific AHR-SP1 interaction functioning as a genetic marker for vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Shi, Qiong; Song, Pu; Jian, Zhe; Guo, Sen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2015-09-15

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR -129C > T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that -129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with -129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-α concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than -129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo.

  1. 75 FR 49550 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... 219: Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Reference System (AHRS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of [[Page 49551

  2. 76 FR 80447 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Heading Reference Systems (AHRS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS). DATES: The...

  3. Flavone antagonists bind competitively with 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor but inhibit nuclear uptake and transformation.

    PubMed

    Henry, E C; Kende, A S; Rucci, G; Totleben, M J; Willey, J J; Dertinger, S D; Pollenz, R S; Jones, J P; Gasiewicz, T A

    1999-04-01

    Previous analyses suggested that potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonists were planar, with a lateral electron-rich center. To further define structural requirements and mechanism for antagonism, ten additional flavone derivatives were synthesized. Based on their ability to 1) compete with 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for binding to the AhR; 2) inhibit TCDD-elicited binding of AhR to dioxin-responsive elements (DRE) in vitro; and 3) inhibit TCDD-induced transcription of DRE-dependent luciferase in stably transfected hepatoma cells, the most potent flavones contained a 3'-methoxy group and a 4'-substituent having one or more terminal atoms of high electron density (-N3, -NO2, or -NCS). Furthermore, these had low agonist activity as assessed by their inability to elicit AhR. DRE binding or to induce luciferase. Compounds containing bulkier 3' or 4'-substituents, or a 3'-OH group were less potent antagonists, and some were partial agonists. In rat liver cytosol, 3'-methoxy-4'-azido- and 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavones bound competitively (with TCDD) to the AhR, indicating that they bind to the TCDD-binding site. When hepatoma cells were exposed to these flavones, AhR complexes were primarily immunoprecipitable from the cytosol and contained 90 kDa heat shock protein. In contrast, AhR in TCDD-treated cells was primarily immunoprecipitated from nuclear extracts and was associated with Arnt but not 90 kDa heat shock protein. Immunocytofluorescence analysis in intact cells further indicated that the potent antagonist inhibited nuclear uptake of AhR and blocked TCDD-dependent down-regulation of AhR. Together, these data indicate that the most potent antagonists bind the AhR with high affinity but cannot initiate receptor transformation and nuclear localization.

  4. Hexachlorobenzene induces cell proliferation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression (AhR) in rat liver preneoplastic foci, and in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. AhR is a mediator of ERK1/2 signaling, and cell cycle regulation in HCB-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    de Tomaso Portaz, Ana Clara; Caimi, Giselle Romero; Sánchez, Marcela; Chiappini, Florencia; Randi, Andrea S; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana L; Alvarez, Laura

    2015-10-02

    are mediated by ERK1/2. Pretreatment with an AhR antagonist, prevented HCB-induced PCNA protein levels, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and alterations in cell cycle distribution. These results demonstrate that HCB-induced HepG2 proliferation and cell cycle progression depend on ERK1/2 phosphorylation which is mediated by the AhR. Our results provide a clue to the molecular events involved in the mechanism of action of HCB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. LHRH antagonists.

    PubMed

    Haviv, F; Bush, E N; Knittle, J; Greer, J

    1998-01-01

    After almost two decades, the research on LHRH antagonists has produced a number of decapeptides that are currently in clinical studies. The structures of these antagonists, unlike the agonists, differ substantially from that of LHRH. Five of the ten amino acids are unnatural and of D configuration. The structural combination of a hydrophobic N-terminus (residues 1, 2, and 3) and a basic/hydrophilic C-terminus (residues 6 and 8) was thought to be responsible for some HR reactions encountered with the second generation of LHRH antagonists. This side effect was greatly reduced by substituting the appropriate combination of amino acids at positions 5, 6, and 8. The next hurdle in the drug development of LHRH antagonists was solubility and aggregation. In the case of A-75998, water solubility was improved by 12- to 25-fold via substitution of NMeTyr at position 5. However, based on DLS analysis, the aqueous solutions still contained some large aggregates that were not visible to the naked eye. This formation of aggregates was eliminated on formulating A-75998 in Encapsin. In men, a single s.c. dose of 2 mg of A-75998 suppressed T to the castrate levels for over 30 hr. Other LHRH antagonists including ganirelix and cetrorelix are also in phase I/II clinical studies. Clinical studies with cetrorelix in prostate cancer; in vitro fertilization, and benign prostate hypotrophy have been reported.

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis: comparative expression, protein interactions, and ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Passamaneck, Yale J; Karchner, Sibel I; Franks, Diana G; Martindale, Mark Q; Tarrant, Ann M; Hahn, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors and has diverse roles in development, physiology, and environmental sensing in bilaterian animals. Studying the expression of conserved genes and function of proteins in outgroups to protostomes and deuterostomes assists in understanding the antiquity of gene function and deciphering lineage-specific differences in these bilaterian clades. We describe the developmental expression of AHR from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and compare its expression with three other members of the bHLH-PAS family (AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), Cycle, and a proto-Single-Minded/Trachealess). NvAHR expression was highest early in the larval stage with spatial expression in the basal portion of the ectoderm that became increasingly restricted to the oral pole with concentrated expression in tentacles of the juvenile polyp. The other bHLH-PAS genes showed a divergent expression pattern in later larval stages and polyps, in which gene expression was concentrated in the aboral end, with broader expression in the endoderm later in development. In co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found no evidence for heterodimerization of AHR with ARNT, contrary to the conservation of this specific interaction in all bilaterians studied to date. Similar to results with other invertebrate AHRs but in contrast to vertebrate AHRs, NvAHR failed to bind two prototypical xenobiotic AHR ligands (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, β-naphthoflavone). Together, our data suggest that AHR's original function in Eumetazoa likely involved developmental patterning, potentially of neural tissue. The role of heterodimerization in the function of AHR may have arisen after the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. The absence of xenobiotic binding to NvAHR further supports a hypothesis for a derived role of this protein in chemical sensing within the chordates.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis: comparative expression, protein interactions, and ligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Adam M.; Passamaneck, Yale J.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Franks, Diana G.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Tarrant, Ann M.; Hahn, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors and has diverse roles in development, physiology, and environmental sensing in bilaterian animals. Studying the expression of conserved genes and function of proteins in outgroups to protostomes and deuterostomes assists in understanding the antiquity of gene function and deciphering lineage-specific differences in these bilaterian clades. We describe the developmental expression of AHR from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and compare its expression with three other members of the bHLH-PAS family (AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), Cycle, and a proto-Single-Minded/Trachaeless). NvAHR expression was highest early in the larval stage with spatial expression in the basal portion of the ectoderm that became increasingly restricted to the oral pole with concentrated expression in tentacles of the juvenile polyp. The other bHLH-PAS genes showed a divergent expression pattern in later larval stages and polyps, in which gene expression was concentrated in the aboral end, with broader expression in the endoderm later in development. In co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found no evidence for heterodimerization of AHR with ARNT, contrary to the conservation of this specific interaction in all bilaterians studied to date. Similar to results with other invertebrate AHRs but in contrast to vertebrate AHRs, NvAHR failed to bind two prototypical xenobiotic AHR ligands (TCDD, BNF). Together, our data suggest that AHR's original function in Eumetazoa likely involved developmental patterning, potentially of neural tissue. The role of heterodimerization in the function of AHR may have arisen after the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. The absence of xenobiotic binding to NvAHR further supports a hypothesis for a derived role of this protein in chemical sensing within the chordates. PMID:24292160

  8. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    SciTech Connect

    Wincent, Emma; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm; Stegeman, John J.

    2015-04-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate the AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examinedmore » phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in the presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholino-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes.« less

  9. Indoleamine antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Clineschmidt, B.V.; Lotti, V.J.

    1974-01-01

    Four indoleamine antagonists were evaluated for relative potencies as inhibitors of tryptamine-induced forepaw clonus and 5-hydroxytryptophan-evoked head twitches. Methergoline was approximately three times more potent against the forepaw clonus than the head twitch response, whereas methysergide exhibited nearly equal activity in both tests. Cyproheptadine and cinanserin showed a profile opposite to methergoline and a greater degree of selectivity, being 25 to 40 times more potent as inhibitors of the 5-hydroxytryptophan- than of the tryptamine-induced response. These findings clearly demonstrate that the rank order of potency of indoleamine antagonists varies greatly depending upon the test procedure employed. PMID:4547673

  10. Structural hierarchy controlling dimerization and target DNA recognition in the AHR transcriptional complex

    SciTech Connect

    Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Lee, Woojong; Jiang, Li

    2017-04-10

    he aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) belongs to the PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) family transcription factors and mediates broad responses to numerous environmental pollutants and cellular metabolites, modulating diverse biological processes from adaptive metabolism, acute toxicity, to normal physiology of vascular and immune systems. The AHR forms a transcriptionally active heterodimer with ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator), which recognizes the dioxin response element (DRE) in the promoter of downstream genes. We determined the crystal structure of the mammalian AHR–ARNT heterodimer in complex with the DRE, in which ARNT curls around AHR into a highly intertwined asymmetric architecture, with extensive heterodimerization interfaces and AHR interdomainmore » interactions. Specific recognition of the DRE is determined locally by the DNA-binding residues, which discriminates it from the closely related hypoxia response element (HRE), and is globally affected by the dimerization interfaces and interdomain interactions. Changes at the interdomain interactions caused either AHR constitutive nuclear localization or failure to translocate to nucleus, underlying an allosteric structural pathway for mediating ligand-induced exposure of nuclear localization signal. These observations, together with the global higher flexibility of the AHR PAS-A and its loosely packed structural elements, suggest a dynamic structural hierarchy for complex scenarios of AHR activation induced by its diverse ligands.« less

  11. AHR2 required for normal behavioral responses and proper development of the skeletal and reproductive systems in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gloria R; Bugel, Sean M; Truong, Lisa; Spagnoli, Sean; Tanguay, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a conserved ligand-activated transcription factor required for proper vertebrate development and homeostasis. The inappropriate activation of AHR by ubiquitous pollutants can lead to adverse effects on wildlife and human health. The zebrafish is a powerful model system that provides a vertebrate data stream that anchors hypothesis at the genetic and cellular levels to observations at the morphological and behavioral level, in a high-throughput format. In order to investigate the endogenous functions of AHR, we generated an AHR2 (homolog of human AHR)-null zebrafish line (ahr2osu1) using the clustered, regulatory interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 precision genome editing method. In zebrafish, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) mediated toxicity requires AHR2. The AHR2-null line was resistant to TCDD-induced toxicity, indicating the line can be used to investigate the biological and toxicological functions of AHR2. The AHR2-null zebrafish exhibited decreased survival and fecundity compared to the wild type line. At 36 weeks, histological evaluations of the AHR2-null ovaries revealed a reduction of mature follicles when compared to wild type ovaries, suggesting AHR2 regulates follicle growth in zebrafish. AHR2-null adults had malformed cranial skeletal bones and severely damaged fins. Our data suggests AHR2 regulates some aspect(s) of neuromuscular and/or sensory system development, with impaired behavioral responses observed in larval and adult AHR2-null zebrafish. This study increases our understanding of the endogenous functions of AHR, which may help foster a better understanding of the target organs and molecular mechanisms involved in AHR-mediated toxicities.

  12. Toxicology mechanism of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish through AhR pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hailong; Wu, Huifeng; Liao, Chunyang; Diao, Xiaoping; Zhen, Jiping; Chen, Linlin; Xue, Qinzhao

    2010-07-01

    With the development of industry and agriculture, the cases of cancer and tumor have been increasing gradually in the last 30 years, and quite a few cases are caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of them belonging to environmental endocrine disruptors, and they have become ubiquitous in the environment, especially in the aquatic ecosystem; so this issue has aroused the extensive attention of the world. The mechanism of POPs toxicology is very complicated, but it is mainly mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in fish. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the AhR pathway, the present paper focuses on reviewing it from four major steps, including formation of cytosolic complex, translocation of AhR, heterodimerization of AhR, and induction of CYP1A. This study summarized the isoform numbers of AhR pathway genes and the expression patterns in the regulation process of POPs toxicology in zebrafish.

  13. Simultaneous inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Src abolishes androgen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ghotbaddini, Maryam; Cisse, Keyana; Carey, Alexis; Powell, Joann B

    2017-01-01

    Altered c-Src activity has been strongly implicated in the development, growth, progression, and metastasis of human cancers including prostate cancer. Src is known to regulate several biological functions of tumor cells, including proliferation. There are several Src inhibitors under evaluation for clinical effectiveness but have shown little activity in monotherapy trials of solid tumors. Combination studies are being explored by in vitro analysis and in clinical trials. Here we investigate the effect of simultaneous inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Src on androgen receptor (AR) signaling in prostate cancer cells. AhR has also been reported to interact with the Src signaling pathway during prostate development. c-Src protein kinase is associated with the AhR complex in the cytosol and upon ligand binding to AhR, c-Src is activated and released from the complex. AhR has also been shown to regulate AR signaling which remains functionally important in the development and progression of prostate cancer. We provide evidence that co-inhibition of AhR and Src abolish AR activity. Evaluation of total protein and cellular fractions revealed decreased pAR expression and AR nuclear localization. Assays utilizing an androgen responsive element (ARE) and qRT-PCR analysis of AR genes revealed decreased AR promoter activity and transcriptional activity in the presence of both AhR and Src inhibitors. Furthermore, co-inhibition of AhR and Src reduced the growth of prostate cancer cells compared to individual treatments. Several studies have revealed that AhR and Src individually inhibit cellular proliferation. However, this study is the first to suggest simultaneous inhibition of AhR and Src to inhibit AR signaling and prostate cancer cell growth.

  14. Specific ligand binding domain residues confer low dioxin responsiveness to AHR1β of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Odio, Camila; Holzman, Sarah A; Denison, Michael S; Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Bonati, Laura; Franks, Diana G; Hahn, Mark E; Powell, Wade H

    2013-03-12

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) family protein that mediates the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in vertebrates. Frogs are remarkably insensitive to TCDD, and AHRs from Xenopus laevis bind TCDD with low affinity. We sought to identify structural features of X. laevis AHR1β associated with low TCDD sensitivity. Substitution of the entire ligand binding domain (LBD) with the corresponding sequence from mouse AHR(b-1) dramatically increased TCDD responsiveness in transactivation assays. To identify the amino acid residues responsible, we constructed a comparative model of the AHR1β LBD using homologous domains of PAS proteins HIF2α and ARNT. The model revealed an internal cavity with dimensions similar to those of the putative binding cavity of mouse AHR(b-1), suggesting the importance of side chain interactions over cavity size. Of residues with side chains clearly pointing into the cavity, only two differed from the mouse sequence. When A354, located within a conserved β-strand, was changed to serine, the corresponding mouse residue, the EC50 for TCDD decreased more than 15-fold. When N325 was changed to serine, the EC50 decreased 3-fold. When the mutations were combined, the EC50 decreased from 18.6 to 0.8 nM, the value nearly matching the TCDD sensitivity of mouse AHR. Velocity sedimentation analysis confirmed that mutant frog AHRs exhibited correspondingly increased levels of TCDD binding. We also assayed mutant AHRs for responsiveness to a candidate endogenous ligand, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Mutations that increased sensitivity to TCDD also increased sensitivity to FICZ. This comparative study represents a novel approach to discerning fundamental information about the structure of AHR and its interactions with biologically important agonists.

  15. INSIGHTS FROM AHR AND ARNT GENE KNOCKOUT STUDIES REGARDING RESPONSES TO TCDD AND REGULATION OF NORMAL EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are members of the Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) family of proteins. The AhR binds members of the chemical family that includes dioxins, furans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A ligand-AhR-ARNT comp...

  16. AhrC and Eep Are Biofilm Infection-Associated Virulence Factors in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Guiton, Pascale S.; Barnes, Aaron M. T.; Manias, Dawn A.; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Kohler, Petra L.; Spaulding, Adam R.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the human intestinal microbiome and is a prominent cause of health care-associated infections. The pathogenesis of many E. faecalis infections, including endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), is related to the ability of clinical isolates to form biofilms. To identify chromosomal genetic determinants responsible for E. faecalis biofilm-mediated infection, we used a rabbit model of endocarditis to test strains with transposon insertions or in-frame deletions in biofilm-associated loci: ahrC, argR, atlA, opuBC, pyrC, recN, and sepF. Only the ahrC mutant was significantly attenuated in endocarditis. We demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator AhrC and the protease Eep, which we showed previously to be an endocarditis virulence factor, are also required for full virulence in murine CAUTI. Therefore, AhrC and Eep can be classified as enterococcal biofilm-associated virulence factors. Loss of ahrC caused defects in early attachment and accumulation of biofilm biomass. Characterization of ahrC transcription revealed that the temporal expression of this locus observed in wild-type cells promotes initiation of early biofilm formation and the establishment of endocarditis. This is the first report of AhrC serving as a virulence factor in any bacterial species. PMID:23460519

  17. Estimation of weekly 99Mo production by AHR 200 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, I. H.; Suharyana; Khakim, A.; Siregar, D.; Frida, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    The estimation of weekly 99Mo production by AHR 200 kW fueled with Low Enriched Uranium Uranyl Nitrate solution has been simulated by using MCNPX computer code. We have employed the AHR design of Babcock & Wilcox Medical Isotope Production System with 9Be Reflector and Stainless steel vessel. We found that when the concentration of uranium in the fresh fuel was 108 gr U/L of UO2(NO3)2 fuel solution, the multiplication factor was 1.0517. The 99Mo concentration reached saturated at tenth day operation. The AHR can produce approximately 1.96×103 6-day-Ci weekly.

  18. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  19. Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Veronica J; Smit, Joost J; Huijgen, Veerle; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Roest, Manon; Kruijssen, Laura J W; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Hassing, Ine; Bleumink, Rob; Safe, Stephen; van Duursen, Majorie B M; van den Berg, Martin; Pieters, Raymond H H

    2012-07-01

    Recently, we have shown that AhR activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppresses sensitization to peanut at least in part by inducing a functional shift toward CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Next to TCDD, numerous other AhR ligands have been described. In this study, we investigated the effect of three structurally different non-dioxin-like AhR ligands, e.g., 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (6-MCDF), on peanut sensitization. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by administering peanut extract (PE) by gavage in the presence of cholera toxin. Before and during peanut sensitization, mice were treated with FICZ, β-NF, or 6-MCDF. AhR gene transcription in duodenum and liver was investigated on day 5, even as the effect of these AhR ligands on CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Mice treated with TCDD were included as a positive control. Furthermore, the murine reporter cell line H1G1.1c3 (CAFLUX) was used to investigate the possible role of metabolism of TCDD, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF on AhR activation in vitro. TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF, suppressed sensitization to peanut (measured by PE-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2a and PE-induced interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17a, IL-22, and interferon-γ). In addition, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF treatments less effectively induced AhR gene transcription (measured by gene expression of AhR, AhRR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) compared with TCDD-treated mice. Furthermore, FICZ, β-NF and 6-MCDF did not increase the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes compared with PE-sensitized mice, in contrast to TCDD. Inhibition of metabolism in vitro increased AhR activation. Together, these data shows that TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF suppresses sensitization to peanut. Differences in metabolism, AhR binding and subsequent gene transcription might

  20. Specific Ligand Binding Domain Residues Confer Low Dioxin Responsiveness to AHR1β of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Odio, Camila; Holzman, Sarah A.; Denison, Michael S.; Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Bonati, Laura; Franks, Diana G.; Hahn, Mark E.; Powell, Wade H.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a PAS-family protein that mediates the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in vertebrates. Frogs are remarkably insensitive to TCDD, and AHRs from Xenopus laevis bind TCDD with low affinity. We sought to identify structural features of X. laevis AHR1β associated with low TCDD sensitivity. Substitution of the entire ligand-binding domain (LBD) with the corresponding sequence from mouse AHRb-1 dramatically increased TCDD responsiveness in transactivation assays. To identify amino acid residues responsible, we constructed a comparative model of the AHR1β LBD using homologous domains of PAS proteins HIF2α and ARNT. The model revealed an internal cavity of similar dimensions to the putative binding cavity of mouse AHRb-1, suggesting the importance of side-chain interactions over cavity size. Of residues with side chains clearly pointing into the cavity, only two differed from the mouse sequence. When A354, located within a conserved β-strand, was changed to serine, the corresponding mouse residue, the EC50 for TCDD decreased more than 15-fold. When N325 was changed to serine, EC50 declined 3-fold. When the mutations were combined, the EC50 declined from 18.6 nM to 0.8 nM, nearly matching mouse AHR for TCDD sensitivity. Velocity sedimentation analysis confirmed that mutant frog AHRs exhibited correspondingly increased TCDD binding. We also assayed mutant AHRs for responsiveness to a candidate endogenous ligand, 6-formylindolo[3,2b]carbazole (FICZ). Mutations that increased TCDD sensitivity also increased sensitivity to FICZ. This comparative study represents a novel approach to discerning fundamental information about the structure of AHR and its interactions with biologically important agonists. PMID:23394719

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent regulation of miR-196a expression controls lung fibroblast apoptosis but not proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, Emelia; Zago, Michela; Sarill, Miles

    2014-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Although activation of the AhR by xenobiotics such as dioxin inhibits the cell cycle and control apoptosis, paradoxically, AhR expression also promotes cell proliferation and survival independent of exogenous ligands. The microRNA (miRNA) miR-196a has also emerged as a regulator of proliferation and apoptosis but a relationship between the AhR and miR-196a is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that AhR-dependent regulation of endogenous miR-196a expression would promote cell survival and proliferation. Utilizing lung fibroblasts from AhR deficient (AhR{sup −/−}) and wild-type (AhR{supmore » +/+}) mice, we show that there is ligand-independent regulation of miRNA, including low miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} cells. Validation by qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in basal expression of miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} compared to AhR{sup +/+} cells. Exposure to AhR agonists benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and FICZ as well as AhR antagonist CH-223191 decreased miR-196a expression in AhR{sup +/+} fibroblasts concomitant with decreased AhR protein levels. There was increased proliferation only in AhR{sup +/+} lung fibroblasts in response to serum, corresponding to a decrease in p27{sup KIP1} protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Increasing the cellular levels of miR-196a had no effect on proliferation or expression of p27{sup KIP1} in AhR{sup −/−} fibroblasts but attenuated cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. This study provides the first evidence that AhR expression is essential for the physiological regulation of cellular miRNA levels- including miR-196a. Future experiments designed to elucidate the functional relationship between the AhR and miR-196a may delineate additional novel ligand-independent roles for the AhR. - Highlights: • The AhR controls proliferation and apoptosis in lung cells. • The AhR regulates

  2. Pityriazepin and other potent AhR ligands isolated from Malassezia furfur yeast.

    PubMed

    Mexia, Nikitia; Gaitanis, Georgios; Velegraki, Aristea; Soshilov, Anatoly; Denison, Michael S; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2015-04-01

    Malassezia furfur yeast strains isolated from diseased human skin preferentially biosynthesize indole alkaloids which can be detected in the human skin and are highly potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. Chemical analysis of an EtOAc extract of a M. furfur strain obtained from diseased human skin and grown on l-tryptophan agar revealed several known AhR active tryptophan metabolites along with a previously unidentified compound, pityriazepin. While its structure resembled that of the known alkaloid pityriacitrin, the comprised pyridine ring had been transformed into an azepinone. The indoloazepinone scaffold of pityriazepin is extremely rare in nature and has only been reported once previously. Pityriazepin, like the other isolated compounds, was found to be a potent activator of the AhR-dependent reporter gene assay in recombinant cell lines derived from four different species, although significant species differences in relative potency were observed. The ability of pityriazepin to competitively bind to the AhR and directly stimulate AhR DNA binding classified it as a new naturally-occurring potent AhR agonist. M. furfur produces an expanded collection of extremely potent naturally occurring AhR agonists, which produce their biological effects in a species-specific manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pityriazepin and other potent AhR ligands isolated from Malassezia furfur yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mexia, Nikitia; Gaitanis, George; Velegraki, Aristea; Soshilov, Anatoly; Denison, Michael S.; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia furfur yeast strains isolated from diseased human skin preferentially biosynthesize indole alkaloids which can be detected in human skin and are highly potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. Chemical analysis of an EtOAc extract of a M. furfur strain obtained from diseased human skin and grown on L-tryptophan agar revealed several known AhR active tryptophan metabolites along with a previously unidentified compound, pityriazepin. While its structure resembled that of the known alkaloid pityriacitrin, the comprised pyridine ring had been transformed into an azepinone. The indoloazepinone scaffold of pityriazepin is extremely rare in nature and has only been reported once previously. Pityriazepin, like the other isolated compounds, was found to be a potent activator of the AhR-dependent reporter gene assays in recombinant cell lines derived from four different species, although significant species differences in relative potency was observed. The ability of pityriazepin to competitively bind to the AhR and directly stimulate AhR DNA binding classified it as a new naturally-occurring potent AhR agonist. Malassezia furfur produces an expanded collection of extremely potent naturally occurring AhR agonists, which produce their biological effects in a species-specific manner.1 PMID:25721496

  4. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonists Mitigate the Effects of Dioxin on Critical Cellular Functions in Differentiating Human Osteoblast-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Chawon; Katchko, Karina M.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Jeong, Soyeon; Yun, Jonghwa; Chen, Charlotte H.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Park, Christian; George, Andrew; Stupp, Samuel I.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.

    2018-01-01

    The inhibition of bone healing in humans is a well-established effect associated with cigarette smoking, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent work using animal cell lines have implicated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as a mediator of the anti-osteogenic effects of cigarette smoke, but the complexity of cigarette smoke mixtures makes understanding the mechanisms of action a major challenge. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) is a high-affinity AhR ligand that is frequently used to investigate biological processes impacted by AhR activation. Since there are dozens of AhR ligands present in cigarette smoke, we utilized dioxin as a prototype ligand to activate the receptor and explore its effects on pro-osteogenic biomarkers and other factors critical to osteogenesis using a human osteoblast-like cell line. We also explored the capacity for AhR antagonists to protect against dioxin action in this context. We found dioxin to inhibit osteogenic differentiation, whereas co-treatment with various AhR antagonists protected against dioxin action. Dioxin also negatively impacted cell adhesion with a corresponding reduction in the expression of integrin and cadherin proteins, which are known to be involved in this process. Similarly, the dioxin-mediated inhibition of cell migration correlated with reduced expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, CXCL12, and co-treatment with antagonists restored migratory capacity. Our results suggest that AhR activation may play a role in the bone regenerative response in humans exposed to AhR activators, such as those present in cigarette smoke. Given the similarity of our results using a human cell line to previous work done in murine cells, animal models may yield data relevant to the human setting. In addition, the AhR may represent a potential therapeutic target for orthopedic patients who smoke cigarettes, or those who are exposed to secondhand smoke or other environmental

  5. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonists Mitigate the Effects of Dioxin on Critical Cellular Functions in Differentiating Human Osteoblast-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Chawon; Katchko, Karina M; Schallmo, Michael S; Jeong, Soyeon; Yun, Jonghwa; Chen, Charlotte H; Weiner, Joseph A; Park, Christian; George, Andrew; Stupp, Samuel I; Hsu, Wellington K; Hsu, Erin L

    2018-01-11

    The inhibition of bone healing in humans is a well-established effect associated with cigarette smoking, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent work using animal cell lines have implicated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as a mediator of the anti-osteogenic effects of cigarette smoke, but the complexity of cigarette smoke mixtures makes understanding the mechanisms of action a major challenge. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) is a high-affinity AhR ligand that is frequently used to investigate biological processes impacted by AhR activation. Since there are dozens of AhR ligands present in cigarette smoke, we utilized dioxin as a prototype ligand to activate the receptor and explore its effects on pro-osteogenic biomarkers and other factors critical to osteogenesis using a human osteoblast-like cell line. We also explored the capacity for AhR antagonists to protect against dioxin action in this context. We found dioxin to inhibit osteogenic differentiation, whereas co-treatment with various AhR antagonists protected against dioxin action. Dioxin also negatively impacted cell adhesion with a corresponding reduction in the expression of integrin and cadherin proteins, which are known to be involved in this process. Similarly, the dioxin-mediated inhibition of cell migration correlated with reduced expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, CXCL12 , and co-treatment with antagonists restored migratory capacity. Our results suggest that AhR activation may play a role in the bone regenerative response in humans exposed to AhR activators, such as those present in cigarette smoke. Given the similarity of our results using a human cell line to previous work done in murine cells, animal models may yield data relevant to the human setting. In addition, the AhR may represent a potential therapeutic target for orthopedic patients who smoke cigarettes, or those who are exposed to secondhand smoke or other environmental

  6. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenicmore » lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  7. In silico predictive studies of mAHR congener binding using homology modelling and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Panda, Roshni; Cleave, A Suneetha Susan; Suresh, P K

    2014-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is one of the principal xenobiotic, nuclear receptor that is responsible for the early events involved in the transcription of a complex set of genes comprising the CYP450 gene family. In the present computational study, homology modelling and molecular docking were carried out with the objective of predicting the relationship between the binding efficiency and the lipophilicity of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the AHR in silico. Homology model of the murine AHR was constructed by several automated servers and assessed by PROCHECK, ERRAT, VERIFY3D and WHAT IF. The resulting model of the AHR by MODWEB was used to carry out molecular docking of 36 PCB congeners using PatchDock server. The lipophilicity of the congeners was predicted using the XLOGP3 tool. The results suggest that the lipophilicity influences binding energy scores and is positively correlated with the same. Score and Log P were correlated with r = +0.506 at p = 0.01 level. In addition, the number of chlorine (Cl) atoms and Log P were highly correlated with r = +0.900 at p = 0.01 level. The number of Cl atoms and scores also showed a moderate positive correlation of r = +0.481 at p = 0.01 level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing PatchDock in the docking of AHR to the environmentally deleterious congeners and attempting to correlate structural features of the AHR with its biochemical properties with regards to PCBs. The result of this study are consistent with those of other computational studies reported in the previous literature that suggests that a combination of docking, scoring and ranking organic pollutants could be a possible predictive tool for investigating ligand-mediated toxicity, for their subsequent validation using wet lab-based studies. © The Author(s) 2012.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of the Lactococcus lactis ArgR and AhrC Regulons▿

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Rasmus; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Martinussen, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kok, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that direct protein-protein interaction between the two regulators ArgR and AhrC in Lactococcus lactis is required for arginine-dependent repression of the biosynthetic argC promoter and the activation of the catabolic arcA promoter. Here, we establish the global ArgR and AhrC regulons by transcriptome analyses and show that both regulators are dedicated to the control of arginine metabolism in L. lactis. PMID:18539789

  9. Differential Consequences of Two Distinct AhR Ligands on Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, B. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Immune modulation by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been primarily studied using 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Recent reports suggest another AhR ligand, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), exhibits distinct immunomodulatory properties, but side-by-side comparisons of these 2 structurally distinct, high-affinity ligands are limited. In this study, the effects of in vivo AhR activation with TCDD and FICZ were directly compared in a mouse model of influenza virus infection using 3 key measures of the host response to infection: pulmonary neutrophilia, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, and the virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response. By this approach, the consequences of AhR activation on innate and adaptive immune responses to the same antigenic challenge were compared. A single dose of TCDD elicited AhR activation that is sustained for the duration of the host’s response to infection and modulated all 3 responses to infection. In contrast, a single dose of FICZ induced transient AhR activation and had no effect on the immune response to infection. Micro-osmotic pumps and Cyp1a1-deficient mice were utilized to augment FICZ-mediated AhR activation in vivo, in order to assess the effect of transient versus prolonged AhR activation. Prolonged AhR activation with FICZ did not affect neutrophil recruitment or pulmonary iNOS levels. However, FICZ-mediated AhR activation diminished the CD8+ T-cell response in Cyp1a1-deficient mice in a similar manner to TCDD. These results demonstrate that immunomodulatory differences in the action of these 2 ligands are likely due to not only the duration of AhR activation but also the cell types in which the receptor is activated. PMID:24194396

  10. Red Clover Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Estrogen Receptor (ER) Agonists Enhance Genotoxic Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Many women consider botanical dietary supplements (BDSs) as safe alternatives to hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms. However, the effect of BDSs on breast cancer risk is largely unknown. In the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, P450 1B1 metabolizes estrogens to 4-hydroxylated catechols, which are oxidized to genotoxic quinones that initiate and promote breast cancer. In contrast, P450 1A1 catalyzed 2-hydroxylation represents a detoxification pathway. The current study evaluated the effects of red clover, a popular BDS used for women’s health, and its isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), formononetin (FN), genistein (GN), and daidzein (DZ), on estrogen metabolism. The methoxy estrogen metabolites (2-MeOE1, 4-MeOE1) were measured by LC-MS/MS, and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Nonmalignant ER-negative breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and ER-positive breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were derived from normal breast epithelial tissue and ER+ breast cancer tissue. Red clover extract (RCE, 10 μg/mL) and isoflavones had no effect on estrogen metabolism in MCF-10A cells. However, in MCF-7 cells, RCE treatments downregulated CYP1A1 expression and enhanced genotoxic metabolism (4-MeOE1/CYP1B1 > 2-MeOE1/CYP1A1). Experiments with the isoflavones showed that the AhR agonists (BA, FN) preferentially induced CYP1B1 expression as well as 4-MeOE1. In contrast, the ER agonists (GN, DZ) downregulated CYP1A1 expression likely through an epigenetic mechanism. Finally, the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 potentiated isoflavone-induced XRE-luciferase reporter activity and reversed GN and DZ induced downregulation of CYP1A1 expression. Overall, these studies show that red clover and its isoflavones have differential effects on estrogen metabolism in “normal” vs breast cancer cells. In breast cancer cells, the AhR agonists stimulate genotoxic metabolism, and the ER agonists downregulate the detoxification pathway. These data may suggest that especially breast

  11. EXPRESSION OF AHR AND ARNT MRNA IN CULTURED HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL EXPLANTS EXPOSED TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expression of AhR and ARNT mRNA in cultured human endometrial explants exposed to TCDD.

    Pitt JA, Feng L, Abbott BD, Schmid J, Batt RE, Costich TG, Koury ST, Bofinger DP.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Endom...

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RESIDUES OF AHR AGONISTS IN FISH AND CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relationships between Residues of AhR Agonists in Fish and Concentrations in Water and Sediment. Cook, PM*, Burkhard, LP, Mount, DR, US-EPA, NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN. The bioaccumulation visualization approach of Burkhard et al. (2002) can be effectively used to describe the bioa...

  13. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Extract and 6-Prenylnaringenin Induce P450 1A1 Catalyzed Estrogen 2-Hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Humulus lupulus L. (hops) is a popular botanical dietary supplement used by women as a sleep aid and for postmenopausal symptom relief. In addition to its efficacy for menopausal symptoms, hops can also modulate the chemical estrogen carcinogenesis pathway and potentially protect women from breast cancer. In the present study, an enriched hop extract and the key bioactive compounds [6-prenylnarigenin (6-PN), 8-prenylnarigenin (8-PN), isoxanthohumol (IX), and xanthohumol (XH)] were tested for their effects on estrogen metabolism in breast cells (MCF-10A and MCF-7). The methoxyestrones (2-/4-MeOE1) were analyzed as biomarkers for the nontoxic P450 1A1 catalyzed 2-hydroxylation and the genotoxic P450 1B1 catalyzed 4-hydroxylation pathways, respectively. The results indicated that the hop extract and 6-PN preferentially induced the 2-hydroxylation pathway in both cell lines. 8-PN only showed slight up-regulation of metabolism in MCF-7 cells, whereas IX and XH did not have significant effects in either cell line. To further explore the influence of hops and its bioactive marker compounds on P450 1A1/1B1, mRNA expression and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity were measured. The results correlated with the metabolism data and showed that hop extract and 6-PN preferentially enhanced P450 1A1 mRNA expression and increased P450 1A1/1B1 activity. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by the isolated compounds was tested using xenobiotic response element (XRE) luciferase construct transfected cells. 6-PN was found to be an AhR agonist that significantly induced XRE activation and inhibited 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced XRE activity. 6-PN mediated induction of EROD activity was also inhibited by the AhR antagonist CH223191. These data show that the hop extract and 6-PN preferentially enhance the nontoxic estrogen 2-hydroxylation pathway through AhR mediated up-regulation of P450 1A1, which further emphasizes the importance of

  14. Functional and phenotypic effects of AhR activation in inflammatory dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bankoti, Jaishree; Rase, Ben; Simones, Tom; Shepherd, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces immune suppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells governing T cell activation and differentiation. However, the consequences of AhR activation in DCs are not fully defined. We hypothesized that AhR activation alters DC differentiation and generates dysfunctional DCs. To test this hypothesis, inflammatory bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from C57Bl/6 mice were generated in the presence of vehicle or TCDD. TCDD decreased CD11c expression but increased MHC class II, CD86 and CD25 expression on the BMDCs. The effects of TCDD were strictly AhR-dependent but not exclusively DRE-mediated. Similar effects were observed with two natural AhR ligands, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (ITE). TCDD increased LPS- and CpG-induced IL-6 and TNF-α production by BMDCs but decreased their NO production. TCDD decreased CpG-induced IL-12p70 production by BMDCs but did not affect their secretion of IL-10. TCDD downregulated LPS- and CpG-induced NF-kB p65 levels and induced a trend towards upregulation of RelB levels in the BMDCs. AhR activation by TCDD modulated BMDC uptake of both soluble and particulate antigens. Induction of indoleamine-2,3–dioxygenase (IDO) and TGF-β3 has been implicated in the generation of regulatory T cells following AhR activation. TCDD increased IDO1, IDO2 and TGF-β3 mRNA levels in BMDCs as compared to vehicle. Despite the induction of regulatory mediators, TCDD-treated BMDCs failed to suppress antigen-specific T cell activation. Thus, AhR activation can directly alter the differentiation and innate functions of inflammatory DCs without affecting their ability to successfully interact with T cells. PMID:20350561

  15. Effects of AHR-12234 on cardiac transmembrane action potentials, in situ cardiac electrophysiology and experimental models for arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Wu, K M; Proakis, A G; Hunter, T L; Shanklin, J R

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effects of AHR-12234, a new antiarrhythmic agent, on cardiac transmembrane action potentials, in situ cardiac electrophysiology and in several models for arrhythmias in the dog. AHR-12234 (5 x 10(-5)-2 x 10(-4) M) induced a dose-related and use-dependent decrease in dV/dtmax in canine Purkinje fibers and ventricular muscles. Action potential duration was shortened in Purkinje fibers but lengthened in ventricular muscle. In the anesthetized dog, AHR-12234 at a lower dose (2.64 mg/kg) increased AH intervals and effective refractory period of atrium, and AV node. At higher cumulative doses of 7.92 and 13.2 mg/kg, AHR-12234 increased the effective refractory period and conduction time in the atrium, AV node and ventricle. It also increased Purkinje system conduction time and sinus nodal recovery time. In the conscious dog model for reentrant atrial tachycardia, i.v. (effective doses: 12.3 +/- 4.2 mg/kg), or oral (20 to 60 mg/kg) administration of AHR-12234 prolonged the cycle length of the tachycardia and terminated the arrhythmia. The duration of action of oral AHR-12234 against this arrhythmia persisted for 24 hr. In the 1-day infarcted conscious dogs, AHR-12234 administered either i.v. (effective doses: 3.8 +/- 0.9 mg/kg) or orally (20 mg/kg), effectively converted the ventricular arrhythmia into sinus rhythm. AHR-12234 did not produce any adverse side effects in the above two conscious dog models. AHR-12234 was also effective in ablating ouabain-induced ventricular tachycardias in anesthetized dogs following an i.v. dose of 5 mg/kg. These results indicate that the structurally novel AHR-12234 is effective against arrhythmias due to abnormal automaticity, triggered activity and reentry.

  16. Progesterone, as well as 17β-estradiol, is important for regulating AHR battery homoeostasis in the rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Rataj, Felicitas; Möller, Frank Josef; Jähne, Maria; Hönscheid, Pia; Zierau, Oliver; Vollmer, Günter; Kretzschmar, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which plays an important role in mediating the toxicity of many industrial chemicals, plays an important role in the physiology of female reproductive tract organs. This makes it likely that the AHR and additional components of the AHR signalling pathway are under the control of female sex steroids. In a previous study, we could already demonstrate the regulation of many members of the AHR battery by 17β-estradiol (E2) in the uterus of rats. In this study, we addressed the potential role of progesterone (P4) in this context. In a comparative approach using ovariectomized rats which were treated for 3 days with either vehicle control, E2, progesterone (P4) or the combination of both hormones in addition to sham-operated animals, we could demonstrate that in addition to E2, P4 is also an important factor in regulating AHR signalling in the rat uterus. P4 has effects similar to E2 on uterine Ahr, Arnt and Arnt2 mRNA levels, resulting in a downregulation of these genes, while the E2-mediated downregulation of key AHR response genes Cyp1a1, Gsta2 and Ugt1 is completely antagonized by P4. As with E2, P4 leads to an increase in uterine AHR levels, especially in the endometrial epithelium despite the decrease in corresponding mRNA levels. This indicates a complex gene-specific regulatory network involving E2, P4 and possibly AHR itself to maintain all components of the AHR signalling cascade at the required levels during all stages of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy.

  17. AHR2 morpholino knockdown reduces the toxicity of total particulate matter to zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Massarsky, Andrey; Bone, Audrey J; Dong, Wu; Hinton, David E; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2016-10-15

    The zebrafish embryo has been proposed as a 'bridge model' to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. Previous studies showed that exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) led to adverse effects in developing zebrafish, and suggested that the antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways play important roles. This study investigated the roles of these two pathways in mediating TPM toxicity. The study consisted of four experiments. In experiment I, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6h post fertilization (hpf) until 96hpf to TPM0.5 and TPM1.0 (corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0μg/mL equi-nicotine units) in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine/NAC) or a pro-oxidant (buthionine sulfoximine/BSO). In experiment II, TPM exposures were performed in embryos that were microinjected with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), AHR2, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), or CYP1B1 morpholinos, and deformities were assessed. In experiment III, embryos were exposed to TPM, and embryos/larvae were collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96hpf to assess several genes associated with the antioxidant and AHR pathways. Lastly, experiment IV assessed the activity and protein levels of CYP1A and CYP1B1 after exposure to TPM. We demonstrate that the incidence of TPM-induced deformities was generally not affected by NAC/BSO treatments or Nrf2 knockdown. In contrast, AHR2 knockdown reduced, while CYP1A or CYP1B1 knockdowns elevated the incidence of some deformities. Moreover, as shown by gene expression the AHR pathway, but not the antioxidant pathway, was induced in response to TPM exposure, providing further evidence for its importance in mediating TPM toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. AIP mutations impair AhR signaling in pituitary adenoma patients fibroblasts and in GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Viengchareun, Say; Hage, Mirella; Bouligand, Jérôme; Young, Jacques; Boutron, Audrey; Zizzari, Philippe; Lombès, Marc; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas through unknown molecular mechanisms. The best-known interacting partner of AIP is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that mediates the effects of xenobiotics implicated in carcinogenesis. As 75% of AIP mutations disrupt the physical and/or functional interaction with AhR, we postulated that the tumorigenic potential of AIP mutations might result from altered AhR signaling. We evaluated the impact of AIP mutations on the AhR signaling pathway, first in fibroblasts from AIP-mutated patients with pituitary adenomas, by comparison with fibroblasts from healthy subjects, then in transfected pituitary GH3 cells. The AIP protein level in mutated fibroblasts was about half of that in cells from healthy subjects, but AhR expression was unaffected. Gene expression analyses showed significant modifications in the expression of the AhR target genes CYP1B1 and AHRR in AIP-mutated fibroblasts, both before and after stimulation with the endogenous AhR ligand kynurenine. Kynurenine increased Cyp1b1 expression to a greater extent in GH3 cells overexpressing wild type compared with cells expressing mutant AIP Knockdown of endogenous Aip in these cells attenuated Cyp1b1 induction by the AhR ligand. Both mutant AIP expression and knockdown of endogenous Aip affected the kynurenine-dependent GH secretion of GH3 cells. This study of human fibroblasts bearing endogenous heterozygous AIP mutations and transfected pituitary GH3 cells shows that AIP mutations affect the AIP protein level and alter AhR transcriptional activity in a gene- and tissue-dependent manner. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Cancer-promoting and Inhibiting Effects of Dietary Compounds: Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Joann B.; Ghotbaddini, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic aromatic amines and dioxin-like compounds are environmental carcinogens shown to initiate cancer in a number of tissue types including prostate and breast. These environmental carcinogens elicit their effects through interacting with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand activated transcription factor. Naturally occurring compounds found in fruits and vegetables shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects also interact with the AhR. This review explores dietary and environmental exposure to chemical carcinogens and beneficial natural compounds whose effects are elicited by the AhR. PMID:25258701

  20. AHR prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3 differentiation to natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tiffany; Briercheck, Edward L.; Freud, Aharon G.; Trotta, Rossana; McClory, Susan; Scoville, Steven D.; Keller, Karen; Deng, Youcai; Cole, Jordan; Harrison, Nicholas; Mao, Charlene; Zhang, Jianying; Benson, Don M.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK) cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34-CD117+CD94- immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC) types that includes interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ IFN-gamma-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES) and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET). Hence, AHR is a transcription factor that prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells. PMID:24953655

  1. 3, 3'-Diindolylmethane alleviates steatosis and the progression of NASH partly through shifting the imbalance of Treg/Th17 cells to Treg dominance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; She, Weimin; Wang, Fuping; Li, Jing; Wang, Jiyao; Jiang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to discuss the effects of 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) on methionine-choline-deficient (MCD)-diet induced mouse nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the potential mechanisms. NASH mice were administrated with or without DIM at different concentrations for 8 weeks. Both the in-vivo and in-vitro effects of DIM on Treg/Th17 imbalance during NASH progression were analyzed. The in-vivo blocking of CD25 or IL-17 was performed to respectively deplete respective function of Treg or Th17 subset. Besides, with the assistance of AhR antagonist CH223191 and anti-TLR4 neutralizing antibody, we designed the in-vitro DIM-incubation experiments to discuss the roles of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on DIM's effects when shifting Treg/Th17 imbalance. Notably, in NASH mouse models, DIM alleviated hepatic steatosis and inflammation, and shifted the Treg/Th17 imbalance from MCD diet-induced Th17 dominance to Treg dominance. In-vitro, DIM not only significantly up-regulated the mRNAs of Foxp3 (Treg-specific) in purified spleen CD4(+) T cells, but also enhanced the immunosuppressive function of these Treg cells. Besides, DIM significantly up-regulated the proteins of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 whereas down-regulated those of TLR4 on CD4(+) T cells from MCD-diet mice. Moreover, blocking AhR attenuated while blocking TLR4 enhanced the effects of DIM when regulating Treg/Th17 imbalance. Conclusively, DIM could be used as a potential therapeutic candidate to treat NASH based on its dramatic induction of Treg dominance to alleviate intra-hepatic inflammation, suggesting us a clue that the dietary cruciferous vegetables (containing abundant DIM) might exist as a protective factor for patients with NASH-related liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomarker genes used to predict AhR activity; accession numbers of microarray datasets used in the study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomarker genes used to predict AhR activity; accession numbers of microarray datasets used in the studyThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Oshida, K., N. Vasani, W. Ward , R. Thomas , D. Applegate, F. Gonzalez, L. Aleksunes, C. Klaassen, and C. Corton. Screening a mouse liver gene expression Compendium Identifies Effectors of the Aryl Hydrocarbon reeptors (AhR). TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Society of Toxicology, 336: 99-112, (2015).

  3. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  4. Functionality of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and implications for the risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Farmahin, Reza; Wiseman, Steve; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-15

    Worldwide, populations of sturgeons are endangered, and it is hypothesized that anthropogenic chemicals, including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), might be contributing to the observed declines in populations. DLCs elicit their toxic action through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is believed to regulate most, if not all, adverse effects associated with exposure to these chemicals. Currently, risk assessment of DLCs in fishes uses toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) developed for the World Health Organization (WHO) that are based on studies of embryo-lethality with salmonids. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs, and it is uncertain whether TEFs developed by the WHO are protective of these fishes. Sturgeons are evolutionarily distinct from salmonids, and the AhRs of sturgeons differ from those of salmonids. Therefore, this study investigated the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to DLCs in vitro via the use of luciferase reporter gene assays using COS-7 cells transfected with AhR1 or AhR2 of white sturgeon. Specifically, activation and relative potencies (RePs) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzofuran, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl were determined for each AhR. It was demonstrated that white sturgeon expresses AhR1s and AhR2s that are both activated by DLCs with EC50 values for 2,3,7,8-TCDD that are lower than those of any other AhR of vertebrates tested to date. Both AhRs of white sturgeon had RePs for polychlorinated dibenzofurans more similar to TEFs for birds, while RePs for polychlorinated biphenyls were most similar to TEFs for fishes. Measured concentrations of select DLCs in tissues of white sturgeon from British Columbia, Canada, were used to calculate toxic equivalents (TEQs) by use of TEFs for fishes used by the WHO and TCDD

  5. Inhibition of airway hyper-responsiveness by TRPV1 antagonists (SB-705498 and PF-04065463) in the unanaesthetized, ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Delescluse, I; Mace, H; Adcock, JJ

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Airway sensory nerves play a key role in respiratory cough, dyspnoea, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), all fundamental features of airway diseases [asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ]. Vagally mediated airway reflexes such as cough, bronchoconstriction and chest tightness originate from stimulation of airway sensory nerve endings. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) is present on peripheral terminals of airway sensory nerves and modulation of its activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological therapy of AHR in airway disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH As guinea pig models can provide some of the essential features of asthma, including AHR, we have established the model with some classical pharmacological agents and examined the effect of the TRPV1 antagonists, SB-705498 and PF-04065463 on AHR to histamine evoked by ovalbumin (OA) in unanaesthetized sensitized guinea pigs restrained in a double chamber plethysmograph. Specific airway conductance (sGaw) derived from the airflow was calculated as a percentage of change from baseline. KEY RESULTS Cetirizine and salbutamol significantly inhibited OA-evoked bronchoconstriction [sGaw area under the curve (AUC): 70 and 78%, respectively]. Atropine, SB-705498 and PF-04065463 significantly inhibited OA-evoked AHR to histamine in unanaesthetized, OA-sensitized guinea pigs (sGaw AUC: 94%, 57% and 73%, respectively). Furthermore, this effect was not related to antagonism of histamine's activity. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These data suggest that TRPV1 receptors located on airway sensory nerves are important in the development of AHR and that modulation of TRPV1-receptor activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological therapy of AHR in airway disease. PMID:22320181

  6. TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, John D., E-mail: john.watson@oicr.on.ca; Prokopec, Stephenie D., E-mail: stephenie.prokopec@oicr.on.ca; Smith, Ashley B., E-mail: ashleyblaines@gmail.com

    2014-02-01

    Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive Long–Evans (Turku/AB; L–E) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluatedmore » doses ranging from 0 to 3000 μg/kg at 19 h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384 h after exposure to 100 μg/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the dose–response analysis, none had an ED{sub 50} equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10–100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (L–E), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (L–E), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (L–E), Nqo1 (L–E) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. - Highlights: • NanoString measured hepatic m

  7. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.

  8. Analysis of UAV state estimation modeling based on AHRS and INS configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-09-01

    State estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle is one of the important components in autonomous UAV. There are several techniques and algorithms used in estimating UAV states depend on the applied sensors. Inertial measurement unit (IMU) based attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and complete inertial navigation system (INS) are the common navigation sensors used for UAV today. The differences between these two configurations in estimating UAV states are analyzed in this paper using state estimation modeling in Matlab environment. The results are displayed through UAV position and attitude graphs.

  9. TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Watson, John D; Prokopec, Stephenie D; Smith, Ashley B; Okey, Allan B; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C

    2014-02-01

    Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans (Turku/AB; L-E) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluated doses ranging from 0 to 3000μg/kg at 19h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384h after exposure to 100μg/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the dose-response analysis, none had an ED50 equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10-100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (L-E), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (L-E), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (L-E), Nqo1 (L-E) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Deletion of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor AHR in Mice Leads to Subretinal Accumulation of Microglia and RPE Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Young; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Chang, Yi-Sheng; Kim, Jung-Woong; Brooks, Matthew; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.; Fariss, Robert N.; Rachel, Rivka A.; Cogliati, Tiziana; Qian, Haohua; Swaroop, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates cellular response to environmental signals, including UV and blue wavelength light. This study was undertaken to elucidate AHR function in retinal homeostasis. Methods. RNA-seq data sets were examined for Ahr expression in the mouse retina and rod photoreceptors. The Ahr−/− mice were evaluated by fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, histology, immunohistochemistry, and ERG. For light damage experiments, adult mice were exposed to 14,000 to 15,000 lux of diffuse white light for 2 hours. Results. In mouse retina, Ahr transcripts were upregulated during development, with continued increase in aging rod photoreceptors. Fundus examination of 3-month-old Ahr−/− mice revealed subretinal autofluorescent spots, which increased in number with age and following acute light exposure. Ahr−/− retina also showed subretinal microglia accumulation that correlated with autofluorescence changes, RPE abnormalities, and reactivity against immunoglobulin, complement factor H, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Functionally, Ahr−/− mice displayed reduced ERG c-wave amplitudes. Conclusions. The Ahr−/− mice exhibited subretinal accumulation of microglia and focal RPE atrophy, phenotypes observed in AMD. Together with a recently published report on another Ahr−/− mouse model, our study suggests that AHR has a protective role in the retina as an environmental stress sensor. As such, its altered function may contribute to human AMD progression and provide a target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:25159211

  11. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) rs2066853 gene polymorphism association with infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men and seminal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Taymour; Fouad, Hanan; Nabil, Nashaat; Rashed, Laila; Sabry, Dina; Abougabal, Khadiga; Gendy, Bolis S

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) rs2066853 gene polymorphism with infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men and seminal oxidative stress (OS). A total of 170 Egyptian men were allocated according to their semen analysis into fertile normozoospermic controls (n = 50) and infertile OAT men (n = 120). They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, estimation of seminal glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). AhR rs2066853 gene polymorphism was identified in the blood by PCR-RFLP. Comparing infertile OAT men with fertile controls, AhR rs2066853 genotypes showed decreased prevalence for wild homozygous genotype GG (35.8 vs 56%) and for heterozygous genotype GA (17.5 vs 30%) and an increased prevalence for homozygous genotype AA (46.7 vs 14%). Distribution of alleles of AhR rs2066853 among OAT men compared with fertile men showed decreased prevalence of G allele (44.6 vs 71%) and an increased prevalence of A allele (55.4 vs 29%). Seminal MDA demonstrated significant increase whereas seminal GPx demonstrated significant decrease in cases with AA and GA/AA genotypes compared to cases with GG genotype. It is concluded that there is a significant association between AhR rs2066853 genotype polymorphism with decreased sperm parameters as well as increased seminal oxidative stress in infertile OAT men.

