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Sample records for ahr antagonist resveratrol

  1. AHR-11797: a novel benzodiazepine antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.N.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Hannaman, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    AHR-11797(5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1-phenyl-/sup 3/H-pyrrolo(3,2,1-ij)quinazolin-3-one) displaced /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (IC/sub 50/ = 82 nM) and /sup 3/H-Ro 15-1877 (IC/sub 50/ = 104 nM) from rat brain synaptosomes. AHR-11797 did not protect mice from seizures induced by maximal electroshock or subcutaneous Metrazol (scMET), nor did it induce seizures in doses up to the lethal dose. However, at 31.6 mg/kg, IP, it significantly increased the anticonvulsant ED/sub 50/ of chlordiazepoxide (CDPX) from 1.9 to 31.6 mg/kg, IP. With 56.7 mg/kg, IP, of AHR-11797, CDPX was inactive in doses up to 100 mg/kg, IP. AHR-11797 did not significantly increase punished responding in the Geller and Seifter conflict procedure, but it did attenuate the effects of diazepam. Although the compound is without anticonvulsant or anxiolytic activity, it did have muscle relaxant properties. AHR-11797 blocked morphine-induced Straub tail in mice (ED/sub 50/ = 31 mg/kg, IP) and it selectively suppressed the polysnaptic linguomandibular reflex in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The apparent muscle relaxant activity of AHR-11797 suggests that different receptor sites are involved for muscle relaxant vs. anxiolytic/anticonvulsant activities of the benzodiazepines.

  2. Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Kočan, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Vaňková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-05-01

    European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483 pg TEQ/g lw, and between 82 and 337 pg TEQ/g lw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292 pg/g lw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223 pg/g lw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185 pg/g lw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake.

  3. Resveratrol and Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, S. C.; Savaris, R. F.; Filipovic, C. J.; Wise, J. D.; Hestermann, E.; Young, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural phytoestrogen with antiproliferative properties present in red wine, grapes, and berries. Published reports on the effects of resveratrol in human endometrial function are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor α (ESR1), Ki-67 (a proliferative marker), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in an in vitro and vivo assay. Alkaline phosphatase assay of estrogenicity was used to compare estrogen activity of different concentrations of resveratrol to estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), using Ishikawa cell culture. Immunohistochemical expression of ESR1 and Ki67, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of AhR, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 were analyzed from xenograft implants of human endometrial tissue in ovariectomized immunodeficient RAG-2-γ(c) mice, after 30 days of treatment with subcutaneous pellets of E2, E2 plus progesterone (P4), or E2 plus resveratrol (6, 30, or 60 mg) for 30 days. Compared to E2, resveratrol acted as an agonist and antagonist of estrogen in low and high concentrations, respectively, when combined with E2. Xenografts of human endometrial tissues in RAG-2 mice exhibited reduced expression of ESR1 and proliferative activity (Ki67) with 60 mg of resveratrol. This study suggests that resveratrol, at high doses, has the potential benefit to reduce proliferation of human endometrium through ESR1. PMID:24604232

  4. Resveratrol

    MedlinePlus

    ... used as a medicine. People use resveratrol for "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), lowering "bad" (LDL) cholesterol ... blood pressure and fat levels in the blood. "Hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis). High cholesterol. Preventing cancer. ...

  5. Potential of Resveratrol Analogues as Antagonists of Osteoclasts and Promoters of Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Boissy, Patrice; Abdallah, Basem M.; Hansen, Frederik Dagnaes; Erben, Reinhold G.; Savouret, Jean-Francois; Søe, Kent; Andersen, Thomas L.; Plesner, Torben; Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The plant phytoalexin resveratrol was previously demonstrated to inhibit the differentiation and bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts, to promote the formation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal precursors in cultures, and inhibit myeloma cell proliferation, when used at high concentrations. In the current study, we screened five structurally modified resveratrol analogues for their ability to modify the differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and proliferation of myeloma cells. Compared to resveratrol, analogues showed an up to 5,000-fold increased potency to inhibit osteoclast differentiation. To a lesser extent, resveratrol analogues also promoted osteoblast maturation. However, they did not antagonize the proliferation of myeloma cells. The potency of the best-performing candidate in vitro was tested in vivo in an ovariectomy-induced model of osteoporosis, but an effect on bone loss could not be detected. Based on their powerful antiresorptive activity in vitro, resveratrol analogues might be attractive modulators of bone remodeling. However, further studies are required to establish their efficacy in vivo. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00223-010-9399-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20842496

  6. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C.; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  7. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-active pharmaceuticals are selective AHR modulators in MDA-MB-468 and BT474 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-ook; Safe, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Leflunomide, flutamide, nimodipine, mexiletine, sulindac, tranilast, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and omeprazole are pharmaceuticals previously characterized as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists in various cell lines and animal models. In this study, the eight AHR-active pharmaceuticals were investigated in highly aggressive aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-responsive BT474 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell lines, and their effects on AHR protein, CYP1A1 (protein and mRNA), CYP1B1 (mRNA), and cell migration were determined. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was used as a positive control. The AHR agonist activities of the pharmaceuticals depended on structure, response, and cell context. Most compounds induced one or more AHR-mediated responses in BT474 cells, whereas in Ah-responsive MDA-MB-468 cells effects of the AHR-active pharmaceuticals were highly variable. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen, mexiletine, and tranilast did not induce CYP1A1 in MDA-MB-468 cells; moreover, in combination with TCDD, mexiletine was a potent AHR antagonist, tranilast was a partial antagonist, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen also exhibited some AHR antagonist activity. Omeprazole and, to a lesser extent, sulindac and leflunomide were full and partial AHR agonists, respectively, in both breast cancer cell lines. These data indicate that the AHR-active pharmaceuticals are selective AHR modulators, and applications of these drugs for targeting the AHR must be confirmed by studies using the most relevant cell context. PMID:22879383

  9. Genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies a physiological role for the AHR in epidermal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, Ellen; Podolsky, Michael; Smits, Jos; Cui, Xiao; John, Christian; Gowda, Krishne; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Schalkwijk, Joost; Perdew, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by xenobiotics is known to affect epidermal differentiation and skin barrier formation. The physiological role of endogenous AHR signaling in keratinocyte differentiation is not known. We used murine and human skin models to address the hypothesis that AHR activation is required for normal keratinocyte differentiation. Using transcriptome analysis of Ahr-/- and Ahr+/+ murine keratinocytes, we found significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes linked to epidermal differentiation. Primary Ahr-/- keratinocytes showed a significant reduction in terminal differentiation gene and protein expression, similar to Ahr+/+ keratinocytes treated with AHR antagonists GNF351 and CH223191, or the selective AHR modulator (SAhRM), SGA360. In vitro keratinocyte differentiation led to increased AHR levels and subsequent nuclear translocation, followed by induced CYP1A1 gene expression. Monolayer cultured primary human keratinocytes treated with AHR antagonists also showed an impaired terminal differentiation program. Inactivation of AHR activity during human skin equivalent development severely impaired epidermal stratification, terminal differentiation protein expression and stratum corneum formation. As disturbed epidermal differentiation is a main feature of many skin diseases, pharmacological agents targeting AHR signaling or future identification of endogenous keratinocyte-derived AHR ligands should be considered as potential new drugs in dermatology. PMID:25602157

  10. Mono-Substituted Isopropylated Triaryl Phosphate, a Major Component of Firemaster 550, is an AHR Agonist that Exhibits AHR-Independent Cardiotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Cory V.; Das, Siba R.; Volz, David C.; Bisson, William H.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Firemaster 550 (FM550) is an additive flame retardant mixture used within polyurethane foam and is increasingly found in house dust and the environment due to leaching. Despite the widespread use of FM550, very few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of its ingredients during early vertebrate development. In the current study, we sought to specifically investigate mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mITP), a component comprising approximately 32% of FM550, which has been shown to cause cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis. Previous research showed that developmental defects are rescued using an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist (CH223191), suggesting that mITP-induced toxicity was AHR-dependent. As zebrafish have three known AHR isoforms, we used a functional AHR2 knockout line along with AHR1A-and AHR1B-specific morpholinos to determine which AHR isoform, if any, mediates mITP-induced cardiotoxicity. As in silico structural homology modeling predicted that mITP may bind favorably to both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms, we evaluated AHR involvement in vivo by measuring CYP1A mRNA and protein expression following exposure to mITP in the presence or absence of CH223191 or AHR-specific morpholinos. Based on these studies, we found that mITP interacts with both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms to induce CYP1A expression. However, while CH223191 blocked mITP-induced CYP1A induction and cardiotoxicity, knockdown of all three AHR isoforms failed to block mITP-induced cardiotoxicity in the absence of detectable CYP1A induction. Overall, these results suggest that, while mITP is an AHR agonist, mITP causes AHR-independent cardiotoxicity through a pathway that is also antagonized by CH223191. PMID:24865613

  11. TCDD and omeprazole prime platelets through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) non-genomic pathway.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Mónica; Lamé, Michael W; Walker, Naomi J; Huynh, Danh H; Tablin, Fern

    2015-05-19

    The role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in hemostasis has recently gained increased attention. Here, we demonstrate, by qRT-PCR and western blot, that human platelets express both AhR mRNA and AhR protein. AhR protein levels increase in a dose dependent manner when incubated with either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or omeprazole. Treatment of platelets with puromycin blocks increased AhR protein synthesis in the presence of AhR activators. Additionally, treatment of platelets with either activator results in phosphorylation of p38MAPK and cPLA2, two key signaling molecules in platelet activation pathways. Using the AhR competitive inhibitors alpha naphthoflavone and CH-223191, we show that phosphorylation of p38MAPK is AhR dependent. Further, inhibition of p38MAPK blocks downstream cPLA2 phosphorylation induced by TCDD or omeprazole. Treatment with AhR activators results in platelet priming, as demonstrated by increased platelet aggregation, which is inhibited by AhR antagonists. Our data support a model of the platelet AhR non-genomic pathway in which treatment with AhR activators results in increased expression of the AhR, phosphorylation of p38MAPK and cPLA2, leading to platelet priming in response to agonist. PMID:25797602

  12. Resveratrol inhibits inflammatory signaling implicated in ionizing radiation-induced premature ovarian failure through antagonistic crosstalk between silencing information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1).

    PubMed

    Said, Riham Soliman; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Nada, Ahmed Shafik; Kamal, Mohamed M

    2016-03-01

    This study hypothesized that resveratrol, a silencing information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activator, would counteract the inflammatory signaling associated with radiotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF). Immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a single dose of γ-radiation to induce POF and treated with resveratrol (25mg/kg) once daily for two weeks before and three days post irradiation. Resveratrol preserves the entire ovarian follicle pool manifested by increasing serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. Radiation triggered inflammatory process in the ovary through enhanced NF-κB and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 expression which convinced the expression of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-8, and visfatin mRNA levels, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression with a concomitant reduction in IL-10 mRNA levels. Resveratrol significantly counteracted the effect of radiation and upregulated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and SIRT1. Resveratrol-activated SIRT1 expression was associated with inhibition of PARP-1 and NF-κB expression-mediated inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest that resveratrol restored ovarian function through increasing AMH levels, and diminishing ovarian inflammation, predominantly via upregulation of PPAR-γ and SIRT1 expression leading to inhibition of NF-κB provoked inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26827941

  13. Resveratrol inhibits inflammatory signaling implicated in ionizing radiation-induced premature ovarian failure through antagonistic crosstalk between silencing information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1).

    PubMed

    Said, Riham Soliman; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Nada, Ahmed Shafik; Kamal, Mohamed M

    2016-03-01

    This study hypothesized that resveratrol, a silencing information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activator, would counteract the inflammatory signaling associated with radiotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF). Immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a single dose of γ-radiation to induce POF and treated with resveratrol (25mg/kg) once daily for two weeks before and three days post irradiation. Resveratrol preserves the entire ovarian follicle pool manifested by increasing serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. Radiation triggered inflammatory process in the ovary through enhanced NF-κB and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 expression which convinced the expression of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-8, and visfatin mRNA levels, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression with a concomitant reduction in IL-10 mRNA levels. Resveratrol significantly counteracted the effect of radiation and upregulated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and SIRT1. Resveratrol-activated SIRT1 expression was associated with inhibition of PARP-1 and NF-κB expression-mediated inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest that resveratrol restored ovarian function through increasing AMH levels, and diminishing ovarian inflammation, predominantly via upregulation of PPAR-γ and SIRT1 expression leading to inhibition of NF-κB provoked inflammatory cytokines.

  14. Taste Detection Thresholds of Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Koga, Clarissa C; Becraft, Alexandra R; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that is associated with numerous health benefits related to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and neurological function. The addition of this compound to food products would help to deliver these health benefits to the consumer. However, bitterness associated with resveratrol may impart negative sensory qualities on the food products into which resveratrol is added; thus, decreasing consumer acceptability. This concern may be resolved by encapsulating resveratrol through spray drying, an innovative processing technique. The objectives of this research were to (1) compare taste detection thresholds of unencapsulated resveratrol and encapsulated resveratrol and (2) determine if the inclusion of anhydrous milk fat in the formulation of the encapsulation wall material affects the taste detection threshold of resveratrol within the microcapsules. Resveratrol microcapsules were produced by encapsulating resveratrol in a protein matrix through spray drying. R-index measure by the rating method was used to determine the average taste detection threshold and the pooled group taste detection threshold. The average and pooled group taste detection thresholds of unencapsulated resveratrol, sodium-caseinate-based resveratrol microcapsule without fat (SC), and sodium-caseinate-based resveratrol microcapsule with fat (SCAMF) were 90 and 47 mg resveratrol/L (unencapsulated), 313 and 103 mg resveratrol/L (SC), 334 and 108 mg resveratrol/L (SCAMF), respectively. The findings demonstrate that the encapsulation of resveratrol decreased the detection of the compound and provided a means to incorporate resveratrol into food products without imparting negative sensory properties.

  15. AhR signalling and dioxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years. Although TCDD has been classified by the WHO as a human carcinogen, its carcinogenic potential to humans is not clearly demonstrated. It was first believed that AhR activation accounted for most, if not all, biological properties of dioxins. However, certain AhR agonists found in vegetables do not induce chloracne, and other chemicals, in particular certain therapeutic agents, may induce a chloracne-like syndrome without activating AhR. It is time to rethink the mechanism of dioxin toxicity and analyse in more details the biological events following exposure to these compounds and other AhR agonists, some of which have a very different chemical structure than TCDD. In particular various food-containing AhR agonists are non-toxic and may on the contrary have beneficial properties to human health. PMID:24239782

  16. In vitro and in silico evaluation of transactivation potencies of avian AHR1 and AHR2 by endogenous ligands: Implications for the physiological role of avian AHR2.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sung; Hwang, Ji-Hee; Hirano, Masashi; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and it mediates the toxic effects of exogenous ligands, including dioxins. Recent studies reported that AHRs activated by endogenous ligands play critical roles in mammalian physiological homeostasis. Avian species possess at least two AHR isoforms (AHR1 and AHR2), which exhibit species- and isoform-specific transactivation potencies to exogenous ligands, whereas mammals possess a single AHR. To delineate the profiles and roles of endogenous ligands for avian AHR isoforms, we investigated in vitro transactivation potencies of avian AHRs (AHR1 and AHR2 from the jungle crow, Corvus macrorhynchos; common cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo; and black-footed albatross, Phoebastria nigripes) treated with the endogenous tryptophan metabolites 6-formylindolo [3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ), l-kynurenine (l-Kyn), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and indoxyl sulfate (IS). Furthermore, we analyzed the binding mode of these ligands to each avian AHR isoform by in silico docking simulations. The EC50 of FICZ (0.009-0.032nM) was similar regardless of the species or isoform of AHR. The estimated in silico binding mode of FICZ to AHRs was well conserved in both isoforms. The transactivation potencies of avian AHRs to other tryptophan metabolites were 10(5)-10(7) fold lower than those for FICZ, and EC50 values varied in a species- and isoform-specific manner. This was consistent with poor conservation of the binding mode of l-Kyn, KYNA, and IS predicted in in silico docking simulations. Our results suggest that in avian species, FICZ is the most potent endogenous AHR ligand, and that AHR1 and AHR2 are physiologically functional. PMID:27060260

  17. DDE and PCB 153 independently induce aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that compounds inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance AhR expression. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine if two pro-inflammatory compounds, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), independently affect AhR gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and (2) if affected, to determine whether the mechanism involved was due to AhR activation or to a pro-inflammatory effect of the chemicals. PBMC isolated from healthy individuals were incubated in the presence of DDE (10 µg/ml) and PCB 153 (20 ng/ml) over time and AhR and CYP1A1 expression was assessed with a real-time PCR technique. The results indicated there was over-expression of the AhR mRNA in PBMC when the cells were treated with DDE and PCB 153. No changes in expression levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were found. Importantly, when the cells were exposed to DDE and PCB 153 in the presence of an antagonist of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the over-expression of AhR was abolished; as expected, the expression of CYP1A1 was unaffected. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated for the first time an increment of AhR expression "in vitro" in PBMC treated with two pro-inflammatory environmental pollutants, DDE and PCB153. Moreover, the over-expression of AhR was dependent of TNFα induced by DDE and PCB 153 and was independent of AhR activation.

  18. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  19. The AhR is involved in the regulation of LoVo cell proliferation through cell cycle-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiuheng; Sheng, Baifa; Han, Bin; Pu, Aimin; Yang, Kunqiu; Li, Ping; Wang, Qimeng; Xiao, Weidong; Yang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    Some ingredients in foods can activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and arrest cell proliferation. In this study, we hypothesized that 6-formylindolo [3, 2-b] carbazole (FICZ) arrests the cell cycle in LoVo cells (a colon cancer line) through the AhR. The AhR agonist FICZ and the AhR antagonist CH223191 were used to treat LoVo cells. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to detect the expression of the AhR, CYP1A1, CDK4, cyclinD1, cyclin E, CDK2, P27, and pRb. The distribution and activation of the AhR were detected with immunofluorescence. A 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to measure cell viability, cell cycle stage, and apoptosis. Our results show that FICZ inhibited LoVo cell proliferation by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest but had no effect on epithelial apoptosis. Further analysis found that FICZ downregulated cyclinD1 and upregulated p27 expression to arrest Rb phosphorylation. The downregulation of cyclinD1 and upregulation of p27 were abolished by co-treatment with CH223191. We conclude that the AhR, when activated by FICZ (an endogenous AhR ligand), can arrest the cell cycle and block LoVo cell proliferation.

  20. Evodiamine as a novel antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hui; Tu, Yongjiu; Zhang, Chun; Fan, Xia; Wang, Xi; Wang, Zhanli; Liang, Huaping

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Evodiamine interacted with the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine inhibited the specific binding of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD to the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine acts as an antagonist of the AhR. -- Abstract: Evodiamine, the major bioactive alkaloid isolated from Wu-Chu-Yu, has been shown to interact with a wide variety of proteins and modify their expression and activities. In this study, we investigated the interaction between evodiamine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Molecular modeling results revealed that evodiamine directly interacted with the AhR. Cytosolic receptor binding assay also provided the evidence that evodiamine could interact with the AhR with the K{sub i} value of 28.4 {+-} 4.9 nM. In addition, we observed that evodiamine suppressed the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced nuclear translocation of the AhR and the expression of CYP1A1 dose-dependently. These results suggested that evodiamine was able to bind to the AhR as ligand and exhibit antagonistic effects.

  1. Benzo[ghi]perylene activates the AHR pathway to exert biological effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ojeda, Montserrat; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Perezpeña-Díazconti, Mario; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2016-08-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by incomplete combustion of organic material. In the Mexico City atmosphere, the most abundant PAH is benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), a gasoline combustion marker. At present, there are no reports of the effects of BghiP on human bronchial cells, so the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects in vitro of BghiP on the NL-20 cell line. Results showed that BghiP induced the formation of small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm, with absence of nuclear fragmentation. At 48h exposition, damage in cell membrane increased significantly at 1.24μg/mL of BghiP (p<0.05). Immunocytochemistry revealed that BghiP provokes nuclear translocation of AhR receptor, which indicates that this compound can induce transcription of genes via receptor binding (AhR pathway activation). BghiP induced a two-fold increase (p<0.05) in the expression of AhR and CYP4B1 (a lung-specific pathway effector). In the presence of the receptor antagonist CH-223191, the loss of viability, the nuclear translocation and the overexpression of genes decreased, though this did not prevent the formation of vesicles. BghiP induced oxidative stress and in presence of the receptor antagonist this increased significantly. In conclusion, BghiP can activate the overexpression of AhR and CYP4B1, and the effects are abated by the AhR receptor antagonist. This is the first report to prove that BghiP utilizes the AhR pathway to exert its toxic effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line . PMID:27234499

  2. Synergistic induction of AHR regulated genes in developmental toxicity from co-exposure to two model PAHs in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Timme-Laragy, Alicia. R.; Cockman, Crystal. J.; Matson, Cole. W.; Di Giulio, Richard. T.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants created by the incomplete combustion of carbon, and are increasing in the environment largely due to the burning of fossil fuels. PAHs occur as complex mixtures, and some combinations have been shown to cause synergistic developmental toxicity in fish embryos, characterized by pericardial edema and craniofacial malformations. Previous studies have indicated that in the zebrafish model, this toxicity is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (AHR2), and enhanced by inhibition of CYP1A activity. In this study, we further examined this interaction of the model PAH and AHR agonist β-naphthoflavone (BNF) with and without the AHR partial agonist/antagonist and CYP1A inhibitor α-naphthoflavone (ANF) to determine 1) whether ANF was acting as an AHR antagonist, 2) what alterations BNF and ANF both alone and in combination had on mRNA expression of the AHR regulated genes cytochrome P450 (cyp) 1a, 1b1, and 1c1, and the AHR repressor (ahrr2) prior to vs. during deformity onset, and 3) compare CYP1A enzyme activity with mRNA induction. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 24–48 or 24–96 hpf to BNF, 1–100 μg/L, ANF, 1–150 μg/L, a BNF+ANF co-exposure (1 μg/L + 100 μg/L), or a DMSO solvent control. RNA was extracted and examined by quantitative real time PCR. Both BNF and ANF each individually resulted in a dose dependent increase CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and AHRR2 mRNA, confirming their activities as AHR agonists. In the BNF+ANF co-exposures prior to deformity onset, expression of these genes was synergistic, and expression levels of the AHR regulated genes resembled the higher doses of BNF alone. Gene induction during deformities was also significantly increased in the co-exposure, but to a lesser magnitude than prior to deformity onset. EROD measurements of CYP1A activity showed ANF inhibited activity induction by BNF in the co-exposure group; this finding is not predicted by mRNA expression, which is

  3. Autoradiographic localization of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in rhesus monkey ovary.

    PubMed

    Baldridge, Monika G; Hutz, Reinhold J

    2007-06-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic congener of a large class of manmade pollutants that persist in the environment. TCDD exerts its toxic effects, in part, by binding to its receptor known as the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). TCDD is estrogen modulatory and in some systems its receptor associates directly with estrogen receptors via co-activator molecules. TCDD inhibits steroid synthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells and AHR is found in these cells. We have previously shown that AHR is found in whole rhesus monkey ovary, but have yet to establish its location. In the present study, we set out to show that radiolabeled TCDD binds to monkey ovarian follicles and that this binding is receptor mediated. Ovaries from Macaca mulatta were sectioned on a cryostat at 10 micro m; and sections were incubated with either control vehicle, (3)H-TCDD, or (3)H-TCDD plus alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), a known receptor-blocking agent. Here, we show for the first time specific binding of TCDD to the granulosa cells of antral follicles and other regions of the rhesus monkey ovary. Our data indicate a 60-fold increase in binding with (3)H-TCDD over that of control, and that this binding is reduced to the levels seen in controls with the addition of the competitive antagonist ANF. These findings support the hypothesis that TCDD directly affects primate ovarian function via the AHR.

  4. Resveratrol augments the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in promoting osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haibin; Shang, Linshan; Li, Xi; Zhang, Xiyu; Gao, Guimin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Liu, Qiji; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2009-10-15

    Resveratrol has been shown to possess many health-benefiting effects, including the promotion of bone formation. In this report we investigated the mechanism by which resveratrol promotes osteoblastic differentiation from pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Since Wnt signaling is well documented to induce osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, we characterized the factors involved in Wnt signaling in response to resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol treatment of mesenchymal cells led to an increase in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin dose-dependently and time-dependently. As a consequence of the increased nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin, the ability to activate transcription of {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF target genes that are required for osteoblastic differentiation was upregulated. However, resveratrol did not affect the initial step of the Wnt signaling pathway, as resveratrol was as effective in upregulating the activity of {beta}-catenin in cells in which Lrp5 was knocked down as in control cells. In addition, while conditioned medium enriched in Wnt signaling antagonist Dkk1 was able to inhibit Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin upregulation, this inhibitory effect can be abolished in resveratrol-treated cells. Furthermore, we showed that the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), which phosphorylates and destabilizes {beta}-catenin, was reduced in response to resveratrol treatment. The phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Together, our data indicate that resveratrol promotes osteoblastogenesis and bone formation by augmenting Wnt signaling.

  5. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor regulates megakaryocytic polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephan; T. Papoutsakis, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    Summary We propose that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a novel transcriptional regulator of megakaryopoietic polyploidization. Functional evidence was obtained that AHR impacts in vivo megakaryocytic differentiation and maturation; compared to wild-type mice, AHR-null mice had lower platelet counts, fewer numbers of newly synthesized platelets, increased bleeding times and lower-ploidy megakaryocytes (Mks). AHR mRNA increased 3·6-fold during ex vivo megakaryocytic differentiation, but reduced or remained constant during parallel isogenic granulocytic or erythroid differentiation. We interrogated the role of AHR in megakaryopoiesis using a validated Mk model of megakaryopoiesis, the human megakaryoblastic leukaemia CHRF cell line. Upon CHRF Mk differentiation, AHR mRNA and protein levels increased, AHR protein shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AHR binding to its consensus DNA binding sequence increased. Protein and mRNA levels of the AHR transcriptional target HES1 also increased. Mk differentiation of CHRF cells where AHR or HES1 was knocked-down using RNAi resulted in lower ploidy distributions and cells that were incapable of reaching ploidy classes ≥16n. AHR knockdown also resulted in increased DNA synthesis of lower ploidy cells, without impacting apoptosis. Together, these data support a role for AHR in Mk polyploidization and in vivo platelet function, and warrant further detailed investigations. PMID:21226706

  6. Resveratrol and Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bastin, Jean; Djouadi, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound produced by plants under various stress conditions. Resveratrol has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties in mammalian cells and animal models, and might therefore exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in different pathophysiological states. More recently, resveratrol has also been shown to potentially target many mitochondrial metabolic pathways, including fatty acid β-oxidation or oxidative phosphorylation, leading to the up-regulation of the energy metabolism via signaling pathways involving PGC-1α, SIRT1, and/or AMP-kinase, which are not yet fully delineated. Some of resveratrol beneficial effects likely arise from its cellular effects in the skeletal muscle, which, surprisingly, has been given relatively little attention, compared to other target tissues. Here, we review the potential for resveratrol to ameliorate or correct mitochondrial metabolic deficiencies responsible for myopathies, due to inherited fatty acid β-oxidation or to respiratory chain defects, for which no treatment exists to date. We also review recent data supporting therapeutic effects of resveratrol in the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, a fatal genetic disease affecting the production of muscle dystrophin, associated to a variety of mitochondrial dysfunctions, which likely contribute to disease pathogenesis. PMID:27136581

  7. Biological effects of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Frémont, L

    2000-01-14

    Resveratrol (3, 4', 5 trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occuring phytoalexin produced by some spermatophytes, such as grapevines, in response to injury. Given that it is present in grape berry skins but not in flesh, white wine contains very small amounts of resveratrol, compared to red wine. The concentrations in the form of trans- and cis- isomers of aglycone and glucosides are subjected to numerous variables. In red wine, the concentrations of the trans-isomer, which is the major form, generally ranges between 0.1 and 15 mg/L. As phenolic compound, resveratrol contributes to the antioxidant potential of red wine and thereby may play a role in the prevention of human cardiovascular diseases. Resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids, and to inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and the aggregation of platelets. Moreover, as phytoestrogen, resveratrol may provide cardiovascular protection. This compound also possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, the bioavailability and metabolic pathways must be known before drawing any conclusions on the benefits of dietary resveratrol to health.

  8. Induction of human UGT1A1 by bilirubin through AhR dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Shigeko; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2008-12-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1 (UGT1A1) plays a key role to conjugate bilirubin and preventing jaundice, but there is no report showing the induction of human UGT1A1 (UGT1A1) by bilirubin. In this report, we show findings of the induction of the reporter gene (-3475/+14) of UGT1A1 in HepG2 cells by bilirubin at 50 microM, 100 microM, with human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR). We confirmed that induction of the reporter gene by bilirubin is dependent on the position of the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) (-3328/-3319) of UGT1A1, because the XRE deletion UGT1A1 gene did not respond to stimulation by a complex of bilirubin and hAhR. alpha-Naphthoflavone (alpha-NF) of a typical AhR antagonist at 50 microM inhibited induction by bilirubin, suggesting that bilirubin stimulates through binding with hAhR. Meanwhile, bilirubin itself did not stimulate the induction of AhR, because we detected no-elevation of the mRNA level of AhR by RT-PCR. These results indicate that the induction of UGT1A1 by bilirubin-AhR did not depend on the elevation of AhR but on ligand binding. From this result, we considered that high bilirubin in neonates must induce the elevation of UGT1A1 after birth to prevent jaundice, and bilirubin in adults also regulates the level of UGT1A1. This is the first report showing direct induction of UGT1A1 by a bilirubin through AhR pathway. PMID:19356098

  9. Synthesis of Resveratrol Derivatives and In Vitro Screening for Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activities.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Fulvia; Verotta, Luisella; Klimo, Karin; Gerhäuser, Clarissa

    2016-06-01

    New resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) analogs were synthesized and screened for their in vitro cancer chemopreventive potential using various bioassays relevant for the prevention of carcinogenesis in humans: two assays to detect modulators of carcinogen metabolism (Cyp1A inhibition; determination of NAD(P)H/quinone reductase (QR) activity), three assays to identify radical scavenging and antioxidant properties (DPPH, ORAC, superoxide anion radicals in differentiated HL-60 cells), four assays to determine anti-inflammatory and anti-hormonal effects (iNOS, Cox-1 and aromatase inhibition, anti-estrogenic potential). 3,4',5-Tri-O-methyl resveratrol 1a was about sevenfold more active than resveratrol in inhibiting Cyp1A activity, it was a potent inducer of QR activity, and it showed pure anti-estrogenic activity (whereas resveratrol is a known mixed estrogen (ant)agonist with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties). Dual estrogen ant-/agonist activity was restored in the mono-O-benzyl-substituted derivatives 4b (4'-O-benzyl resveratrol) and 5b (3-O-benzyl resveratrol). With respect to aromatase inhibition (Cyp19), which provided the highest number of actives, the benzyl-substituted series was more potent than the methyl-substituted derivatives of resveratrol, and 3-O-benzyl resveratrol 5b was about eightfold more active than resveratrol. Overall, 3,4',5-tri-O-pivaloyl resveratrol oxide 7c was identified as a potent inducer of phase 2 enzymes concomitant with inhibition of LPS-mediated iNOS induction.

  10. Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation in airway epithelial cells induces MUC5AC via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takahito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Gaku; Gondo, Hisaki; Moroi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-02-01

    The dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in cigarette smoke regulate various immunological responses via the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These environmental toxicants are known to cause bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that AhR activation upregulates the expression of mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) in the airway epithelial cell line. However, the mechanism for the production of mucin has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the role and pathway of AhR in airway epithelial cells by using selective agonists and antagonists. After stimulation with or without benzopyrene (B[a]P), an AhR agonist, MUC5AC expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The mechanism of AhR-induced MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells was studied in terms of the production of cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with B[a]P increased ROS generation in NCI-H₂₉₂ cells. Furthermore, B[a]P-induced MUC5AC upregulation and mucin production were inhibited by AhR siRNA or the use of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that the AhR-induced increase of mucin production is partially mediated by ROS generation. An antioxidant therapy approach may help to cure AhR-induced mucus hypersecretory diseases. PMID:20709182

  11. Resveratrol and Ophthalmic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Kondkar, Altaf A.; Chalam, Kakarla V.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring plant polyphenol found in grapes, is the principal biologically active component in red wine. Clinical studies have shown that resveratrol due to its potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are cardio-protective, chemotherapeutic, neuroprotective, and display anti-aging effects. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the initiation and progression of age-related ocular diseases (glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration) that lead to progressive loss of vision and blindness. In vitro and in vivo (animal model) experimental studies performed so far have provided evidence for the biological effects of resveratrol on numerous pathways including oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, pro-survival or angiogenesis that are implicated in the pathogenesis of these age-related ocular disorders. In this review, we provide a brief overview of current scientific literature on resveratrol, its plausible mechanism(s) of action, its potential use and current limitations as a nutritional therapeutic intervention in the eye and its related disorders. PMID:27058553

  12. Resveratrol and Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica P.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process, frequently encompassing 3 stages: initiation, promotion and progression. It is characterized by multiple deviations from normal both at the cell and organism levels. Although most people have a small number of cells that present deviations from normal, most of those cells will not cause cancer. However, some will. What tips the balance between normal and abnormal is the subject of intense scientific research as well as unfounded speculations. Chronic inflammation is one of the risk factors for cancer. Resveratrol is consumed by the population as a dietary supplement in the hope of decreasing the risk of inflammation and cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes and vascular diseases. There is a discrepancy between the doses used in the animal studies showing that resveratrol decreases all three stages of carcinogenesis, and the doses ingested by the population either as supplements or in the diet. While there is health benefit from using high resveratrol doses, it might be also of practical and scientific benefit to focus future effort in understanding the effects of normal dietary resveratrol levels. PMID:26478855

  13. A Structural Switch between Agonist and Antagonist Bound Conformations for a Ligand-Optimized Model of the Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Arden; Phillips, Jessica L.; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Perdew, Gary H.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Bisson, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of a diverse group of genes. Exogenous AHR ligands include the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which is a potent agonist, and the synthetic AHR antagonist N-2-(1H-indol-3yl)ethyl)-9-isopropyl-2-(5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (GNF351). As no experimentally determined structure of the ligand binding domain exists, homology models have been utilized for virtual ligand screening (VLS) to search for novel ligands. Here, we have developed an “agonist-optimized” homology model of the human AHR ligand binding domain, and this model aided in the discovery of two human AHR agonists by VLS. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of an agonist TCDD-bound and antagonist GNF351-bound version of this model in order to gain insights into the mechanics of the AHR ligand-binding pocket. These simulations identified residues 307–329 as a flexible segment of the AHR ligand pocket that adopts discrete conformations upon agonist or antagonist binding. This flexible segment of the AHR may act as a structural switch that determines the agonist or antagonist activity of a given AHR ligand. PMID:25329374

  14. Teratogenic impact of dioxin-activated AHR in laboratory animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    AHR and ARNT are expressed in mouse and human palatal shelves and in the urinary tract of the mouse fetus. AHR expression, translocation to the nucleus, binding to DRE, and activation are required for mediation of TCDD-induction of CP and HN. Although the human palate requires a ...

  15. AHR signaling in prostate growth, morphogenesis, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Vezina, Chad M.; Lin, Tien-Min; Peterson, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Most evidence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling in prostate growth, morphogenesis, and disease stems from research using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pharmacologically activate the AHR at various stages of development. This review discusses effects of TCDD on prostate morphogenesis and highlights interactions between AHR and other signaling pathways during normal and aberrant prostate growth. Although AHR signaling modulates estrogen and androgen signaling in other tissues, crosstalk between these steroid hormone receptors and AHR signaling cannot account for actions of TCDD on prostate morphogenesis. Instead, the AHR appears to act within a cooperative framework of developmental signals to regulate timing and patterning of prostate growth. Inappropriate activation of AHR signaling as a result of early life TCDD exposure disrupts the balance of these signals, impairs prostate morphogenesis, and has an imprinting effect on the developing prostate that predisposes to prostate disease in adulthood. Mechanisms of AHR signaling in prostate growth and disease are only beginning to be unraveled and recent studies have revealed its interactions with WNT5A, retinoic acid, fibroblast growth factor 10, and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathways. PMID:18977204

  16. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  17. Characterizing the role of endothelin-1 in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Amie K.; Goens, M. Beth; Nunez, Bethany A.; Walker, Mary K. . E-mail: mkwalker@unm.edu

    2006-04-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor characterized to play a role in detection and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Genetic deletion of AhR results in hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), thus AhR appears to contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that ET-1 mediates cardiovascular pathology in AhR null mice via ET{sub A} receptor activation. First, we determine the time courses of cardiac hypertrophy, and of plasma and tissue ET-1 expression in AhR wildtype and null mice. AhR null mice exhibited increases in heart-to-body weight ratio and age-related expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers, {beta}-myosin heavy chain ({beta}-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which were significant at 2 months. Similarly, plasma and tissue ET-1 expression was significantly elevated at 2 months and increased further with age. Second, AhR null mice were treated with ET{sub A} receptor antagonist, BQ-123 (100 nmol/kg/day), for 7, 28, or 58 days and blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy assessed, respectively. BQ-123 for 7 days significantly reduced mean arterial pressure in conscious, catheterized mice. BQ-123 for 28 days significantly reduced the histological appearance of cardiac fibrosis. Treatment for 58 days significantly reduced cardiac mass, assessed by heart weight, echocardiography, and {beta}-MHC and ANF expression; and reduced cardiac fibrosis as determined by osteopontin and collagen I mRNA expression. These findings establish ET-1 and the ET{sub A} receptor as primary determinants of hypertension and cardiac pathology in AhR null mice.

  18. Factors Affecting Resveratrol Content in Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the occurrence of resveratrol in Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and the effect of preharvest conditions on resveratrol content. Both cis- and trans- resveratrol were detected in strawberry achenes (seeds) and pulp (receptacle tissue). Resveratrol was identified by LC-MS. Resver...

  19. Anticancer Molecular Mechanisms of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Varoni, Elena M.; Lo Faro, Alfredo Fabrizio; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a pleiotropic phytochemical belonging to the stilbene family. Though it is only significantly present in grape products, a huge amount of preclinical studies investigated its anticancer properties in a plethora of cellular and animal models. Molecular mechanisms of resveratrol involved signaling pathways related to extracellular growth factors and receptor tyrosine kinases; formation of multiprotein complexes and cell metabolism; cell proliferation and genome instability; cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase signaling (cytokine, integrin, and developmental pathways); signal transduction by the transforming growth factor-β super-family; apoptosis and inflammation; and immune surveillance and hormone signaling. Resveratrol also showed a promising role to counteract multidrug resistance: in adjuvant therapy, associated with 5-fluoruracyl and cisplatin, resveratrol had additive and/or synergistic effects increasing the chemosensitization of cancer cells. Resveratrol, by acting on diverse mechanisms simultaneously, has been emphasized as a promising, multi-target, anticancer agent, relevant in both cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27148534

  20. Mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR and induce CYP1A genes expression in human hepatocytes and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kubešová, Kateřina; Dořičáková, Aneta; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2016-07-25

    The effects of four copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes [Cu(qui1)(L)]NO3·H2O (1-3) and [Cu(qui2)(phen)]NO3 (4), where qui1=2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone, Hqui2=2-(4-amino-3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-propyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone-7-carboxamide, L=1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (1), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (mphen) (2), bathophenanthroline (bphen) (3), on transcriptional activities of steroid receptors, nuclear receptors and xenoreceptors have been studied. The complexes (1-4) did not influence basal or ligand-inducible activities of glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, thyroid receptor, pregnane X receptor and vitamin D receptor, as revealed by gene reporter assays. The complexes 1 and 2 dose-dependently induced luciferase activity in stable gene reporter AZ-AhR cell line, and this induction was reverted by resveratrol, indicating involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the process. The complexes 1, 2 and 3 induced CYP1A1 mRNA in LS180 cells and CYP1A1/CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes through AhR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay EMSA showed that the complexes 1 and 2 transformed AhR in its DNA-binding form. Collectively, we demonstrate that the complexes 1 and 2 activate AhR and induce AhR-dependent genes in human hepatocytes and cancer cell lines. In conclusion, the data presented here might be of toxicological importance, regarding the multiple roles of AhR in human physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27180721

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  2. Simulator for SUPO, a Benchmark Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-10-14

    A simulator has been developed for SUPO (Super Power) an aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) that operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1951 to 1974. During that period SUPO accumulated approximately 600,000 kWh of operation. It is considered the benchmark for steady-state operation of an AHR. The SUPO simulator was developed using the process that resulted in a simulator for an accelerator-driven subcritical system, which has been previously reported.

  3. Microbiome-Derived Tryptophan Metabolites and Their Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Agonist and Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ook; Sridharan, Gautham; Lee, Kyongbum; Davidson, Laurie A.; Jayaraman, Arul; Chapkin, Robert S.; Alaniz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolites indole, indole-3-acetate, and tryptamine were identified in mouse cecal extracts and fecal pellets by mass spectrometry. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and antagonist activities of these microbiota-derived compounds were investigated in CaCo-2 intestinal cells as a model for understanding their interactions with colonic tissue, which is highly aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)–responsive. Activation of Ah-responsive genes demonstrated that tryptamine and indole 3-acetate were AHR agonists, whereas indole was an AHR antagonist that inhibited TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)–induced CYP1A1 expression. In contrast, the tryptophan metabolites exhibited minimal anti-inflammatory activities, whereas TCDD decreased phorbol ester-induced CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] gene expression, and this response was AHR dependent. These results demonstrate that the tryptophan metabolites indole, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate modulate AHR-mediated responses in CaCo-2 cells, and concentrations of indole that exhibit AHR antagonist activity (100–250 μM) are detected in the intestinal microbiome. PMID:24563545

  4. The molecular targets of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sameer S; Cantó, Carles

    2015-06-01

    Resveratrol has emerged in recent years as a compound conferring strong protection against metabolic, cardiovascular and other age-related complications, including neurodegeneration and cancer. This has generated the notion that resveratrol treatment acts as a calorie-restriction mimetic, based on the many overlapping health benefits observed upon both interventions in diverse organisms, including yeast, worms, flies and rodents. Though studied for over a decade, the molecular mechanisms governing the therapeutic properties of resveratrol still remain elusive. Elucidating how resveratrol exerts its effects would provide not only new insights in its fundamental biological actions but also new avenues for the design and development of more potent drugs to efficiently manage metabolic disorders. In this review we will cover the most recent advances in the field, with special focus on the metabolic actions of resveratrol and the potential role of SIRT1 and AMPK. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Resveratrol: Challenges in translating pre-clinical findings to improved patient outcomes.

  5. AHR-5850: a potent anti-inflammatory compound.

    PubMed

    Sancilio, L F; Reese, D L; Cheung, S; Alphin, R S

    1977-03-01

    AHR-5850 is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compound possessing antipyretic and analgesic properties. AHR-5850 was 16.4 and 22.8 times more potent than phenylbutazone in suppressing acute (Evans blue-carrageenan pleural effusion) and chronic (adjuvant-induced arthritis) inflammation, respectively. The analgesic activity of AHR 5850 was 43 times that of acetylsalicylic acid in the Randall-Selitto assay, and 156 and 56.3 times more potent than phenylbutazone in the acetylcholine-induced abdominal constriction in mice and in the bradykinin-induced nociceptive response in dogs, respectively. Single-dose studies showed that AHR-5850 produced less gastric irritation than acetylsalicylic acid when applied topically to the exposed gastric mucosa of cats or when administered orally to rats and dogs. Upon subchronic oral administration to rats, the therapeutic ratio of AHR-5850 was twice that of phenylbutazone. This was based on the ratio of its potency relative to phenylbutazone in producing intestinal lesions to its anti-inflammatory potency relative to phenylbutazone in the adjuvant-induced arthritis.

  6. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor prevents Western diet-induced obesity. Model for AHR activation by kynurenine via oxidized-LDL, TLR2/4, TGFβ, and IDO1.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Benjamin J; Rojas, Itzel Y; Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S; Hazlett, Haley F; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Trask, Heidi W; West, Rachel J; Lupien, Leslie E; Collins, Alan J; Ringelberg, Carol S; Gimi, Barjor; Kinlaw, William B; Tomlinson, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem, yet, little is known about its causes and less is known how obesity can be effectively treated. We showed previously that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in the regulation of body mass in mice fed Western diet. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in a number of biological pathways, including xenobiotic metabolism and T cell polarization. This study was an investigation into whether inhibition of the AHR prevents Western diet-based obesity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control and Western diets with and without the AHR antagonist α-naphthoflavone or CH-223191, and a mouse hepatocyte cell line was used to delineate relevant cellular pathways. Studies are presented showing that the AHR antagonists α-naphthoflavone and CH-223191 significantly reduce obesity and adiposity and ameliorates liver steatosis in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a Western diet. Mice deficient in the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were also resistant to obesity. Using an AHR-directed, luciferase-expressing mouse hepatocyte cell line, we show that the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signaling pathway via PI3K and NF-κB and the toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) signaling pathway stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoproteins via NF-κB, each induce luciferase expression; however, TLR2/4 signaling was significantly reduced by inhibition of IDO1. At physiological levels, kynurenine but not kynurenic acid (both tryptophan metabolites and known AHR agonists) activated AHR-directed luciferase expression. We propose a hepatocyte-based model, in which kynurenine production is increased by enhanced IDO1 activity stimulated by TGFβ1 and TLR2/4 signaling, via PI3K and NF-κB, to perpetuate a cycle of AHR activation to cause obesity; and inhibition of the AHR, in turn, blocks the cycle's output to prevent obesity. The AHR with its broad ligand binding specificity

  7. Interplay between metabolism and transport of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Riha, Juliane; Thalhammer, Theresia; Szekeres, Thomas; Jaeger, Walter

    2013-07-01

    Resveratrol exhibits a variety of biological and pharmacological activities despite its extensive metabolism to sulfates and glucuronides in the intestine and liver. The metabolism of resveratrol is cell specific and strongly correlates with enzyme expression levels. However, a high rate of biotransformation, in concert with the action of the efflux transporters MRP2, MRP3, and ABCG2, reduces intracellular resveratrol concentrations, and may thereby decrease its pharmacological activity. Interestingly, biotransformation is also dependent on disease status. For example, significantly greater sulfation of resveratrol occurs in human breast tumor tissue than in adjacent nonmalignant tissue. The observed differences, however, do not correlate with the expression of sulfotransferases responsible for catalyzing resveratrol sulfation, but rather with significantly higher steroid sulfatase mRNA levels. The in vitro activity of resveratrol sulfates may not necessarily reflect their in vivo function, given the fact that ubiquitously existing human sulfatases can convert the metabolites back to active resveratrol in humans.

  8. AHR promoter variant modulates its transcription and downstream effectors by allele-specific AHR-SP1 interaction functioning as a genetic marker for vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Shi, Qiong; Song, Pu; Jian, Zhe; Guo, Sen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2015-09-15

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR -129C > T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that -129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with -129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-α concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than -129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo.

  9. AHR promoter variant modulates its transcription and downstream effectors by allele-specific AHR-SP1 interaction functioning as a genetic marker for vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowen; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Shi, Qiong; Song, Pu; Jian, Zhe; Guo, Sen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR −129C > T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that −129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with −129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-α concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than −129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo. PMID:26370050

  10. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…); however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure) should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials. PMID:27144581

  11. Kisspeptin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roseweir, Antonia Kathryn; Millar, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is now known to be an important regulator of the hypothalamic--pituitary-gonadal axis and is the target of a range of regulators, such as steroid hormone feedback, nutritional and metabolic regulation. Kisspeptin binds to its cognate receptor, KISS1R (also called GPR54), on GnRH neurons and stimulates their activity, which in turn provides an obligatory signal for GnRH secretion-thus gating down-stream events supporting reproduction. The development of peripherally active kisspeptin antagonists could offer a unique therapeutic agent for treating hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction, including precocious puberty, endometriosis, and metastatic prostate cancer. The following chapter discusses the advances made in the search for both peptide and small molecule kisspeptin antagonists and their use in delineating the role of kisspeptin within the reproductive system. To date, four peptide antagonists and one small molecule antagonist have been designed.

  12. In vitro re-expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) in cultured Ahr-deficient mouse antral follicles partially restores the phenotype to that of cultured wild-type mouse follicles

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Gal, A; Gao, L.; Karman, B.N.; Flaws, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of various endocrine disrupting chemicals. In female mice, global deletion of the Ahr (AhrKO) results in slow growth of ovarian antral follicles. No studies, however, have examined whether injection of the Ahr restores the phenotypes of cultured AhrKO ovarian antral follicles to wild-type levels. Methods We developed a system to construct a recombinant adenovirus containing the Ahr to re-express the Ahr in AhrKO granulosa cells and whole antral follicles. We then compared follicle growth and levels of factors in the AHR signaling pathway (Ahr, Ahrr, Cyp1a1, and Cyp1b1) in wild-type, AhrKO, and Ahr re-expressed follicles. Further, we compared the response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in wild-type, AhrKO, and Ahr re-expressed follicles. Results AdAhr injection into AhrKO follicles partially restored their growth pattern to wild-type levels. Further, Ahr re-expressed follicles had significantly higher levels of Ahr, Ahrr, Cyp1a1, and Cyp1b1 compared to wild-type follicles. Upon TCDD treatment, only Cyp1a1 levels were significantly higher in Ahr re-expressed follicles compared to the levels in wild-type follicles. Conclusion Our system of re-expression of the Ahr partially restores follicle growth and transcript levels of factors in the AHR signaling pathway to wild-type levels. PMID:25500125

  13. Resveratrol and liver: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Faghihzadeh, Forouzan; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Adibi, Payman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies demonstrated that resveratrol has many therapeutic effects on liver disorders. Resveratrol significantly increased survival after liver transplantation, decreased fat deposition, necrosis, and apoptosis which induced by ischemia in Wistar rats. It provided liver protection against chemical, cholestatic, and alcohol injury. Resveratrol can improve glucose metabolism and lipid profile and decrease liver fibrosis and steatosis. Furthermore, it was able to alter hepatic cell fatty acid composition. According to extension of liver disease around the world and necessity of finding new threat, this review critically examines the current preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies on the preventive and therapeutic effects of resveratrol in liver disorders. Materials and Methods: A search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms, including “liver,” “hepatic,” and “Resveratrol.” Both in vivo and in vitro studies were included. No time limiting considered for this search. Results: A total of 76 articles were eligible for this review. In these articles, resveratrol shows antioxidative properties in different models of hepatitis resulting in reducing of hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: Resveratrol could reduce hepatic steatosis through modulating the insulin resistance and lipid profile in animals. These high quality preclinical studies propose the potential therapeutic implication of resveratrol in liver disorders especially those with hepatic steatosis. Resveratrol can play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of liver disorders by reducing hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26664429

  14. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NF{kappa}B and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Potapovich, Alla I.; Lulli, Daniela; Fidanza, Paolo; Kostyuk, Vladimir A.; De Luca, Chiara; Pastore, Saveria; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA + UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure, the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50 {mu}M resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights

  15. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24918540

  16. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-06-10

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity.

  17. Resveratrol Content in Strawberry Fruit is Affected by Preharvest Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the occurrence of resveratrol in Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and the effect of pre-harvest conditions on resveratrol content. Both cis- and trans- resveratrol were detected in strawberry achenes (seeds) and pulp (receptacle tissue). Resveratrol was found to be higher in ache...

  18. Endothelin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Benigni, A; Remuzzi, G

    1999-01-01

    The very potent endogenous vasoconstrictor endothelin was discovered in 1988. We know now that there are three isoforms (1, 2, and 3) and two receptor subtypes (A and B). A whole range of peptide and non-peptide antagonists has been developed, some selective for A or B receptors and others with non-selective A/B antagonistic activity. So far the main application of these agents has been experimental--ie, endothelin blockers are used to throw light on disease mechanisms, most notably cardiovascular and renal. However, the non-selective antagonist bosentan and a few other agents have been studied clinically. Evidence so far from preclinical studies and healthy volunteers and from the limited number of investigations in patients permits a listing of the potential areas of clinical interest. These are mainly cardiovascular (eg, hypertension, cerebrovascular damage, and possibly heart failure) and renal. Clouds on the horizon are the need to show that these new agents are better than existing drugs; the possibility of conflicting actions if mixed A/B antagonists are used; and animal evidence hinting that endothelin blockade during development could be dangerous.

  19. Spermidine and resveratrol induce autophagy by distinct pathways converging on the acetylproteome

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, Eugenia; Mariño, Guillermo; Bennetzen, Martin V.; Eisenberg, Tobias; Megalou, Evgenia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Cabrera, Sandra; Bénit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre; Criollo, Alfredo; Kepp, Oliver; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Shen, Shensi; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Horio, Yoshiyuki; López-Otín, Carlos; Andersen, Jens S.; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy protects organelles, cells, and organisms against several stress conditions. Induction of autophagy by resveratrol requires the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). In this paper, we show that the acetylase inhibitor spermidine stimulates autophagy independent of SIRT1 in human and yeast cells as well as in nematodes. Although resveratrol and spermidine ignite autophagy through distinct mechanisms, these compounds stimulate convergent pathways that culminate in concordant modifications of the acetylproteome. Both agents favor convergent deacetylation and acetylation reactions in the cytosol and in the nucleus, respectively. Both resveratrol and spermidine were able to induce autophagy in cytoplasts (enucleated cells). Moreover, a cytoplasm-restricted mutant of SIRT1 could stimulate autophagy, suggesting that cytoplasmic deacetylation reactions dictate the autophagic cascade. At doses at which neither resveratrol nor spermidine stimulated autophagy alone, these agents synergistically induced autophagy. Altogether, these data underscore the importance of an autophagy regulatory network of antagonistic deacetylases and acetylases that can be pharmacologically manipulated. PMID:21339330

  20. Cardiac Myocyte-Specific AHR Activation Phenocopies TCDD-Induced Toxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, Kevin A.; Plavicki, Jessica; Peterson, Richard E.; Heideman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of zebrafish embryos to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) activates the zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (AHR) to produce developmental and cardiovascular toxicity. AHR is found in the heart; however, AHR activation by TCDD is not confined to the heart and occurs throughout the organism. In order to understand the cause of cardiotoxicity, we constructed a constitutively active AHR (caAHR) based on the zebrafish AHR2 and expressed it specifically in cardiomyocytes. We show that AHR activation within the cardiomyocytes can account for the heart failure induced by TCDD. Expression of the caAHR within the heart produced cardiac malformations, loss of circulation, and pericardial edema. The heart-specific activation of AHR reproduced several other well-characterized endpoints of TCDD toxicity outside of the cardiovascular system, including defects in swim bladder and craniofacial development. This work identifies a single cellular site of TCDD action, the myocardial cell, that can account for the severe cardiovascular collapse observed following early life stage exposure to TCDD, and contributes to other forms of toxicity. PMID:25037585

  1. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    SciTech Connect

    Wincent, Emma; Stegeman, John J.; Jönsson, Maria E.

    2015-04-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate the AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examined phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in the presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholino-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes.

  2. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    PubMed Central

    Wincent, Emma; Stegeman, John J.; Jönsson, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examined phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholine-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes. PMID:25711857

  3. Wine Resveratrol: From the Ground Up.

    PubMed

    Bavaresco, Luigi; Lucini, Luigi; Busconi, Matteo; Flamini, Riccardo; De Rosso, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the grapevine to activate defense mechanisms against some pathogens has been shown to be linked to the synthesis of resveratrol and other stilbenes by the plant (inducible viniferins). Metabolized viniferins may also be produced or modified by extracellular enzymes released by the pathogen in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Because of the important properties of resveratrol, there is increasing interest in producing wines with higher contents of this compound and a higher nutritional value. Many biotic and abiotic elicitors can trigger the resveratrol synthesis in the berries, and some examples are reported. Under the same elicitation pressure, viticultural and enological factors can substantially affect the resveratrol concentration in the wine. The production of high resveratrol-containing grapes and wines relies on quality-oriented viticulture (suitable terroirs and sustainable cultural practices) and winemaking technologies that avoid degradation of the compound. In general, the oenological practices commonly used to stabilize wine after fermentation do not affect resveratrol concentration, which shows considerable stability. Finally the paper reports on two sirtuin genes (SIRT) expressed in grapevine leaves and berries and the role of resveratrol on the deacetylation activity of the encoded enzymes. PMID:27089363

  4. Wine Resveratrol: From the Ground Up

    PubMed Central

    Bavaresco, Luigi; Lucini, Luigi; Busconi, Matteo; Flamini, Riccardo; De Rosso, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the grapevine to activate defense mechanisms against some pathogens has been shown to be linked to the synthesis of resveratrol and other stilbenes by the plant (inducible viniferins). Metabolized viniferins may also be produced or modified by extracellular enzymes released by the pathogen in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Because of the important properties of resveratrol, there is increasing interest in producing wines with higher contents of this compound and a higher nutritional value. Many biotic and abiotic elicitors can trigger the resveratrol synthesis in the berries, and some examples are reported. Under the same elicitation pressure, viticultural and enological factors can substantially affect the resveratrol concentration in the wine. The production of high resveratrol-containing grapes and wines relies on quality-oriented viticulture (suitable terroirs and sustainable cultural practices) and winemaking technologies that avoid degradation of the compound. In general, the oenological practices commonly used to stabilize wine after fermentation do not affect resveratrol concentration, which shows considerable stability. Finally the paper reports on two sirtuin genes (SIRT) expressed in grapevine leaves and berries and the role of resveratrol on the deacetylation activity of the encoded enzymes. PMID:27089363

  5. Nanoscale Delivery of Resveratrol towards Enhancement of Supplements and Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Ana Rute; Martins, Susana; Segundo, Marcela A.; Reis, Salette

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol was investigated in terms of its stability, biocompatibility and intestinal permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers in its free form or encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). SLNs and NLCs presented a mean diameter between 160 and 190 nm, high negative zeta potential of −30 mV and resveratrol entrapment efficiency of 80%, suggesting they are suitable for resveratrol oral delivery. Nanoencapsulation effectively protected resveratrol from photodegradation, and MTT assays demonstrated that neither resveratrol nor lipid nanoparticles adversely affected cell viability and integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayers. The in vitro intestinal permeability of resveratrol was significantly increased by NLCs, and SLNs did not impair the absorption of resveratrol. Resveratrol oral absorption can be enhanced during meals, since the intestinal permeability was increased in the presence of fed-state intestinal juices. SLNs and NLCs constitute carrier systems for resveratrol oral administration, for further use as supplements or nutraceuticals. PMID:26950147

  6. Synthesis of resveratrol glycosides by cultured plant cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Hamada, Manabu; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Takemoto, Mai; Hamada, Hiroki

    2013-07-01

    Incubation of cultured cells of Glycine max with trans-resveratrol gave its 3-O-beta-D- and 4'-O-beta-D-glucosides. Cultured Gossypium hirsutum cells glycosylated trans-resveratrol to its 3-O-beta-D-, 4'-O-beta-D-, and 3,4'-O-beta-D-diglucosides. On the other hand, trans-resveratrol was converted into cis-resveratrol 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, together with trans-resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside and trans-resveratrol 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, by Eucalyptus perriniana.

  7. Use of natural AhR ligands as potential therapeutic modalities against inflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Busbee, Philip B; Rouse, Michael; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss research involving ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and their role in immunomodulation. While activation of the AhR is well known for its ability to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals, more recently an exciting discovery has been made indicating that AhR ligation can also regulate T-cell differentiation, specifically through activation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and downregulation of the proinflammatory Th17 cells. Such findings have opened new avenues of research on the possibility of targeting the AhR to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Specifically, this review will discuss the current research involving natural and dietary AhR ligands. In addition, evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases will be highlighted. The importance of the AhR in immunological processes can be illustrated by expression of this receptor on a majority of immune cell types. In addition, AhR signaling pathways have been reported to influence a number of genes responsible for mediating inflammation and other immune responses. As interest in the AhR and its ligands increases, it seems prudent to consolidate current research on the contributions of these ligands to immune regulation during the course of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23731446

  8. 75 FR 49550 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference...: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... Heading Reference System (AHRS). DATES: The meeting will be held September 14-16, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 5...

  9. Microarray analysis of the AHR system: Tissue-specific flexibility in signal and target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Frericks, Markus; Meissner, Marc; Esser, Charlotte . E-mail: chesser@uni-duesseldorf.de

    2007-05-01

    Data mining published microarray experiments require that expression profiles are directly comparable. We performed linear global normalization on the data of 1967 Affymetrix U74av2 microarrays, i.e. the transcriptomes of > 100 murine tissues or cell types. The mathematical transformation effectively nullifies inter-experimental or inter-laboratory differences between microarrays. The correctness of expression values was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Using the database we analyze components of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling pathway in various tissues. We identified lineage and differentiation specific variant expression of AHR, ARNT, and HIF1{alpha} in the T-cell lineage and high expression of CYP1A1 in immature B cells and dendritic cells. Performing co-expression analysis we found unorthodox expression of the AHR in the absence of ARNT, particularly in stem cell populations, and can reject the hypothesis that ARNT2 takes over and is highly expressed when ARNT expression is low or absent. Furthermore the AHR shows no co-expression with any other transcript present on the chip. Analysis of differential gene expression under 308 conditions revealed 53 conditions under which the AHR is regulated, numerous conditions under which an intrinsic AHR action is modified as well as conditions activating the AHR even in the absence of known AHR ligands. Thus meta-analysis of published expression profiles is a powerful tool to gain novel insights into known and unknown systems.

  10. Resveratrol and cancer: Challenges for clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chandra K.; Ndiaye, Mary A.; Ahmad, Nihal

    2014-01-01

    Significant work has been done towards identifying the health-beneficial effects of the grape antioxidant resveratrol in a variety of bioassay- and disease- models, with much research being focused on its possible application to cancer management. Despite the large number of preclinical studies dealing with different aspects of the biological effects of resveratrol, it’s translation to clinics is far from reality due to a variety of challenges. In this review, we discuss the issues and questions associated with resveratrol becoming an effective in vivo anticancer drug, from basic metabolic issues to the problems faced by incomplete understanding of the mechanism(s) of action in the body. We also explore efforts taken by researchers, both public and private, to contend with some of these issues. By examining the published data and previous clinical trials, we have attempted to identify the problems and issues that hinder the clinical translation of resveratrol for cancer management. PMID:25446990

  11. Colorectal cancer chemoprevention by trans-resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Juan, M Emília; Alfaras, Irene; Planas, Joana M

    2012-06-01

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytoalexin present in grapes, red wine, berries and peanuts with health protecting properties. The low oral bioavailability indicated for this polyphenol, with the intestine as a bottleneck to its absorption, has promoted the large intestine as a potential target site for its chemopreventive activity. This review recapitulates the current evidence of the effects of trans-resveratrol on colon cancer. First, we describe the studies conducted in vitro which show that the protective activity takes place by inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Secondly, the chemopreventive activity in animal models of colon carcinogenesis is revised. trans-Resveratrol not only reduces the number of preneoplastic lesions but also the incidence and multiplicity of tumors. Lastly, the article also reviews the available data on clinical trials. Altogether, the present findings support the hypothesis that the oral administration of trans-resveratrol might contribute to the prevention of colon carcinogenesis.