  12. AHR and CYP1A expression link historical contamination events to modern day developmental effects in the American alligator.

    PubMed

    Hale, Matthew D; Galligan, Thomas M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Moore, Brandon C; Wilkinson, Philip M; Guillette, Louis J; Parrott, Benjamin B

    2017-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today. Little is known regarding the effects that long-term chronic exposures to dioxin or dioxin-like compounds might have on the development and subsequent health of offspring from exposed individuals, nor is much known regarding AHR expression in reptilians. Here, we characterize AHR and CYP1A gene expression in embryonic and juvenile specimen of a long-lived, apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and investigate variation in gene expression profiles in offspring collected from sites conveying differential exposures to environmental contaminants. Both age- and tissue-dependent patterning of AHR isoform expression are detected. We characterize two downstream transcriptional targets of the AHR, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, and describe conserved elements of their genomic architecture. When comparisons across different sites are made, hepatic expression of CYP1A2, a direct target of the AHR, appears elevated in embryos from a site associated with a dioxin point source and previously characterized PCB contamination. Elevated CYP1A2 expression is not persistent, as site-specific variation was absent in juveniles originating from field-collected eggs but reared under lab conditions. Our results illustrate the patterning of AHR gene expression in a long-lived environmental model species, and indicate a potential contemporary influence of historical contamination. This research presents a novel opportunity to link

  13. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  14. Improved calibration of IMU biases in analytic coarse alignment for AHRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Li, Baoguo; Wen, Ting

    2016-07-01

    An improved method for the inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration of coarse alignment for the low-accuracy attitude heading reference system (AHRS) is proposed in this paper. The sensitivities of the Euler angles with respect to the inertial sensor biases are studied based on the analytic coarse alignment principle, and the errors of earth rotation rate and local gravity in the body frame caused by initial attitude error are analyzed. Then, an improved analytic coarse alignment algorithm with accelerometer and gyro bias calibration in an arbitrary three-position is proposed. Simulation and experiment results show that the novel method can calibrate accelerometer and gyro biases, reduce Euler angle attitude error, and improve navigation precision in practical applications. Moreover, this method can be applied to other low-accuracy inertial navigation systems.

  15. AhR agonist and genotoxicant bioavailability in a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Erika; Rotander, Anna; von Kronhelm, Thomas; Berggren, Anna; Ivarsson, Per; Hollert, Henner; Engwall, Magnus

    2009-07-01

    Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. However, the PAH loss is not always followed by a reduction in soil toxicity. For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. In addition, standard PAH analysis does not address the issue of total toxicant bioavailability in bioremediated soil. To address these questions, we have used the CALUX AhR agonist bioassay and the Comet genotoxicity bioassay with RTL-W1 cells to evaluate the toxic potential of different extracts from a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing large-scale bioremediation. The extracts were also chemically analyzed for PAH16 and PCDD/PCDF. Soil sampled on five occasions between day 0 and day 274 of biological treatment was shaken with n-butanol with vortex mixing at room temperature to determine the bioavailable fraction of contaminants. To establish total concentrations, parts of the same samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with toluene at 100 degrees C. The extracts were tested as inducers of AhR-dependent luciferase activity in the CALUX assay and for DNA breakage potential in the Comet bioassay. The chemical analysis of the toluene extracts indicated slow degradation rates and the CALUX assay indicated high levels of AhR agonists in the same extracts. Compared to day 0, the bioavailable fractions showed no decrease in AhR agonist activity during the treatment but rather an up-going trend, which was supported by increasing levels of PAHs and an increased effect in the Comet bioassay after 274 days. The bio-TEQs calculated using the CALUX assay were higher than the TEQs calculated from chemical analysis in both extracts, indicating that there are

  16. Dioxin induces Ahr-dependent robust DNA demethylation of the Cyp1a1 promoter via Tdg in the mouse liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenya, Hesbon Z.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2016-10-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a highly conserved nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the manifestation of toxicity induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As a xenobiotic sensor, Ahr is involved in chemical biotransformation through activation of drug metabolizing enzymes. The activated Ahr cooperates with coactivator complexes to induce epigenetic modifications at target genes. Thus, it is conceivable that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent Ahr ligand, may elicit robust epigenetic changes in vivo at the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). A single dose of TCDD administered to adult mice induced Ahr-dependent CpG hypomethylation, changes in histone modifications, and thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg) recruitment at the Cyp1a1 promoter in the liver within 24 hrs. These epigenetic changes persisted until 40 days post-TCDD treatment and there was Cyp1a1 mRNA hyperinduction upon repeat administration of TCDD at this time-point. Our demethylation assay using siRNA knockdown and an in vitro methylated plasmid showed that Ahr, Tdg, and the ten-eleven translocation methyldioxygenases Tet2 and Tet3 are required for the TCDD-induced DNA demethylation. These results provide novel evidence of Ahr-driven active DNA demethylation and epigenetic memory. The epigenetic alterations influence response to subsequent chemical exposure and imply an adaptive mechanism to xenobiotic stress.

  17. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor suppresses osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Haitao; Du, Yuxuan; Zhang, Xulong

    2014-11-01

    Ahr activation is known to be associated with synovitis and exacerbated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its contributions to bone loss have not been completely elucidated. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation are abnormal at the erosion site in RA. Here, we reported that the expression of Ahr was increased in the hind paws' bone upon collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, and the levels of Ahr were negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD). In addition, immunofluorescent staining showed that the high expression of Ahr was mainly localized in osteoblasts from the CIA mice compared to normal controls. Moreover, the luciferase intensity ofmore » Ahr in the nucleus increased by 12.5% in CIA osteoblasts compared to that in normal controls. In addition, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) activation of the Ahr inhibited pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cellular proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA expression in the osteoblasts of CIA mice were reduced compared to normal controls. In contrast, decreased ALP expression by activated Ahr was completely reversed after pretreatment with an Ahr inhibitor (CH-223191) in MC3T3-E1 cell lines and primary osteoblasts on day 5. Our data further showed that activation of Ahr promoted the phosphorylation of ERK after 5 days. Moreover, Ahr-dependent activation of the ERK signaling pathway decreased the levels of proliferation cells and inhibited ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. These results demonstrated that the high expression of Ahr may suppress osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through activation of the ERK signaling pathway, further enabling bone erosion in CIA mice. - Highlights: • The upregulation of Ahr was localized in osteoblasts of CIA mice. • The overexpression of Ahr suppressed osteoblast development. • The Ahr activated ERK signaling pathway to exacerbate bone erosion.« less

  18. Screening a mouse liver gene expression Compendium Identifies Effectors of the Aryl Hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxic effects of 2,3, 7 ,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin {TCDD), dioxin-like compounds (DLC) as well as some drugs and endogenous tryptophan metabolites. Short-term act...

  19. Effects of a low-molecular-weight CCR-3 antagonist on chronic experimental asthma.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Michael; Göggel, Rolf; Sel, Sarper; Sel, Serdar; Erb, Klaus J; Kalkbrenner, Frank; Renz, Harald; Garn, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophils represent one of the main effector cell populations of allergic airway inflammation and allergic bronchial asthma. Their infiltration correlates with many characteristics of the disease, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and increased mucus production. CCR-3 is the principle chemokine receptor involved in eosinophil attraction into inflamed tissue. Therefore, antagonizing CCR-3 could be a novel promising approach toward asthma therapy. We investigated the effect of a low-molecular-weight CCR-3 antagonist on established airway inflammation in a chronic model of experimental bronchial asthma. For this purpose, BALB/c mice intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) were chronically challenged with OVA aerosol to induce chronic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The effect of antagonizing CCR-3 on asthma pathology was examined in BAL and lung histology. Airway reactivity was assessed by head-out body plethysmography. Treatment with the CCR-3 antagonist resulted in a marked reduction of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lumen and in airway wall tissue, whereas infiltration of lymphocytes or macrophages remained unchanged. The reduction in eosinophil infiltration was accompanied by normalization of AHR and prevention of goblet cell hyperplasia, indicating reduced mucus production. Furthermore, antagonizing CCR-3 prevented airway remodeling as defined by subepithelial fibrosis and increased accumulation of myofibrocytes in the airway wall of chronically challenged mice. These data demonstrate that antagonism of CCR3 reduces eosinophil numbers, which is accompanied by diminution of asthma pathology in a mouse model of established chronic experimental asthma. Therefore, antagonizing CCR-3 represents a new approach toward a promising asthma therapy.

  20. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Brenda A; Leeman, Rebecca J; Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Sherr, David H

    2003-12-16

    Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA) and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6) protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-kappaB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-kappaB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in the LPS-mediated induction of DNA-binding Rel

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brenda A; Leeman, Rebecca J; Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Sherr, David H

    2003-01-01

    Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA) and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6) protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in the LPS

  2. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Spink, Barbara C.; Bloom, Michael S.; Wu, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5more » species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2

  3. Xanthines as Adenosine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural plant alkaloids caffeine and theophylline were the first adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists described in the literature. They exhibit micromolar affinities and are non-selective. A large number of derivatives and analogs have subsequently been synthesized and evaluated as AR antagonists. Very potent antagonists have thus been developed with selectivity for each of the four AR subtypes. PMID:20859796

  4. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of AHR gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: role of the proximal promoter GC-rich region

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Neal A.; Turesky, Robert J.; Han, Weiguo; Bessette, Erin E.; Spivack, Simon D.; Caggana, Michele; Spink, David C.; Spink, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, contributes to carcinogenesis through its role in the regulation of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1)-catalyzed metabolism of carcinogens. Here, we investigated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that affect AhR expression. Analyses of the human AHR proximal promoter in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed multiple specificity protein (Sp) 1 binding sequences that are transcriptional activators in vitro. The regulation of AhR expression was evaluated in long-term estrogen exposed (LTEE) MCF-7 cells, which showed increased AhR expression, enhanced CYP1 inducibility, and increased capacity to form DNA adducts when exposed to the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. The increased AhR expression in LTEE cells was found not to result from increased mRNA stability, differential RNA processing, or decreased DNA methylation. Analysis of the AHR proximal promoter region using chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that enhanced expression of AhR in LTEE cells involves changes in histone modifications, notably decreased trimethylation of histone 3, lysine 27. Upon further examination of the GC-rich Sp1-binding region, we confirmed that it contains a polymorphic (GGGGC)n repeat. In a population of newborns from New York State, the allele frequency of (GGGGC)n was n = 4>5≫6, 2. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed the ability of sequences of this GC-rich region to form guanine-quadruplex structures in vitro. These studies revealed multiple levels at which AhR expression may be controlled, and offer additional insights into mechanisms regulating AhR expression that can ultimately impact carcinogenesis. PMID:22728919

  5. Styrene Trimer May Increase Thyroid Hormone Levels via Down-Regulation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Target Gene UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Yanagiba, Yukie; Ito, Yuki; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Zhang, Shu-Yun; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, Chun Mei; Inotsume, Yuko; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2008-01-01

    Background Styrene trimers (STs) are polystyrene-container–eluted materials that are sometimes detected in packaged foods. Although the possible endocrine-disrupting effects of STs, such as estrogenic activities, have been reported, their potential thyroid toxicity, such as that caused by the related endocrine disruptor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), has not been studied in detail. Objective Using wild-type and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)–null mice, we investigated whether 2,4,6-triphenyl-1-hexene (ST-1), an isomer of STs, influences thyroxin (T4) levels in the same manner as TCDD, which induces UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) via the AhR, resulting in a decrease in T4 levels in the plasma of mice. Methods Both wild-type and Ahr-null mice (five mice per group) were treated for 4 days by gavage with ST-1 (0, 32, or 64 μmol/kg). Results High-dose (64 μmol/kg) ST-1 decreased the expression of AhR, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/2, UGT1A1/A6, and CYP2B10 mRNAs and the enzyme activity for CYP1A and UGT1A only in the wild-type mice. This dose decreased AhR DNA binding, but paradoxically increased AhR translocation to the nucleus. In contrast, a high dose of ST-1 increased T4 levels in the plasma in wild-type mice but did not influence T4 levels in AhR-null mice. Conclusions Although ST-1 treatment might cause an increase in AhR levels in the nucleus by inhibiting AhR export, this chemical down-regulated AhR mRNA, thus leading to down-regulation of AhR target genes and an increase in plasma T4 levels. PMID:18560529

  6. In Vitro Antitumor Effects of AHR Ligands Aminoflavone (AFP 464) and Benzothiazole (5F 203) in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Luzzani, Gabriela A; Callero, Mariana A; Kuruppu, Anchala I; Trapani, Valentina; Flumian, Carolina; Todaro, Laura; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Loaiza Perez, Andrea I

    2017-12-01

    We investigated activity and mechanism of action of two AhR ligand antitumor agents, AFP 464 and 5F 203 on human renal cancer cells, specifically examining their effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and migration. TK-10, SN12C, Caki-1, and ACHN human renal cancer cell lines were treated with AFP 464 and 5F 203. We evaluated cytotoxicity by MTS assays, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis by flow cytometry and corroborated a mechanism of action involving AhR signal transduction activation. Changes in migration properties by wound healing assays were investigated: 5F 203-sensitive cells show decreased migration after treatment, therefore, we measured c-Met phosphorylation by Western blot in these cells. A 5F 203 induced a decrease in cell viability which was more marked than AFP 464. This cytotoxicity was reduced after treatment with the AhR inhibitor α-NF for both compounds indicating AhR signaling activation plays a role in the mechanism of action. A 5F 203 is sequestered by TK-10 cells and induces CYP1A1 expression; 5F 203 potently inhibited migration of TK-10, Caki-1, and SN12C cells, and inhibited c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. AhR ligand antitumor agents AFP 464 and 5F 203 represent potential new candidates for the treatment of renal cancer. A 5F 203 only inhibited migration of sensitive cells and c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. c-Met receptor signal transduction is important in migration and metastasis. Therefore, we consider that 5F 203 offers potential for the treatment of metastatic renal carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4526-4535, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb. PMID:27008165

  8. Indications for Opioid Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Coppes, O J Michael; Sang, Christine N

    2017-06-01

    As opioids have become more common in clinical practice for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain, so too has the need for a deeper understanding of the clinical applications of opioid antagonists. The purpose of this review is to present both the longstanding and potential new indications for the use of drugs that block the effects of opioid receptors. There is a growing body of data demonstrating the modulation of pain by opioid antagonists. Additional clinical studies that show their direct antinociceptive effects and/or enhancement of the analgesic potency of opioid agonists are warranted. We briefly discuss the well-established role that these agents play in the reversal of life-threatening opioid toxicity and explore both existing and expanding clinical applications, including their apparent paradox that they may themselves be associated with analgesia.

  9. Concept of AHRS Algorithm Designed for Platform Independent Imu Attitude Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Rapiński, Jacek; Pelc-Mieczkowska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, along with the advancement of technology one can notice the rapid development of various types of navigation systems. So far the most popular satellite navigation, is now supported by positioning results calculated with use of other measurement system. The method and manner of integration will depend directly on the destination of system being developed. To increase the frequency of readings and improve the operation of outdoor navigation systems, one will support satellite navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS ect.) with inertial navigation. Such method of navigation consists of several steps. The first stage is the determination of initial orientation of inertial measurement unit, called INS alignment. During this process, on the basis of acceleration and the angular velocity readings, values of Euler angles (pitch, roll, yaw) are calculated allowing for unambiguous orientation of the sensor coordinate system relative to external coordinate system. The following study presents the concept of AHRS (Attitude and heading reference system) algorithm, allowing to define the Euler angles.The study were conducted with the use of readings from low-cost MEMS cell phone sensors. Subsequently the results of the study were analyzed to determine the accuracy of featured algorithm. On the basis of performed experiments the legitimacy of developed algorithm was stated.

  10. Gene cloning and expression analysis of AhR and CYP4 from Pinctada martensii after exposed to pyrene.

    PubMed

    Du, Junqiao; Liao, Chenghong; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiaoping; Li, Yuhu; Zheng, Pengfei; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-10-01

    Pyrene, a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a common pollutant in the marine environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons initiate cellular detoxification in an exposed organism via the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Subsequent metabolism of these xenobiotics is mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes of the phase I detoxification system. Full-length complementary DNA sequences from the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (pm) encoding AhR and cytochrome P4 were cloned. The P. martensii AhR complementary DNA sequence constitutes an open reading frame that encodes for 848 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated PmAhR showed high similarity with its homologues of other bivalve species. The cytochrome P(CYP)4 complementary DNA sequence of P. martensii constitutes an open reading frame that encodes for 489 amino acids. Quantitative real-time analysis detected both PmAhR and PmCYP4 messenger RNA expressions in the mantle, gill, hepatapancreas and adductor muscle of P. martensii exposed to pyrene. The highest transcript-band intensities of PmAhR and PmCYP4 were observed in the gill. Temporal expression of PmAhR and PmCYP4 messenger RNAs induction was observed in gills and increased between 3 and 5 days post exposure; then returned to control level. These results suggest that messenger RNAs of PmAhR and PmCYP4 in pearl oysters might be useful parameters for monitoring marine environment pyrene pollution.

  11. Integration of Genome-Wide Computation DRE Search, AhR ChIP-chip and Gene Expression Analyses of TCDD-Elicited Responses in the Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor (TF) that mediates responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Integration of TCDD-induced genome-wide AhR enrichment, differential gene expression and computational dioxin response element (DRE) analyses further elucidate the hepatic AhR regulatory network. Results Global ChIP-chip and gene expression analyses were performed on hepatic tissue from immature ovariectomized mice orally gavaged with 30 μg/kg TCDD. ChIP-chip analysis identified 14,446 and 974 AhR enriched regions (1% false discovery rate) at 2 and 24 hrs, respectively. Enrichment density was greatest in the proximal promoter, and more specifically, within ± 1.5 kb of a transcriptional start site (TSS). AhR enrichment also occurred distal to a TSS (e.g. intergenic DNA and 3' UTR), extending the potential gene expression regulatory roles of the AhR. Although TF binding site analyses identified over-represented DRE sequences within enriched regions, approximately 50% of all AhR enriched regions lacked a DRE core (5'-GCGTG-3'). Microarray analysis identified 1,896 number of TCDD-responsive genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t) > 0.999). Integrating this gene expression data with our ChIP-chip and DRE analyses only identified 625 differentially expressed genes that involved an AhR interaction at a DRE. Functional annotation analysis of differentially regulated genes associated with AhR enrichment identified overrepresented processes related to fatty acid and lipid metabolism and transport, and xenobiotic metabolism, which are consistent with TCDD-elicited steatosis in the mouse liver. Conclusions Details of the AhR regulatory network have been expanded to include AhR-DNA interactions within intragenic and intergenic genomic regions. Moreover, the AhR can interact with DNA independent of a DRE core suggesting there are alternative mechanisms of AhR-mediated gene regulation. PMID:21762485

  12. Phenotype Refinement Strengthens the Association of AHR and CYP1A1 Genotype with Caffeine Consumption

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, George; Taylor, Amy E.; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    Two genetic loci, one in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene region (rs2472297) and one near the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene (rs6968865), have been associated with habitual caffeine consumption. We sought to establish whether a more refined and comprehensive assessment of caffeine consumption would provide stronger evidence of association, and whether a combined allelic score comprising these two variants would further strengthen the association. We used data from between 4,460 and 7,520 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in the United Kingdom. Self-report data on coffee, tea and cola consumption (including consumption of decaffeinated drinks) were available at multiple time points. Both genotypes were individually associated with total caffeine consumption, and with coffee and tea consumption. There was no association with cola consumption, possibly due to low levels of consumption in this sample. There was also no association with measures of decaffeinated drink consumption, indicating that the observed association is most likely mediated via caffeine. The association was strengthened when a combined allelic score was used, accounting for up to 1.28% of phenotypic variance. This was not associated with potential confounders of observational association. A combined allelic score accounts for sufficient phenotypic variance in caffeine consumption that this may be useful in Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies may therefore be able to use this combined allelic score to explore causal effects of habitual caffeine consumption on health outcomes. PMID:25075865

  13. Phenotype refinement strengthens the association of AHR and CYP1A1 genotype with caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    McMahon, George; Taylor, Amy E; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    Two genetic loci, one in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene region (rs2472297) and one near the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene (rs6968865), have been associated with habitual caffeine consumption. We sought to establish whether a more refined and comprehensive assessment of caffeine consumption would provide stronger evidence of association, and whether a combined allelic score comprising these two variants would further strengthen the association. We used data from between 4,460 and 7,520 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in the United Kingdom. Self-report data on coffee, tea and cola consumption (including consumption of decaffeinated drinks) were available at multiple time points. Both genotypes were individually associated with total caffeine consumption, and with coffee and tea consumption. There was no association with cola consumption, possibly due to low levels of consumption in this sample. There was also no association with measures of decaffeinated drink consumption, indicating that the observed association is most likely mediated via caffeine. The association was strengthened when a combined allelic score was used, accounting for up to 1.28% of phenotypic variance. This was not associated with potential confounders of observational association. A combined allelic score accounts for sufficient phenotypic variance in caffeine consumption that this may be useful in Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies may therefore be able to use this combined allelic score to explore causal effects of habitual caffeine consumption on health outcomes.

  14. Hexachlorobenzene stimulates uroporphyria in low affinity AHR mice without increasing CYP1A2

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Nadia; Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH; Trask, Heidi S.

    2007-06-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), causes hepatic uroporphyrin (URO) accumulation (uroporphyria) in humans and animals. CYP1A2 has been shown to be necessary in the development of uroporphyria in mice. Using mice expressing the low affinity form of the AH receptor (AHRd), we investigated whether the enhancement of uroporphyria by HCB involves an obligatory increase in CYP1A2 as measured by specific enzyme assays and immunoblotting. We compared the ability of HCB, in combination with iron dextran and the porphyrin precursor, 5-aminolevulinate (ALA), to cause uroporphyria in a strain of mice (C57BL/6) which expresses the highmore » affinity form of the receptor (AHRb{sub 1}), with three strains of mice (SWR and two 129 sublines) expressing the low affinity AHRd. In C57BL/6 mice, HCB-enhanced uroporphyria was associated with a doubling of CYP1A2. HCB treatment produced uroporphyria in iron-loaded mice expressing AHRd, even though there was little or no increase in CYP1A2. Cyp1a2(-/-) mice in a 129 background were completely resistant to HCB-induced uroporphyria, and female Hfe(-/-) 129 mice, in which the levels of hepatic CYP1A2 were half of those of the male levels, responded poorly. The effect of exogenous iron, administered in the form of iron dextran, on HCB enhancement of uroporphryia could be replicated utilizing the endogenous hepatic iron accumulated in 129 Hfe(-/-) mice. In conclusion, some minimal basal expression of CYP1A2 is essential for HCB-mediated enhancement of uroporphyria, but increases in CYP1A2 above that level are not essential.« less

  15. Regulatory effects of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs and other AhR ligands on the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1/2/3

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme, is believed to play a critical role in many diseases, including cancer. PCBs are widespread environmental contaminants known to induce oxidative stress and cancer and to produce changes in gene expression of various pro- and antioxidant enzymes. Thus it appeared of interest to explore whether PCBs may modulate the activity and/or gene expression of PON 1 as well. In this study we compared the effects of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs and of various aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands on PON1 regulation and activity in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Our results demonstrate that i) the non-dioxin-like PCBs 154, 155 and 184 significantly reduced liver and serum PON1 activities, but only in male rats; ii) the non-dioxin-like PCB 153, the most abundant PCB in many matrices, did not affect PON1 mRNA level in the liver but significantly decreased serum PON1 activity in male rats; iii) PCB 126, an AhR ligand and dioxin-like PCB, increased both PON1 activities and gene expression; iv) even though three tested AhR ligands induced CYP1A in several tissues to a similar extent, they displayed differential effects on the three PONs and AhR, i.e. PCB 126 was an efficacious inducer of PON1, PON2, PON3, and AhR in the liver, while 3-methylcholantrene induced liver AhR and lung PON3, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent AhR agonist, increased only PON3 in the lung, at the doses and exposure times used in these studies. These results show that PCBs may have an effect on the antioxidant protection by paraoxonases in exposed populations and that regulation of gene expression through AhR is highly diverse. PMID:26006071

  16. Ultraviolet light converts propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker and potential lupus-inducing drug, into a proinflammatory AhR ligand.

    PubMed

    Dorgham, Karim; Amoura, Zahir; Parizot, Christophe; Arnaud, Laurent; Frances, Camille; Pionneau, Cédric; Devilliers, Hervé; Pinto, Sandra; Zoorob, Rima; Miyara, Makoto; Larsen, Martin; Yssel, Hans; Gorochov, Guy; Mathian, Alexis

    2015-11-01

    UV light and some medications are known to trigger lupus erythematosus (LE). A common mechanism underlying the immunopathologic effect, resulting from exposure to these two seemingly unrelated factors, remains unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a key role in the regulation of IL-22 production in humans and can be activated by both xenobiotics and naturally occurring photoproducts. A significant expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was observed in the peripheral blood of active systemic LE (SLE) patients, compared to inactive patients and controls. We also show that propranolol, a potential lupus-inducing drug, induced stronger AhR activation in PBMCs of SLE patients than in those of controls. AhR agonist activity of propranolol was enhanced by UV light exposure. MS analysis of irradiated propranolol revealed the generation of a proinflammatory photoproduct. This compound behaves like the prototypic AhR ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole, a cutaneous UV light-induced tryptophan metabolite, both promoting IL-22, IL-8, and CCL2 secretion by T-cells and macrophages. Finally, LE patients exhibit signs of cutaneous AhR activation that correlate with lesional expression of the same proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting a role for photometabolites in the induction of skin inflammation. The AhR might therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention in LE. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Small Molecule CXCR3 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Stephen P; Cox, Rhona J

    2016-04-14

    Chemokines and their receptors are known to play important roles in disease. More than 40 chemokine ligands and 20 chemokine receptors have been identified, but, to date, only two small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists have been approved by the FDA. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 was identified in 1996, and nearly 20 years later, new areas of CXCR3 disease biology continue to emerge. Several classes of small molecule CXCR3 antagonists have been developed, and two have shown efficacy in preclinical models of inflammatory disease. However, only one CXCR3 antagonist has been evaluated in clinical trials, and there remain many opportunities to further investigate known classes of CXCR3 antagonists and to identify new chemotypes. This Perspective reviews the known CXCR3 antagonists and considers future opportunities for the development of small molecules for clinical evaluation.

  18. Behavioral Rhythmicity of Mice Lacking AhR and Attenuation of Light-induced Phase Shift by 2,3,7,8-Tetracholordibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Motoko; Lin, Tien-Min; Peterson, Richard E.; Cooke, Paul S.; Tischkau, Shelley A.

    2008-01-01

    Transcription factors belonging to the Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domain family are highly conserved and many are involved in circadian rhythm regulation. One member of this family, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is an orphan receptor whose physiological role is unknown. Recent findings have led to the hypothesis that AhR has a role in circadian rhythm, which is the focus of the present investigation. First, time-of-day dependent mRNA expression of AhR and its signaling target, cytochrome p4501A1 (Cyp1a1) was determined in C57BL/6J mice by quantitative RT-PCR. Circadian expression of AhR and Cyp1a1 was observed both in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and liver. Next, the circadian phenotype of mice lacking AhR (AhRKO) was investigated using behavioral monitoring. Intact AhRKO mice had robust circadian rhythmicity with a similar tau under constant conditions compared to wild-type mice, but a significant difference in tau was observed between genotypes in ovariectomized female mice. Time to re-entrainment following 6-h advances or delays of the light/dark cycle was not significantly different between genotypes. However, mice exposed to the AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 1 μg/kg BW) displayed decreased phase shifts in response to light and had altered expression of Per1 and Bmal1. These results suggest that chronic activation of AhR may affect the ability of the circadian timekeeping system to adjust to alterations in environmental lighting by affecting canonical clock genes. Further studies are necessary to decipher the mechanism of how AhR agonists could disrupt light-induced phase shifts. If AhR does have a role in circadian rhythm, it may share redundant roles with other PAS domain proteins and/or the role of AhR may not be exhibited in the behavioral activity rhythm, but could be important elsewhere in the peripheral circadian system. PMID:18487412

  19. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xingguo, E-mail: chengx@stjohns.edu; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Liu, Jie

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) ofmore » Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression.« less

  20. Structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AhrC bound to its corepressor l-arginine

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.

    2007-11-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain hexameric core of AhrC, with bound corepressor (l-arginine), has been solved at 1.95 Å resolution. Binding of l-arginine results in a rotation between the two trimers of the hexamer, leading to the activation of the DNA-binding state. The arginine repressor/activator protein (AhrC) from Bacillus subtilis belongs to a large family of multifunctional transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of bacterial arginine metabolism. AhrC interacts with operator sites in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons, acting as a transcriptional repressor at biosynthetic sites and an activator of transcription at catabolicmore » sites. AhrC is a hexamer of identical subunits, each having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core of the protein and are involved in oligomerization and l-arginine binding. The N-terminal domains lie on the outside of the compact core and play a role in binding to 18 bp DNA operators called ARG boxes. The C-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized, and also crystallized as a hexamer with the bound corepressor l-arginine. Here, the crystal structure refined to 1.95 Å is presented.« less

  1. The licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin reduces DNA-binding activity of AhR in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tsz Yan; Lin, Shu-mei; Poon, Ching Ho; Leung, Lai K

    2014-09-25

    Licorice is derived from the rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra. It has been used for confectioneries or culinary purposes. The rhizomes contain many flavonoidal compounds that have been shown to be biologically active. In the present study, effect of the licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ILN) on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced XRE transactivation and the downstream expression were investigated in MCF-7 cells. The environmental toxicant PAHs are pro-carcinogens and are biotransformed into their ultimate genotoxic structures by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 enzymes. Reporter gene assay revealed that ILN reduced XRE transactivation triggered by 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Our EMSA results also demonstrated that the flavonoid diminished DMBA-induced XRE binding. The reduced transactivation could be the result of a decreased amount of AhR translocating from cytosol to nucleus as shown in Western analysis. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay demonstrated that expressions of genes with XRE-containing promoters, including CYP1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, followed the same pattern of XRE transactivation. The present study illustrated that ILN might downregulate PAH-induced expressions through antagonizing AhR translocation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands on the expression of AhR, AhRR, ARNT, Hif1alpha, CYP1A1 and NQO1 genes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Brauze, Damian; Widerak, Magdalena; Cwykiel, Joanna; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2006-12-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates a variety of biological responses to ubiquitous environmental pollutants. AhR together with ARNT, AhRR, HIF1alpha represent a novel basic helix-loop-helix/PAS family of transcriptional regulators. Their interplay may affect the xenobiotic response. In this study, the effect of i.p. administration of different AhR ligands on the expression of AhR, AhRR, ARNT, HIF1alpha and CYP1A1 and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), the enzymes controlled by AhR were examined in Sprague-Dawley rat liver. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed no changes in the mRNA expression of ARNT and HIF1alpha following 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) treatment. AhRR expression was affected by TCDD but not by BNF and 3-MC. Expression of AhR mRNA and of the markers of its activation, CYP1A1 and NQO1, was significantly increased by administration of TCDD, 3-MC and, to lower extent, BNF. These results indicate that binding of the ligands to AhR up-regulates the mRNA transcription not only of CYP1A1 and NQO1, but also of AhR itself. The level of AhR induction depends on the potency of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes inducer.

  3. Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Leads to Reciprocal Epigenetic Regulation of FoxP3 and IL-17 Expression and Amelioration of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3+ Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis. Methodology/Principal Findings Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) administration induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice, as shown by significant weight loss, shortening of colon, mucosal ulceration, and increased presence of CXCR3+ T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, a single dose of TCDD (25 µg/kg body weight) was able to attenuate all of the clinical and inflammatory markers of colitis. Analysis of T cells in the lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), during colitis, revealed decreased presence of Tregs and increased induction of Th17 cells, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Activation of T cells from AhR+/+ but not AhR -/- mice, in the presence of TCDD, promoted increased differentiation of Tregs while inhibiting Th17 cells. Analysis of MLN or LP cells during colitis revealed increased methylation of CpG islands of Foxp3 and demethylation of IL-17 promoters, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Conclusions/Significance These studies demonstrate for the first time that AhR activation promotes epigenetic regulation thereby influencing reciprocal differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells, and amelioration of inflammation. PMID:21858153

  4. Aminoflavone, a ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), inhibits HIF-1α expression in an AhR-independent fashion

    PubMed Central

    Terzuoli, Erika; Puppo, Maura; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cao, Liang; Burger, Angelika M.; Ziche, Marina; Melillo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF), the active component of a novel anticancer agent (AFP464) in phase I clinical trials, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR dimerizes with HIF-1β/ARNT, which is shared with HIF-1α, a transcription factor critical for the response of cells to oxygen deprivation. To address whether pharmacological activation of the AhR pathway might be a potential mechanism for inhibition of HIF-1, we tested the effects of AF on HIF-1 expression. AF inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and protein accumulation in MCF-7 cells. However, inhibition of HIF-1α by AF was independent from a functional AhR pathway. Indeed, AF inhibited HIF-1α expression in AhR100 cells, in which the AhR pathway is functionally impaired, yet did not induce cytotoxicity, providing evidence that these effects are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. Moreover, AF was inactive in MDA-MB-231 cells, yet inhibited HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the SULT1A1 gene. AF inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression by approximately 50%. Notably, actinomycin-D completely abrogated the ability of AF to down-regulate HIF-1α mRNA, indicating that active transcription was required for the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. Finally, AF inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation and the expression of HIF-1-target genes in MCF-7 xenografts. These results demonstrate that AF inhibits HIF-1α in an AhR-independent fashion and they unveil additional activities of AF that may be relevant for its further clinical development. PMID:20736373

  5. Combined chemical and toxicological long-term monitoring for AhR agonists with SPMD-based virtual organisms in drinking water Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxian; Song, Guoqiang; Li, Aimin; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Tong, Anthony Z; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-08-01

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were employed for time-integrating, long-term sampling combined biological and chemical analyses for exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) in a drinking water reservoir, China. The SPMDs were deployed at four and five sites in the Danjiangkou (DJK) reservoir over two periods of 26 and 31 d to sequester the hydrophobic contaminants in water. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the SPMDs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists PAHs and PCBs were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS instrument. The cause-effect relationship between the observed AhR activities and chemical concentrations of detected AhR agonists was examined. The results show that the extracts from the SPMD samples could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) was not correlated with the bioassay-derived TCDD equivalent (TEQbio). The known AhR agonists could only account for 2-10% of the observed AhR responses among which the contribution of PCBs could almost be neglected. Unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a greater proportion of the TCDD equivalent (TCDD-EQ) in SPMD samples from DJK. Based on the first assessment, the VO followed by the combination of chemical and biological analyses emerges as a resource efficient water monitoring device in ecotoxicological assessment for toxicologically relevant compounds which are readily available for uptake by resident aquatic biota in drinking water resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disruption of period gene expression alters the inductive effects of dioxin on the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Qu Xiaoyu; Center for Research on Biological Clocks, College Station, Texas 77843-3258; Metz, Richard P.

    2009-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are transcription factors that express Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) DNA-binding motifs and mediate the metabolism of drugs and environmental toxins in the liver. Because these transcription factors interact with other PAS genes in molecular feedback loops forming the mammalian circadian clockworks, we determined whether targeted disruption or siRNA inhibition of Per1 and Per2 expression alters toxin-mediated regulation of the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver and Hepa1c1c7 hepatoma cells in vitro. Treatment with the prototypical Ahr ligand, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), had inductive effects on the primary targets of AhR signaling, Cyp1A1 andmore » Cyp1B1, in the liver of all animals, but genotype-based differences were evident such that the toxin-mediated induction of Cyp1A1 expression was significantly greater (2-fold) in mice with targeted disruption of Per1 (Per1{sup ldc} and Per1{sup ldc}/Per2{sup ldc}). In vitro experiments yielded similar results demonstrating that siRNA inhibition of Per1 significantly increases the TCDD-induced expression of Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1 in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Per2 inhibition in siRNA-infected Hepa1c1c7 cells had the opposite effect and significantly decreased both the induction of these p450 genes as well as AhR and Arnt expression in response to TCDD treatment. These findings suggest that Per1 may play a distinctive role in modulating AhR-regulated responses to TCDD in the liver.« less

  7. Novel cellular targets of AhR underlie alterations in neutrophilic inflammation and iNOS expression during influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Head Wheeler, Jennifer L.; Martin, Kyle C.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2012-01-01

    The underlying reasons for variable clinical outcomes from respiratory viral infections remain uncertain. Several studies suggest that environmental factors contribute to this variation, but limited knowledge of cellular and molecular targets of these agents hampers our ability to quantify or modify their contribution to disease and improve public health. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an environment sensing transcription factor that binds many anthropogenic and natural chemicals. The immunomodulatory properties of AhR ligands are best characterized with extensive studies of changes in CD4+ T cell responses. Yet, AhR modulates other aspects of immune function. We previously showed that during influenza virus infection, AhR activation modulates neutrophil accumulation in the lung, and this contributes to increased mortality in mice. Enhanced levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in infected lungs are observed during the same timeframe as AhR-mediated increased pulmonary neutrophilia. In this study, we evaluated whether these two consequences of AhR activation are causally linked. Reciprocal inhibition of AhR-mediated elevations in iNOS and pulmonary neutrophilia reveal that, although they are contemporaneous, they are not causally related. We show using Cre/loxP technology that elevated iNOS levels and neutrophil number in the infected lung result from separate, AhR-dependent signaling in endothelial and respiratory epithelial cells, respectively. Studies using mutant mice further reveal that AhR-mediated alterations in these innate responses to infection require a functional nuclear localization signal and DNA binding domain. Thus, gene targets of AhR in non-hematopoietic cells are important new considerations for understanding AhR-mediated changes in innate anti-viral immunity. PMID:23233726

  8. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phasemore » and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.« less

  9. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  10. Effect of TBT and PAHs on CYP1A, AhR and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min Seop; Kwon, Se Ryun; Choi, Seong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chu

    2012-01-01

    Gene expressions of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and vitellogenin (Vg) by endocrine disruptors, benzo[α]pyrene (B[a]P) and tributyltin (TBT) were examined in cultured eel hepatocytes which were isolated from eels treated previously with B[a]P (10 mg/kg) or estradiol-17β (20 mg/kg) in vivo, and the relationship between CYP1A, AhR and Vg genes were studied. When the cultured eel hepatocytes were treated with B[a]P (10-6-10-5 M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, when treated with TBT (10-9-10-5 M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were suppressed at high concentrations (10-6-10-5 M), while having no effects at low concentrations (10-9-10-7 M). Gene expression of Vg was also suppressed by TBT in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured eel hepatocytes which was previously treated in vivo with estradiol-17β. PMID:25949102

  11. Effect of TBT and PAHs on CYP1A, AhR and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Seop; Kwon, Se Ryun; Choi, Seong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chu

    2012-12-01

    Gene expressions of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and vitellogenin (Vg) by endocrine disruptors, benzo[α]pyrene (B[a]P) and tributyltin (TBT) were examined in cultured eel hepatocytes which were isolated from eels treated previously with B[a]P (10 mg/kg) or estradiol-17β (20 mg/kg) in vivo, and the relationship between CYP1A, AhR and Vg genes were studied. When the cultured eel hepatocytes were treated with B[a]P (10(-6)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, when treated with TBT (10(-9)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were suppressed at high concentrations (10(-6)-10(-5) M), while having no effects at low concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M). Gene expression of Vg was also suppressed by TBT in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured eel hepatocytes which was previously treated in vivo with estradiol-17β.

  12. USE OF THE TEQ MODEL FOR ASSESSING AHR MEDIATED TOXICITY RISKS TO POPULATIONS OF LAKE TROUT AND OTHER SPECIES IN LAKE ONTARIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity equivalence (TEQ) model for assessing aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated toxicity risks associated with polyhalogenated aromatic chemicals structurally similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been applied to human health risks for more than 15...

  13. Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2013-12-01

    Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. AHR2 knockdown prevents PAH-mediated cardiac toxicity and XRE- and ARE-associated gene induction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tiem, Lindsey A.; Di Giulio, Richard T., E-mail: richd@duke.edu

    2011-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants often present in aquatic systems as complex mixtures. Embryonic fish are sensitive to the developmental toxicity of some PAHs, but the exact mechanisms involved in this toxicity are still unknown. This study explored the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the oxidative stress response of zebrafish to the embryotoxicity of select PAHs. Embryos were exposed to two PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF; a strong AHR agonist) and fluoranthene (FL; a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor), alone and in combination. CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and redox-responsive genes glutathione s-transferase pi 2 (GSTp2), glutathione peroxidase 1more » (GPx1), the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), MnSOD and CuZnSOD mRNA expression was examined. CYP1 activity was measured via an in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethlyase (EROD) activity assay, and the area of the pericardium was measured as an index of cardiotoxicity. BkF or FL alone caused no deformities whereas BkF + FL resulted in extreme pericardial effusion. BkF induced CYP activity above controls and co-exposure with FL inhibited this activity. BkF induced expression of all three CYPs, GSTp2, and GCLc. BkF + FL caused greater than additive induction of the three CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc but had no effect on MnSOD or CuZnSOD. AHR2 knockdown protected against the cardiac deformities caused by BkF + FL and significantly inhibited the induction of the CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc after BkF + FL compared to non-injected controls. These results further show the protective role of AHR2 knockdown against cardiotoxic PAHs and the role of AHR2 as a mediator of redox-responsive gene induction. - Research Highlights: > Co-exposure of the PAHs BkF and FL causes cardiotoxicity in zebrafish. > BkF and FL co-exposure upregulates certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes. > AHR2 knockdown prevents the deformities caused by BkF and FL co-exposure. > AHR2

  15. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se; Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543; Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependencemore » of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1

  16. Developmental Activation of the AHR Increases Effector CD4+ T Cells and Exacerbates Symptoms in Autoimmune Disease-Prone Gnaq+/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Burke, Catherine G; Fenton, Bruce M; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Jusko, Todd A; Lawrence, B Paige

    2015-12-01

    Perinatal environmental exposures are potentially important contributors to the increase in autoimmune diseases. Yet, the mechanisms by which these exposures increase self-reactive immune responses later in life are poorly understood. Autoimmune diseases require CD4(+) T cells for initiation, progression, and/or clinical symptoms; thus, developmental exposures that cause durable changes in CD4(+) T cells may play a role. Early life activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) causes persistent changes in the response of CD4(+) T cells to infection later in life but whether CD4(+) T cells are affected by developmental exposure in the context of an autoimmune disease is unknown. Gnaq(+/-) mice develop symptoms of autoimmune disease similar to those measured clinically, and therefore can be used to evaluate gene-environment interactions during development on disease progression. Herein, we examined the effect of AHR activation in utero and via lactation, or solely via lactation, on disease onset and severity in adult Gnaq(+/-) offspring. Developmental activation of the AHR-accelerated disease in Gnaq(+/-) mice, and this correlates with increases in effector CD4(+) T-cell populations. Increased symptom onset and cellular changes due to early life AHR activation were more evident in female Gnaq(+/-) mice compared with males. These observations suggest that developmental AHR activation by pollutants, and other exogenous ligands, may increase the likelihood that genetically predisposed individuals will develop clinical symptoms of autoimmune disease later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Characterization of AHR2 and CYP1A expression in Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon treated with coplanar PCBs and TCDD.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nirmal K; Candelmo, Allison; DellaTorre, Melissa; Chambers, R Christopher; Nádas, Arthur; Wirgin, Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon co-occur in many estuaries along the Atlantic Coast of North America. Both species are protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and internationally on the IUCN Red list and by CITES. Early life-stages of both sturgeons may be exposed to persistent aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs which are at high levels in the sediments of impacted spawning rivers. Our objective was to compare the PCBs and TCDD sensitivities of both species with those of other fishes and to determine if environmental concentrations of these contaminants approach those that induce toxicity to their young life-stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Because our previous studies suggested that young life-stages of North American sturgeons are among the more sensitive of fishes to coplanar PCB and TCDD-induced toxicities, we were interested in identifying the molecular bases of this vulnerability. It is known that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (AHR2) in fishes mediates most toxicities to these contaminants and transcriptional activation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). Previous studies demonstrated that structural and functional variations in AHRs are the bases for differing sensitivities of several vertebrate taxa to aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, in this study we characterized AHR2 and its expression in both sturgeons as an initial step in understanding the mechanistic bases of their sensitivities to these contaminants. We also used CYP1A expression as an endpoint to develop Toxicity Equivalency Factors (TEFs) for these sturgeons. We found that critical amino acid residues in the ligand binding domain of AHR2 in both sturgeons were identical to those of the aromatic hydrocarbon-sensitive white sturgeon, and differed from the less sensitive lake sturgeon. AHR2 expression was induced by TCDD (up to 6-fold) and by three of four tested coplanar PCB congeners (3-5-fold

  18. Ahr2-dependance of PCB126 effects on the swimbladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swimbladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swimbladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swimbladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swimbladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependance of the effect of PCB126 on swimbladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swimbladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swimbladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swimbladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos2 failed to inflate the swimbladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swimbladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swimbladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swimbladder cells. PMID:23036320

  19. Benzimidazoisoquinolines: A New Class of Rapidly Metabolized Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Ligands that Induce AhR-Dependent Tregs and Prevent Murine Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Punj, Sumit; Kopparapu, Prasad; Jang, Hyo Sang; Phillips, Jessica L.; Pennington, Jamie; Rohlman, Diana; O’Donnell, Edmond; Iversen, Patrick L.; Kolluri, Siva Kumar; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays multiple roles in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. The ability of certain AhR ligands to induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) has generated interest in developing AhR ligands for therapeutic treatment of immune-mediated diseases. To this end, we designed a screen for novel Treg-inducing compounds based on our understanding of the mechanisms of Treg induction by the well-characterized immunosuppressive AhR ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We screened a ChemBridge small molecule library and identified 10-chloro-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benzo[de]Iso-quinolin-7-one (10-Cl-BBQ) as a potent AhR ligand that was rapidly metabolized and not cytotoxic to proliferating T cells. Like TCDD,10-Cl-BBQ altered donor CD4+ T cell differentiation during the early stages of a graft versus host (GVH) response resulting in expression of high levels of CD25, CTLA-4 and ICOS, as well as several genes associated with Treg function. The Treg phenotype required AhR expression in the donor CD4+ T cells. Foxp3 was not expressed in the AhR-induced Tregs implicating AhR as an independent transcription factor for Treg induction. Structure-activity studies showed that unsubstituted BBQ as well as 4, 11-dichloro-BBQ were capable of inducing AhR-Tregs. Other substitutions reduced activation of AhR. Daily treatment with 10-Cl-BBQ during the GVH response prevented development of GVH disease in an AhR-dependent manner with no overt toxicity. Together, our data provide strong support for development of select BBQs that activate the AhR to induce Tregs for treatment of immune-mediated diseases. PMID:24586378

  20. CYP Induction and Xeno-Sensing Receptors PXR, CAR, AHR and PPARα at the Crossroads of Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hakkola, Jukka; Bernasconi, Camilla; Coecke, Sandra; Richert, Lysiane; Andersson, Tommy B; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2018-03-12

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate expression of many xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes including several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Many xenobiotics induce CYP enzymes through these intracellular receptors and consequently affect toxicokinetics and possible metabolic activation of the receptor ligands and other xenobiotics utilizing similar metabolic pathways. However, it is now apparent that the xenobiotic receptors regulate also many endogenous functions and signalling pathways, and xenobiotic exposure thus may dysregulate an array of fundamental cell functions. This MiniReview surveys and discusses the multi-faceted roles of xenobiotic receptors, for which CYP induction may serve as the first alert and possibly a biomarker for exposure to xenobiotics. With the current emergence of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) concept, these receptors are being and will be assigned as molecular initiating events or key events in numerous discrete toxicity pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Smac mimetics as IAP antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-03-01

    As the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in human cancers, they represent promising targets for therapeutic intervention. Small-molecule inhibitors of IAP proteins mimicking the endogenous IAP antagonist Smac, called Smac mimetics, neutralize IAP proteins and thereby promote the induction of cell death. Smac mimetics have been shown in preclinical models of human cancer to directly trigger cancer cell death or to sensitize for cancer cell death induced by a variety of cytotoxic stimuli. Smac mimetics are currently undergoing clinical evaluation in phase I/II trials, demonstrating that therapeutic targeting of IAP proteins has reached the clinical stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumor-Repopulating Cells Induce PD-1 Expression in CD8+T Cells by Transferring Kynurenine and AhR Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuying; Liang, Xiaoyu; Dong, Wenqian; Fang, Yi; Lv, Jiadi; Zhang, Tianzhen; Fiskesund, Roland; Xie, Jing; Liu, Jinyan; Yin, Xiaonan; Jin, Xun; Chen, Degao; Tang, Ke; Ma, Jingwei; Zhang, Huafeng; Yu, Jing; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping; Mo, Siqi; Cheng, Feiran; Zhou, Yabo; Zhang, Haizeng; Wang, Jing; Li, Jingnan; Chen, Yang; Cui, Bing; Hu, Zhuo-Wei; Cao, Xuetao; Xiao-Feng Qin, F; Huang, Bo

    2018-03-12

    Despite the clinical successes fostered by immune checkpoint inhibitors, mechanisms underlying PD-1 upregulation in tumor-infiltrating T cells remain an enigma. Here, we show that tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) drive PD-1 upregulation in CD8 + T cells through a transcellular kynurenine (Kyn)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Interferon-γ produced by CD8 + T cells stimulates release of high levels of Kyn produced by TRCs, which is transferred into adjacent CD8 + T cells via the transporters SLC7A8 and PAT4. Kyn induces and activates AhR and thereby upregulates PD-1 expression. This Kyn-AhR pathway is confirmed in both tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients and its blockade enhances antitumor adoptive T cell therapy efficacy. Thus, we uncovered a mechanism of PD-1 upregulation with potential tumor immunotherapeutic applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie, E-mail: Julie.Dumont@pasteur-lille.fr; Josse, Rozenn, E-mail: Rozenn.Josse@univ-rennes1.fr; Lambert, Carine, E-mail: Carine.Lambert45@gmail.com

    2010-11-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 andmore » CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.« less

  4. Data on AHR-dependent changes in the mitochondrial proteome in response to ,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Jin; Dornbos, Peter; LaPres, John J

    2016-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is the principal regulator of a cell׳s response to many polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). To gain a better understanding of the impact of TCDD on the mitochondrial proteome, a stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomic analysis was performed. We used two mouse hepatoma cell lines that differ in AHR expression levels, hepa1c1c7 (AHR-expressing) and hepac12 (AHR-deficient). The cell lines were exposed to TCDD (10 nM) for 72 h; each treatment was assayed in triplicate and were analyzed as separate runs on the mass-spectrometer. Mitochondria were then isolated and mitochondrial proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and subject to mass spectrometry. The data presented were collected from four independent SILAC experiments. Within each experiment, three isotopes were employed to compare protein ratios via mass-spectrometry: (1) light l-arginine/l-lysine HCl (Arg0, Lys0), (2) medium (15)N4-l-arginin/(13)C6l-lysine HCl (Arg4, Lys6), and (3) heavy (13)C6 (15)N4l-arginine/(13)C6 (15)N2l-lysine HCl (Arg10, Lys8). The raw data includes approximately 2500 annotated proteins. The datasets provided by this study can be a reference to other toxicologists investigating TCDD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The data presented here are associated with the research article, "Mitochondrial-targeted Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and the Impact of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin on Cellular Respiration and the Mitochondrial Proteome" (Hwang et al. (2016) [1]).

  5. Phytomonitoring and phytoremediation of agrochemicals and related compounds based on recombinant cytochrome P450s and aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs).

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Inui, Hideyuki; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2011-04-13

    Molecular mechanisms of metabolism and modes of actions of agrochemicals and related compounds are important for understanding selective toxicity, biodegradability, and monitoring of biological effects on nontarget organisms. It is well-known that in mammals, cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) monooxygenases metabolize lipophilic foreign compounds. These P450 species are inducible, and both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) combined with a ligand. Gene engineering of P450 and NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (P450 reductase) was established for bioconversion. Also, gene modification of AhRs was developed for recombinant AhR-mediated β-glucronidase (GUS) reporter assay of AhR ligands. Recombinant P450 genes were transformed into plants for phytoremediation, and recombinant AhR-mediated GUS reporter gene expression systems were each transformed into plants for phytomonitoring. Transgenic rice plants carrying CYP2B6 metabolized the herbicide metolachlor and remarkably reduced the residues in the plants and soils under paddy field conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying recombinant guinea pig (g) AhR-mediated GUS reporter genes detected PCB126 at the level of 10 ng/g soils in the presence of biosurfactants MEL-B. Both phytomonitoring and phytoremediation plants were each evaluated from the standpoint of practical uses.

  6. Role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 CYP1C genes in the reduced mesencephalic vein blood flow caused by activation of AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu; Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543; Stegeman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We previously reported a sensitive and useful endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in zebrafish, namely a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain, but downstream genes involved in the effect are not known. The present study addressed the role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 1C (CYP1C) genes in association with a decrease in mesencephalic vein (MsV) blood flow. The CYP1C subfamily was recently discovered in fish and includes the paralogues CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, both of which are induced viamore » AHR2 in zebrafish embryos. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO or morpholino) to block initiation of translation of the target genes. TCDD-induced mRNA expression of CYP1Cs and a decrease in MsV blood flow were both blocked by gene knockdown of AHR2. Gene knockdown of CYP1C1 by two different morpholinos and CYP1C2 by two different morpholinos, but not by their 5 nucleotide-mismatch controls, was effective in blocking reduced MsV blood flow caused by TCDD. The same CYP1C-MOs prevented reduction of blood flow in the MsV caused by {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), representing another class of AHR agonists. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 was induced by TCDD most strongly in branchiogenic primordia and pectoral fin buds. In situ hybridization using head transverse sections showed that TCDD increased the expression of both CYP1Cs in endothelial cells of blood vessels, including the MsV. These results indicate a potential role of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in the local circulation failure induced by AHR2 activation in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo. - Research Highlights: > We examine the roles of zebrafish CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in TCDD developmental toxicity. > TCDD induces mRNA expression of both CYP1Cs in the mesencephalic vein. > Knockdown

  7. PFOS elicits transcriptional responses of the ER, AHR and PPAR pathways in Oryzias melastigma in a stage-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Wu, Xinlong; Huang, Qiansheng; Liao, Yanyan; Liu, Liangpo; Qiu, Ling; Shen, Heqing; Dong, Sijun

    2012-01-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed in seawater. However, the effects of PFOS on important receptors involved in the toxicity of POPs have not been fully defined, especially for the embryonic stages of marine fish. In this study, we examined the transcriptional responses and PFOS accumulation in the marine medaka embryos at the early and late developmental stages of 4 and 10 dpf upon PFOS exposure (1, 4, and 16mg/L). PFOS accumulated in the embryos, and the embryonic burdens of PFOS at 10 dpf were markedly higher than those at 4 dpf. Moreover, thirteen genes involved in three important POPs-related receptor pathways, including ER, AHR and PPAR, were cloned and investigated. The mRNA expression levels of ERα and ERγ were not significantly altered, but the estrogenic marker genes were downregulated upon PFOS exposure at 4 dpf. Conversely, ERs and related marker genes all were significantly upregulated at 10 dpf. The expressions of ARNT and cyp1a were both upregulated at 4 dpf, while no obvious changes were detected at 10 dpf. The expressions of cyp19a and cyp19b were regulated by PFOS in a stage-specific manner. PFOS produced different effects on three isoforms of PPAR. PPARα and PPARβ were first inhibited at 4 dpf and were induced at 10 dpf. PFOS did not elicit a change in PPARγ expression at either stage. In conclusion, this study showed that PFOS has an estrogenic activity and endocrine-disruptive properties. Meanwhile, PFOS could elicit transcriptional responses on POPs-related pathways in a stage-specific manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A new alcohol antagonist: Phaclofen

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, A.M.; Harris, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of the GABA{sub B} receptor antagonist, phaclofen to alter behavioral effects of ethanol was evaluated by loss of righting reflex (sleep time), motor incoordination (bar holding), spontaneous locomotion (open field activity) and hypothermia. Pretreatment with phaclofen significantly decreased the effects of ethanol on motor incoordination, locomotor activity and hypothermia. However, phaclofen had no effect on either pentobarbital- or diazepam-induced motor incoordination. Phaclofen slightly increased the ED{sub 50} for loss of the righting reflex but did not alter either the duration of reflex loss produced by ethanol or blood ethanol levels at awakening. Our results suggest phaclofen is rapidlymore » inactivated resulting in difficulty in observing antagonism of long duration ethanol effects. These findings suggest that the GABA{sub B} system may play a role in mediating several important actions of ethanol.« less

  9. [Extracorporeal life support in calcium antagonist intoxication].