  12. Accurate Orientation Estimation Using AHRS under Conditions of Magnetic Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Nagesh; Bleakley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Low cost, compact attitude heading reference systems (AHRS) are now being used to track human body movements in indoor environments by estimation of the 3D orientation of body segments. In many of these systems, heading estimation is achieved by monitoring the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. However, the Earth's magnetic field can be locally distorted due to the proximity of ferrous and/or magnetic objects. Herein, we propose a novel method for accurate 3D orientation estimation using an AHRS, comprised of an accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, under conditions of magnetic field distortion. The system performs online detection and compensation for magnetic disturbances, due to, for example, the presence of ferrous objects. The magnetic distortions are detected by exploiting variations in magnetic dip angle, relative to the gravity vector, and in magnetic strength. We investigate and show the advantages of using both magnetic strength and magnetic dip angle for detecting the presence of magnetic distortions. The correction method is based on a particle filter, which performs the correction using an adaptive cost function and by adapting the variance during particle resampling, so as to place more emphasis on the results of dead reckoning of the gyroscope measurements and less on the magnetometer readings. The proposed method was tested in an indoor environment in the presence of various magnetic distortions and under various accelerations (up to 3 g). In the experiments, the proposed algorithm achieves <2° static peak-to-peak error and <5° dynamic peak-to-peak error, significantly outperforming previous methods. PMID:25347584

  13. Resveratrol: A Potential Hippocampal Plasticity Enhancer.

    PubMed

    Dias, Gisele Pereira; Cocks, Graham; do Nascimento Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Thuret, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The search for molecules capable of restoring altered hippocampal plasticity in psychiatric and neurological conditions is one of the most important tasks of modern neuroscience. It is well established that neural plasticity, such as the ability of the postnatal hippocampus to continuously generate newly functional neurons throughout life, a process called adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), can be modulated not only by pharmacological agents, physical exercise, and environmental enrichment, but also by "nutraceutical" agents. In this review we focus on resveratrol, a phenol and phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes and red berries, as well as in nuts. Resveratrol has been reported to have antioxidant and antitumor properties, but its effects as a neural plasticity inducer are still debated. The current review examines recent evidence implicating resveratrol in regulating hippocampal neural plasticity and in mitigating the effects of various disorders and diseases on this important brain structure. Overall, findings show that resveratrol can improve cognition and mood and enhance hippocampal plasticity and AHN; however, some studies report opposite effects, with resveratrol inhibiting aspects of AHN. Therefore, further investigation is needed to resolve these controversies before resveratrol can be established as a safe coadjuvant in preventing and treating neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:27313836

  14. Resveratrol: A Potential Hippocampal Plasticity Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Gisele Pereira; Cocks, Graham; do Nascimento Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    The search for molecules capable of restoring altered hippocampal plasticity in psychiatric and neurological conditions is one of the most important tasks of modern neuroscience. It is well established that neural plasticity, such as the ability of the postnatal hippocampus to continuously generate newly functional neurons throughout life, a process called adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), can be modulated not only by pharmacological agents, physical exercise, and environmental enrichment, but also by “nutraceutical” agents. In this review we focus on resveratrol, a phenol and phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes and red berries, as well as in nuts. Resveratrol has been reported to have antioxidant and antitumor properties, but its effects as a neural plasticity inducer are still debated. The current review examines recent evidence implicating resveratrol in regulating hippocampal neural plasticity and in mitigating the effects of various disorders and diseases on this important brain structure. Overall, findings show that resveratrol can improve cognition and mood and enhance hippocampal plasticity and AHN; however, some studies report opposite effects, with resveratrol inhibiting aspects of AHN. Therefore, further investigation is needed to resolve these controversies before resveratrol can be established as a safe coadjuvant in preventing and treating neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:27313836

  15. Characterization of cDNA encoding resveratrol synthase and accumulation of resveratrol in tartary buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Yeo, Sun Kyung; Lee, Chanhui; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-01

    Resveratrol synthase (RS) is the key enzyme for biosynthesis of resveratrol which come from coumaroyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and malonyl-CoA. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a RS gene and accumulation of resveratrol in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). FtRS was composed of 1173 bp open reading frame and 390 amino acid residues and had a theoretical molecular weight and isoelectric point value of 43.70 kDa and 6.24, respectively. The FtRS expression levels were examined in sprouts and different organs of two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 (T8) and Hokkai T10 (T10). FtRS transcript levels and resveratrol contents were higher under the dark condition compared with light condition. The expression levels of different organs of T10 was not observed significant variations compared to different organs of T8. Interestingly, resveratrol was detected in the sprouts developmental stages, but no resveratrol could not detect in any other organs of both T8 and T10. Therefore, we suggest that the resveratrol content in tartary buckwheat sprouts may be attributed mainly to the dark condition. The characterization of FtRS will be helpful for better understanding of the resveratrol biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat. PMID:24427944

  16. INSIGHTS FROM AHR AND ARNT GENE KNOCKOUT STUDIES REGARDING RESPONSES TO TCDD AND REGULATION OF NORMAL EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are members of the Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) family of proteins. The AhR binds members of the chemical family that includes dioxins, furans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A ligand-AhR-ARNT comp...

  17. Multifaceted approach to resveratrol bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVT) is a naturally occurring trihydroxy stilbene that displays a wide spectrum of physiological activity. Its ability to behave therapeutically as a component of red wine has attracted wide attention. The phenol acts as a protective agent involving various body constituents. Most attention has been given to beneficial effects in insults involving cancer, aging, cardiovascular system, inflammation and the central nervous system. One of the principal modes of action appears to be as antioxidant. Other mechanistic pathways entail cell signaling, apoptosis and gene expression. There is an intriguing dichotomy in relation to pro-oxidant property. Also discussed are metabolism, receptor binding, rationale for safety and suggestions for future work. This is the first comprehensive review of RVT based on a broad, unifying mechanism. PMID:20716933

  18. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-β-D-GLUCURONIDE

    PubMed Central

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported. PMID:22919115

  19. Beneficial action of resveratrol: How and why?

    PubMed

    Diaz-Gerevini, Gustavo Tomas; Repossi, Gaston; Dain, Alejandro; Tarres, María Cristina; Das, Undurti Narasimha; Eynard, Aldo Renato

    2016-02-01

    Flavonoid resveratrol modulates the transcription factor NF-κB; inhibits the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP1 A1; suppresses the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes; and modulates Fas/Fas-ligand-mediated apoptosis, p53, mammalian target of rapamycin, and cyclins and various phosphodiesterases. This increases the cytosolic cAMP that activates Epac1/CaMKKβ/AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway, which in turn facilitates increased oxidation of fatty acids, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration, and gluconeogenesis. Resveratrol triggers apoptosis of activated T cells and suppresses tumor necrosis factor-α, interluekin-17 (IL-17), and other proinflammatory molecules, and thus is of benefit in autoimmune diseases. In addition, resveratrol inhibits expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor, explaining its effective action against cancer. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome is also altered in depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. We noted that BDNF protects against cytotoxic actions of alloxan, streptozotocin, and benzo(a)pyrene. Resveratrol prevents bisphenol A-induced autism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that it may augment BDNF synthesis and action. We also observed that BDNF levels are low in type 2 diabetes mellitus and that BDNF enhances production of antiinflammatory lipid, lipoxin A4, whose levels are low in diabetes mellitus. Thus, resveratrol may augment production of lipoxin A4. Resveratrol alters gut microbiota and influences stem cell proliferation and differentiation. These pleiotropic actions of resveratrol may explain the multitude of its actions and benefits. PMID:26706021

  20. Beneficial action of resveratrol: How and why?

    PubMed

    Diaz-Gerevini, Gustavo Tomas; Repossi, Gaston; Dain, Alejandro; Tarres, María Cristina; Das, Undurti Narasimha; Eynard, Aldo Renato

    2016-02-01

    Flavonoid resveratrol modulates the transcription factor NF-κB; inhibits the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP1 A1; suppresses the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes; and modulates Fas/Fas-ligand-mediated apoptosis, p53, mammalian target of rapamycin, and cyclins and various phosphodiesterases. This increases the cytosolic cAMP that activates Epac1/CaMKKβ/AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway, which in turn facilitates increased oxidation of fatty acids, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration, and gluconeogenesis. Resveratrol triggers apoptosis of activated T cells and suppresses tumor necrosis factor-α, interluekin-17 (IL-17), and other proinflammatory molecules, and thus is of benefit in autoimmune diseases. In addition, resveratrol inhibits expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor, explaining its effective action against cancer. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome is also altered in depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. We noted that BDNF protects against cytotoxic actions of alloxan, streptozotocin, and benzo(a)pyrene. Resveratrol prevents bisphenol A-induced autism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that it may augment BDNF synthesis and action. We also observed that BDNF levels are low in type 2 diabetes mellitus and that BDNF enhances production of antiinflammatory lipid, lipoxin A4, whose levels are low in diabetes mellitus. Thus, resveratrol may augment production of lipoxin A4. Resveratrol alters gut microbiota and influences stem cell proliferation and differentiation. These pleiotropic actions of resveratrol may explain the multitude of its actions and benefits.

  1. ACTH Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Clark, Adrian John; Forfar, Rachel; Hussain, Mashal; Jerman, Jeff; McIver, Ed; Taylor, Debra; Chan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1) Cushing's disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome - especially while preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumor, or in refractory cases, or (2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia - as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article, we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role. PMID:27547198

  2. ACTH Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Adrian John; Forfar, Rachel; Hussain, Mashal; Jerman, Jeff; McIver, Ed; Taylor, Debra; Chan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1) Cushing’s disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome – especially while preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumor, or in refractory cases, or (2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia – as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article, we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role. PMID:27547198

  3. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  4. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  5. Synthesis and study of new paramagnetic resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Kálai, Tamás; Borza, Erzsébet; Antus, Csenge; Radnai, Balázs; Gulyás-Fekete, Gergely; Fehér, Andrea; Sümegi, Balázs; Hideg, Kálmán

    2011-12-15

    New resveratrol analogues containing five- and six-membered nitroxides and isoindoline nitroxides were synthesized. These new compounds were compared to resveratrol based on their ABTS radical scavenging ability as well on their capacity to suppress inflammatory process in macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharides. The ABTS and ROS scavenging activities of new molecules were the same or weaker than that of resveratrol, but some of paramagnetic resveratrol derivatives suppressed nitrite and TNFα production more efficiently than resveratrol. Based on these results the new nitroxide and phenol containing hybrid molecules can be considered as new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

  6. Resveratrol and cancer: focus on in vivo evidence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; D'Orazio, John A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that provides a number of anti-aging health benefits including improved metabolism, cardioprotection, and cancer prevention. Much of the work on resveratrol and cancer comes from in vitro studies looking at resveratrol actions on cancer cells and pathways. There are, however, comparatively fewer studies that have investigated resveratrol treatment and cancer outcomes in vivo, perhaps limited by its poor bioavailability when taken orally. Although research in cell culture has shown promising and positive effects of resveratrol, evidence from rodents and humans is inconsistent. This review highlights the in vivo effects of resveratrol treatment on breast, colorectal, liver, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. Resveratrol supplementation in animal models of cancer has shown positive, neutral as well as negative outcomes depending on resveratrol route of administration, dose, tumor model, species, and other factors. Within a specific cancer type, there is variability between studies with respect to strain, age, and sex of animal used, timing and method of resveratrol supplementation, and dose of resveratrol used to study cancer endpoints. Together, the data suggest that many factors need to be considered before resveratrol can be used for human cancer prevention or therapy. PMID:24500760

  7. Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Veronica J; Smit, Joost J; Huijgen, Veerle; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Roest, Manon; Kruijssen, Laura J W; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Hassing, Ine; Bleumink, Rob; Safe, Stephen; van Duursen, Majorie B M; van den Berg, Martin; Pieters, Raymond H H

    2012-07-01

    Recently, we have shown that AhR activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppresses sensitization to peanut at least in part by inducing a functional shift toward CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Next to TCDD, numerous other AhR ligands have been described. In this study, we investigated the effect of three structurally different non-dioxin-like AhR ligands, e.g., 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (6-MCDF), on peanut sensitization. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by administering peanut extract (PE) by gavage in the presence of cholera toxin. Before and during peanut sensitization, mice were treated with FICZ, β-NF, or 6-MCDF. AhR gene transcription in duodenum and liver was investigated on day 5, even as the effect of these AhR ligands on CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Mice treated with TCDD were included as a positive control. Furthermore, the murine reporter cell line H1G1.1c3 (CAFLUX) was used to investigate the possible role of metabolism of TCDD, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF on AhR activation in vitro. TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF, suppressed sensitization to peanut (measured by PE-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2a and PE-induced interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17a, IL-22, and interferon-γ). In addition, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF treatments less effectively induced AhR gene transcription (measured by gene expression of AhR, AhRR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) compared with TCDD-treated mice. Furthermore, FICZ, β-NF and 6-MCDF did not increase the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes compared with PE-sensitized mice, in contrast to TCDD. Inhibition of metabolism in vitro increased AhR activation. Together, these data shows that TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF suppresses sensitization to peanut. Differences in metabolism, AhR binding and subsequent gene transcription might

  8. Pityriazepin and other potent AhR ligands isolated from Malassezia furfur yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mexia, Nikitia; Gaitanis, George; Velegraki, Aristea; Soshilov, Anatoly; Denison, Michael S.; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia furfur yeast strains isolated from diseased human skin preferentially biosynthesize indole alkaloids which can be detected in human skin and are highly potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. Chemical analysis of an EtOAc extract of a M. furfur strain obtained from diseased human skin and grown on L-tryptophan agar revealed several known AhR active tryptophan metabolites along with a previously unidentified compound, pityriazepin. While its structure resembled that of the known alkaloid pityriacitrin, the comprised pyridine ring had been transformed into an azepinone. The indoloazepinone scaffold of pityriazepin is extremely rare in nature and has only been reported once previously. Pityriazepin, like the other isolated compounds, was found to be a potent activator of the AhR-dependent reporter gene assays in recombinant cell lines derived from four different species, although significant species differences in relative potency was observed. The ability of pityriazepin to competitively bind to the AhR and directly stimulate AhR DNA binding classified it as a new naturally-occurring potent AhR agonist. Malassezia furfur produces an expanded collection of extremely potent naturally occurring AhR agonists, which produce their biological effects in a species-specific manner.1 PMID:25721496

  9. Characterization testing of a 40 Ahr bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gahn, Randall F.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop NiH2 bipolar technology to a point where it can be used efficiently in space flight, testing of a second 40 Ahr, 10-cell bipolar battery has begun. This battery has undergone extensive characterization testing to determine the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure. The fundamental design of this actively cooled bipolar battery is the same as the first battery. Most of the individual components, however, are from different manufacturers. Different testing procedures as well as certain unique battery characteristics make it difficult to directly compare the two sets of results. In general, the performance of this battery throughout characterization produced expected results. The main differences seen between the first and second batteries occurred during the high-rate discharge portion of the test matrix. The first battery also had poor high-rate discharge results, although better than those of the second battery. Minor changes were made to the battery frame design used for the first battery in an attempt to allow better gas access to the reaction sites for the second build and hopefully improve performance. The changes, however, did not improve the performance of the second battery and could have possibly contributed to the poorer performance that was observed. There are other component differences that could have contributed to the poorer performance of the second battery. The H2 electrode in the second battery was constructed with a Goretex backing which could have limited the high-rate current flow. The gas screen in the second battery had a larger mesh which again could have limited the high-rate current flow. Small scale 2 x 2 batteries are being tested to evaluate the effects of the component variations.

  10. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC

    PubMed Central

    Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice. PMID:26392334

  11. Resveratrol and STAT inhibitor enhance autophagy in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L-X; Zhang, Y; Wu, M-L; Liu, Y-N; Zhang, P; Chen, X-Y; Kong, Q-Y; Liu, J; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    Autophagic activity reflects cellular response to drug treatment and can be regulated by STAT3 signaling. Resveratrol inhibits STAT3 activation and causes remarkable growth arrest and cell death of ovarian cancer (OC) cells. However, the autophagic status and its relevance with resveratrol's anti-OC effects remain unclear. We analyzed the states of autophagic activities, the nature of autophagosomes and the levels of autophagy-related proteins (LC-3, Beclin 1 and STAT3) in resveratrol-treated CAOV-3 and OVCAR-3 OC cells using multiple approaches. We elucidated the correlation of STAT3 inhibition with autophagic activity by treating OC cells with an upstream inhibitor of STAT proteins, AG490. Resveratrol efficiently suppressed growth, induced apoptosis and inactivated STAT3 signaling of the two OC cell lines. We found enhanced autophagic activity accompanied with Beclin-1 upregulation and LC3 enzymatic cleavage in resveratrol-treated OC cells. Immunofluorescent (IF) microscopic and IF-based confocal examinations demonstrated the accumulation of cytoplasmic granules co-labeled with LC3 and cytochrome C in resveratrol- or AG490-treated OC cells. Using electron microscopy, we confirmed an increase in autophagosomes and mitochondrial spheroids in either resveratrol- or AG490-treated OC cells. This study demonstrates the abilities of resveratrol to enhance apoptotic and autophagic activities in OC cells, presumably via inactivating STAT3 signaling. Resveratrol or the selective JAK2 inhibitor also leads to mitochondrial turnover, which would be unfavorable for OC cell survival and sensitize OC cells to resveratrol. PMID:27551495

  12. Resveratrol inhibits glycine receptor-mediated ion currents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is found in grapes, red wine, and berries. Resveratrol has been known to have many beneficial health effects, such as anti-cancer, neuroprotective, anti-nociceptive, and life-prolonging effects. However, the single cellular mechanisms by which resveratrol acts are relatively unknown, especially in terms of possible regulation of receptors involved in synaptic transmission. The glycine receptor is an inhibitory ligand-gated ion channel involved in fast synaptic transmission in spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on human glycine receptor channel activity. Glycine α1 receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and glycine receptor channel activity was measured using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment with resveratrol alone had no effect on oocytes injected with H2O or on oocytes injected with glycine α1 receptor cRNA. In the oocytes injected with glycine α1 receptor cRNA, co- or pre-treatment of resveratrol with glycine inhibited the glycine-induced inward peak current (IGly) in a reversible manner. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on IGly was also concentration dependent, voltage independent, and non-competitive. These results indicate that resveratrol regulates glycine receptor channel activity and that resveratrol-mediated regulation of glycine receptor channel activity is one of several cellular action mechanisms of resveratrol for pain regulation. PMID:24694604

  13. Occurrence of resveratrol in edible peanuts.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T H; McMichael, R W; Hendrix, K W

    2000-04-01

    Resveratrol has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced cancer risk. This phytoalexin has been reported in a number of plant species, including grapes, and may be one of the compounds responsible for the health benefits of red wine. Analytical methods for measuring resveratrol in wine and peanuts were adapted to isolate, identify, and quantify resveratrol in several cultivars of peanuts. Aqueous ethanol (80% v/v) extracts from peanuts without seed coats were purified over alumina/silica gel columns and analyzed by reversed phase HPLC using a C-18 column. Peanuts from each market type, Virginia, runner, and Spanish, produced in four different locations contained from 0.03 to 0.14 microg of resveratrol/g. Seed coats from runner and Virginia types contained approximately 0.65 microg/g of seed coat, which is equivalent to <0.04 microg/seed. Quantitative analysis of 15 cultivars representing 3 peanut market types, which had been cold stored for up to 3 years, indicated a range of 0.02-1.79 microg/g of peanut compared to 0.6-8.0 microg/mL in red wines.

  14. An altered hydrotropic response (ahr1) mutant of Arabidopsis recovers root hydrotropism with cytokinin

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo, Manuel; Ponce, Georgina; Campos, María Eugenia; Eapen, Delfeena; García, Edith; Luján, Rosario; Sánchez, Yoloxóchitl; Cassab, Gladys I.

    2012-01-01

    Roots are highly plastic and can acclimate to heterogeneous and stressful conditions. However, there is little knowledge of the effect of moisture gradients on the mechanisms controlling root growth orientation and branching, and how this mechanism may help plants to avoid drought responses. The aim of this study was to isolate mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered hydrotropic responses. Here, altered hydrotropic response 1 (ahr1), a semi-dominant allele segregating as a single gene mutation, was characterized. ahr1 directed the growth of its primary root towards the source of higher water availability and developed an extensive root system over time. This phenotype was intensified in the presence of abscisic acid and was not observed if ahr1 seedlings were grown in a water stress medium without a water potential gradient. In normal growth conditions, primary root growth and root branching of ahr1 were indistinguishable from those of the wild type (wt). The altered hydrotropic growth of ahr1 roots was confirmed when the water-rich source was placed at an angle of 45° from the gravity vector. In this system, roots of ahr1 seedlings grew downward and did not display hydrotropism; however, in the presence of cytokinins, they exhibited hydrotropism like those of the wt, indicating that cytokinins play a critical role in root hydrotropism. The ahr1 mutant represents a valuable genetic resource for the study of the effects of cytokinins in the differential growth of hydrotropism and control of lateral root formation during the hydrotropic response. PMID:22442413

  15. AHR2-Mediated Transcriptomic Responses Underlying the Synergistic Cardiac Developmental Toxicity of PAHs

    PubMed Central

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Van Tiem Garner, Lindsey; Meyer, Joel N.; Erwin, Kyle N.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce developmental defects including cardiac deformities in fish. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of some PAHs. Exposure to a simple PAH mixture during embryo development consisting of an AHR agonist (benzo(a)pyrene-BaP) with fluoranthene (FL), an inhibitor of cytochrome p450 1(CYP1)—a gene induced by AHR activation—results in cardiac deformities. Exposure to BaP or FL alone at similar concentrations alters heart rates, but does not induce morphological deformities. Furthermore, AHR2 knockdown prevents the toxicity of BaP + FL mixture. Here, we used a zebrafish microarray analysis to identify heart-specific transcriptomic changes during early development that might underlie cardiotoxicity of BaP + FL. We used AHR2 morphant embryos to determine the role of this receptor in mediating toxicity. Control and knockdown embryos at 36 h post-fertilization were exposed to DMSO, 100 μg/l BaP, 500 μg/l FL, or 100 μg/l BaP + 500 μg/l FL, and heart tissues for RNA were extracted at 2, 6, 12, and 18 h-post-exposure (hpe), prior to the appearance of cardiac deformities. Data show AHR2-dependent BaP + FL effects on expression of genes involved in protein biosynthesis and neuronal development in addition to signaling molecules and their associated molecular pathways. Ca2+-cycling and muscle contraction genes were the most significantly differentially expressed category of transcripts when comparing BaP + FL-treated AHR2 morphant and control embryos. These differences were most prominent at 2 and 6 hpe. Therefore, we postulate that BaP + FL may affect cellular Ca2+ levels and subsequently cardiac muscle function, potentially underlying BaP + FL cardiotoxicity. PMID:25412620

  16. Dioxin-Dependent and Dioxin-Independent Gene Batteries: Comparison of Liver and Kidney in AHR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boutros, Paul C.; Bielefeld, Kirsten A.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Harper, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a widely expressed ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates cellular responses to dioxins and other planar aromatic hydrocarbons. Ahr-null mice are refractory to the toxic effects of dioxin exposure. Although some mechanistic aspects of AHR activity are well understood, the tissue specificity of AHR effects remains unclear, both during development and following administration of exogenous ligands. To address the latter issue, we defined and compared transcriptional responses to dioxin exposure in the liver and kidney of wild-type and Ahr-null adult C57BL/6J mice treated with either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or corn-oil vehicle. In both tissues, essentially all effects of dioxin on hepatic mRNA levels were mediated by the AHR. Although 297 genes were altered by dioxin exposure in the liver, only 17 were changed in the kidney, including a number of well-established AHR target genes. Ahr genotype had a large effect in both tissues, profoundly remodeling both the renal and hepatic transcriptomes. Surprisingly, a large number of genes were affected by Ahr genotype in both tissues, suggesting the presence of a basal AHR gene battery. Alterations of the renal transcriptome in Ahr-null animals were associated with perturbation of specific functional pathways and enrichment of specific DNA motifs. Our results demonstrate the importance of intertissue comparisons, highlight the basal role of the AHR in liver and kidney, and support a role in development or normal physiology. PMID:19759094

  17. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  18. Anti-biofilm Activities from Resveratrol against Fusobacterium nucleatum

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiyan; Huang, Zhengwei; Zhou, Wei; Tang, Zisheng; Ma, Rui; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium that plays an important role in dental plaque biofilm formation. In this study, we evaluate the effect of resveratrol, a phytoalexin compound, on F. nucleatum biofilm formation. The effects of different concentrations of resveratrol on biofilms formed on 96-well microtiter plates at different time points were determined by the MTT assay. The structures and thicknesses of the biofilm were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and gene expression was investigated by real-time PCR. The results showed that resveratrol at sub-MIC levels can significantly decrease biofilm formation, whereas it does not affect the bacterial growth rate. It was observed by CLSM images that the biofilm was visually decreased with increasing concentrations of resveratrol. Gene expression was down regulated in the biofilm in the presence of resveratrol. Our results revealed that resveratrol can effectively inhibit biofilm formation. PMID:27458454

  19. The circadian clock circuitry and the AHR signaling pathway in physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, George; Beischlag, Timothy V; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-05-15

    Life forms populating the Earth must face environmental challenges to assure individual and species survival. The strategies predisposed to maintain organismal homeostasis and grant selective advantage rely on anticipatory phenomena facing periodic modifications, and compensatory phenomena facing unpredictable changes. Biological processes bringing about these responses are respectively driven by the circadian timing system, a complex of biological oscillators entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle, and by regulatory and metabolic networks that precisely direct the body's adjustments to variations of external conditions and internal milieu. A critical role in organismal homeostatic functions is played by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) complex, which senses environmental and endogenous compounds, influences metabolic responses controlling phase I/II gene expression, and modulates vital phenomena such as development, inflammation and adaptive immunity. A physiological cross-talk between circadian and AHR signaling pathways has been evidenced. The alteration of AHR signaling pathway deriving from genetic damage with polymorphisms or mutations, or produced by exogenous or endogenous AHR activation, and chronodisruption caused by mismatch between the body's internal clock and geophysical time/social schedules, are capable of triggering pathological mechanisms involved in metabolic, immune-related and neoplastic diseases. On the other hand, the molecular components of the circadian clock circuitry and AHR signaling pathway may represent useful tools for preventive interventions and valuable targets of therapeutic approaches.

  20. AhR expression and polymorphisms are associated with risk of coronary arterial disease in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shian; Shui, Xiaorong; He, Yuan; Xue, Yiqiang; Li, Jianwen; Li, Guoming; Lei, Wei; Chen, Can

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the control of environmental toxicity, and modulates the development and pathogenesis of the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the role of AhR in coronary arterial disease (CAD) susceptibility. We therefore conducted a case-control study in a Chinese population, and assessed the potential association between AhR variants and CAD susceptibility. Compared with the controls, circulating AhR expression was found to be significantly increased in patients with CAD and its subtypes including ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and stable and unstable angina pectoris. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the effect of AhR on CAD progression showed it to be a potent biomarker for CAD. Genotype frequencies of AhR rs2066853 differed significantly between CAD and control subjects, while smoking and hyperlipidemia markedly promoted CAD risk relative to the AhR polymorphism. Moreover, a significant difference in AhR variant distribution was observed between the four CAD subtypes with different severities. The expression level and functional polymorphisms of circulating AhR may affect the susceptibility and progression of CAD in Chinese populations. This provides a novel view of the etiology and epidemiology of CAD, and will contribute to the diagnosis and therapy of this severe disease. PMID:25620626

  1. Genetic variation at aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) loci in populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting polluted and reference habitats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-migratory killifish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabits clean and polluted environments interspersed throughout its range along the Atlantic coast of North America. Several populations of this species have successfully adapted to environments contaminated with toxic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Previous studies suggest that the mechanism of resistance to these and other “dioxin-like compounds” (DLCs) may involve reduced signaling through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. Here we investigated gene diversity and evidence for positive selection at three AHR-related loci (AHR1, AHR2, AHRR) in F. heteroclitus by comparing alleles from seven locations ranging over 600 km along the northeastern US, including extremely polluted and reference estuaries, with a focus on New Bedford Harbor (MA, USA), a PCB Superfund site, and nearby reference sites. Results We identified 98 single nucleotide polymorphisms within three AHR-related loci among all populations, including synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Haplotype distributions were spatially segregated and F-statistics suggested strong population genetic structure at these loci, consistent with previous studies showing strong population genetic structure at other F. heteroclitus loci. Genetic diversity at these three loci was not significantly different in contaminated sites as compared to reference sites. However, for AHR2 the New Bedford Harbor population had significant FST values in comparison to the nearest reference populations. Tests for positive selection revealed ten nonsynonymous polymorphisms in AHR1 and four in AHR2. Four nonsynonymous SNPs in AHR1 and three in AHR2 showed large differences in base frequency between New Bedford Harbor and its reference site. Tests for isolation-by-distance revealed evidence for non-neutral change at the AHR2 locus. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that F. heteroclitus populations in reference

  2. Pleiotropic mechanisms facilitated by resveratrol and its metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Calamini, Barbara; Ratia, Kiira; Malkowski, Michael G.; Cuendet, Muriel; Pezzuto, John M.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2010-07-01

    Resveratrol has demonstrated cancer chemopreventive activity in animal models and some clinical trials are underway. In addition, resveratrol was shown to promote cell survival, increase lifespan and mimic caloric restriction, thereby improving health and survival of mice on high-calorie diet. All of these effects are potentially mediated by the pleiotropic interactions of resveratrol with different enzyme targets including COX-1 (cyclo-oxygenase-1) and COX-2, NAD{sup +}-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) and QR2 (quinone reductase 2). Nonetheless, the health benefits elicited by resveratrol as a direct result of these interactions with molecular targets have been questioned, since it is rapidly and extensively metabolized to sulfate and glucuronide conjugates, resulting in low plasma concentrations. To help resolve these issues, we tested the ability of resveratrol and its metabolites to modulate the function of some known targets in vitro. In the present study, we have shown that COX-1, COX-2 and QR2 are potently inhibited by resveratrol, and that COX-1 and COX-2 are also inhibited by the resveratrol 4{prime}-O-sulfate metabolite. We determined the X-ray structure of resveratrol bound to COX-1 and demonstrate that it occupies the COX active site similar to other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Finally, we have observed that resveratrol 3- and 4?-O-sulfate metabolites activate SIRT1 equipotently to resveratrol, but that activation is probably a substrate-dependent phenomenon with little in vivo relevance. Overall, the results of this study suggest that in vivo an interplay between resveratrol and its metabolites with different molecular targets may be responsible for the overall beneficial health effects previously attributed only to resveratrol itself.

  3. Reaction kinetics of resveratrol with tert-butoxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Džeba, Iva; Pedzinski, Tomasz; Mihaljević, Branka

    2012-09-01

    The rate constant for the reaction of t-butoxyl radicals with resveratrol was studied under pseudo-first order conditions. The rate constant was determined by measuring the phenoxyl radical formation rate at 390 nm as function of resveratrol concentration in acetonitrile. The rate constant was determined to be 6.5×108 M-1s-1. This high value indicates the high reactivity consistent with the strong antioxidant activity of resveratrol.