    PubMed

    Groot, M W; Grewal, S; Meeder, H J; van Thiel, R J; den Uil, C A

    2017-01-01

    Intoxication with calcium antagonists is associated with poor outcome. Even mild calcium antagonist overdose may be fatal. A 51-year-old woman and a 51-year-old man came to the Accident and Emergency Department in severe shock after they had taken a calcium antagonist overdose. After extensive medicinal therapy had failed, they both needed extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge to recovery. In severe calcium antagonist overdose, the combination of vasoplegia and cardiac failure leads to refractory shock. ECLS temporarily supports the circulation and maintains organ perfusion. In this way ECLS functions as a bridge to recovery and may possibly save lives. Timely consultation with and referral to an ECLS centre is recommended in patients with calcium antagonist overdose.

  10. Opioid antagonists for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rösner, Susanne; Hackl-Herrwerth, Andrea; Leucht, Stefan; Vecchi, Simona; Srisurapanont, Manit; Soyka, Michael

    2010-12-08

    Alcohol dependence belongs to the globally leading health risk factors. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate and could be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene. To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL in January 2010 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compare the effects of naltrexone or nalmefene with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. Two authors independently extracted outcome data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Based on a total of 50 RCTs with 7793 patients, naltrexone reduced the risk of heavy drinking to 83% of the risk in the placebo group RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.90) and decreased drinking days by about 4%, MD -3.89 (95% CI -5.75 to -2.04). Significant effects were also demonstrated for the secondary outcomes of the review including heavy drinking days, MD - 3.25 (95% CI -5.51 to -0.99), consumed amount of alcohol, MD - 10.83 (95% CI -19.69 to -1.97) and gamma-glutamyltransferase, MD - 10.37 (95% CI -18.99 to -1.75), while effects on return to any drinking, RR 0.96 (95 CI 0.92 to 1.00) missed statistical significance. Side effects of naltrexone were mainly gastrointestinal problems (e.g. nausea: RD 0.10; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.13) and sedative effects (e.g. daytime sleepiness: RD 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.14). Based on a limited study sample, effects of injectable naltrexone and nalmefene missed statistical significance. Effects of industry-sponsored studies, RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.05) did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials, RR 0.84 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91) and the linear regression test did not indicate publication

  11. New CYP1 genes in the frog Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis: Induction patterns and effects of AHR agonists during development

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se; Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543; Berg, Cecilia

    2011-01-15

    The Xenopus tropicalis genome shows a single gene in each of the four cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) subfamilies that occur in vertebrates, designated as CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1D1. We cloned the cDNAs of these genes and examined their expression in untreated tadpoles and in tadpoles exposed to waterborne aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF), or indigo. We also examined the effects of PCB126 on expression of genes involved in stress response, cell proliferation, thyroid homeostasis, and prostaglandin synthesis. PCB126 induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 but had little effect on CYP1D1 (77-, 1.7-, 4.6- and 1.4-fold induction versusmore » the control, respectively). {beta}NF induced CYP1A and CYP1C1 (26- and 2.5-fold), while, under conditions used, indigo tended to induce only CYP1A (1.9-fold). The extent of CYP1 induction by PCB126 and {beta}NF was positively correlated to the number of putative dioxin response elements 0-20 kb upstream of the start codons. No morphological effect was observed in tadpoles exposed to 1 nM-10 {mu}M PCB126 at two days post-fertilization (dpf) and screened 20 days later. However, in 14-dpf tadpoles a slight up-regulation of the genes for PCNA, transthyretin, HSC70, Cu-Zn SOD, and Cox-2 was observed two days after exposure to 1 {mu}M PCB126. This study of the full suite of CYP1 genes in an amphibian species reveals gene- and AHR agonist-specific differences in response, as well as a much lower sensitivity to CYP1 induction and short-term toxicity by PCB126 compared with in fish larvae. The single genes in each CYP1 subfamily may make X. tropicalis a useful model for mechanistic studies of CYP1 functions.« less

  12. PXR antagonists and implication in drug metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Sridhar; Dou, Wei; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Adopted orphan nuclear receptor (NR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), plays a central role in the regulation of xeno- and endobiotic metabolism. Since the discovery of the functional role of PXR in 1998, there is evolving evidence for the role of PXR agonists in abrogating metabolic pathophysiology (e.g., cholestasis, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation). However, more recently, it is clear that PXR is also an important mediator of adverse xeno- (e.g., enhances acetaminophen toxicity) and endobiotic (e.g., hepatic steatosis) metabolic phenotypes. Moreover, in cancer therapeutics, PXR activation can induce drug resistance, and there is growing evidence for tissue-specific enhancement of the malignant phenotype. Thus, in these instances, there may be a role for PXR antagonists. However, as opposed to the discovery efforts for PXR agonists, there are only a few antagonists described. The mode of action of these antagonists (e.g., sulforaphane) remains less clear. Our laboratory efforts have focused on this question. Since the original discovery of azoles analogs as PXR antagonists, we have preliminarily defined an important PXR antagonist pharmacophore and developed less-toxic PXR antagonists. In this review, we describe our published and unpublished findings on recent structure-function studies involving the azole chemical scaffold. Further work in the future is needed to fully define potent, more-selective PXR antagonists that may be useful in clinical application. PMID:23330542

  13. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by β-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nault, Rance, E-mail: naultran@msu.edu; Abdul-Fattah, Hiba; Mironov, Gleb G.

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist β-naphthoflavone (βNF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesismore » rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 μM βNF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by βNF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to βNF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.« less

  14. Transcriptomic assessment of resistance to effects of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist in embryos of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a marine Superfund site

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) have evolved resistance to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other halogenated and nonhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that act through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent signaling pathway. The resistance is accompanied by reduced sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), a widely used biomarker of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and effect, but whether the reduced sensitivity is specific to CYP1A or reflects a genome-wide reduction in responsiveness to all AHR-mediated changes in gene expression is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles and the response to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) exposure in embryos (5 and 10 dpf) and larvae (15 dpf) from F. heteroclitus populations inhabiting the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts (NBH) Superfund site (PCB-resistant) and a reference site, Scorton Creek, Massachusetts (SC; PCB-sensitive). Results Analysis using a 7,000-gene cDNA array revealed striking differences in responsiveness to PCB-126 between the populations; the differences occur at all three stages examined. There was a sizeable set of PCB-responsive genes in the sensitive SC population, a much smaller set of PCB-responsive genes in NBH fish, and few similarities in PCB-responsive genes between the two populations. Most of the array results were confirmed, and additional PCB-regulated genes identified, by RNA-Seq (deep pyrosequencing). Conclusions The results suggest that NBH fish possess a gene regulatory defect that is not specific to one target gene such as CYP1A but rather lies in a regulatory pathway that controls the transcriptional response of multiple genes to PCB exposure. The results are consistent with genome-wide disruption of AHR-dependent signaling in NBH fish. PMID:21609454

  15. The Evolution of Sexually Antagonistic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Rowe, Locke

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs whenever there is sexually antagonistic selection on shared traits. When shared traits result from interactions (e.g., mating rate) and have a different genetic basis in each sex (i.e., interlocus conflict), then sex-specific traits that shift the value of these interaction traits toward the sex-specific optimum will be favored. Male traits can be favored that increase the fitness of their male bearers, but decrease the fitness of interacting females. Likewise, female traits that reduce the costs of interacting with harmful males may simultaneously impose costs on males. If the evolution of these antagonistic traits changes the nature of selection acting on the opposite sex, interesting coevolutionary dynamics will result. Here we examine three current issues in the study of sexually antagonistic interactions: the female side of sexual conflict, the ecological context of sexual conflict, and the strength of evidence for sexually antagonistic coevolution. PMID:26032715

  16. Antagonist muscle coactivation during isokinetic knee extension.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, P; Simonsen, E B; Andersen, J L; Magnusson, S P; Bojsen-Møller, F; Dyhre-Poulsen, P

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the amount of antagonist coactivation and the resultant moment of force generated by the hamstring muscles during maximal quadriceps contraction in slow isokinetic knee extension. The net joint moment at the knee joint and electromyographic (EMG) signals of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris muscles (quadriceps) and the biceps femoris caput longum and semitendinosus muscles (hamstrings) were obtained in 16 male subjects during maximal isokinetic knee joint extension (KinCom, ROM 90-10 degrees, 30 degrees x s(-1)). Two types of extension were performed: [1] maximal concentric quadriceps contractions and [2] maximal eccentric hamstring contractions Hamstring antagonist EMG in [1] were converted into antagonist moment based on the EMG-moment relationships determined in [2] and vice versa. Since antagonist muscle coactivation was present in both [1] and [2] a set of related equations was constructed to yield the moment/EMG relationships for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles, respectively. The equations were solved separately for every 0.05 degrees knee joint angle in the 90-10 degrees range of excursion (0 degrees = full extension) ensuring that the specificity of muscle length and internal muscle lever arms were incorporated into the moment/EMG relationships established. Substantial hamstring coactivation was observed during quadriceps agonist contraction. This resulted in a constant level of antagonist hamstring moment of about 30 Nm throughout the range of motion. In the range of 30-10 degrees from full knee extension this antagonist hamstring moment corresponded to 30-75% of the measured knee extensor moment. The level of antagonist coactivation was 3-fold higher for the lateral (Bfcl) compared to medial (ST) hamstring muscles The amount of EMG crosstalk between agonist-antagonist muscle pairs was negligible (Rxy2<0.02-0.06). The present data show that substantial antagonist coactivation of the

  17. Antagonist wear by polished zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Hartkamp, Oliver; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Reich, Sven

    The aim of this in vivo study was to measure antagonist wear caused by polished monolithic posterior zirconia crowns over a 24-month period using the intraoral digital impression (IDI) technique. Thirteen zirconia crowns were placed in nine patients. The crowns and adjacent teeth were captured using an intraoral scanner (Lava C.O.S.). The corresponding antagonist teeth and the respective neighboring teeth were also scanned. Scanning was performed immediately after the restoration (baseline) as well as 12 and 24 months after crown placement. Geomagic Qualify software was used to superimpose the follow-up data sets onto the corresponding baseline data set, identify wear sites, and measure maximum vertical height loss in each individual wear site. Overall antagonist wear was then determined as the mean of wear rates measured in all of the individual antagonist units. In addition, wear rates in enamel and ceramic antagonists were analyzed as part of the scope of this study. The maximum mean wear with standard deviation (SD) in the overall sample with a total of nine patients, 13 antagonist units, and 98 evaluable wear sites was 86 ± 23 µm at 12 months, and 103 ± 39 µm at 24 months. The maximum mean wear in the enamel antagonist subgroup was 87 ± 41 µm at 12 months, and 115 ± 71 µm at 24 months; and in the ceramic antagonist subgroup 107 ± 22 µm at 12 months, and 120 ± 27 µm at 24 months. The wear rates determined in this study are comparable to those of existing studies. The IDI technique of wear analysis can be carried out in a practical manner and produces useful results.

  18. Protective effects of levamisole, acetylsalicylic acid, and α-tocopherol against dioxin toxicity measured as the expression of AhR and COX-2 in a chicken embryo model.

    PubMed

    Gostomska-Pampuch, Kinga; Ostrowska, Alicja; Kuropka, Piotr; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej; Całkosiński, Ireneusz

    2017-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) are classed as persistent organic pollutants and have adverse effects on multiple functions within the body. Dioxins are known carcinogens, immunotoxins, and teratogens. Dioxins are transformed in vivo, and interactions between the products and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) lead to the formation of proinflammatory and toxic metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine whether α-tocopherol (vitamin E), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and levamisole can decrease the amount of damage caused by dioxins. Fertile Hubbard Flex commercial line chicken eggs were injected with solutions containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or containing TCDD and the test compounds. The chicken embryos and organs were analyzed after 7 and 13 days. The levels at which AhR and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins (which are induced during inflammation) were expressed were evaluated by performing immunohistochemical analyses on embryos treated with TCDD alone or with TCDD and the test compounds. TCDD caused developmental disorders and increased AhR and COX-2 expression in the chicken embryo tissues. Vitamin E, levamisole, ASA, and ASA plus vitamin E inhibited AhR and COX-2 expression in embryos after 7 days and decreased AhR and COX-2 expression in embryos after 13 days. ASA, levamisole, and ASA plus vitamin E weakened the immune response and prevented multiple organ changes. Vitamin E was not fully protective against developmental changes in the embryos.

  19. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by β-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Nault, Rance; Abdul-Fattah, Hiba; Mironov, Gleb G; Berezovski, Maxim V; Moon, Thomas W

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist β-naphthoflavone (βNF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1μM βNF for 48h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. AhR ligands, malassezin, and indolo[3,2-b]carbazole are selectively produced by Malassezia furfur strains isolated from seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gaitanis, George; Magiatis, Prokopios; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Velegraki, Aristea; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2008-07-01

    Malassezia yeasts are connected with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) whereas M. furfur pathogenicity is associated with the production of bioactive indoles. In this study, the production of indoles by M. furfur isolates from healthy and diseased skin was compared, the respective HPLC patterns were analyzed, and substances that are preferentially synthesized by strains isolated from SD lesions were isolated and characterized. Malassezin, pityriacitrin, indole-3-carbaldehyde, and indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ) were isolated by HPLC from extracts of M. furfur grown in L-tryptophan agar, and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Of these, ICZ, a potent ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is described for the first time to our knowledge as a M. furfur metabolite. HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis of strain extracts from 7 healthy subjects and 10 SD patients showed that M. furfur isolates from only SD patients consistently produce malassezin and ICZ. This discriminatory production of AhR agonists provides initial evidence for a previously unreported mechanism triggering development of SD and indicates that the variable pathogenicity patterns recorded for M. furfur-associated SD conditions may be attributed to selective production (P<0.001) of measurable bioactive indoles.

  1. Cabbage Juices and Indoles Modulate the Expression Profile of AhR, ERα, and Nrf2 in Human Breast Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Szaefer, Hanna; Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Licznerska, Barbara; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed the diversified effect of cabbage juices and indoles on the estrogen metabolism key enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) in breast epithelial cells differing in ER status, i.e., in tumorigenic-MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and non-tumorigenic-MCF10A cells. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive action of cabbage juice and its active components by evaluating their effect on the expression of AhR, ERα, and Nrf2 using the same treatment regimen. The mRNA level of AhR and ERα was changed in a cell type-dependent manner and in general correlated with previously observed modulation of CYP expression. However, in most cases the alterations in mRNA were not accompanied by the changes in the level of relevant proteins. Marked differences were also found in the effect of cabbage juices and indoles; although both cabbage juices and indoles increased most of the NQO1 transcript levels in all tested lines, indoles also enhanced GSTP transcription in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. Overall, the results of this study partly explain the mechanism behind the chemopreventive activity of white cabbage products and indicate that modulation of the expression of specific transcription factors may play an important role in this process.

  2. Assays of PCB congeners and organochlorine insecticides with the transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants carrying recombinant guinea pig AhR and GUS reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Gion, Keiko; Inui, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Hideaki; Utani, Yasushi; Kodama, Susumu; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Certain congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides are ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) in animals. A recombinant guinea pig (g) AhR, XgDV, was constructed by fusing the ligand-binding domain of gAhR, the DNA-binding domain of LexA, and the transactivating domain of VP16. Then, the expression unit of β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene regulated by XgDV was introduced into Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. When the transgenic Arabidopsis XgDV plants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium containing PCB congeners, the GUS activity in the plants increased toxic equivalent (TEQ)-dependently. The GUS activity in the transgenic Arabidopsis XgDV plants cultured on MS medium containing the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin was also induced. On the other hand, in the case of DDT, the GUS activity induced by 3-methylcholanthere in the plants decreased. The transgenic Arabidopsis XgDV plants detected 1000 ng g(-1) PCB126 in 1 g of soils. Thus the XgDV plants seemed to be useful for convenient assays of PCB congeners and organochlorine insecticides, without any extraction and purification steps.

  3. Genome-Wide RNAi High-Throughput Screen Identifies Proteins Necessary for the AHR-Dependent Induction of CYP1A1 by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has a plethora of physiological roles, and upon dysregulation, carcinogenesis can occur. One target gene of AHR encodes the xenobiotic and drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1, which is inducible by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the AHR. An siRNA library targeted against over 5600 gene candidates in the druggable genome was used to transfect mouse Hepa-1 cells, which were then treated with TCDD, and subsequently assayed for CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Following redundant siRNA activity (RSA) statistical analysis, we identified 93 hits that reduced EROD activity with a p value ≤ .005 and substantiated 39 of these as positive hits in a secondary screening using endoribonuclease-prepared siRNAs (esiRNAs). Twelve of the corresponding gene products were subsequently confirmed to be necessary for the induction of CYP1A1 messenger RNA by TCDD. None of the candidates were deficient in aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator expression. However 6 gene products including UBE2i, RAB40C, CRYGD, DCTN4, RBM5, and RAD50 are required for the expression of AHR as well as for induction of CYP1A1. We also found 2 gene products, ARMC8 and TCF20, to be required for the induction of CYP1A1, but our data are ambiguous as to whether they are required for the expression of AHR. In contrast, SIN3A, PDC, TMEM5, and CD9 are not required for AHR expression but are required for the induction of CYP1A1, implicating a direct role in Cyp1a1 transcription. Our methods, although applied to Cyp1a1, could be modified for identifying proteins that regulate other inducible genes. PMID:23997114

  4. Coronary dilation with nitrocompounds and calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jost, S; Rafflenbeul, W; Lichtlen, P R

    1990-01-01

    The vasodilatory effects of nitrocompounds and calcium antagonists on epicardial coronary arteries represent substantial antianginal mechanisms in the presence of coronary vasospasm or eccentric coronary stenoses. With high doses of nitrocompounds, angiographically normal coronary segments can be dilated by an average of approx. 30%, some coronary stenoses even by up to 100%, usually without severe reduction of blood pressure. With calcium antagonists, a similar extent of dilation of normal coronary arteries and eccentric stenoses can be obtained. Our own group demonstrated an average dilation of normal coronary arteries of about 20% after intravenous administration of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists; however, the average systolic blood pressure dropped below 100 mmHg after these compounds. Hence, although in isolated human coronary arteries high concentrations of calcium antagonists were shown to induce a considerably greater vasodilation than nitrocompounds, the early drop in blood pressure prohibits a higher dosage of calcium antagonists in vivo. In the presence of coronary artery disease, particularly when associated with coronary vasospasm, a combination of the two groups of compounds might be recommendable, since an addition of the effects of coronary vasomotor tone is likely. Furthermore, the antianginal effects of a reduction of preload and afterload are complementary.

  5. MMP-12-mediated by SARM-TRIF signaling pathway contributes to IFN-γ-independent airway inflammation and AHR post RSV infection in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaoru; Li, Simin; Xie, Jun; Li, Wei; Zang, Na; Ren, Luo; Deng, Yu; Xie, Xiaohong; Wang, Lijia; Fu, Zhou; Liu, Enmei

    2015-02-05

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequently observed pathogens during infancy and childhood. However, the corresponding pathogenesis has not been determined to date. We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ plays an important role in RSV pathogenesis, and SARM-TRIF-signaling pathway could regulate the production of IFN-γ. This study is to investigate whether T cells or innate immune cells are the predominant producers of IFN-γ, and further to explore other culprits in addition to IFN-γ in the condition of RSV infection. Normal BALB/c mice and nude mice deficient in T cells were infected intranasally with RSV. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, lung histopathology was examined, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured by whole-body plethysmography. IFN-γ and MMP-12 were detected by ELISA. MMP408, a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, was given intragastrically. Resveratrol, IFN-γ neutralizing antibody and recombinant murine IFN-γ were administered intraperitoneally. SARM and TRIF protein were semi-quantified by Western blot. siRNA was used to knock-down SARM expression. RSV induced significant airway inflammation and AHR in both mice; IFN-γ was significantly increased in BALB/c mice but not in nude mice. MMP-12 was dramatically increased in both mice but earlier in nude mice. When MMP-12 was inhibited by MMP408, RSV-induced respiratory symptoms were alleviated. SARM was significantly suppressed while TRIF was significantly enhanced in both mice strains. Following resveratrol administration in nude mice, 1) SARM inhibition was prevented, 2) TRIF and MMP-12 were correspondingly down-regulated and 3) airway disorders were subsequently alleviated. Moreover, when SARM was efficiently knocked down using siRNA, TRIF and MMP-12 were markedly enhanced, and the anti-RSV effects of resveratrol were remarkably abrogated. MMP-12 was significantly increased in the IFN-γ neutralizing antibody-treated BALB/c mice but reduced in the

  6. Cytochrome P4501A induction in avian hepatocyte cultures exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls: Comparisons with AHR1-mediated reporter gene activity and in ovo toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Gillian E., E-mail: gmann017@uottawa.ca; Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3; Mundy, Lukas J., E-mail: lukas.mundy@ec.gc.ca

    2013-01-01

    Avian-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were developed by the World Health Organization to simplify environmental risk assessments of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), but TEFs do not account for differences in the toxic and biochemical potencies of DLCs among species of birds. Such variability may be due to differences in species sensitivity to individual DLCs. The sensitivity of avian species to DLCs was recently associated with the identity of amino acids 324 and 380 in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, measuring AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 (CYP1A5) reporter gene, inmore » combination with a species' AHR1 ligand binding domain sequence, were also shown to predict avian species sensitivity to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB relative potency in a given species. The goals of the present study were to (1) characterize the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA in chicken, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes and (2) compare these in vitro results to those previously generated by the LRG assay and in ovo toxicity studies. EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression data support and complement the findings of the LRG assay. CYP1A enzyme activity and mRNA expression were significantly correlated both with luciferase activity and in ovo toxicity induced by PCBs. Relative potency values were generally similar between the LRG and EROD assays and indicate that the relative potency of some PCBs may differ among species. -- Highlights: ► The chicken isn't the most sensitive species to CYP1A induction by PCB 105 and 118. ► The relative potency of PCBs differs between avian species. ► EROD activity was correlated with luciferase activity from the LRG assay. ► EROD activity was a better predictor of toxicity

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated short-term effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on bile acid homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Csanaky, Iván L; Lickteig, Andrew J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2018-03-15

    The effects of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on bile acid (BA) homeostasis was examined in male and female wild-type and AhR-null mice shortly after 4-day exposure, rather than at a later time when secondary non-AhR dependent effects are more likely to occur. TCDD had similar effects on BA homeostasis in male and female mice. TCDD decreased the concentration of total-(Σ) BAs in liver by approximately 50% (all major BA categories except for the non-6,12-OH BAs), without decreasing the expression of the rate limiting BA synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) or altering the major BA regulatory pathways (FXR) in liver and intestine. Even though the Σ-BAs in liver were markedly decreased, the Σ-BAs excreted into bile were not altered. TCDD decreased the relative amount of 12-OH BAs (TCA, TDCA, CA, DCA) in bile and increased the biliary excretion of TCDCA and its metabolites (TαMCA, TUDCA); this was likely due to the decreased Cyp8b1 (12α-hydroxylase) in liver. The concentration of Σ-BAs in serum was not altered by TCDD, indicating that serum BAs do not reflect BA status in liver. However, proportions of individual BAs in serum reflected the decreased expression of Cyp8b1. All these TCDD-induced changes in BA homeostasis were absent in AhR-null mice. In summary, through the AhR, TCDD markedly decreases BA concentrations in liver and reduces the 12α-hydroxylation of BAs without altering Cyp7a1 and FXR signaling. The TCDD-induced decrease in Σ-BAs in liver did not result in a decrease in biliary excretion or serum concentrations of Σ-BAs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immuno-detection of dioxins using a recombinant protein of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) fused with sfGFP.

    PubMed

    Faiad, Walaa; Hanano, Abdulsamie; Kabakibi, Mohamed Maher; Abbady, Abdul Qader

    2016-06-21

    Dioxins are one of the most toxic groups of persistent organic pollutants. Their bioaccumulation through the food chain constitutes a potential risk for human health. Upon cell entry, dioxins bind specifically and firmly to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), leading to the stimulation of several enzymes responsible for its detoxification. Dioxin/AhR interaction could be exploited as an affordable alternative to a variety of analytical methods for detecting dioxin contamination in the environment. In this work, the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the AhR was cloned downstream a superfolder form of the green fluorescent protein (sfGFP), resulting in the construct pRSET-sfGFP-AhR. High level of expressed sfGFP-AhR fusion protein (50 kDa) was recovered from the inclusion bodies of E. coli by simple solubilization with the Arginine, and purified by affinity chromatography via its N-terminal 6 × His tag. Its purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis and immunoblotting with anti-His or anti-GFP antibodies. Indirect ELISA revealed the ability of the sfGFP-AhR, but not the sfGFP, to bind to the immobilized dioxin with the possibility to detect such interaction by both its 6 × His and GFP tags,Competitive ELISA showed that anti-dioxin antibody was more sensitive to low dioxin concentrations than sfGFP-AhR. Nevertheless,the detection range of sfGFP-AhR fusion was much wider and the detection limit was of about 10 ppt (parts per trillion) of free dioxin in the tested artificial samples. this highly expressed and functional sfGFP-AhR fusion protein provides a promising molecular tool for detecting and quantifying different congeners of dioxins.

  9. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NFκB and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Potapovich, Alla I; Lulli, Daniela; Fidanza, Paolo; Kostyuk, Vladimir A; De Luca, Chiara; Pastore, Saveria; Korkina, Liudmila G

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA+UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure, the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50μM resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perturbation effect of reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Hui; Sun, Tai; Niu, Aping; Tang, Yu-Mei; Deng, Shun; Luo, Wei; Xu, Qun; Wei, Dapeng; Pei, De-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been widely used in enormous fields, however, the inherent molecular mechanism of GQDs for potential risks in biological system is still elusive to date. In this study, the outstanding reduced graphene quantum dots (rGOQDs) with the QY as high as 24.62% were successfully synthesized by the improved Hummers method and DMF hydrothermal treatment approach. The rGOQDs were N-doped photoluminescent nanomaterials with functional groups on the surface. The fluorescent bio-imaging was performed by exposing zebrafish in different concentrations of the as-prepared rGOQDs, and the distribution of rGOQDs was successfully observed. Moreover, the developmental toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated to further investigate the potential hazard of rGOQDs. The result indicated that rGOQDs were responsible for the dose-dependent abnormalities on the development of zebrafish. Since the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that the expression of cyp1a was the highest expression in the selected genes and significantly up-regulated 8.49 fold in zebrafish, the perturbation of rGOQDs on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway was investigated by using the Tg(cyp1a:gfp) zebrafish for the first time. The results demonstrated that rGOQDs significantly increased the green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression promoted by cyp1a in a dose-dependent manner, which was also further confirmed by the western blotting. This study offered an opportunity to reveal the potential hazards of in vivo bio-probes, which provided a valuable reference for investigating the graphene-based materials on the disturbance of AhR pathway in biological organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Small molecule antagonists of integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Perdih, A; Dolenc, M Sollner

    2010-01-01

    The complex and widespread family of integrin receptors is involved in numerous physiological processes, such as tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, development of the immune response and homeostasis. In addition, their key role has been elucidated in important pathological disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, making them highly important targets for modern drug design campaigns. In this review we seek to present a concise overview of the small molecule antagonists of this diverse and highly complex receptor family. Integrin antagonists are classified according to the targeted integrin receptor and are discussed in four sections. First we present the fibrinogen alpha(IIb)beta3 and the vitronectin alpha (V)beta(3) receptor antagonists. The remaining selective integrin antagonists are examined in the third section. The final section is dedicated to molecules with dual or multiple integrin activity. In addition, the use of antibodies and peptidomimetic approaches to modulate the integrin receptors are discussed, as well providing the reader with an overall appreciation of the field.

  12. Azines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, when the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) was cloned, it has constituted an interesting target for drug development. Pharmacological studies suggest the potential utility of histamine H4R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g. allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, colitis, or pruritus. The first H4R ligands were non-selective compounds, but intensive chemical and pharmacological work has led to the discovery of highly potent and selective H4R antagonists (e.g. JNJ7777120, CZC-13788, PF-2988403, A-940894, A-987306). The first compound (UR-63325) has finally entered into clinical studies for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases (completing the phase I ascending dose trial) and has been found to be safe and well tolerated. The number of scientific publications and patent applications in the H4 field is increasing annually. Among the diverse chemical structures of the H4R antagonists described a 2-aminopyrimidine scaffold is repeatedly found. This review looked at recent advances in the search for H4R antagonists as reflected in patent applications/patents and peer-reviewed publications over the last two years. The work concerns azines (mono-, di-, triazines) and their fused analogues. The chemistry and pharmacology has been described.

  13. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  14. Elucidating the Role of CD84 and AHR in Modulation of LPS-Induced Cytokines Production by Cruciferous Vegetable-Derived Compounds Indole-3-Carbinol and 3,3′-Diindolylmethane

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Thomas T. Y.; Pham, Quynhchi; Kim, Young S.

    2018-01-01

    Modulation of the immune system by cancer protective food bioactives has preventive and therapeutic importance in prostate cancer, but the mechanisms remain largely unclear. The current study tests the hypothesis that the diet-derived cancer protective compounds, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), affect the tumor microenvironment by regulation of inflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages. We also ask whether I3C and DIM act through the aryl hydrocarbon (AHR)-dependent pathway or the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family protein CD84-mediated pathway. The effect of I3C and DIM was examined using the human THP-1 monocytic cell in its un-differentiated (monocyte) and differentiated (macrophage) state. We observed that I3C and DIM inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction of IL-1β mRNA and protein in the monocyte form but not the macrophage form of THP-1. Interestingly, CD84 mRNA but not protein was inhibited by I3C and DIM. AHR siRNA knockdown experiments confirmed that the inhibitory effects of I3C and DIM on IL-1β as well as CD84 mRNA are regulated through AHR-mediated pathways. Additionally, the AHR ligand appeared to differentially regulate other LPS-induced cytokines expression. Hence, cross-talk between AHR and inflammation-mediated pathways, but not CD84-mediated pathways, in monocytes but not macrophages may contribute to the modulation of tumor environments by I3C and DIM in prostate cancer. PMID:29364159

  15. Elucidating the Role of CD84 and AHR in Modulation of LPS-Induced Cytokines Production by Cruciferous Vegetable-Derived Compounds Indole-3-Carbinol and 3,3'-Diindolylmethane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thomas T Y; Pham, Quynhchi; Kim, Young S

    2018-01-24

    Modulation of the immune system by cancer protective food bioactives has preventive and therapeutic importance in prostate cancer, but the mechanisms remain largely unclear. The current study tests the hypothesis that the diet-derived cancer protective compounds, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), affect the tumor microenvironment by regulation of inflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages. We also ask whether I3C and DIM act through the aryl hydrocarbon (AHR)-dependent pathway or the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family protein CD84-mediated pathway. The effect of I3C and DIM was examined using the human THP-1 monocytic cell in its un-differentiated (monocyte) and differentiated (macrophage) state. We observed that I3C and DIM inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction of IL-1β mRNA and protein in the monocyte form but not the macrophage form of THP-1. Interestingly, CD84 mRNA but not protein was inhibited by I3C and DIM. AHR siRNA knockdown experiments confirmed that the inhibitory effects of I3C and DIM on IL-1β as well as CD84 mRNA are regulated through AHR-mediated pathways. Additionally, the AHR ligand appeared to differentially regulate other LPS-induced cytokines expression. Hence, cross-talk between AHR and inflammation-mediated pathways, but not CD84-mediated pathways, in monocytes but not macrophages may contribute to the modulation of tumor environments by I3C and DIM in prostate cancer.

  16. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA.

    PubMed

    Wojdylo, Josephine V; Vogelbein, Wolfgang; Bain, Lisa J; Rice, Charles D

    2016-08-01

    Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a state of chronic inflammation. Overall, these findings suggest that adult AW fish are responsive to AHR signaling, and do express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins in intestines at a level above what was observed in the reference population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. AHR-related Activities in a Creosote-Adapted Population of Adult Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, Two Decades Post-EPA Superfund Status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA

    PubMed Central

    Wojdylo, Josephine V.; Vogelbein, Wolfgang; Bain, Lisa J.; Rice, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90+% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011–2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a state of chronic inflammation. Overall, these findings suggest that adult AW fish are responsive to AHR signaling, and do express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins in intestines at a level above what was observed in the reference population. PMID:27262937

  18. Progress in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 antagonist development

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists have been sought since the stress-secreted peptide was isolated in 1981. Although evidence suggests the limited efficacy of CRF1 antagonists as antidepressants, CRF1 antagonists might be novel pharmacotherapies for anxiety and addiction. Progress in understanding the two-domain model of ligand–receptor interactions for CRF family receptors might yield chemically novel CRF1 receptor antagonists, including peptide CRF1 antagonists, antagonists with signal transduction selectivity and nonpeptide CRF1 antagonists that act via the extracellular (rather than transmembrane) domains. Novel ligands that conform to prevalent pharmacophore and exhibit drug-like pharmacokinetic properties have been identified. The therapeutic utility of CRF1 antagonists should soon be clearer: several small molecules are currently in Phase II/III clinical trials for depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:20206287

  19. Effect of a Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist on Neurocognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    a novel hypocretiniorexin antagonist, almorexant (ALM), to a standard hypnotic , zolpidem (ZOL), and placebo (PBO) on neurocognitive performance at...Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Parallel- Group Study Comparing the Effect of a Novel HypocretiniOrexin Antagonist (Almorexant) Versus a Standard Hypnotic ...Group Study Comparing the Effect of a Novel HypocretiniOrexin Antagonist (Almorexant) Versus a Standard Hypnotic (Zolpidem) and Placebo on

  20. Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

  1. Mass-Screening of Curarimimetic Neurotoxin Antagonists.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-15

    identification of useful antagonists of curarimimetic neurotoxins, a group of snake venom proteins which bind to and inactivate the nicotinic acetylcholine...described in the original proposal. Briefly, the native toxin was prepared from B. multicinctus venom (Miami Serpentarium, Miami, FL) by chromatography on...Bungarotoxin. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 11156-11162. Wjber, M. and Changeux, J.-P. (1974) Binding of Naja np&rIcollis [ HI-alpha-Toxin to Membrane

  2. TNF alpha antagonist therapy and safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thao; Bachelez, Hervé; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Blacher, Jacques; Bouhnik, Yoram; Claudepierre, Pascal; Constantin, Arnaud; Fautrel, Bruno; Gaudin, Philippe; Goëb, Vincent; Gossec, Laure; Goupille, Philippe; Guillaume-Czitrom, Séverine; Hachulla, Eric; Huet, Isabelle; Jullien, Denis; Launay, Odile; Lemann, Marc; Maillefert, Jean-Francis; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Martinez, Valérie; Masson, Charles; Morel, Jacques; Mouthon, Luc; Pol, Stanislas; Puéchal, Xavier; Richette, Pascal; Saraux, Alain; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Soubrier, Martin; Sudre, Anne; Tran, Tu-Anh; Viguier, Manuelle; Vittecoq, Olivier; Wendling, Daniel; Mariette, Xavier; Sibilia, Jean

    2011-05-01

    To develop and/or update fact sheets about TNFα antagonists treatments, in order to assist physicians in the management of patients with inflammatory joint disease. 1. selection by a committee of rheumatology experts of the main topics of interest for which fact sheets were desirable; 2. identification and review of publications relevant to each topic; 3. development and/or update of fact sheets based on three levels of evidence: evidence-based medicine, official recommendations, and expert opinion. The experts were rheumatologists and invited specialists in other fields, and they had extensive experience with the management of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid. They were members of the CRI (Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation), a section of the Société Francaise de Rhumatologie. Each fact sheet was revised by several experts and the overall process was coordinated by three experts. Several topics of major interest were selected: contraindications of TNFα antagonists treatments, the management of adverse effects and concomitant diseases that may develop during these therapies, and the management of everyday situations such as pregnancy, surgery, and immunizations. After a review of the literature and discussions among experts, a consensus was developed about the content of the fact sheets presented here. These fact sheets focus on several points: 1. in RA and SpA, initiation and monitoring of TNFα antagonists treatments, management of patients with specific past histories, and specific clinical situations such as pregnancy; 2. diseases other than RA, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis; 3. models of letters for informing the rheumatologist and general practitioner; 4. and patient information. These TNFα antagonists treatments fact sheets built on evidence-based medicine and expert opinion will serve as a practical tool for assisting physicians who manage patients on these therapies. They will be available continuously at www.cri-net.com and

  3. Interactions of Freshwater Cyanobacteria with Bacterial Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sara; Grabherr, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyanobacterial and algal mass development, or blooms, have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists, such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate, such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong-to-moderate lytic activity. To characterize their functional responses to the presence of cyanobacteria, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments on coculture incubations, with an initial predator-prey ratio of 1:1. Genes involved in central cellular pathways, stress-related heat or cold shock proteins, and antitoxin genes were highly expressed in both heterotrophs and cyanobacteria. Heterotrophs in coculture expressed genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction, and putative lytic activity. l,d-Transpeptidase was the only significantly upregulated lytic gene in Stenotrophomonas rhizophila EK20. Heterotrophs also shifted their central metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the glyoxylate shunt. Concurrently, cyanobacteria clearly show contrasting antagonistic interactions with the four tested heterotrophic strains, which is also reflected in the physical attachment to their cells. In conclusion, antagonistic interactions with cyanobacteria were initiated within 24 h, and expression profiles suggest varied responses for the different cyanobacteria and studied cyanolytes. IMPORTANCE Here, we present how gene expression profiles can be used to reveal interactions between bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacteria and antagonistic heterotrophic bacteria. Species

  4. Medicinal Chemistry of Competitive Kainate Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1−5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure−activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field. PMID:22778857

  5. EGCG protects endothelial cells against PCB 126-induced inflammation through inhibition of AhR and induction of Nrf2-regulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sung Gu; Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536; Han, Seong-Su

    2012-06-01

    Tea flavonoids such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) protect against vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Persistent and widespread environmental pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), can induce oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells. Even though PCBs are no longer produced, they are still detected in human blood and tissues and thus considered a risk for vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that EGCG can protect endothelial cells against PCB-induced cell damage via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, primary vascular endothelial cells were pretreated with EGCG, followed by exposure to the coplanar PCBmore » 126. Exposure to PCB 126 significantly increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) mRNA and protein expression and superoxide production, events which were significantly attenuated following pretreatment with EGCG. Similarly, EGCG also reduced DNA binding of NF-κB and downstream expression of inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) after PCB exposure. Furthermore, EGCG decreased endogenous or base-line levels of Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells. Most of all, treatment of EGCG upregulated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant genes, including glutathione S transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 increased Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and decreased GST and NQO1 expression, respectively. These data suggest that EGCG can inhibit AhR regulated genes and induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes, thus providing protection against PCB-induced inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► PCBs cause endothelial inflammation and subsequent atherosclerosis. ► Nutrition can modulate toxicity by environmental pollutants.

  6. Diazine indole acetic acids as potent, selective, and orally bioavailable antagonists of chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kaila, Neelu; Huang, Adrian; Moretto, Alessandro; Follows, Bruce; Janz, Kristin; Lowe, Michael; Thomason, Jennifer; Mansour, Tarek S; Hubeau, Cedric; Page, Karen; Morgan, Paul; Fish, Susan; Xu, Xin; Williams, Cara; Saiah, Eddine

    2012-06-14

    New classes of CRTH2 antagonists, the pyridazine linker containing indole acetic acids, are described. The initial hit 1 had good potency but poor permeability, metabolic stability, and PK. Initial optimization led to compounds of type 2 with low oxidative metabolism but poor oral bioavailability. Poor permeability was identified as a liability for these compounds. Addition of a linker between the indole and diazine moieties afforded a series with good potency, low rates of metabolism, moderate permeability, and good oral bioavailability in rodents. 32 was identified as the development track candidate. It was potent in cell based, binding, and whole blood assays and exhibited good PK profile. It was efficacious in mouse models of contact hypersensitivity (1 mg/kg b.i.d.) and house dust (20 mg/kg q.d.) when dosed orally. In sheep asthma, administration at 1 mg/kg iv completely blocked the LAR and AHR and attenuated the EAR phase.

  7. Reduction of periodontal pathogens adhesion by antagonistic strains.

    PubMed

    Van Hoogmoed, C G; Geertsema-Doornbusch, G I; Teughels, W; Quirynen, M; Busscher, H J; Van der Mei, H C

    2008-02-01

    Periodontitis results from a shift in the subgingival microflora into a more pathogenic direction with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans considered as periodontopathogens. In many cases, treatment procures only a temporary shift towards a less pathogenic microflora. An alternative treatment could be the deliberate colonization of pockets with antagonistic microorganisms to control the adhesion of periodontopathogens. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial strains that reduce adhesion of periodontopathogens to surfaces. Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus crista, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were evaluated as potential antagonists against P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, P. intermedia ATCC 49046, and A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718 as periodontopathogens. Adhesion of periodontopathogens to the bottom plate of a parallel plate flow chamber was studied in the absence (control) and the presence of pre-adhering antagonistic strains up to a surface coverage of 5%. The largest reduction caused by antagonistic strains was observed for P. gingivalis. All antagonistic strains except S. crista ATCC 49999 inhibited the adhesion of P. gingivalis by at least 1.6 cells per adhering antagonist, with the largest significant reduction observed for A. naeslundii ATCC 51655 (3.8 cells per adhering antagonist). Adhering antagonists had a minimal effect on the adhesion of A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718. Intermediate but significant reductions were perceived for P. intermedia, most notably caused by S. mitis BMS. The adhesion of P. gingivalis was inhibited best by antagonistic strains, while S. mitis BMS appeared to be the most successful antagonist.

  8. Association of polymorphisms in AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes with levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Yongwen Chen; Yun Bai; Jing Yuan

    2006-09-15

    Accumulating evidence has shown that both DNA damage caused by the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes contribute to individual susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis. However, the functional relevance of genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes in exposed individuals is still unclear. In this study of 240 coke-oven workers (the exposed group) and 123 non-coke-oven workers (the control group), we genotyped for polymorphisms in the AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes by PCR methods, and determined the levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. It was found that the ln-transformedmore » Olive tail moment (Olive TM) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, in the exposed group, the Olive TM values in subjects with the AhR Lys{sup 554} variant genotype were higher than those with the AhR Arg{sup 554}/Arg{sup 554} genotype. Similarly, the Olive TM values in the non-coke-oven workers with the CYP1A1 MspI CC + CT genotype were lower than the values of those with the CYP1A1 MspI TT genotype. However, these differences were not evident for GSTM1 and GSTT1. These results suggested that the polymorphism of AhR might modulate the effects of PAHs in the exposed group; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism may have affected the levels of PAH-induced DNA damage warrant further investigation.« less

  9. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists: Effects on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Buels, Kalmia S.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy lungs, muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion, vasodilation, and inflammation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, cholinergic mechanisms contribute to increased bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion that limit airflow. This chapter reviews neuronal and nonneuronal sources of acetylcholine in the lung and the expression and role of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in lung physiology. It also discusses the evidence for and against the role of parasympathetic nerves in asthma, and the current use and therapeutic potential of muscarinic receptor antagonists in COPD and asthma. PMID:22222705

  10. Diphenyl purine derivatives as peripherally selective cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Seltzman, Herbert; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-11-26

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of several diseases. However, clinical development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects including depression and suicidal ideation in some users. Recently, studies have indicated that selective regulation of CB1 receptors in the periphery is a viable strategy for treating several important disorders. Past efforts to develop peripherally selective antagonists of CB1 have largely targeted rimonabant, an inverse agonist of CB1. Reported here are our efforts toward developing a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist based on the otenabant scaffold. Even though otenabant penetrates the CNS, it is unique among CB1 antagonists that have been clinically tested because it has properties that are normally associated with peripherally selective compounds. Our efforts have resulted in an orally absorbed compound that is a potent and selective CB1 antagonist with limited penetration into the CNS.

  11. Diphenyl Purine Derivatives as Peripherally Selective Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Seltzman, Herbert; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of several diseases. However, clinical development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects including depression and suicidal ideation in some users. Recently, studies have indicated that selective regulation of CB1 receptors in the periphery is a viable strategy for treating several important disorders. Past efforts to develop peripherally selective antagonists of CB1 have largely targeted rimonabant, an inverse agonist of CB1. Reported here are our efforts toward developing a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist based on the otenabant scaffold. Even though otenabant penetrates the CNS, it is unique among CB1 antagonists that have been clinically tested because it has properties that are normally associated with peripherally selective compounds. Our efforts have resulted in an orally absorbed compound that is a potent and selective CB1 antagonist with limited penetration into the CNS. PMID:23098108

  12. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-α and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  13. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  14. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  15. Activins and activin antagonists in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deli, Alev; Kreidl, Emanuel; Santifaller, Stefan; Trotter, Barbara; Seir, Katja; Berger, Walter; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf; Rodgarkia-Dara, Chantal; Grusch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In many parts of the world hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality but the underlying molecular pathology is still insufficiently understood. There is increasing evidence that activins, which are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of growth and differentiation factors, could play important roles in liver carcinogenesis. Activins are disulphide-linked homo- or heterodimers formed from four different β subunits termed βA, βB, βC, and βE, respectively. Activin A, the dimer of two βA subunits, is critically involved in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and tissue architecture in the liver, while the hepatic function of other activins is largely unexplored so far. Negative regulators of activin signals include antagonists in the extracellular space like the binding proteins follistatin and FLRG, and at the cell membrane antagonistic co-receptors like Cripto or BAMBI. Additionally, in the intracellular space inhibitory Smads can modulate and control activin activity. Accumulating data suggest that deregulation of activin signals contributes to pathologic conditions such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis and development of cancer. The current article reviews the alterations in components of the activin signaling pathway that have been observed in HCC and discusses their potential significance for liver tumorigenesis. PMID:18350601

  16. Hypocretin antagonists in insomnia treatment and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Chad; Cao, Michelle; Guilleminault, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep through stabilization of sleep promoting GABAergic and wake promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. Hypocretin also influences other physiologic processes such as metabolism, appetite, learning and memory, reward and addiction, and ventilatory drive. The discovery of hypocretin and its effect upon the sleep-wake cycle has led to the development of a new class of pharmacologic agents that antagonize the physiologic effects of hypocretin (i.e. hypocretin antagonists). Further investigation of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side-effect profile of currently available hypnotics (e.g. impaired cognition, confusional arousals, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle while also influencing non-sleep physiologic processes may create an entirely different but equally concerning side-effect profile such as transient loss of muscle tone (i.e. cataplexy) and a dampened respiratory drive. In this review, we will discuss the discovery of hypocretin and its receptors, hypocretin and the sleep-wake cycle, hypocretin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia, and other implicated functions of the hypocretin system.

  17. Methylated pentavalent arsenic metabolites are bifunctional inducers, as they induce cytochrome P450 1A1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase through AhR- and Nrf2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Elshenawy, Osama H; Soshilov, Anatoly A; Denison, Michael S; Chris Le, X; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2014-02-01

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ultimately leads to the induction of the carcinogen-activating enzyme cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), and activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in addition to the AhR pathway induces the expression of the NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of As(III) pentavalent metabolites, MMA(V), DMA(V), and TMA(V), on AhR and Nrf2 activation and on the expression of their prototypical downstream targets CYP1A1 and NQO1, respectively. Our results showed that treatment of HepG2 cells with MMA(V), DMA(V), or TMA(V) in the absence and presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or sulforaphane significantly induced both CYP1A1 and NQO1 at the mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity levels. Furthermore, these metabolites increased the AhR-dependent XRE-driven and the Nrf2-dependent ARE-driven luciferase reporter activities, which coincided with increased nuclear accumulation of both transcription factors. However, none of these metabolites were shown to be AhR ligands. The induction of CYP1A1 by these metabolites seems to be ligand-independent, possibly through a decrease in HSP90 protein expression levels. The metabolites also increased ROS production, which was significantly higher than that produced by As(III). Upon knockdown of AhR and Nrf2 the MMA(V)-, DMA(V)-, and TMA(V)-mediated induction of both CYP1A1 and NQO1 proteins was significantly decreased. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that methylated pentavalent arsenic metabolites are bifunctional inducers, as they increase CYP1A1 by activating the AhR/XRE signaling pathway and they increase NQO1 by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in addition to the AhR/XRE pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  19. Antiallergic effects of H1-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Baroody, F M; Naclerio, R M

    2000-01-01

    The primary mechanism of antihistamine action in the treatment of allergic diseases is believed to be competitive antagonism of histamine binding to cellular receptors (specifically, the H1-receptors), which are present on nerve endings, smooth muscles, and glandular cells. This notion is supported by the fact that structurally unrelated drugs antagonize the H1-receptor and provide clinical benefit. However, H1-receptor antagonism may not be their sole mechanism of action in treating allergic rhinitis. On the basis of in vitro and animal experiments, drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists have long been recognized to have additional pharmacological properties. Most first-generation H1-antihistamines have anticholinergic, sedative, local anaesthetic, and anti-5-HT effects, which might favourably affect the symptoms of the allergic response but also contribute to side-effects. These additional properties are not uniformly distributed among drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists. Azatadine, for example, inhibits in vitro IgE-mediated histamine and leukotriene (LT) release from mast cells and basophils. In human challenge models, terfenadine, azatadine, and loratadine reduce IgE-mediated histamine release. Cetirizine reduces eosinophilic infiltration at the site of antigen challenge in the skin, but not the nose. In a nasal antigen challenge model, cetirizine pretreatment did not affect the levels of histamine and prostaglandin D2 recovered in postchallenge lavages, whereas the levels of albumin, N-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME) esterase activity, and LTs were reduced. Terfenadine, cetirizine, and loratadine blocked allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In view of the complexity of the pathophysiology of allergy, a number of H1 antagonists with additional properties are currently under development for allergic diseases. Mizolastine, a new H1-receptor antagonist, has been shown to have additional actions that should help reduce the

  20. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  1. Third Generation Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; Why We Need a Fourth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The first mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, spironolactone, was developed almost 60 years ago to treat primary aldosteronism and pathological edema. Its use waned in part due to its lack of selectivity. Subsequently knowledge of the scope of MR function was expanded along with clinical evidence of the therapeutic importance of MR antagonists to prevent the ravages of inappropriate MR activation. Forty-two years elapsed between the first and MR-selective second generation of MR antagonists. Fifteen years later, despite serious shortcomings of the existing antagonists, a third generation antagonist has yet to be marketed. Progress has been slowed by the lack of appreciation of the large variety of cell types that express the MR and its diverse cell-type-specific actions, as well as its uniquely complex interactions actions at the molecular level. New MR antagonists should preferentially target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of MR and perhaps its excitatory effects on sympathetic nervous system, but not the renal tubular epithelium or neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. This review briefly describes efforts to develop a third generation MR antagonist and why fourth generation antagonists and selective agonists based on structural determinants of tissue and ligand-specific MR activation should be contemplated. PMID:26466326

  2. Identification and determination of selected histamine antagonists by densitometric method.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Krystyna; Wyszomirska, Elzbieta; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2013-01-01

    The conditions for identification were determined for four histamine antagonists: clemastine fumarate, loratadine, cetirizine dihydrochloride and desloratadine by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) method. The selected chromatographic conditions were used to develop a densitometric method for the content determination of the histamine antagonists in medicinal products and substances. The statistical data showed adequate accuracy and precision of the developed methods.

  3. Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems.

  4. Combination Effects of (Tri)Azole Fungicides on Hormone Production and Xenobiotic Metabolism in a Human Placental Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rieke, Svenja; Koehn, Sophie; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen; Pfeil, Rudolf; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a broad dose range represents a key challenge to current experimental and regulatory toxicology. Here we report evidence for additive effects for (tri)azole fungicides, a widely used group of antifungal agents, in the human placental cell line Jeg-3. In addition to the triazoles cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole and tebuconazole and the azole fungicide prochloraz also pesticides from other chemical classes assumed to act via different modes of action (i.e., the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the triazinylsulfonylurea herbicide triflusulfuron-methyl) were investigated. Endpoints analysed include synthesis of steroid hormone production (progesterone and estradiol) and gene expression of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cytochrome-P-450 (CYP) enzymes. For the triazoles and prochloraz, a dose dependent inhibition of progesterone production was observed and additive effects could be confirmed for several combinations of these substances in vitro. The non-triazoles chlorpyrifos and triflusulfuron-methyl did not affect this endpoint and, in line with this finding, no additivity was observed when these substances were applied in mixtures with prochloraz. While prochloraz slightly increased aromatase expression and estradiol production and triflusulfuron-methyl decreased estradiol production, none of the other substances had effects on the expression levels of steroidogenic CYP-enzymes in Jeg-3 cells. For some triazoles, prochloraz and chlorpyrifos a significant induction of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and potential combination effects for this endpoint were observed. Inhibition of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by the AhR inhibitor CH223191 indicated AhR receptor dependence of this effect. PMID

  5. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  6. The chlorinated AHR ligand 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during embryonic development in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arzuaga, Xabier; Wassenberg, Deena; Giulio, Richard D.; Elskus, Adria

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to dioxin-like chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can result in increased cellular and tissue production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Little is known of these effects during early fish development. We used the fish model, Fundulus heteroclitus, to determine if the AHR ligand and pro-oxidant 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) can increase ROS production during killifish development, and to test a novel method for measuring ROS non-invasively in a living organism. The superoxide-sensitive fluorescent dye, dihydroethidium (DHE), was used to detect in ovo ROS production microscopically in developing killifish exposed to PCB126 or vehicle. Both in ovo CYP1A activity (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase, EROD) and in ovo ROS were induced by PCB126. In ovo CYP1A activity was inducible by PCB126 concentrations as low as 0.003 nM, with maximal induction occurring at 0.3 nM PCB126. These PCB126 concentrations also significantly increased in ovo ROS production in embryonic liver, ROS being detectable as early as 5 days post-fertilization. These data demonstrate that the pro-oxidant and CYP1A inducer, PCB126, increases both CYP1A activity and ROS production in developing killifish embryos. The superoxide detection assay (SoDA) described in this paper provides a semi-quantitative, easily measured, early indicator of altered ROS production that can be used in conjunction with simultaneous in ovo measurements of CYP1A activity and embryo development to explore functional relationships among biochemical, physiological and developmental responses to AHR ligands.