  4. Resveratrol and STAT inhibitor enhance autophagy in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, L-X; Zhang, Y; Wu, M-L; Liu, Y-N; Zhang, P; Chen, X-Y; Kong, Q-Y; Liu, J; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    Autophagic activity reflects cellular response to drug treatment and can be regulated by STAT3 signaling. Resveratrol inhibits STAT3 activation and causes remarkable growth arrest and cell death of ovarian cancer (OC) cells. However, the autophagic status and its relevance with resveratrol’s anti-OC effects remain unclear. We analyzed the states of autophagic activities, the nature of autophagosomes and the levels of autophagy-related proteins (LC-3, Beclin 1 and STAT3) in resveratrol-treated CAOV-3 and OVCAR-3 OC cells using multiple approaches. We elucidated the correlation of STAT3 inhibition with autophagic activity by treating OC cells with an upstream inhibitor of STAT proteins, AG490. Resveratrol efficiently suppressed growth, induced apoptosis and inactivated STAT3 signaling of the two OC cell lines. We found enhanced autophagic activity accompanied with Beclin-1 upregulation and LC3 enzymatic cleavage in resveratrol-treated OC cells. Immunofluorescent (IF) microscopic and IF-based confocal examinations demonstrated the accumulation of cytoplasmic granules co-labeled with LC3 and cytochrome C in resveratrol- or AG490-treated OC cells. Using electron microscopy, we confirmed an increase in autophagosomes and mitochondrial spheroids in either resveratrol- or AG490-treated OC cells. This study demonstrates the abilities of resveratrol to enhance apoptotic and autophagic activities in OC cells, presumably via inactivating STAT3 signaling. Resveratrol or the selective JAK2 inhibitor also leads to mitochondrial turnover, which would be unfavorable for OC cell survival and sensitize OC cells to resveratrol. PMID:27551495

  5. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol on atherogenic diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun; Liu, Jian-Li; Du, Ai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic or high fat diets were known to induce cardiovascular diseases, and several active compounds were tested to protect/prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the cardio protective effect of resveratrol against atherogenic diet fed rats. Male Wistar rats were administered atherogenic diet for 30 days and further continued for 15 days with or with resveratrol in the diet. The serum lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid metabolic proteins and cardiac tissue markers were examined. The histopathology of myocardium and aorta were also examined. The abnormal serum lipid profile found in atherogenic rats was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Similarly, the enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase), non-enzymatic (reduced-glutathione, Vitamin C, E) antioxidants were improved by the resveratrol fed against atherogenic diet. Interestingly, resveratrol activated the lipid metabolic proteins (SIRT1, eNOS and AMPKa), suggesting its protective effect on lipid metabolism. Further analysis on tissue damage revealed that resveratrol had significantly protected the tissue damage and maintains the morphology of cardiac tissue. Altogether, our results suggest that resveratrol played a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular system against the high fat diet. Emphasising the anti-atherogenic property of resveratrol, we propose resveratrol as a potential compound to be consumed for the healthy life-style.

  6. In silico predictive studies of mAHR congener binding using homology modelling and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Panda, Roshni; Cleave, A Suneetha Susan; Suresh, P K

    2014-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is one of the principal xenobiotic, nuclear receptor that is responsible for the early events involved in the transcription of a complex set of genes comprising the CYP450 gene family. In the present computational study, homology modelling and molecular docking were carried out with the objective of predicting the relationship between the binding efficiency and the lipophilicity of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the AHR in silico. Homology model of the murine AHR was constructed by several automated servers and assessed by PROCHECK, ERRAT, VERIFY3D and WHAT IF. The resulting model of the AHR by MODWEB was used to carry out molecular docking of 36 PCB congeners using PatchDock server. The lipophilicity of the congeners was predicted using the XLOGP3 tool. The results suggest that the lipophilicity influences binding energy scores and is positively correlated with the same. Score and Log P were correlated with r = +0.506 at p = 0.01 level. In addition, the number of chlorine (Cl) atoms and Log P were highly correlated with r = +0.900 at p = 0.01 level. The number of Cl atoms and scores also showed a moderate positive correlation of r = +0.481 at p = 0.01 level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing PatchDock in the docking of AHR to the environmentally deleterious congeners and attempting to correlate structural features of the AHR with its biochemical properties with regards to PCBs. The result of this study are consistent with those of other computational studies reported in the previous literature that suggests that a combination of docking, scoring and ranking organic pollutants could be a possible predictive tool for investigating ligand-mediated toxicity, for their subsequent validation using wet lab-based studies.

  7. Growth-stimulatory effect of resveratrol in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Masayuki; Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2010-08-01

    Earlier studies have shown that resveratrol could induce death in several human cancer cell lines in culture. Here we report our observation that resveratrol can also promote the growth of certain human cancer cells when they are grown either in culture or in athymic nude mice as xenografts. At relatively low concentrations (resveratrol exerted a significant growth-stimulatory effect in the MDA-MB-435s human cancer cells, but this effect was not observed in several other human cell lines tested. Analysis of cell signaling molecules showed that resveratrol induced the activation of JNK, p38, Akt, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in these cells. Further analysis using pharmacological inhibitors showed that only the NF-kappaB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) abrogated the growth-stimulatory effect of resveratrol in cultured cells. In athymic nude mice, resveratrol at 16.5 mg/kg body weight enhanced the growth of MDA-MB-435s xenografts compared to the control group, while resveratrol at the 33 mg/kg body weight dose did not have a similar effect. Additional analyses confirmed that resveratrol stimulated cancer cell growth in vivo through activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Taken together, these observations suggest that resveratrol at low concentrations could stimulate the growth of certain types of human cancer cells in vivo. This cell type-specific mitogenic effect of resveratrol may also partly contribute to the procarcinogenic effect of alcohol consumption (rich in resveratrol) in the development of certain human cancers.

  8. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. PMID:27282539

  9. Resveratrol: A Focus on Several Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tellone, Ester; Galtieri, Antonio; Russo, Annamaria; Giardina, Bruno; Ficarra, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Molecules of the plant world are proving their effectiveness in countering, slowing down, and regressing many diseases. The resveratrol for its intrinsic properties related to its stilbene structure has been proven to be a universal panacea, especially for a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. This paper evaluates (in vivo and in vitro) the various molecular targets of this peculiar polyphenol and its ability to effectively counter several neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. What emerges is that, in the deep heterogeneity of the pathologies evaluated, resveratrol through a convergence on the protein targets is able to give therapeutic responses in neuronal cells deeply diversified not only in morphological structure but especially in their function performed in the anatomical district to which they belong. PMID:26180587

  10. Dihydro-resveratrol-A potent dietary polyphenol

    SciTech Connect

    Gakh, Andrei A; Anisimova, Natalia Yu; Kiselevsky, Mikhail V; Sadovnikov, Sergey V; Stankov, Ivan N; Yudin, Mikhail V; Rufanov, Konstantin A; Krasavin, Mikhail Yu; Sosnov, Andrey V

    2010-01-01

    Dihydro-resveratrol (dihydro-R), a prominent polyphenol component of red wine, has a profound proliferative effect on hormone-sensitive tumor cell lines such as breast cancer cell line MCF7. We found a significant increase in MCF7 tumor cells growth rates in the presence of picomolar concentrations of this compound. The proliferative effect of dihydro-R was not observed in cell lines that do not express hormone receptors (MDA-MB-231, BT-474, and -562).

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol in Lymphoid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omar S; Bhat, Ajaz A; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Uddin, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have always been sought as a dependable source for the cure of many fatal diseases including cancer. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, has been of recent research interest and is being investigated for its beneficial biological properties that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, and growth inhibitory activities. These effects are mainly mediated by cell cycle arrest, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, loss of mitochondrial potential, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Among the beneficial properties of RSV, the anticancer property has been of the prime focus and extensively explored during the last few years. Although reports exist on the chemopreventive role of RSV in many solid tumors, limited information is available on the antiproliferative activity of RSV in human lymphoma cells and experimental models. Potential mechanisms for its antiproliferative effect include induction of cell differentiation, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA synthesis. In this review, the different kinds of lymphoid malignancies and the main mechanisms of cell death induced by resveratrol are discussed. The challenges are limiting in vivo experimental studies involving resveratrol. An attempt for the translation of this compound into a clinical drug also forms a part of this review. PMID:27028800

  12. Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates the Cytotoxicity of Resveratrol in Transformed Mouse Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Achy-Brou, Christelle A Adiabouah; Billack, Blase

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol and pterostilbene are natural products that are present in plants and have been incorporated into various dietary supplements. Numerous beneficial pharmacologic effects have been reported for these stilbenes; however, the mechanism by which these compounds exert a cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 macrophages has not been well characterized. We have previously described that resveratrol is toxic to these tumor-derived macrophages and that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces resveratrol toxicity via a mechanism that involves activation of toll like receptor 4. In the present work, we examined the cellular and molecular effects of resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene by determining cell viability and caspase 3 activity in control and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated with these stilbenes for 24 h. We found that LPS stimulation reduced the cytotoxicity of resveratrol but not of pterostilbene in these cells. When examined for effects on caspase 3 activation after a 24 h incubation, resveratrol and pterostilbene were each found to separately and significantly increase caspase 3 activity in these cells. LPS stimulation prevented caspase 3 activation by pterostilbene and reduced caspase 3 activation by resveratrol in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The data presented here indicate that LPS induces a phenotype switch in tumor-derived RAW 264.7 macrophages in which cells experiencing LPS in the presence of resveratrol or pterostilbene become less likely to activate the pro-apoptotic factor caspase 3. PMID:27277074

  13. Effect of resveratrol on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic cardiomyoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, C.-W.; Wong, C.H.; Lao, S.-C.; Leong, Emilia Conceicao; Lao, Iok Fong; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Fung, Kwok Pui; Tsang, Kam Sze; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Wang Yitao . E-mail: YTWang@umac.mo; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen . E-mail: simonlee@umac.mo

    2007-08-17

    Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound found largely in the skins of red grapes, has been used as a nutritional supplement or an investigational new drug for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports showed that resveratrol had a protective effect against oxidative agent-induced cell injury. Our studies indicate that resveratrol plays a role in the differentiation of cardiomyoblasts. The cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2, was exposed to 30-120 {mu}M resveratrol for up to 5 days. Resveratrol inhibits cardiomyoblast proliferation without causing cells injury. Moreover, resveratrol treatment modulated the differentiation of morphological characteristics including elongation and cell fusion in cardiomyoblasts. Proliferation and differentiation of H9c2 cells were further revealed by measurement of the mRNA expression of a cell cycle marker (CDK2), a differentiation marker (myogenin), and a contractile apparatus protein (MLC-2). Gene expression analysis revealed that resveratrol promoted entry into cell cycle arrest but extended the myogenic differentiation progress. These results have implications for the role of resveratrol in modulating cell cycle control and differentiation in cardiomyoblasts.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates the Cytotoxicity of Resveratrol in Transformed Mouse Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Achy-Brou, Christelle A Adiabouah; Billack, Blase

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol and pterostilbene are natural products that are present in plants and have been incorporated into various dietary supplements. Numerous beneficial pharmacologic effects have been reported for these stilbenes; however, the mechanism by which these compounds exert a cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 macrophages has not been well characterized. We have previously described that resveratrol is toxic to these tumor-derived macrophages and that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces resveratrol toxicity via a mechanism that involves activation of toll like receptor 4. In the present work, we examined the cellular and molecular effects of resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene by determining cell viability and caspase 3 activity in control and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated with these stilbenes for 24 h. We found that LPS stimulation reduced the cytotoxicity of resveratrol but not of pterostilbene in these cells. When examined for effects on caspase 3 activation after a 24 h incubation, resveratrol and pterostilbene were each found to separately and significantly increase caspase 3 activity in these cells. LPS stimulation prevented caspase 3 activation by pterostilbene and reduced caspase 3 activation by resveratrol in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The data presented here indicate that LPS induces a phenotype switch in tumor-derived RAW 264.7 macrophages in which cells experiencing LPS in the presence of resveratrol or pterostilbene become less likely to activate the pro-apoptotic factor caspase 3.

  15. Resveratrol attenuates hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Qingrui; Gao, Yan; Liu, Guangheng; Xiu, Meng; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Dexiang

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in Polygonum cuspidatum and has been found to afford neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation in the brain. Activated microglia can secrete various pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic mediators, which may contribute to hypoxic brain injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of resveratrol in attenuating hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity via its anti-inflammatory actions through in vitro models of the BV-2 microglial cell line and primary microglia. We found that resveratrol significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced microglial activation and reduced subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. In addition, resveratrol inhibited the hypoxia-induced degradation of IκB-alpha and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB protein. Hypoxia-induced ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation was also strongly inhibited by resveratrol, whereas resveratrol had no effect on hypoxia-stimulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Importantly, treating primary cortical neurons with conditioned medium (CM) from hypoxia-stimulated microglia induced neuronal apoptosis, which was reversed by CM co-treated with resveratrol. Taken together, resveratrol exerts neuroprotection against hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity through its anti-inflammatory effects in microglia. These effects were mediated, at least in part, by suppressing the activation of NF-ĸB, ERK and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26225925

  16. Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Shi, Meng; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2015-03-15

    Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol has been studied. UV B, liquid state and sufficient exposure time are essential conditions to the photochemical change of trans-resveratrol. Three principal compounds, cis-resveratrol, 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione, were successively generated in the reaction solution of trans-resveratrol (0.25 mM, 100% ethanol) under 100 μW cm(-2) UV B radiation for 4h. cis-Resveratrol, originated from isomerization of trans-resveratrol, resulted in 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol through photocyclisation reaction meanwhile loss of 2 H. 2,4,6-Phenanthrenetriol played a role of photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen in the reaction pathway. The singlet oxygen triggered [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of trans-resveratrol, and then resulted in the generation of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione through photorearrangement and oxidation reaction. The singlet oxygen reaction was closely related to the substrate concentration of trans-resveratrol in solution.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Resveratrol Derivatives as Melanogenesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Kim, CheongTaek; Jo, Yang Hee; Kim, Seon Beom; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2015-09-17

    Resveratrol (1), a naturally occurring stilbene compound, has been suggested as a potential whitening agent with strong inhibitory activity on melanin synthesis. However, the use of resveratrol in cosmetics has been limited due to its chemical instability and poor bioavailability. Therefore, resveratrol derivatives were prepared to improve bioavailability and anti-melanogenesis activity. Nine resveratrol derivatives including five alkyl ether derivatives with C₂H₅, C₄H₉, C₅H11, C₆H13, and C₈H17 (2a-2e) and four ester derivatives with CH₃, CH=C(CH₃)₂, CH(C₂H₅)C₄H₉, C₇H15 (3a-3d) were newly synthesized and their effect on melanin synthesis were assessed. All the synthetic derivatives efficiently reduced the melanin content in α-MSH stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells. Further investigation showed that the inhibitory effect of 2a on melanin synthesis was achieved not by the inhibition of tyrosinase activity but by the inhibition of melanogenic enzyme expressions such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1. Our synthetic resveratrol derivatives have more lipophilic properties than resveratrol by the addition of alkyl or acyl chains to free hydroxyl moiety of resveratrol; thus, they are expected to show better bioavailability in skin application. Therefore, we suggest that our synthetic resveratrol derivatives might be promising candidates for better practical application to skin-whitening cosmetics.

  18. Toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in developing red seabream (Pagrus major) embryo: an association of morphological deformities with AHR1, AHR2 and CYP1A expressions.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Masanobu; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Shima, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-16

    The toxicity of dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is mainly mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which regulates the multiple target genes including cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). In general, bony fishes, which possess at least two distinct AHRs are one of the most sensitive vertebrates to TCDD in early life stage. However, the physiological and toxicological roles of piscine multiple AHRs are not fully understood, especially in marine fish. To understand which AHR is responsible for TCDD toxicity in a marine fish species, we characterized the early life stage toxicity related to the expression of AHRs and CYP1A in red seabream (Pagrus major). The embryos at 10h post-fertilization (hpf) were treated with 0-100 microg/L TCDD for 80 min waterborne exposure. TCDD dose-dependently elicited developmental toxicities including mortality, yolk sac edema, retarded body growth, spinal deformity, reduced heart rate, shortened snout, underdeveloped fin, heart, and lower jaw. Intriguingly, hemorrhage and pericardium edema, typical TCDD developmental defects noticed in other fish species, were not found in red seabream until test termination. The EC(egg)50s for yolk sac edema, underdeveloped fin, and spinal deformity were 170, 240, and 340 pg/g, respectively. The LC(egg)50 was 360 pg/g embryo, indicating that this species is one of the most sensitive fishes to TCDD toxicity. The expression levels of rsAHR1, rsAHR2 and CYP1A mRNAs were also determined in different developmental stages. The rsAHR2 mRNA expression dose-dependently increased following TCDD exposure, while rsAHR1 mRNA level was not altered. Level of rsAHR2 mRNA measured by two-step real-time PCR was 30 times higher than rsAHR1 in embryos treated with the highest dose. Temporal patterns of rsAHR2 and CYP1A mRNAs were similar in TCDD-treated embryos, representing a significant positive correlation between rsAHR2 and CYP1A mRNA levels, but not between rsAHR1 and CYP1A. In comparison of

  19. Pre-formulation characterization and pharmacokinetic evaluation of resveratrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson-Barnes, Keila Delores

    Resveratrol, a natural compound found in grapes has potential chemotherapy effects but very low oral bioavailability in humans. The objectives of this study are to quantitatively characterized and understand the physiochemical properties and the pharmacokinetic evaluation of resveratrol. Solubility of resveratrol was measured in 10 common solvents at 25°C using HPLC. The solution state pH stability of resveratrol was assessed in various USP buffers ranging from pH 2-10 for 24 hours at 37 °C. Human plasma protein binding was determined using ultracentrifugation technique. Stability of resveratrol in human and rat plasma was also assessed at 37°C. Aliquots of blank plasma were spiked with a standard drug concentration to yield final plasma concentration of 50 mug/mL. Samples were analyzed for resveratrol concentration up to 96 hours. A group (n=8) of jugular vein-cannulated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated and received intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg resveratrol. Serial blood samples were collected up to 8 hours after the dose. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol were measured by an established LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed using noncompartmental methods. Resveratrol is more soluble in alcohol and PEG-400, and stable in acidic pH. It binds highly to plasma proteins, and degrades slower in human then rat plasma. Resveratrol exhibits bioexponential disposition after intravenous administration and has a short elimination half-life. Resveratrol displays bioexponential disposition following intravenous administration. The estimated mean maximum concentration was 1045.5 ng/mL and rapidly dropped below 100 ng/mL within 30 minutes. The area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for resveratrol was 13888.7 min*ng/mL The mean terminal elimination half-life was 50.9 minutes. The mean total body clearance (Cl) and volume of distribution of trans-resveratrol were 1711.9mL/min/kg and 91087.8 mL/kg, respectively. Pre

  20. Progesterone, as well as 17β-estradiol, is important for regulating AHR battery homoeostasis in the rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Rataj, Felicitas; Möller, Frank Josef; Jähne, Maria; Hönscheid, Pia; Zierau, Oliver; Vollmer, Günter; Kretzschmar, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which plays an important role in mediating the toxicity of many industrial chemicals, plays an important role in the physiology of female reproductive tract organs. This makes it likely that the AHR and additional components of the AHR signalling pathway are under the control of female sex steroids. In a previous study, we could already demonstrate the regulation of many members of the AHR battery by 17β-estradiol (E2) in the uterus of rats. In this study, we addressed the potential role of progesterone (P4) in this context. In a comparative approach using ovariectomized rats which were treated for 3 days with either vehicle control, E2, progesterone (P4) or the combination of both hormones in addition to sham-operated animals, we could demonstrate that in addition to E2, P4 is also an important factor in regulating AHR signalling in the rat uterus. P4 has effects similar to E2 on uterine Ahr, Arnt and Arnt2 mRNA levels, resulting in a downregulation of these genes, while the E2-mediated downregulation of key AHR response genes Cyp1a1, Gsta2 and Ugt1 is completely antagonized by P4. As with E2, P4 leads to an increase in uterine AHR levels, especially in the endometrial epithelium despite the decrease in corresponding mRNA levels. This indicates a complex gene-specific regulatory network involving E2, P4 and possibly AHR itself to maintain all components of the AHR signalling cascade at the required levels during all stages of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy.

  1. Metabolic control of type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cell differentiation by AHR and HIF1-α

    PubMed Central

    Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Takenaka, Maisa C.; Yeste, Ada; Patel, Bonny; Wu, Yan; Kenison, Jessica E.; Siddiqui, Shafiuddin; Basso, Alexandre S.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Pan, Fan; Priel, Avner; Clish, Clary B.; Robson, Simon C.; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathways that regulate lymphocyte metabolism, as well as the effects of metabolism and its products on the immune response, is still limited. We report that a metabolic program controlled by the transcription factors hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1-α) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) supports the differentiation of type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells. HIF1-α controls the early metabolic reprograming of Tr1 cells. At later time points, AHR promotes HIF1-α degradation and takes control of Tr1 cell metabolism. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) and hypoxia, linked to inflammation, trigger AHR inactivation by HIF1-α and inhibit Tr1 cell differentiation. Conversely, CD39 promotes Tr1 cell differentiation by depleting eATP. CD39 also contributes to Tr1 suppressive activity by generating adenosine in cooperation with CD73 expressed by responder T cells and antigen presenting cells. These results suggest that HIF1-α and AHR integrate immunological, metabolic and environmental signals to regulate the immune response. PMID:26005855

  2. 76 FR 80447 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighth meeting of RTCA Special Committee...

  3. EXPRESSION OF AHR AND ARNT MRNA IN CULTURED HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL EXPLANTS EXPOSED TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expression of AhR and ARNT mRNA in cultured human endometrial explants exposed to TCDD.

    Pitt JA, Feng L, Abbott BD, Schmid J, Batt RE, Costich TG, Koury ST, Bofinger DP.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Endom...

  4. Intersection of AHR and Wnt Signaling in Development, Health, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrew J.; Branam, Amanda M.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    The AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and Wnt (wingless-related MMTV integration site) signaling pathways have been conserved throughout evolution. Appropriately regulated signaling through each pathway is necessary for normal development and health, while dysregulation can lead to developmental defects and disease. Though both pathways have been vigorously studied, there is relatively little research exploring the possibility of crosstalk between these pathways. In this review, we provide a brief background on (1) the roles of both AHR and Wnt signaling in development and disease, and (2) the molecular mechanisms that characterize activation of each pathway. We also discuss the need for careful and complete experimental evaluation of each pathway and describe existing research that explores the intersection of AHR and Wnt signaling. Lastly, to illustrate in detail the intersection of AHR and Wnt signaling, we summarize our recent findings which show that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced disruption of Wnt signaling impairs fetal prostate development. PMID:25286307

  5. Resveratrol Modulates Mitochondria Dynamics in Replicative Senescent Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Han; Chang, Ko-Wei; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chuang-Rung

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum network dynamically fuse and divide in the cell. The balance between mitochondria fusion and fission is correlated to the shape, activity and integrity of these pivotal organelles. Resveratrol is a polyphenol antioxidant that can extend life span in yeast and worm. This study examined mitochondria dynamics in replicative senescent yeast cells as well as the effects of resveratrol on mitochondria fusion and fission. Collecting cells by biotin-streptavidin sorting method revealed that majority of the replicative senescent cells bear fragmented mitochondrial network, indicating mitochondria dynamics favors fission. Resveratrol treatment resulted in a reduction in the ratio of senescent yeast cells with fragmented mitochondria. The readjustment of mitochondria dynamics induced by resveratrol likely derives from altered expression profiles of fusion and fission genes. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol serves not only as an antioxidant, but also a compound that can mitigate mitochondria fragmentation in replicative senescent yeast cells. PMID:25098588

  6. Energy-dependent effects of resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Canizal-Garcia, Melina; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Nava, Gerardo M; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic effects induced by resveratrol have been associated mainly with the consumption of high-calorie diets; however, its effects with standard or low-calorie diets remain unclear. To better understand the interactions between resveratrol and cellular energy levels, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Herein it is shown that resveratrol: (a) decreased cell viability in an energy-dependent manner; (b) lessening of cell viability occurred specifically when cells were under cellular respiration; and (c) inhibition of oxygen consumption in state 4 occurred at low and standard energy levels, whereas at high energy levels oxygen consumption was promoted. These findings indicate that the effects of resveratrol are dependent on the cellular energy status and linked to metabolic respiration. Importantly, our study also revealed that S. cerevisiae is a suitable and useful model to elucidate the molecular targets of resveratrol under different nutritional statuses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Resveratrol vs. calorie restriction: data from rodents to humans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Yan Y; Peterson, Courtney M; Ravussin, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Calorie restriction extends lifespan and confers metabolic benefits similar to the effect of lifestyle interventions. Poor compliance to long-term dietary restriction, however, hinders the success of this approach. Evidence is now persuasive for a role of resveratrol supplementation (a polyphenol in red grapes) as potential alternative to calorie restriction. This review summarizes the latest literature on the effects and the molecular mechanisms by which calorie restriction and resveratrol confer health benefits. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 and the associated improvement in energy utilization and insulin sensitivity closely resembles the benefits of calorie restriction. Current data largely support resveratrol as a potential calorie restriction mimetic to improve metabolic and probably functional health. Future studies which characterize the bioavailability and efficacy of resveratrol supplementation are critical to provide evidence for its long-term health benefits.

  8. Resveratrol Neuroprotection in Stroke and Traumatic CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Mary; Dempsey, Robert J; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbene formed in many plants in response to various stressors, elicits multiple beneficial effects in vertebrates. Particularly, resveratrol was shown to have therapeutic properties in cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Resveratrol-induced benefits are modulated by multiple synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Despite the lack of a definitive mechanism, both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol can induce a neuroprotective state when administered acutely or prior to experimental injury to the CNS. In this review, we discuss the neuroprotective potential of resveratrol in stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, with a focus on the molecular pathways responsible for this protection. PMID:26277384

  9. Functional and phenotypic effects of AhR activation in inflammatory dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bankoti, Jaishree; Rase, Ben; Simones, Tom; Shepherd, David M.

    2010-07-15

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces immune suppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells governing T cell activation and differentiation. However, the consequences of AhR activation in DCs are not fully defined. We hypothesized that AhR activation alters DC differentiation and generates dysfunctional DCs. To test this hypothesis, inflammatory bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from C57Bl/6 mice were generated in the presence of vehicle or TCDD. TCDD decreased CD11c expression but increased MHC class II, CD86 and CD25 expression on the BMDCs. The effects of TCDD were strictly AhR-dependent but not exclusively DRE-mediated. Similar effects were observed with two natural AhR ligands, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (ITE). TCDD increased LPS- and CpG-induced IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} production by BMDCs but decreased their NO production. TCDD decreased CpG-induced IL-12p70 production by BMDCs but did not affect their secretion of IL-10. TCDD downregulated LPS- and CpG-induced NF-kB p65 levels and induced a trend towards upregulation of RelB levels in the BMDCs. AhR activation by TCDD modulated BMDC uptake of both soluble and particulate antigens. Induction of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and TGF-{beta}3 has been implicated in the generation of regulatory T cells following AhR activation. TCDD increased IDO1, IDO2 and TGF-{beta}3 mRNA levels in BMDCs as compared to vehicle. Despite the induction of regulatory mediators, TCDD-treated BMDCs failed to suppress antigen-specific T cell activation. Thus, AhR activation can directly alter the differentiation and innate functions of inflammatory DCs without affecting their ability to successfully interact with T cells.

  10. Synthesis of Resveratrol Glycosides by Plant Glucosyltransferase and Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase and Their Neuroprotective Activity.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    Resveratrol was converted by glucosyltransferase from Phytolacca americana into its 3- and 4'-O-β-D-glucosides. On the other hand, further glycosylation of resveratrol 4'-O-β-D-glucoside by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase gave the 4'-O-β-maltoside, 4'-O-β-maltotrioside, 4'-O-β-maltotetraoside, and 4'-O-β- maltopentaoside of resveratrol. The six resveratrol glycosides synthesized here showed higher phosphodiesterase inhibitory activity than resveratrol.

  11. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms that possess resveratrol producing capability from selected plants and optimize ...

  12. Resveratrol reduces intracellular free calcium concentration in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Ma, Hui-Jie; Wang, Chuan; Li, Ming; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2005-10-25

    Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skins and red wine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. It has been speculated that resveratrol may have cardioprotective activity. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat ventricular myocytes. [Ca(2+)](i) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results showed that resveratrol (15~60 mumol/L) reduced [Ca(2+)](i) in normal and Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of resveratrol on [Ca(2+)](i) in normal Tyrode's solution was partially inhibited by pretreatment with sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4, 1.0 mmol/L, P<0.01), an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase, or L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist Bay K8644 (10 mumol/L, P<0.05), but could not be antagonized by NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (1.0 mmol/L). Resveratrol also markedly inhibited the ryanodine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution (P<0.01). When Ca(2+) waves were produced by increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration from 1 to 10 mmol/L, resveratrol (60 mumol/L) could reduce the velocity and duration of propagating waves, and block the propagating waves of elevated [Ca(2+)](i). These results suggest that resveratrol may reduce the [Ca(2+)](i) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel and tyrosine kinase, and alleviation of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are possibly involved in the effects of resveratrol on rat ventricular myocytes. These findings could help explain the protective activity of resveratrol against cardiovascular disease. PMID:16220198

  13. AHR2 morpholino knockdown reduces the toxicity of total particulate matter to zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Massarsky, Andrey; Bone, Audrey J; Dong, Wu; Hinton, David E; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2016-10-15

    The zebrafish embryo has been proposed as a 'bridge model' to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. Previous studies showed that exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) led to adverse effects in developing zebrafish, and suggested that the antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways play important roles. This study investigated the roles of these two pathways in mediating TPM toxicity. The study consisted of four experiments. In experiment I, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6h post fertilization (hpf) until 96hpf to TPM0.5 and TPM1.0 (corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0μg/mL equi-nicotine units) in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine/NAC) or a pro-oxidant (buthionine sulfoximine/BSO). In experiment II, TPM exposures were performed in embryos that were microinjected with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), AHR2, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), or CYP1B1 morpholinos, and deformities were assessed. In experiment III, embryos were exposed to TPM, and embryos/larvae were collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96hpf to assess several genes associated with the antioxidant and AHR pathways. Lastly, experiment IV assessed the activity and protein levels of CYP1A and CYP1B1 after exposure to TPM. We demonstrate that the incidence of TPM-induced deformities was generally not affected by NAC/BSO treatments or Nrf2 knockdown. In contrast, AHR2 knockdown reduced, while CYP1A or CYP1B1 knockdowns elevated the incidence of some deformities. Moreover, as shown by gene expression the AHR pathway, but not the antioxidant pathway, was induced in response to TPM exposure, providing further evidence for its importance in mediating TPM toxicity.