  7. Prenatal 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl exposure modulates induction of rat hepatic CYP 1A1, 1B1, and AhR by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakui, Shin; Yokoo, Kiyofumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2006-02-01

    We previously reported the finding that prenatal exposure to a relatively low dose of PCB126 increases the rate of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma, while a high dose decreased it. One of the most important factors determining the sensitivity to mammary carcinogenesis is the metabolic stage at administration of the carcinogenic agent. DMBA is a procarcinogen that recruits the host metabolism to yield its ultimate carcinogenic form, and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 (CYP1) conduct this metabolism. We investigated the hepatic expression of CYP1 and AhR following oral administration of DMBA (100 mg/kg b.w.) (i.g.) to 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats whose dams hadmore » been treated (i.g.) with 2.5 ng, 250 ng, 7.5 {mu}g of PCB126/kg or the vehicle on days 13 to 19 post-conception. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the prenatal exposure to a relatively low dose of PCB126 (the 250 ng group) prolonged the higher expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhR mRNA, while prenatal exposure to a high dose of PCB126 (the 7.5 {mu}g group) prolonged the higher expression of CYP1A1 and AhR mRNA. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses were consistent with mRNAs changes. Because DMBA oxidation produces a highly mutagenic metabolite and is finally catalyzed by CYP1B1, a relatively low PCB126 dose might produce the biological character to potentially increase the risk of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma.« less

  8. The effect of H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonists on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Tag S; Westerhof, Wiete; Badawy, Nafisa A; Abdel-Rahman, Amal T; Abd El-Raheem, Talal A; Sayed, Saadea R; Ali, Azza H; Salem, Hossam

    2012-01-01

    Histamine was found to stimulate melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes specifically mediated by histamine H 2 receptors via protein kinase A activation. Based on this finding, the effect of topically applied H 2 antagonist on UVB-irradiated Guinea pigs' skin was examined and found to be suppressive on the post-irradiation melanogenesis. In this study, we tried to explore the role of topically applied H 1 and H 2 receptor antagonists, in inhibition of UVB-induced melanization. The effect of topically applied H 1 and H 2 receptor antagonists in inhibition of melanization was done clinically and histochemically using Fontana Masson and DOPA reactions compared with placebo. The post-irradiation pigmentation was found to be brownish/black instead of the original light brown color. This color change occurred below the shaved orange-red fur suggesting a switch of melanogenesis from pheomelanin to eumelanin. The induced pigmentation was suppressed by topically applied H 2 antagonist while both H 1 antagonist and vehicle had no effect. The microscopic examination showed that the keratinocytes in the H 2 antagonist-treated areas contained few melanosomes while the nearby dendrites are full of them. H 2 antagonists' inhibition of UVB-induced pigmentation is not only due to suppression of melanization but also due to a specific action on melanosomes' transfer.

  9. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success.

  10. Noradrenergic antagonists mitigate amphetamine-induced recovery.

    PubMed

    Hylin, M J; Brenneman, M M; Corwin, J V

    2017-09-15

    Brain injury, including that due to stroke, leaves individuals with cognitive deficits that can disrupt daily aspect of living. As of now there are few treatments that shown limited amounts of success in improving functional outcome. The use of stimulants such as amphetamine have shown some success in improving outcome following brain injury. While the pharmacological mechanisms for amphetamine are known; the specific processes responsible for improving behavioral outcome following injury remain unknown. Understanding these mechanisms can help to refine the use of amphetamine as a potential treatment or lead to the use of other methods that share the same pharmacological properties. One proposed mechanism is amphetamine's impact upon noradrenaline (NA). In the current, study noradrenergic antagonists were administered prior to amphetamine to pharmacologically block α- and β-adrenergic receptors. The results demonstrated that the blockade of these receptors disrupted amphetamines ability to induce recovery from hemispatial neglect using an established aspiration lesion model. This suggests that amphetamine's ability to ameliorate neglect deficits may be due in part to noradrenaline. These results further support the role of noradrenaline in functional recovery. Finally, the development of polytherapies and combined therapeutics, while promising, may need to consider the possibility that drug interactions can negate the effectiveness of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  12. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists: pharmacological opportunities, clinical experience, and translational prognosis.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2009-03-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (CB) (endocannabinoid) signaling system is involved in a variety of (patho)physiological processes, primarily by virtue of natural, arachidonic acid-derived lipids (endocannabinoids) that activate G protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors. A hyperactive endocannabinoid system appears to contribute to the etiology of several disease states that constitute significant global threats to human health. Consequently, mounting interest surrounds the design and profiling of receptor-targeted CB antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics that attenuate endocannabinoid transmission for salutary gain. Experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic potential of CB1 receptor antagonists to treat overweight/obesity, obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, and substance abuse. Laboratory data suggest that CB2 receptor antagonists might be effective immunomodulatory and, perhaps, anti-inflammatory drugs. One CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, has emerged as the first-in-class drug approved outside the United States for weight control. Select follow-on agents (taranabant, otenabant, surinabant, rosonabant, SLV-319, AVE1625, V24343) have also been studied in the clinic. However, rimonabant's market withdrawal in the European Union and suspension of rimonabant's, taranabant's, and otenabant's ongoing development programs have highlighted some adverse clinical side effects (especially nausea and psychiatric disturbances) of CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. Novel CB1 receptor ligands that are peripherally directed and/or exhibit neutral antagonism (the latter not affecting constitutive CB1 receptor signaling) may optimize the benefits of CB1 receptor antagonists while minimizing any risk. Indeed, CB1 receptor-neutral antagonists appear from preclinical data to offer efficacy comparable to or better than that of prototype CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists, with less propensity to induce nausea. Continued

  13. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  14. Practical recommendations for calcium channel antagonist poisoning.

    PubMed

    Rietjens, S J; de Lange, D W; Donker, D W; Meulenbelt, J

    2016-02-01

    Calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are widely used for different cardiovascular disorders. At therapeutic doses, CCAs have a favourable side effect profile. However, in overdose, CCAs can cause serious complications, such as severe hypotension and bradycardia. Patients in whom a moderate to severe intoxication is anticipated should be observed in a monitored setting for at least 12 hours if an immediate-release formulation is ingested, and at least 24 hours when a sustained-release formulation (or amlodipine) is involved, even if the patient is asymptomatic. Initial treatment is aimed at gastrointestinal decontamination and general supportive care, i.e., fluid resuscitation and correction of metabolic acidosis and electrolyte disturbances. In moderate to severe CCA poisoning, a combined medical strategy might be indispensable, such as administration of vasopressors, intravenous calcium and hyperinsulinaemia/euglycaemia therapy. Especially hyperinsulinaemia/euglycaemia therapy is an important first-line treatment in CCA-overdosed patients in whom a large ingestion is suspected. High-dose insulin, in combination with glucose, seems to be most effective when used early in the intoxication phase, even when the patient shows hardly any haemodynamic instability. Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy should only be considered in patients with life-threatening cardiovascular toxicity, such as refractory shock, which is unresponsive to conventional therapies. When supportive and specific pharmacological measures fail to adequately reverse refractory conditions in CCA overdose, the use of extracorporeal life support should be considered. The efficacy of these pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions generally advocated in CCA poisoning needs further in-depth mechanistic foundation, in order to improve individualised treatment of CCA-overdosed patients.

  15. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of TNF Antagonists in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G.; Sandborn, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists play a critical role in the treatment of moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), several factors can impact treatment response. The degree of systemic inflammation, serum albumin concentration, disease type, body mass index, gender, concomitant therapy with immunosuppressive agents, and especially development of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) are key determinants of TNF antagonist pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes. Therefore, measurement of serum drug and antibody concentrations in patients with IBD who are on TNF antagonists has the potential to guide clinical decision-making, optimize treatment, improve outcomes, and reduce healthcare costs. Multiple strategies to prevent ADA formation exist, including multiple clinical algorithms that employ therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize treatment following a secondary loss of therapeutic response. An individualized approach is needed, however, to identify early predictors of ADA development and other confounders of TNF antagonist therapy. PMID:28845139

  16. Complications of TNF-α antagonists and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    TNF-α is a central regulator of inflammation and its blockade downregulates other proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Subsequently, TNF-α antagonists are currently used in treatment regimens directed toward several inflammatory diseases. Despite a beneficia...

  17. Identification of M-CSF agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Pandit, Jayvardhan [Mystic, CT; Jancarik, Jarmila [Walnut Creek, CA; Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Koths, Kirston [El Cerrito, CA; Halenbeck, Robert [San Rafael, CA; Fear, Anna Lisa [Oakland, CA; Taylor, Eric [Oakland, CA; Yamamoto, Ralph [Martinez, CA; Bohm, Andrew [Armonk, NY

    2000-02-15

    The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

  18. Prevention of Stimulant Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0510 TITLE: Prevention of Stimulant Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prevention(of(Stimulant(Induced(Euphoria(with(an( Opioid (Receptor(Antagonist(( 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...naltrexone(in(medication(naïve(young(adults((age(18#30)(who(exhibit(a(euphoric( response(to(methylphenidate(administered(on(the(“ Drug (Feeling(Visit

  19. Fosinopril H(2)-receptor antagonists interaction studies by derivative spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Najma; Arayne, M Saeed; Sana, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    Fosinopril sodium, a phosphinic acid derivative is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which had been employed for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure; long tem use of ACE inhibitor often result in stress ulcers due to which H(2) receptor antagonists are also concurrently prescribed. The later compete with histamine for H(2) receptors and block gastric acid secretion and some cardiovascular effects of histamine. Our studies are focused on the in vitro availability of fosinopril in presence of commonly used H(2) receptor antagonists. Derivative spectroscopy has been employed for the quantitation of fosinopril and H(2) receptor antagonists followed by linear regression analysis. These studies were carried out in buffers of pH 7.4 and 9 at 37, 48 and 60( masculine)C. Stability constant and thermodynamic function had also been calculated in order to evaluate the reaction mechanism. Commonly prescribed H(2) receptor antagonists like cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine were used in these studies. Present study clearly indicated that most of the H(2) receptor antagonists studied decreased the availability of fosinopril which conclude that availability of fosinopril can be affected by the concurrent administration of H(2) receptor antagonists.

  20. Platelet-activating factor (PAF)-antagonists of natural origin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Singh, Ishwari Narayan; Mondal, Sambhu Charan; Singh, Lubhan; Garg, Vipin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Presently herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population for primary health care as they stood the test of time for their safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. The discovery of platelet activating factor antagonists (PAF antagonists) during these decades are going on with different framework, but the researchers led their efficiency in studying in vitro test models. Since it is assumed that PAF play a central role in etiology of many diseases in humans such as asthma, neuronal damage, migraine, cardiac diseases, inflammatory, headache etc. Present days instinctively occurring PAF antagonist exists as a specific grade of therapeutic agents for the humans against these and different diseases either laid hold of immunological or non-immunological types. Ginkgolide, cedrol and many other natural PAF antagonists such as andrographolide, α-bulnesene, cinchonine, piperine, kadsurenone, different Piper species' natural products and marine origin plants extracts or even crude drugs having PAF antagonist properties are being used currently against different inflammatory pathologies. This review is an attempt to summarize the data on PAF and action of natural PAF antagonists on it, which were evaluated by in vivo and in vitro assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist greatly augments benign prostatic hyperplasia shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Rick, Ferenc G; Szalontay, Luca; Schally, Andrew V; Block, Norman L; Nadji, Mehrdad; Szepeshazi, Karoly; Vidaurre, Irving; Zarandi, Marta; Kovacs, Magdolna; Rekasi, Zoltan

    2012-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia often affects aging men. Antagonists of the neuropeptide growth hormone-releasing hormone reduced prostate weight in an androgen induced benign prostatic hyperplasia model in rats. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists also produce marked, protracted improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms, reduced prostate volume and an increased urinary peak flow rate in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We investigated the influence of a combination of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on animal models of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We evaluated the effects of the growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist JMR-132, given at a dose of 40 μg daily, the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist cetrorelix, given at a dose of 0.625 mg/kg, and their combination on testosterone induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in adult male Wistar rats in vivo. Prostate tissue was examined biochemically and histologically. Serum levels of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, dihydrotestosterone and prostate specific antigen were determined. Marked shrinkage of the rat prostate (30.3%) occurred in response to the combination of growth hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists (p<0.01). The combination strongly decreased prostatic prostate specific antigen, 6-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate, interleukin-1β, nuclear factor-κβ and cyclooxygenase-2, and decreased serum prostate specific antigen. A combination of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist potentiated a reduction in prostate weight in an experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia model. Results suggest that this shrinkage in prostate volume was induced by the direct inhibitory effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists exerted

  2. Vitamin K antagonist use and mortality in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Voskamp, Pauline W M; Rookmaaker, Maarten B; Verhaar, Marianne C; Dekker, Friedo W; Ocak, Gurbey

    2018-01-01

    The risk-benefit ratio of vitamin K antagonists for different CHA2DS2-VASc scores in patients with end-stage renal disease treated with dialysis is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin K antagonist use and mortality for different CHA2DS2-VASc scores in a cohort of end-stage renal disease patients receiving dialysis treatment. We prospectively followed 1718 incident dialysis patients. Hazard ratios were calculated for all-cause and cause-specific (stroke, bleeding, cardiovascular and other) mortality associated with vitamin K antagonist use. Vitamin K antagonist use as compared with no vitamin K antagonist use was associated with a 1.2-fold [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-1.5] increased all-cause mortality risk, a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.6-4.0) increased stroke mortality risk, a 1.3-fold (95% CI 0.4-4.2) increased bleeding mortality risk, a 1.2-fold (95% CI 0.9-1.8) increased cardiovascular mortality risk and a 1.2-fold (95% CI 0.8-1.6) increased other mortality risk after adjustment. Within patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≤1, vitamin K antagonist use was associated with a 2.8-fold (95% CI 1.0-7.8) increased all-cause mortality risk as compared with no vitamin K antagonist use, while vitamin K antagonist use within patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 was not associated with an increased mortality risk after adjustment. Vitamin K antagonist use was not associated with a protective effect on mortality in the different CHA2DS2-VASc scores in dialysis patients. The lack of knowledge on the indication for vitamin K antagonist use could lead to confounding by indication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NF{kappa}B and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Potapovich, Alla I.; Biology Department, Belarus State University, Skorina Prosp. 10, Minsk 220050; Lulli, Daniela

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA + UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure,more » the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50 {mu}M resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  4. Effect of H2-receptor antagonists on bile acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shindo, K; Fukumura, M

    1995-04-01

    Several reports have been presented concerning pronounced overgrowth of bacteria in gastric juices of patients treated with H2-receptor antagonists. However, there has been no report concerning influence of H2-receptor antagonists on jejunal flora. Thus, to investigate the influence and its effect on bile acid metabolism, this study was performed: 1) to examine whether patients with gastric ulcers who have been treated with H2-receptor antagonists have positive bile acid breath tests due to bacterial overgrowth in their jejuna; 2) to verify that these bacteria, isolated and identified, have deconjugation ability; and 3) to determine whether the changes in the gastric pH are related to bacterial overgrowth. The methods used were detection of deconjugation of bile acids in early phase by a bile acid breath test using 5 muCi of oral glycine-1-14C labeled glycocholate, aspiration of jejunal fluids by a double lumen tube with a rubber cover on the tip, and examination of deconjugation ability by thin layer chromatography. Expired breath samples from all 18 patients after administration of H2-receptor antagonists showed a significant increase in 14CO2 specific activity compared with those before administration of H2-receptor antagonist and the normal controls, and bacterial overgrowth was found in the jejunal fluid of the patients after administration of H2-receptor antagonist. The administration of tetracycline to the 18 patients reduced the 14CO2 specific activity significantly. The following species were identified in the jejunal fluid samples obtained from the patients: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterococcus, Lactobacillus bifidus, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium lentum, and Eubacterium parvum. All of the species identified except for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans deconjugated bile acids. There were significant correlations between the 14CO2

  5. Sexual conflict and antagonistic coevolution across water strider populations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Rowe, Locke

    2012-02-01

    Microevolutionary studies have demonstrated sexually antagonistic selection on sexual traits, and existing evidence supports a macroevolutionary pattern of sexually antagonistic coevolution. Two current questions are how antagonistic selection within-populations scales to divergence among populations, and to what extent intraspecific divergence matches species-level patterns. To address these questions, we conducted an intraspecific comparative study of sexual armaments and mating behaviors in a water strider (Gerris incognitus) in which male genitals grasp resistant females and female abdominal structures help ward off males. The degree of exaggeration of these armaments coevolves across species. We found a similar strong pattern of antagonistic coevolution among populations, suggesting that sexual conflict drives population differentiation in morphology. Furthermore, relative exaggeration in armaments was closely related to mating outcomes in a common environment. Interestingly, the effect of armaments on mating was mediated by population sexual size dimorphism. When females had a large size advantage, mating activity was low and independent of armaments, but when males had a relative size advantage, mating activity depended on which sex had relatively exaggerated armaments. Thus, a strong signal of sexually antagonistic coevolution is apparent even among populations. These results open opportunities to understand links between sexual arms races, ecological variation, and reproductive isolation. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Small molecule inhibitor of apoptosis proteins antagonists: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Hird, Alexander W; Aquila, Brian M; Hennessy, Edward J; Vasbinder, Melissa M; Yang, Bin

    2015-07-01

    The family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) plays a key role in the suppression of proapoptotic signaling; hence, a small molecule that disrupts the binding of IAPs with their functional partner should restore apoptotic response to proapoptotic stimuli in cells. The continued publication of new patent applications of IAP antagonists over the past 4 years is a testament to the continued interest surrounding the IAP family of proteins. This review summarizes the IAP antagonist patent literature from 2010 to 2014. Monovalent and bivalent Smac mimetics will be covered as well as two new developments in the field: IAP antagonists coupled to or merged with other targeted agents and new BIR2 selective IAP antagonists. In addition to the well-explored scaffolds for monovalent and bivalent Smac-mimetics, some companies have taken more drastic approaches to explore new chemical space - for example, fragment-based approaches and macrocyclic inhibitors. Furthermore, other companies have designed compounds with alternative biological profiles - tethering to known kinase binding structures, trying to target to the mitochondria or introducing selective binding to the BIR2 domain. An overview of the status for the four small molecule IAP antagonists being evaluated in active human clinical trials is also provided.

  7. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists: the new antihistamines?

    PubMed

    Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Thurmond, Robin L; Ling, Ping; Karlsson, Lars

    2004-11-01

    Antihistamines (histamine H1 receptor antagonists) are a mainstay treatment for atopic allergy, yet they are only partially effective in relieving the symptoms of the disease. They also have very limited value for the treatment of asthma, despite the well-characterized bronchoconstrictory effects of histamine. The recent discovery of a fourth histamine receptor (H4), and the realization that it is exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cell types that are most implicated in the development and symptomatology of allergy and asthma, suggests that pharmacological targeting of the H4 receptor, either alone or in combination with H1 receptor antagonists, may prove useful for treating both allergy and asthma. Here we review the known biology associated with the H4 receptor, as well the effects of a highly selective H1 receptor antagonist.

  8. Endothelin receptor antagonists influence cardiovascular morphology in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A V; Amann, K; Wessels, S; Münter, K; Wagner, J; Ritz, E

    1999-02-01

    In is generally held that renal failure results in blood pressure (BP)-independent structural changes of the myocardium and the vasculature. The contribution, if any, of endothelin (ET) to these changes has been unknown. We morphometrically studied random samples of the left ventricle myocardium and small intramyocardial arteries in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized (SNx) male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either the selective ETA receptor antagonist BMS182874 (30 mg/kg/day) or the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist Ro46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison with either sham-operated rats, untreated SNx, or SNx rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, systolic BP was lower in trandolapril-treated SNx compared with untreated SNx animals. No decrease in BP was seen following either ET receptor antagonist at the dose used. A significantly increased volume density of the myocardial interstitium was found in untreated SNx rats as compared with sham-operated controls. Such interstitial expansion was prevented by trandolapril and either ET receptor antagonist. SNx caused a substantial increase in the wall thickness of small intramyocardial arteries. The increase was prevented by trandolapril or BMS182874 treatment. The arteriolar wall:lumen ratio was significantly lower in all treated groups when compared with untreated SNx. In contrast, only trandolapril, but not the ET receptor antagonists, attenuated thickening of the aortic media in SNx animals. The ETA-selective and ETA/ETB-nonselective receptor antagonists appear to prevent development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes of small intramyocardial arteries in experimental chronic renal failure. This effect is independent of systemic BP.

  9. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E; Zarnke, Allison L; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B; Nickisch, Klaus J; Long, Henry W; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2018-01-12

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  10. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Zarnke, Allison L.; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G.; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B.; Nickisch, Klaus J.; Long, Henry W.; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  11. Clinical Development of Histamine H4Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Thurmond, Robin L; Venable, Jennifer; Savall, Brad; La, David; Snook, Sandra; Dunford, Paul J; Edwards, James P

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the histamine H 4 receptor (H 4 R) provided a new avenue for the exploration of the physiological role of histamine, as well as providing a new drug target for the development of novel antihistamines. The first step in this process was the identification of selective antagonists to help unravel the pharmacology of the H 4 R relative to other histamine receptors. The discovery of the selective H 4 R antagonist JNJ 7777120 was vital for showing a role for the H 4 R in inflammation and pruritus. While this compound has been very successful as a tool for understanding the function of the receptor, it has drawbacks, including a short in vivo half-life and hypoadrenocorticism toxicity in rats and dogs, that prevented advancing it into clinical studies. Further research let to the discovery of JNJ 39758979, which, similar to JNJ 7777120, was a potent and selective H 4 R antagonist and showed anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic activity preclinically. JNJ 39758979 advanced into human clinical studies and showed efficacy in reducing experimental pruritus and in patients with atopic dermatitis. However, development of this compound was terminated due to the occurrence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. This was overcome by developing another H 4 R antagonist with a different chemical structure, toreforant, that does not appear to have this side effect. Toreforant has been tested in clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, or psoriasis. In conclusions there have been many H 4 R antagonists reported in the literature, but only a few have been studied in humans underscoring the difficulty in finding ligands with all of the properties necessary for testing in the clinic. Nevertheless, the clinical data to date suggests that H 4 R antagonists can be beneficial in treating atopic dermatitis and pruritus.

  12. Dose- and time-dependent expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) in PCB-, B[a]P-, and TBT-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Un-Ki; Seo, Jung Soo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes from the copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Tj) were cloned to examine their potential functions in the invertebrate putative AhR-CYP signaling pathway. The amino acid sequences encoded by the Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT genes showed high similarity to homologs of Daphnia and Drosophila, ranging from 68% and 70% similarity for the AhR genes to 56% for the ARNT genes. To determine whether Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT are modulated by environmental pollutants, transcriptional expression of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT was analyzed in response to exposure to five concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB 126) (control, 10, 50, 100, 500 μg L(-1)), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (control, 5, 10, 50, 100 μg L(-1)), and tributyltin (TBT) (control, 1, 5, 10, 20 μg L(-1)) 24h after exposure. A time-course experiment (0, 3, 6, 12, 24h) was performed to analyze mRNA expression patterns after exposure to PCB, B[a]P, and TBT. T. japonicus exhibited dose-dependent and time-dependent upregulation of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT in response to pollutant exposure, and the degree of expression was dependent on the pollutant, suggesting that pollutants such as PCB, B[a]P, and TBT modulate expression of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT genes in the putative AhR-CYP signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histamine 2 Receptor Antagonists and Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brinkworth, Megan D; Aouthmany, Mouhammad; Sheehan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 50 years, the pharmacologic market for gastric disease has grown exponentially. Currently, medical management with histamine 2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy over surgical intervention. These are generally regarded as safe medications, but there are growing numbers of cases documenting adverse effects, especially those manifesting in the skin. Here we review the pharmacology, common clinical applications, and adverse reactions of both histamine 2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors with a particular focus on the potential for allergic reactions including allergic contact dermatitis.

  14. Teratogenicity with angiotensin II receptor antagonists in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Boix, E; Zapater, P; Picó, A; Moreno, O

    2005-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (AT-II)-receptor-antagonists have been demonstrated to cause fetotoxicity when administered to women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Although use of ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy seems to be safe, with no associated teratogenicity, there is not sufficient information regarding the safety of first-trimester exposure to AT-II-receptor-antagonists. We report a case of exencephaly and unilateral renal agenesia in a fetus of a diabetic woman who became pregnant while taking irbesartan.

  15. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Al-Inany, Hesham G; Youssef, Mohamed A; Ayeleke, Reuben Olugbenga; Brown, Julie; Lam, Wai Sun; Broekmans, Frank J

    2016-04-29

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists can be used to prevent a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) without the hypo-oestrogenic side-effects, flare-up, or long down-regulation period associated with agonists. The antagonists directly and rapidly inhibit gonadotrophin release within several hours through competitive binding to pituitary GnRH receptors. This property allows their use at any time during the follicular phase. Several different regimens have been described including multiple-dose fixed (0.25 mg daily from day six to seven of stimulation), multiple-dose flexible (0.25 mg daily when leading follicle is 14 to 15 mm), and single-dose (single administration of 3 mg on day 7 to 8 of stimulation) protocols, with or without the addition of an oral contraceptive pill. Further, women receiving antagonists have been shown to have a lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Assuming comparable clinical outcomes for the antagonist and agonist protocols, these benefits would justify a change from the standard long agonist protocol to antagonist regimens. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001, and previously updated in 2006 and 2011. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared with the standard long protocol of GnRH agonists for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted conception cycles. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register (searched from inception to May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, inception to 28 April 2015), Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to 28 April 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 28 April 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to 28 April 2015), CINAHL (to 28 April 2015) and trial registers to 28 April 2015, and handsearched bibliographies of relevant publications and reviews, and abstracts of major scientific meetings, for

  16. Antagonistic peptide technology for functional dissection of CLE peptides revisited.

    PubMed

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; Wildhagen, Mari; Cattaneo, Pietro; Stahl, Yvonne; Pinto, Karine Gustavo; Aalen, Reidunn B; Butenko, Melinka A; Simon, Rüdiger; Hardtke, Christian S; De Smet, Ive

    2015-08-01

    In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, over 1000 putative genes encoding small, presumably secreted, signalling peptides can be recognized. However, a major obstacle in identifying the function of genes encoding small signalling peptides is the limited number of available loss-of-function mutants. To overcome this, a promising new tool, antagonistic peptide technology, was recently developed. Here, this antagonistic peptide technology was tested on selected CLE peptides and the related IDA peptide and its usefulness in the context of studies of peptide function discussed. Based on the analyses, it was concluded that the antagonistic peptide approach is not the ultimate means to overcome redundancy or lack of loss-of-function lines. However, information collected using antagonistic peptide approaches (in the broad sense) can be very useful, but these approaches do not work in all cases and require a deep insight on the interaction between the ligand and its receptor to be successful. This, as well as peptide ligand structure considerations, should be taken into account before ordering a wide range of synthetic peptide variants and/or generating transgenic plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Antagonistic peptide technology for functional dissection of CLE peptides revisited

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; Wildhagen, Mari; Cattaneo, Pietro; Stahl, Yvonne; Pinto, Karine Gustavo; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Butenko, Melinka A.; Simon, Rüdiger; Hardtke, Christian S.; De Smet, Ive

    2015-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, over 1000 putative genes encoding small, presumably secreted, signalling peptides can be recognized. However, a major obstacle in identifying the function of genes encoding small signalling peptides is the limited number of available loss-of-function mutants. To overcome this, a promising new tool, antagonistic peptide technology, was recently developed. Here, this antagonistic peptide technology was tested on selected CLE peptides and the related IDA peptide and its usefulness in the context of studies of peptide function discussed. Based on the analyses, it was concluded that the antagonistic peptide approach is not the ultimate means to overcome redundancy or lack of loss-of-function lines. However, information collected using antagonistic peptide approaches (in the broad sense) can be very useful, but these approaches do not work in all cases and require a deep insight on the interaction between the ligand and its receptor to be successful. This, as well as peptide ligand structure considerations, should be taken into account before ordering a wide range of synthetic peptide variants and/or generating transgenic plants. PMID:26136270

  18. Medium-Induced Antagonistic Behavior in Staphylococcus Aureus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1992-01-01

    Antagonism is the production of substances by microorganisms that inhibit or prevent the growth of other bacteria. This paper demonstrates the antagonistic behavior of gram-positive coccus on the B. subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis gram-positive microorganisms, showing that the process of antagonism is sometimes dependent on the nutritional…

  19. The Effect of Antagonist Muscle Sensory Input on Force Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Onushko, Tanya; Schmit, Brian D.; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how stretch-related sensory feedback from an antagonist muscle affects agonist muscle output at different contraction levels in healthy adults. Ten young (25.3 ± 2.4 years), healthy subjects performed constant isometric knee flexion contractions (agonist) at 6 torque levels: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of their maximal voluntary contraction. For half of the trials, subjects received patellar tendon taps (antagonist sensory feedback) during the contraction. We compared error in targeted knee flexion torque and hamstring muscle activity, with and without patellar tendon tapping, across the 6 torque levels. At lower torque levels (5%, 10%, and 15%), subjects produced greater knee torque error following tendon tapping compared with the same torque levels without tendon tapping. In contrast, we did not find any difference in torque output at higher target levels (20%, 30%, and 40%) between trials with and without tendon tapping. We also observed a load-dependent increase in the magnitude of agonist muscle activity after tendon taps, with no associated load-dependent increase in agonist and antagonist co-activation, or reflex inhibition from the antagonist tapping. The findings suggest that at relatively low muscle activity there is a deficiency in the ability to correct motor output after sensory disturbances, and cortical centers (versus sub-cortical) are likely involved. PMID:26186590

  20. An Antagonistic Dialogue about Chaordic Systems Thinking: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafler, Toni

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the antagonistic dialogue about the differences of chaordic systems thinking (CST) and socio-technical systems design (STS). In this second part of the conversation a concrete example is used to illustrate the added value provided by CST. Whereas STS focuses on an organization's surface by designing processes and…

  1. Retention and Outcome in a Narcotic Antagonist Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Patients in an outpatient narcotic antagonist treatment program were followed through their course of treatment. Those who remained longer were found to enter treatment with more stable employment records and less recent opiate use. They also appeared more successful at termination, with better vocational stability, less extraneous drug use, and…

  2. Indications for the use of parenteral H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J C; Walker, J P

    1984-11-19

    Development of acute mucosal ulceration is a complex series of catabolic interactions. Hospitalized patients with duodenal or gastric ulcer, pathologic gastric hypersecretory states (such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), gastric outlet obstruction, esophagitis, severe gastritis or duodenitis, sepsis, trauma (particularly head injury or burns), and some patients receiving high-dose corticosteroids are at risk of developing acute stress ulcers. Treatment should be initiated as soon as the patient is identified as being at risk, because measures designed to prevent bleeding or perforation are more effective than those designed to stop bleeding once it supervenes and the cascade of multiple organ failure commences. The presence of acid will trigger the onset of this condition; however, ulceration will not occur if the intraluminal pH can be maintained above 5 by periodic antacid treatment or by H2-receptor blockade. The dosing regimen of antacid or of H2-receptor antagonist should not be fixed, but should be sufficient to keep the gastric pH higher than 5. Antagonists administered via a nasogastric tube are the first line of defense, but 30 to 50 percent of the most ill patients will also be treated parenterally with H2-receptor antagonists. Parenteral H2-receptor blockade therapy is indicated in these patients when the risk of acute or continued ulceration of esophageal, gastric, or duodenal mucosa is high and the oral administration of medication is either not possible or the response to such therapy is unreliable. Parenteral H2-receptor antagonists are rarely administered alone.

  3. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids formore » the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.« less

  5. Neuroprotection by NMDA receptor antagonists in a variety of neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G C

    2001-09-01

    Because of adverse reactions, early efforts to introduce high affinity competitive or use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists into patients suffering from stroke, head trauma or epilepsy met with failure. Later it was discovered that both low affinity use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists and compounds with selective affinity for the NR2B receptor subunit met the criteria for safe administration into patients. Furthermore, these low affinity antagonists exhibit significant mechanistic differences from their higher affinity counterparts. Success of the latter is attested to the ability of the following low affinity compounds to be marketed: 1) Cough suppressant-dextromethorphan (available for decades); 2) Parkinson's disease--amantadine, memantine and budipine; 3) Dementia--memantine; and 4) Epilepsy--felbamate. Moreover, Phase III clinical trials are ongoing with remacemide for epilepsy and Huntington's disease and head trauma for HU-211. A host of compounds are or were under evaluation for the possible treatment of stroke, head trauma, hyperalgesia and various neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the fact that other drugs with associated NMDA receptor mechanisms have reached clinical status, this review focuses only on those competitive and use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists that reached clinical trails. The ensuing discussions link the in vivo pharmacological investigations that led to the success/mistakes/ failures for eventual testing of promising compounds in the clinic.

  6. α-Aryl pyrrolidine sulfonamides as TRPA1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vishal A; Shore, Daniel G M; Chen, Huifen; Chen, Jun; Do, Steven; Hackos, David H; Kolesnikov, Aleks; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Tay, Suzanne; Wang, Lan; Estrada, Anthony A

    2016-01-15

    A series of α-aryl pyrrolidine sulfonamide TRPA1 antagonists were advanced from an HTS hit to compounds that were stable in liver microsomes with retention of TRPA1 potency. Metabolite identification studies and physicochemical properties were utilized as a strategy for compound design. These compounds serve as starting points for further compound optimization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine-Tuning Development Through Antagonistic Peptides: An Emerging Theme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Suk; De Smet, Ive

    2016-12-01

    Peptide ligand-receptor kinase interactions have emerged as a key component of plant growth and development. Now, highly related small signaling peptides have been shown to act antagonistically on the same receptor kinase, providing new insights into how plants optimize developmental processes using competitive peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Al-Inany, Hesham G; Youssef, Mohamed Afm; Aboulghar, Mohamed; Broekmans, Frank; Sterrenburg, Monique; Smit, Janine; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2011-05-11

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists can be used to prevent a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) without the hypo-estrogenic side-effects, flare-up, or long down-regulation period associated with agonists. The antagonists directly and rapidly inhibit gonadotropin release within several hours through competitive binding to pituitary GnRH receptors. This property allows their use at any time during the follicular phase. Several different regimes have been described including multiple-dose fixed (0.25 mg daily from day six to seven of stimulation), multiple-dose flexible (0.25 mg daily when leading follicle is 14 to 15 mm), and single-dose (single administration of 3 mg on day 7 to 8 of stimulation) protocols, with or without the addition of an oral contraceptive pill. Further, women receiving antagonists have been shown to have a lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Assuming comparable clinical outcomes for the antagonist and agonist protocols, these benefits would justify a change from the standard long agonist protocol to antagonist regimens. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001, and previously updated in 2006. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists with the standard long protocol of GnRH agonists for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted conception cycle We performed electronic searches of major databases, for example Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE (from 1987 to April 2010); and handsearched bibliographies of relevant publications and reviews, and abstracts of major scientific meetings, for example the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). A date limited search of Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL

  9. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists can be used to prevent a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) without the hypo-estrogenic side-effects, flare-up, or long down-regulation period associated with agonists. The antagonists directly and rapidly inhibit gonadotrophin release within several hours through competitive binding to pituitary GnRH receptors. This property allows their use at any time during the follicular phase. Several different regimes have been described including multiple-dose fixed (0.25 mg daily from day six to seven of stimulation), multiple-dose flexible (0.25 mg daily when leading follicle is 14 to 15 mm), and single-dose (single administration of 3 mg on day 7 to 8 of stimulation) protocols, with or without the addition of an oral contraceptive pill. Further, women receiving antagonists have been shown to have a lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Assuming comparable clinical outcomes for the antagonist and agonist protocols, these benefits would justify a change from the standard long agonist protocol to antagonist regimens. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001, and previously updated in 2006. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared with the standard long protocol of GnRH agonists for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted conception cycle. We performed electronic searches of major databases, for example Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE (from 1987 to April 2010); and handsearched bibliographies of relevant publications and reviews, and abstracts of major scientific meetings, for example the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). : Two review authors independently screened the relevant citations for randomized controlled trials

  10. Antagonistic interactions between plant competition and insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Martin; Brandl, Roland; Haase, Josephine

    2007-06-01

    Interspecific competition between plants and herbivory by specialized insects can have synergistic effects on the growth and performance of the attacked host plant. We tested the hypothesis that competition between plants may also negatively affect the performance of herbivores as well as their top-down effect on the host plant. In such a case, the combined effects of competition and herbivory may be less than expected from a simple multiplicative response. In other words, competition and herbivory may interact antagonistically. In a greenhouse experiment, Poa annua was grown in the presence or absence of a competitor (either Plantago lanceolata or Trifolium repens), as well as with or without a Poa-specialist aphid herbivore. Both competition and herbivory negatively affected Poa growth. Competition also reduced aphid density on Poa. This effect could in part be explained by changes in the biomass and the nitrogen content of Poa shoots. In treatments with competitors, reduced aphid densities alleviated the negative effect of herbivory on above- and belowground Poa biomass. Hence, we were able to demonstrate an antagonistic interaction between plant-plant interspecific competition and herbivory. However, response indices suggested that antagonistic interactions between competition and herbivory were contingent on the identity of the competitor. We found the antagonistic effect only in treatments with T. repens as the competitor. We conclude that both competitor identity and the herbivore's ability to respond with changes in its density or activity to plant competition affect the magnitude and direction (synergistic vs. antagonistic) of the interaction between competition and herbivory on plant growth.

  11. Attenuation in rats of impairments of memory by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Newman, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, impairs learning and memory for many tasks, supporting an important role for the cholinergic system in these cognitive functions. The findings are most often interpreted to indicate that a decrease in postsynaptic muscarinic receptor activation mediates the memory impairments. However, scopolamine also results in increased release of acetylcholine in the brain as a result of blocking presynaptic muscarinic receptors. Objectives The present experiments assess whether scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine release may impair memory by overstimulating postsynaptic cholinergic nicotinic receptors, i.e., by reaching the high end of a nicotinic receptor activation inverted-U dose-response function. Results Rats tested in a spontaneous alternation task showed dose-dependent working memory deficits with systemic injections of mecamylamine and scopolamine. When an amnestic dose of scopolamine (0.15 mg/kg) was co-administered with a subamnestic dose of mecamylamine (0.25 mg/kg), this dose of mecamylamine significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairments. We next assessed the levels of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in the presence of scopolamine and mecamylamine. Mecamylamine injections resulted in decreased release of acetylcholine, while scopolamine administration caused a large increase in acetylcholine release. Conclusions These findings indicate that a nicotinic antagonist can attenuate impairments in memory produced by a muscarinic antagonist. The nicotinic antagonist may block excessive activation of nicotinic receptors postsynaptically or attenuate increases in acetylcholine release presynaptically. Either effect of a nicotinic antagonist—to decrease scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine output or to decrease post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor activation—may mediate the negative effects on memory of muscarinic antagonists. PMID:26660295

  12. Analgesic effectiveness of the narcotic agonist-antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Raymond W.

    1979-01-01

    1 Two fundamentally different types of narcotic-antogonists have been found to be very effective analgesics with relatively low dependence-producing potentials. 2 These two drug classes can be distinguished as being either morphine-like or nalorphine-like on the basis of their subjective and objective effects after single doses and on chronic administration, and by the character of their abstinence syndromes on abrupt withdrawal or on precipitation by other antagonists. 3 To explain differences in side effects associated with their analgesic actions, the existence of three types of receptors has been postulated: a μ receptor which is believed to be associated with euphoria and other typical morphine-like effects and a kappa (χ) and a sigma (σ) receptor which are believed to be associated with the sedative and psychotomimetic effects, respectively, of the nalorphine-like drugs. 4 The antagonist-analgesics of the morphine-type have the characteristics of being agonists of low intrinsic activity but with high affinity for the μ receptor. Representative analgesics of this type are profadol, propiram and buprenorphine. 5 The antagonist-analgesics of the nalorphine-type are drugs which are believed to have varying degrees of affinity and intrinsic activity at all three receptors, but characteristically seem to act merely as competitive antagonists with no intrinsic activity at the μ receptor. Representative analgesics of this type are pentazocine, nalbuphine and butorphanol. 6 There are considerable differences among the individual drugs of each type in terms of their analgesic and narcotic-antagonistic potencies. However, clear differences in analgesic efficacy among any of the antagonist-analgesics remain to be proved. All give evidence of being capable of relieving pain in nondependent patients in situations in which doses of morphine (or its surrogates) usually used would be effective. 7 The major advantages of the partial agonists of the morphine-type over the

  13. Opioid antagonists with minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M

    2017-05-29

    Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of long-term substitution treatment. To assess the effects of opioid antagonists plus minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal. Comparators were placebo as well as more established approaches to detoxification, such as tapered doses of methadone, adrenergic agonists, buprenorphine and symptomatic medications. We updated our searches of the following databases to December 2016: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science. We also searched two trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant studies. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials along with prospective controlled cohort studies comparing opioid antagonists plus minimal sedation versus other approaches or different opioid antagonist regimens for withdrawal in opioid-dependent participants. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Ten studies (6 randomised controlled trials and 4 prospective cohort studies, involving 955 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. We considered 7 of the 10 studies to be at high risk of bias in at least one of the domains we assessed.Nine studies compared an opioid antagonist-adrenergic agonist combination versus a treatment regimen based primarily on an alpha 2 -adrenergic agonist (clonidine or lofexidine). Other comparisons (placebo, tapered doses of methadone, buprenorphine) made by included studies were too diverse for any meaningful analysis. This review therefore focuses on the nine studies comparing an opioid antagonist (naltrexone or naloxone) plus clonidine or lofexidine versus treatment primarily based on clonidine or lofexidine.Five studies took place in an inpatient setting, two studies were in outpatients with day care, two used day care only for the first day of opioid antagonist administration, and one study described the setting as outpatient

  14. Cyclic degradation of antagonistic shape memory actuated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofla, A. Y. N.; Elzey, D. M.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    2008-04-01

    Antagonistic shape memory actuated structures exploit opposing pairs of one-way shape memory alloy (SMA) linear actuators to create devices capable of a fully reversible response. Unlike many conventional reversible SMA devices they do not require bias force components (springs) to return them to their pre-actuated configuration. However, the repeated use of SMA antagonistic devices results in the accumulation of plastic strain in the actuators which can diminish their actuation stroke. We have investigated this phenomenon and the effect of shape memory alloy pre-strain upon it for near equi-atomic NiTi actuators. We find that the degradation eventually stabilizes during cycling. A thermomechanical treatment has been found to significantly reduce degradation in cyclic response of the actuators.

  15. In-silico guided discovery of novel CCR9 antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Cross, Jason B.; Romero, Jan; Heifetz, Alexander; Humphries, Eric; Hall, Katie; Wu, Yuchuan; Stucka, Sabrina; Zhang, Jing; Chandonnet, Haoqun; Lippa, Blaise; Ryan, M. Dominic; Baber, J. Christian

    2018-03-01

    Antagonism of CCR9 is a promising mechanism for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. There is limited experimental data on CCR9 and its ligands, complicating efforts to identify new small molecule antagonists. We present here results of a successful virtual screening and rational hit-to-lead campaign that led to the discovery and initial optimization of novel CCR9 antagonists. This work uses a novel data fusion strategy to integrate the output of multiple computational tools, such as 2D similarity search, shape similarity, pharmacophore searching, and molecular docking, as well as the identification and incorporation of privileged chemokine fragments. The application of various ranking strategies, which combined consensus and parallel selection methods to achieve a balance of enrichment and novelty, resulted in 198 virtual screening hits in total, with an overall hit rate of 18%. Several hits were developed into early leads through targeted synthesis and purchase of analogs.

  16. Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor antagonists in cardiovascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, M; Münter, K

    1999-09-01

    Endothelins build a peptide family composed of three isoforms, each of them containing 21 amino acids. Endothelin-1 is the isoform mainly responsible for any cardiovascular action and therefore the sole scope of this review. Endothelin-1 is the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictor known; in addition it acts as a potent (co)mitogen. There is a substantial body of experimental evidence that endothelin-1 may contribute not only to sustained vasoconstriction, but also to remodeling within the cardiovascular system. Thus, with the help of endothelin receptor antagonists (available for a few years) the involvement of mainly ETA receptors in structural diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis, systemic hypertension, and chronic renal failure has been shown. These data make endothelin receptor antagonists, and especially those selective for the ETA receptor, promising agents for the treatment of chronic cardiovascular diseases associated with remodeling. Currently several chemically distinct, orally available members of this novel class of therapeutic agents are under clinical investigation.

  17. Metabolism-based identification of a potent thrombin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Clasby, Martin C; Chackalamannil, Samuel; Czarniecki, Michael; Doller, Dario; Eagen, Keith; Greenlee, William; Kao, Grace; Lin, Yan; Tsai, Hsingan; Xia, Yan; Ahn, Ho-Sam; Agans-Fantuzzi, Jacqueline; Boykow, George; Chintala, Madhu; Foster, Carolyn; Smith-Torhan, April; Alton, Kevin; Bryant, Matthew; Hsieh, Yunsheng; Lau, Janice; Palamanda, Jairam

    2007-01-11

    The metabolism of our prototypical thrombin receptor antagonist 1, Ki = 2.7 nM, was studied and three major metabolites (2, 4, and 5) were found. The structures of the metabolites were verified independently by synthesis. Compound 4 was shown to be a potent antagonist of the thrombin receptor with a Ki = 11 nM. Additionally, compound 4 showed a 3-fold improvement in potency with respect to 1 in an agonist-induced ex-vivo platelet aggregation assay in cynomolgus monkeys after oral administration; this activity was sustained with 60% inhibition observed at 24 h post-dose. Compound 4 was highly active in functional assays and showed excellent oral bioavailability in rats and monkeys. Compound 4 showed a superior rat enzyme induction profile relative to compound 1, allowing it to replace compound 1 as a development candidate.

  18. Antagonistic otolith-visual units in cat vestibular nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Christensen, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of neural coding of visual (Vis) and vestibular (Vst) information on translational motion in the region of the vestibular nuclei was investigated using extracellular single-unit recordings in alert adult cats. Responses were recorded and averaged over 60 cycles of stimulation in the vertical and horizontal planes, which included the Vst (movement of the animal in the dark), Vis (movement within lighted visual surround), and combined Vis and Vst (movement of the animal within the lighted stationary visual surround). Data are reported on responses to stimulations along the axis showing maximal sensitivity. A small number of units were identified that showed an antagonistic relationship between their Vis and Vst responses (since they were maximally excited by Vis and by Vst stimulations in the same direction). Results suggest that antagonistic units may belong to an infrequently encountered, but functionally distinct, class of neurons.

  19. Development of KGF Antagonist as a Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    of synthetic peptide quantity for this kind of assay, 3H-thymidine incorporation assay was not carried out. This assay will be performed after...established, however due to lack of synthetic peptide quantity for this kind of assay, aromatase activity assay was not carried out. This assay will be...Eleven potential synthetic peptide -antagonists were developed - Stably transfected human breast cancer cell lines were established - Primary cultured

  20. Effect of a Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist on Neurocogniive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    receptor antagonist with a novel mechanism of action that has shown promise as an effective hypnotic . Preclinical data demonstrate that animals treated...immunohistochemistry with Fos and phenotypic markers. Status: Data collection and analysis ongoing; see below. 3b. Assessment of hypnotic efficacy in saporin...microinjections of hypnotics into the BF and their effects on sleep-wake behavior or neurotransmitters in brain. We proposed to use in vivo

  1. Effect of a Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist on Neurocognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    cells are more strongly activated by ZOL (Task 4a). Lesions of the basal forebrain (BF), a wakefulness-promoting area, potentiated the hypnotic ...receptor antagonist with a novel mechanism of action that has shown promise as an effective hypnotic . Preclinical data demonstrate that animals...results are consistent with the hypothesis that, although both ALM and ZOL are effective hypnotic medications, rats would show less functional impairment

  2. Disubstituted piperidines as potent Orexin (hypocretin) receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rong; Song, Xinyi; Bali, Purva; Smith, Anthony; Bayona, Claudia Ruiz; Lin, Li; Cameron, Michael D.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of orexin receptor antagonists was synthesized based on a substituted piperidine scaffold. Through traditional medicinal chemistry structure activity relationships (SAR), installation of various groups at the 3–6-positions of the piperidine led to modest enhancement in receptor selectivity. Compounds were profiled in vivo for plasma and brain levels in order to identify candidates suitable for efficacy in a model of drug addiction. PMID:22617492

  3. Calmodulin antagonists promote TRA-8 therapy of resistant pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kaiyu; Yong, Sun; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Tong; McDonald, Jay M; Chen, Yabing

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is highly malignant with limited therapy and a poor prognosis. TRAIL-activating therapy has been promising, however, clinical trials have shown resistance and limited responses of pancreatic cancers. We investigated the effects of calmodulin(CaM) antagonists, trifluoperazine(TFP) and tamoxifen(TMX), on TRA-8-induced apoptosis and tumorigenesis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, and underlying mechanisms. TFP or TMX alone did not induce apoptosis of resistant PANC-1 cells, while they dose-dependently enhanced TRA-8-induced apoptosis. TMX treatment enhanced efficacy of TRA-8 therapy on tumorigenesis in vivo. Analysis of TRA-8-induced death-inducing-signaling-complex (DISC) identified recruitment of survival signals, CaM/Src, into DR5-associated DISC, which was inhibited by TMX/TFP. In contrast, TMX/TFP increased TRA-8-induced DISC recruitment/activation of caspase-8. Consistently, caspase-8 inhibition blocked the effects of TFP/TMX on TRA-8-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TFP/TMX induced DR5 expression. With a series of deletion/point mutants, we identified CaM antagonist-responsive region in the putative Sp1-binding domain between −295 to −300 base pairs of DR5 gene. Altogether, we have demonstrated that CaM antagonists enhance TRA-8-induced apoptosis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells by increasing DR5 expression and enhancing recruitment of apoptotic signal while decreasing survival signals in DR5-associated DISC. Our studies support the use of these readily available CaM antagonists combined with TRAIL-activating agents for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:26320171

  4. Mixed agonist-antagonist opiates and physical dependence.

    PubMed

    Jacob, J J; Michaud, G M; Tremblay, E C

    1979-01-01

    1 General methods (chronic, subacute and acute) for assessing physical dependence potential, abstinence precipitating capacity and abstinence preventing activity are briefly presented. 2 Direct dependence experiments indicate that, in general, mixed agonist-antagonist analgesics have relatively lower physical dependence potentials than pure agonist analgesics. That of buprenorphine seems to be particularly low in various animal species. 3 When substitution techniques are used, the dependence potential of buprenorphine seems to be somewhat more developed than with direct dependence techniques. 4 Among various agonists (morphine, methadone and etorphine), antagonists (naloxone, naltrexone and diprenorphine) and mixed agonist-antagonists (pentazocine, butorphanol and buprenorphine), buprenorphine is the most potent and the longest acting drug in preventing precipitated abstinence in mice, rats and dogs. 5 The low physical dependence potential of buprenorphine may result in part from the very slow dissociation of the complex it forms with opiate receptors. This potential might be underestimated when precipitated abstinence methods are used, as naloxone would displace buprenorphine from its receptors only to a very limited extent. New means of evaluating dependence by more direct means need to be developed. 6 Overall, the properties of mixed agonists in general justify their use as analgesics with lower physical dependence potential than the pure opiates and further, those of buprenorphine seem to indicate its possible utility for the treatment of opiate addiction.

  5. Mixed agonist-antagonist opiates and physical dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, J. J. C.; Michaud, G. M.; Tremblay, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    1 General methods (chronic, subacute and acute) for assessing physical dependence potential, abstinence precipitating capacity and abstinence preventing activity are briefly presented. 2 Direct dependence experiments indicate that, in general, mixed agonist-antagonist analgesics have relatively lower physical dependence potentials than pure agonist analgesics. That of buprenorphine seems to be particularly low in various animal species. 3 When substitution techniques are used, the dependence potential of buprenorphine seems to be somewhat more developed than with direct dependence techniques. 4 Among various agonists (morphine, methadone and etorphine), antagonists (naloxone, naltrexone and diprenorphine) and mixed agonist-antagonists (pentazocine, butorphanol and buprenorphine), buprenorphine is the most potent and the longest acting drug in preventing precipitated abstinence in mice, rats and dogs. 5 The low physical dependence potential of buprenorphine may result in part from the very slow dissociation of the complex it forms with opiate receptors. This potential might be underestimated when precipitated abstinence methods are used, as naloxone would displace buprenorphine from its receptors only to a very limited extent. New means of evaluating dependence by more direct means need to be developed. 6 Overall, the properties of mixed agonists in general justify their use as analgesics with lower physical dependence potential than the pure opiates and further, those of buprenorphine seem to indicate its possible utility for the treatment of opiate addiction. PMID:572694

  6. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Toyota, M; Caraway, H; Gabrielson, E; Ohmura, T; Fujikane, T; Nishikawa, N; Sogabe, Y; Nojima, M; Sonoda, T; Mori, M; Hirata, K; Imai, K; Shinomura, Y; Baylin, S B; Tokino, T

    2008-01-01

    Although mutation of APC or CTNNB1 (β-catenin) is rare in breast cancer, activation of Wnt signalling is nonetheless thought to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, and epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonist genes, including the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and Dickkopf (DKK) families, has been observed in various tumours. In breast cancer, frequent methylation and silencing of SFRP1 was recently documented; however, altered expression of other Wnt antagonist genes is largely unknown. In the present study, we found frequent methylation of SFRP family genes in breast cancer cell lines (SFRP1, 7 out of 11, 64%; SFRP2, 11 out of 11, 100%; SFRP5, 10 out of 11, 91%) and primary breast tumours (SFRP1, 31 out of 78, 40%; SFRP2, 60 out of 78, 77%; SFRP5, 55 out of 78, 71%). We also observed methylation of DKK1, although less frequently, in cell lines (3 out of 11, 27%) and primary tumours (15 out of 78, 19%). Breast cancer cell lines express various Wnt ligands, and overexpression of SFRPs inhibited cancer cell growth. In addition, overexpression of a β-catenin mutant and depletion of SFRP1 using small interfering RNA synergistically upregulated transcriptional activity of T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor. Our results confirm the frequent methylation and silencing of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer, and suggest that their loss of function contributes to activation of Wnt signalling in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:18283316

  7. [Necrotic leg ulcer revealing vasculitis induced by vitamin K antagonists].

    PubMed

    Chabli, H; Hocar, O; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Hakkou, M; Hamdaoui, A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are widely used in thromboembolic diseases. Hemorrhagic complications related to drug overdose represent their main side effect. We report a rare side effect, a severe and unexpected type of skin vasculitis - necrotic leg ulcer - induced by vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old female with a history of diabetes developed hyperalgesic necrotic ulcerations on the lower limbs one month after starting an acenocoumarol-based treatment for ischemic heart disease. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis. Etiological explorations searching for vasculitis were negative. In the absence of a precise etiology, drug-induced ulcer was suspected. Low molecular weight heparin was prescribed to replace acenocoumarol. The lesions slowly resolved with topical treatment. The chronological criteria and the negativity of etiological explorations allowed the diagnosis of vitamin K antagonist-induced necrotic skin ulcer. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication induced by oral anticoagulants because of its practical therapeutic implications. This is the first case of necrotic leg ulcer induced by acenocoumarol corresponding histologically to necrotising lymphocytic vasculitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Glutamate receptor antagonists with the potential for migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anna; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Baraldi, Carlo

    2017-12-01

    Preclinical, clinical, and other (e.g., genetic) evidence support the concept that migraine susceptibility may at least partially result from a glutamatergic system disorder. Therefore, the receptors of the glutamatergic system are considered relatively new targets for investigational drugs to treat migraine. Investigational and established glutamate receptor antagonists (GluRAs) have been shown to possess antinociceptive properties in preclinical models of trigeminovascular nociception and have been evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on preclinical and clinical studies of GluRAs for the treatment of migraine. Areas covered: A PubMed database search (from 1987 to December 2016) and a review of published studies on GluRAs in migraine were conducted. Expert opinion: All published clinical trials of investigational GluRAs have been unsuccessful in establishing benefit for acute migraine treatment. Clinical trial results contrast with the preclinical data, suggesting that glutamate (Glu) does not play a decisive role after the attack has already been triggered. These antagonists may instead be useful for migraine prophylaxis. Improving patient care requires further investigating and critically analyzing the role of Glu in migraine, designing experimental models to study more receptors and their corresponding antagonists, and identifying biomarkers to facilitate trials designed to target specific subgroups of migraine patients.

  9. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Tolsma, Jochem; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Quillian, Lincoln

    2009-06-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermarriage by using diagonal mobility models. We test several hypotheses derived from ethnic competition theory and socialization theory with data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, waves 1995, 2000, and 2005) and The Netherlands Kinship and Panel Study (NKPS, wave 2002). We find that the relative influence of social origin and social destination depends on the specific origin and destination combination. If one moves to a more tolerant social destination position, the influence of the social origin position is negligible. If on the other hand, one is socially mobile to a less tolerant social position, the impact of the origin on antagonistic attitudes is substantial and may even exceed the impact of the destination category. This confirms our hypothesis that adaptation to more tolerant norms is easier than adaptation to less tolerant norms. We find only meagre evidence for the hypothesis that downward mobility leads to frustration and consequently to more antagonistic attitudes.

  10. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  11. Deoxycholic acid conjugates are muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Chen, Ying; Zimniak, Piotr; Cheng, Kunrong

    2002-08-01

    In the course of examining the actions of major human bile acids on cholinergic receptors, we discovered that conjugates of lithocholic acid are partial muscarinic agonists. In the present communication, we report that conjugates of deoxycholic acid (DC) act as cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonists. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing rat M3-muscarinic receptors were used to test bile acids for inhibition of radioligand [N- (3)H-methylscopolamine ((3)H-NMS)] binding; alteration of inositol phosphate (IP) formation; mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation and cell toxicity. We observed approximately 18.8, 30.3 and 37.1% inhibition of (3)H-NMS binding with DC and its glycine (DCG) and taurine (DCT) conjugates, respectively (all 100 micromol/l, p < 0.01). DCT and DCG inhibited acetylcholine-induced increases in IP formation and MAP kinase phosphorylation (p44 and p42 ERK). DCG and DCT did not alter trypan blue exclusion or lactate dehydrogenase release from CHO-M3 cells. We observed the following rank order of potency (IC(50) micromol/l) for inhibition of (3)H-NMS by muscarinic antagonists and bile acids: NMS (0.0004) > 4-DAMP (0.009) > atropine (0.012) > DCT (170) > DCG (250). None of the bile acids tested were hydrolyzed by recombinant cholinesterase. At concentrations achieved in human bile, DC derivatives are natural muscarinic antagonists. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Toxicological Differences Between NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodong; Lin, Xiaotian; Hu, Rui; Sun, Nan; Hao, Jingru; Gao, Can

    2016-08-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), represented by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, used to be the only approved class of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After the approval of memantine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been recognized by authorities and broadly used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Along with complementary mechanisms of action, NMDA antagonists and ChEIs differ not only in therapeutic effects but also in adverse reactions, which is an important consideration in clinical drug use. And the number of patients using NMDA antagonists and ChEIs concomitantly has increased, making the matter more complicated. Here we used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System for statistical analysis , in order to compare the adverse events of memantine and ChEIs. In general, the clinical evidence confirmed the safety advantages of memantine over ChEIs, reiterating the precautions of clinical drug use and the future direction of antidementia drug development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects.

    PubMed

    Arnqvist, Göran; Rowe, Locke

    2002-02-14

    In coevolutionary 'arms races' between the sexes, the outcome of antagonistic interactions may remain at an evolutionary standstill. The advantage gained by one sex, with any evolutionary exaggeration of arms, is expected to be matched by analogous counteradaptations in the other sex. This fundamental coevolutionary process may thus be hidden from the evolutionist's eye, and no natural examples are known. We have studied the effects of male and female armament (clasping and anti-clasping morphologies) on the outcome of antagonistic mating interactions in 15 species of water strider, using a combination of experimental and phylogenetic comparative methods. Here we present, by assessing the independent effects of both species-specific level of arms escalation and small imbalances in the amounts of arms between the sexes within species, the consequences of a sexual arms race. Evolutionary change in the balance of armament between males and females, but not in the species-specific level of escalation, has resulted in evolutionary change in the outcome of sexually antagonistic interactions such as mating rate.

  14. Abiotic conditions affect floral antagonists and mutualists of Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae).

    PubMed

    Soper Gorden, Nicole L; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-04-01

    While the effect of abiotic factors on leaf herbivory is well known, the relative importance of abiotic conditions influencing both mutualists and antagonists is less well understood. Species interactions could enhance or reduce the direct effects of abiotic factors, depending on how mutualists and antagonists respond to abiotic conditions. We manipulated soil nutrients and shade in a factorial design and measured soil moisture in the annual Impatiens capensis. We then measured interactions with mutualists (two pollinating species) and antagonists (herbivores, florivores, nectar thieves, and flower bud gallers), as well as plant growth, floral rewards, and plant reproduction. Fertilizer increased plant growth, floral attractiveness, mutualist and antagonist interactions, and plant reproduction. Shade had no effects, and soil moisture was negatively associated with plant growth and reproduction. All effects were additive. Mutualist and antagonist floral interactions both increased on fertilized plants, but antagonists increased at a greater rate, leading to a larger ratio of antagonist to mutualist interactions on fertilized plants. Despite having more antagonists, fertilized plants still had significantly higher reproduction, suggesting higher tolerance to antagonists. Abiotic effects can have consistent effects on antagonists and mutualists, and on both floral and leaf antagonists. However, tolerance to antagonisms increased in favorable conditions. Thus, the direct positive effects of favorable abiotic conditions on plants outweighed negative indirect effects via increased antagonisms, which may lead to selection to grow in high-nutrient microsites in spite of increased herbivory.

  15. Microbial Herd Protection Mediated by Antagonistic Interaction in Polymicrobial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Megan J. Q.; Liang, Xiaoye; Smart, Matt; Tang, Le; Moore, Richard; Ingalls, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In host and natural environments, microbes often exist in complex multispecies communities. The molecular mechanisms through which such communities develop and persist, despite significant antagonistic interactions between species, are not well understood. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon commonly employed by Gram-negative bacteria to inhibit neighboring species through the delivery of toxic effectors. It is well established that intraspecies protection is conferred by immunity proteins that neutralize effector toxicities. In contrast, the mechanisms for interspecies protection are not clear. Here we use two T6SS-active antagonistic bacterial species, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio cholerae, to demonstrate that interspecies protection is dependent on effectors. A. hydrophila and V. cholerae do not share conserved immunity genes but could coexist equally in a mixture. However, mutants lacking the T6SS or effectors were effectively eliminated by the competing wild-type strain. Time-lapse microscopic analyses showed that mutually lethal interactions drive the segregation of mixed species into distinct single-species clusters by eliminating interspersed single cells. Cluster formation provides herd protection by abolishing lethal interactions inside each cluster and restricting the interactions to the boundary. Using an agent-based modeling approach, we simulated the antagonistic interactions of two hypothetical species. The resulting simulations recapitulated our experimental observations. These results provide mechanistic insights regarding the general role of microbial weapons in determining the structures of complex multispecies communities. IMPORTANCE Investigating the warfare of microbes allows us to better understand the ecological relationships in complex microbial communities such as the human microbiota. Here we use the T6SS, a deadly bacterial weapon, as a model to demonstrate the importance of lethal interactions in

  16. Arginine mimetic structures in biologically active antagonists and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2006-01-01

    Peptidomimetics have found wide application as bioavailable, biostable, and potent mimetics of naturally occurring biologically active peptides. L-Arginine is a guanidino group-containing basic amino acid, which is positively charged at neutral pH and is involved in many important physiological and pathophysiological processes. Many enzymes display a preference for the arginine residue that is found in many natural substrates and in synthetic inhibitors of many trypsin-like serine proteases, e.g. thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, trypsin, and in integrin receptor antagonists, used to treat many blood-coagulation disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by oxidation of L-arginine in an NADPH- and O(2)-dependent process catalyzed by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), exhibits diverse roles in both normal and pathological physiologies and has been postulated to be a contributor to the etiology of various diseases. Development of NOS inhibitors as well as analogs and mimetics of the natural substrate L-arginine, is desirable for potential therapeutic use and for a better understanding of their conformation when bound in the arginine binding site. The guanidino residue of arginine in many substrates, inhibitors, and antagonists forms strong ionic interactions with the carboxylate of an aspartic acid moiety, which provides specificity for the basic amino acid residue in the active side. However, a highly basic guanidino moiety incorporated in enzyme inhibitors or receptor antagonists is often associated with low selectivity and poor bioavailability after peroral application. Thus, significant effort is focused on the design and preparation of arginine mimetics that can confer selective inhibition for specific trypsin-like serine proteases and NOS inhibitors as well as integrin receptor antagonists and possess reduced basicity for enhanced oral bioavailability. This review will describe the survey of arginine mimetics designed to mimic the function of the

  17. Sexually Antagonistic “Zygotic Drive” of the Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R.; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban

    2008-01-01

    Genomic conflict is perplexing because it causes the fitness of a species to decline rather than improve. Many diverse forms of genomic conflict have been identified, but this extant tally may be incomplete. Here, we show that the unusual characteristics of the sex chromosomes can, in principle, lead to a previously unappreciated form of sexual genomic conflict. The phenomenon occurs because there is selection in the heterogametic sex for sex-linked mutations that harm the sex of offspring that does not carry them, whenever there is competition among siblings. This harmful phenotype can be expressed as an antagonistic green-beard effect that is mediated by epigenetic parental effects, parental investment, and/or interactions among siblings. We call this form of genomic conflict sexually antagonistic “zygotic drive”, because it is functionally equivalent to meiotic drive, except that it operates during the zygotic and postzygotic stages of the life cycle rather than the meiotic and gametic stages. A combination of mathematical modeling and a survey of empirical studies is used to show that sexually antagonistic zygotic drive is feasible, likely to be widespread in nature, and that it can promote a genetic “arms race” between the homo- and heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This new category of genomic conflict has the potential to strongly influence other fundamental evolutionary processes, such as speciation and the degeneration of the Y and W sex chromosomes. It also fosters a new genetic hypothesis for the evolution of enigmatic fitness-reducing traits like the high frequency of spontaneous abortion, sterility, and homosexuality observed in humans. PMID:19096519

  18. Classification and virtual screening of androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-24

    Computational tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), are highly useful as screening support for prioritization of substances of very high concern (SVHC). From the practical point of view, QSAR models should be effective to pick out more active rather than inactive compounds, expressed as sensitivity in classification works. This research investigates the classification of a big data set of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, mainly aiming to improve the external sensitivity and to screen for potential AR binders. The kNN, lazy IB1, and ADTree methods and the consensus approach were used to build different models, which improve the sensitivity on external chemicals from 57.1% (literature) to 76.4%. Additionally, the models' predictive abilities were further validated on a blind collected data set (sensitivity: 85.7%). Then the proposed classifiers were used: (i) to distinguish a set of AR binders into antagonists and agonists; (ii) to screen a combined estrogen receptor binder database to find out possible chemicals that can bind to both AR and ER; and (iii) to virtually screen our in-house environmental chemical database. The in silico screening results suggest: (i) that some compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a complex mechanism binding both to ER and AR; (ii) new EDCs, which are nonER binders, but can in silico bind to AR, are recognized; and (iii) about 20% of compounds in a big data set of environmental chemicals are predicted as new AR antagonists. The priority should be given to them to experimentally test the binding activities with AR.

  19. Adenosine receptor antagonists effect on plasma-enhanced killing.

    PubMed

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Moitra, Rituparna; Remick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that naive plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing, but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naive plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria- and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naive mice. Stock murine plasma from naive was purchased and categorized as having high plasma-enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists: ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony-forming units quantified after 24 h. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1, A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade because neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors.

  20. Correlated EMG Oscillations between Antagonists during Cocontraction in Men.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Shinohara, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the modulation of common low-frequency oscillations in pools of motor units across antagonistic muscles because of the difference in the activation level of pools of spinal motor neurons and the presence of neuromuscular fatigue during intended cocontraction. Ten healthy young men (21.8 ± 1.5 yr) performed intended steady cocontractions of elbow flexors and extensors at maximal and a submaximal (10% of maximal EMG) effort. The submaximal cocontraction was repeated after sustained maximal contraction of elbow flexors. Surface EMG was recorded from the biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles. Correlated EMG oscillations between the antagonistic muscles were quantified by the cross-correlation function (CCF) using rectified EMG for the <3-Hz band and using rectified and unrectified EMG for the 3- to 15-Hz bands. The positive CCF peak in rectified EMG <3 Hz with little time lag (i.e., in-phase oscillations) during submaximal cocontraction was smaller compared with maximal cocontraction, but increased after the sustained contraction. In the 3- to 15-Hz band of both unrectified and rectified EMG, a negative CCF peak (i.e., out-of-phase oscillations) during submaximal cocontraction was smaller compared with maximal cocontraction but increased after the sustained contraction. Across subjects, the degree of reduction in maximal EMG amplitude after the sustained contraction was correlated with the amount of change in the CCF peak in <3 Hz but not in the 3- to 15-Hz band. The results indicate that 1) in-phase <3-Hz and out-of-phase 3-15-Hz correlated EMG oscillations between antagonistic muscles occur during intended cocontraction, and 2) the magnitude of these correlated oscillations increases with the activation level of pools of spinal motor neurons and neuromuscular fatigue.

  1. Membrane formation in liquids by adding an antagonistic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadakane, Koichiro; Seto, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    Antagonistic salts are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions. In a binary mixture, such as water and organic solvent, these ion pairs preferentially dissolve to those phases, respectively, and there is a coupling between the charge density and the composition. The heterogeneous distribution of ions forms a large electric double layer at the interface between these solvents. This reduces the interfacial tension between water and organic solvent, and stabilizes an ordered structure, such as a membrane. These phenomena have been extensively studied from both theoretical and experimental point of view. In addition, the numerical simulations can reproduce such ordered structures.

  2. Discovery of dopamine D₄ receptor antagonists with planar chirality.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Ortner, Birgit; Hübner, Harald; Löber, Stefan; Tschammer, Nuska; Gmeiner, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Employing the D4 selective phenylpiperazine 2 as a lead compound, planar chiral analogs with paracyclophane substructure were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to bind and activate dopamine receptors. The study revealed that the introduction of a [2.2]paracyclophane moiety is tolerated by dopamine receptors of the D2 family. Subtype selectivity for D4 and ligand efficacy depend on the absolute configuration of the test compounds. Whereas the achiral single-layered lead 2 and the double-layered paracyclophane (R)-3 showed partial agonist properties, the enantiomer (S)-3 behaved as a neutral antagonist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antagonistic interactions of phylloplane bacteria with Drechslera dictyoides (Drechslera) Shoemaker.

    PubMed

    Austin, B; Dickinson, C H; Goodfellow, M

    1977-06-01

    Strains of Listeria denitrificans (E2), Pseudomonas fluorescens (C37 and C92), and Xanthomonas campestris (D119), isolated from the phylloplane of Lolium perenne (S24), were antagonistic to Drechslera dictyoides (Drechslera) Shoemaker. From in vitro and in vivo experiments it was deduced that their mode of activity included an initial inhibition of spore germination, a retardation in the rate of germ-tube elongation, and ultimately lysis of the hyphae. The effects were expressed on the plant in terms of reduced levels of disease symptoms and sporulation.

  4. Esthetic Prosthetic Restorations: Reliability and Effects on Antagonist Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Daou, Elie E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramics have greatly improved the functional and esthetic properties of restorative materials. New materials offer an esthetic and functional oral rehabilitation, however their impact on opposing teeth is not welldocumented. Peer-reviewed articles published till December 2014 were identified through Pubmed (Medline and Elsevier). Scientifically, there are several methods of measuring the wear process of natural dentition which enhances the comparison of the complicated results. This paper presents an overview of the newly used prosthetic materials and their implication on antagonist teeth or prostheses, especially emphasizing the behavior of zirconia restorations. PMID:26962376

  5. Multiple GPCR conformations and signalling pathways: implications for antagonist affinity estimates

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jillian G.; Hill, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Antagonist affinity measurements have traditionally been considered important in characterizing the cell-surface receptors present in a particular cell or tissue. A central assumption has been that antagonist affinity is constant for a given receptor–antagonist interaction, regardless of the agonist used to stimulate that receptor or the downstream response that is measured. As a consequence, changes in antagonist affinity values have been taken as initial evidence for the presence of novel receptor subtypes. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that receptors can possess multiple binding sites and the same receptor can show different antagonist affinity measurements under distinct experimental conditions. Here, we discuss several mechanisms by which antagonists have different affinities for the same receptor as a consequence of allosterism, coupling to different G proteins, multiple (but non-interacting) receptor sites, and signal-pathway-dependent pharmacology (where the pharmacology observed varies depending on the signalling pathway measured). PMID:17629959

  6. Enhancement of a nociceptive reaction by opioid antagonists in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, J J; Ramabadran, K

    1978-01-01

    1. The opioid antagonists, naloxone, GPA 2163, levallorphan and Mr-2266 reduced the latency of the jumping reaction of mice in the hot plate test. The (+)-isomers of levallorphan and Mr-2266 which are devoid of antagonistic activity did not increase this latency. 2. In the same nociceptive reaction test, the enhancing effect of naloxone progressed in a dose-range similar to that required for the antagonism by naloxone of the depressive action of morphine. 3. The facilitatory effect of naloxone was not blocked by the previous administration of morphine or etorphine but it was prevented by pretreatment with a high dose of buprenorphine. 4. The antagonism by naloxone of morphine and of buprenorphine did not follow the same pattern. 5. The factors which are or may be involved in the efficacy of naloxone in enhancing nociceptive reactions are discussed. 6. The enhancing effect of naloxone may be due to an antagonism of endogenous ligands for the opiate receptor. If so, these ligands would be involved in reaction to but not in perception of nociceptive stimuli which need not be harmful ones. PMID:698486

  7. Human homosexuality: a paradigmatic arena for sexually antagonistic selection?

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-01-29

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Human Homosexuality: A Paradigmatic Arena for Sexually Antagonistic Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Andrea Camperio; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. PMID:25635045

  9. Evolution of coreceptor utilization to escape CCR5 antagonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce; Chen, Zheng; Mitreva, Makedonka; Henrich, Timothy; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Ratner, Lee

    2016-07-01

    The HIV-1 envelope interacts with coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in a dynamic, multi-step process, its molecular details not clearly delineated. Use of CCR5 antagonists results in tropism shift and therapeutic failure. Here we describe a novel approach using full-length patient-derived gp160 quasispecies libraries cloned into HIV-1 molecular clones, their separation based on phenotypic tropism in vitro, and deep sequencing of the resultant variants for structure-function analyses. Analysis of functionally validated envelope sequences from patients who failed CCR5 antagonist therapy revealed determinants strongly associated with coreceptor specificity, especially at the gp120-gp41 and gp41-gp41 interaction surfaces that invite future research on the roles of subunit interaction and envelope trimer stability in coreceptor usage. This study identifies important structure-function relationships in HIV-1 envelope, and demonstrates proof of concept for a new integrated analysis method that facilitates laboratory discovery of resistant mutants to aid in development of other therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of Novel Proline-Based Neuropeptide FF Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Decker, Ann M; Langston, Tiffany L; Mathews, Kelly M; Siemian, Justin N; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L; Runyon, Scott P; Zhang, Yanan

    2017-10-18

    The neuropeptide FF (NPFF) system has been implicated in a number of physiological processes including modulating the pharmacological activity of opioid analgesics and several other classes of drugs of abuse. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel proline scaffold with antagonistic activity at the NPFF receptors through a high throughput screening campaign using a functional calcium mobilization assay. Focused structure-activity relationship studies on the initial hit 1 have resulted in several analogs with calcium mobilization potencies in the submicromolar range and modest selectivity for the NPFF1 receptor. Affinities and potencies of these compounds were confirmed in radioligand binding and functional cAMP assays. Two compounds, 16 and 33, had good solubility and blood-brain barrier permeability that fall within the range of CNS permeant candidates without the liability of being a P-glycoprotein substrate. Finally, both compounds reversed fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia in rats when administered intraperitoneally. Together, these results point to the potential of these proline analogs as promising NPFF receptor antagonists.

  11. Opioid antagonists in broadly defined behavioral addictions: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Piquet-Pessôa, Marcelo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2016-01-01

    Naltrexone (NTX), a mu-opioid receptor antagonist, has been approved for the treatment of alcoholism and opioid dependence. More recently, however, NTX and a related drug, nalmefene (NMF), have also shown positive results for the treatment of gambling disorders. In this study, we reviewed the trials testing the effect of opioid antagonists (OA) in gambling disorders and in other broadly defined behavioral addictions, including selected DSM-5 disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, eating disorders, and other conditions not currently recognized by official classification schemes. We found six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of OA in gambling disorder, two RCTs of OA in trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), two RCTs of OA in binge eating disorder, and one RCT of OA for kleptomania. We also reviewed case reports on hypersexual disorder, compulsive buying and skin picking disorders. The reviewed data supported the use of OA, namely NTX and NMF, in gambling disorder (both) and kleptomania (NTX). We did not find enough evidence to support the use of NTX or NMF in trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, compulsive buying disorder, hypersexual disorder, or binge eating disorder.

  12. Design of a superior cytokine antagonist for topical ophthalmic use

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinzhao; Townson, Sharon A.; Kovalchin, Joseph T.; Masci, Allyson; Kiner, Olga; Shu, Yanqun; King, Bracken M.; Schirmer, Emily; Golden, Kathryn; Thomas, Christoph; Garcia, K. Christopher; Zarbis-Papastoitsis, Gregory; Furfine, Eric S.; Barnes, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    IL-1 is a key inflammatory and immune mediator in many diseases, including dry-eye disease, and its inhibition is clinically efficacious in rheumatoid arthritis and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. To treat ocular surface disease with a topical biotherapeutic, the uniqueness of the site necessitates consideration of the agent’s size, target location, binding kinetics, and thermal stability. Here we chimerized two IL-1 receptor ligands, IL-1β and IL-1Ra, to create an optimized receptor antagonist, EBI-005, for topical ocular administration. EBI-005 binds its target, IL-1R1, 85-fold more tightly than IL-1Ra, and this increase translates to an ∼100-fold increase in potency in vivo. EBI-005 preserves the affinity bias of IL-1Ra for IL-1R1 over the decoy receptor (IL-1R2), and, surprisingly, is also more thermally stable than either parental molecule. This rationally designed antagonist represents a unique approach to therapeutic design that can potentially be exploited for other β-trefoil family proteins in the IL-1 and FGF families. PMID:23431173

  13. Design of a superior cytokine antagonist for topical ophthalmic use.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinzhao; Townson, Sharon A; Kovalchin, Joseph T; Masci, Allyson; Kiner, Olga; Shu, Yanqun; King, Bracken M; Schirmer, Emily; Golden, Kathryn; Thomas, Christoph; Garcia, K Christopher; Zarbis-Papastoitsis, Gregory; Furfine, Eric S; Barnes, Thomas M

    2013-03-05

    IL-1 is a key inflammatory and immune mediator in many diseases, including dry-eye disease, and its inhibition is clinically efficacious in rheumatoid arthritis and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. To treat ocular surface disease with a topical biotherapeutic, the uniqueness of the site necessitates consideration of the agent's size, target location, binding kinetics, and thermal stability. Here we chimerized two IL-1 receptor ligands, IL-1β and IL-1Ra, to create an optimized receptor antagonist, EBI-005, for topical ocular administration. EBI-005 binds its target, IL-1R1, 85-fold more tightly than IL-1Ra, and this increase translates to an ∼100-fold increase in potency in vivo. EBI-005 preserves the affinity bias of IL-1Ra for IL-1R1 over the decoy receptor (IL-1R2), and, surprisingly, is also more thermally stable than either parental molecule. This rationally designed antagonist represents a unique approach to therapeutic design that can potentially be exploited for other β-trefoil family proteins in the IL-1 and FGF families.

  14. Fires can benefit plants by disrupting antagonistic interactions.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Castellanos, M C; Pausas, J G

    2016-12-01

    Fire has a key role in the ecology and evolution of many ecosystems, yet its effects on plant-insect interactions are poorly understood. Because interacting species are likely to respond to fire differently, disruptions of the interactions are expected. We hypothesized that plants that regenerate after fire can benefit through the disruption of their antagonistic interactions. We expected stronger effects on interactions with specialist predators than with generalists. We studied two interactions between two Mediterranean plants (Ulex parviflorus, Asphodelus ramosus) and their specialist seed predators after large wildfires. In A. ramosus we also studied the generalist herbivores. We sampled the interactions in burned and adjacent unburned areas during 2 years by estimating seed predation, number of herbivores and fruit set. To assess the effect of the distance to unburned vegetation we sampled plots at two distance classes from the fire perimeter. Even 3 years after the fires, Ulex plants experienced lower seed damage by specialists in burned sites. The presence of herbivores on Asphodelus decreased in burned locations, and the variability in their presence was significantly related to fruit set. Generalist herbivores were unaffected. We show that plants can benefit from fire through the disruption of their antagonistic interactions with specialist seed predators for at least a few years. In environments with a long fire history, this effect might be one additional mechanism underlying the success of fire-adapted plants.

  15. Histamine H1 antagonists and clinical characteristics of febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Zolaly, Mohammed A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures. The current descriptive study was carried out from April 2009 to February 2011 in 250 infants and children who visited the Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital as a result of febrile convulsions. They were divided into two groups according to administration of antihistamines at the onset of fever. Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamines. The time from fever detection to seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than in the nonantihistamine group. No significant difference was found in time from fever detection to seizure onset or seizure duration between patients who received a first-generation antihistamine and those who received a second-generation antihistamine. Due to their central nervous system effects, H1 antagonists should not be administered to patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy. Caution should be exercised regarding the use of histamine H1 antagonists in young infants, because these drugs could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.

  16. Histamine H1 antagonists and clinical characteristics of febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Zolaly, Mohammed A

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures. Methods The current descriptive study was carried out from April 2009 to February 2011 in 250 infants and children who visited the Madinah Maternity and Children’s Hospital as a result of febrile convulsions. They were divided into two groups according to administration of antihistamines at the onset of fever. Results Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamines. The time from fever detection to seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than in the nonantihistamine group. No significant difference was found in time from fever detection to seizure onset or seizure duration between patients who received a first-generation antihistamine and those who received a second-generation antihistamine. Conclusion Due to their central nervous system effects, H1 antagonists should not be administered to patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy. Caution should be exercised regarding the use of histamine H1 antagonists in young infants, because these drugs could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system. PMID:22505826

  17. NMDA receptor antagonists extend the sensitive period for imprinting.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Rogers, L J

    2000-03-01

    Filial imprinting in the domestic chick occurs during a sensitive period of development. The exact timing of this period can vary according to the methods used to measure imprinting. Using our imprinting paradigm, we have shown that normal, dark-reared chicks lose the ability to imprint after the second day post-hatching. Further, we reported that chicks treated 10 h after hatching with a mixture of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (55 mg/kg) and the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist xylazine (6 mg/kg) were able to imprint on day 8 after hatching, whereas controls treated with saline did not imprint. We now show that the effect of the ketamine-xylazine mixture can be mimicked by treating chicks with ketamine alone or with another noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (5 mg/kg). Treating chicks with a single dose of ketamine (55 mg/kg) or with a single dose of xylazine (6 mg/kg) failed to produce the effect on the sensitive period. However, prolonging the action of ketamine by treating chicks with two doses of ketamine (at 10 and 12 h after hatching) did allow imprinting on day 8. In contrast, prolonging the action of xylazine had no effect on the sensitive period for imprinting. Chicks treated with MK-801 were also able to imprint on day 8. Thus, we have evidence that the NMDA receptor system is involved in the mechanisms that control the sensitive period for imprinting.

  18. Optimization of Bicyclic Lactam Derivatives as NMDA Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Espadinha, Margarida; Dourado, Jorge; Lajarin-Cuesta, Rocio; Herrera-Arozamena, Clara; Gonçalves, Lidia M D; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; de Los Rios, Cristobal; Santos, Maria M M

    2017-04-06

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are fundamental for the normal function of the central nervous system (CNS), and play an important role in memory and learning. Over-activation of these receptors leads to neuronal loss associated with major neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. In this study, 22 novel enantiopure bicyclic lactams were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as NMDA receptor antagonists. Most of the new compounds displayed NMDA receptor antagonism, and the most promising compound showed an IC 50 value on the same order of magnitude as that of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist in clinical use for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Further biological evaluation indicated that this compound is brain permeable (determined by an in vitro assay) and non-hepatotoxic. All these results indicate that (3S,7aS)-7a-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]oxazol-5(6H)-one (compound 5 b) is a potential candidate for the treatment of pathologies associated with the over-activation of NMDA receptors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Advantages of histamine H4 receptor antagonist usage with H1 receptor antagonist for the treatment of murine allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Ayuko; Seike, Masahiro; Okawa, Haruka; Kadawaki, Yayoi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Histamine facilitates development of eczematous lesions in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to the well-known corticosteroid treatments, H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists also have been used. This study observed effects of histamine H4 receptor (H4R) antagonist usage with H1R antagonist in a murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis model, developed by repeated percutaneous challenge to the dorsal skin with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB). The H1R antagonist olopatadine hydrochloride and/or the H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 was then administered. Combination therapy was more effective than H1R antagonist monotherapy. Serum IgE and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-6 (Th2 cytokines) in eczematous lesions decreased with combined therapy. Combined therapy with H1R and H4R antagonists counteracts the disadvantages of each as monotherapeutic agents and potentially represents a new strategy for the treatment of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist with anti-H1 receptor antagonist plus anti-H2 receptor antagonist for treatment of refractory chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kong-Sang; Chang, Yung-Sen

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of the combination of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LRA) and H1 antihistamine was similar to the synergistic regimen of H1 and H2 antihistamine for treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). However, the effective rates of these two regimens were only 53.3% and 63.3%, respectively. A total of 50 with two combined therapeutic regimens treatment ineffective patients were evaluated. Patients were single blinded and randomly assigned to one of two medication groups that received the following regimens for 4 weeks: Group A (n = 30), combination of LRA, H1 antihistamine and H2 antihistamine. Group B (n = 20) continued with the previously taken two combination regimens. The treatment efficacy was measured by daily urticaria activity score (UAS) of wheal and itch. A positive therapeutic response was defined as a reduction to <25% of baseline weekly UAS, while a relapse was a return to >75% of baseline weekly UAS. At the end of 4 weeks, the UAS response to treatment of Group A was decreased from 35.2% to 21.2%, and the Group B was persisted with 33.9% as before the treatment. The combination of LRA, H2 antihistamine and H1 antihistamine is promising for the refractory CIU cases, which were refractory for two combined therapeutic regimens.

  1. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of anmore » intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM

  2. Crystal Structure of Antagonist Bound Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Chrencik, Jill E.; Roth, Christopher B.; Terakado, Masahiko; Kurata, Haruto; Omi, Rie; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Warshaviak, Dora; Nakade, Shinji; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Mileni, Mauro; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Griffith, Mark T.; Rodgers, Caroline; Han, Gye Won; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Chun, Jerold; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid biology continues to emerge as an area of significant therapeutic interest, particularly as the result of an enhanced understanding of the wealth of signaling molecules with diverse physiological properties. This growth in knowledge is epitomized by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which functions through interactions with six cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Herein we present three crystal structures of LPA1 in complex with antagonist tool compounds selected and designed through structural and stability analysis. Structural analysis combined with molecular dynamics identified a basis for ligand access to the LPA1 binding pocket from the extracellular space contrasting with the proposed access for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Characteristics of the LPA1 binding pocket raise the possibility of promiscuous ligand recognition of phosphorylated endocannabinoids. Cell-based assays confirmed this hypothesis, linking the distinct receptor systems through metabolically related ligands with potential functional and therapeutic implications for treatment of disease. PMID:26091040

  3. Approaches for Differentiation and Interconverting GPCR Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Miszta, Przemysław; Jakowiecki, Jakub; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Turant, Maria; Latek, Dorota; Filipek, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    Predicting the functional preferences of the ligands was always a highly demanding task, much harder that predicting whether a ligand can bind to the receptor. This is because of significant similarities of agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists which are binding usually in the same binding site of the receptor and only small structural changes can push receptor toward a particular activation state. For G protein-coupled receptors, due to a large progress in crystallization techniques and also in receptor thermal stabilization, it was possible to obtain a large number of high-quality structures of complexes of these receptors with agonists and non-agonists. Additionally, the long-time-scale molecular dynamics simulations revealed how the activation processes of GPCRs can take place. Using both theoretical and experimental knowledge it was possible to employ many clever and sophisticated methods which can help to differentiate agonists and non-agonists, so one can interconvert them in search of the optimal drug.

  4. [Chitinolytic activity of Bacillus Cohn.--phytopathogenic fungus antagonist].

    PubMed

    Aktuganov, G E; Melent'ev, A I; Kuz'mina, L Iu; Galimzianova, N F; Shirokov, A V

    2003-01-01

    Among the 70 tested Bacillus spp. strains antagonistic to phytopathogenic fungi, 19 were found to possess chitinolytic activity when grown on solid media with 0.5% colloidal chitin. The chitinolytic activity of almost all of these 19 strains grown in liquid cultures ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 U/ml. One of the 19 strains exhibited exochitinase activity. In addition to chitinase, two strains also produced chitosanase and one strain, beta-1,3-glucanase. No correlation was found between the antifungal activity of the bacillar strains studied and their ability to synthesize extracellular chitinase. Among the 19 chitinolytic strains, the correlation between these parameters was also low (r x,y = 0.45), although the enzymatic preparations of most of these strains inhibited the growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Helminthosporium sativum.

  5. [Vitamine K antagonists overdose: Physician adherence to the French guidelines].

    PubMed

    Oliosi, E; Pointeau, O; Mazoyer, E; Le Jeune, S; Giroux-Leprieur, B; Dhôte, R; Mourad, J J

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are drugs with a major risk of side effect. Guidelines have been published in 2008 by the Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) concerning the management of an excessively elevated INR ratio. Our research aimed to assess physicians' adherence to those guidelines. We realized a retrospective, multicentric study. One hundred and ten cases of excessively elevated INR ratio were identified and analyzed. Overall physicians adherence was 58%. However, patients with the most elevated INR, i.e., INR>6, were treated according to guidelines in only 33% of the cases. The use of vitamin K was the major source of mistakes. The rate of mortality was 20%. Adherence to HAS guidelines seems finally limited. It is necessary to put in place procedures to secure the behavior of physicians. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction intimacy organizes networks of antagonistic interactions in different ways.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2013-01-06

    Interaction intimacy, the degree of biological integration between interacting individuals, shapes the ecology and evolution of species interactions. A major question in ecology is whether interaction intimacy also shapes the way interactions are organized within communities. We combined analyses of network structure and food web models to test the role of interaction intimacy in determining patterns of antagonistic interactions, such as host-parasite, predator-prey and plant-herbivore interactions. Networks describing interactions with low intimacy were more connected, more nested and less modular than high-intimacy networks. Moreover, the performance of the models differed across networks with different levels of intimacy. All models reproduced well low-intimacy networks, whereas the more elaborate models were also capable of reproducing networks depicting interactions with higher levels of intimacy. Our results indicate the key role of interaction intimacy in organizing antagonisms, suggesting that greater interaction intimacy might be associated with greater complexity in the assembly rules shaping ecological networks.

  7. Interaction intimacy organizes networks of antagonistic interactions in different ways

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2013-01-01

    Interaction intimacy, the degree of biological integration between interacting individuals, shapes the ecology and evolution of species interactions. A major question in ecology is whether interaction intimacy also shapes the way interactions are organized within communities. We combined analyses of network structure and food web models to test the role of interaction intimacy in determining patterns of antagonistic interactions, such as host–parasite, predator–prey and plant–herbivore interactions. Networks describing interactions with low intimacy were more connected, more nested and less modular than high-intimacy networks. Moreover, the performance of the models differed across networks with different levels of intimacy. All models reproduced well low-intimacy networks, whereas the more elaborate models were also capable of reproducing networks depicting interactions with higher levels of intimacy. Our results indicate the key role of interaction intimacy in organizing antagonisms, suggesting that greater interaction intimacy might be associated with greater complexity in the assembly rules shaping ecological networks. PMID:23015523

  8. Emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis: TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bonchak, Jonathan G; Swerlick, Robert A

    2018-03-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are important mediators of somatosensory signaling throughout the body. Our understanding of the contribution of TRPs to a multitude of cutaneous physiologic processes has grown substantially in the past decade. TRP cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), one of the better-understood members of this large family of ion channels, affects multiple pathways involved in pruritus. Further, TRPV1 appears to play a role in maintaining skin barrier function. Together, these properties make TRPV1 a ripe target for new therapies in atopic dermatitis. Neurokinin antagonists may affect similar pathways and have been studied to this effect. Early trials data suggest that these therapies are safe, but assessment of their efficacy in atopic dermatitis is pending as we await publication of phase II and III clinical trials data. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [When to replace the vitamin K antagonists by new anticoagulants?].

    PubMed

    Fournet, Maxime; Daubert, Jean-Claude

    2013-09-01

    New oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) have as main advantage an easier use (fixed dose therapy, no laboratory monitoring). Switching from vitamine K antagonists (VKA) to new oral anticoagulant is tempting. The indication of dabigatran and rivaroxaban for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and the indication of rivaroxaban for the treatment of deep-vein thrombosis and for the long-term prevention of venous thromboembolism are based from large, randomized trials. New oral anticoagulant should not be used to prevent stroke or major thromboembolic events in patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valve. It is recommended switching from VKA to new oral anticoagulant only if it is difficult to maintain a therapeutic INR Non-adherence to VKA therapy should not justify the switch to a new oral anticoagulant.

  10. M sub 1 muscarinic antagonists interact with. sigma. recognition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hudkins, R.L.; DeHaven-Hudkins, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The M{sub 1}-selective muscarinic antagonists aprophen, caramiphen, carbetapentane, 2-DAEX, dicyclomine, hexahydrosiladifenidol, iodocaramiphen, nitrocaramiphen, oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl potently inhibited binding to {sigma} sites in brain. Both basic ester and non-ester structural type compounds which exhibit affinity for the muscarinic receptor also demonstrated affinity for the {sigma} site, while the classical antimuscarinic agents atropine and QNB, and the tricyclic pirenzepine, were ineffective in binding to this site. The authors also observed a significant correlation between the K{sub i} values for {sigma}compounds to inhibit ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine binding and their IC{sub 50} values to inhibit carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. These observations may aid in elucidatingmore » the relationship of {sigma} binding to inhibition of phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by cholinergic agonists.« less

  11. Comparative Trial of Serotonin Antagonists in the Management of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Lance, J. W.; Anthony, M.; Somerville, B.

    1970-01-01

    The effectiveness of five different serotonin antagonists in the prevention of migraine was compared in 290 patients followed for periods of up to three years. Methysergide 3-6 mg. daily was most effective, with 20% of treated patients becoming headache-free and a further 44% remaining more than “half improved.” The corresponding figures for BC105 were 10% and 40%, respectively. The results with BC105 were significantly better than those with placebo (P<0·02). The total improvement rates with methdilazine (45%) and cyproheptadine (43%) were better than those with placebo (32%) but did not achieve statistical significance. A new preparation, methylergol carbamide maleate, which is chemically related to methysergide, did not give better results than placebo. PMID:4393372

  12. Antagonistic bacteria disrupt calcium homeostasis and immobilize algal cells.

    PubMed

    Aiyar, Prasad; Schaeme, Daniel; García-Altares, María; Carrasco Flores, David; Dathe, Hannes; Hertweck, Christian; Sasso, Severin; Mittag, Maria

    2017-11-24

    Photosynthetic unicellular organisms, known as microalgae, are key contributors to carbon fixation on Earth. Their biotic interactions with other microbes shape aquatic microbial communities and influence the global photosynthetic capacity. So far, limited information is available on molecular factors that govern these interactions. We show that the bacterium Pseudomonas protegens strongly inhibits the growth and alters the morphology of the biflagellated green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This antagonistic effect is decreased in a bacterial mutant lacking orfamides, demonstrating that these secreted cyclic lipopeptides play an important role in the algal-bacterial interaction. Using an aequorin Ca 2+ -reporter assay, we show that orfamide A triggers an increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ in C. reinhardtii and causes deflagellation of algal cells. These effects of orfamide A, which are specific to the algal class of Chlorophyceae and appear to target a Ca 2+ channel in the plasma membrane, represent a novel biological activity for cyclic lipopeptides.

  13. Managing resistant hypertension: focus on mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Modolo, Rodrigo; de Faria, Ana Paula; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists (MRAs) have proven to be effective in some types of hypertension, especially in resistant hypertension (RHTN). In this phenotype of hypertension, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone pathway plays an important role, with MRAs being especially effective in reducing blood pressure. In this review, we show the relevance of aldosterone in RHTN, as well as some clinical characteristics of this condition and the main concepts involving its pathophysiology and cardiovascular damage. We analyzed the mechanisms of action and clinical effects of two current MRAs – spironolactone and eplerenone – both of which are useful in RHTN, with special attention to the former. RHTN represents a significant minority (10%–15%) of hypertension cases. However, primary-care physicians, cardiologists, nephrologists, neurologists, and geriatricians face this health problem on a daily basis. MRAs are likely one of the best pharmacological options in RHTN patients; however, they are still underused. PMID:29081661

  14. Discovery of novel N-aryl piperazine CXCR4 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanyu; Prosser, Anthony R; Liotta, Dennis C; Wilson, Lawrence J

    2015-11-01

    A novel series of CXCR4 antagonists with substituted piperazines as benzimidazole replacements is described. These compounds showed micromolar to nanomolar potency in CXCR4-mediated functional and HIV assays, namely inhibition of X4 HIV-1(IIIB) virus in MAGI-CCR5/CXCR4 cells and inhibition of SDF-1 induced calcium release in Chem-1 cells. Preliminary SAR investigations led to the identification of a series of N-aryl piperazines as the most potent compounds. Results show SAR that indicates type and position of the aromatic ring, as well as type of linker and stereochemistry are significant for activity. Profiling of several lead compounds showed that one (49b) reduced susceptibility towards CYP450 and hERG, and the best overall profile when considering both SDF-1 and HIV potencies (6-20 nM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TNF-alpha antagonist induced lupus on three different agents.

    PubMed

    Mudduluru, Bindu Madhavi; Shah, Shalin; Shamah, Steven; Swaminath, Arun

    2017-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) antagonists are biologic agents used in the management of inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative spondyloarthropathies and inflammatory bowel disease. These agents have been recently shown to cause a syndrome called anti-TNF induced lupus (ATIL), a rare condition which has similar clinical manifestations to idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Given that extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease include arthritis, it can be difficult to separate arthritis due to underlying disease from drug-induced arthritis. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Crohn's disease, who developed disabling arthritis as a clinical manifestation of ATIL following treatment with three anti-TNF agents, namely infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab.

  16. Global regulation by CsrA and its RNA antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The sequence-specific RNA binding protein CsrA is employed by diverse bacteria in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Its binding interactions with RNA have been documented at atomic resolution and shown to alter RNA secondary structure, RNA stability, translation and/or Rho-mediated transcription termination through a growing number of molecular mechanisms. In Gammaproteobacteria, small regulatory RNAs that contain multiple CsrA binding sites compete with mRNA for binding to CsrA, thereby sequestering and antagonizing this protein. Both the synthesis and turnover of these sRNAs are regulated, allowing CsrA activity to be rapidly and efficiently adjusted in response to nutritional conditions and stresses. Feedback loops between the Csr regulatory components improve the dynamics of signal response by the Csr system. The Csr system of E. coli is intimately interconnected with other global regulatory systems, permitting it to contribute to regulation by those systems. In some species, a protein antagonist of CsrA functions as part of a checkpoint for flagellum biosynthesis. In other species, a protein antagonist participates in a mechanism in which a type III secretion system is used for sensing interactions with host cells. Recent transcriptomics studies reveal vast effects of CsrA on gene expression through direct binding to hundreds of mRNAs, and indirectly through its effects on the expression of dozens of transcription factors. CsrA binding to basepairing sRNAs and novel mRNA segments, such as the 3′ UTR and deep within coding regions, predict its participation in yet to be discovered regulatory mechanisms. PMID:29573256

  17. NAN-190, a possible specific antagonist for methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ginawi, O T; Al-Majed, A A; Al-Suwailem, A K

    2005-03-01

    Effect of NAN-190, a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, anorexia, analgesia, and hyperthermia was investigated in male mice. Methamphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) produced a significant increase in locomotor activity, which was significantly antagonized by NAN-190 at a dose of 4 mg/kg, i.p. NAN-190 did not alter the antinociceptive activity of mice when it was administered alone. Methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p) produced a significant decrease in food intake of mice, which were deprived of food during the previous 24h. This anorectic activity of methamphetamine was significantly antagonized by NAN-190 at a dose of 2 mg/kg, i.p. NAN-190 did not alter the food intake of mice when it was administered alone. Methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p) also produced a significant increase in body temperature of mice, which was significantly antagonized by NAN-190 at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. NAN-190 did not alter the body temperature of mice when it was administered alone. In the writhing test, methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in mice. This was significantly antagonized by NAN-190 at a dose of 1 mg/kg, i.p. NAN-190 did not alter the antinociceptive activity of mice when it was administered alone. The results of the present study indicate a possible role for serotonergic mechanisms, in addition to the catecholaminergic systems, in the above-studied activities of methamphetamine in mice. This role is possibly mediated through direct stimulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptor subtype. All of the above-studied activities of methamphetamine were antagonized by NAN-190, which may indicate that NAN-190 is a possible antagonist for methamphetamine.

  18. Concentric agonist-antagonist robots for minimally invasive surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Butler, Kaitlin; Epps, Zane H.; Rucker, Daniel Caleb

    2017-03-01

    We present a novel continuum robot design concept, Concentric Agonist-Antagonist Robots (CAAR), that uses push-pull, agonist-antagonist action of a pair of concentric tubes. The CAAR tubes are designed to have noncentral, offset neutral axes, and they are fixed together at their distal ends. Axial base translations then induce bending in the device. A CAAR segment can be created by selectively cutting asymmetric notches into the profile of two stock tubes, which relocates the neutral bending plane away from the center of the inner lumen. Like conventional concentric-tube robots (CTRs) based on counter-rotating precurved tubes, a CAAR can be made at very small scales and contain a large, open lumen. In contrast with CTRs, the CAAR concept has no elastic stability issues, offers a larger range of motion, and has lower overall stiffness. Furthermore, by varying the position of the neutral axes along the length of each tube, arbitrary, variable curvature actuation modes can be achieved. Precurving the tubes can additionally increase the workspace of a single segment. A single two-tube assembly can be used to create 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot segments, and multiple segments can be deployed concentrically. Both additive manufacturing and traditional machining of stock tubes can create and customize the geometry and performance of the CAAR. In this paper, we explore the CAAR concept, provide kinematic and static models, and experimentally evaluate the model with a both a straight and a precurved CAAR. We conclude with a discussion of the significance and our plans for future work.

  19. Calcium antagonists and neural control of circulation in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mancia, G; Parati, G; Grassi, G; Pomidossi, G; Giannattasio, C; Casadei, R; Groppelli, A; Saino, A; Gregorini, L; Perondi, R

    1987-12-01

    Data from animals and from man suggest that calcium antagonists interfere with alpha-adrenergic receptors and that this mechanism may be responsible for some of the vasodilation induced by these drugs. However, alpha-adrenergic receptors play a primary role in baroreceptor regulation of the cardiovascular system and blood pressure homeostasis, which might therefore be adversely affected by calcium antagonist treatment. We addressed this question in 14 essential hypertensives studied before treatment, 1 h after 20 mg oral nitrendipine and 5-7 days after daily administration of 20 mg oral nitrendipine. Blood pressure was measured by an intra-arterial catheter, heart rate by an electrocardiogram, cardiac output by thermodilution and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Total peripheral and forearm vascular resistances were calculated by dividing mean blood pressure by blood flow values. Plasma norepinephrine was also measured (high performance liquid chromatography) in blood taken from the right atrium. Compared with the pretreatment values, acute nitrendipine administration caused a fall in resting blood pressure, an increase in the resting heart rate and cardiac output, and a fall in resting peripheral and forearm vascular resistance. The resting hypotension and vasodilation were also evident during the prolonged nitrendipine administration, which was, however, accompanied by much less resting cardiac stimulation than that observed in the acute condition. Baroreceptor control of the heart rate (vasoactive drug method) was similar before and after acute and prolonged nitrendipine treatment. This was also the case for carotid baroreceptor control of blood pressure (neck chamber technique) and for control of forearm vascular resistance as exerted by receptors in the cardiopulmonary region (lower-body negative-pressure and passive leg-raising techniques).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. N-Benzylpiperidine Derivatives as α7 Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Criado, Manuel; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Colmena, Inés; Gandía, Luis; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Chioua, Mourad; Marco-Contelles, José

    2016-08-17

    A series of multitarget directed propargylamines, as well as other differently susbstituted piperidines have been screened as potential modulators of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Most of them showed antagonist actions on α7 nAChRs. Especially, compounds 13, 26, and 38 displayed submicromolar IC50 values on homomeric α7 nAChRs, whereas they were less effective on heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs (up to 20-fold higher IC50 values in the case of 13). Antagonism was concentration dependent and noncompetitive, suggesting that these compounds behave as negative allosteric modulators of nAChRs. Upon the study of a series of less complex derivatives, the N-benzylpiperidine motif, common to these compounds, was found to be the main pharmacophoric group. Thus, 2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-ethylamine (48) showed an inhibitory potency comparable to the one of the previous compounds and also a clear preference for α7 nAChRs. In a neuroblastoma cell line, representative compounds 13 and 48 also inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, cytosolic Ca(2+) signals mediated by nAChRs. Finally, compounds 38 and 13 inhibited 5-HT3A serotonin receptors whereas they had no effect on α1 glycine receptors. Given the multifactorial nature of many pathologies in which nAChRs are involved, these piperidine antagonists could have a therapeutic potential in cases where cholinergic activity has to be negatively modulated.

  1. Global Regulation by CsrA and Its RNA Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The sequence-specific RNA binding protein CsrA is employed by diverse bacteria in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Its binding interactions with RNA have been documented at atomic resolution and shown to alter RNA secondary structure, RNA stability, translation, and/or Rho-mediated transcription termination through a growing number of molecular mechanisms. In Gammaproteobacteria , small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that contain multiple CsrA binding sites compete with mRNA for binding to CsrA, thereby sequestering and antagonizing this protein. Both the synthesis and turnover of these sRNAs are regulated, allowing CsrA activity to be rapidly and efficiently adjusted in response to nutritional conditions and stresses. Feedback loops between the Csr regulatory components improve the dynamics of signal response by the Csr system. The Csr system of Escherichia coli is intimately interconnected with other global regulatory systems, permitting it to contribute to regulation by those systems. In some species, a protein antagonist of CsrA functions as part of a checkpoint for flagellum biosynthesis. In other species, a protein antagonist participates in a mechanism in which a type III secretion system is used for sensing interactions with host cells. Recent transcriptomics studies reveal vast effects of CsrA on gene expression through direct binding to hundreds of mRNAs, and indirectly through its effects on the expression of dozens of transcription factors. CsrA binding to base-pairing sRNAs and novel mRNA segments, such as the 3' untranslated region and deep within coding regions, predict its participation in yet-to-be-discovered regulatory mechanisms.