  14. AHR2 morpholino knockdown reduces the toxicity of total particulate matter to zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Massarsky, Andrey; Bone, Audrey J; Dong, Wu; Hinton, David E; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2016-10-15

    The zebrafish embryo has been proposed as a 'bridge model' to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. Previous studies showed that exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) led to adverse effects in developing zebrafish, and suggested that the antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways play important roles. This study investigated the roles of these two pathways in mediating TPM toxicity. The study consisted of four experiments. In experiment I, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6h post fertilization (hpf) until 96hpf to TPM0.5 and TPM1.0 (corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0μg/mL equi-nicotine units) in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine/NAC) or a pro-oxidant (buthionine sulfoximine/BSO). In experiment II, TPM exposures were performed in embryos that were microinjected with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), AHR2, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), or CYP1B1 morpholinos, and deformities were assessed. In experiment III, embryos were exposed to TPM, and embryos/larvae were collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96hpf to assess several genes associated with the antioxidant and AHR pathways. Lastly, experiment IV assessed the activity and protein levels of CYP1A and CYP1B1 after exposure to TPM. We demonstrate that the incidence of TPM-induced deformities was generally not affected by NAC/BSO treatments or Nrf2 knockdown. In contrast, AHR2 knockdown reduced, while CYP1A or CYP1B1 knockdowns elevated the incidence of some deformities. Moreover, as shown by gene expression the AHR pathway, but not the antioxidant pathway, was induced in response to TPM exposure, providing further evidence for its importance in mediating TPM toxicity. PMID:27576004

  15. Antimicrobial mechanism of resveratrol-trans-dihydrodimer produced from peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Mora-Pale, Mauricio; Bhan, Namita; Masuko, Sayaka; James, Paul; Wood, Julia; McCallum, Scott; Linhardt, Robert J; Dordick, Jonathan S; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2015-12-01

    Plant polyphenols are known to have varying antimicrobial potencies, including direct antibacterial activity, synergism with antibiotics and suppression of bacterial virulence. We performed the in vitro oligomerization of resveratrol catalyzed by soybean peroxidase, and the two isomers (resveratrol-trans-dihydrodimer and pallidol) produced were tested for antimicrobial activity. The resveratrol-trans-dihydrodimer displayed antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 15.0, 125, and 62.0 μM, respectively) and against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC = 123 μM, upon addition of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide). In contrast, pallidol had no observable antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Transcriptomic analysis implied downregulation of ABC transporters, genes involved in cell division and DNA binding proteins. Flow cytometric analysis of treated cells revealed a rapid collapse in membrane potential and a substantial decrease in total DNA content. The active dimer showed >90% inhibition of DNA gyrase activity, in vitro, by blocking the ATP binding site of the enzyme. We thus propose that the resveratrol-trans-dihydrodimer acts to: (1) disrupt membrane potential; and (2) inhibit DNA synthesis. In summary, we introduce the mechanisms of action and the initial evaluation of an active bactericide, and a platform for the development of polyphenolic antimicrobials.

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonism and its role in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Trung; Nakahama, Taisuke; Nguyen, Chi Hung; Tran, Trang Thu; Le, Van Son; Chu, Hoang Ha; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune disease, affecting approximately 1% of the population worldwide, its pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Tobacco smoke, an environmental risk factor for RA, contains several ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), also known as dioxin receptor. Ahr plays critical roles in the immune system. We previously demonstrated that Ahr in helper T-cells contributes to development of collagen-induced arthritis, a mouse model of RA. Other studies have shown that cigarette smoke condensate and pure Ahr ligands exacerbate RA by altering bone metabolism and inducing proinflammatory responses in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Consistent with these findings, several Ahr antagonists such as α-naphthoflavone, resveratrol, and GNF351 reverse the effect of Ahr ligands in RA pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of Ahr function in the immune system and the potential clinical benefits of Ahr antagonism in treating RA. PMID:27186143

  17. Alternative in vitro approach for assessing AHR-mediated CYP1A induction by dioxins in wild cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population.

    PubMed

    Thuruthippallil, Leena Mol; Kubota, Akira; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato

    2013-06-18

    Our line of papers revealed that the common (great) cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) possesses two isoforms of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ccAHR1 and ccAHR2). This paper addresses in vitro tests of the ccAHR signaling pathways to solve two questions: (1) whether there are functional differences in the two ccAHR isoforms, and (2) whether a molecular perturbation, cytochrome P450 1A (ccCYP1A) induction, in the population-level can be predicted from the in vitro tests. The transactivation potencies mediated by ccAHR1 and ccAHR2 were measured in COS-7 cells treated with 15 selected dioxins and related compounds (DRCs), where ccAHR1 or ccAHR2 expression plasmid and ccCYP1A5 promoter/enhancer-linked luciferase reporter plasmid were transfected. For congeners that exhibited dose-dependent luciferase activities, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) relative potencies (REPs) and induction equivalency factors (IEFs) were estimated. ccAHR1-IEF profile was similar to WHO avian TCDD toxic equivalency factor (TEF) profile except for dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls that showed lower IEFs in ccAHR1-driven reporter assay. ccAHR2-IEF profile was different from WHO TEFs and ccAHR1-IEFs. Notably, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was more potent than TCDD for ccAHR2-mediated response. Using ccAHR1- and ccAHR2-IEFs and hepatic DRC concentrations in the Lake Biwa cormorant population, total TCDD induction equivalents (IEQs) were calculated for each ccAHR-mediated response. Nonlinear regression analyses provided significant sigmoidal relationships of ccAHR1- and ccAHR2-derived IEQs with hepatic ccCYP1A5 mRNA levels, supporting the results of in vitro ccAHR-mediated TCDD dose-response curves. Collectively, our in vitro AHR reporter assay potentially could be an alternative to molecular epidemiology of the species of concern regarding CYP1A induction by AHR ligands. PMID:23676118

  18. Random antagonistic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicuta, Giovanni M.; Molinari, Luca Guido

    2016-09-01

    The ensemble of antagonistic matrices is introduced and studied. In antagonistic matrices the entries {{ A }}i,j and {{ A }}j,i are real and have opposite signs, or are both zero, and the diagonal is zero. This generalization of antisymmetric matrices is suggested by the linearized dynamics of competitive species in ecology.

  19. The immune phenotype of AhR null mouse mutants: not a simple mirror of xenobiotic receptor over-activation.

    PubMed

    Esser, Charlotte

    2009-02-15

    Intrinsic and induced cell differentiation and the cellular response to endogenous and exogenous signals are hallmarks of the immune system. Specific and common signalling cascades ensure a highly flexible and adapted response. Increasing evidence suggests that gene modulation by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, is an important part of these processes. For decades the AhR has been studied mainly for its toxic effects after artificial activation by man-made chemical pollutants such as dioxins. These studies gave important, albeit to some extent skewed, evidence for a mechanistic link between the AhR and the immune system. AhR null mutants and other mutants of the AhR signalling pathway have been generated and used to analyse the physiological function of the AhR, including for the developing and antigen-responding immune system. In this review I look at the natural immunological function(s) of the AhR.

  20. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2016-03-01

    Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for 5 d released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol's beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function.

  1. A New Approach to Produce Resveratrol by Enzymatic Bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Che, Jinxin; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-28

    An enzymatic reaction system was developed and optimized for bioconversion of resveratrol from glucose. Liquid enzyme extracts were prepared from Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus from grape, and used directly or after immobilization with sodium alginate. When the enzyme solution was used, efficient production of resveratrol was found within 120 min in a manner that was pH-, reaction time-, enzyme amount-, substrate type-, and substrate concentration-dependent. After the optimization experiments using the response surface methodology, the highest value of resveratrol production (224.40 µg/l) was found under the conditions of pH 6.84, 0.35 g/l glucose, 0.02 mg/l coenzyme A, and 0.02 mg/l ATP. Immobilized enzyme extracts could keep high production of resveratrol during recycling use for two to five times. The developed system indicated a potential approach to resveratrol biosynthesis independent of plants and fungal cell growth, and provided a possible way to produce resveratrol within 2 h, the shortest period needed for biosynthesis of resveratrol so far.

  2. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  3. Antidepressant Effects of Resveratrol in an Animal Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Akinfiresoye, Laura L. Hurley, Luli; Kalejaiye, Olubukola; Tizabi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4’,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol antioxidant extracted from red grapes in the processing of wine. Initially it was studied for its potential as anticancer drug, and later was found to reduce cardiovascular disease. More recently resveratrol was shown to alleviate depressive-like symptoms induced by stress or other means in mice and rats. The major purpose of this study was to investigate whether resveratrol would manifest an antidepressant effect in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative and non-induced animal model of depression, and whether this effect might be associated with an increase in hippocampal and frontal cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein implicated in chronic effects of many antidepressants. Adult male WKY rats were injected with two doses of resveratrol (10 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) and their behavior in the open field locomotor activity (LMA), forced swim test (FST: a measure of helplessness), and sucrose preference test (SPT: a measure of anhedonia) was evaluated after a single acute injection or following 7 days of daily treatment. Both acute and chronic administration of resveratrol resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in FST. However, only chronic resveratrol resulted in dose-dependent increase in sucrose consumption. LMA was not affected by any treatment. Parallel to the observed behavioral effects the level of hippocampal, but not frontal cortical, BDNF was also dose-dependently elevated after chronic resveratrol administration. These findings indicate an antidepressant-like effect of resveratrol in an animal model of depression possibly via activation of hippocampal BDNF, and suggest therapeutic potential of resveratrol in at least a subpopulation of depressed patients. PMID:24717328

  4. Stepwise increase of resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yechun; Halls, Coralie; Zhang, Juan; Matsuno, Michiyo; Zhang, Yansheng; Yu, Oliver

    2011-09-01

    Resveratrol is a unique, natural polyphenolic compound with diverse health benefits. In the present study, we attempted to improve resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast by different methods of metabolic engineering. We first mutated and then re-synthesized tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) by replacing the bacteria codons with yeast-preferred codons, which increased translation and improved p-coumaric acid and resveratrol biosynthesis drastically. We then demonstrated that low-affinity, high-capacity bacterial araE transporter could enhance resveratrol accumulation, without transporting resveratrol directly. Yeast cells carrying the araE gene produced up to 2.44-fold higher resveratrol than control cells. For commercial applications, resveratrol biosynthesis was detected in sucrose medium and fresh grape juice using our engineered yeast cells. In collaboration with the Chaumette Winery of Missouri, we were able to produce resveratrol-containing white wines, with levels comparable to the resveratrol levels found in most red wines.

  5. Multiplicity of effects and health benefits of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kuršvietienė, Lolita; Stanevičienė, Inga; Mongirdienė, Aušra; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is mainly found in grapes and red wine, also in some plants and fruits, such as peanuts, cranberries, pistachios, blueberries and bilberries. Moreover, nowadays this compound is available as purified preparation and dietary supplement. Resveratrol provides a wide range of benefits, including cardiovascular protective, antiplatelet, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, blood glucose-lowering and anticancer activities, hence it exhibits a complex mode of action. During the recent years, these properties have been widely studied in animal and human models, both in vitro and in vivo. This paper is intended to present information published during the recent years on the biological activities and multiple effects of resveratrol. PMID:27496184

  6. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-12-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  7. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  8. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A.; Yaylali, Aslı; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments. PMID:26246013

  9. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mark A.; Davis, Sonnet S.; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M.; Mitchell, Kylie P.; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y.; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Lamba, Deepak A.; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2′-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice. PMID:27364765

  10. Leukotriene receptor antagonist therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, O

    2000-01-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) are a new class of drugs for asthma treatment, available in tablet form. Their unique mechanism of action results in a combination of both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. While their optimal place in asthma management is still under review, LTRA represent an important advance in asthma pharmacotherapy.


Keywords: leukotriene receptor antagonist; asthma; montelukast; zafirlukast PMID:11085767

  11. Resveratrol as a Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Tan, Meng-Shan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, but there is no effective therapy till now. The pathogenic mechanisms of AD are considerably complex, including Aβ accumulation, tau protein phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Exactly, resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine and many plants, is indicated to show the neuroprotective effect on mechanisms mostly above. Recent years, there are numerous researches about resveratrol acting on AD in many models, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of resveratrol are limited by its pool bioavailability; therefore researchers have been trying a variety of methods to improve the efficiency. This review summarizes the recent studies in cell cultures and animal models, mainly discusses the molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol, and thus investigates the therapeutic potential in AD. PMID:25525597

  12. Biological and computational evaluation of resveratrol inhibitors against Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Koukoulitsa, Catherine; Villalonga-Barber, Caroline; Csonka, Robert; Alexi, Xanthippi; Leonis, Georgios; Dellis, Dimitris; Hamelink, Elizabeth; Belda, Oscar; Steele, Barry R; Micha-Screttas, Maria; Alexis, Michael N; Papadopoulos, Manthos G; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that beta amyloid induces production of radical oxygen species and oxidative stress in neuronal cells, which in turn upregulates β-secretase (BACE-1) expression and beta amyloid levels, thereby propagating oxidative stress and increasing neuronal injury. A series of resveratrol derivatives, known to be inhibitors of oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death (oxytosis) were biologically evaluated against BACE-1 using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) assay. Correlation between oxytosis inhibitory and BACE-1 inhibitory activity of resveratrol derivatives was statistically significant, supporting the notion that BACE-1 may act as pivotal mediator of neuronal cell oxytosis. Four of the biologically evaluated resveratrol analogs demonstrated considerably higher activity than resveratrol in either assay. The discovery of some "hits" led us to initiate detailed docking studies associated with Molecular Dynamics in order to provide a plausible explanation for the experimental results and understand their molecular basis of action.

  13. Modulatory Mechanism of Nociceptive Neuronal Activity by Dietary Constituent Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Mamoru; Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Kubota, Yoshiko; Shimazu, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions. Recent reports indicate that resveratrol can modulate neuronal excitability, including nociceptive sensory transmission. As such, it is possible that this dietary constituent could be a complementary alternative medicine (CAM) candidate, specifically a therapeutic agent. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of resveratrol on nociceptive neuronal activity associated with pain relief. In addition, we discuss the contribution of resveratrol to the relief of nociceptive and/or pathological pain and its potential role as a functional food and a CAM. PMID:27727178

  14. Interaction of dietary resveratrol with animal-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Carina M; Heinze, Thomas M; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Stephanie A; Elkins, Christopher A; Steele, Roger S; Sutherland, John B

    2009-08-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), an antifungal phytoalexin produced by grapes, peanuts, and Japanese knotweeds, is thought to be a beneficial dietary phytochemical in red wine and grape juice. Information on its antibacterial properties and biotransformation, however, is limited. We surveyed the interactions of resveratrol with 43 strains of bacterial species that are often animal- or human-associated. Resveratrol at 50 mg L(-1) reduced the growth rates of most of the bacteria tested, but did not totally prevent growth even at much higher levels. Eleven of the 43 bacteria were capable of transforming at least 20% of the resveratrol. Three major metabolites were identified as resveratroloside, piceid, and dihydroresveratrol, and three other metabolites were partially characterized.

  15. Metabolic engineering of resveratrol and other longevity boosting compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yechun; Chen, Hui; Yu, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol, a compound commonly found in red wine, has attracted many attentions recently. It is a diphenolic natural product accumulated in grapes and a few other species under stress conditions. It possesses a special ability to increase the life span of eukaryotic organisms, ranging from yeast, to fruit fly, to obese mouse. The demand for resveratrol as a food and nutrition supplement has increased significantly in recent years. Extensive work has been carried out to increase the production of resveratrol in plants and microbes. In this review, we will discuss the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol and engineering methods to heterologously express the pathway in various organisms. We will outline the shortcuts and limitations of common engineering efforts. We will also discuss briefly the features and engineering challenges of other longevity boosting compounds. PMID:20848556

  16. Metabolic engineering of resveratrol and other longevity boosting compounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y; Chen, H; Yu, O

    2010-09-16

    Resveratrol, a compound commonly found in red wine, has attracted many attentions recently. It is a diphenolic natural product accumulated in grapes and a few other species under stress conditions. It possesses a special ability to increase the life span of eukaryotic organisms, ranging from yeast, to fruit fly, to obese mouse. The demand for resveratrol as a food and nutrition supplement has increased significantly in recent years. Extensive work has been carried out to increase the production of resveratrol in plants and microbes. In this review, we will discuss the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol and engineering methods to heterologously express the pathway in various organisms. We will outline the shortcuts and limitations of common engineering efforts. We will also discuss briefly the features and engineering challenges of other longevity boosting compounds.

  17. The effect of resveratrol on the prevention of cisplatin ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Erdem, T; Bayindir, Tuba; Filiz, A; Iraz, M; Selimoglu, E

    2012-10-01

    One of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent which is widely used in the treatment of cancer patients, is hearing loss. This has primarily been associated with the loss of inner ear hairy and spiral ganglion cells due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is known to be an antioxidant agent, which has the theoretical potential of preventing cisplatin-related ototoxicity. This experimental study was approved by Animal Ethics Committee of Inonu University (2008-20) and supported by Inonu University Scientific Research Projects Support Fund (2009-17). Thirty-four 3-month-old Wistar albino female rats weighing 210-270 g were used in the study. The animals were allocated into four groups: in cisplatin group (Group A), a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally to 10 rats; in cisplatin + resveratrol group (Group B), a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin and 10 mg/kg resveratrol were administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to 10 rats; in resveratrol group (Group C), 10 mg/kg resveratrol was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to seven rats and in control group (Group D), resveratrol solvent (5% alcohol-95% physiological saline) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to seven rats. Resveratrol administration has begun 1 day before cisplatin administration in the group treated with cisplatin and resveratrol combination. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) (Grason Stadler, Madison, USA) measurements were performed in the same ear of all rats (right ear) under general anesthesia at baseline, 1st and 5th days after drug administration. Statistically significant distortion product amplitude reductions were found in the cisplatin group at 1,418, 2,003, 3,363, 5,660, 8,003 and 9,515 Hz frequencies. Whereas in the cisplatin + resveratrol group, statistically significant difference was found between 1st and 5th day measurements only at 3,996 Hz frequency. No significant differences were noted

  18. Resveratrol-loaded Nanoparticles Induce Antioxidant Activity against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Eun-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jo, Chan-Mi; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol acts as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant in the inhibition of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS). The function of resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles in protecting human lung cancer cells (A549) against hydrogen peroxide was investigated in this study. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Resveratrol had substantially high antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value) compared to trolox and vitamin E since the concentration of resveratrol was more than 50 μM. Nanoparticles prepared from β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were successfully developed. The β-lg nanoparticle showed 60 to 146 nm diameter in size with negatively charged surface. Non-cytotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with β-lg nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocynate-conjugated β-lg nanoparticles were identified into the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells, indicating that nanoparticles can be used as a delivery system. Hydrogen peroxide caused accumulation of ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles restored H2O2-induced ROS levels by induction of cellular uptake of resveratrol in A549 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) signaling in A549 cells, thereby accumulation of Nrf2 abundance, as demonstrated by western blotting approach. Overall, these results may have implications for improvement of oxidative stress in treatment with nanoparticles as a biodegradable and non-toxic delivery carrier of bioactive compounds. PMID:26732454

  19. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against Chronic Immobilization Stress on Testis

    PubMed Central

    Bitgul, Gulsah; Tekmen, Isil; Keles, Didem; Oktay, Gulgun

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of resveratrol, a strong antioxidant, against possible negative effects of chronic immobilization stress on testes of male rats histochemically, immunohistochemically, ultrastructurally, and biochemically. Material and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 7). Group I, control group (C), was not exposed to stress. Group II, stress group (S), was exposed to chronic immobilization stress. In Group III, low dose resveratrol + stress group (LRS), rats were given 10 mg/kg/day resveratrol just before the stress application. In Group IV, high dose resveratrol + stress group (HRS), rats were given 20 mg/kg/day resveratrol just before the stress application. For chronic immobilization stress application animals were put in the plastic tubes (6 cm in diameter, 15 cm in length) during 32 days for 6 hours. All animals were sacrificed 18 hours after the last stress application. Results. Histochemical and ultrastructural investigations showed that in stress group there was germ cell deprivation in seminiferous tubules and increase of connective tissue on interstitial area. No significant changes were seen in low and high dose resveratrol groups. After immunohistochemical investigations, TUNEL (+) and Active Caspase-3 (+) cells were increased in seminiferous tubules of stress group compared with those control group, but they were decreased in low and high dose resveratrol groups. According to biochemically results, MDA, GSH, and testosterone levels in stress group showed no significant difference when compared with those of the other groups. Conclusion. The chronic immobilization stress increases oxidative stress and apoptosis and causes histological tissue damages; resveratrol can minimize the histological damage in testes significantly. PMID:24307953

  20. Quantum chemistry calculation of resveratrol and related stilbenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Nero, J.; de Melo, C. P.

    2003-01-01

    We report a semiempirical investigation of the first excited states and of the spectroscopic properties of resveratrol, a phytoalexin with well-known antioxidative properties, and of structurally related stilbenes. The analysis of the calculated bond length and charge rearrangements resulting from the photoexcitation and of the corresponding theoretical spectra gives us some insight of how chemical modifications of these molecules could affect the possible physiological properties of resveratrol.

  1. Resveratrol Increases Osteoblast Differentiation In Vitro Independently of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ornstrup, Marie Juul; Harsløf, Torben; Sørensen, Lotte; Stenkjær, Liselotte; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2016-08-01

    Low-grade inflammation negatively affects bone. Resveratrol is a natural compound proven to possess both anti-inflammatory and bone protective properties. However, it is uncertain if the bone effects are mediated though anti-inflammatory effects. Firstly, we investigated if resveratrol affects proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Secondly, we investigated if inflammation negatively affects proliferation and differentiation, and if resveratrol counteracts this through anti-inflammatory effects. Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from bone marrow aspiration in 13 healthy individuals and cultured towards the osteoblast cell lineage. The cells were stimulated with resveratrol, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + resveratrol, or vehicle (control) for 21 days. Compared to control, resveratrol decreased cell number by 35 % (p < 0.05) and induced differentiation (a 3-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.002), while P1NP and OPG showed similar trends). LPS induced inflammation with a 44-fold increase in interleukin-6 (p < 0.05) and an extremely prominent increase in interleukin-8 production (p < 0.05) relative to control. In addition, LPS increased cell count (p < 0.05) and decreased differentiation (a reduction in P1NP production (p < 0.02)). Co-stimulation with LPS + resveratrol did not reduce interleukin-6 or interleukin-8, but nonetheless, cell count was reduced (p < 0.05) and alkaline phosphatase, P1NP, and OPG increased (p < 0.05 for all). Thus, resveratrol stimulates osteoblast differentiation independently of inflammation.

  2. Properties and molecular mechanisms of resveratrol: a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Li; Zhu, Meixiao; Zhang, Lirong; Yan, Lianhe

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol, for example widely present in the Chinese herbal medicine Polygonum cuspidatum, it is a natural phytoalexin, and has many biochemical activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-cardiovascular diseases, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and other effects. This article will concentrate on the physical and chemical properties of resveratrol, the biological and pharmacological effects for its anticancer activities. An outlook is given to the development and application prospects in this drug. PMID:26380517

  3. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  4. Resveratrol induces autophagy by directly inhibiting mTOR through ATP competition

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dohyun; Jeong, Heeyoon; Lee, Mi Nam; Koh, Ara; Kwon, Ohman; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Noh, Jungeun; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Park, Hwangseo; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol that has a beneficial effect on health, and resveratrol-induced autophagy has been suggested to be a key process in mediating many beneficial effects of resveratrol, such as reduction of inflammation and induction of cancer cell death. Although various resveratrol targets have been suggested, the molecule that mediates resveratrol-induced autophagy remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol induces autophagy by directly inhibiting the mTOR-ULK1 pathway. We found that inhibition of mTOR activity and presence of ULK1 are required for autophagy induction by resveratrol. In line with this mTOR dependency, we found that resveratrol suppresses the viability of MCF7 cells but not of SW620 cells, which are mTOR inhibitor sensitive and insensitive cancer cells, respectively. We also found that resveratrol-induced cancer cell suppression occurred ULK1 dependently. For the mechanism of action of resveratrol on mTOR inhibition, we demonstrate that resveratrol directly inhibits mTOR. We found that resveratrol inhibits mTOR by docking onto the ATP-binding pocket of mTOR (i.e., it competes with ATP). We propose mTOR as a novel direct target of resveratrol, and inhibition of mTOR is necessary for autophagy induction. PMID:26902888

  5. Resveratrol induces cell death and inhibits human herpesvirus 8 replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng-Yi; Chen, Chang-Yu; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Hong, Shin; Chen, Hung-Ming; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Wang, Lin-Yu; Wang, Yi-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has been reported to inhibit proliferation of various cancer cells. However, the effects of resveratrol on the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) harboring primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells remains unclear. The anti-proliferation effects and possible mechanisms of resveratrol in the HHV8 harboring PEL cells were examined in this study. Results showed that resveratrol induced caspase-3 activation and the formation of acidic vacuoles in the HHV8 harboring PEL cells, indicating resveratrol treatment could cause apoptosis and autophagy in PEL cells. In addition, resveratrol treatment increased ROS generation but did not lead to HHV8 reactivation. ROS scavenger (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) could attenuate both the resveratrol induced caspase-3 activity and the formation of acidic vacuoles, but failed to attenuate resveratrol induced PEL cell death. Caspase inhibitor, autophagy inhibitors and necroptosis inhibitor could not block resveratrol induced PEL cell death. Moreover, resveratrol disrupted HHV8 latent infection, inhibited HHV8 lytic gene expression and decreased virus progeny production. Overexpression of HHV8-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) could partially block resveratrol induced cell death in PEL cells. These data suggest that resveratrol-induced cell death in PEL cells may be mediated by disruption of HHV8 replication. Resveratrol may be a potential anti-HHV8 drug and an effective treatment for HHV8-related tumors.

  6. AhR activation underlies the CYP1A autoinduction by A-998679 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Michael J.; Lee, Chih-Hung; Liu, Hong; Ciurlionis, Rita; Ditewig, Amy C.; Doktor, Stella; Andracki, Mark E.; Gagne, Gerard D.; Waring, Jeffrey F.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Blomme, Eric A. G.; Yang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Xenobiotic-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) is frequently encountered in drug discovery and can influence disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity profiles. The CYP1A subfamily of DMEs plays a central role in the biotransformation of several drugs and environmental chemicals. Autoinduction of drugs through CYP3A enzymes is a common mechanism for their enhanced clearance. However, autoinduction via CYP1A is encountered less frequently. In this report, an experimental compound, A-998679 [3-(5-pyridin-3-yl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) benzonitrile], was shown to enhance its own clearance via induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2. Rats were dosed for 5 days with 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day A-998679. During the dosing period, the compound's plasma AUC decreased at 30 mg/kg (95%) and 100 mg/kg (80%). Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the livers showed a large increase in the mRNA and protein levels of Cyp1a, which was involved in the biotransformation of A-998679. Induction of CYP1A was confirmed in primary rat, human, and dog hepatocytes. The compound also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes. A-998679 activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a luciferase gene reporter assay in HepG2 cells, upregulated expression of genes associated with AhR activation in rat liver and enhanced nuclear migration of AhR in HepG2 cells. Collectively these results demonstrate that A-998679 is an AhR activator that induces Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 expression, resulting in an autoinduction phenomenon. The unique properties of A-998679, along with its novel structure distinct from classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may warrant its further evaluation as a tool compound for use in studies involving AhR biology and CYP1A-related mechanisms of drug metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23112805

  7. Functionality of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and implications for the risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Farmahin, Reza; Wiseman, Steve; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-15

    Worldwide, populations of sturgeons are endangered, and it is hypothesized that anthropogenic chemicals, including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), might be contributing to the observed declines in populations. DLCs elicit their toxic action through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is believed to regulate most, if not all, adverse effects associated with exposure to these chemicals. Currently, risk assessment of DLCs in fishes uses toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) developed for the World Health Organization (WHO) that are based on studies of embryo-lethality with salmonids. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs, and it is uncertain whether TEFs developed by the WHO are protective of these fishes. Sturgeons are evolutionarily distinct from salmonids, and the AhRs of sturgeons differ from those of salmonids. Therefore, this study investigated the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to DLCs in vitro via the use of luciferase reporter gene assays using COS-7 cells transfected with AhR1 or AhR2 of white sturgeon. Specifically, activation and relative potencies (RePs) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzofuran, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl were determined for each AhR. It was demonstrated that white sturgeon expresses AhR1s and AhR2s that are both activated by DLCs with EC50 values for 2,3,7,8-TCDD that are lower than those of any other AhR of vertebrates tested to date. Both AhRs of white sturgeon had RePs for polychlorinated dibenzofurans more similar to TEFs for birds, while RePs for polychlorinated biphenyls were most similar to TEFs for fishes. Measured concentrations of select DLCs in tissues of white sturgeon from British Columbia, Canada, were used to calculate toxic equivalents (TEQs) by use of TEFs for fishes used by the WHO and TCDD

  8. Resveratrol and calcium signaling: molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    McCalley, Audrey E; Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J; Koulen, Peter

    2014-06-05

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans-resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. As resveratrol's mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. The clinical relevance of resveratrol's actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. The present review emphasizes the correlation between molecular mechanisms of action that have recently been identified for resveratrol and their clinical implications.

  9. Resveratrol Protects the Brain of Obese Mice from Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Shraddha D.; Kumar, Sruthi; Wilson, David N.; Tamura, Leslie; Geetha, Thangiah; Mathews, Suresh T.; Huggins, Kevin W.; Broderick, Tom L.; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin that exerts cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidant effects. Recently it has been shown that obesity is associated with an increase in cerebral oxidative stress levels, which may enhance neurodegeneration. The present study evaluates the neuroprotective action of resveratrol in brain of obese (ob/ob) mice. Resveratrol was administered orally at the dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight daily for three weeks to lean and obese mice. Resveratrol had no effect on body weight or blood glucose levels in obese mice. Lipid peroxides were significantly increased in brain of obese mice. The enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and nonenzymatic antioxidants tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and glutathione were decreased in obese mice brain. Administration of resveratrol decreased lipid peroxide levels and upregulated the antioxidant activities in obese mice brain. Our findings indicate a neuroprotective effect of resveratrol by preventing oxidative damage in brain tissue of obese mice. PMID:24163719

  10. Resveratrol in prostate diseases – a short review

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Lidia; Ogrodowczyk, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resveratrol is a plant–derived polyphenol suggested to have many beneficial health effects, including antioxidant, anti–inflammatory, anti–proliferative, proapoptotic, and anti–angiogenic. It is even specu- lated that uptake of resveratrol by red wine consumption could be behind the so–called French paradox the lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases in the French population. These properties, together with good absorption and tolerance, would make it an attractive agent in prostatic diseases, especially in cancer prevention and treatment. Material and methods MEDLINE search (keywords “prostate res- veratrol”) resulted in 39 research papers published since 2007. It has been shown that resveratol down–regulate androgen receptor expression, inhibit proliferation, and promote apop- tosis in prostate cancer cell lines and enhance their sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Several studies on animal prostate cancer development also suggest that resveratrol is able do delay or prevent carcino- genesis in prostate. Despite these promising results, there is no proof of any therapeutic properties of resveratrol in prostate diseases from human clinical trials nor any information about ongoing trials in this field. Conclusions Resveratrol is produced and sold as a nutritional supplement, there is not enough clinical evidence to justify a recommendation for the administration of resveratrol in humans at present. PMID:24579014

  11. Anti-Acanthamoebic properties of resveratrol and demethoxycurcumin.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Iqbal, Junaid; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Gilani, Anwar H; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunist protist pathogen that is known to infect the cornea to produce eye keratitis and the central nervous system to produce fatal granulomatous encephalitis. Early diagnosis, followed by aggressive treatment using a combination of drugs is a prerequisite in successful treatment but even then, prognosis remains poor due to lack of effective drugs. The overall aim of the present study was to determine the anti-Acanthamoebic potential of natural compounds, resveratrol and curcuminoids. Adhesion and cytotoxicity assays were performed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. Pre-exposure of organisms to 100 μg resveratrol and demethoxy curcumin prevented amoeba binding by 57% and 73%, respectively, while cytotoxicity of host cells was inhibited by 86%. In an assay for viability of amoebae in the absence of host cells, resveratrol and de-methoxy curcumin exhibited significant amoebicidal effects (23% and 25%, respectively) at 100 μg concentrations (P<0.01). Neither resveratrol nor demethoxycurcumin had any effect on the proteolytic activities of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Of both compounds, resveratrol is of most interest for further investigation, because of the selective toxicity of resveratrol on A. castellanii but not the human brain microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:23010569

  12. Central Administration of Resveratrol Improves Diet-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ramadori, Giorgio; Gautron, Laurent; Fujikawa, Teppei; Vianna, Claudia R.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Coppari, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that activates nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. Resveratrol has recently been shown to exert potent antidiabetic actions when orally delivered to animal models of type 2 diabetes. However, the tissue(s) mediating these beneficial effects is unknown. Because SIRT1 is expressed in central nervous system (CNS) neurons known to control glucose and insulin homeostasis, we hypothesized that resveratrol antidiabetic effects are mediated by the brain. Here, we report that long-term intracerebroventricular infusion of resveratrol normalizes hyperglycemia and greatly improves hyperinsulinemia in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice. It is noteworthy that these effects are independent of changes in body weight, food intake, and circulating leptin levels. In addition, CNS resveratrol delivery improves hypothalamic nuclear factor-κB inflammatory signaling by reducing acetylated-RelA/p65 and total RelA/p65 protein contents, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB α and IκB kinase β mRNA levels. Furthermore, this treatment leads to reduced hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA and protein levels and ameliorates pyruvate-induced hyperglycemia in this mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Collectively, our results unveiled a previously unrecognized key role for the CNS in mediating the antidiabetic actions of resveratrol. PMID:19819963

  13. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of E-resveratrol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ting; Jiang, Wei; Dong, Huai-Ming; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Lu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to synthesize derivatives of E-resveratrol and evaluate their cytotoxic activity in vitro. Different functional groups were conjugated with the phenolic hydroxyl group of E-resveratrol, and the double bond of E-resveratrol was reduced. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthetic derivatives was evaluated against three tumor cell lines (A549, LAC, and HeLa) using the MTT assay. Twenty-six E-resveratrol derivatives were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, MS, IR, and elemental analyses. Compounds 1-6, 12, 15-21, and 23-26 were reported for the first time. Among them, Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9-11, showed significant cytotoxicity against tumor cells; especially, Compound 1 showed an IC50 value of 4.38 μmol · L(-1) in the A549 cells which was 15-fold more active than E-resveratrol; Compound 9 showed an IC50 value of 1.41 μmol · L(-1) in the HeLa cell line which was 90-fold more active than E-resveratrol, and close to adriamycin. The structure-activity relationships were also investigated. Compounds 1, 2 and 9-11 may serve as potential lead compounds for the discovery of new anticancer drugs.