  2. Benzimidazoles as benzamide replacements within cyclohexane-based CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Robert J; Mo, Ruowei; Meyer, Dayton T; Pechulis, Anthony D; Guaciaro, Michael A; Lo, Yvonne C; Yang, Gengjie; Miller, Persymphonie B; Scherle, Peggy A; Zhao, Qihong; Cvijic, Mary Ellen; Barrish, Joel C; Decicco, Carl P; Carter, Percy H

    2012-10-01

    We describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of benzimidazoles as benzamide replacements within a series of trisubstituted cyclohexane CCR2 antagonists. 7-Trifluoromethylbenzimidazoles displayed potent binding and functional antagonism of CCR2 while being selective over CCR3. These benzimidazoles were also incorporated into lactam-containing antagonists, thus completely eliminating the customary bis-amide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A long-acting GH receptor antagonist through fusion to GH binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Ian R.; Pradhananga, Sarbendra L.; Speak, Rowena; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Sayers, Jon R.; Ross, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a human disease of growth hormone (GH) excess with considerable morbidity and increased mortality. Somatostatin analogues are first line medical treatment but the disease remains uncontrolled in up to 40% of patients. GH receptor (GHR) antagonist therapy is more effective but requires frequent high-dose injections. We have developed an alternative technology for generating a long acting potent GHR antagonist through translational fusion of a mutated GH linked to GH binding protein and tested three candidate molecules. All molecules had the amino acid change (G120R), creating a competitive GHR antagonist and we tested the hypothesis that an amino acid change in the GH binding domain (W104A) would increase biological activity. All were antagonists in bioassays. In rats all antagonists had terminal half-lives >20 hours. After subcutaneous administration in rabbits one variant displayed a terminal half-life of 40.5 hours. A single subcutaneous injection of the same variant in rabbits resulted in a 14% fall in IGF-I over 7 days. In conclusion: we provide proof of concept that a fusion of GHR antagonist to its binding protein generates a long acting GHR antagonist and we confirmed that introducing the W104A amino acid change in the GH binding domain enhances antagonist activity. PMID:27731358

  4. Biotransformation in the zebrafish embryo -temporal gene transcription changes of cytochrome P450 enzymes and internal exposure dynamics of the AhR binding xenobiotic benz[a]anthracene.

    PubMed

    Kühnert, Agnes; Vogs, Carolina; Seiwert, Bettina; Aulhorn, Silke; Altenburger, Rolf; Hollert, Henner; Küster, Eberhard; Busch, Wibke

    2017-11-01

    Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA). Time dependent changes in cyp transcription (cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2) as well as concentration & time-dependent courses of BaA in the fish embryo and the exposure medium were analysed. Additionally, the CYP mediated formation of biotransformation products was investigated. We found correlations between transcriptional responses and the internal concentration for both exposure types. These correlations were depending on the start of the exposure i.e. the age of the exposed embryo. While no significant induction of the examined gene transcripts was observed in the first 12 h of exposure beginning in the blastula period a correlation was apparent when exposure started later i.e. in the pharyngula period. A significant induction of cyp1a was detected already after 1.5 h of BaA exposure. Gene transcripts for cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2 showed expressions distinctly different from cyp1a and were, in general, less inducible by BaA in both exposure windows. The toxicokinetic analysis showed that the biotransformation capability was fivefold higher in the older fish embryos. Biotransformation products of phase I reactions were found between 32 hpf and 50 hpf and were tentatively identified as benz[a]anthracene-phenol and benz[a]anthracene-dihydrodiol-epoxide. In conclusion, not only duration but also onset of exposure in relation to the

  5. Design and synthesis of peripherally restricted transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Nuria; Liao, Hongyu; Stec, Markian M; Wang, Xianghong; Chakrabarti, Partha; Retz, Dan; Doherty, Elizabeth M; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Tamir, Rami; Bannon, Anthony W; Gavva, Narender R; Norman, Mark H

    2008-05-08

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonists may have clinical utility for the treatment of chronic nociceptive and neuropathic pain. We recently advanced a TRPV1 antagonist, 3 (AMG 517), into clinical trials as a new therapy for the treatment of pain. However, in addition to the desired analgesic effects, this TRPV1 antagonist significantly increased body core temperature following oral administration in rodents. Here, we report one of our approaches to eliminate or minimize the on-target hyperthermic effect observed with this and other TRPV1 antagonists. Through modifications of our clinical candidate, 3 a series of potent and peripherally restricted TRPV1 antagonists have been prepared. These analogues demonstrated on-target coverage in vivo but caused increases in body core temperature, suggesting that peripheral restriction was not sufficient to separate antagonism mediated antihyperalgesia from hyperthermia. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate that the site of action for TRPV1 blockade elicited hyperthermia is outside the blood-brain barrier.

  6. A pharmacophore model for NK2 antagonist comprising compounds from several structurally diverse classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, Anders; Liljefors, Tommy; Gundertofte, Klaus; Bjørnholm, Berith

    2002-04-01

    A neurokinin 2 (NK2) antagonist pharmacophore model has been developed on the basis of five non-peptide antagonists from several structurally diverse classes. To evaluate the pharmacophore model, another 20 antagonists were fitted to the model. By use of exhaustive conformational analysis (MMFFs force field and the GB/SA hydration model) and least-squares molecular superimposition studies, 23 of the 25 antagonists were fitted to the model in a low energy conformation with a low RMS value. The pharmacophore model is described by four pharmacophore elements: Three hydrophobic groups and a hydrogen bond donor represented as a vector. The hydrophobic groups are generally aromatic rings, but this is not a requirement. The antagonists bind in an extended conformation with two aromatic rings in a parallel displaced and tilted conformation. The model was able to explain the enantioselectivity of SR48968 and GR159897.

  7. AMPA antagonists inhibit the extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway and suppress lung cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Stepulak, Andrzej; Sifringer, Marco; Rzeski, Wojciech; Brocke, Katja; Gratopp, Alexander; Pohl, Elena E; Turski, Lechoslaw; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2007-12-01

    Antagonists at alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors limit growth of human cancers in vitro. However, the mechanism of anticancer action of AMPA antagonists is not known. Here we report that the AMPA antagonists GYKI 52466 and CFM-2 inhibit the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade which is activated by growth factors and controls proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells. AMPA antagonists reduced phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), suppressed expression of cyclin D1, upregulated the cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressor proteins p21 and p53 and decreased number of lung adenocarcinoma cells in G2 and S phases of the cell cycle. These findings reveal potential mechanism of antiproliferative action of AMPA antagonists and indicate that this class of compounds may be useful in the therapy of human cancers.

  8. Induction of murine NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin requires the CNC (cap 'n' collar) basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2): cross-interaction between AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and Nrf2 signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang; Kinneer, Krista; Bi, Yongyi; Chan, Jefferson Y; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2004-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dixoin) induces phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme NQO1 [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.2; DT-diaphorase] in a wide range of mammalian tissues and cells. Here, we analysed the molecular pathway mediating NQO1 induction by TCDD in mouse hepatoma cells. Inhibition of protein synthesis with CHX (cycloheximide) completely blocks induction of NQO1 by TCDD as well as the basal expression and induction by phenolic antioxidant tBHQ (2-t-butylbenzene-1,4-diol), implicating a labile factor in NQO1 mRNA expression. The inhibition is both time- and concentration-dependent, requires inhibition of protein synthesis, and occurs at a transcriptional level. Inhibition of NQO1 transcription by CHX correlates with a rapid reduction of the CNC bZip (cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper) transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) through the 26 S proteasome pathway. Moreover, blocking Nrf2 degradation with proteasome inhibitor MG132 increases the amount of Nrf2 and superinduces NQO1 in the presence of TCDD or tBHQ. Finally, genetic experiments using AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor)-, Arnt (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator)- or Nrf2-deficient cells reveal that, while induction of NQO1 by TCDD depends on the presence of AhR and Arnt, the basal and inducible expression of NQO1 by either TCDD or tBHQ requires functional Nrf2. The findings demonstrate a novel role of Nrf2 in the induction of NQO1 by TCDD and provide new insights into the mechanism by which Nrf2 regulates the induction of phase II enzymes by both phenolic antioxidants and AhR ligands.

  9. Current status of acid pump antagonists (reversible PPIs).

    PubMed Central

    Wurst, W.; Hartmann, M.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of H2-receptor antagonists in the mid-1970s provided, for the first time, acceptable medical therapy for acid-related diseases. Their short duration of action and single receptor targeting, however, limited satisfactory treatment of patients. Today the control of gastric acid secretion can be effectively achieved by direct inhibition of the H+, K(+)-ATPase. Inhibition of the proton pump suppresses acid secretion independent of the route of stimulation. Two classes of drugs are able to inhibit the proton pump. First, the substituted benzimidazoles (proton pump inhibitors [PPIs]), which, due to their pKa of about 4, accumulate in the acidic secretory canaliculus of the stimulated parietal cell. Following conversion to a cationic sulfenamide, they react with cysteines on the extracytoplasmatic face of the H+, K(+)-ATPase subunit. Second, acid pump antagonists (APAs) acting by K(+)-competitive and reversible binding to the gastric proton pump, which is the final step for activation of acid secretion in the parietal cell. One possible class of APAs are imidazopyridines. BY841 was selected from this class and is chemically a (8-(2-methoxycarbonylamino-6-methyl-phenylmethylamino )-2,3-dimethyl-imidazo [1,2-a]-pyridine). In pharmacological experiments such as pH-metry in the conscious, pentagastrin-stimulated fistula dog, BY841 proved to be superior to both ranitidine and omeprazole by rapidly elevating intragastric pH up to a value of 6. The duration of this pH elevation in the dog was dose-dependent. As was predicted by the above-mentioned dog model, available clinical phase I data confirm dose-dependent pharmacodynamics of BY841 in man. Using both acid output and continuous 24-hr pH measurements, a pronounced antisecretory effect of BY841 has been found. Actually, a single 50 mg oral dose of BY841 immediately elevated intragastric pH to about 6. Higher doses caused a dose-dependent increase in duration of the pH-elevation, without any further increase

  10. The NK1 receptor antagonist L822429 reduces heroin reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects.

  11. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Madery, Brandon D.; Pike, Tasha L.; Eisenach, John H.; Dietz, Niki M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Wilkins, Brad W.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (α-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (ΔFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 ± 29 and 314 ± 34 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1 (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect ΔFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 ± 29 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.4) or 20% (287 ± 48 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.3). In protocol 2, ΔFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 ± 30 and 453 ± 41 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1 (10% and 20% respectively). ΔFVC was similar at 10% (352 ± 39 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.8) and 20% (528 ± 45 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, ΔFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans. PMID:19661449

  12. Anticonvulsant effects of isomeric nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%–80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R-enantiomer, namely, (R)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide (2) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S-enantiomer (1), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R-enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier (R)-enantiomer (3), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its (S)-enantiomer (4) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the (R)-enantiomer (3) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with those observed for PHT, and

  13. The NK1 Receptor Antagonist L822429 Reduces Heroin Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects. PMID:23303056

  14. [5-HT3-antagonists as a substitute for metoclopramide and domperidone: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Mouch, I; Brouwers, J R B J; van 't Riet, E; Nieboer, P; Otten, M H; Jansman, F G A

    To investigate whether the anti-emetics metoclopramide and domperidone can be replaced by 5-HT3-antagonists, as side effects restrict use of these dopamine antagonists. Systematic review. We searched the Embase and PubMed databases for articles published in the period 1995-October 2015, in which the efficacy or side effects of metoclopramide or domperidone were compared with at least one of the 5-HT3-antagonists ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron or palonosetron. These had to be randomised controlled clinical studies into the known indications for metoclopramide and domperidone for prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting. Two reviewers independently selected articles based on the title and abstract, then assessed for eligibility based on the full texts. In total, 56 articles were included in this review. The conclusion in 51 studies was that the efficacy of 5-HT3-antagonists in nausea and vomiting is comparable or even superior to that of metoclopramide. Metoclopramide more often caused extrapyramidal side effects; 5-HT3-antagonists were more likely to cause headaches and constipation. The majority of the studies compared metoclopramide with ondansetron. None of the articles studied palonosetron, and only one study compared domperidone with a 5-HT3-antagonist. We found enough evidence to presume that metoclopramide can be replaced by 5-HT3-antagonists for preventing delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and for prophylaxis or treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. More research is needed into the other indications and into the substitutability of domperidone.

  15. Exploitation of microbial antagonists for the control of postharvest diseases of fruits: a review.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Ajinath Shridhar; Paul, Sangeeta; Nambi, V Eyarkai; Gupta, Ram Kishore; Singh, Rajbir; Sharma, Kalyani; Vishwakarma, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-16

    Fungal diseases result in significant losses of fruits and vegetables during handling, transportation and storage. At present, post-production fungal spoilage is predominantly controlled by using synthetic fungicides. Under the global climate change scenario and with the need for sustainable agriculture, biological control methods of fungal diseases, using antagonistic microorganisms, are emerging as ecofriendly alternatives to the use of fungicides. The potential of microbial antagonists, isolated from a diversity of natural habitats, for postharvest disease suppression has been investigated. Postharvest biocontrol systems involve tripartite interaction between microbial antagonists, the pathogen and the host, affected by environmental conditions. Several modes for fungistatic activities of microbial antagonists have been suggested, including competition for nutrients and space, mycoparasitism, secretion of antifungal antibiotics and volatile metabolites and induction of host resistance. Postharvest application of microbial antagonists is more successful for efficient disease control in comparison to pre-harvest application. Attempts have also been made to improve the overall efficacy of antagonists by combining them with different physical and chemical substances and methods. Globally, many microbe-based biocontrol products have been developed and registered for commercial use. The present review provides a brief overview on the use of microbial antagonists as postharvest biocontrol agents and summarises information on their isolation, mechanisms of action, application methods, efficacy enhancement, product formulation and commercialisation.

  16. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinemetz, C. L.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effect of calmodulin (CaM) antagonists applied at the root tip on root growth, gravity-induced root curvature, and the movement of calcium across the root tip and auxin (IAA) across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. All of the CaM antagonists used in these studies delayed gravity-induced curvature at a concentration (1 micromole) that did not affect root growth. Calmodulin antagonists (> or = 1 micromole) inhibited downward transport of label from 45Ca2+ across the caps of gravistimulated roots relative to the downward transport of 45Ca2+ in gravistimulated roots which were not treated with CaM antagonists. Application of CaM antagonists at the root tip (> or = 1 micromole) also decreased the relative downward movement of label from 3H-IAA applied to the upper side of the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. In general, tip application of antagonists inhibited neither the upward transport of 45Ca2+ in the root tip nor the upward movement of label from 3H-IAA in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Thus, roots treated with CaM antagonists > or = 1 micromole become less graviresponsive and exhibit reduced or even a reversal of downward polarity of calcium transport across the root tip and IAA transport across the elongation zone. The results indicate that calmodulin-regulated events play a role in root gravitropism.

  17. Association of calcium antagonist use with lower hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cikrikcioglu, M A; Ozdemir, A A; Sekin, Y; Yalcin, B; Altay, M; Gundogdu, A; Erkal, S N; Kazancioglu, R; Erkoc, R

    2015-09-01

    Objective of the present study was to investigate whether calcium antagonist use is associated with lower hemoglobin levels and/or higher erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) requirement in hemodialysis patients. A total of 130 adult hemodialysis patients were classified into two groups based on calcium antagonist usage for a period of at least 3 months as calcium antagonist users and calcium antagonist non-users. The two groups were compared cross-sectionally in a retrospective manner in terms of demographics, chronic kidney disease aetiologies, Charlson's Comorbidty Index, blood pressure, type of dialysis access, interdialytic body weight gain, cardiothoracic index, complete blood count, biochemistry, regular medication use and consumption of ESA. All independent variables that were different between the groups were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Linear regression analysis with dependent variable of hemoglobin value was also performed ESA consumption and blood pressure were higher, diabetic nephropathy, doxazosin and ACE inhibitor use were more frequent, and hemoglobin was lower in the calcium antagonist users. After logistic regression analysis, diabetic nephropathy, doxazosin use, ACE inhibitor use and lower hemoglobin were associated with calcium antagonist use. After lineer regression analysis, Age, BMI, gender, predialysis creatinine value, dialysis duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, doxazosin use, diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy were not related with hemoglobin value. But, higher amount of ESA consumption, ACE inhibitor use and calcium antagonist use were significantly associated with lower hemoglobin value. CA use was associated with lower hemoglobin levels in our hemodialysis patient population.

  18. FGFR antagonist induces protective autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Xie, Xiaoyan

    2016-05-20

    Breast cancer, representing approximately 30% of all gynecological cancer cases diagnosed yearly, is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for women. Amplification of FGFR1 is frequently observed in breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Though FGFRs have long been considered as anti-cancer drug targets, and a cluster of FGFR antagonists are currently under clinical trials, the precise cellular responses under the treatment of FGFR antagonists remains unclear. Here, we show that PD166866, an FGFR1-selective inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and triggers anoikis in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines. Notably, we demonstrate that PD166866 induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cellmore » lines, while blockage of autophagy by Atg5 knockdown further enhances the anti-proliferative activities of PD166866. Moreover, mechanistic study reveals that PD166866 induces autophagy through repressing Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, the present study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of FGFR antagonists, and may further assist the FGFRs-based drug discovery. -- Highlights: •FGFR1 antagonist inhibits cell viability in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist-induced autophagy is protective. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy by inhibiting Akt/mTOR pathway.« less

  19. Impact of Plant Species and Site on Rhizosphere-Associated Fungi Antagonistic to Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gabriele; Zachow, Christin; Lottmann, Jana; Götz, Monika; Costa, Rodrigo; Smalla, Kornelia

    2005-01-01

    Fungi with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens play an essential role in plant growth and health. To analyze the effects of the plant species and the site on the abundance and composition of fungi with antagonistic activity toward Verticillium dahliae, fungi were isolated from oilseed rape and strawberry rhizosphere and bulk soil from three different locations in Germany over two growing seasons. A total of 4,320 microfungi screened for in vitro antagonism toward Verticillium resulted in 911 active isolates. This high proportion of fungi antagonistic toward the pathogen V. dahliae was found for bulk and rhizosphere soil at all sites. A plant- and site-dependent specificity of the composition of antagonistic morphotypes and their genotypic diversity was found. The strawberry rhizosphere was characterized by preferential occurrence of Penicillium and Paecilomyces isolates and low numbers of morphotypes (n = 31) and species (n = 13), while Monographella isolates were most frequently obtained from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, for which higher numbers of morphotypes (n = 41) and species (n = 17) were found. Trichoderma strains displayed high diversity in all soils, but a high degree of plant specificity was shown by BOX-PCR fingerprints. The diversity of rhizosphere-associated antagonists was lower than that of antagonists in bulk soil, suggesting that some fungi were specifically enriched in each rhizosphere. A broad spectrum of new Verticillium antagonists was identified, and the implications of the data for biocontrol applications are discussed. PMID:16085804

  20. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists are superior to traditional antihistamines in the attenuation of experimental pruritus.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Paul J; Williams, Kacy N; Desai, Pragnya J; Karlsson, Lars; McQueen, Daniel; Thurmond, Robin L

    2007-01-01

    Histamine is a potent mediator of itch in humans, yet histamine H(1) receptor antagonists have been shown to be of limited use in the treatment of certain chronic pruritic diseases. The histamine H(4) receptor is a recently described histamine receptor, expressed on hematopoietic cells, linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. The contribution of the novel histamine H(4) receptor to histaminergic and allergic pruritus was investigated. Histamine and a selective histamine H(4) receptor agonist caused scratching responses in mice, which were almost completely attenuated in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice or by pretreatment with the selective histamine H(4) receptor antagonist, JNJ 7777120. Pruritus induced by allergic mechanisms was also potently inhibited with histamine H(4) receptor antagonist treatment or in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice. In all cases, the inhibitory effect of histamine H(4) receptor antagonist was greater than those observed with histamine H(1) receptor antagonists. The histamine H(4) receptor-mediated pruritus was shown to be independent of mast cells or other hematopoietic cells and may result from actions on peripheral neurons. These results demonstrate that the histamine H(4) receptor is involved in pruritic responses in mice to a greater extent than the histamine H(1) receptor. Histamine H(4) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility for treating chronic pruritic diseases in humans where histamine H(1) receptor antagonists are not effective.

  1. Endosperm and Nucellus Develop Antagonistically in Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenjia; Coen, Olivier; Pechoux, Christine; Magnani, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, seed architecture is shaped by the coordinated development of three genetically different components: embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues. The relative contribution of these tissues to seed mass and nutrient storage varies considerably among species. The development of embryo, endosperm, or nucellus maternal tissue as primary storage compartments defines three main typologies of seed architecture. It is still debated whether the ancestral angiosperm seed accumulated nutrients in the endosperm or the nucellus. During evolution, plants shifted repeatedly between these two storage strategies through molecular mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the regulatory pathway underlying nucellus and endosperm tissue partitioning in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that Polycomb-group proteins repress nucellus degeneration before fertilization. A signal initiated in the endosperm by the AGAMOUS-LIKE62 MADS box transcription factor relieves this Polycomb-mediated repression and therefore allows nucellus degeneration. Further downstream in the pathway, the TRANSPARENT TESTA16 (TT16) and GORDITA MADS box transcription factors promote nucellus degeneration. Moreover, we demonstrate that TT16 mediates the crosstalk between nucellus and seed coat maternal tissues. Finally, we characterize the nucellus cell death program and its feedback role in timing endosperm development. Altogether, our data reveal the antagonistic development of nucellus and endosperm, in coordination with seed coat differentiation. PMID:27233529

  2. Methods to Study Antagonistic Activities Among Oral Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fengxia; Kreth, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Most bacteria in nature exist in multispecies communities known as biofilms. In the natural habitat where resources (nutrient, space, etc.) are usually limited, individual species must compete or collaborate with other neighboring species in order to perpetuate in the multispecies community. The human oral cavity is colonized by >700 microbial species known as the indigenous microbiota. This indigenous flora normally maintains an ecological balance through antagonistic as well as mutualistic interspecies interactions. However, environmental perturbation may disrupt this balance, leading to overgrowth of pathogenic species which could in turn initiate diseases such as dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontitis (gum disease). Understanding the mechanisms of diversity maintenance may help developing novel approaches to manage these "polymicrobial diseases." In this chapter, we focus on a well-characterized form of biochemical warfare: bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus mutans, a primary dental caries pathogen, and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by several oral commensal streptococci. We will describe detailed methodologies on the competition assay, isolation, purification, and characterization of bacteriocins.

  3. Applicability of DPI formulations for novel neurokinin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kumon, M; Yabe, Y; Kasuya, Y; Suzuki, M; Kusai, A; Yonemochi, E; Terada, K

    2008-05-22

    A novel triple neurokinin receptor antagonist (TNRA) could have pharmaceutical efficacy for asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. TNRA is potentially developed as inhalation medicine. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the applicability of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for TNRA. DPI formulation containing lactose was used for this feasibility study. Mechanofusion process for surface modification was applied on lactose particles to prepare four different DPI formulations. The mixture of TNRA and lactose was administered to rats intratracheally using an insufflator. The deposition pattern and blood concentration profile of TNRA were evaluated. Although there was no significant difference in deposition on deep lungs between the four formulations, DPI formulations containing mechanofusion-processed lactose showed longer T(max) and t(1/2) and higher AUC(0-infinity) and MRT compared to that containing intact lactose. On the other hand, the contact angle measurement showed that the mechanofusion process decreased the polar part of the surface energy of the lactose. Therefore, the prolongation of the wetting of the formulated powder mixture seemed to delay the dissolution of TNRA deposited in respiratory tract. It was concluded that DPI formulation containing mechanofusion-processed lactose could be suitable for inhalation of TNRA.

  4. Novel dominant negative Smad antagonists to TGFbeta signaling.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joanne; Chen, Hui; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2007-07-01

    We previously identified a critical serine/threonine residue within the linker domain of Smad2/3, phosphorylated by the kinase GRK2 which plays a critical role in regulating Smad signaling. To define the mechanism by which GRK2-mediated phosphorylation modifies Smad2/3 behavior at the molecular level, we generated mutant Smads where the GRK2 phosphorylation site was replaced with an aspartic acid (D) to mimic the properties of a phospho-residue or an alanine (A) as a control. Interestingly, overexpression of either the D or A mutant inhibits TGFbeta signaling, but through two distinct mechanisms. The D mutant is properly localized and released from the plasma membrane upon ligand stimulation, but fails to interact with the type I receptor kinase. The A mutant properly interacts with and is phosphorylated by the type I receptor, translocates to the nucleus and homodimerizes with wild-type R-Smads, but it fails to form a heterocomplex with Smad4. As a result, both mutants act as antagonists of endogenous TGFbeta signaling through divergent mechanisms. The D mutant acts by blocking endogenous R-Smads phosphorylation and the A mutant acts by preventing endogenous R-Smad/Smad4 heterocomplexes. Thus, mutation of the GRK2 phosphorylation site within the Smad generates dominant negative Smads that efficiently inhibit TGFbeta responses.

  5. Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-12-31

    The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has laggedmore » behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.« less

  6. The effect of epistasis on sexually antagonistic genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran; Vellnow, Nikolas; Rowe, Locke

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of segregating sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation for fitness in laboratory and wild populations, yet the conditions for the maintenance of such variation can be restrictive. Epistatic interactions between genes can contribute to the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness and we suggest that epistasis between SA genes should be pervasive. Here, we explore its effect on SA genetic variation in fitness using a two locus model with negative epistasis. Our results demonstrate that epistasis often increases the parameter space showing polymorphism for SA loci. This is because selection in one locus is affected by allele frequencies at the other, which can act to balance net selection in males and females. Increased linkage between SA loci had more marginal effects. We also show that under some conditions, large portions of the parameter space evolve to a state where male benefit alleles are fixed at one locus and female benefit alleles at the other. This novel effect of epistasis on SA loci, which we term the ‘equity effect’, may have important effects on population differentiation and may contribute to speciation. More generally, these results support the suggestion that epistasis contributes to population divergence. PMID:24870040

  7. P-glycoprotein: a clue to vitamin K antagonist stabilization.

    PubMed

    Gschwind, Liliane; Rollason, Victoria; Boehlen, Françoise; Rebsamen, Michela; Combescure, Christophe; Matthey, Alain; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Acenocoumarol is a vitamin K antagonist used in some European countries. As warfarin, this drug is characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and a large interindividual variability. The objective of this study was to assess the involvement of ABCB1 polymorphisms on acenocoumarol treatment. An observational cohort study was conducted to assess whether there is an association between the presence of the allelic variants of the ABCB1 gene coding for P-glycoprotein and acenocoumarol stabilization and daily doses during the first 35 days of treatment. One hundred and fifteen patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of the clinical study showed that carriers of ABCB1 c.3435TT were more rapidly stabilized than wild-type patients (HR: 2.97, 95% CI: 1.23-7.18; p = 0.02). The same tendency was observed for the ABCB1 c.2677GT and 2677TT genotypes compared with ABCB1 c.2677GG. The ABCB1 c.2677TT genotype was also associated with a significant increase in doses of acenocoumarol (p = 0.03), the same tendency was observed with the ABCB1 c.3435TT genotype compared with the wild-type patients. These data suggest that ABCB1 polymorphisms could be involved in the response to acenocoumarol treatment.

  8. Streptomycetes and micromycetes as perspective antagonists of fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Postolaky, O; Syrbu, T; Poiras, N; Baltsat, K; Maslobrod, S; Boortseva, S

    2012-01-01

    Among natural factors that permanently influence on the plants, the soil microorganisms play a special role for the growing of plants as habitants of their rhizosphere. Mainly they are the representatives of actinomycetes genus Streptomyces and fungal genus Penicillium and their metabolic products stimulate plant growth and inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the antagonism of actinomycetes and micromycetes isolated from soils of R. Moldova against the fungal pathogens of agricultural plants. The strains were isolated from 5 types of chernozem (black soil) from central zone of R. Moldova, with different concentration of humus. Most of micromycetes and streptomycetes were isolated from soil sample 1 (monoculture of maize) and soil sample 2 (Poltava road border) with similar humus content (2.4-2.6%). The antifungal activity of micromycetes strains was occurring mostly against Fusarium solani and Thelaviopsis basicola, at streptomycetes against Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea. It was revealed the strains completely inhibit the growth of Alt. alternata (streptomycetes strains 23, 33, 37), B. cinerea (Streptomyces sp. 17), and F. solani (Penicillium sp. 104). Our results allow to consider the actinomycetes Streptomyces sp.9, Streptomyces sp. 12, Streptomyces sp. 17, Streptomyces sp. 37 Streptomyces sp. 66 and micromycetes Penicillium sp. 5, Penicillium sp. 65, Penicillium sp. 104 isolated from soils of R. Moldova, as prospective strains-antagonists against the phytopathogenic fungus, the causative agents of agricultural plants deseasis.

  9. Investigational opioid antagonists for treating opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Opioids have been highlighted for their role in pain relief among cancer and non-cancer patients. Novel agents have been investigated to reduce opioid-induced constipation (OIC) as the main adverse effect that may lead to treatment discontinuation. Development of peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORA) has resulted in a novel approach to preserve the efficacy of pain control along with less OIC. Areas covered: Clinical evidence for investigational PAMORAs was reviewed and clinical trials on investigational agents to reduce OIC were included. TD-1211 is currently being evaluated in Phase II clinical trial. Oxycodone-naltrexone and ADL-5945 went through Phase III clinical trials, but have been discontinued. Expert opinion: There is a substantial need to develop agents with specific pharmacokinetic properties to meet the needs of patients with underlying diseases. Holding the efficacy of a medicine with the highest selectivity on targeted receptors and the least adverse effects is the main approach in upcoming investigations to improve patients' quality of life (QoL). Novel agents to reduce opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) that do not reverse peripherally mediated pain analgesia are of great interest. Direct comparison of available agents in this field is lacking in the literature.

  10. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

  11. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-10-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals.

  12. Chitinolytic Enterobacter agglomerans Antagonistic to Fungal Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chernin, L.; Ismailov, Z.; Haran, S.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Three Enterobacter agglomerans strains which produce and excrete proteins with chitinolytic activity were found while screening soil-borne bacteria antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. The chitinolytic activity was induced when the strains were grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as the sole carbon source. It was quantitated by using assays with chromogenic p-nitrophenyl analogs of disaccharide, trisaccharide, and tetrasaccharide derivatives of N-acetylglucosamine. A set of three fluorescent substrates with a 4-methylumbelliferyl group linked by (beta)-1,4 linkage to N-acetylglucosamine mono- or oligosaccharides were used to identify the chitinolytic activities of proteins which had been renatured following their separation by electrophoresis. This study provides the most complete evidence for the presence of a complex of chitinolytic enzymes in Enterobacter strains. Four enzymes were detected: two N-acetyl-(beta)-d-glucosaminidases of 89 and 67 kDa, an endochitinase with an apparent molecular mass of 59 kDa, and a chitobiosidase of 50 kDa. The biocontrol ability of the chitinolytic strains was demonstrated under greenhouse conditions. The bacteria decreased the incidence of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cotton by 64 to 86%. Two Tn5 mutants of one of the isolates, which were deficient in chitinolytic activity, were unable to protect plants against the disease. PMID:16535017

  13. Chitinolytic Enterobacter agglomerans Antagonistic to Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chernin, L; Ismailov, Z; Haran, S; Chet, I

    1995-05-01

    Three Enterobacter agglomerans strains which produce and excrete proteins with chitinolytic activity were found while screening soil-borne bacteria antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. The chitinolytic activity was induced when the strains were grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as the sole carbon source. It was quantitated by using assays with chromogenic p-nitrophenyl analogs of disaccharide, trisaccharide, and tetrasaccharide derivatives of N-acetylglucosamine. A set of three fluorescent substrates with a 4-methylumbelliferyl group linked by (beta)-1,4 linkage to N-acetylglucosamine mono- or oligosaccharides were used to identify the chitinolytic activities of proteins which had been renatured following their separation by electrophoresis. This study provides the most complete evidence for the presence of a complex of chitinolytic enzymes in Enterobacter strains. Four enzymes were detected: two N-acetyl-(beta)-d-glucosaminidases of 89 and 67 kDa, an endochitinase with an apparent molecular mass of 59 kDa, and a chitobiosidase of 50 kDa. The biocontrol ability of the chitinolytic strains was demonstrated under greenhouse conditions. The bacteria decreased the incidence of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cotton by 64 to 86%. Two Tn5 mutants of one of the isolates, which were deficient in chitinolytic activity, were unable to protect plants against the disease.

  14. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    PubMed

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Antagonistic evolution in an aposematic predator-prey signaling system.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Franks, Daniel W

    2014-10-01

    Warning signals within species, such as the bright colors of chemically defended animals, are usually considered mutualistic, monomorphic traits. Such a view is however increasingly at odds with the growing empirical literature, showing nontrivial levels of signal variation within prey populations. Key to understanding this variation, we argue, could be a recognition that toxicity levels frequently vary within populations because of environmental heterogeneity. Inequalities in defense may undermine mutualistic monomorphic signaling, causing evolutionary antagonism between loci that determine appearance of less well-defended and better defended prey forms within species. In this article, we apply a stochastic model of evolved phenotypic plasticity to the evolution of prey signals. We show that when toxicity levels vary, then antagonistic interactions can lead to evolutionary conflict between alleles at different signaling loci, causing signal evolution, "red queen-like" evolutionary chase, and one or more forms of signaling equilibria. A key prediction is that variation in the way that predators use information about toxicity levels in their attack behaviors profoundly affects the evolutionary characteristics of the prey signaling systems. Environmental variation is known to cause variation in many qualities that organisms signal; our approach may therefore have application to other signaling systems. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Bruno; Nicolau-Galmés, Francesca; Jangi, Shawkat M; Ortega-Martínez, Idoia; Alonso-Tejerina, Erika; Burgos-Bretones, Juan; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Asumendi, Aintzane; Boyano, María D

    2010-07-01

    Histamine has been demonstrated to be involved in cell proliferation, embryonic development, and tumour growth. These various biological effects are mediated through the activation of specific histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4) that differ in their tissue expression patterns and functions. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies of the modulatory roles of histamine in tumour development and metastasis have been reported, the effect of histamine in the progression of some types of tumours remains controversial; however, recent findings on the role of histamine in the immune system have shed new light on this question. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the roles of histamine and its receptors in tumour biology. We report our recent observations of the anti-tumoural effect of H1 histamine antagonists on experimental and human melanomas. We have found that in spite of exogenous histamine stimulated human melanoma cell proliferation, clonogenic ability and migration activity in a dose-dependent manner, the melanoma tumour growth was not modulated by in vivo histamine treatment. On the contrary, terfenadine-treatment in vitro induced melanoma cell death by apoptosis and in vivo terfenadine treatment significantly inhibited tumour growth in murine models. These observations increase our understanding of cancer biology and may inspire novel anticancer therapeutic strategies.

  17. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection.

  18. Effects of Cannabinoid Agonists and Antagonists on Sleep and Breathing in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Calik, Michael W; Carley, David W

    2017-09-01

    There are no pharmacological treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but dronabinol showed promise in a small pilot study. In anesthetized rats, dronabinol attenuates reflex apnea via activation of cannabinoid (CB) receptors located on vagal afferents; an effect blocked by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and/or type 2 (CB2) receptor antagonists. Here, using a natural model of central sleep apnea, we examine the effects of dronabinol, alone and in combination with selective antagonists in conscious rats chronically instrumented to stage sleep and measure cessation of breathing. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and implanted with bilateral stainless steel screws into the skull for electroencephalogram recording and bilateral wire electrodes into the nuchal muscles for electromyogram recording. Each animal was recorded by polysomnography on multiple occasions separated by at least 3 days. The study was a fully nested, repeated measures crossover design, such that each rat was recorded following each of 8 intraperitoneal injections: vehicle; vehicle and CB1 antagonist (AM 251); vehicle and CB2 antagonist (AM 630); vehicle and CB1/CB2 antagonist; dronabinol; dronabinol and CB1 antagonist; dronabinol and CB2 antagonist; and dronabinol and CB1/CB2 antagonist. Dronabinol decreased the percent time spent in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. CB receptor antagonists did not reverse this effect. Dronabinol also decreased apneas during sleep, and this apnea suppression was reversed by CB1 or CB1/CB2 receptor antagonism. Dronabinol's effects on apneas were dependent on CB1 receptor activation, while dronabinol's effects on REM sleep were CB receptor-independent. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A General Population Genetic Framework for Antagonistic Selection That Accounts for Demography and Recurrent Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Antagonistic selection—where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness (“sexual antagonism”) or between components of fitness (“antagonistic pleiotropy”)—might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range—a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The “efficacy” of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (Nes >> 1, where Ne is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection. PMID:22298707

  20. West syndrome associated with administration of a histamine H1 antagonist, oxatomide.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Isagai, Takeo; Seki, Yoshitaka; Ohya, Takashi; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2004-01-01

    We report a 4-month-old female infant who developed West syndrome eleven days after administration of a histamine H1 antagonist, oxatomide, for atopic dermatitis. It has been reported that some histamine H1 antagonists induce seizures in epileptic patients. The age, the interval between oxatomide administration, and the onset of West syndrome and its clinical course were similar to two previously reported 3-month-old infants with West syndrome associated with ketotifen administration. We should be cautious in using the histamine H1 antagonists, oxatomide and ketotifen, in young infants because such agents could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.

  1. Benzodiazepine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists: optimization of the 4-substituted piperidine.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christopher S; Stump, Craig A; Nguyen, Diem N; Deng, James Z; Quigley, Amy G; Norton, Beth R; Bell, Ian M; Mosser, Scott D; Salvatore, Christopher A; Rutledge, Ruth Z; Kane, Stefanie A; Koblan, Kenneth S; Vacca, Joseph P; Graham, Samuel L; Williams, Theresa M

    2006-10-01

    In our continuing effort to identify CGRP receptor antagonists for the acute treatment of migraine, we have undertaken a study to evaluate alternative 4-substituted piperidines to the lead dihydroquinazolinone 1. In this regard, we have identified the piperidinyl-azabenzimidazolone and phenylimidazolinone structures which, when incorporated into the benzodiazepine core, afford potent CGRP receptor antagonists (e.g., 18 and 29). These studies produced a potent analog (18) which overcomes the instability issues associated with the lead structure 1. A general pharmacophore for the 4-substituted piperidine component of these CGRP receptor antagonists is also presented.

  2. AZD-4818, a chemokine CCR1 antagonist: WO2008103126 and WO2009011653.

    PubMed

    Norman, Peter

    2009-11-01

    The applications WO2008103126 and WO2009011653, respectively, claim: i) Combinations of a spirocyclic piperidine chemokine CCR1 antagonist with a corticosteroid, and their use for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ii) Processes for the preparation of a spirocyclic piperidine derivative, a chemokine CCR1 antagonist. These applications point to the preferred compound being a development compound. The evidence for this compound being AZD-4818, a chemokine CCR1 antagonist that was in Phase II development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is reviewed in the light of these and earlier patents relating to it.

  3. Rivaroxaban vs. vitamin K antagonists for cardioversion in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cappato, Riccardo; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Klein, Allan L; Camm, A John; Ma, Chang-Sheng; Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Talajic, Mario; Scanavacca, Maurício; Vardas, Panos E; Kirchhof, Paulus; Hemmrich, Melanie; Lanius, Vivian; Meng, Isabelle Ling; Wildgoose, Peter; van Eickels, Martin; Hohnloser, Stefan H

    2014-12-14

    X-VeRT is the first prospective randomized trial of a novel oral anticoagulant in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing elective cardioversion. We assigned 1504 patients to rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily, 15 mg if creatinine clearance was between 30 and 49 mL/min) or dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in a 2:1 ratio. Investigators selected either an early (target period of 1-5 days after randomization) or delayed (3-8 weeks) cardioversion strategy. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of stroke, transient ischaemic attack, peripheral embolism, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 5 (two strokes) of 978 patients (0.51%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 5 (two strokes) of 492 patients (1.02%) in the VKA group [risk ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-1.73]. In the rivaroxaban group, four patients experienced primary efficacy events following early cardioversion (0.71%) and one following delayed cardioversion (0.24%). In the VKA group, three patients had primary efficacy events following early cardioversion (1.08%) and two following delayed cardioversion (0.93%). Rivaroxaban was associated with a significantly shorter time to cardioversion compared with VKAs (P < 0.001). Major bleeding occurred in six patients (0.6%) in the rivaroxaban group and four patients (0.8%) in the VKA group (risk ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.21-2.67). Oral rivaroxaban appears to be an effective and safe alternative to VKAs and may allow prompt cardioversion. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01674647. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tricoci, Pierluigi; Huang, Zhen; Held, Claes; Moliterno, David J; Armstrong, Paul W; Van de Werf, Frans; White, Harvey D; Aylward, Philip E; Wallentin, Lars; Chen, Edmond; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Pei, Jinglan; Leonardi, Sergio; Rorick, Tyrus L; Kilian, Ann M; Jennings, Lisa H K; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Bode, Christoph; Cequier, Angel; Cornel, Jan H; Diaz, Rafael; Erkan, Aycan; Huber, Kurt; Hudson, Michael P; Jiang, Lixin; Jukema, J Wouter; Lewis, Basil S; Lincoff, A Michael; Montalescot, Gilles; Nicolau, José Carlos; Ogawa, Hisao; Pfisterer, Matthias; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Ruzyllo, Witold; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Storey, Robert F; Valgimigli, Marco; Whellan, David J; Widimsky, Petr; Strony, John; Harrington, Robert A; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

    2012-01-05

    Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization. Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).

  5. 8-Azaxanthine derivatives as antagonists of adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, P; Messini, L; Cappellacci, L; Grifantini, M; Lucacchini, A; Martini, C; Senatore, G

    1994-09-02

    A series of 1,3-dimethyl- and 1,3-dipropyl-8-azaxanthines, substituted at the N8 or N7 position with substituents which usually increase the affinity of the xanthines for the adenosine receptors, was synthesized and studied in radioligand binding experiments. The substitution of CH with N at the 8-position of both theophylline and caffeine dramatically reduced the affinity, as demonstrated by the fact that 8-azatheophylline and 8-azacaffeine were inert. The introduction of a methyl group at 8-position of 8-azatheophylline restored the antagonistic activity at A2 receptors, while a 8-cycloalkyl substituent increased the affinity for both receptor subtypes. A more favorable effect on affinity was produced by the substitution of the 7-methyl group in 8-azacaffeine with cycloalkyl groups. 7-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-azaxanthine was 3 times more potent than caffeine at A1 receptors and 6 times less active at A2 receptors. On the contrary, the 7-cyclohexyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-azaxanthine was more potent than caffeine at A2 receptors. The substitution of 1- and 3-methyl groups with propyl in both 7- and 8-substituted 8-azatheophylline increased remarkably the affinity for A1 receptors. The 7-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl-8-azaxanthine appears to be one of the most potent and selective among 7-alkyl-substituted xanthines at A1 receptors so far known. Because the 8-aza analogues of 8-substituted 1,3-dialkylxanthine were in any case less active than the corresponding xanthine derivatives, it was confirmed that the hydrogen atom at the 7-position of xanthines plays an important role in the binding to adenosine receptors.

  6. Micro1-opioid antagonist naloxonazine alters ethanol discrimination and consumption.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Molina; Holloway, Frank

    2003-02-01

    The endogenous opioid system is implicated in excessive ethanol-drinking behavior. However, the role of individual opioid receptor subtypes in the mechanism underlying excessive ethanol-drinking behavior is not yet well understood. Therefore, we investigated the ability of a selective micro1-opioid antagonist, naloxonazine, to modulate ethanol-drinking behavior and ethanol discrimination in a rat model with the use of ethanol self-administration and drug discrimination paradigms. The effects of naloxonazine (0.001-10 mg/kg) on ethanol intake were examined in Sprague-Dawley rats under conditions of limited access to 10% (wt./vol.) ethanol and ad libitum access to food and water. Pretreatment with high doses of naloxonazine (1-10 mg/kg) significantly reduced ethanol consumption. When the effects of naloxonazine on food intake in free-feeding male rats were examined, naloxonazine (1.8-10 mg/kg) significantly suppressed 24-h food intake. Another group of rats was trained to discriminate ethanol (1.25 g/kg, i.p.) from saline on a fixed-ratio schedule (FR 10), and ethanol dose-response tests were conducted once rats had acquired ethanol-saline discrimination. Injections were given 15 min before ethanol dose-response tests were conducted, and after characterization of the ethanol dose-response curve, the effects of naloxonazine on ethanol discrimination were assessed by administering naloxonazine (0.001-10 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min before ethanol administration. Treatment with naloxonazine (0.001-1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) before the ED(100) dose of ethanol partially antagonized the discriminative stimulus of ethanol without having any effect on the response rate. The results support the suggestion of involvement of micro1-opioid receptors in the discriminative effects of ethanol and ethanol-drinking behavior.

  7. Oxycodone combined with opioid receptor antagonists: efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar; Goforth, Harold W; Gamier, Pam

    2013-05-01

    A mu receptor antagonist combined with oxycodone (OXY) may improve pain control, reduce physical tolerance and withdrawal, minimizing opioid-related bowel dysfunction and act as an abuse deterrent. The authors cover the use of OXY plus ultra-low-dose naltrexone for analgesia and the use of sustained-release OXY plus sustained-release naloxone to reduce the opioid bowel syndrome. The authors briefly describe the use of sustained-release OXY and naltrexone pellets as a drug abuse deterrent formulation. Combinations of ultra-low-dose naltrexone plus OXY have been in separate trials involved in patients with chronic pain from osteoarthritis and idiopathic low back pain. High attrition and marginal differences between ultra-low-dose naltrexone plus OXY and OXY led to discontinuation of development. Prolonged-release (PR) naloxone combined with PR OXY demonstrates a consistent reduction in opioid-related bowel dysfunction in multiple randomized controlled trials. However, gastrointestinal side effects, including diarrhea, were increased in several trials with the combination compared with PR OXY alone. Analgesia appeared to be maintained although non-inferiority to PR OXY is not formally established. There were flaws to trial design and safety monitoring. Naltrexone has been combined with OXY in individual pellets encased in a capsule. This combination has been reported in a Phase II trial and is presently undergoing Phase III studies. Due to the lack of efficacy the combination of altered low-dose naltrexone with oxycodone should cease in development. The combination of sustained release oxycodone plus naloxone reduces constipation with a consistent benefit. Safety has been suboptimally evaluated which is a concern. Although the drug is commercially available in several countries, ongoing safety monitoring particularly high doses would be important.

  8. Efficacy and safety of histamine-2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Rachel; Langendam, Miranda; Benninga, Marc; van Wijk, Michiel; Tabbers, Merit

    2014-10-01

    Histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are frequently used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children; however, their efficacy and safety is questionable. To systematically review the literature to assess the efficacy and safety of H2RAs in pediatric GERD. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database were searched for randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of H2RAs in pediatric GERD. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included articles. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. When possible, infants and children were analyzed separately. Eight studies with a total of 276 children (0-15 years of age) were included. Compared with the placebo, H2RAs were more effective in the reduction of symptoms in terms of histologic healing and increasing gastric pH and had a larger overall treatment effect. In infants, H2RAs were only more effective in terms of histologic healing. Comparing H2RAs with antacids, H2RAs were more effective in symptom reduction in only 1 study. H2RAs compared with proton pump inhibitors were not significantly different in any of the outcome measures. For safety analysis, data were not reported in a quantitative manner and for all outcomes, the quality of evidence was very low. Evidence to support the efficacy and safety of H2RAs in infants and children is limited and of poor quality. Well-designed placebo-controlled trials are needed before thorough conclusions can be drawn.

  9. Icatibant, a new bradykinin-receptor antagonist, in hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Cicardi, Marco; Banerji, Aleena; Bracho, Francisco; Malbrán, Alejandro; Rosenkranz, Bernd; Riedl, Marc; Bork, Konrad; Lumry, William; Aberer, Werner; Bier, Henning; Bas, Murat; Greve, Jens; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Farkas, Henriette; Reshef, Avner; Ritchie, Bruce; Yang, William; Grabbe, Jürgen; Kivity, Shmuel; Kreuz, Wolfhart; Levy, Robyn J; Luger, Thomas; Obtulowicz, Krystyna; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Bull, Christian; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Smith, William B; Toubi, Elias; Werner, Sonja; Anné, Suresh; Björkander, Janne; Bouillet, Laurence; Cillari, Enrico; Hurewitz, David; Jacobson, Kraig W; Katelaris, Constance H; Maurer, Marcus; Merk, Hans; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Feighery, Conleth; Floccard, Bernard; Gleich, Gerald; Hébert, Jacques; Kaatz, Martin; Keith, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Charles H; Langton, David; Martin, Ludovic; Pichler, Christiane; Resnick, David; Wombolt, Duane; Fernández Romero, Diego S; Zanichelli, Andrea; Arcoleo, Francesco; Knolle, Jochen; Kravec, Irina; Dong, Liying; Zimmermann, Jens; Rosen, Kimberly; Fan, Wing-Tze

    2010-08-05

    Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema of the skin, larynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Bradykinin is the key mediator of symptoms. Icatibant is a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. In two double-blind, randomized, multicenter trials, we evaluated the effect of icatibant in patients with hereditary angioedema presenting with cutaneous or abdominal attacks. In the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST) 1 trial, patients received either icatibant or placebo; in FAST-2, patients received either icatibant or oral tranexamic acid, at a dose of 3 g daily for 2 days. Icatibant was given once, subcutaneously, at a dose of 30 mg. The primary end point was the median time to clinically significant relief of symptoms. A total of 56 and 74 patients underwent randomization in the FAST-1 and FAST-2 trials, respectively. The primary end point was reached in 2.5 hours with icatibant versus 4.6 hours with placebo in the FAST-1 trial (P=0.14) and in 2.0 hours with icatibant versus 12.0 hours with tranexamic acid in the FAST-2 trial (P<0.001). In the FAST-1 study, 3 recipients of icatibant and 13 recipients of placebo needed treatment with rescue medication. The median time to first improvement of symptoms, as assessed by patients and by investigators, was significantly shorter with icatibant in both trials. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported. In patients with hereditary angioedema having acute attacks, we found a significant benefit of icatibant as compared with tranexamic acid in one trial and a nonsignificant benefit of icatibant as compared with placebo in the other trial with regard to the primary end point. The early use of rescue medication may have obscured the benefit of icatibant in the placebo trial. (Funded by Jerini; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00097695 and NCT00500656.)

  10. Icatibant, a New Bradykinin-Receptor Antagonist, in Hereditary Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Cicardi, M.; Banerji, A.; Bracho, F.; Malbrán, A.; Rosenkranz, B.; Riedl, M.; Bork, K.; Lumry, W.; Aberer, W.; Bier, H.; Bas, M.; Greve, J.; Hoffmann, T.K.; Farkas, H.; Reshef, A.; Ritchie, B.; Yang, W.; Grabbe, J.; Kivity, S.; Kreuz, W.; Levy, R.J.; Luger, T.; Obtulowicz, K.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Bull, C.; Sitkauskiene, B.; Smith, W.B.; Toubi, E.; Werner, S.; Anné, S.; Björkander, J.; Bouillet, L.; Cillari, E.; Hurewitz, D.; Jacobson, K.W.; Katelaris, C.H.; Maurer, M.; Merk, H.; Bernstein, J.A.; Feighery, C.; Floccard, B.; Gleich, G.; Hébert, J.; Kaatz, M.; Keith, P.; Kirkpatrick, C.H.; Langton, D.; Martin, L.; Pichler, C.; Resnick, D.; Wombolt, D.; Fernández Romero, D.S.; Zanichelli, A.; Arcoleo, F.; Knolle, J.; Kravec, I.; Dong, L.; Zimmermann, J.; Rosen, K.; Fan, W.-T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema of the skin, larynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Bradykinin is the key mediator of symptoms. Icatibant is a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. METHODS In two double-blind, randomized, multicenter trials, we evaluated the effect of icatibant in patients with hereditary angioedema presenting with cutaneous or abdominal attacks. In the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST) 1 trial, patients received either icatibant or placebo; in FAST-2, patients received either icatibant or oral tranexamic acid, at a dose of 3 g daily for 2 days. Icatibant was given once, subcutaneously, at a dose of 30 mg. The primary end point was the median time to clinically significant relief of symptoms. RESULTS A total of 56 and 74 patients underwent randomization in the FAST-1 and FAST-2 trials, respectively. The primary end point was reached in 2.5 hours with icatibant versus 4.6 hours with placebo in the FAST-1 trial (P = 0.14) and in 2.0 hours with icatibant versus 12.0 hours with tranexamic acid in the FAST-2 trial (P<0.001). In the FAST-1 study, 3 recipients of icatibant and 13 recipients of placebo needed treatment with rescue medication. The median time to first improvement of symptoms, as assessed by patients and by investigators, was significantly shorter with icatibant in both trials. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS In patients with hereditary angioedema having acute attacks, we found a significant benefit of icatibant as compared with tranexamic acid in one trial and a nonsignificant benefit of icatibant as compared with placebo in the other trial with regard to the primary end point. The early use of rescue medication may have obscured the benefit of icatibant in the placebo trial. (Funded by Jerini; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00097695 and NCT00500656.) PMID:20818888

  11. BMP Antagonist Gremlin 2 Limits Inflammation After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lehanna N; Schoenhard, John A; Saleh, Mohamed A; Mukherjee, Amrita; Ryzhov, Sergey; McMaster, William G; Nolan, Kristof; Gumina, Richard J; Thompson, Thomas B; Magnuson, Mark A; Harrison, David G; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K

    2016-07-22

    We have recently shown that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist Gremlin 2 (Grem2) is required for early cardiac development and cardiomyocyte differentiation. Our initial studies discovered that Grem2 is strongly induced in the adult heart after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). However, the function of Grem2 and BMP-signaling inhibitors after cardiac injury is currently unknown. To investigate the role of Grem2 during cardiac repair and assess its potential to improve ventricular function after injury. Our data show that Grem2 is transiently induced after MI in peri-infarct area cardiomyocytes during the inflammatory phase of cardiac tissue repair. By engineering loss- (Grem2(-/-)) and gain- (TG(Grem2)) of-Grem2-function mice, we discovered that Grem2 controls the magnitude of the inflammatory response and limits infiltration of inflammatory cells in peri-infarct ventricular tissue, improving cardiac function. Excessive inflammation in Grem2(-/-) mice after MI was because of overactivation of canonical BMP signaling, as proven by the rescue of the inflammatory phenotype through administration of the canonical BMP inhibitor, DMH1. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of Grem2 protein in wild-type mice was sufficient to reduce inflammation after MI. Cellular analyses showed that BMP2 acts with TNFα to induce expression of proinflammatory proteins in endothelial cells and promote adhesion of leukocytes, whereas Grem2 specifically inhibits the BMP2 effect. Our results indicate that Grem2 provides a molecular barrier that controls the magnitude and extent of inflammatory cell infiltration by suppressing canonical BMP signaling, thereby providing a novel mechanism for limiting the adverse effects of excessive inflammation after MI. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Selective β2-adrenergic Antagonist Butoxamine Reduces Orthodontic Tooth Movement.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Miyazawa, K; Suzuki, Y; Mizutani, Y; Uchibori, S; Asaoka, R; Arai, M; Togari, A; Goto, S

    2014-08-01

    Recently, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in bone metabolism has attracted attention. β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is presented on osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. We previously demonstrated that β-AR blockers at low dose improve osteoporosis with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system via β2-AR blocking, while they may have a somewhat inhibitory effect on osteoblastic activity at high doses. In this study, the effects of butoxamine (BUT), a specific β2-AR antagonist, on tooth movement were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showing osteoporosis with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. We administered BUT (1 mg/kg) orally, and closed-coil springs were inserted into the upper-left first molar. After sacrifice, we calculated the amount of tooth movement and analyzed the trabecular microarchitecture and histomorphometry. The distance in the SHR control was greater than that in the Wistar-Kyoto rat group, but no significant difference was found in the SHR treated with BUT compared with the Wistar-Kyoto rat control. Analysis of bone volume per tissue volume, trabecular number, and osteoclast surface per bone surface in the alveolar bone showed clear bone loss by an increase of bone resorption in SHR. In addition, BUT treatment resulted in a recovery of alveolar bone loss. Furthermore, TH-immunoreactive nerves in the periodontal ligament were increased by tooth movement, and BUT administration decreased TH-immunoreactive nerves. These results suggest that BUT prevents alveolar bone loss and orthodontic tooth movement via β2-AR blocking. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  13. Selective β2-adrenergic Antagonist Butoxamine Reduces Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T.; Miyazawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Mizutani, Y.; Uchibori, S.; Asaoka, R.; Arai, M.; Togari, A.; Goto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in bone metabolism has attracted attention. β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is presented on osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. We previously demonstrated that β-AR blockers at low dose improve osteoporosis with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system via β2-AR blocking, while they may have a somewhat inhibitory effect on osteoblastic activity at high doses. In this study, the effects of butoxamine (BUT), a specific β2-AR antagonist, on tooth movement were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showing osteoporosis with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. We administered BUT (1 mg/kg) orally, and closed-coil springs were inserted into the upper-left first molar. After sacrifice, we calculated the amount of tooth movement and analyzed the trabecular microarchitecture and histomorphometry. The distance in the SHR control was greater than that in the Wistar-Kyoto rat group, but no significant difference was found in the SHR treated with BUT compared with the Wistar-Kyoto rat control. Analysis of bone volume per tissue volume, trabecular number, and osteoclast surface per bone surface in the alveolar bone showed clear bone loss by an increase of bone resorption in SHR. In addition, BUT treatment resulted in a recovery of alveolar bone loss. Furthermore, TH-immunoreactive nerves in the periodontal ligament were increased by tooth movement, and BUT administration decreased TH-immunoreactive nerves. These results suggest that BUT prevents alveolar bone loss and orthodontic tooth movement via β2-AR blocking. PMID:24868013

  14. Antagonistic effects of tetrodotoxin on aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Takiyoshi; Hayashida, Makiko; Tezuka, Akito; Hayakawa, Hideyuki; Ohno, Youkichi

    2013-01-01

    Aconitine, well-known for its high cardiotoxicity, causes severe arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, by opening membrane sodium channels. Tetrodotoxin, a membrane sodium-channel blocker, is thought to antagonize aconitine activity. Tetrodotoxin is a potent blocker of the skeletal muscle sodium-channel isoform Na(v)1.4 (IC50 10 nM), but micromolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin are required to inhibit the primary cardiac isoform Na(v)1.5. This suggests that substantial concentrations of tetrodotoxin are required to alleviate the cardiac toxicity caused by aconitine. To elucidate the interaction between aconitine and tetrodotoxin in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, mixtures of aconitine and tetrodotoxin were simultaneously administered to mice, and the effects on electrocardiograms, breathing rates, and arterial oxygen saturation were examined. Compared with mice treated with aconitine alone, some mice treated with aconitine-tetrodotoxin mixtures showed lower mortality rates and delayed appearance of arrhythmia. The decreased breathing rates and arterial oxygen saturation observed in mice receiving aconitine alone were alleviated in mice that survived after receiving the aconitine-tetrodotoxin mixture; this result suggests that tetrodotoxin is antagonistic to aconitine. When the tetrodotoxin dose is greater than the dose that can block tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels, which are excessively activated by aconitine, tetrodotoxin toxicity becomes prominent, and the mortality rate increases because of the respiratory effects of tetrodotoxin. In terms of cardiotoxicity, mice receiving the aconitine-tetrodotoxin mixture showed minor and shorter periods of change on electrocardiography. This finding can be explained by the recent discovery of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium-channel cardiac isoforms (Na(v)1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6).