  14. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  15. Fluorescence quenching study of resveratrol binding to zein and gliadin: Towards a more rational approach to resveratrol encapsulation using water-insoluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Joye, Iris J; Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Ludescher, Richard D; McClements, David J

    2015-10-15

    Several health benefits have been ascribed to consumption of resveratrol, a polyphenol that can be extracted from grape skins. However, its use as a nutraceutical ingredient is compromised by its low water solubility, chemical stability, and bioavailability. Encapsulation of resveratrol in protein nanoparticles can be used to overcome these issues. Fluorescence quenching experiments were used to study the interaction of resveratrol with gliadin and zein. Resveratrol interacted with both proteins, but the binding constant was higher for zein than for gliadin at 35 °C. Furthermore, binding between resveratrol and gliadin increased at higher temperatures, which was not observed for zein. Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters suggested that resveratrol-gliadin binding mainly occurs through hydrophobic interactions while the binding with zein is predominantly mediated through hydrogen bonds. These results help rationalise ingredient selection and production of protein nanoparticles and microparticles for encapsulation, protection and release of resveratrol and potentially other bioactive compounds. PMID:25952867

  16. Epigenetic potential of resveratrol and analogs in preclinical models of prostate cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prostate cancer is affected by lifestyle, particularly diet. Dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol possess anticancer properties and, therefore, chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials. Resveratrol has pleiotropic effect exerting its biological activity through multiple pathways and targets ass...

  17. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola

    2008-06-01

    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  18. Ago-Antagonistic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Weil, Élie

    Today, bio-medical sciences and human sciences in general are demanding some new epistemological paradigms, in the same manner that quantum physics began to proceed to a renewal of this kind eighteen years ago. Such paradigms seem to be connected with systems science, and especially a special branch of it, called agonistic-antagonistic systemics (AAS), combining co-operativity and conflict between two poles. AAS is under the necessity of considering, at the same time, both sides of whatever phenomenon—which may appear as contradictory, opposite or only different—and, finally, of taking into account the unity to which both sides belong. The dynamics study of the behavior of these couples, or of the so-called agonistic-antagonistic networks, allows to better understand the occurrence of amazing phenomena, as well as to consider special types of control, when agonistic antagonistic unbalances have occurred.

  19. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.

  20. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health. PMID:26558458

  1. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  2. Vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for.

  3. Vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for. PMID:25604388

  4. Resveratrol lacks protective activity against acute seizures in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Tomaciello, Francesca; Leclercq, Karine; Kaminski, Rafal M

    2016-10-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-stilbenetriol) is a natural product having diverse anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The compound has a wide spectrum of pharmacological and metabolic activity, including cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anticarcinogenic and anti-aging effects reported in numerous studies. Some reports also suggest potential anticonvulsant properties of resveratrol. In the present study, we used in mice three different seizure models which are routinely applied in preclinical drug discovery. The protective effects of resveratrol were evaluated in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), maximal electroshock (MES) and 6-Hz electrical seizure models. Resveratrol (up to 300mg/kg) administered ip (5-60min pre-treatment time) remained without any protective activity against seizures induced in these models. There was only a trend towards a delay in seizure latency, which reached statistical significance after treatment with resveratrol (100mg/kg; 15min) in case of tonic convulsions induced by PTZ. Phenobarbital (PHB, ip, 45min), used as a reference compound, displayed a clear-cut and dose-dependent protection against seizures in all the models. The ED50 values obtained with PHB were as follows: 7.3mg/kg (PTZ model), 13.3mg/kg (MES model) and 29.7mg/kg (6-Hz model). The present data demonstrate that an acute treatment with resveratrol does not provide any significant protection in three seizure models which collectively are able to detect anticonvulsants with diverse mechanisms of action. However, it cannot be excluded that chronic treatment with resveratrol may offer some protection in these or other seizure models.

  5. Resveratrol Protects Rabbits Against Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Tanko, Y; Jimoh, A; Ahmed, A; Mohammed, A; Ayo, J O

    2016-01-01

    The excessive consumption of high cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased incidence oflipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim ofthese experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with cholesterol diet inducedhyperlipidaemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups of five animal (group= 5) each: group 1 = normal control,group 2 = cholesterol diet/high fat diet group only (HFD), group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = HFD + R200 and group 6 = HFD + R400. The normal group was fed with standard animalfeeds only; while the HFD groups were fed with standard animal feeds + cholesterol diet (10% Groundnut oil, 20%Groundnut mill and 2% cholesterol). Resveratrol-treated rabbits received resveratrol suspended in 10 g/Lcarboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and the control group received the vehicle only, CMC. The preparations were administeredfor 8 weeks of experimental protocol. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed. Blood and plasma sampleswere collected. Serum evaluation of lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (Tg), low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDP-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were also assessed. The results obtained showsignificant (P < 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDP-c), total triacylglyceroland an increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in resveratrol treated groups compared to HFD group only.In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrationsand might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:27574767

  6. TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, John D.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Smith, Ashley B.; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C.

    2014-02-01

    Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive Long–Evans (Turku/AB; L–E) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluated doses ranging from 0 to 3000 μg/kg at 19 h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384 h after exposure to 100 μg/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the dose–response analysis, none had an ED{sub 50} equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10–100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (L–E), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (L–E), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (L–E), Nqo1 (L–E) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. - Highlights: • NanoString measured hepatic mRNA molecules

  7. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  8. The Q-rich/PST domain of the AHR regulates both ligand-induced nuclear transport and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Anna; Henkler, Frank; Brinkmann, Joep; Sowada, Juliane; Genkinger, Doris; Kern, Christian; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) shuttles continuously between cytoplasm and nucleus, unless ligand-binding triggers association with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and subsequent binding to cognate DNA motifs. We have now identified Val 647 as mandatory residue for export from the nucleus and AHR-function. This residue prevents inactivation of the receptor as a consequence of nuclear sequestration via constitutive import. Concomitantly mutants lacking this residue are exclusively localised in the nucleus. Although ligands accelerate nuclear import transiently, stable nuclear transition depends on a motif adjacent to Val 647 that comprises residues 650–661. Together, this defined region within the Q-rich domain regulates intracellular trafficking of the AHR in context of both nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and receptor activation. Nuclear export therefore depends on the previously characterised N-terminal NES and the newly identified motif that includes V647. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of full-length human AHR is further affected by a section of the PST domain that shows sequence similarities with nuclear export signals. In concert, these motifs maintain a predominant cytoplasmic compartmentalisation, receptive for ligand binding. PMID:27535013

  9. The Q-rich/PST domain of the AHR regulates both ligand-induced nuclear transport and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Anna; Henkler, Frank; Brinkmann, Joep; Sowada, Juliane; Genkinger, Doris; Kern, Christian; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) shuttles continuously between cytoplasm and nucleus, unless ligand-binding triggers association with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and subsequent binding to cognate DNA motifs. We have now identified Val 647 as mandatory residue for export from the nucleus and AHR-function. This residue prevents inactivation of the receptor as a consequence of nuclear sequestration via constitutive import. Concomitantly mutants lacking this residue are exclusively localised in the nucleus. Although ligands accelerate nuclear import transiently, stable nuclear transition depends on a motif adjacent to Val 647 that comprises residues 650-661. Together, this defined region within the Q-rich domain regulates intracellular trafficking of the AHR in context of both nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and receptor activation. Nuclear export therefore depends on the previously characterised N-terminal NES and the newly identified motif that includes V647. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of full-length human AHR is further affected by a section of the PST domain that shows sequence similarities with nuclear export signals. In concert, these motifs maintain a predominant cytoplasmic compartmentalisation, receptive for ligand binding. PMID:27535013

  10. Calorie restriction and resveratrol in cardiovascular health and disease.

    PubMed

    Dolinsky, Vernon W; Dyck, Jason R B

    2011-11-01

    Calorie restriction is one of the most effective nutritional interventions that reproducibly protects against obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence suggests that even when implemented over a short period, calorie restriction is a safe and effective treatment for cardiovascular disease. Herein, we review the effects of calorie restriction on the cardiovascular system as well as the biological effects of resveratrol, the most widely studied molecule that appears to mimic calorie restriction. An overview of microarray data reveals that the myocardial transcriptional effects of calorie restriction overlap with the transcriptional responses to resveratrol treatment. In addition, calorie restriction and resveratrol modulate similar pathways to improve mitochondrial function, reduce oxidative stress and increase nitric oxide production that are involved in atherosclerosis prevention, blood pressure reduction, attenuation of left-ventricular hypertrophy, resistance to myocardial ischemic injury and heart failure prevention. We also review the data that suggest that the effects of calorie restriction and resveratrol on the cardiovascular system may involve signaling through the silent information regulator of transcription (SIRT), Akt and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways. While accumulating data demonstrate the health benefits of calorie restriction and resveratrol in experimental animal models, whether these interventions translate to patients with cardiovascular disease remains to be determined.

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopic study on the interaction of resveratrol with lipoxygenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, María del Carmen; Duque, Antonio Luis; Macías, Pedro

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of lipoxygenase with (E)-resveratrol was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The data obtained revealed that the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of lipoxygenase is produced by the formation of a complex lipoxygenase-(E)-resveratrol. From the value obtained for the binding constant, according to the Stern-Volmer modified equation, was deduced the existence of static quenching mechanism and, as consequence, the existence of a strong interaction between (E)-resveratrol and lipoxygenase. The values obtained for the thermodynamic parameter Δ H (-3.58 kJ mol -1) and Δ S (87.97 J mol -1K -1) suggested the participation of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in the stabilization of the complex ligand-protein. From the static quenching we determined that only exist one independent binding site. Based on the Förster energy transfer theory, the distance between the acceptor ((E)-resveratrol) and the donor (Trp residues of lipoxygenase) was calculated to be 3.42 nm. Finally, based on the information obtained from the evaluation of synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, we deduced that the interaction of (E)-resveratrol with lipoxygenase produces micro-environmental and conformational alterations of protein in the binding region.

  12. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biological effects. Extrapolating the biological effects of dietary compounds from in vitro and in vivo animal experiments to humans may lead to over- or under-estimation of the effect and role of these compounds. The present paper will discuss a few of these challenges and suggest directions for future research. Questions we address include: (1) Is the combinatorial effect of resveratrol and other compounds real? (2) What are the real and relevant doses of resveratrol after administration? and (3) Is it possible to estimate the preventive effect of resveratrol by clinical trials using standard experimental designs? The examples concerning resveratrol taken from the scientific literature are mainly from 2010 and later. The challenges pointed out in this review are similar to most naturally occurring bioactive compounds. PMID:27294953

  13. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-22

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs. PMID:26954263

  14. Anti-tumor effects and cellular mechanisms of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Han, Guohua; Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin contained in a variety of plants, such as grapes, berries and especially in the dried roots of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. It has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation activity, and to reverse the effects of aging. Its ability to suppress cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and suppress the metastasis and invasion in a number of cell lines has prompted a large interest from people for its use as an anti-tumor component. In this review, evidence of resveratrol's anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms are recapitulated. First, we present the anti-apoptosis, anti-invasion/metastasis and anti-inflammation effect of resveratrol; second, the main signaling pathways involved in these activities are described and summarized with the studies of different tumors involved. Resveratrol not only induces apoptosis of tumor cells through intrinsic/extrinsic pathways and cell cycle arrest, but also inhibits the invasion and metastasis abilities of tumors via modulating collagen degradation-related molecular targets. Altogether, the present findings suggest the anti-tumor potential of resveratrol against various types of cancers. PMID:25788047

  15. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-22

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  16. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  17. Age Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation is improved by resveratrol in rat mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Gocmez, Semil S; Scarpace, Philip J; Whidden, Melissa A; Erdos, Benedek; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Sakarya, Yasemin; Utkan, Tijen; Tumer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether resveratrol improves the adverse effects age on vascular function in mesenteric arteries (MAs), and diminishes the hyperactivity in adrenal gland with age. [Methods] Male F344 x Brown Norway rats were assigned to 6-month control (YC), 6-month resveratrol (YR), 24-month control (OC) and 24-month resveratrol (OR). Resveratrol (15 mg/kg) was provided to resveratrol groups in drinking water for 14 days. [Results] Concentration response curves to phenylephrine (PE, 10-9-10-5M), acetylcholine (Ach, 10-9-10-5M) and resveratrol (10-8-10-4M) were evaluated in pressurized isolated MAs. The Ach concentration-response curve was right shifted with maximal response diminished in OC compared with YC rats. These effects were reversed by resveratrol treatment. The resveratrol-mediated relaxant responses were unchanged with age or resveratrol suggesting an endothelium-independent mechanism. Resveratrol tended to increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase; caused no effect on copper-zinc superoxide dismutase; and normalized the age-related elevatation in DβH and NPY levels in adrenal medulla, two indicators of sympathetic activity [Conclusion] These data indicate that resveratrol reverses age-related dysfunction in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in MAs and partially reverses hyperactivity of adrenomedullary function with age. This treatment may have a therapeuticpotential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in the elderly. PMID:27298812

  18. Resveratrol, from experimental data to nutritional evidence: the emergence of a new food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Raederstorff, Daniel; Kunz, Iris; Schwager, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol resveratrol is found notably in grapes and in a variety of medicinal plants. Recently, resveratrol has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects and to improve metabolic health by mimicking the effects of calorie restriction. Numerous animal and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol could improve cardiovascular and metabolic health in humans. In view of this compelling preclinical evidence, several human studies investigating the effects of resveratrol on vascular and metabolic health have been initiated. Collectively, the animal, human epidemiological, and first human intervention studies support a role of resveratrol in vascular and metabolic health. This has led to the introduction of the first supplement and food products containing resveratrol and its emergence as a promising new health ingredient. Thus, supplementation with resveratrol may be included in nutritional and lifestyle programs aiming to reduce the risk of vascular and obesity-related problems.

  19. ε-Viniferin, a resveratrol dimer, prevents diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Kusano, Kaori; Kitao, Sayoko; Yanai, Takaaki; Takata, Ryoji; Kanauchi, Osamu

    2015-12-25

    Red wines are thought to be one of the major dietary sources of trans-resveratrol. The beneficial effects of t-resveratrol against metabolic disorders have been well characterized, however, red wines also contain various resveratrol derivatives whose health benefits have not been completely elucidated. In this report, we investigated ε-viniferin, a resveratrol dimer, which is present at comparable concentrations to t-resveratrol in red wines, and has higher anti-adipogenesis activity in 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, ε-viniferin was more effective than t-resveratrol in its anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects in high-fat diet fed mice. These results suggested ε-viniferin may be one of the active ingredients against metabolic disorders in red wines, in addition to t-resveratrol.

  20. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Yusuf; Hassim, Hasliza; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound. PMID:26693226

  1. Resveratrol: A review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Athar, Mohammad; Back, Jung Ho; Tang Xiuwei; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R.; Kim, Arianna L.

    2007-11-01

    The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds one of which is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin derived from the skin of grapes and other fruits. Resveratrol is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and to inhibit platelet aggregation and the growth of a variety of cancer cells. Its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities have been demonstrated in all three stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression), in both chemically and UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice, as well as in various murine models of human cancers. Evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies has confirmed its ability to modulate various targets and signaling pathways. This review discusses the current preclinical and mechanistic data available and assesses resveratrol's anticancer effects to support its potential as an anticancer agent in human populations.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol in Alzheimer disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Shraddha D.; Geetha, Thangiah; Griffin, Gerald D.; Broderick, Tom L.; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive and behavioral abilities. Extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of AD. Researchers aim to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis; however, the therapeutic options available to treat this disease are inadequate. In the past few years, several studies have reported interesting insights about the neuroprotective properties of the polyphenolic compound resveratrol (3, 5, 4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) when used with in vitro and in vivo models of AD. The aim of this review is to focus on the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of resveratrol on AD and its multiple potential mechanisms of action. In addition, because the naturally occurring forms of resveratrol have a very limited half-life in plasma, a description of potential analogs aimed at increasing the bioavailability in plasma is also discussed. PMID:25309423

  3. Cytotoxic, Antiangiogenic and Antitelomerase Activity of Glucosyl- and Acyl- Resveratrol Prodrugs and Resveratrol Sulfate Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Falomir, Eva; Lucas, Ricardo; Peñalver, Pablo; Martí-Centelles, Rosa; Dupont, Alexia; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Carda, Miguel; Morales, Juan C

    2016-07-15

    Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol with relevant and varied biological activity. However, its low bioavailability and rapid metabolism to its glucuronate and sulfate conjugates has opened a debate on the mechanisms underlying its bioactivity. RES prodrugs are being developed to overcome these problems. We have synthesized a series of RES prodrugs and RES sulfate metabolites (RES-S) and evaluated their biological activities. RES glucosylated prodrugs (RES-Glc) were more cytotoxic in HT-29 and MCF-7 cells than RES itself whereas RES-S showed similar or higher cytotoxicity than RES. VEGF production was decreased by RES-Glc, and RES-disulfate (RES-diS) diminished it even more than RES. Finally, RES-Glc and RES-diS inhibited hTERT gene expression to a higher extent than RES. In conclusion, resveratrol prodrugs are promising candidates as anticancer drugs. In addition, RES-S showed distinct biological activity, thus indicating they are not simply RES reservoirs. PMID:27147200

  4. Inhibition of AHR transcription by NF1C is affected by a single-nucleotide polymorphism, and is involved in suppression of human uterine endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Takao, T; Tsunematsu, R; Morokuma, S; Fukushima, K; Kobayashi, H; Saito, T; Furue, M; Wake, N; Asanoma, K

    2013-10-10

    Involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in carcinogenesis has been suggested in many studies. Upregulation of AHR has been reported in some cancer species, and an association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of AHR and cancer risk or cancer development has also been reported. This evidence suggests the involvement of some specific SNPs in AHR transcriptional regulation in the process of carcinogenesis or cancer development, but there have been no studies to elucidate the mechanism involved. In this study, we identified the transcription factor Nuclear Factor 1-C (NF1C) as a candidate to regulate AHR transcription in a polymorphism-dependent manner. SNP rs10249788 was included in a consensus binding site for NF1C. Our results suggested that NF1C preferred the C allele to the T allele at rs10249788 for binding. Forced expression of NF1C suppressed the activity of the AHR promoter with C at rs10249788 stronger than that with T. Moreover, expression analysis of human uterine endometrial cancer (HEC) specimens showed greater upregulation of AHR and downregulation of NF1C than those of normal endometrium specimens. Sequence analysis showed HEC patients at advanced stages tended to possess T/T alleles more frequently than healthy women. We also demonstrated that NF1C suppressed proliferation, motility and invasion of HEC cells. This function was at least partially mediated by AHR. This study is the first to report that a polymorphism on the AHR regulatory region affected transcriptional regulation of the AHR gene in vitro. Because NF1C is a tumor suppressor, our new insights into AHR deregulation and its polymorphisms could reveal novel mechanisms of genetic susceptibility to cancer.

  5. Inhibition of constitutive aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling attenuates androgen independent signaling and growth in (C4-2) prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cindy; Richmond, Oliver; Aaron, LaTayia; Powell, Joann B.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. AhR mediates the biochemical and toxic effects of a number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8,-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). AhR is widely known for regulating the transcription of drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of carcinogens and therapeutic agents, such as cytochrome P450-1B1 (CYP1B1). Additionally, AhR has also been reported to interact with multiple signaling pathways during prostate development. Here we investigate the effect of sustained AhR signaling on androgen receptor function in prostate cancer cells. Immunoblot analysis shows that AhR expression is increased in androgen independent (C4-2) prostate cancer cells when compared to androgen sensitive (LNCaP) cells. RT-PCR studies revealed constitutive AhR signaling in C4-2 cells without the ligand induced activation required in LNCaP cells. A reduction of AhR activity by short RNA mediated silencing in C4-2 cells reduced expression of both AhR and androgen responsive genes. The decrease in androgen responsive genes correlates to a decrease in phosphorylated androgen receptor and androgen receptor expression in the nucleus. Furthermore, the forced decrease in AhR expression resulted in a 50% decline in the growth rate of C4-2 cells. These data indicates that AhR is required to maintain hormone independent signaling and growth by the androgen receptor in C4-2 cells. Collectively, these data provide evidence of a direct role for AhR in androgen independent signaling and provides insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for sustained androgen receptor signaling in hormone refractory prostate cancer. PMID:23266674

  6. Resveratrol Reverses Functional Chagas Heart Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Santos, Hilton; Vicentino, Amanda R. R.; Feijó, Daniel F.; Meyer-Fernandes, José R.; Paula-Neto, Heitor A.; Medei, Emiliano; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Paiva, Claudia N.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) develops years after acute infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and does not improve after trypanocidal therapy, despite reduction of parasite burden. During disease, the heart undergoes oxidative stress, a potential causative factor for arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. Here we tested whether antioxidants/ cardioprotective drugs could improve cardiac function in established Chagas heart disease. We chose a model that resembles B1-B2 stage of human CCC, treated mice with resveratrol and performed electrocardiography and echocardiography studies. Resveratrol reduced the prolonged PR and QTc intervals, increased heart rates and reversed sinus arrhythmia, atrial and atrioventricular conduction disorders; restored a normal left ventricular ejection fraction, improved stroke volume and cardiac output. Resveratrol activated the AMPK-pathway and reduced both ROS production and heart parasite burden, without interfering with vascularization or myocarditis intensity. Resveratrol was even capable of improving heart function of infected mice when treatment was started late after infection, while trypanocidal drug benznidazole failed. We attempted to mimic resveratrol’s actions using metformin (AMPK-activator) or tempol (SOD-mimetic). Metformin and tempol mimicked the beneficial effects of resveratrol on heart function and decreased lipid peroxidation, but did not alter parasite burden. These results indicate that AMPK activation and ROS neutralization are key strategies to induce tolerance to Chagas heart disease. Despite all tissue damage observed in established Chagas heart disease, we found that a physiological dysfunction can still be reversed by treatment with resveratrol, metformin and tempol, resulting in improved heart function and representing a starting point to develop innovative therapies in CCC. PMID:27788262

  7. Evaluation of resveratrol derivatives as potential antioxidants and identification of a reaction product of resveratrol and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Jin, Y; Ho, C T

    1999-10-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), an antioxidant from grapes, and five other polyhydroxystilbenes were synthesized. Their antioxidative properties were evaluated in two model systems [pure lipid oxidation using the Rancimat method and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging model.] 3, 3',4,5'-Tetrahydroxystilbene, 3,3',4,5,5'-pentahydroxystilbene, and 3,4,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene were found to be more active than resveratrol in both models. A dimer of resveratrol was identified as the major radical reaction product when resveratrol was reacted with DPPH radicals.

  8. Consumer Acceptance of Bars and Gummies with Unencapsulated and Encapsulated Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Koga, Clarissa C; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine and peanuts, to food products would help to provide the health benefits associated with the compound to the consumer in a wide array of food matrices. The bitterness of resveratrol and instability of its bioactive form in light are 2 major challenges with the incorporation of the compound into food products. Microencapsulation in a sodium caseinate matrix was utilized as a strategy to overcome these challenges. The objective of this research was to show the application of the resveratrol microcapsules in easy-to-consume foods. Consumer acceptance was evaluated for gummies and bars with encapsulated resveratrol in comparison to the controls. Four different controls were used: 1) without any resveratrol OR protein (Plain), 2) unencapsulated resveratrol (Resv), 3) sodium caseinate and unencapsulated resveratrol just mixed without encapsulation (P + R), and 4) sodium caseinate only (PRO). Two concentrations of resveratrol that have been shown to offer therapeutic effects in humans were tested (10 and 40 mg/d). The overall liking, evaluated using a 9-point scale, of bars with 10 mg of encapsulated resveratrol did not differ significantly from the control without any added resveratrol and protein (Plain) or from the controls with equivalent protein and/or resveratrol concentrations. For gummies, the samples with the resveratrol microcapsules had a significantly lower overall liking than the controls with the same protein and/or resveratrol content. This research demonstrated application of resveratrol microcapsules into easy-to-consume food products in order to deliver the health benefits to the consumer.

  9. Consumer Acceptance of Bars and Gummies with Unencapsulated and Encapsulated Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Koga, Clarissa C; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine and peanuts, to food products would help to provide the health benefits associated with the compound to the consumer in a wide array of food matrices. The bitterness of resveratrol and instability of its bioactive form in light are 2 major challenges with the incorporation of the compound into food products. Microencapsulation in a sodium caseinate matrix was utilized as a strategy to overcome these challenges. The objective of this research was to show the application of the resveratrol microcapsules in easy-to-consume foods. Consumer acceptance was evaluated for gummies and bars with encapsulated resveratrol in comparison to the controls. Four different controls were used: 1) without any resveratrol OR protein (Plain), 2) unencapsulated resveratrol (Resv), 3) sodium caseinate and unencapsulated resveratrol just mixed without encapsulation (P + R), and 4) sodium caseinate only (PRO). Two concentrations of resveratrol that have been shown to offer therapeutic effects in humans were tested (10 and 40 mg/d). The overall liking, evaluated using a 9-point scale, of bars with 10 mg of encapsulated resveratrol did not differ significantly from the control without any added resveratrol and protein (Plain) or from the controls with equivalent protein and/or resveratrol concentrations. For gummies, the samples with the resveratrol microcapsules had a significantly lower overall liking than the controls with the same protein and/or resveratrol content. This research demonstrated application of resveratrol microcapsules into easy-to-consume food products in order to deliver the health benefits to the consumer. PMID:27003921

  10. The prosurvival role of autophagy in Resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity in human U251 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous study reported that resveratrol has anti-tumor activity. In this study, we investigated the involvement of autophagy in the resveratrol-induced apoptotic death of human U251 glioma cells. Methods The growth inhibition of U251 cells induced by resveratrol was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The activation of autophagy and proapoptotic effect were characterized by monodansylcadaverine labeling and Hoechst stain, respectively. Mitochondrialtransmembrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured as a function of drug treatment using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). The role of autophagy and apoptosis in the resveratrol-induced death of U251 cells was assessed using autophagic and caspase inhibitors. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were used to study the apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. Results Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays indicated that resveratrol decreased the viability of U251 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that resveratrol increased cell population at sub-G1 phase, an index of apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol-induced cell death was associated with a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed resveratrol-induced U251 cell death. Resveratrol stimulated autophagy was evidenced by punctuate monodansylcadaverine(MDC) staining and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) immunoreactivty. Resveratrol also increased protein levels of beclin 1 and membrane form LC3 (LC3-II). Autophagy inhibitors 3-methylademine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1 sensitized the cytotoxicity of resveratrol. Conclusion Together, these findings indicate that resveratrol induces autophagy in human U251 glioma cells and autophagy suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptosis. This study thus suggests that autophagy inhibitors can increase the cytotoxicity of resveratrol to

  11. Commentary on 'resveratrol commonly displays hormesis: occurrence and biomedical significance'.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David G

    2010-12-01

    Many phenolics found naturally in food have the capacity to show beneficial effects at low doses and toxicity at high doses in in vitro systems. Resveratrol is no exception. Nonetheless, in the nutritional context, the evidence that resveratrol shows hormetic effects is very limited and is of questionable relevance given its rapid metabolism in the stomach. Hormesis can only be confirmed if evidence for a J- or U-shaped dose-response relationship is found in in vivo doses that are relevant to human intakes.

  12. Resveratrol inhibits nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; Hijona, Elizabeth; Larzabal, Mikel; Beraza, Marta; Aldazabal, Pablo; García-Urkia, Nerea; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Cosme, Angel; Irastorza, Belen; González, Alberto; Arenas, Juan I

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is high. NAFLD is linked to obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia. Approximately 20% of patients with NAFLD will eventually develop cirrhosis. Our purpose was to investigate whether resveratrol decreased hepatic steatosis in an animal model of steatosis, and whether this therapeutic approach resulted in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Methods Male Wistar CRL: Wi (Han) (225 g) rats were randomized into three groups. A control group (n = 12) was given free access to regular dry rat chow for 4 weeks. The steatosis (n = 12) and resveratrol (n = 12) groups were given free access to feed (a high carbohydrate-fat free modified diet) and water 4 days per week, and fasted for the remaining 3 days for 4 weeks. Rats in the resveratrol group were given resveratrol 10 mg daily by the oral route. All rats were killed at 4 weeks and assessed for fatty infiltration and bacterial translocation. Levels of TNF-α in serum, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and nitric oxide synthase) and biochemical parameters were measured. Results Fat deposition was decreased in the resveratrol group as compared to the steatosis group (Grade 1 vs Grade 3, P < 0.05). TNF-α and MDA levels were significantly increased in the steatosis group (TNF-α; 33.4 ± 5.2 vs 26.24 ± 3.47 pg/ml and MDA; 9.08 ± 0.8 vs 3.17 ± 1.45 μM respectively, P < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and decreased nitric oxide synthase in the liver of resveratrol group significantly (P < 0.05 vs steatosis group). Bacterial translocation was not found in any of the groups. Glucose levels were decreased in the group of rats given resveratrol (P < 0.05). Conclusion Resveratrol decreased NAFLD severity in rats. This effect was mediated, at least

  13. Antibacterial nanocarriers of resveratrol with gold and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Cha, Song-Hyun; Cho, Inyoung; Park, Soomin; Park, Yohan; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation of resveratrol nanocarrier systems and the evaluation of their in vitro antibacterial activities. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for resveratrol nanocarrier systems were synthesized using green synthetic routes. During the synthesis steps, resveratrol was utilized as a reducing agent to chemically reduce gold and silver ions to AuNPs and AgNPs. This system provides green and eco-friendly synthesis routes that do not involve additional chemical reducing agents. Resveratrol nanocarriers with AuNPs (Res-AuNPs) and AgNPs (Res-AgNPs) were observed to be spherical and to exhibit characteristic surface plasmon resonance at 547 nm and at 412-417 nm, respectively. The mean size of the nanoparticles ranged from 8.32 to 21.84 nm, as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The face-centered cubic structure of the Res-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Fourier-transform infrared spectra indicated that the hydroxyl groups and C=C in the aromatic ring of resveratrol were involved in the reduction reaction. Res-AuNPs retained excellent colloidal stability during ultracentrifugation and re-dispersion, suggesting that resveratrol also played a role as a capping agent. Zeta potentials of Res-AuNPs and Res-AgNPs were in the range of -20.58 to -48.54 mV. Generally, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the Res-AuNPs and Res-AgNPs exhibited greater antibacterial activity compared to that of resveratrol alone. Among the tested strains, the highest antibacterial activity of the Res-AuNPs was observed against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate during the synthesis of Res-AgNPs slightly increased their antibacterial activity. These results suggest that the newly developed resveratrol nanocarrier systems with metallic nanoparticles show potential for application as nano-antibacterial agents with enhanced activities.

  14. Effects of individual polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) components of Halowax 1051 and two defined, artificial PCN mixtures on AHR and CYP1A1 protein expression, steroid secretion and expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP17, 17β-HSD and CYP19) in porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Barć, Justyna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2014-08-01

    In this study we tried to answer a question which component of Halowax 1051 is responsible for, observed in previously published study, androgenic effects of the mixture, and whether it is possible to draw conclusions about the action of mixtures by examining the effect of an indicator congener. Ovarian follicles were incubated with individual congeners of an artificial mixture for 6-24h. At the end of the incubation period, media were collected for determination of progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels by enzyme immunoassay, and follicles were retained for an examination of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), cytochrome p450 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP17, CYP19), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) protein expression by Western blotting. CN73 in dose 50pg/ml after 6h had no effect and decreased AHR expression after 24h, while at dose 400pg/ml increased AHR protein expression after 6h of exposure which remained elevated after 24h. CN74 and CN75 at both concentrations tested (25 and 50pg/ml) stimulated AHR protein expression after 6h and decreased it after 24h of exposure. Individual congeners induced a rapid increase in CYP1A1 protein expression, with a rank order of efficacy of CN73>CN74=CN75. All congeners increased P4/A4 and T/E2 secretion ratios in association with a decrease in the A4/T ratio, pointing to androgenic and anti-estrogenic properties of PCNs in ovarian follicles. The most potent congener in this context was CN73. The effects of mixtures were comparable to those of CN74 and CN75, and were not as strong as those observed for CN73. Collectively, these data suggest antagonistic actions of single congeners in a mixture, indicating that the actions of a mixture cannot be predicted based on the actions of individual congeners.

  15. A Mutant Ahr Allele Protects the Embryonic Kidney from Hydrocarbon-Induced Deficits in Fetal Programming

    PubMed Central

    Nanez, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of experimental model systems has expedited the elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms of renal developmental disease in humans and the identification of genes that orchestrate developmental programming during nephrogenesis. Objectives: We conducted studies to evaluate the role of AHR polymorphisms in the disruption of renal developmental programming by benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Methods: We used metanephric cultures of C57BL/6J (C57) mice expressing the Ahrb-1 allele and B6.D2N-Ahrd/J (D2N) mice expressing a mutant allele deficient in ligand binding (Ahrd) to investigate molecular mechanisms of renal development. Deficits in fetal programming were evaluated in the offspring of pregnant mice treated with BaP during nephrogenesis. Results: Hydrocarbon challenge of metanephri from C57 mice altered Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene (Wt1) mRNA splice variant ratios and reduced mRNAs of the Wt1 transcriptional targets syndecan-1 (Sdc1) paired box gene 2 (Pax2), epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr), and retinoic acid receptor, alpha (Rarα). These changes correlated with down-regulation of effectors of differentiation [secreted frizzled-related sequence protein 1 (Sfrp1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r), wingless-related MMTV-integration site 4 (Wnt4), Lim homeobox protein 1 (Lhx1), E-cadherin]. In contrast, metanephri from D2N mice were spared hydrocarbon-induced changes in Wt1 splice variant ratios and deficits of differentiation. We observed similar patterns of dysmorphogenesis and progressive loss of renal function at postnatal weeks 7 and 52 in the offspring of pregnant C57 but not D2N mice gavaged with 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg BaP on gestation days 10–13. Conclusions: These findings support a functional link between AHR and WT1 in the regulation of renal morphogenesis and raise important questions about the contribution of human AHR polymorphisms to the fetal origins of adult-onset kidney disease. PMID:21803694

  16. Dioxin induces Ahr-dependent robust DNA demethylation of the Cyp1a1 promoter via Tdg in the mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Amenya, Hesbon Z.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a highly conserved nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the manifestation of toxicity induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As a xenobiotic sensor, Ahr is involved in chemical biotransformation through activation of drug metabolizing enzymes. The activated Ahr cooperates with coactivator complexes to induce epigenetic modifications at target genes. Thus, it is conceivable that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent Ahr ligand, may elicit robust epigenetic changes in vivo at the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). A single dose of TCDD administered to adult mice induced Ahr-dependent CpG hypomethylation, changes in histone modifications, and thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg) recruitment at the Cyp1a1 promoter in the liver within 24 hrs. These epigenetic changes persisted until 40 days post-TCDD treatment and there was Cyp1a1 mRNA hyperinduction upon repeat administration of TCDD at this time-point. Our demethylation assay using siRNA knockdown and an in vitro methylated plasmid showed that Ahr, Tdg, and the ten-eleven translocation methyldioxygenases Tet2 and Tet3 are required for the TCDD-induced DNA demethylation. These results provide novel evidence of Ahr-driven active DNA demethylation and epigenetic memory. The epigenetic alterations influence response to subsequent chemical exposure and imply an adaptive mechanism to xenobiotic stress. PMID:27713569

  17. Dioxin induces Ahr-dependent robust DNA demethylation of the Cyp1a1 promoter via Tdg in the mouse liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenya, Hesbon Z.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2016-10-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a highly conserved nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the manifestation of toxicity induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As a xenobiotic sensor, Ahr is involved in chemical biotransformation through activation of drug metabolizing enzymes. The activated Ahr cooperates with coactivator complexes to induce epigenetic modifications at target genes. Thus, it is conceivable that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent Ahr ligand, may elicit robust epigenetic changes in vivo at the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). A single dose of TCDD administered to adult mice induced Ahr-dependent CpG hypomethylation, changes in histone modifications, and thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg) recruitment at the Cyp1a1 promoter in the liver within 24 hrs. These epigenetic changes persisted until 40 days post-TCDD treatment and there was Cyp1a1 mRNA hyperinduction upon repeat administration of TCDD at this time-point. Our demethylation assay using siRNA knockdown and an in vitro methylated plasmid showed that Ahr, Tdg, and the ten-eleven translocation methyldioxygenases Tet2 and Tet3 are required for the TCDD-induced DNA demethylation. These results provide novel evidence of Ahr-driven active DNA demethylation and epigenetic memory. The epigenetic alterations influence response to subsequent chemical exposure and imply an adaptive mechanism to xenobiotic stress.

  18. The Phytoalexin Resveratrol Regulates the Initiation of Hypersensitive Cell Death in Vitis Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoli; Heene, Ernst; Qiao, Fei; Nick, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR), while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy) transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5) transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death. PMID:22053190

  19. Resveratrol as a Potential Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment and Management of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Braidy, Nady; Jugder, Bat-Erdene; Poljak, Anne; Jayasena, Tharusha; Mansour, Hussein; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sachdev, Perminder; Grant, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring phytochemical present in red wine, grapes, berries, chocolate and peanuts. Clinically, resveratrol has exhibited significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. Although resveratrol was first isolated in 1940, it was not until the last decade that it was recognised for its potential therapeutic role in reducing the risk of neurodegeneration, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. AD is the primary cause of progressive dementia. Resveratrol has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo models of AD. Apart from its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles, evidence suggests that resveratrol also facilitates non-amyloidogenic breakdown of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and promotes removal of neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, a critical step in preventing and slowing down AD pathology. Resveratrol also reduces damage to neuronal cells via a variety of additional mechanisms, most notably is the activation of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases enzymes, termed sirtuins. However in spite of the considerable advances in clarifying the mechanism of action of resveratrol, it is unlikely to be effective as monotherapy in AD due to its poor bioavailability, biotransformation, and requisite synergism with other dietary factors. This review summarizes the relevance of resveratrol in the pathophysiology of AD. It also highlights why resveratrol alone may not be an effective single therapy, and how resveratrol coupled to other compounds might yet prove an effective therapy with multiple targets. PMID:26845555

  20. What Is New for an Old Molecule? Systematic Review and Recommendations on the Use of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Ole; Ahmad, Nihal; Baile, Clifton A.; Baur, Joseph A.; Brown, Karen; Csiszar, Anna; Das, Dipak K.; Delmas, Dominique; Gottfried, Carmem; Lin, Hung-Yun; Ma, Qing-Yong; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Nalini, Namasivayam; Pezzuto, John M.; Richard, Tristan; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Surh, Young-Joon; Szekeres, Thomas; Szkudelski, Tomasz; Walle, Thomas; Wu, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is a natural compound suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, people are consuming resveratrol for this reason without having the adequate scientific evidence for its effects in humans. Therefore, scientific valid recommendations concerning the human intake of resveratrol based on available published scientific data are necessary. Such recommendations were formulated after the Resveratrol 2010 conference, held in September 2010 in Helsingør, Denmark. Methodology Literature search in databases as PubMed and ISI Web of Science in combination with manual search was used to answer the following five questions: 1Can resveratrol be recommended in the prevention or treatment of human diseases?; 2Are there observed “side effects” caused by the intake of resveratrol in humans?; 3What is the relevant dose of resveratrol?; 4What valid data are available regarding an effect in various species of experimental animals?; 5Which relevant (overall) mechanisms of action of resveratrol have been documented? Conclusions/Significance The overall conclusion is that the published evidence is not sufficiently strong to justify a recommendation for the administration of resveratrol to humans, beyond the dose which can be obtained from dietary sources. On the other hand, animal data are promising in prevention of various cancer types, coronary heart diseases and diabetes which strongly indicate the need for human clinical trials. Finally, we suggest directions for future research in resveratrol regarding its mechanism of action and its safety and toxicology in human subjects. PMID:21698226

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of a triple-bond resveratrol analog: structure and function relationship.

    PubMed

    Antus, Csenge; Radnai, Balazs; Dombovari, Peter; Fonai, Fruzsina; Avar, Peter; Matyus, Peter; Racz, Boglarka; Sumegi, Balazs; Veres, Balazs

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, showing well-characterized anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. In order to exceed resveratrol׳s biological effects and to reveal the structural determinants of the molecule׳s activity, numerous derivatives were synthesized recently. Most of these resveratrol analogs vary from the original molecule in the number, position or identity of the phenolic functional groups. Investigation of the analogs provided important data regarding structure-activity relationship of the molecule. With the exception of cis- and trans-resveratrol and the reduced form dihydroresveratrol, little is known about the molecular effects of the stilbene backbone. In the present study we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of a new, triple-bond resveratrol analog, 3,4',5-trihydroxy-diphenylacetylene (TDPA) on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW macrophages. We found that the analog had weaker antioxidant activity and stronger inhibitory effect on nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and on cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 production. It also prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. In contrast to resveratrol, TDPA increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases. In summary, we identified a novel compound with better anti-inflammatory properties than resveratrol. Our results contributed to a better understanding of the structural determinants of resveratrol׳s biological activities. PMID:25528327

  2. Improved calibration of IMU biases in analytic coarse alignment for AHRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Li, Baoguo; Wen, Ting

    2016-07-01

    An improved method for the inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration of coarse alignment for the low-accuracy attitude heading reference system (AHRS) is proposed in this paper. The sensitivities of the Euler angles with respect to the inertial sensor biases are studied based on the analytic coarse alignment principle, and the errors of earth rotation rate and local gravity in the body frame caused by initial attitude error are analyzed. Then, an improved analytic coarse alignment algorithm with accelerometer and gyro bias calibration in an arbitrary three-position is proposed. Simulation and experiment results show that the novel method can calibrate accelerometer and gyro biases, reduce Euler angle attitude error, and improve navigation precision in practical applications. Moreover, this method can be applied to other low-accuracy inertial navigation systems.

  3. The effect of resveratrol on pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yun-Yun; Liang, Bing-Qing; Li, Xiang-Yu; Gu, Er-Min; Dai, Da-Peng; Cai, Jian-Ping; Hu, Guo-Xin

    2016-01-01

    1. The objective of this study were to investigate the effect of orally administered resveratrol on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole (APZ) in rat, and the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on APZ dehydrogenation activity in liver microsomes and human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2D6. 2. Twenty-five healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: A (control group), B (multiple dose of 200 mg/kg resveratrol), C (multiple dose of 100 mg/kg resveratrol), D (a single dose of 200 mg/kg resveratrol) and E (a single dose of 100 mg/kg resveratrol). A single dose of 3 mg/kg APZ administered orally 30 min after administration of resveratrol. In addition, CYP2D6*1, CYP3A4*1, human and rat liver microsomes were performed to determine the effect of resveratrol on the metabolism of APZ in vitro. 3. The multiple dose of 200 or 100 mg/kg resveratrol significantly increased the AUC and Cmax of APZ. The resveratrol also obviously decreased the CL, but without any significant difference on t1/2 in vivo. On the other hand, resveratrol showed inhibitory effect on CYP3A4*1, CYP2D6*1, human and rat microsomes, the IC50 of resveratrol was 6.771, 87.87, 45.11 and 35.59 μmol l(-1), respectively. 4. Those results indicated more attention should be paid when APZ was administrated combined with resveratrol. PMID:26391142

  4. The 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is functionally important for direct activation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Yoshie; Nakata, Rieko; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kubodera, Hideo; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a reduced risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Therefore, resveratrol, a constituent of grapes and various other plants, has attracted substantial interest. This study focused on one molecular target of resveratrol, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Our previous study in mice showed that resveratrol-mediated protection of the brain against stroke requires activation of PPARα; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the chemical basis of the resveratrol-mediated activation of PPARα by performing a docking mode simulation and examining the structure-activity relationships of various polyphenols. The results of experiments using the crystal structure of the PPARα ligand-binding domain and an analysis of the activation of PPARα by a resveratrol analog 4-phenylazophenol (4-PAP) in vivo indicate that the 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is critical for the direct activation of PPARα. Activation of PPARα by 5 μM resveratrol was enhanced by rolipram, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. We also found that resveratrol has a higher PDE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19 μM) than resveratrol analogs trans-4-hydroxystilbene and 4-PAP (IC50 = 27-28 μM), both of which has only 4'-hydroxyl group, indicating that this 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is not sufficient for the inhibition of PDE. This result is consistent with that 10 μM resveratrol has a higher agonistic activity of PPARα than these analogs, suggesting that there is a feedforward activation loop of PPARα by resveratrol, which may be involved in the long-term effects of resveratrol in vivo. PMID:25798826

  5. Resveratrol inhibits LXRα-dependent hepatic lipogenesis through novel antioxidant Sestrin2 gene induction

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, So Hee; Yang, Ji Hye; Shin, Bo Yeon; Seo, Kyuhwa; Shin, Sang Mi; Cho, Il Je; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2013-08-15

    Liver X receptor-α (LXRα), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, regulates de novo fatty acid synthesis that leads to stimulate hepatic steatosis. Although, resveratrol has beneficial effects on metabolic disease, it is not known whether resveratrol affects LXRα-dependent lipogenic gene expression. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol in LXRα-mediated lipogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanism. Resveratrol inhibited the ability of LXRα to activate sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and thereby inhibited target gene expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, resveratrol decreased LXRα–RXRα DNA binding activity and LXRE-luciferase transactivation. Resveratrol is known to activate Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), although its precise mechanism of action remains controversial. We found that the ability of resveratrol to repress T0901317-induced SREBP-1c expression was not dependent on AMPK and Sirt1. It is well established that hepatic steatosis is associated with antioxidant and redox signaling. Our data showing that expression of Sestrin2 (Sesn2), which is a novel antioxidant gene, was significantly down-regulated in the livers of high-fat diet-fed mice. Moreover, resveratrol up-regulated Sesn2 expression, but not Sesn1 and Sesn3. Sesn2 overexpression repressed LXRα-activated SREBP-1c expression and LXRE-luciferase activity. Finally, Sesn2 knockdown using siRNA abolished the effect of resveratrol in LXRα-induced FAS luciferase gene transactivation. We conclude that resveratrol affects Sesn2 gene induction and contributes to the inhibition of LXRα-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of resveratrol in LXRα-mediated lipogenesis. • Resveratrol attenuated the ability of the LXRα-mediated lipogenic gene expression. • Resveratrol’s effects on T090-induced lipogenesis is not dependent on Sirt1 or AMPK.

  6. Role of SIRT1 and FOXO factors in eNOS transcriptional activation by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Strand, Susanne; Schlufter, Frank; Siuda, Daniel; Reifenberg, Gisela; Kleinert, Hartmut; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2013-08-01

    Many of the cardiovascular protective effects of resveratrol are attributable to an enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Resveratrol has been shown to enhance eNOS gene expression as well as eNOS enzymatic activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of eNOS transcriptional activation by resveratrol. Treatment of human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells with resveratrol led to a concentration-dependent upregulation of eNOS expression. In luciferase reporter gene assay, resveratrol enhanced the activity of human eNOS promoter fragments (3500, 1600, 633 and 263bp in length, respectively), indicating that the proximal promoter region is required for resveratrol-induced eNOS transcriptional activation. Knockdown of the NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) by siRNA prevented the upregulation of eNOS mRNA and protein by resveratrol. Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are established downstream targets of SIRT1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of FOXO1 and FOXO3a abolished the effect of resveratrol on eNOS expression, indicating the involvement of these factors. Resveratrol treatment enhanced the expression of FOXO1 and FOXO3a in EA.hy 926 cells. Reporter gene assay using promoter containing forkhead response elements showed increased FOXO factor activity by resveratrol. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the enhanced binding of nuclear proteins to the eNOS promoter regions by resveratrol could be blocked by antibodies against FOXO1 and FOXO3a. In conclusion, resveratrol enhances the expression and activity of FOXO transcription factors. The SIRT1/FOXO factor axis is involved in resveratrol-induced eNOS transcriptional activation.

  7. Access Path to the Ligand Binding Pocket May Play a Role in Xenobiotics Selection by AhR

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Erdei, Áron; Gyimesi, Gergely; Magyar, Csaba; Hegedűs, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of multidrug binding at the atomic level would facilitate drug design and strategies to modulate drug metabolism, including drug transport, oxidation, and conjugation. Therefore we explored the mechanism of promiscuous binding of small molecules by studying the ligand binding domain, the PAS-B domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because of the low sequence identities of PAS domains to be used for homology modeling, structural features of the widely employed HIF-2α and a more recent suitable template, CLOCK were compared. These structures were used to build AhR PAS-B homology models. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to characterize dynamic properties of the PAS-B domain and the generated conformational ensembles were employed in in silico docking. In order to understand structural and ligand binding features we compared the stability and dynamics of the promiscuous AhR PAS-B to other PAS domains exhibiting specific interactions or no ligand binding function. Our exhaustive in silico binding studies, in which we dock a wide spectrum of ligand molecules to the conformational ensembles, suggest that ligand specificity and selection may be determined not only by the PAS-B domain itself, but also by other parts of AhR and its protein interacting partners. We propose that ligand binding pocket and access channels leading to the pocket play equally important roles in discrimination of endogenous molecules and xenobiotics. PMID:26727491

  8. Resveratrol and aspirin eliminate tetraploid cells for anticancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Lissa, Delphine; Senovilla, Laura; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Vitale, Ilio; Michaud, Mickaël; Pietrocola, Federico; Boilève, Alice; Obrist, Florine; Bordenave, Chloé; Garcia, Pauline; Michels, Judith; Jemaà, Mohamed; Kepp, Oliver; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-02-25

    Tetraploidy constitutes a genomically metastable state that can lead to aneuploidy and genomic instability. Tetraploid cells are frequently found in preneoplastic lesions, including intestinal cancers arising due to the inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Using a phenotypic screen, we identified resveratrol as an agent that selectively reduces the fitness of tetraploid cells by slowing down their cell cycle progression and by stimulating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Selective killing of tetraploid cells was observed for a series of additional agents that indirectly or directly stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) including salicylate, whose chemopreventive action has been established by epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Both resveratrol and salicylate reduced the formation of tetraploid or higher-order polyploid cells resulting from the culture of human colon carcinoma cell lines or primary mouse epithelial cells lacking tumor protein p53 (TP53, best known as p53) in the presence of antimitotic agents, as determined by cytofluorometric and videomicroscopic assays. Moreover, oral treatment with either resveratrol or aspirin, the prodrug of salicylate, repressed the accumulation of tetraploid intestinal epithelial cells in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colon cancer. Collectively, our results suggest that the chemopreventive action of resveratrol and aspirin involves the elimination of tetraploid cancer cell precursors. PMID:24516128

  9. Chain elongation analog of resveratrol as potent cancer chemoprevention agent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Hai-Xia; Xin, Long-Zuo; Ge, Li-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is identified as a natural cancer chemoprevention agent. There has been a lot of interest in designing and developing resveratrol analogs with cancer chemoprevention activity superior to that of parent molecule and exploring their action mechanism in the past several decades. In this study, we have synthesized resveratrol analogs of compounds A-C via conjugated chain elongation based on isoprene unit retention strategy. Remarkably, cytotoxic activity analysis results indicated that compound B possesses the best proliferation inhibition activity for NCI-H460 cells in all the test compounds. Intriguingly, compound B displayed a higher cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460) compared to normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). Afterward, flow cytometry analysis showed that compound B would induce cell apoptosis. We further researched the action mechanism. When NCI-H460 cells were incubated by compound B for 6 or 9 h, respectively, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was enhanced obviously. With elevation of intracellular ROS level, flow cytometry measurement verified mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, which was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. More interestingly, compound B increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, compound B arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. These are all to provide useful information for designing resveratrol-based chemoprevention agent and understanding the action mechanism. PMID:27160168

  10. Resveratrol Photoisomerization: An Integrative Guided-Inquiry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernanrd, Elyse; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; Gernigon, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    The recently introduced integrative guided-inquiry experiment explains various fundamental chemical concepts related to different biologically relevant molecules like resveratrol. The results of the photoisomerization of the molecule show that it is a very effective chemopreventative agent that can extend the lifespan in several organisms.

  11. Resveratrol tetramer of hopeaphenol isolated from Shorea johorensis (Dipterocarpaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisha, Farra; Din, Laily B.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2014-09-01

    Hopeaphenol (1) as a resveratrol tetramer was isolated from the bark of Shorea johorensis collected from Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Malaysia. The structure of this compound was determined by the spectroscopic evidences using 1H- and 13C-NMR assigned with HSQC, HMBC, 1H-1H COSY and 1H-1H NOESY spectra, mass spectrum, and by comparison with reported data.

  12. Resveratrol and cardiovascular health--promising therapeutic or hopeless illusion?

    PubMed

    Tang, Philip Chiu-Tsun; Ng, Yam-Fung; Ho, Susan; Gyda, Michael; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in Polygonum cuspidatum, grapes, peanuts and berries, as well as their manufactured products, especially red wine. Resveratrol is a pharmacologically active compound that interacts with multiple targets in a variety of cardiovascular disease models to exert protective effects or induce a reduction in cardiovascular risks parameters. This review attempts to primarily serve to summarize the current research findings regarding the putative cardioprotective effects of resveratrol and the molecular pathways underlying these effects. One intent is to hopefully provide a relatively comprehensive resource for clues that may prompt ideas for additional mechanistic studies which might further elucidate and strengthen the role of the stilbene family of compounds in cardiovascular disease and cardioprotection. Model systems that incorporate a significant functional association with tissues outside of the cardiovascular system proper, such as adipose (cell culture, obesity models) and pancreatic (diabetes) tissues, were reviewed, and the molecular pathways and/or targets related to these models and influenced by resveratrol are discussed. Because the body of work encompassing the stilbenes and other phytochemicals in the context of longevity and the ability to presumably mitigate a plethora of afflictions is replete with conflicting information and controversy, especially so with respect to the human response, we tried to remain as neutral as possible in compiling and presenting the more current data with minimal commentary, permitting the reader free reign to extract the knowledge most helpful to their own investigations. PMID:25151891

  13. Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits.

    PubMed

    Shrikanta, Akshatha; Kumar, Anbarasu; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits such as Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Mulberry (Morus rubra) were investigated keeping Grape (Vitis vinifera) as a reference. Ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) extracts of different parts of fruit samples including skin, pulp and seeds were analyzed by HPLC and MS for the quantification of resveratrol. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Among the samples analyzed, mulberry fruit (whole) showed highest resveratrol content (50.61 μg g(-1) dry weight) followed by jamun seed (34.87 μg g(-1) dry weight), jamun pulp (13.70 μg g(-1) dry weight) and skin of jamun (11.19 μg g(-1) dry weight). Jamun seed extract exhibited the highest polyphenol content (55.54 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight) and highest antioxidant property (IC50 value-0.40 mg ml(-1)). The results suggest that underutilized fruits high in resveratrol and other polyphenols can be used as functional beverages. PMID:25593373

  14. Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits.

    PubMed

    Shrikanta, Akshatha; Kumar, Anbarasu; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits such as Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Mulberry (Morus rubra) were investigated keeping Grape (Vitis vinifera) as a reference. Ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) extracts of different parts of fruit samples including skin, pulp and seeds were analyzed by HPLC and MS for the quantification of resveratrol. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Among the samples analyzed, mulberry fruit (whole) showed highest resveratrol content (50.61 μg g(-1) dry weight) followed by jamun seed (34.87 μg g(-1) dry weight), jamun pulp (13.70 μg g(-1) dry weight) and skin of jamun (11.19 μg g(-1) dry weight). Jamun seed extract exhibited the highest polyphenol content (55.54 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight) and highest antioxidant property (IC50 value-0.40 mg ml(-1)). The results suggest that underutilized fruits high in resveratrol and other polyphenols can be used as functional beverages.

  15. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Spink, Barbara C.; Bloom, Michael S.; Wu, Susan; Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus; Ding, Xinxin; Spink, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  16. Resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and resveratrol-4’-O-glucuronide reduce DNA strand breakage but not apoptosis in Jurkat T cells treated with camptothecin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit or induce DNA damage depending upon the type of cell and experimental conditions. Dietary resveratrol is present in the body mostly as metabolites and little is known about the activities of these metabolic products. We evaluated physiologically obtainable ...

  17. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb. PMID:27008165

  18. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Spink, Barbara C; Bloom, Michael S; Wu, Susan; Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus; Ding, Xinxin; Spink, David C

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC)n, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC)2 alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC)n alleles with n=2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC)n was n=4>5≫2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC)n alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC)2 was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC)n short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC)2 allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility.

  19. Cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in view of bile acid pathway of resveratrol and resveratrol-glucuronides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol (Res) was previously reported to be capable of lowering plasma TC and LDL-C. The mechanism behind Res is not clearly understood, although it is presumed to have an effect on bile acid metabolism in the liver: a significant way in eliminating cholesterol from the body. As one of the major...

  20. The Scavenging of DPPH, Galvinoxyl and ABTS Radicals by Imine Analogs of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Kotora, Peter; Šeršeň, František; Filo, Juraj; Loos, Dušan; Gregáň, Juraj; Gregáň, Fridrich

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin produced by plants. Resveratrol is known for its anti-cancer, antiviral and antioxidant properties. We prepared imine analogs of resveratrol ((hydroxyphenyliminomethyl)phenols) and tested their antioxidant activity. All prepared resveratrol analogs were able to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), galvinoxyl radical (GOR) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The antioxidant activity efficiency correlated with the number and position of hydroxyl groups. The most effective antioxidants were resveratrol analogs containing three hydroxyl groups in the benzylidene part of their molecules. These results provide new insights into the relationship between the chemical structure and biological activity of resveratrol analogs. PMID:26805801

  1. The physiological effects of resveratrol and its potential application in high altitude medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-li; Nie, Hong-jing; Li, Pei-bing; Deng, Bing-nan; Duan, Rui-feng; Jin, Hong; Chen, Zhao-li

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol, as a natural polyphenolic compound, has a wide range of beneficial effects, which includes anti-tumor, cardiovascular protection, anti-oxidant and estrogen-like effects, and so on. Its various physiological properties are closely related to the therapeutic principle for prevention and treatment of high altitude hypoxia injury. Resveratrol may play an important role in relieving or curing high altitude diseases, especially high altitude polycythemia(HAPC). However, the literature about study and application of resveratrol in plateau medicine field is rarely reported up to now. In this review, we summarized the physiological effects of resveratrol, discussed the possible main principle of resveratrol for HAPC therapy, and looked forward to resveratrol's perspective or potential application in high altitude medicine.

  2. Resveratrol and piceid metabolites and their fat-reduction effects in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Pardal, David; Caro, Mercedes; Tueros, Itziar; Barranco, Alejandro; Navarro, Virginia

    2014-02-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in many plants, has been reported to have antiobesogenic effects in several animal and in vitro models. Zebrafish present several technical advantages that place them at an interesting, halfway point between in vitro and rodent models. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the metabolization of resveratrol and its glucoside (piceid) in zebrafish and their ability to induce the consumption of fat reserve in zebrafish larvae. Resveratrol and piceid were both able to reduce yolk sac fat content depending on the dose tested. Furthermore, resveratrol showed a potent and rapid action, whereas piceid needed more time and higher doses to be as effective as resveratrol. In accordance with other animal models and humans, the principal metabolites found in zebrafish larvae were monoglucoronide and monosulfate forms of resveratrol. In conclusion, zebrafish are a potentially excellent animal model for polyphenol research as they present several advantageous characteristics for efficacy screening and metabolomic studies before rodents.

  3. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb via Ca2+/calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and AMP kinase (AMPK) and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM) increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (p<0.03). The NOS inhibitor L-NAME blunted resveratrol-stimulated NO bioavailability by 96±11% (p<0.03). The superoxide scavenger tempol had no effect. Resveratrol elevated Cai from 48±7 to 135±24 nM (p<0.01) in single tubules. In Ca2+-free media, the resveratrol-induced increase in NO was blunted by 60±20% (p<0.05) and the rise in Cai reduced by 80%. Calmodulin inhibition prevented the resveratrol-induced increase in NO (p<0.002). AMPK inhibition had no effect. Resveratrol did not increase SIRT1 activity. We conclude that resveratrol increases NO production in thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects.

  4. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb via Ca2+/calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and AMP kinase (AMPK) and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM) increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (p<0.03). The NOS inhibitor L-NAME blunted resveratrol-stimulated NO bioavailability by 96±11% (p<0.03). The superoxide scavenger tempol had no effect. Resveratrol elevated Cai from 48±7 to 135±24 nM (p<0.01) in single tubules. In Ca2+-free media, the resveratrol-induced increase in NO was blunted by 60±20% (p<0.05) and the rise in Cai reduced by 80%. Calmodulin inhibition prevented the resveratrol-induced increase in NO (p<0.002). AMPK inhibition had no effect. Resveratrol did not increase SIRT1 activity. We conclude that resveratrol increases NO production in thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects. PMID:25314136

  5. Genome Editing of the CYP1A1 Locus in iPSCs as a Platform to Map AHR Expression throughout Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brenden W.; Stanford, Elizabeth A.; Sherr, David H.; Murphy, George J.