  15. Successful treatment of hereditary angioedema with bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist icatibant.

    PubMed

    Krause, Karoline; Metz, Martin; Zuberbier, Torsten; Maurer, Marcus; Magerl, Markus

    2010-04-01

    The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant has recently become available for treating hereditary angioedema. Our observations demonstrate icatibant to be effective and safe for the treatment of both, abdominal and cutaneous attacks in a practice setting beyond clinical studies.

  16. Crystal structure of human glycine receptor-α3 bound to antagonist strychnine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Hao; Michelsen, Klaus; Schneider, Stephen; Shaffer, Paul L

    2015-10-08

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 Å X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-α3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.

  17. Identification of Trisubstituted-pyrazol Carboxamide Analogs as Novel and Potent Antagonists of Farnesoid X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Donna D.; Lin, Wenwei; Forman, Barry M.; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NRIH4) plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. This suggests that antagonizing the transcriptional activity of FXR is a potential means to treat cholestasis and related metabolic disorders. Here we describe the synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of trisubstituted-pyrazol carboxamides as novel and potent FXR antagonists. One of these novel FXR antagonists, 4j has an IC50 of 7.5 nM in an FXR binding assay and 468.5 nM in a cell-based FXR antagonistic assay. Compound 4j has no detectable FXR agonistic activity or cytotoxicity. Notably, 4j is the most potent FXR antagonist identified to date; it has a promising in vitro profile and could serve as an excellent chemical tool to elucidate the biological function of FXR. PMID:24775917

  18. Antiviral activity of formyl peptide receptor 2 antagonists against influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Noémie; Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Fautrad, Pierre; Mas, Floriane; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Riteau, Béatrice

    2017-07-01

    Influenza viruses are one of the most important respiratory pathogens worldwide, causing both epidemic and pandemic infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of FPR2 antagonists PBP10 and BOC2 on influenza virus replication. We determined that these molecules exhibit antiviral effects against influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, H6N2) and B viruses. FPR2 antagonists used in combination with oseltamivir showed additive antiviral effects. Mechanistically, the antiviral effect of PBP10 and BOC2 is mediated through early inhibition of virus-induced ERK activation. Finally, our preclinical studies showed that FPR2 antagonists protected mice from lethal infections induced by influenza, both in a prophylactic and therapeutic manner. Thus, FPR2 antagonists might be explored for novel treatments against influenza. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Ussher, Michael H

    2011-03-16

    Selective type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists may assist with smoking cessation by restoring the balance of the endocannabinoid system, which can be disrupted by prolonged use of nicotine. They also seeks to address many smokers' reluctance to persist with a quit attempt because of concerns about weight gain. To determine whether selective CB1 receptor antagonists (currently rimonabant and taranabant) increase the numbers of people stopping smoking To assess their effects on weight change in successful quitters and in those who try to quit but fail. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register for trials, using the terms ('rimonabant' or 'taranabant') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using major MESH terms. We acquired electronic or paper copies of posters of preliminary trial results presented at the American Thoracic Society Meeting in 2005, and at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco European Meeting 2006. We also attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies of rimonabant, and Sanofi Aventis (manufacturers of rimonabant). The most recent search was in January 2011. Types of studies Randomized controlled trialsTypes of participants Adult smokersTypes of interventions Selective CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant and taranabant. Types of outcome measures The primary outcome is smoking status at a minimum of six months after the start of treatment. We preferred sustained cessation rates to point prevalence, and biochemically verified cessation to self-reported quitting. We regarded smokers who drop out or are lost to follow up as continuing smokers. We have noted any adverse effects of treatment.A secondary outcome is weight change associated with the cessation attempt. Two authors checked the abstracts for relevance, and attempted to acquire full trial reports. One author extracted the data, and a second author checked

  20. CCR5 receptor antagonists: discovery and SAR study of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Robert G; Arnaiz, Damian O; Chou, Yuo-Ling; Davey, Dave; Dunning, Laura; Lee, Wheeseong; Lu, Shou-Fu; Onuffer, James; Ye, Bin; Phillips, Gary

    2007-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) led to the identification of the guanylhydrazone of 2-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)-5-bromobenzaldehyde as a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Initial modifications of the guanylhydrazone series indicated that substitution of the benzyl group at the para-position was well tolerated. Substitution at the 5-position of the central phenyl ring was critical for potency. Replacement of the guanylhydrazone group led to the discovery of a novel series of CCR5 antagonists.

  1. Characterization and bioactivity of novel calcium antagonists - N-methoxy-benzyl haloperidol quaternary ammonium salt

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhu, Wei; Zhong, Shu-Ping; Zheng, Fu-Chun; Gao, Fen-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Han; Zheng, Yan-Shan; Shi, Gang-Gang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Calcium antagonists play an important role in clinical practice. However, most of them have serious side effects. We have synthesized a series of novel calcium antagonists, quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of haloperidol with N-p-methoxybenzyl (X1), N-m-methoxybenzyl (X2) and N-o-methoxybenzyl (X3) groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of these novel calcium antagonists, especially the vasodilation activity and cardiac side-effects. The possible working mechanisms of these haloperidol derivatives were also explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Novel calcium antagonists were synthesized by amination. Compounds were screened for their activity of vasodilation on isolated thoracic aortic ring of rats. Their cardiac side effects were explored. The patch-clamp, confocal laser microscopy and the computer-fitting molecular docking experiments were employed to investigate the possible working mechanisms of these calcium antagonists. RESULTS The novel calcium antagonists, X1, X2 and X3 showed stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect than that of classical calcium antagonists. They blocked L-type calcium channels with an potent effect order of X1 > X2 > X3. Consistently, X1, X2 and X3 interacted with different regions of Ca2+-CaM-CaV1.2 with an affinity order of X1 > X2 > X3. CONCLUSIONS The new halopedidol derivatives X1, X2 and X3 are novel calcium antagonists with stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect. They could have wide clinical application. PMID:26544729

  2. Serotonin 2C receptor antagonists induce fast-onset antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Opal, M D; Klenotich, S C; Morais, M; Bessa, J; Winkle, J; Doukas, D; Kay, L J; Sousa, N; Dulawa, S M

    2014-10-01

    Current antidepressants must be administered for several weeks to produce therapeutic effects. We show that selective serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) antagonists exert antidepressant actions with a faster-onset (5 days) than that of current antidepressants (14 days) in mice. Subchronic (5 days) treatment with 5-HT2C antagonists induced antidepressant behavioral effects in the chronic forced swim test (cFST), chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm and olfactory bulbectomy paradigm. This treatment regimen also induced classical markers of antidepressant action: activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). None of these effects were induced by subchronic treatment with citalopram, a prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Local infusion of 5-HT2C antagonists into the ventral tegmental area was sufficient to induce BDNF in the mPFC, and dopamine D1 receptor antagonist treatment blocked the antidepressant behavioral effects of 5-HT2C antagonists. 5-HT2C antagonists also activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the mPFC, effects recently linked to rapid antidepressant action. Furthermore, 5-HT2C antagonists reversed CMS-induced atrophy of mPFC pyramidal neurons. Subchronic SSRI treatment, which does not induce antidepressant behavioral effects, also activated mTOR and eEF2 and reversed CMS-induced neuronal atrophy, indicating that these effects are not sufficient for antidepressant onset. Our findings reveal that 5-HT2C antagonists are putative fast-onset antidepressants, which act through enhancement of mesocortical dopaminergic signaling.

  3. High-throughput screening of antagonists for the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhu, Lin-yun; Liu, Qing; Hentzer, Morten; Smith, Garrick Paul; Wang, Ming-wei

    2015-07-01

    To discover antagonists of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139 through high-throughput screening of a collection of diverse small molecules. Calcium mobilization assays were used to identify initial hits and for subsequent confirmation studies. Five small molecule antagonists, representing 4 different scaffolds, were identified following high-throughput screening of 16 000 synthetic compounds. The findings provide important tools for further study of this orphan G-protein coupled receptor.

  4. High-throughput screening of antagonists for the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Zhu, Lin-yun; Liu, Qing; Hentzer, Morten; Smith, Garrick Paul; Wang, Ming-wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To discover antagonists of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139 through high-throughput screening of a collection of diverse small molecules. Methods: Calcium mobilization assays were used to identify initial hits and for subsequent confirmation studies. Results: Five small molecule antagonists, representing 4 different scaffolds, were identified following high-throughput screening of 16 000 synthetic compounds. Conclusion: The findings provide important tools for further study of this orphan G-protein coupled receptor. PMID:26027661

  5. Synthesis and dual histamine H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonist activity of cyanoguanidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Alisch, Rudi; Buschauer, Armin; Elz, Sigurd

    2013-11-15

    Premedication with a combination of histamine H₁ receptor (H₁R) and H₂ receptor (H₂R) antagonists has been suggested as a prophylactic principle, for instance, in anaesthesia and surgery. Aiming at pharmacological hybrids combining H₁R and H₂R antagonistic activity, a series of cyanoguanidines 14-35 was synthesized by linking mepyramine-type H₁R antagonist substructures with roxatidine-, tiotidine-, or ranitidine-type H₂R antagonist moieties. N-desmethylmepyramine was connected via a poly-methylene spacer to a cyanoguanidine group as the "urea equivalent" of the H₂R antagonist moiety. The title compounds were screened for histamine antagonistic activity at the isolated ileum (H₁R) and the isolated spontaneously beating right atrium (H₂R) of the guinea pig. The results indicate that, depending on the nature of the H₂R antagonist partial structure, the highest H₁R antagonist potency resided in roxatidine-type compounds with spacers of six methylene groups in length (compound 21), and tiotidine-type compounds irrespective of the alkyl chain length (compounds 28, 32, 33), N-cyano-N'-[2-[[(2-guanidino-4-thiazolyl)methyl]thio]ethyl]-N″-[2-[N-[2-[N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(pyridyl)-amino] ethyl]-N-methylamino]ethyl] guanidine (25, pKB values: 8.05 (H₁R, ileum) and 7.73 (H₂R, atrium) and the homologue with the mepyramine moiety connected by a six-membered chain to the tiotidine-like partial structure (compound 32, pKB values: 8.61 (H₁R) and 6.61 (H₂R) were among the most potent hybrid compounds. With respect to the development of a potential pharmacotherapeutic agent, structural optimization seems possible through selection of other H₁R and H₂R pharmacophoric moieties with mutually affinity-enhancing properties.

  6. Antagonist wear of monolithic zirconia crowns after 2 years.

    PubMed

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Reich, Sven

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of wear on the antagonist occlusal surfaces of clinically placed monolithic zirconia premolar and molar crowns (LAVA Plus, 3M ESPE). Fourteen in situ monolithic zirconia crowns and their opposing antagonists (n = 26) are the subject of an ongoing clinical trial and have been clinically examined at baseline and after 24 months. Silicone impressions were taken and epoxy replicas produced for qualitative SEM analysis and quantitative analysis using optical profilometry. Based on the baseline replicas, the follow-up situation has been scanned and digitally matched with the initial topography in order to calculate the mean volume loss (in mm 3 ) as well as the mean maximum vertical loss (in mm) after 2 years in service. The mean volume loss for enamel antagonist contacts (n = 7) was measured to 0.361 mm 3 and the mean of the maximum vertical loss to 0.204 mm. The mean volume loss for pure ceramic contacts (n = 10) was measured to 0.333 mm 3 and the mean of the maximum vertical loss to 0.145 mm. The wear rates on enamel contacts were not significantly different from those measured on ceramic antagonists. Based on the limitations of this study, it can be concluded for the monolithic zirconia material LAVA Plus that the measured wear rates are in consensus with other in vivo studies on ceramic restorations. Further, that no significant difference was found between natural enamel antagonists and ceramic restorations as antagonists. The monolithic zirconia restorations do not seem to be affected by wear within the first 2 years. The monolithic zirconia crowns (LAVA Plus) show acceptable antagonist wear rates after 2 years in situ, regardless of natural enamel or ceramics as antagonist materials.

  7. Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies

    PubMed Central

    Cernava, Tomislav; Müller, Henry; Aschenbrenner, Ines A.; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. PMID:26157431

  8. Pseudomonas orientalis F9: A Potent Antagonist against Phytopathogens with Phytotoxic Effect in the Apple Flower.

    PubMed

    Zengerer, Veronika; Schmid, Michael; Bieri, Marco; Müller, Denise C; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Ahrens, Christian H; Pelludat, Cosima

    2018-01-01

    In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora , the causal agent of fire blight. P. orientalis F9 displayed antagonistic activity against a broad suite of phytopathogenic bacteria in the in vitro tests. The promising results from this analysis led to an ex vivo assay with E. amylovora CFBP1430 Rif and P. orientalis F9 infected detached apple flowers. F9 diminished the fire blight pathogen in the flowers but also revealed phytotoxic traits. The experimental results were discussed in light of the complete genome sequence of F9, which revealed the strain to carry phenazine genes. Phenazines are known to contribute to antagonistic activity of bacterial strains against soil pathogens. When tested in the cress assay with Pythium ultimum as pathogen, F9 showed results comparable to the known antagonist P. protegens CHA0.

  9. Pain as a complication of use of opiate antagonists for symptom control in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    McRae, Christine A; Prince, Martin I; Hudson, Mark; Day, Christopher P; James, Oliver F W; Jones, David E J

    2003-08-01

    Controlled trials have suggested that opiate antagonist therapy may be effective for the treatment of the symptoms of cholestasis. The oral opiate antagonist naltrexone in particular has started to enter into routine clinical use for amelioration of cholestatic itch. Attention regarding the side effects of opiate antagonist therapy has, to date, largely focused on an opiate withdrawal-type reaction (which can be controlled effectively by titrated therapy introduction regimens). Here we describe 3 cases of a further clinically important side effect, loss of control of pain resulting from other pathologies, which in each case necessitated the withdrawal of hitherto clinically effective opiate antagonist therapy. Of the 14 patients treated by our unit with opiate antagonist agents for the control of cholestatic symptoms, 13 (93%) showed resolution of, or significant improvement in, symptoms. Of the 13 patients showing a clinical response, 7 (54%) subsequently had to discontinue therapy because of side effects (including the 3 patients with uncontrolled pain). It is our experience that in the routine clinical setting, opiate antagonists are highly effective for the treatment of cholestatic symptoms. In practice, however, their usefulness is limited by their side-effect profile.

  10. Modulation of bitter taste perception by a small molecule hTAS2R antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Jay P.; Brockhoff, Anne; Batram, Claudia; Menzel, Susann; Sonnabend, Caroline; Born, Stephan; Galindo, Maria Mercedes; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Ostopovici-Halip, Liliana; Simons, Christopher T.; Ungureanu, Ioana; Duineveld, Kees; Bologa, Cristian G.; Behrens, Maik; Furrer, Stefan; Oprea, Tudor I.; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human bitter taste is mediated by the hTAS2R family of G protein-coupled receptors [1-4]. The discovery of the hTAS2Rs enables the potential to develop specific bitter receptor antagonists that could be beneficial as chemical probes to examine the role of bitter receptor function in gustatory and non-gustatory tissues. In addition, they could have widespread utility in food and beverages fortified with vitamins, antioxidants and other nutraceuticals since many of these have unwanted bitter aftertastes. We employed a high-throughput screening approach to discover a novel bitter receptor antagonist (GIV3727) that inhibits activation of hTAS2R31 by saccharin and acesulfame K, two common artificial sweeteners. Pharmacological analyses revealed that GIV3727 likely acts as an orthosteric, insurmountable antagonist of hTAS2R31. Surprisingly, we also found that this compound could inhibit five additional hTAS2Rs, including the closely related receptor hTAS2R43. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that two residues in helix seven are important for antagonist activity in hTAS2R43/31. In human sensory trials, GIV3727 significantly reduced the bitterness associated with the two sulphonamide sweeteners, indicating that TAS2R antagonists are active in vivo. Our results demonstrate that small molecule bitter receptor antagonists can effectively reduce the bitter taste qualities of foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. PMID:20537538

  11. Ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 antagonist, antagonizes methamphetamine-induced anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Ginawi, O T; Al-Majed, A A; Al-Suwailem, A K

    2005-03-01

    Effects of some selective serotonergic (5-HT) antagonists on methamphetamine-induced anorexia were investigated in male mice. The least possible dose of methamphetamine alone that caused significant anorectic activity was 11 micromolkg(-1), i.p. (2 mgkg(-1)). Various doses of some selective serotonergic receptor antagonists were administered half an hour before the above mentioned dose of methamphetamine. Methiothepin potentiated, whereas NAN-190, methysergide, mianserin and ondansetron antagonized methamphetamine-induced anorectic activity. The least possible doses of these antagonists which modified methamphetamine-induced anorexia were as follows: methiothepin (1.1 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), NAN-190 (4.2 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), methysergide (2.1 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), mianserin (3.3 micromolkg(-1), i.p.) and ondansetron (0.003 micromolkg(-1), i.p.). The serotonergic antagonists at the above mentioned doses did not modify the food intake of animals not treated with methamphetamine, except for methiothepin, which produced a significant reduction, and mianserin, which produced a significant increase in food intake. The results of the present study indicated that the anorectic activity induced by methamphetamine is related to the interactions of methamphetamine with 5-HT receptor. Since a very small dose (0.003 micromolkg(-1)) of ondansetron (the 5-HT(3) antagonist), as compared with the other antagonists used in this study, antagonized the anorexia induced by methamphetamine, the 5-HT(3) receptor is likely to be the site for this interaction.

  12. The adenosine A(2A) antagonistic properties of selected C8-substituted xanthines.

    PubMed

    Van der Walt, Mietha M; Terre'Blanche, Gisella; Petzer, Anél; Lourens, Anna C U; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2013-08-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor is considered to be an important target for the development of new therapies for Parkinson's disease. Several antagonists of the A2A receptor have entered clinical trials for this purpose and many research groups have initiated programs to develop A2A receptor antagonists. Most A2A receptor antagonists belong to two different chemical classes, the xanthine derivatives and the amino-substituted heterocyclic compounds. In an attempt to discover high affinity A2A receptor antagonists and to further explore the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of A2A antagonism by the xanthine class of compounds, this study examines the A2A antagonistic properties of series of (E)-8-styrylxanthines, 8-(phenoxymethyl)xanthines and 8-(3-phenylpropyl)xanthines. The results document that among these series, the (E)-8-styrylxanthines have the highest binding affinities with the most potent homologue, (E)-1,3-diethyl-7-methyl-8-[(3-trifluoromethyl)styryl]xanthine, exhibiting a Ki value of 11.9 nM. This compound was also effective in reversing haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats, providing evidence that it is in fact an A2A receptor antagonist. The importance of substitution at C8 with the styryl moiety was demonstrated by the finding that none of the 8-(phenoxymethyl)xanthines and 8-(3-phenylpropyl)xanthines exhibited high binding affinities for the A2A receptor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscles in human infant crawling.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qi L; Wu, Xiao Y; Nong Xiao; Zeng, Si Y; Zheng, Xiao L; Di Wu; Hou, Wen S

    2016-08-01

    Infant crawling is part of normal human gross motor development, and a 4-beat gait that involves rhythmical flexion and extension of limbs and the underlying muscle co-activation of antagonist muscle around the joint. However, detection the co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle are sparse due to the general difficulty of measuring locomotion in human infants. In this paper, sEMG of antagonist muscles and the corresponding kinematics data of limbs were collected when infants were crawling on hands and knees at their self-selected speed. The infant's gross motor developmental status was assessed by the global Gross Motor Function Measure Scale (GMFM-88) as well. The method based on EMG-EMG plots was used to quantify the variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle. After that, we observed that antagonist muscles of upper limb (triceps brachii and biceps brachii) showed less variability of co-activation pattern of muscles than lower limb(quadriceps femoris and hamstrings) during crawling, and this variability was also varied in different crawling phases (stance and swing). Furthermore, we found some varied behaviors in the co-activation patterns of antagonist muscles when gross motor developmental level increased. The preliminary work suggests that such adaptive changes may be related to the adjustment of neuromuscular in the early stage of gross motor development.

  15. Pseudomonas orientalis F9: A Potent Antagonist against Phytopathogens with Phytotoxic Effect in the Apple Flower

    PubMed Central

    Zengerer, Veronika; Schmid, Michael; Bieri, Marco; Müller, Denise C.; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Ahrens, Christian H.; Pelludat, Cosima

    2018-01-01

    In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. P. orientalis F9 displayed antagonistic activity against a broad suite of phytopathogenic bacteria in the in vitro tests. The promising results from this analysis led to an ex vivo assay with E. amylovora CFBP1430Rif and P. orientalis F9 infected detached apple flowers. F9 diminished the fire blight pathogen in the flowers but also revealed phytotoxic traits. The experimental results were discussed in light of the complete genome sequence of F9, which revealed the strain to carry phenazine genes. Phenazines are known to contribute to antagonistic activity of bacterial strains against soil pathogens. When tested in the cress assay with Pythium ultimum as pathogen, F9 showed results comparable to the known antagonist P. protegens CHA0. PMID:29479340

  16. Meiotic drive influences the outcome of sexually antagonistic selection at a linked locus.

    PubMed

    Patten, M M

    2014-11-01

    Most meiotic drivers, such as the t-haplotype in Mus and the segregation distorter (SD) in Drosophila, act in a sex-specific manner, gaining a transmission advantage through one sex although suffering only the fitness costs associated with the driver in the other. Their inheritance is thus more likely through one of the two sexes, a property they share with sexually antagonistic alleles. Previous theory has shown that pairs of linked loci segregating for sexually antagonistic alleles are more likely to remain polymorphic and that linkage disequilibrium accrues between them. I probe this similarity between drive and sexual antagonism and examine the evolution of chromosomes experiencing these selection pressures simultaneously. Reminiscent of previous theory, I find that: the opportunity for polymorphism increases for a sexually antagonistic locus that is physically linked to a driving locus; the opportunity for polymorphism at a driving locus also increases when linked to a sexually antagonistic locus; and stable linkage disequilibrium accompanies any polymorphic equilibrium. Additionally, I find that drive at a linked locus favours the fixation of sexually antagonistic alleles that benefit the sex in which drive occurs. Further, I show that under certain conditions reduced recombination between these two loci is selectively favoured. These theoretical results provide clear, testable predictions about the nature of sexually antagonistic variation on driving chromosomes and have implications for the evolution of genomic architecture. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Role of substance P on histamine H(3) antagonist-induced scratching behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Maria Alejandra; Inoue, Toshio; Shinmei, Yoshifumi; Fujii, Yoko; Watanabe, Takeshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the involvement of chemical mediators, other than histamine, in the scratching behavior induced by H(3) antagonists. Scratching behavior was induced by the histamine H(3) antagonists iodophenpropit and clobenpropit (10 nmol/site) when they were injected intradermally into the rostral part of the back of mast-cell-deficient (WBB6F1 W/W(v)) and wild-type (WBB6F1 +/+) mice. Subsequently, the effect of spantide, a tachykinin NK(1) antagonist, was measured for 60 min. The effects of the H(3) antagonists on in vitro histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells were also investigated. When spantide was injected intradermally at a dose of 0.5 nmol/site, it significantly inhibited the response. Furthermore, iodophenpropit and clobenpropit (10(-6)-10(-8) M) did not induce histamine release in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells. Our results indicate that substance P is involved in the skin responses elicited by the histamine H(3) antagonists. Moreover, the fact that these histamine H(3) antagonists did not induce significant increases in the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells suggests that the histamine H(3) receptor may not be present in the peripheral cells considered in this study.

  18. Retinal Neovascularization is Suppressed with a an Antagonist to VE-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Navaratna, Deepti; Maestas, Joann; McGuire, Paul G.; Das, Arup

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the role of VE-cadherin in cellular processes underlying angiogenesis and the effects of VE-cadherin inhibition on retinal angiogenesis. Methods Retinal neovascularization was induced in newborn mice by exposure to 75% oxygen (day 7-12) followed by room air, and quantitatied from histological sections. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of either a VE-cadherin antagonist or a control peptide from day 12 to 17. In vitro cell migration, proliferation, and tubule formation was examined in the presence of the VE-cadherin antagonist. The effect of antagonist treatment on the integrity of established cell junctions was examined by FITC-dextran monolayer permeability and VE-cadherin immunocytochemistry. Results Treatment with the VE-cadherin antagonist significantly reduced retinal angiogenesis. Inhibition of VE-cadherin function suppressed tubule formation in endothelial cells. The antagonist treatment also decreased cell migration and proliferation. The antagonist treatment did not affect the integrity of existing cell junctions. Immunostaining for VE-cadherin and rates of monolayer permeability were comparable to untreated controls. Conclusions Our studies point to a pivotal role played by VE-cadherin in the angiogenic process. Clinical Relevance Inhibition of VE-cadherin might be an effective strategy for pharmacological inhibition in proliferative retinopathies. PMID:18695103

  19. Shifting to a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulation agent from vitamin K antagonist in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Vinding, Naja Emborg; Lamberts, Morten; Staerk, Laila; Gundlund, Anna; Gadsbøll, Kasper; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2017-06-28

    After non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulation agents (NOAC) have been approved for thrombo-embolic prophylaxis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), utilization of oral anticoagulants (OAC) in NVAF has changed. Contemporary shifting from a VKA to a NOAC (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) has not been quantified, and could help assess whether these drugs are used according to recommendations. Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified all VKA-experienced NVAF patients initiating a NOAC from 22 August 2011 to 31 December 2015 (shifters) and all VKA-experienced NVAF patients who were not switched to NOACs (non-shifters). Baseline characteristics and temporal utilization trends were examined. We included 62 065 patients with NVAF; of these, 19 386 (29.6%) shifted from a VKA to a NOAC (9973 (54.2%) shifted to dabigatran, 4775 (26.0%) to rivaroxaban, and 3638 (19.8%) to apixaban). Shifting was associated with lower age [odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.94-0.96 per 5 year increments], female gender (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.28-1.38), and certain co-morbidities: more often stroke, bleeding, heart failure, and alcohol abuse, and less often hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes. Shifting was common and initially dominated by shifting from VKA to dabigatran, but at the end of 2015, most shifters were shifted to rivaroxaban (45%) or apixaban (45%) whereas shifting to dabigatran decreased (to 10%). In a contemporary setting among VKA-experienced NVAF patients; VKA is still prevalent although about 30% by December 2015 had shifted to a NOAC. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Partial to complete antagonism by putative antagonists at the wild-type α2C-adrenoceptor based on kinetic analyses of agonist : antagonist interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Petrus J; Colpaert, Francis C

    2000-01-01

    Activation of the recombinant human α2C-adrenoceptor (α2C AR) by (−)-adrenaline in CHO-K1 cells transiently co-expressing a chimeric Gαq/i1 protein induced a rapid, transient Ca2+ response with a high-magnitude followed by a low-magnitude phase which continued throughout the recorded time period (15 min). Activation of the α2C AR by various α2 AR agonists revealed the following rank order of high-magnitude Ca2+ response [Emax (%) versus 10 μM (−)-adrenaline]: UK 14304 (102±4)=talipexole (101±3)=(−)-adrenaline (100)=d-medetomidine (98±1)>oxymetazoline (81±4)⋍clonidine (75±5). The methoxy- (RX 821002) and ethoxy-derivatives (RX 811059) of idazoxan and the dexefaroxan analogue atipamezole were fully effective as antagonists of both the high- and the low-magnitude Ca2+ response. However, though acting as full antagonists of the high-magnitude response, the further putative α2 AR antagonists idazoxan (27%), SKF 86466 (29%) and dexefaroxan (59%) reversed the low-magnitude response only partially. In conclusion, kinetic analyses of agonist : antagonist interactions at the α2C AR demonstrate a wide spectrum of partial to complete antagonism of the low-magnitude Ca2+ response for structurally related α2 AR ligands. PMID:11090111

  1. Design of novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists based on conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids and discovery of a potent chimeric opioid agonist-neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Ballet, Steven; Feytens, Debby; Buysse, Koen; Chung, Nga N.; Lemieux, Carole; Tumati, Suneeta; Keresztes, Attila; Van Duppen, Joost; Lai, Josephine; Varga, Eva; Porreca, Frank; Schiller, Peter W.; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Tourwé, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    A screening of conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids as base cores for the preparation of new NK1 receptor antagonists resulted in the discovery of three new NK1 receptor antagonists, 19 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NH-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn] and 23 [Ac-Tic-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], which were able to counteract the agonist effect of substance P, the endogenous ligand of NK1R. The most active NK1 antagonist of the series, 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], was then used in the design of a novel, potent chimeric opioid agonist-NK1 receptor antagonist, 35 [Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], which combines the N-terminus of the established Dmt1-DALDA agonist opioid pharmacophore (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) and 20, the NK1R ligand. The opioid component of the chimeric compound 35, i.e. Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH2 36, also proved to be an extremely potent and balanced μ- and δ opioid receptor agonist with subnanomolar binding and in vitro functional activity. PMID:21413804

  2. Antagonistic Donor Density Effect Conserved in Multiple Enterococcal Conjugative Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie; Frank, Kristi L.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecalis, a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections, is resistant to many known antibiotics. Its ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes and virulence determinants through conjugative plasmids poses a serious concern for public health. In some cases, induction of transfer of E. faecalis plasmids results from peptide pheromones produced by plasmid-free recipient cells, which are sensed by the plasmid-bearing donor cells. These plasmids generally encode an inhibitory peptide that competes with the pheromone and suppresses self-induction of donors. We recently demonstrated that the inhibitor peptide encoded on plasmid pCF10 is part of a unique quorum-sensing system in which it functions as a “self-sensing signal,” reducing the response to the pheromone in a density-dependent fashion. Based on the similarities between regulatory features controlling conjugation in pAD1 and pAM373 and those controlling conjugation in pCF10, we hypothesized that these plasmids are likely to exhibit similar quorum-sensing behaviors. Experimental findings indicate that for both pAD1 and pAM373, high donor densities indeed resulted in decreased induction of the conjugation operon and reduced conjugation frequencies. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous inhibitor, confirming that the inhibitor serves as an indicator for donor density. Donor density also affects cross-species conjugative plasmid transfer. Based on our experimental results, we propose models for induction and shutdown of the conjugation operon in pAD1 and pAM373. IMPORTANCE Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants by sharing its genetic material with other bacteria through direct cell-cell contact via conjugation poses a serious threat. Two antagonistic signaling peptides control the transfer of plasmids pAD1 and pAM373: a peptide pheromone produced by

  3. Antagonistic Donor Density Effect Conserved in Multiple Enterococcal Conjugative Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie; Frank, Kristi L; Dunny, Gary M; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2016-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections, is resistant to many known antibiotics. Its ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes and virulence determinants through conjugative plasmids poses a serious concern for public health. In some cases, induction of transfer of E. faecalis plasmids results from peptide pheromones produced by plasmid-free recipient cells, which are sensed by the plasmid-bearing donor cells. These plasmids generally encode an inhibitory peptide that competes with the pheromone and suppresses self-induction of donors. We recently demonstrated that the inhibitor peptide encoded on plasmid pCF10 is part of a unique quorum-sensing system in which it functions as a "self-sensing signal," reducing the response to the pheromone in a density-dependent fashion. Based on the similarities between regulatory features controlling conjugation in pAD1 and pAM373 and those controlling conjugation in pCF10, we hypothesized that these plasmids are likely to exhibit similar quorum-sensing behaviors. Experimental findings indicate that for both pAD1 and pAM373, high donor densities indeed resulted in decreased induction of the conjugation operon and reduced conjugation frequencies. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous inhibitor, confirming that the inhibitor serves as an indicator for donor density. Donor density also affects cross-species conjugative plasmid transfer. Based on our experimental results, we propose models for induction and shutdown of the conjugation operon in pAD1 and pAM373. Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants by sharing its genetic material with other bacteria through direct cell-cell contact via conjugation poses a serious threat. Two antagonistic signaling peptides control the transfer of plasmids pAD1 and pAM373: a peptide pheromone produced by plasmid-free recipients

  4. Targeting Renal Cell Carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenfang; Hill, Haley; Christie, Alana; Kim, Min Soo; Holloman, Eboni; Pavia-Jimenez, Andrea; Homayoun, Farrah; Ma, Yuanqing; Patel, Nirav; Yell, Paul; Hao, Guiyang; Yousuf, Qurratulain; Joyce, Allison; Pedrosa, Ivan; Geiger, Heather; Zhang, He; Chang, Jenny; Gardner, Kevin H.; Bruick, Richard K.; Reeves, Catherine; Hwang, Tae Hyun; Courtney, Kevin; Frenkel, Eugene; Sun, Xiankai; Zojwalla, Naseem; Wong, Tai; Rizzi, James P.; Wallace, Eli M.; Josey, John A.; Xie, Yang; Xie, Xian-Jin; Kapur, Payal; McKay, Renée M.; Brugarolas, James

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by VHL inactivation1,2. Because no other gene is mutated as frequently, and VHL mutations are truncal3, VHL inactivation is regarded as the governing event4. VHL loss activates HIF-2, and constitutive HIF-2 restores tumorigenesis in VHL-reconstituted ccRCC cells5. HIF-2 is implicated in angiogenesis and multiple other processes6–9, but angiogenesis is the main target of drugs like sunitinib10. HIF-2, a transcription factor, has been regarded as undruggable11. A structure-based design approach identified a selective HIF-2 antagonist (PT2399) that we evaluate using a tumorgraft (TG)/PDX platform12,13. PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer [HIF-2α/HIF-1β])14 in human ccRCC suppressing tumorigenesis in 56% (10/18) lines. PT2399 had greater activity than sunitinib, was active in sunitinib-progressing tumors, and was better tolerated. Unexpectedly, some VHL-mutant ccRCCs were resistant. Resistance occurred despite HIF-2 dissociation in tumors and evidence of Hif-2 inhibition in the mouse as determined by suppression of circulating erythropoietin, a HIF-2 target15 and possible pharmacodynamic marker. We identified a HIF-2-dependent gene signature in sensitive tumors. Illustrating drug specificity, gene expression was largely unaffected by PT2399 in resistant tumors. Sensitive tumors exhibited a distinguishing gene expression signature, and generally higher HIF-2α levels. Prolonged PT2399 treatment led to resistance. We identified a binding site and second site suppressor mutation in HIF-2α and HIF-1β respectively. Both mutations preserved HIF-2 dimers despite treatment with PT2399. Finally, an extensively pretreated patient with a sensitive TG had disease control for >11 months with the close analogue PT2385. We validate HIF-2 as a target in ccRCC, show that some ccRCC are, unexpectedly, HIF-2 independent, and set the stage for biomarker-driven clinical trials. PMID:27595394

  5. Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenfang; Hill, Haley; Christie, Alana; Kim, Min Soo; Holloman, Eboni; Pavia-Jimenez, Andrea; Homayoun, Farrah; Ma, Yuanqing; Patel, Nirav; Yell, Paul; Hao, Guiyang; Yousuf, Qurratulain; Joyce, Allison; Pedrosa, Ivan; Geiger, Heather; Zhang, He; Chang, Jenny; Gardner, Kevin H; Bruick, Richard K; Reeves, Catherine; Hwang, Tae Hyun; Courtney, Kevin; Frenkel, Eugene; Sun, Xiankai; Zojwalla, Naseem; Wong, Tai; Rizzi, James P; Wallace, Eli M; Josey, John A; Xie, Yang; Xie, Xian-Jin; Kapur, Payal; McKay, Renée M; Brugarolas, James

    2016-11-03

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL). Because no other gene is mutated as frequently in ccRCC and VHL mutations are truncal, VHL inactivation is regarded as the governing event. VHL loss activates the HIF-2 transcription factor, and constitutive HIF-2 activity restores tumorigenesis in VHL-reconstituted ccRCC cells. HIF-2 has been implicated in angiogenesis and multiple other processes, but angiogenesis is the main target of drugs such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. HIF-2 has been regarded as undruggable. Here we use a tumourgraft/patient-derived xenograft platform to evaluate PT2399, a selective HIF-2 antagonist that was identified using a structure-based design approach. PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer of HIF-2α-HIF-1β) in human ccRCC cells and suppressed tumorigenesis in 56% (10 out of 18) of such lines. PT2399 had greater activity than sunitinib, was active in sunitinib-progressing tumours, and was better tolerated. Unexpectedly, some VHL-mutant ccRCCs were resistant to PT2399. Resistance occurred despite HIF-2 dissociation in tumours and evidence of Hif-2 inhibition in the mouse, as determined by suppression of circulating erythropoietin, a HIF-2 target and possible pharmacodynamic marker. We identified a HIF-2-dependent gene signature in sensitive tumours. Gene expression was largely unaffected by PT2399 in resistant tumours, illustrating the specificity of the drug. Sensitive tumours exhibited a distinguishing gene expression signature and generally higher levels of HIF-2α. Prolonged PT2399 treatment led to resistance. We identified binding site and second site suppressor mutations in HIF-2α and HIF-1β, respectively. Both mutations preserved HIF-2 dimers despite treatment with PT2399. Finally, an extensively pretreated patient whose tumour had given rise to a sensitive tumourgraft showed disease control for more than 11 months when

  6. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in kidney transplantation: time to consider?

    PubMed

    Girerd, Sophie; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2018-04-17

    Although patient survival is significantly improved by kidney transplantation (KT) in comparison with dialysis, it remains significantly lower than that observed in the general population. Graft function is one of the major determinants of patient survival after KT. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) could be of particular interest in this population to improve graft function and treat or prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications. In KT, ischaemia/reperfusion injury is a major factor involved in delayed graft function, which is often associated with inferior long-term graft survival. Preclinical studies suggest that MRAs may prevent ischaemia/reperfusion-related lesions in addition to having a protective effect in preventing calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity. Clinical data also support the anti-proteinuric effect of MRAs in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Taken together, MRAs may hence be of particular benefit in improving short- and long-term graft function. Numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of MRAs in both heart failure and resistant hypertension. As these comorbidities are frequent in kidney transplant recipients before transplantation or during follow-up, MRAs could represent a useful therapeutic option in those with mild renal function impairment. However, CKD patients are under-represented in RCTs and the CV effects of MRAs in kidney transplant recipients have yet to be specifically assessed in large-scale trials. Available evidence indicates a good safety profile for MRAs in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >30 mL/min/1.73 m2. However, as for all patients prescribed an MRA, creatinine and potassium should also be closely monitored following MRA initiation in kidney transplant patients. Given the current evidence suggesting that MRAs prevent ischaemia/reperfusion-related lesions and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity in kidney transplant recipients as well as CV events in

  7. Roles of Amino Acids and Subunits in Determining the Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Competitive Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, James P.; Vidal, Ana Maria; Liu, Man; Mettewie, Claire; Suzuki, Takahiro; Pham, Anh; Demazumder, Deeptankar

    2008-01-01

    Background Binding sites for agonists and competitive antagonists (nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents) are located at the α–δ and α–ε subunit interfaces of adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Most information about the amino acids that participate in antagonist binding comes from binding studies with (+)-tubocurarine and metocurine. These bind selectively to the α–ε interface but are differentially sensitive to mutations. To test the generality of this observation, the authors measured current inhibition by five competitive antagonists on wild-type and mutant acetylcholine receptors. Methods HEK293 cells were transfected with wild-type or mutant (αY198F, εD59A, εD59N, εD173A, εD173N, δD180K) mouse muscle acetylcholine receptor complementary DNA. Outside-out patches were excised and perfused with acetylcho-line in the absence and presence of antagonist. Concentration–response curves were constructed to determine antagonist IC50. An antagonist-removal protocol was used to determine dissociation and association rates. Results Effects of mutations were antagonist specific. αY198F decreased the IC50 of (+)-tubocurarine 10-fold, increased the IC50 of vecuronium 5-fold, and had smaller effects on other antagonists. (+)-Tubocurarine was the most sensitive antagonist to εD173 mutations. εD59 mutations had large effects on metocurine and cisatracurium. δD180K decreased inhibition by pancuronium, vecuronium, and cisatracurium. Inhibition by these antagonists was increased for receptors containing two δ subunits but no ε subunit. Differences in IC50 arose from differences in both dissociation and association rates. Conclusion Competitive antagonists exhibited different patterns of sensitivity to mutations. Except for pancuronium, the antagonists were sensitive to mutations at the α–ε interface. Pancuronium, vecuronium, and cisatracurium were selective for the α–δ interface. This suggests the possibility of synergistic

  8. N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists for stroke and head trauma.

    PubMed

    Wood, P L; Hawkinson, J E

    1997-04-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel which is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), and which mediates most of the fast excitatory neuronal transmission in the CNS. As with other ligand-gated ion channels, the NMDA receptor is a macromolecular complex which possesses a number of intricate regulatory sites within and around a central ion channel. The key regulatory components for which prototypic antagonists have been developed are the competitive NMDA antagonist binding site, the non-competitive NMDA antagonist binding site within the ion channel, and the NMDA receptor-associated glycine antagonist site. The binding domains for each of these binding sites possess discrete and non-overlapping SAR with regard to the chemical series developed to date. The potential utility of NMDA antagonists in the treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury was investigated soon after the synthesis of the first bioavailable NMDA antagonists. Efficacy in preclinical models was demonstrated with both competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists. However, preclinical testing also revealed potentially clinically-limiting side-effects which included phencyclidine (PCP)-like actions indicative of possible psychotomimetic activity, cerebral vacuolisation of limbic cortical neurones, low therapeutic indices relative to incapacitating motor side-effects and, in the case of non-competitive antagonists, hypertension. These limitations have led to the design of clinical trials that should define the therapeutic index for this type of compound in humans. Currently, the first competitive antagonist to enter clinical trials, selfotel, is on hold, while D-CPPene is still in development. The non-competitive antagonist, aptiganel, is currently in Phase III clinical trials and its therapeutic efficacy and index should be defined in 1997 and 1998. The well-defined limitations of competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists have been a key

  9. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Agonists and Antagonists as Research Tools and Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G

    2012-01-01

    We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V1a, V1b and V2 receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V1b receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V1a agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V2/V1a antagonist, conivaptan and the V2 antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V1a, V1b and V2 antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences. PMID:22375852

  10. Enhanced adenylate cyclase activity of turkey erythrocytes following treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Peters, J R; Nambi, P; Sibley, D R; Lefkowitz, R J

    1984-12-15

    The turkey erythrocyte contains a beta 1-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase system. We have examined the effects of pretreatment with receptor antagonists on adenylate cyclase activity and the individual components in the pathway of enzyme activation in this system. Isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is increased by 30% (P less than 0.01) over control in membranes derived from cells preincubated with the antagonist propranolol. The effect is stereospecific and dose-related with a EC50 of 100 nM for the (-) isomer. The time course of effect is rapid being complete by 90 min. Non-receptor mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by manganese ion, forskolin and NaF is similarly enhanced following propranolol pretreatment. Sensitization of adenylate cyclase activity also occurs following pretreatment with a number of antagonists but is not seen after preincubation with pindolol or practolol. Quantitation of beta-adrenergic receptor (R) density using [125I]cyanopindolol indicates no difference between membranes derived from control and antagonist pretreated cells. Coupling of R with the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) as assessed by high affinity agonist binding is unchanged following pretreatment. The efficacy of 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate Gpp(NH)p in producing a shift of agonist binding curves associated with destabilization of high affinity H-R-N complexes, is also the same (EC50 = 0.2 microM) in membranes from control and antagonist treated cells. The isoproterenol stimulated rate of release of [3H]GDP from membranes preloaded with [3H]GTP as an index of formation of an active form of the N protein is similarly unaffected by antagonist preincubation. We conclude that the mechanism of the observed sensitization of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase by beta-adrenergic antagonists is receptor mediated and likely involves facilitation of N interaction with the catalytic subunit of the enzyme.

  11. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists as potent modulators of mammalian vestibular primary neuron excitability

    PubMed Central

    Desmadryl, G; Gaboyard-Niay, S; Brugeaud, A; Travo, C; Broussy, A; Saleur, A; Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen, J; Wersinger, E; Chabbert, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Betahistine, the main histamine drug prescribed to treat vestibular disorders, is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Here, we explored the potential for modulation of the most recently cloned histamine receptor (H4 receptor) to influence vestibular system function, using a selective H4 receptor antagonist JNJ 7777120 and the derivate compound JNJ 10191584. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RT-PCR was used to assess the presence of H4 receptors in rat primary vestibular neurons. In vitro electrophysiological recordings and in vivo behavioural approaches using specific antagonists were employed to examine the effect of H4 receptor modulation in the rat vestibular system. KEY RESULTS The transcripts of H4 and H3 receptors were present in rat vestibular ganglia. Application of betahistine inhibited the evoked action potential firing starting at micromolar range, accompanied by subsequent strong neuronal depolarization at higher concentrations. Conversely, reversible inhibitory effects elicited by JNJ 10191584 and JNJ 7777120 began in the nanomolar range, without inducing neuronal depolarization. This effect was reversed by application of the selective H4 receptor agonist 4-methylhistamine. Thioperamide, a H3/H4 receptor antagonist, exerted effects similar to those of H3 and H4 receptor antagonists, namely inhibition of firing at nanomolar range and membrane depolarization above 100 µM. H4 receptor antagonists significantly alleviated the vestibular deficits induced in rats, while neither betahistine nor thioperamide had significant effects. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H4 receptor antagonists have a pronounced inhibitory effect on vestibular neuron activity. This result highlights the potential role of H4 receptors as pharmacological targets for the treatment of vestibular disorders. PMID:22624822

  12. Differential effects of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on platelet microaggregate and macroaggregate formation and effect of anticoagulant on antagonist potency. Implications for assay methodology and comparison of different antagonists.

    PubMed

    Storey, R F; Wilcox, R G; Heptinstall, S

    1998-10-20

    Citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) turbidimetry is used for assessing pharmacodynamic effects of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists in clinical trials. However, citrate can enhance the potency of at least eptifibatide (Integrilin), and turbidimetry is insensitive to microaggregate formation. We compared PRP turbidimetry, as a measure of macroaggregate formation, with single-platelet counting in both whole blood and PRP as a measure of microaggregate formation, using both citrate and hirudin anticoagulation. Three GP IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, MK-0852, and GR144053, were compared in PRP (turbidimetry) and whole blood (platelet counting with an Ultra-Flo 100 Platelet Counter), with ADP and collagen used as agonists. Compared with hirudin, citrate enhanced the potency of eptifibatide by up to 4-fold in both PRP and whole blood (P<0.0005), modestly enhanced MK-0852 potency (P=0.001), and had no effect on GR144053. Potency measured in PRP was 2- to 3-fold greater compared with whole blood for MK-0852 and GR144053 but 3- to 4-fold greater for eptifibatide. Simultaneous turbidimetry and platelet counting performed in PRP indicated that this is because GP IIb/IIIa antagonists are more potent inhibitors of in vitro macroaggregation than microaggregation, this effect being greater for eptifibatide in hirudinized PRP compared with GR144053 (P=0.032). GP IIb/IIIa antagonist potency is variably enhanced by citrate. Macroaggregation is inhibited more effectively than microaggregation, most markedly in the case of eptifibatide in hirudinized blood. These observations have implications for the interpretation and comparison of pharmacodynamic assays and possibly for the risk/benefit ratio of different agents.

  13. SSTR-Mediated Imaging in Breast Cancer: Is There a Role for Radiolabeled Somatostatin Receptor Antagonists?

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Haeck, Joost; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; de Blois, Erik; de Jong, Marion; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown enhanced tumor targeting by novel somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists compared with clinically widely used agonists. However, these results have been obtained mostly in neuroendocrine tumors, and only limited data are available for cancer types with lower SSTR expression, including breast cancer (BC). To date, two studies have reported higher binding of the antagonist than the agonist in BC, but in both studies only a limited number of cases were evaluated. In this preclinical study, we further investigated whether the application of an SSTR antagonist can improve SSTR-mediated BC imaging in a large panel of BC specimens. We also generated an in vivo BC mouse model and performed SPECT/MRI and biodistribution studies. Methods: Binding of 111 In-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate (SSTR agonist) and 111 In-DOTA-JR11 (SSTR antagonist) to 40 human BC specimens was compared using in vitro autoradiography. SSTR2 immunostaining was performed to confirm SSTR2 expression of the tumor cells. Furthermore, binding of the radiolabeled SSTR agonist and antagonist was analyzed in tissue material from 6 patient-derived xenografts. One patient-derived xenograft, the estrogen receptor-positive model T126, was chosen to generate in vivo mouse models containing orthotopic breast tumors for in vivo SPECT/MRI and biodistribution studies after injection with 177 Lu-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate or 177 Lu-DOTA-JR11. Results: 111 In-DOTA-JR11 binding to human BC tissue was significantly higher than 111 In-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate binding ( P < 0.001). The median ratio of antagonist binding versus agonist binding was 3.39 (interquartile range, 2-5). SSTR2 immunostaining confirmed SSTR2 expression on the tumor cells. SPECT/MRI of the mouse model found better tumor visualization with the antagonist. This result was in line with the significantly higher tumor uptake of the radiolabeled antagonist than of the agonist as measured in biodistribution studies 285 min after radiotracer

  14. Maternal exposure to folic acid antagonists and placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Qiuying; Fraser, William; Olatunbosun, Olufemi; Walker, Mark

    2008-12-02

    In previous studies, maternal exposure to folic acid antagonists was associated with increased risks of neural tube defects, cardiovascular defects, oral clefts and urinary tract defects. The objective of the current study was to assess the possible effects of using folic acid antagonists in pregnancy on placenta-mediated adverse outcomes of pregnancy. We used data from an administrative database to retrospectively compare the occurrence of placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes between pregnant women exposed to folic acid antagonists and women without exposure to these agents. We included in the analysis a total of 14 982 women who had been exposed to folic acid antagonists and 59 825 women who had not been exposed. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the most frequently prescribed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor (a total of 12 546 exposures during the preconception period and all 3 trimesters), and phenobarbital was the most frequently prescribed among the other folic acid antagonists (a total of 1565 exposures). The risks of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-1.66), severe preeclampsia (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.38-2.28), placental abruption (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.57), fetal growth restriction defined as less than the 10th percentile (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13), fetal growth restriction defined as less than the 3rd percentile (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34) and fetal death (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70) were greater among mothers with exposure to folic acid antagonists. In general, the risks associated with exposure to other folic acid antagonists were higher than those associated with exposure to dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. Supplementary analyses involving tight matching with propensity score, restriction of the analysis to women with exposure during the first and second trimesters and restriction of the analysis to specific categories of folic acid antagonists yielded similar results. Maternal exposure to folic acid

  15. Effects of sigma(1) receptor ligand MS-377 on D(2) antagonists-induced behaviors.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Shinji; Takagi, Kaori; Horikomi, Kazutoshi

    2002-10-01

    (R)-(+)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377) is a novel antipsychotic agent with selective and high affinity for sigma(1) receptor. The present study was carried out to clarify the interaction of MS-377 with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists (D(2) antagonists) in concurrent administration, and then the involvement of sigma receptors in the interaction. The effects of MS-377 on haloperidol- or sultopride-induced inhibition of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and catalepsy were investigated in mice and rats, respectively. In addition, the effects of (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503, both of which are sigma receptor agonists, and WAY-100,635, which is a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the interaction due to the concurrent use were also investigated. MS-377 potentiated the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, MS-377 did not affect the catalepsy induction by these drugs. The potentiation of the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior by MS-377 was not inhibited by WAY-100,635, but was inhibited by (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503. These findings showed that MS-377 potentiates the efficacy of D(2) antagonists, but it does not deteriorate the adverse effect. Moreover, sigma(1) receptors are involved in this potentiation of the efficacy of D(2) antagonists by MS-377.

  16. Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Antagonistic Bacteria against Phytophthora nicotianae Isolated from Tobacco Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fengli; Ding, Yanqin; Ding, Wei; Reddy, M.S.; Fernando, W.G. Dilantha; Du, Binghai

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of antagonistic bacteria from the tobacco rhizosphere was examined by BOXAIR-PCR, 16S-RFLP, 16S rRNA sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis methods. These studies revealed that 4.01% of the 6652 tested had some inhibitory activity against Phytophthora nicotianae. BOXAIR-PCR analysis revealed 35 distinct amplimers aligning at a 91% similarity level, reflecting a high degree of genotypic diversity among the antagonistic bacteria. A total of 25 16S-RFLP patterns were identified representing over 33 species from 17 different genera. Our results also found a significant amount of bacterial diversity among the antagonistic bacteria compared to other published reports. For the first time; Delftia tsuruhatensis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Advenella incenata, Bacillus altitudinis, Kocuria palustris, Bacillus licheniformis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Myroides odoratimimus are reported to display antagonistic activity towards Phytophthora nicotianae. Furthermore, the majority (75%) of the isolates assayed for antagonistic activity were Gram-positives compared to only 25% that were Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21686169

  17. Positive Detection of GPCR Antagonists Using a System for Inverted Expression of a Fluorescent Reporter Gene.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Nobuo; Kaishima, Misato; Ishii, Jun; Honda, Shinya

    2017-08-18

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a useful eukaryotic host organism for studying GPCRs as monomolecular models. Fluorescent reporter gene assays for GPCRs provide a convenient assay for measuring receptor activity using fluorometric instruments. Generally, these assays detect receptor activation by agonistic ligands as the induction of fluorescent reporter expression, whereas antagonistic activities are detected by competition with agonistic ligands, resulting in decreases in fluorescence intensity. In the current study, we established a system for inverted expression of a fluorescent reporter by incorporating a PEST-tag and finding out a promoter inhibited by activation of the GPCR signaling pathway from yeast endogenous promoters. Because agonists prevent fluorescent reporter expression in this system, antagonists compete with agonists and yield increased fluorescence intensity. We used the yeast endogenous pheromone receptor as a model GPCR to demonstrate the feasibility of our system for positive detection targeted at antagonists. Compared to results when only agonists were added to yeast cells, more than 10-fold higher fluorescence intensity was observed when antagonists were added in combination with agonists. The approach described here has the potential to markedly accelerate the identification of GPCR antagonists by providing rapid and straightforward responses.

  18. Human muscle spindle sensitivity reflects the balance of activity between antagonistic muscles.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Michael

    2014-10-08

    Muscle spindles are commonly considered as stretch receptors encoding movement, but the functional consequence of their efferent control has remained unclear. The "α-γ coactivation" hypothesis states that activity in a muscle is positively related to the output of its spindle afferents. However, in addition to the above, possible reciprocal inhibition of spindle controllers entails a negative relationship between contractile activity in one muscle and spindle afferent output from its antagonist. By recording spindle afferent responses from alert humans using microneurography, I show that spindle output does reflect antagonistic muscle balance. Specifically, regardless of identical kinematic profiles across active finger movements, stretch of the loaded antagonist muscle (i.e., extensor) was accompanied by increased afferent firing rates from this muscle compared with the baseline case of no constant external load. In contrast, spindle firing rates from the stretching antagonist were lowest when the agonist muscle powering movement (i.e., flexor) acted against an additional resistive load. Stepwise regressions confirmed that instantaneous velocity, extensor, and flexor muscle activity had a significant effect on spindle afferent responses, with flexor activity having a negative effect. Therefore, the results indicate that, as consequence of their efferent control, spindle sensitivity (gain) to muscle stretch reflects the balance of activity between antagonistic muscles rather than only the activity of the spindle-bearing muscle. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413644-12$15.00/0.

  19. Novel CRTH2 antagonists: a review of patents from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Trond; Kostenis, Evi

    2010-11-01

    The receptor CRTH2 (also known as DP₂) is an important mediator of the inflammatory effects of prostaglandin D₂ and has attracted much attention as a therapeutic target for the treatment of conditions such as asthma, COPD, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The validation of CRTH2 as a therapeutic target and the early antagonists are summarized, CRTH2 antagonists published in the patent literature from 2006 to 2009 are comprehensively covered and a general update on the recent progress in the development of CRTH2 antagonists for the treatment of inflammatory diseases is provided. Insight into the validation of CRTH2 as a therapeutic target, a comprehensive overview of the development of new CRTH2 ligands between 2006 and 2009, and a general overview of the state of the art. Many diverse potent CRTH2 antagonists are now available, and several are in or on the way into the clinic. It is still early to draw final conclusions, but preliminary results give reason for optimism, and the prospect that we will see new CRTH2 antagonists reaching the market for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and/or COPD seems good.

  20. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of antagonistic bacteria against Phytophthora nicotianae isolated from tobacco rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengli; Ding, Yanqin; Ding, Wei; Reddy, M S; Fernando, W G Dilantha; Du, Binghai

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of antagonistic bacteria from the tobacco rhizosphere was examined by BOXAIR-PCR, 16S-RFLP, 16S rRNA sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis methods. These studies revealed that 4.01% of the 6652 tested had some inhibitory activity against Phytophthora nicotianae. BOXAIR-PCR analysis revealed 35 distinct amplimers aligning at a 91% similarity level, reflecting a high degree of genotypic diversity among the antagonistic bacteria. A total of 25 16S-RFLP patterns were identified representing over 33 species from 17 different genera. Our results also found a significant amount of bacterial diversity among the antagonistic bacteria compared to other published reports. For the first time; Delftia tsuruhatensis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Advenella incenata, Bacillus altitudinis, Kocuria palustris, Bacillus licheniformis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Myroides odoratimimus are reported to display antagonistic activity towards Phytophthora nicotianae. Furthermore, the majority (75%) of the isolates assayed for antagonistic activity were Gram-positives compared to only 25% that were Gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Diversity of antagonistic bacteria isolated from medicinal plantPeganum harmalaL.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Fehmida

    2017-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extract of Peganum harmala , a medicinal plant has been studied already. However, knowledge about bacterial diversity associated with different parts of host plant antagonistic to different human pathogenic bacteria is limited. In this study, bacteria were isolated from root, leaf and fruit of plant. Among 188 bacterial isolates isolated from different parts of the plant only 24 were found to be active against different pathogenic bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecium , Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . These active bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene analysis. Total population of bacteria isolated from plant was high in root, following leaf and fruit. Antagonistic bacteria were also more abundant in root as compared to leaf and fruit. Two isolates (EA5 and EA18) exhibited antagonistic activity against most of the targeted pathogenic bacteria mentioned above. Some isolates showed strong inhibition for one targeted pathogenic bacterium while weak or no inhibition for others. Most of the antagonistic isolates were active against MRSA, following E. faecium , P. aeruginosa , E. coli and E. faecalis . Taken together, our results show that medicinal plants are good source of antagonistic bacteria having inhibitory effect against clinical bacterial pathogens.

  2. Negative inotropic activity of the calcium antagonists isradipine, nifedipine, diltiazem, and verapamil in diseased human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Schwinger, R H; Böhm, M; Erdmann, E

    1991-02-01

    The use of calcium antagonists in the treatment of cardiac failure is limited by the negative inotropic effects they exert. The comparative inotropic activity of four calcium antagonists was therefore investigated, using electrically driven human papillary muscle strips and human atrial trabeculae. These inotropic effects were studied with cumulative concentration-response curves. The four calcium antagonists included in this study were all found to significantly (P less than or equal to .05) diminish the force of contraction above 0.01 mumol/L, but with different potencies. On the basis of the relationship between therapeutic vasoactive plasma concentrations and the negative inotropic effective concentrations in our system in vitro, the ranking order of potential negative inotropism in the treatment of cardiac failure with calcium antagonists was verapamil greater than nifedipine greater than diltiazem greater than isradipine. Thus, to minimize cardiodepressant risk, the use of calcium antagonists with weak negative inotropic effects at relevant concentrations should be preferred, especially in the case of patients with compromised cardiac function.

  3. Heterogeneity of binding of muscarinic receptor antagonists in rat brain homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    The binding properties of (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been investigated in rat brain homogenates. The binding of both antagonists demonstrated high affinity and saturability. Analysis of the binding data resulted in linear Scatchard plots. However, (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate showed a significantly higher maximal binding capacity than that of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine. Displacement of both ligands with several muscarinic receptor antagonists resulted in competition curves in accordance with the law of mass-action for quinuclidinyl benzilate, atropine and scopolamine. A similar profile was found for the quaternary ammonium analogs of atropine and scopolamine when (/supmore » 3/H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors. However, when these hydrophilic antagonists were used to displace (-)-(/sup 3/H) quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, they showed interaction with high- and low-affinity binding sites. On the other hand, the nonclassical muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, was able to displace both ligands from two binding sites. The present data are discussed in terms of the relationship of this anomalous heterogenity of binding of these hydrophilic muscarinic receptor antagonists and the proposed M1 and M2 receptor subtypes.« less

  4. [Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain and preliminary study on its antagonistic substances].

    PubMed

    Hu, Chen-Yun; Li, Yong; Liu, Min; Ding, Wan-Long; Qin, Min-Jian

    2014-07-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbal medicine, soil borne diseases influenced the yield and quality severely. In our previous work, endophytic Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain was isolated from ginseng root, and which showed significant antagonistic activity against several most destructive ginseng phytopathogens. In the present work, crude protein and lipopeptid extracts were prepared from LB and Landy supernate by salting out, acid precipitation methods respectively. The antagonistic activity of crude extracts and stability to temperature and protease digestion were examined by ginseng phytopathogen Alternaria panax. Results showed that, the antagonistic activity of crude protein extracts from LB culture was complete and partially lost when treated by high temperature and proteinase K. However, crude lipopeptid from Landy culture showed significant stabile antagonistic activity to them. Acid-hydrolyzation and TLC-bioautography analysis showed, that the crude lipopeptide contained at least one cyclic lipopeptide. In consideration of the stability and perfect antagonistic activity of ge25, further researches will promote the biocontrol of ginseng diseases in the field.

  5. Design and Synthesis of Benzimidazoles As Novel Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 1 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Michiyo; Kori, Masakuni; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Yano, Takahiko; Sako, Yuu; Tanaka, Maiko; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Gyorkos, Albert C; Corrette, Christopher P; Cho, Suk Young; Pratt, Scott A; Aso, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-24

    Benzazole derivatives with a flexible aryl group bonded through a one-atom linker as a new scaffold for a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. We expected that structural diversity could be expanded beyond that of reported CRF1 receptor antagonists. In a structure-activity relationship study, 4-chloro-N(2)-(4-chloro-2-methoxy-6-methylphenyl)-1-methyl-N(7),N(7)-dipropyl-1H-benzimidazole-2,7-diamine 29g had the most potent binding activity against a human CRF1 receptor and the antagonistic activity (IC50 = 9.5 and 88 nM, respectively) without concerns regarding cytotoxicity at 30 μM. Potent CRF1 receptor-binding activity in brain in an ex vivo test and suppression of stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were also observed at 138 μmol/kg of compound 29g after oral administration in mice. Thus, the newly designed benzimidazole 29g showed in vivo CRF1 receptor antagonistic activity and good brain penetration, indicating that it is a promising lead for CRF1 receptor antagonist drug discovery research.

  6. A peripherally selective diphenyl purine antagonist of the CB1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Marusich, Julie A.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Seltzman, Herbert; Maitra, Rangan

    2014-01-01

    Antagonists of the CB1 receptor can be useful in the treatment of several diseases including obesity, diabetes, and liver disease. However, to date, the only clinically approved CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was withdrawn due to adverse CNS related side effects such as depression and suicidal ideation. Since rimonabant’s withdrawal, several groups have begun pursuing peripherally selective CB1 antagonists. These compounds are expected to be devoid of undesirable CNS related effects but maintain efficacy through antagonism of peripherally expressed CB1 receptors within target tissues. Reported here are our latest results toward development of a peripherally selective analog of the diphenyl purine CB1 antagonist otenabant 1. Compound 9 (N-{1-[8-(2-Chlorophenyl)-9-(4-chlorophenyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}pentanamide) is a potent, orally absorbed antagonist of the CB1 receptor that is >50-fold selective for CB1 over CB2, highly selective for the periphery in a rodent model, and without efficacy in a series of in vivo assays designed to evaluate its ability to mitigate the central effects of Δ9-THC through the CB1 receptor. PMID:24041123

  7. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Luitel, Himal; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF. PMID:25667920

  8. Compatibility of intravenous fosaprepitant with intravenous 5-HT3 antagonists and corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Susan; Schaller, Joseph; Placek, Jiri; Duersch, Brett

    2013-09-01

    Fosaprepitant dimeglumine for injection is the water-soluble phosphorylated prodrug of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant. Both agents are approved (in combination with a 5-HT3 antagonist and a corticosteroid) for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Because fosaprepitant is likely to be combined and stored in the same intravenous (IV) bag with 5-HT3 antagonists and corticosteroids, the in vitro compatibility of fosaprepitant with these agents and other IV diluents was assessed. Fosaprepitant (1 mg/mL in 0.9 % sodium chloride injection solution) was combined in binary or tertiary fashion with therapeutic-dose preparations of a 5-HT3 antagonist (ondansetron, granisetron, palonosetron, or tropisetron) and/or a corticosteroid (dexamethasone sodium phosphate or methylprednisolone sodium succinate). For diluent compatibility assessment, fosaprepitant was also prepared 1 mg/mL in 0.9 % sodium chloride injection solution, water for injection, or 5 % dextrose injection solution. After 24-h storage under ambient conditions, samples were assayed for degradation. Fosaprepitant demonstrated compatibility when combined in the same IV infusion bag with common 5-HT3 antagonists and corticosteroids for storage and IV coadministration, with the exception of palonosetron (incompatible under all experimental conditions) and tropisetron (incompatible unless combined with a corticosteroid). No incompatibility was observed between fosaprepitant and any of the 3 diluents tested. Use of fosaprepitant in combination with other antiemetics may provide a flexible option for administration of antiemetics to patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

  9. Isolation and characterization of endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial antagonists of soft rot pathogen from Pinellia ternata.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiufang; Fang, Qionglou; Li, Shixiao; Wu, Jinguang; Chen, Jishuang

    2009-06-01

    Pinellia ternata, a traditional Chinese herb that has been used in China for over 1000 years, is susceptible to a soft rot disease, which may cause major loss of yield. The use of bacteria as potential antagonists against Pectobacterium carotovorum SXR1, the causal agent of the disease on P. ternata, was evaluated. Altogether, 1107 candidate bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and surface-sterilized plants of P. ternata. In Petri dish tests, 55 isolates inhibited the growth of strain SXR1, and 21 of these reduced the disease development on P. ternata slices by over 50%. Four selected antagonists significantly reduced the disease incidence on tissue culture seedlings, and also prevented the disease on the transplants. Agonist P-Y2-2 yielded a good prevention level of 81.9%. The four antagonists rapidly colonized the tissue culture seedlings and transplants, whereas greater populations of the antagonists (10(7)-10(9) CFU g(-1) fresh tissues) were observed in the seedlings and in the preinoculated transplants than in those inoculated during transplanting. The use of pathogen-free tissue culture seedlings pre-inoculated with antagonist may provide a strategy for production of P. ternata plantlets resistant to soft rot disease. This is the first report on the efficacy of biocontrol agents against pathogens on P. ternata.

  10. CALMODULIN ANTAGONISTS EFFECT ON Ca2+ LEVEL IN THE MITOCHONDRIA AND CYTOPLASM OF MYOMETRIUM CELLS.

    PubMed

    Shlykov, S G; Babich, L G; Yevtushenko, M E; Karakhim, S O; Kosterin, S O

    2015-01-01

    It is known that Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of this cation exchange in mitochondria is carried out with participation of calmodulin. We had shown in a previous work using two experimental models: isolated mitochondria and intact myometrium cells, that calmodulin antagonists reduce the level of mitochondrial membrane polarization. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of calmodulin antagonists on the level of ionized Ca in mitochondria and cytoplasm of uterine smooth muscle cells using spectrofluorometry and confocal microscopy. It was shown that myometrium mitochondria, in the presence of ATP and MgCl2 in the incubation medium, accumulate Ca ions in the matrix. Incubation of mitochondria in the presence of CCCP inhibited cation accumulation, but did not cease it. Calmodulin antagonist such as trifluoperazine (100 μm) considerably increased the level of ionized Ca in the mitochondrial matrix. Preliminary incubation of mitochondria with 100 μM Ca2+, before adding trifluoperazine to the incubation medium, partly prevented influence of the latter on the cation level in the matrix. Incubation of myometrium cells (primary culture) with another calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium (10 μM was accompanied by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and an increase in the concentration of ionized Ca in cytoplasm. Thus, using two models, namely, isolated mitochondria and intact myometrium cells, it has been shown that calmodulin antagonists cause depolarization of mitochondrial membranes and an increase of the ionized Ca concentration in both the mitochondrial matrix and the cell cytoplasm.

  11. Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Ella A.; Schneider, Stephan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Piwowarczyk, Andree

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU)), a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE)) and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS)) were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion. PMID:28772602

  12. Synthesis and testing of tetrodotoxin and batrachotoxin antagonists. Annual report, 1 February 1987-31 January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Toll, L.

    1988-06-06

    Compounds have been designed and synthesized as potential antagonists to the neurotoxin batrachotoxin. The compounds synthesized to date have moderate to low affinity for the batrachotoxin binding site. Their potential as antagonists of batrachotoxin or veratridine-induced Na-flux in neuroblastoma cells is currently under investigation. The synthesis of analogs which should have increased affinity for the batrachotoxin binding site is continuing. We have also begun the synthesis of potential antagonists to the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin.

  13. Opioid antagonist naltrexone for the treatment of pathological gambling in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Plastino, Massimiliano; Colica, Carmela; Bosco, Francesca; Arianna, Spanò; Vecchio, Antonino; Galati, Francesco; Cristiano, Dario; Consoli, Arturo; Consoli, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a potential complication related to the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) with dopamine agonists (DA). The cause of this disorder is unknown, but altered dopamine neurotransmission may be involved. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the treatment of PG in PD. Our cases included 3 patients with PD who developed PG after DA treatment. Pathological gambling did not improve after reduction or discontinuation of DA. These patients responded poorly to serotonin reuptake inhibitors, whereas treatment with opioid antagonist naltrexone resulted in the remission of PG. Naltrexone treatment was well tolerated. In one patient, higher dose of naltrexone resulted in hepatic abnormalities, which resolved after dosage reduction. The opioid antagonist naltrexone could be an effective option for the treatment of PG in PD.

  14. [Antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium adolescents on periodontalpathogens in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-jun; LE, Ke-yi; Feng, Xi-ping; Ma, Li

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the possible antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) and Bifidobacterium adolescents (Ba) on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacteriurn nuclearum (Fn). Cylinder plate method was used to observe the inhibition zone formation.The suspensions of periodontal pathogens were mixed with cell free solutions of probiotics respectively, to investigate the antagonistic effect on the production of probiotics. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using SAS 9.0 software package. La only inhibited the growth of Pg. The cell free extract of La also significantly inhibited the growth of Pg (P<0.001). There was no antagonistic effect of Ba on the two periodontal pathogens. La strongly inhibits the growth of Pg by its metabolites. The new strategy of confining periodontal pathogens with La as ecological modulator is worthy of further study.

  15. Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Manzo

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, hundreds of studies have examined the clinical efficacy of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as ketamine and dextromethorphan as an adjunct to routine postoperative pain management. The purpose of this review is to describe the detail of the study that successfully demonstrated the efficacy of NMDA receptor antagonists. The effect of perioperative ketamine infusion, dextromethorphan, and memantine on postoperative opioid-induced analgesia and prevention of long-term persistent pain is described. The co-administration of ketamine and morphine as a mixture is not recommended for postoperative pain relief. As an adjunct in multimodal analgesia, low-dose ketamine infusion and the administration of dextromethorphan may be able to improve postoperative pain status. Memantine exhibits the greatest potency among NMDA receptor antagonists. In future, research should consider the perioperative infusion of ketamine followed by long-term administration of memantine for the prevention of persistent pain.

  16. Design and synthesis of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists for peripheral selectivity.

    PubMed

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Seltzman, Herbert; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-03-22

    Antagonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) have potential for the treatment of several diseases such as obesity, liver disease, and diabetes. Recently, development of several CB1 antagonists was halted because of adverse central nervous system (CNS) related side effects observed with rimonabant, the first clinically approved CB1 inverse agonist. However, recent studies indicate that regulation of peripherally expressed CB1 with CNS-sparing compounds is a viable strategy to treat several important disorders. Our efforts aimed at rationally designing peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists have resulted in compounds that have limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS exposure in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. Typically, compounds with high topological polar surface areas (TPSAs) do not cross the BBB passively. Compounds with TPSAs higher than that for rimonabant (rimonabant TPSA = 50) and excellent functional activity with limited CNS penetration were identified. These compounds will serve as templates for further optimization.

  17. Recent progress in the development of small-molecule glucagon receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Matthew F; Lee, Esther C Y

    2015-10-01

    The endocrine hormone glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose output via its action at the glucagon receptor (GCGr) in the liver. In the diabetic state, dysregulation of glucagon secretion contributes to abnormally elevated hepatic glucose output. The inhibition of glucagon-induced hepatic glucose output via antagonism of the GCGr using small-molecule ligands is a promising mechanism for improving glycemic control in the diabetic state. Clinical data evaluating the therapeutic potential of small-molecule GCGr antagonists is currently emerging. Recently disclosed clinical data demonstrates the potential efficacy and possible therapeutic limitations of small-molecule GCGr antagonists. Recent pre-clinical work on the development of GCGr antagonists is also summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural refinement and prediction of potential CCR2 antagonists through validated multi-QSAR modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sk Abdul; Adhikari, Nilanjan; Baidya, Sandip Kumar; Gayen, Shovanlal; Jha, Tarun

    2018-01-03

    Chemokines trigger numerous inflammatory responses and modulate the immune system. The interaction between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) may be the cause of atherosclerosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. However, CCR2 is also implicated in other inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and neuropathic pain. Therefore, there is a paramount importance of designing potent and selective CCR2 antagonists despite a number of drug candidates failed in clinical trials. In this article, 83 CCR2 antagonists by Jhonson and Jhonson Pharmaceuticals have been considered for robust validated multi-QSAR modeling studies to get an idea about the structural and pharmacophoric requirements for designing more potent CCR2 antagonists. All these QSAR models were validated and statistically reliable. Observations resulted from different modeling studies correlated and validated results of other ones. Finally, depending on these QSAR observations, some new molecules were proposed that may exhibit higher activity against CCR2.

  19. Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This Review summarizes and updates the work on adenosine A2A receptor antagonists for Parkinson’s disease from 2006 to the present. There have been numerous publications, patent applications, and press releases within this time frame that highlight new medicinal chemistry approaches to this attractive and promising target to treat Parkinson’s disease. The Review is broken down by scaffold type and will discuss the efforts to optimize particular scaffolds for activity, pharmacokinetics, and other drug discovery parameters. The majority of approaches focus on preparing selective A2A antagonists, but a few approaches to dual A2A/A1 antagonists will also be highlighted. The in vivo profiles of compounds will be highlighted and discussed to compare activities across different chemical series. A clinical report and update will be given on compounds that have entered clinical trials. PMID:22860156

  20. [Sensitivity of meningococci to the antagonistic activity of nasopharyngeal microflora and antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, I A; Larina, L I

    1977-12-01

    Comparative study of the meningococcus sensitivity of various serological groups with different localization in the human organism to the antagonistic activity of normal microbes of the nasopharynx and the antibiotics it was found that strains isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from cerebrospinal meningitis, chiefly of serological group A, had the greatest resistance to the antagonists. Taking into consideration the leading epidemiological role of the cultures belonging to the serological group A in the USSR, it can be supposed that meningococcus sensitivity to the nasopharyngeal antagonists was of significance for the manifestation of their pathogenic properties. No association of the antibiotic sensitivity of the same strains with reference to a definite serological group or the site of the microbe localization was revealed.

  1. Asthenospermia in hay fever patients improved by stopping treatment with histamine H1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ohno, Rena; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Terao, Toshiya; Yamada, Takumi

    2006-07-01

    We report two cases of asthenospermia, which appeared to be associated with exposure to histamine H1 receptor antagonists. A 44-year-old man and a 35-year-old man had continued the treatment with fexofenadine hydrochloride and cetirizine hydrochloride, respectively, under the diagnosis of hay fever. They and their wives had been examined as infertile couples. Infertility evaluations revealed no problems with their wives; the patients, however, were found to have a low sperm motility (<10%). On suspicion of adverse effects of the histamine H1 receptor antagonists, they stopped treatment with these drugs, which resulted in a complete reversal of spermatic dysfunction. Current information identifies the potential fertility hazards of histamine H1 receptor antagonists.

  2. Optimizing subcutaneous injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist degarelix.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Jack; Burton, Shelley; Lambert, Carole

    2016-02-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist degarelix has several unique characteristics compared to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs used in the management of prostate cancer. Notable differences of GnRH receptor antagonists include no flare reaction, and a more rapid suppression of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) compared to LHRH analogs. Despite emerging evidence supporting the use of GnRH receptor antagonists over the more widely used LHRH analogs in the management of prostate cancer, physicians may be reluctant to prescribe degarelix. They may be concerned about patient complaints about injection-site reactions (ISRs). The subcutaneous injection of degarelix has been associated with a higher rate of ISRs compared with the intramuscular injections of LHRH analogs. This "How I Do It" article describes techniques and strategies that have been developed by physicians and nurses to reduce the discomfort associated with the subcutaneous delivery of degarelix.

  3. The effect of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on the alpha-adrenoceptor blockade produced by phenoxybenzamine.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, A; Sharma, P L

    1977-05-01

    The effect of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on the irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor blockade produced by phenoxybenzamine was studied in dogs. The pressor effects of adrenaline were revived after the inhibition by the alpha-receptor block by (+/-) propranolol, (-) INPEA, (+/-) MJ 1999 and (+/-) butoxamine. The enantiomers (+) propranolol and (+) INPEA were ineffective in this regard. (+/-) Practolol also did not revive the pressor effect of the amines. The alpha-receptor mediated effect of the amines, in the nictitating membrana-receptor blockade. It is concluded that (1) blockade of the peripheral (beta-2) receptors is essential for the revival of the pressor effects, (2) local anesthetic effect of the beta-antagonists is not involved. Further work using a series of doses of agonists and antagonists of alpha-and beta-receptors is indicated to clarify the nature of this drug-interaction.

  4. Nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists derived from 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Yu, Wei-Fa; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Tao, Wen-Chang; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xue, Wei-Zhe; Xu, Di; Hao, Li-Ping; Han, Xiao-Feng; Fei, Fan; Liu, Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Both 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists. Compounds 6f, 6g, 11e, 11f, 11g, and 12 showed nanomolar AT₁ receptor binding affinity and high AT₁ receptor selectivity over AT₂ receptor in a preliminary pharmacological evaluation. Among them, the two most active compounds 6f (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 3 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ > 10,000 nM, PA₂ = 8.51) and 11g (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 0.1 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ = 149 nM, PA₂ = 8.43) exhibited good antagonistic activity in isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay. In addition, they were orally active AT₁ receptor antagonists in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis of calpain II interactions with calcium and calmodulin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hong, H; el-Saleh, S C; Johnson, P

    1990-01-01

    1. The intrinsic fluorescence of epoxysuccinyl-inhibited calpain II undergoes a Ca2(+)-dependent decrease which contrasts with the increase observed for calmodulin. 2. Calpain II was inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist toluidinylnaphthalenesulfonate (TNS), and a Ca2(+)-dependent increase in TNS fluorescence intensity was observed for epoxysuccinyl-inhibited calpain II. 3. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium CDZ and felodipine both caused decreases in the intrinsic fluorescence of epoxysuccinyl-inhibited calpain II. 4. Increasing concentrations of Ca2+ caused an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the inhibited enzyme in the presence of (CDZ), and a decrease in the presence of felodipine. 5. It is concluded from these studies that Ca2+ and calmodulin antagonists induce conformational changes in calpain II, and that changes occur in regions other than the Ca2(+)-binding domains.

  6. Action of serotonin antagonists on cytoplasmic calcium levels in early embryos of sea urchin Lytechinus pictus.

    PubMed

    Shmukler, Y B; Buznikov, G A; Whitaker, M J

    1999-03-01

    Possible interaction of the serotonergic system with intracellular calcium mechanisms was investigated using techniques of ratio imaging measurement of intracellular Ca2+ and confocal microscopy in cleaving embryos of sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. Some serotonin antagonists specifically increase free intracellular Ca2+ and evoke transient regression of the first cleavage furrow, suggesting possible linkage of serotonergic and calcium mechanisms in the regulation of cellular events during cleavage divisions. These effects were more pronounced in the experiments with hydrophilic 5-HT-antagonists, quarternary ammonium salts that do not penetrate the cell membrane. Thus, it appears that 5-HT-receptors which mediate these effects are localised on the cell membrane, whereas previously studied receptors mediating the cytostatic action of lipophilic 5-HT-antagonists are localised intracellularly.

  7. Immunopharmacological role of the leukotriene receptor antagonists and inhibitors of leukotrienes generating enzymes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad

    2010-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves central nervous system, and is generally associated with demyelination and axonal lesion. The effective factors for initiation of the inflammatory responses have not been known precisely so far. Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators with increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients and in experimental models of multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of LT receptors with specific antagonists can decrease inflammatory responses. In this review article we try to clarify the role of LT receptor antagonists and also inhibitors of enzymes which are involved in LTs generating pathway for treating multiple sclerosis as new targets for MS therapy. Moreover, we suggest that blockage of LT receptors by potent specific antagonists and/or agonists can be as a novel useful method in treatment of MS.

  8. Benzylamide antagonists of protease activated receptor 2 with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mei-Kwan; Liu, Ligong; Lim, Junxian; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Cotterell, Adam J; Suen, Jacky Y; Vesey, David A; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2016-02-01

    Activation of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders and its inhibition may yield novel therapeutics. Here, we report a series of PAR2 antagonists based on C-terminal capping of 5-isoxazolyl-L-cyclohexylalanine-L-isoleucine, with benzylamine analogues being effective new PAR2 antagonists. 5-Isoxazolyl-L-cyclohexylalanine-L-isoleucine-2-methoxybenzylamine (10) inhibited PAR2-, but not PAR1-, induced release of Ca(2+) (IC50 0.5 μM) in human colon cells, IL-6 and TNFα secretion (IC50 1-5 μM) from human kidney cells, and was anti-inflammatory in acute rat paw inflammation (ED50 5 mg/kg sc). These findings show that new benzylamide antagonists of PAR2 have anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bradykinin as a pain mediator: receptors are localized to sensory neurons, and antagonists have analgesic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Steranka, L.R.; Manning, D.C.; DeHaas, C.J.

    1988-05-01

    Autoradiographic studies localize (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptor binding sites to the substantia gelatinosa, dorsal root, and a subset of small cells in both the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the guinea pig. (/sup 3/H)Bradykinin labeling is also observed over myocardinal/coronary visceral afferent fibers. The localization of (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptors to nociceptive pathways supports a role for bradykinin in pain mediation. Several bradkykinin antagonists block bradykinin-induced acute vascular pain in the rat. The bradykinin antagonists also relieve bradykinin- and urate-induced hyperalgesia in the rat paw. These results indicate that bradykinin is a physiologic mediator of pain and that bradykinin antagonists havemore » analgesic activity in both acute and chronic pain models.« less

  10. Secreted Wnt antagonists in leukemia: A road yet to be paved.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Melek; Çalışkan, Ceyda; Yüce, Zeynep; Sercan, Hakki Ogun

    2018-03-28

    Wnt signaling has been a topic of research for many years for its diverse and fundamental functions in physiological (such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, proliferation, tissue repair and cellular differentiation) and pathological (carcinogenesis, congenital/genetic diseases, and tissue degeneration) processes. Wnt signaling pathway aberrations are associated with both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unregulated Wnt signaling observed in malignancies may be due to a wide spectrum of abnormalities, from mutations in the genes of key players to epigenetic modifications of Wnt antagonists. Of these, Wnt antagonists are gaining significant attention for their potential of being targets for treatment and inhibition of Wnt signaling. In this review, we discuss and summarize the significance of Wnt signaling antagonists in the pathogenesis and treatment of hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of leukotriene antagonists and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cobanoğlu, Bengü; Toskala, Elina; Ural, Ahmet; Cingi, Cemal

    2013-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disorder seen in ENT clinics. It is diagnosed by history, physical exam and objective testing. Patient education, environmental control measures, pharmacotherapy, and allergen-specific immunotherapy are the cornerstones of allergic rhinitis treatment and can significantly reduce the burden of disease. Current treatment guidelines include antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, oral and intranasal decongestants, intranasal anticholinergics, intranasal cromolyn, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. In the mechanism of allergic rhinitis, histamine is responsible for major allergic rhinitis symptoms such as rhinorrhea, nasal itching and sneezing. Its effect on nasal congestion is less evident. In contrast, leukotrienes result in increase in nasal airway resistance and vascular permeability. Antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The published literature about combined antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists in mono- or combination therapy is reviewed and presented.

  12. Discovery and SAR of 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines as histamine H₄ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Savall, Brad M; Chavez, Frank; Tays, Kevin; Dunford, Paul J; Cowden, Jeffery M; Hack, Michael D; Wolin, Ronald L; Thurmond, Robin L; Edwards, James P

    2014-03-27

    This report discloses the discovery and SAR of a series of 6-alkyl-2-aminopyrimidine derived histamine H4 antagonists that led to the development of JNJ 39758979, which has been studied in phase II clinical trials in asthma and atopic dermatitis. Building on our SAR studies of saturated derivatives from the indole carboxamide series, typified by JNJ 7777120, and incorporating knowledge from the tricyclic pyrimidines led us to the 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidine series. A focused medicinal chemistry effort delivered several 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines that behaved as antagonists at both the human and rodent H4 receptor. Further optimization led to a panel of antagonists that were profiled in animal models of inflammatory disease. On the basis of the preclinical profile and efficacy in several animal models, JNJ 39758979 was selected as a clinical candidate; however, further development was halted during phase II because of the observation of drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIAG) in two subjects.

  13. Laguerre model based adaptive control of antagonistic shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, S.; Giraud-Audine, C.; Patoor, E.

    2010-04-01

    Shape Memory Alloy are considered as one of the best active materials for actuation due to their remarkable properties, mainly their large strain and their power to weight ratio. On the other hand, they also have undesirable features that limit applications. One reason is their large thermal time constant. Antagonistic actuators are generally presented as a possible solution to this problem. Another reason is the non-linear behavior inherent to the hysteresis of the phase transition used for the actuation. This paper addresses this problem in the case of antagonistic actuator using an adaptive control scheme where the identification is performed using Laguerre filters. Results obtained on experimental setup prove that this control scheme is able to handle the complex non-linearities of hysteretic antagonistic actuator.

  14. A Clinical Study on Administration of Opioid Antagonists in Terminal Cancer Patients: 7 Patients Receiving Opioid Antagonists Following Opioids among 2443 Terminal Cancer Patients Receiving Opioids.

    PubMed

    Uekuzu, Yoshihiro; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Futamura, Akihiko; Ito, Akihiro; Mori, Naoharu; Murai, Miyo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Awa, Hiroko; Chihara, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    There have been few detailed reports on respiratory depression due to overdoses of opioids in terminal cancer patients. We investigated the situation of treatment with opioid antagonists for respiratory depression that occurred after administration of opioid at optimal doses in terminal cancer patients, to clarify pathological changes as well as causative factors. In 2443 terminal cancer patients receiving opioids, 7 patients (0.3%) received opioid antagonists: 6, morphine (hydrochloride, 5; sulfate, 1); 1, oxycodone. The median dosage of opioids was 13.3 mg/d, as converted to morphine injection. Respiratory depression occurred on this daily dose in 4 patients and after changed dose and route in 3 patients. Opioids were given through the vein in 6 patients and by the enteral route in 1 patient. Concomitant drugs included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 3 patients and zoledronic acid in 2 patients. In morphine-receiving patients, renal functions were significantly worsened at the time of administration of an opioid antagonist than the day before the start of opioid administration. These findings indicate that the proper use of opioids was safe and acceptable in almost all terminal cancer patients. In rare cases, however, a risk toward respiratory depression onset is indicated because morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide become relatively excessive owing to systemic debility due to disease progression, especially respiratory and renal dysfunctions. At the onset of respiratory depression, appropriate administration of an opioid antagonist mitigated the symptoms. Thereafter, opioid switching or continuous administration at reduced dosages of the same opioids prevented the occurrence of serious adverse events.

  15. Local Administration of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Improves Diabetic Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Perrault, David P; Bramos, Athanasios; Xu, Xingtian; Shi, Songtao; Wong, Alex K

    2018-05-01

    Impaired healing of the skin is a notable cause of patient morbidity and mortality. In diabetic individuals, dysregulated inflammation contributes to delayed wound healing. Specific immunomodulatory agents may have a role in the treatment of diabetic wounds. One of these molecules is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.). Although interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, little is known about the local use this drug in cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of locally administered interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on delayed wound healing, specifically, in a diabetic mouse model. Two 6-mm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsa of diabetic (db/db) mice and stented. One-hour postwounding, wound margins were subcutaneously injected with either (1) low-dose interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in a gelatin-transglutaminase gel vehicle or (2) the gel vehicle only. Wounds were imaged on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 postwounding, and wound area was determined. Wound biopsies were collected on day 21 and immunohistochemically stained for neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Wounds treated with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist had significantly smaller wound area than nontreated wounds on day 7 and day 14 postwounding. Treated wounds also showed significantly less neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. These findings support the hypothesis that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist may have an important role in cutaneous wound healing, possibly by promoting successful resolution of acute inflammation and hence accelerating wound closure. Thereby, administration of IL-1Ra may be useful in the treatment of nonhealing wounds.

  16. Opioid antagonists for pharmacological treatment of gambling disorder: Are they relevant?

    PubMed

    Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Spiers, Andrew; Caillet, Pascal; Bruneau, Mélanie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2017-07-18

    Background: To date, no drugs have been approved for gambling disorder. Numerous publications have described the value of opioid antagonists. Indeed, the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been suggested as the underlying cause of reward-seeking behaviour, and it is modulated by the opioid system. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the relevance of opioid antagonists for treating GD. Method A systematic literature review was conducted. A search of the PubMed electronic database, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Systematic Review Database without any limits was performed. Results: There is little information concerning the effects of opioid antagonists on GD. The total search with "nalmefene and gambling" without any limits revealed only 11 articles. The search with "naltrexone and gambling" without any limits generated 47 articles. Nevertheless, the best available data support the use of opioid antagonists, particularly in individuals with a history of alcohol use disorder or strong gambling urges. Conclusion: Future trials are still needed. Indeed, opioid antagonists effectiveness has been investigated in only a limited number of patients, clinical trials do not reflect the heterogeneity of GD and there is little knowledge of the predictive factors of response to treatments. Moreover, differential affinity to nalmefene for kappa receptors may be associated with a particular effect in a yet to be defined addiction phenotype. Head to head comparisons between naltrexone and nalmefene would be helpful in combining with other medication or psychotherapy. The identification of subgroups of patients that are more likely to benefit from opioid antagonists should be a goal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

  18. Inhibition of tolerance to spinal morphine antinociception by low doses of opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    McNaull, Benjamin; Trang, Tuan; Sutak, Maaja; Jhamandas, Khem

    2007-04-10

    Ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists inhibit development of chronic spinal morphine tolerance. As this phenomenon mechanistically resembles acute tolerance, the present study examined actions of opioid receptor antagonists on acute spinal morphine tolerance. In adult rats, administration of three intrathecal injections of morphine (15 microg) at 90 min intervals produced a significant decline of the antinociceptive effect and loss of agonist potency in both the tail-flick and paw-pressure tests. These reduced responses, indicative of acute tolerance, were blocked by co-injection of morphine (15 microg) with naltrexone (NTX, 0.05 ng), D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP, 0.001 ng), naltrindole (0.06 ng), or nor-binaltorphimine (0.1 ng). Repeated injections of CTAP, naltrindole, or nor-binaltorphimine without morphine elicited a delayed weak antinociceptive response which was blocked by a high dose of naltrexone (2 microg). In another set of experiments, administration of low dose spinal (0.05 ng) or systemic (0.01 microg/kg) morphine produced a sustained thermal hyperalgesia. This response was blocked by opioid receptor antagonists at doses inhibiting development of acute morphine tolerance. Lastly, an acute spinal injection of morphine (15 microg) with naltrexone (0.05 ng) produced a sustained analgesic response; this was antagonized by adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (3 microg). The results show that ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists block acute tolerance to morphine. This effect may result from blockade of opioid excitatory effects that produce a latent hyperalgesia that then contributes to induction of tolerance. The sustained antinociception produced by combination of morphine with an opioid receptor antagonist shows dependency on the adenosine receptor activity.

  19. Effects of intra-accumbens focal administrations of glutamate antagonists on object recognition memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sargolini, Francesca; Roullet, Pascal; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    2003-01-22

    Generally recognition memory is distinguished into spatial and object memories that have been suggested to relay at a cortical level on different neural substrates. Recent studies point to a possible involvement of the nucleus accumbens (Nac) in spatial memory, demonstrating that blockade of glutamate antagonists within this structure impairs acquisition and consolidation of spatial information, while not many data are available on the potential role of this structure in object recognition. Thus in this study we wanted to investigate the effects of intra-accumbens focal administrations of NMDA antagonist, AP-5 (0.05, 0.1, 0.15 or 0.2 microg per side), and AMPA antagonist, DNQX (0.0005 or 0.001 microg per side), in object recognition memory. The spontaneous preference displayed by mice for novel objects was taken as an index for measuring object recognition. Pre-training focal administrations of both antagonists impaired the ability of mice to selectively explore the novel object in test session. However, the AMPA antagonist induced also a decrease in exploration and locomotion. In order to assess whether glutamate receptors located within the Nac were also involved in subsequent steps of object information processing, we performed additional experiments injecting AP-5 and DNQX immediately after training and testing the animals 24-h later. In this case, AP-5 but not the AMPA antagonist impaired exploration of the novel object. These results demonstrate that the Nac is involved in object recognition, and confirm that the different glutamate receptors mediate different component of information processing within the accumbens.

  20. Development of NMDAR Antagonists with Reduced Neurotoxic Side Effects: a Study on GK11

    PubMed Central

    Teigell, Marisa; Prieto-Cappellini, Monica; Vignon, Jacques; Privat, Alain; Perez-Polo, Regino; Nesic, Olivera; Hirbec, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The NMDAR glutamate receptor subtype mediates various vital physiological neuronal functions. However, its excessive activation contributes to neuronal damage in a large variety of acute and chronic neurological disorders. NMDAR antagonists thus represent promising therapeutic tools that can counteract NMDARs’ overactivation. Channel blockers are of special interest since they are use-dependent, thus being more potent at continuously activated NMDARs, as may be the case in pathological conditions. Nevertheless, it has been established that NMDAR antagonists, such as MK801, also have unacceptable neurotoxic effects. Presently only Memantine is considered a safe NMDAR antagonist and is used clinically. It has recently been speculated that antagonists that preferentially target extrasynaptic NMDARs would be less toxic. We previously demonstrated that the phencyclidine derivative GK11 preferentially inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. We thus anticipated that this compound would be safer than other known NMDAR antagonists. In this study we used whole-genome profiling of the rat cingulate cortex, a brain area that is particularly sensitive to NMDAR antagonists, to compare the potential adverse effects of GK11 and MK801. Our results showed that in contrast to GK11, the transcriptional profile of MK801 is characterized by a significant upregulation of inflammatory and stress-response genes, consistent with its high neurotoxicity. In addition, behavioural and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed marked inflammatory reactions (including astrogliosis and microglial activation) in MK801-treated, but not GK11-treated rats. Interestingly, we also showed that GK11 elicited less inflammation and neuronal damage, even when compared to Memantine, which like GK11, preferentially inhibits extrasynaptic NMDAR. As a whole, our study suggests that GK11 may be a more attractive therapeutic alternative in the treatment of CNS disorders characterized by the overactivation of glutamate

  1. Evidence for allosteric interactions of antagonist binding to the smoothened receptor.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Cynthia M; Bee, Wei-Lin Tiger; Copeland, Robert A; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Gilmartin, Aidan; Gontarek, Richard; Hornberger, Keith R; Kallal, Lorena A; Lai, Zhihong; Lawrie, Kenneth; Lu, Quinn; McMillan, Lynette; Truong, Maggie; Tummino, Peter J; Turunen, Brandon; Will, Matthew; Zuercher, William J; Rominger, David H

    2009-06-01

    The Smoothened receptor (Smo) mediates hedgehog (Hh) signaling critical for development, cell growth, and migration, as well as stem cell maintenance. Aberrant Hh signaling pathway activation has been implicated in a variety of cancers, and small-molecule antagonists of Smo have entered human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of allosteric interactions of agonists and antagonists for Smo. Binding of two radioligands, [(3)H]3-chloro-N-[trans-4-(methylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-{[3-(4-pyridinyl)-phenyl]methyl}-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide (SAG-1.3) (agonist) and [(3)H]cyclopamine (antagonist), was characterized using human Smo expressed in human embryonic kidney 293F membranes. We observed full displacement of [(3)H]cyclopamine by all Smo agonist and antagonist ligands examined. N-[(1E)-(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylidene]-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperazinamine (SANT-1), an antagonist, did not fully inhibit the binding of [(3)H]SAG-1.3. In a functional cell-based beta-lactamase reporter gene assay, SANT-1 and N-[3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-chlorophenyl]-3,4,5-tris(ethyloxy)-benzamide (SANT-2) fully inhibited 3-chloro-4,7-difluoro-N-[trans-4-(methylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-{[3-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide (SAG-1.5)-induced Hh pathway activation. Detailed "Schild-type" radioligand binding analysis with [(3)H]SAG-1.3 revealed that two structurally distinct Smoothened receptor antagonists, SANT-1 and SANT-2, bound in a manner consistent with that of allosteric modulation. Our mechanism of action characterization of radioligand binding to Smo combined with functional data provides a better understanding of small-molecule interactions with Smo and their influence on the Hh pathway.

  2. Awareness of physicians and pharmacists of aldosterone antagonists in heart failure and myocardial infarction in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate physicians and clinical pharmacists’ awareness and practices regarding use of aldosterone antagonists in heart failure (HF) and post-myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: First, we reviewed the prescription of aldosterone antagonists among 408 patients presenting to the cardiology clinic at a major hospital in Jordan. Second, physicians and pharmacists working in cardiovascular departments completed a questionnaire related to use of aldosterone antagonists in HF and post-MI. Results: Thirty patients (7.59%) were eligible for aldosterone antagonist; only 4 received them at discharge (13.3%). The survey was completed by 153 professionals (response rate 76.12%). About 72.1% of participants were aware of studies regarding use of aldosterone antagonists post-MI and in HF. Moreover, 10.45%/53.6% of participants strongly agreed/agreed that these agents are useful in normotensive post-MI and HF patients. Spironolactone was the most prescribed drug by 92.1% of participants. About 41.8% of participants reported use of spironolactone in post-MI and HF. With respect to guidelines, only 39.2% of participants agreed that adding spironolactone to standard therapy in HF is recommended, and 48.3% agreed on adding it directly post-MI. Clinical pharmacists and cardiologists were generally more aware of guidelines than pharmacists, cardiac surgeons and residents/fellows. Conclusions: there is an under-use of aldosterone antagonists in HF and post-MI patients, and a lack of detailed awareness of current guidelines among health care providers. Dissemination of evidence-based guidelines and usage protocols may improve management of post-MI and HF. PMID:28943982

  3. Discovery of a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Antagonist from a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Receptor Homology Model.

    PubMed

    Kai, Zhen-Peng; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Deng, Xi-Le; Yang, Xin-Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan

    2018-04-03

    Insect G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in modulating biology, physiology and behavior. They have been identified as candidate targets for next-generation insecticides, yet these targets have been relatively poorly exploited for insect control. In this study, we present a pipeline of novel Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT) antagonist discovery with homology modeling, docking, molecular dynamics simulation and structure-activity relationship. A series of truncated and alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT were assayed for the stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. The minimum sequence required to retain potent biological activity is the C -terminal amidated octapeptide Manse-AT (6-13). We identified three residues essential for bioactivity (Thr⁴, Arg6 and Phe⁸) by assaying alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT (6-13). Alanine replacement of other residues resulted in reduced potency but bioactivity was retained. The 3D structure of the receptor (Manse-ATR) was built and the binding pocket was identified. The binding affinities of all the analogs were estimated by calculating the free energy of binding. The calculated binding affinities corresponded to the biological activities of the analogs, which supporting our localization of the binding pocket. Then, based on the docking and molecular dynamics studies of Manse-AT (10-13), we described it can act as a potent Manse-AT antagonist. The antagonistic effect on JH biosynthesis of Manse-AT (10-13) validated our hypothesis. The IC 50 value of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) is 0.9 nM. The structure-activity relationship of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) was also studied for the further purpose of investigating theoretically the structure factors influencing activity. These data will be useful for the design of new Manse-AT agonist and antagonist as potential pest control agents.

  4. Growth of cultured human glioma tumour cells can be regulated with histamine and histamine antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Ven, L. T.; Prinsen, I. M.; Jansen, G. H.; Roholl, P. J.; Defferrari, R.; Slater, R.; Den Otter, W.

    1993-01-01

    The 50% survival time for low grade astrocytomas is 50 months and for high grade astrocytomas it is 13 months, underlining the need for new therapies. Several reports show that in vivo histamine antagonists cause retardation of tumour growth in some animal models and prolonged survival in cancer patients. Therefore we have tested the growth modulating effects of histamine and histamine antagonists on human glioma cultures. Twelve freshly excised human gliomas were cultured and tested for their in vitro sensitivity to histamine and histamine antagonists. Four continuous glioma cell lines were used to confirm the glioma-specificity of the effects observed in the primary cell lines. In low serum concentration (0 or 1%) the growth of 5/9 primary glioma-derived cultures could be stimulated with 0.2 mM histamine, and in 4/5 cases with 0.2 microM histamine. One mM of the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine could inhibit the growth of 4/5 primary glioma cultures when tested in 1% human AB serum, and of 6/13 cases when tested in 1% FCS. Lower concentrations (down to 1 microM) were less effective. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist pyrilamine gave variable results. The specificity of the effects is indicated by the absence of a generalised toxic effect, by the observation that the antagonist-induced inhibition could be reversed with histamine, and by the correlation of the obtained cimetidine-induced growth inhibition with the maximal growth rate of the primary cell lines in 10% FCS. The observed cimetidine-induced inhibition of the in vitro proliferation of gliomas suggests that cimetidine is a relevant candidate for the in vivo growth inhibition of these tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8353038

  5. Combining the α1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, with the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, reduces alcohol drinking more effectively than either drug alone.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-06-01

    Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1 -adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. As noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study 1, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water, and 20% alcohol, and the effect of propranolol (5 to 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) and prazosin (1 to 2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal was assessed. In study 2, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these 2 drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1 - and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Combining the α1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Prazosin, with the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Propranolol, Reduces Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Either Drug Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1- and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220

  7. Sigma ligands, but not N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Melanie A; Brudney, Elizabeth G; Putterman, Daniel B; Meshul, Charles K; Johnson, Steven W; Berger, Stephen Paul

    2008-01-08

    Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the 'gold standard' to treat Parkinson's disease. Unfortunately, dyskinesias detract from its efficacy. Current dyskinesia treatments, including amantadine and dextromethorphan, are thought to work via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The NMDA antagonists MK-801 and HA-966 failed to suppress expression of dyskinesias in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat. Dyskinesias, however, were suppressed by the NMDA and sigma (sigma)-1 receptor ligand dextromethorphan and by the sigma-1 antagonist BMY-14802. Antidyskinetic effects of dextromethorphan may be mediated via mechanisms other than NMDA, including the sigma-1 receptor and other binding sites common to dextromethorphan and BMY-14802.

  8. Is the flexible GnRH antagonist protocol better suited for fresh eSET cycles?

    PubMed

    Dahdouh, Elias M; Gomes, Francisco L A F; Granger, Louis; Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Faruqi, Faez; Kattygnarath, Tiao-Virirak; St-Michel, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the flexible GnRH antagonist protocol in comparison with the long GnRH agonist protocol in elective single embryo transfer (eSET) practice. It was conducted in a publicly funded in vitro fertilization program. We performed a prospective cohort analysis of data from a private infertility clinic from August 2010 to August 2011. Three hundred fourteen women with normal ovarian reserve and undergoing fresh eSET cycles were included. Sixty-four women underwent follicular stimulation using a flexible GnRH antagonist protocol, and 250 underwent stimulation with a standard long mid-luteal GnRH agonist protocol. Implantation rates (35.9% in the GnRH antagonist group and 29.6% in the GnRH agonist group, P = 0.5) and ongoing pregnancy rates (32.8% in the GnRH antagonist group and 28.8% in the GnRH agonist group, P = 0.5) were equivalent in both groups. The duration of stimulation (9.8 ± 2 days vs. 10.7 ± 1.8 days, P < 0.001) and total FSH dose required (2044 vs. 2775 IU, P < 0.001) were lower in the GnRH antagonist group than in the GnRH agonist group. The number of mature oocytes (6.0 vs. 10.0, P < 0. 001) and number of embryos (5.0 vs. 7.0, P < 0.001) were also lower in GnRH antagonist group. However, the number of embryos cryopreserved was similar in both groups (median 2.0, P = 0.3). In women undergoing in vitro fertilization, the flexible GnRH antagonist protocol yields implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates that are similar to the long GnRH agonist protocol, and requires lower doses of gonadotropins and a shorter duration of treatment. The flexible GnRH antagonist protocol appears to be the protocol of choice for an eSET IVF program.

  9. Unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev from Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Kaneko, Masafumi; Shiomi, Atsushi; Yang, Guang-Ming; Yamaura, Toshiaki; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-03-15

    Bioassay-guided separation from the MeOH extract of the South American medicinal plant Sida cordifolia resulted in isolation of (10E,12Z)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (1) as an unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev. This mechanism of action was established by competitive experiment by the biotinylated probe derived from leptomycin B, the known NES antagonistic inhibitor. Additionally, structure-activity relationship analysis by use of the synthesized analogs clarified cooperation of several functionalities in the Rev-export inhibitory activity of 1. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the interaction of NMDA receptor antagonist memantine with cell membranes: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Pablo; Suwalsky, Mario; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2018-03-01