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand activated transcription factor that increases the expression of detoxifying enzymes upon ligand stimulation. Recent studies now suggest that novel endogenous roles of the AHR exist throughout development. In an effort to create an optimized model system for the study of AHR signaling in several cellular lineages, we have employed a CRISPR/CAS9 genome editing strategy in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to incorporate a reporter cassette at the transcription start site of one of its canonical targets, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). This cell line faithfully reports on CYP1A1 expression, with luciferase levels as its functional readout, when treated with an endogenous AHR ligand (FICZ) at escalating doses. iPSC-derived fibroblast-like cells respond to acute exposure to environmental and endogenous AHR ligands, and iPSC-derived hepatocytes increase CYP1A1 in a similar manner to primary hepatocytes. This cell line is an important innovation that can be used to map AHR activity in discrete cellular subsets throughout developmental ontogeny. As further endogenous ligands are proposed, this line can be used to screen for safety and efficacy and can report on the ability of small molecules to regulate critical cellular processes by modulating the activity of the AHR. PMID:27148368

  6. Suppressive Effects of Resveratrol Treatment on The Intrinsic Evoked Excitability of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meftahi, Gholamhossein; Ghotbedin, Zohreh; Eslamizade, Mohammad Javad; Hosseinmardi, Narges; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has a wide range of desirable biological actions. Despite a growing body of evidence indicating that resveratrol induces changes in neu- ronal function, little effort, if any, has been made to investigate the cellular effect of res- veratrol treatment on intrinsic neuronal properties. Materials and Methods This experimental study was performed to examine the acute effects of resveratrol (100 µM) on the intrinsic evoked responses of rat Cornu Ammonis (CA1) pyramidal neurons in brain slices, using whole cell patch clamp re- cording under current clamp conditions. Results Findings showed that resveratrol treatment caused dramatic changes in evoked responses of pyramidal neurons. Its treatment induced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the after hyperpolarization amplitude of the first evoked action potential. Resveratrol-treated cells displayed a significantly broader action potential (AP) when compared with either control or vehicle-treated groups. In addition, the mean instantaneous firing frequency between the first two action potentials was significantly lower in resveratrol-treated neurons. It also caused a significant reduction in the time to maximum decay of AP. The rheobase current and the utilization time were both significantly greater following resveratrol treatment. Neurons exhibited a significantly depolarized voltage threshold when exposed to resveratrol. Conclusion Results provide direct electrophysiological evidence for the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on pyramidal neurons, at least in part, by reducing the evoked neural activity. PMID:26464825

  7. Constitutive IDO expression in human cancer is sustained by an autocrine signaling loop involving IL-6, STAT3 and the AHR.

    PubMed

    Litzenburger, Ulrike M; Opitz, Christiane A; Sahm, Felix; Rauschenbach, Katharina J; Trump, Saskia; Winter, Marcus; Ott, Martina; Ochs, Katharina; Lutz, Christian; Liu, Xiangdong; Anastasov, Natasa; Lehmann, Irina; Höfer, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael

    2014-02-28

    Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their ability to restore anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies. However, the mechanisms leading to constitutive expression of IDO in human tumors are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the pathways mediating constitutive IDO expression in human cancer. IDO-positive tumor cells and tissues showed basal phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT3 as evidenced by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Inhibition of IL-6 or STAT3 using siRNA and/or pharmacological inhibitors reduced IDO mRNA and protein expression as well as kynurenine formation. In turn, IDO enzymatic activity activated the AHR as shown by the induction of AHR target genes. IDO-mediated AHR activation induced IL-6 expression, while inhibition or knockdown of the AHR reduced IL-6 expression. IDO activity thus sustains its own expression via an autocrine AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop. Inhibition of the AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop restored T-cell proliferation in mixed leukocyte reactions performed in the presence of IDO-expressing human cancer cells. Identification of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop maintaining IDO expression in human cancers reveals novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of this core pathway promoting immunosuppression of human cancers. The relevance of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 transcriptional circuit is underscored by the finding that high expression of its members IDO, STAT3 and the AHR target gene CYP1B1 is associated with reduced relapse-free survival in lung cancer patients.

  8. Molecular characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposure to TCDD: the mRNA and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Chang, Ziwei; Bae, Min-Ji; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Park, Jang-Su

    2013-08-01

    In bony fish or other aquatic vertebrates, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway is initiated by exposure to polycyclic (or/and halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD), which subsequently induces the up-regulated expression of a series of related genes (such as cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)). However, a lack of applicable protein reagents hinders our further understanding of the AhR signaling pathway, which focuses only on gene-based investigations. The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is an ideal model for a study of environmental pollution in whole-Asian fresh water. Here, three sensitive and specific polyclonal antisera against goldfish AhR1, AhR2, and CYP1A proteins were developed. These antisera not only bound the in-vitro synthesized target proteins, but recognized the real proteins expressed in goldfish tissues, with minimal cross-reactivity to non-specific proteins. Together with the analysis of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and polyclonal-antibody-based sandwich ELISA, we confirmed that goldfish AhRs differed in the expression (mRNA and protein levels) patterns among test tissues. Importantly, the relative abundance of each AhR mRNA levels from the different tissues showed no obvious consistency with their protein levels. After exposure to TCDD, goldfish AhR2 showed a more sensitivity than AhR1, and stimulated CYP1A expression directly, similar with the other reported fish models. Overall, development of these antibodies in this study will allow valuable and versatile investigations to further understand the AhR signaling pathway, and different expression (mRNA and protein) patterns represent the first step in determining the regulatory mechanisms underlying the TCDD-exposed aquatic environment.

  9. Resveratrol-Mediated Repression and Reversion of Prostatic Myofibroblast Phenoconversion

    PubMed Central

    Gharaee-Kermani, Mehrnaz; Moore, Bethany B.; Macoska, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in berries, peanuts, grapes, and red wine, inhibits oxidation, inflammation, and cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in multiple cell types and or animal models. It represses collagen deposition in the vasculature, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and esophagus in animal models and may have some utility as an anti-fibrotic. Recent studies have shown that increased collagen deposition and tissue stiffness in the peri-urethral area of the prostate are associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and urinary obstructive symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether Resveratrol might be useful to inhibit or revert TGFβ- and/or CXCL12-mediated myofibroblast phenoconversion of prostate fibroblasts in vitro, and therefore whether the use of anti-fibrotic therapeutics might be efficacious for the treatment of LUTD. Methods Primary prostate and lung tissues were explanted and fibroblast monolayers expanded in vitro. Primary and N1 immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts, as well as primary fibroblasts cultured from a normal lung and one affected by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for comparison, were grown in serum–free defined media supplemented with vehicle, TGFβ or CXCL12, pre- or post-treatment with Resveratrol, and were evaluated using immunofluorescence for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and collagen I (COL1) protein expression and assessed for cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COL1 and EGR1 transcript expression. Results This study showed that low concentrations of Resveratrol (≤50 μM) had no effect on N1 or primary prostate fibroblast cell proliferation, apoptosis, or COL1 or EGR1 gene transcription but repressed and reversed myofibroblast phenoconversion. As expected, these same effects were observed for IPF lung fibroblasts though higher levels of Resveratrol (≥100uM) were required. Taken together, these data suggest that, like lung fibroblasts, prostate fibroblast to

  10. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L.; Xu, C. Wilson

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  11. DNA damage is a late event in resveratrol-mediated inhibition of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Mahesh; Soundar, Swetha; Mangoli, Suhas

    2016-07-01

    Resveratrol is an important phytoalexin notable for a wide variety of beneficial activities. Resveratrol has been reported to be active against various pathogenic bacteria. However, it is not clear at the molecular level how this important activity is manifested. Resveratrol has been reported to bind to cupric ions and reduce it. In the process, it generates copper-peroxide complex and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Due to this ability, resveratrol has been shown to cleave plasmid DNA in several studies. To this end, we envisaged DNA damage to play a role in resveratrol mediated inhibition in Escherichia coli. We employed DNA damage repair deficient mutants from keio collection to demonstrate the hypersensitive phenotype upon resveratrol treatment. Analysis of integrity and PCR efficiency of plasmid DNA from resveratrol-treated cells revealed significant DNA damage after 6 h or more compared to DNA from vehicle-treated cells. RAPD-PCR was performed to demonstrate the damage in genomic DNA from resveratrol-treated cells. In addition, in situ DNA damage was observed under fluorescence microscopy after resveratrol treatment. Further resveratrol treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest of significant fraction of population revealed by flow cytometry. However, a robust induction was not observed in phage induction assay and induction of DNA damage response genes quantified by promoter fused fluorescent tracker protein. These observations along with our previous observation that resveratrol induces membrane damage in E. coli at early time point reveal, DNA damage is a late event, occurring after a few hours of treatment. PMID:27021971

  12. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi

    2014-10-15

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction. - Highlights: • Resveratrol decreased methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. • Resveratrol attenuated GSH depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. • Resveratrol restored the mitochondrial function by Sestrin2 induction. • Induction of Sestrin2

  13. Interferences of resveratrol with fura-2-derived fluorescence in intracellular free-Ca(2+) concentration determinations.

    PubMed

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is an antioxidant widely employed in cell physiology studies. It has been reported that it interferes with fura-2-derived fluorescence, making the employment of this dye nonviable. In this work, the interference of resveratrol with fura-2 determinations of intracellular free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) was examined. Solutions containing different concentrations of resveratrol, with or without fura-2, in the presence or in the absence of Ca(2+), were analyzed by spectrofluorimetry. AR42J tumor cells were employed to study the influence of resveratrol on fura-2 fluorescence in living cells, by single cell fluorimetry. Resveratrol impaired the detection of fura-2-fluorescence emission (510 nm) at the 340, 360 and 380 nm excitation wavelengths. Resveratrol emitted fluorescence at 510 nm when lighted at all three excitation wavelengths. In addition, resveratrol emitted fluorescence at 380 nm when excited at 340 nm. Our observations suggest that the employment of the ratiometric properties of fura-2 to follow changes in [Ca(2+)]c in the presence of resveratrol is not viable. However, we think that the 380 nm excitation light could be employed. Results could be expressed as F0/F380, where F0 is the resting fluorescence and F380 is the value of fluoresce at a certain time point. We could follow changes in [Ca(2+)]c evoked by CCK-8, and we also detected Ca(2+) mobilization by 100 µM resveratrol in AR42J cells. This investigation presents evidence demonstrating that resveratrol interferes with fura-2 fluorescence spectra. Nevertheless, a chance still exists if the 380 nm excitation wavelength is employed in the middle or low micromolar concentrations of resveratrol.

  14. Synergistic anticancer effects of curcumin and resveratrol in Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Qin; Hu, Bing; An, Hong-Mei; Shen, Ke-Ping; Xu, Ling; Deng, Shan; Wei, Meng-Meng

    2013-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum are one of the commonly used paired-herbs for liver cancer treatment. Curcumin and resveratrol are the major anticancer constituents of Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum, respectively. Curcumin and resveratrol have been found to exhibit a synergistic anticancer effect in colon cancer. However, the combined effect of curcumin and resveratrol against hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the combined effects of curcumin and resveratrol in hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells. The results showed that curcumin and resveratrol significantly inhibited the proliferation of Hepa1-6 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol elicited a synergistic antiproliferative effect in Hepa1-6 cells. The apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells induced by the combination treatment with curcumin and resveratrol was accompanied by caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation, which was completely abrogated by a pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Combination of curcumin and resveratrol upregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in Hepa1-6 cells. The ROS scavenger, NAC, partially attenuated the apoptosis and caspase activation induced by the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol. In addition, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol downregulated XIAP and survivin expression. These data suggest that the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer. The present study also provides new insights into the effective mechanism of paired-herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23446753

  15. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of glycosides of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Uesugi, Daisuke; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Tanigawa, Masato; Hamada, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    To enhance their water solubility and pharmacological activities, the stilbenes resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol were glycosylated to their monoglucosides (β-glucosides) and diglycosides (β-maltosides) by cultured cells and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). Cultured cells of Phytolacca americana and glucosyltransferase (PaGT) were capable of glucosylation of resveratrol to its 3- and 4'-β-glucosides. Pterostilbene was slightly transformed into its 4'-β-glucoside by P. americana cells. Piceatannol was readily converted into piceatannol 4'-β-glucoside, with the highest yield among the three substrates. The 3- and 4'-β-glucosides of resveratrol were subjected to further glycosylation by CGTase to give 3- and 4'-β-maltoside derivatives. The inhibitory action of resveratrol and pterostilbene toward histamine release induced with compound 48/80 from rat peritoneal mast cells was improved by β-glucosylation and/or β-maltosylation (i.e., the inhibitory activity for histamine release of the 3- and 4'-β-glucosides of resveratrol, the 3- and 4'-β-maltosides of resveratrol, and the 4'-β-glucoside of pterostilbene was higher than that of the corresponding aglycones, resveratrol and pterostilbene, respectively). In addition, the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitory activity of resveratrol and pterostilbene was enhanced by β-glucosylation and/or β-maltosylation (i.e., the PDE inhibitory activities of the 3- and 4'-β-glucosides of resveratrol, the 4'-β-maltoside of resveratrol, and the 4'-β-glucoside of pterostilbene were higher than those of the corresponding aglycones, resveratrol and pterostilbene, respectively).

  16. Resveratrol alters the lipid composition, metabolism and peroxide level in senescent rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Momchilova, Albena; Petkova, Diana; Staneva, Galya; Markovska, Tania; Pankov, Roumen; Skrobanska, Ralica; Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana; Koumanov, Kamen

    2014-01-25

    Investigations were performed on the influence of resveratrol on the lipid composition, metabolism, fatty acid and peroxide level in plasma membranes of hepatocytes, isolated from aged rats. Hepatocytes were chosen due to the central role of the liver in lipid metabolism and homeostasis. The obtained results showed that the level of sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylserine (PS) was augmented in plasma membranes of resveratrol-treated senescent hepatocytes. The saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio of the two most abundant membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), was decreased as a result of resveratrol treatment. The neutral sphingomyelinase was found to be responsible for the increase of SM and the decrease of ceramide in plasma membranes of resveratrol-treated senescent hepatocytes. Using labeled acetate as a precursor of lipid synthesis we demonstrated, that resveratrol treatment resulted in inhibition mainly of phospholipid synthesis, followed by fatty acids synthesis. Resveratrol induced reduction of specific membrane-associated markers of apoptosis such as localization of PS in the external plasma membrane monolayer and ceramide level. Finally, the content of lipid peroxides was investigated, because the unsaturated fatty acids, which were augmented as a result of resveratrol treatment, are an excellent target of oxidative attack. The results showed that the lipid peroxide level was significantly lower, ROS were slightly reduced and GSH was almost unchanged in resveratrol-treated hepatocytes. We suggest, that one possible biochemical mechanism, underlying the reported resveratrol-induced changes, is the partial inactivation of neutral sphingomyelinase, leading to increase of SM, the latter acting as a native membrane antioxidant. In conclusion, our studies indicate that resveratrol treatment induces beneficial alterations in the phospholipid and fatty acid composition, as well as in the ceramide and peroxide

  17. Binding of resveratrol with sodium caseinate in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Durga P; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-11-15

    The interaction between resveratrol (Res) and sodium caseinate (Na-Cas) has been studied by measuring fluorescence quenching of the protein by resveratrol. Quenching constants were determined using Stern-Volmer equation, which suggests that both dynamic and static quenching occur between Na-Cas and Res. Binding constants for the complexation between Na-Cas and Res were determined at different temperatures. The large binding constants (3.7-5.1×10(5)M(-1)) suggest that Res has strong affinity for Na-Cas. This affinity decreases as the temperature is raised from 25 to 37°C. The binding involves both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction, as suggested by negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change for the binding reaction. The present study indicates that Na-Cas, a common food protein, may be used as a carrier of Res, a bioactive polyphenol which is insoluble in both water and oils. PMID:23790885

  18. Content of resveratrol and glycoside and its contribution to the antioxidative capacity of Polygonum cuspidatum (Itadori) harvested in Kochi.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Serika; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ebisu, Tomoyo; Shimamura, Tomoko; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    We quantified trans-resveratrol in each part of fresh Polygonum cuspidatum harvested in Kochi Prefecture. A small amount of trans-resveratrol was detected in the edible stem parts, the content varying with seasonal, geographical, and environmental factors. We also examined the antioxidative activity of each part, suggesting that P. cuspidatum contained many more contributing antioxidants other than resveratrol. PMID:25036841

  19. Low-dose pterostilbene but not resveratrol is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have implicated resveratrol and pterostilbene, a resveratrol derivative, in the protection against age-related diseases including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, the mechanism for the favorable effects of resveratrol in the brain remains unclear and little information about direct...

  20. Resveratrol tetramer of hopeaphenol isolated from Shorea johorensis (Dipterocarpaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Aisha, Farra; Din, Laily B.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2014-09-03

    Hopeaphenol (1) as a resveratrol tetramer was isolated from the bark of Shorea johorensis collected from Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Malaysia. The structure of this compound was determined by the spectroscopic evidences using {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR assigned with HSQC, HMBC, {sup 1}H−{sup 1}H COSY and {sup 1}H−{sup 1}H NOESY spectra, mass spectrum, and by comparison with reported data.

  1. TCDD promoted EMT of hFPECs via AhR, which involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Bu, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Wang, Xugang; Zhang, Guofu; Wang, Erhui; Ding, Shibin; Liu, Yongfeng; Shi, Ruling; Li, Qiaoyun; Fu, Jianhong; Yu, Zengli

    2016-05-01

    One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD exposure on the fate of palatal epithelial cells. By using primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal palatal shelves (hFPECs), we show that TCDD increased cell proliferation and EMT, as demonstrated by increased the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin14) and enhanced the mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), but had no effect on cell migration and apoptosis. TCDD exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in Slug protein expression. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that TCDD promoted AhR to form a protein complex with Slug. ChIP assay confirmed that TCDD exposure recruited AhR to the xenobiotic responsive element of Slug promoter. Knockdown of AhR by siRNA remarkably weakened TCDD-induced binding of AhR to the XRE promoter of slug, thereby suppressed TCDD-induced vimentin. Further experiment showed that TCDD stimulated EGFR phosphorylation did not influence the TGFβ3/Smad signaling; whereas TCDD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 with no effect on activation of JNK. By using varieties of inhibitors, we confirmed that TCDD promoted proliferation and EMT of hFPECs via activation of EGFR/ERK pathway. These data make a novel contribution to the molecular mechanism of cleft palate by TCDD. PMID:26971374

  2. Glycosylation of resveratrol protects it from enzymic oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Regev-Shoshani, Gilly; Shoseyov, Oded; Bilkis, Itzhak; Kerem, Zohar

    2003-01-01

    Plant polyphenols, including dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol, are important components in the plant antioxidant and defence systems. They are also known to exert beneficial effects on human health through diet. As they are produced, these polyphenols may be subjected to deleterious enzymic oxidation by the plant polyphenol oxidases. They are generally synthesized as glycosides like 5,4'-dihydroxystilbene-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, the 3-glucoside of resveratrol. The effects of the glycosylation and methylation of the parent resveratrol on its enzymic oxidation were studied. Methyl and glucosyl derivatives were synthesized using simple one-step methodologies. The kinetics of their enzymic oxidation by tyrosinases were defined. Substitution at the p-hydroxy group, by either glucose or methyl, abolished enzymic oxidation by both mushroom and grape tyrosinases. Substitution at the m-hydroxy group with methyl had a small effect, but substitution with glucose resulted in a much lower affinity of the enzymes for the glycoside. We suggest that glycosylation of polyphenols in nature helps to protect these vital molecules from enzymic oxidation, extending their half-life in the cell and maintaining their beneficial antioxidant capacity and biological properties. PMID:12697026

  3. Zebrafish Cardiotoxicity: The Effects of CYP1A Inhibition and AHR2 Knockdown Following Exposure to Weak Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Bryan William; Van Tiem Garner, Lindsey; Di Giulio, Richard Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Strong AHR agonists, such as certain polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), cause severe cardiac teratogenesis in fish embryos. Moderately strong AHR agonists, such as benzo[a]pyrene and β-naphthoflavone, have been shown to cause similar cardiotoxic effects when coupled with a cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) inhibitor, such as fluoranthene (FL). We sought to determine if weak AHR agonists, when combined with a CYP1A inhibitor (FL) or CYP1A morpholino gene knockdown, are capable of causing cardiac deformities similar to moderately strong AHR agonists (Wassenberg and Di Giulio 2004; Wassenberg and Di Giulio 2004; Billiard, Timme-Laragy et al. 2006; Van Tiem and Di Giulio 2011). The weak AHR agonists included the following: carbaryl, phenanthrene, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, indigo, and indirubin. The results showed a complex pattern of cardiotoxic response to weak agonist inhibitor exposure and morpholino-knockdown. Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos were first exposed to weak AHR agonists at equimolar concentrations. The agonists were assessed for their relative potency as inducers of CYP1 enzyme activity, measured by the ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) assay, and cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, and 3-methylindole induced the highest CYP1A activity in zebrafish. Experiments were then conducted to determine the individual cardiotoxicity of each compound. Next, zebrafish were co-exposed to each agonist (at concentrations below those determined to be cardiotoxic) and FL in combination to assess if CYP1A inhibition could induce cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, and phenanthrene significantly increased pericardial edema relative to controls when combined with FL. To further evaluate the

  4. Gene cloning and expression analysis of AhR and CYP4 from Pinctada martensii after exposed to pyrene.

    PubMed

    Du, Junqiao; Liao, Chenghong; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiaoping; Li, Yuhu; Zheng, Pengfei; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-10-01

    Pyrene, a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a common pollutant in the marine environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons initiate cellular detoxification in an exposed organism via the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Subsequent metabolism of these xenobiotics is mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes of the phase I detoxification system. Full-length complementary DNA sequences from the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (pm) encoding AhR and cytochrome P4 were cloned. The P. martensii AhR complementary DNA sequence constitutes an open reading frame that encodes for 848 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated PmAhR showed high similarity with its homologues of other bivalve species. The cytochrome P(CYP)4 complementary DNA sequence of P. martensii constitutes an open reading frame that encodes for 489 amino acids. Quantitative real-time analysis detected both PmAhR and PmCYP4 messenger RNA expressions in the mantle, gill, hepatapancreas and adductor muscle of P. martensii exposed to pyrene. The highest transcript-band intensities of PmAhR and PmCYP4 were observed in the gill. Temporal expression of PmAhR and PmCYP4 messenger RNAs induction was observed in gills and increased between 3 and 5 days post exposure; then returned to control level. These results suggest that messenger RNAs of PmAhR and PmCYP4 in pearl oysters might be useful parameters for monitoring marine environment pyrene pollution.

  5. AhR signaling activation disrupts migration and dendritic growth of olfactory interneurons in the developing mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Eiki; Ding, Yunjie; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to a low level of dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has been shown to induce abnormalities in learning and memory, emotion, and sociality in laboratory animals later in adulthood. However, how aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling activation disrupts the higher brain function remains unclear. Therefore, we studied the possible effects of excessive activation of AhR signaling on neurodevelopmental processes, such as cellular migration and neurite growth, in mice. To this end, we transfected a constitutively active-AhR plasmid into stem cells in the lateral ventricle by in vivo electroporation on postnatal day 1. Transfection was found to induce tangential migration delay and morphological abnormalities in neuronal precursors in the rostral migratory stream at 6 days post-electroporation (dpe) as well as disrupt radial migration in the olfactory bulb and apical and basal dendritic growth of the olfactory interneurons in the granule cell layer at 13 and 20 dpe. These results suggest that the retarded development of interneurons by the excessive AhR signaling may at least in part explain the dioxin-induced abnormal behavioral alterations previously reported in laboratory animals. PMID:27197834

  6. Integration of Genome-Wide Computation DRE Search, AhR ChIP-chip and Gene Expression Analyses of TCDD-Elicited Responses in the Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor (TF) that mediates responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Integration of TCDD-induced genome-wide AhR enrichment, differential gene expression and computational dioxin response element (DRE) analyses further elucidate the hepatic AhR regulatory network. Results Global ChIP-chip and gene expression analyses were performed on hepatic tissue from immature ovariectomized mice orally gavaged with 30 μg/kg TCDD. ChIP-chip analysis identified 14,446 and 974 AhR enriched regions (1% false discovery rate) at 2 and 24 hrs, respectively. Enrichment density was greatest in the proximal promoter, and more specifically, within ± 1.5 kb of a transcriptional start site (TSS). AhR enrichment also occurred distal to a TSS (e.g. intergenic DNA and 3' UTR), extending the potential gene expression regulatory roles of the AhR. Although TF binding site analyses identified over-represented DRE sequences within enriched regions, approximately 50% of all AhR enriched regions lacked a DRE core (5'-GCGTG-3'). Microarray analysis identified 1,896 number of TCDD-responsive genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t) > 0.999). Integrating this gene expression data with our ChIP-chip and DRE analyses only identified 625 differentially expressed genes that involved an AhR interaction at a DRE. Functional annotation analysis of differentially regulated genes associated with AhR enrichment identified overrepresented processes related to fatty acid and lipid metabolism and transport, and xenobiotic metabolism, which are consistent with TCDD-elicited steatosis in the mouse liver. Conclusions Details of the AhR regulatory network have been expanded to include AhR-DNA interactions within intragenic and intergenic genomic regions. Moreover, the AhR can interact with DNA independent of a DRE core suggesting there are alternative mechanisms of AhR-mediated gene regulation. PMID:21762485

  7. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi

    2014-10-15

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction. PMID:25151220

  8. Neuroprotection of resveratrol against neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine in mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong; Yue, Qingwei; Guo, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is originally extracted from huzhang, a Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, resveratrol has attracted a great of attention due to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. Although the neuroprotection of resveratrol on neural damages in various models has been well characterized, little is known about the role of resveratrol in methamphetamine (MA) induced neurotoxicity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic neurons were isolated from midbrain of mouse embryos at embryonic day 15 and cultured in the presence of MA and resveratrol. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and the apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst33342/PI double staining. To evaluate the Oxidative damage, ROS assay was performed. Moreover, the changes of time course of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) were analyzed with Fluo-3/AM tracing. The data showed that MA induced the neurotoxicity of cultured cells in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly increased cellular viability and retarded cell apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol also attenuated MA induced ROS production and intracellular free calcium overload. Our results suggest that resveratrol protects dopaminergic neurons from MA-induced neuronal cytotoxicity, which, at least partly, is mediated by inhibition of [Ca(2+) ]i and oxidative stress. © 2015 BioFactors 41(4):252-260, 2015.

  9. Resveratrol attenuates ovariectomy-induced hypertension and bone loss in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, K; Ikeda, K; Kawai, Y; Yamori, Y

    2000-04-01

    We examined the effect of resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phenolic compound found in the skins of most grapes, on blood pressure and bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX), stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Nineteen-week-old female SHRSP were divided into a sham-ovariectomized (sham) group fed a control diet and two OVX groups fed either a control diet (OVX-Cont) or a diet supplemented with resveratrol (5 mg/kg per d; OVX-Resv). Ovariectomy induced significant increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Resveratrol lowered the SBP by 15%) by the third week of administration, and this effect was maintained throughout the study. Resveratrol treatment also significantly enhanced endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) in OVX rats. Finally, femur breaking energies measured for the resveratrol-treated (OVX-Resv) group were significantly higher than those of the resveratrol-untreated (OVX-Cont) group. While no significant differences in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus content were found between the femurs of OVX-Cont and OVX-Resv rats, the femur hydroxyproline content in the OVX-Resv group was significantly higher than of the OVX-Cont group. We conclude that, in OVX-SHRSP, resveratrol acts by a similar mechanism to mammalian estrogens, lowering blood pressure by increasing dilatory responses to ACh. The present study also demonstrated that resveratrol was able to prevent ovariectomy-induced decreases in femoral bone strength.

  10. Repeated resveratrol treatment attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and [3H]dopamine overflow in rodents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dennis K; Oelrichs, Clark E; Sage, Andrew S; Sun, Grace Y; Simonyi, Agnes

    2013-10-25

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has been investigated for its potential as a prophylactic against degenerative diseases. It is a sirtulin activator that has recently been shown to regulate dopaminergic systems that contribute to the behavioral effects of methamphetamine and cocaine. The present study examined the impact of resveratrol on stimulant neuropsychopharmacology in rodents. Acute resveratrol treatment (20-40mg/kg) was ineffective to alter methamphetamine (0.5mg/kg)-induced hyperactivity in mice. Rodents received resveratrol once-daily for seven days to determine the effect of repeated polyphenolic treatment. Repeated resveratrol treatment (1-20mg/kg) decreased methamphetamine (0.5mg/kg)-induced hyperactivity in mice. Methamphetamine's (0.1-60μM) efficacy to evoke [(3)H]overflow from rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]dopamine was also attenuated by repeated resveratrol (1mg/kg) treatment. Repeated resveratrol treatment (10-20mg/kg) did not affect cocaine-induced hyperactivity in mice. Overall, these data suggest that resveratrol appears to have metaplastic and prophylactic activity to minimize the effects of methamphetamine to increase locomotor activity and evoke dopamine release. These data encourage future research to further investigate the relationship between polyphenolics and psychostimulant abuse and dependence.

  11. Resveratrol suppresses PAI-1 gene expression in a human in vitro model of inflamed adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Zagotta, Ivana; Dimova, Elitsa Y; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Wabitsch, Martin; Kietzmann, Thomas; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels are associated with a number of pathophysiological complications; among them is obesity. Resveratrol was proposed to improve obesity-related health problems, but the effect of resveratrol on PAI-1 gene expression in obesity is not completely understood. In this study, we used SGBS adipocytes and a model of human adipose tissue inflammation to examine the effects of resveratrol on the production of PAI-1. Treatment of SGBS adipocytes with resveratrol reduced PAI-1 mRNA and protein in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further experiments showed that obesity-associated inflammatory conditions lead to the upregulation of PAI-1 gene expression which was antagonized by resveratrol. Although signaling via PI3K, Sirt1, AMPK, ROS, and Nrf2 appeared to play a significant role in the modulation of PAI-1 gene expression under noninflammatory conditions, those signaling components were not involved in mediating the resveratrol effects on PAI-1 production under inflammatory conditions. Instead, we demonstrate that the resveratrol effects on PAI-1 induction under inflammatory conditions were mediated via inhibition of the NF κ B pathway. Together, resveratrol can act as NF κ B inhibitor in adipocytes and thus the subsequently reduced PAI-1 expression in inflamed adipose tissue might provide a new insight towards novel treatment options of obesity. PMID:23819014

  12. Tracking the Dephosphorylation of Resveratrol Triphosphate in Skin by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojin; Flach, Carol R.; Mendelsohn, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Polyphenolic resveratrol has been identified as a potent antioxidant acting as both a free radical scavenger and an inhibitor of enzyme oxidative activity. However, the reactive propensity of resveratrol also limits its use in topical formulations. A transient derivative of resveratrol, resveratrol triphosphate, has been designed to provide a means for the delayed delivery of the active compound in skin tissue where endogenous enzymes capable of dephosphorylation reside. Confocal Raman microscopy studies of intact pigskin biopsies treated with modified resveratrol provided information about the spatial distribution and time-dependence of permeation and conversion to the native active form. Conversion to the active form was not observed when skin samples were exposed to steam, a procedure that likely inactivates endogenous skin enzymes. In addition, treatment with the triphosphate compared to the parent compound revealed a more homogeneous distribution of resveratrol throughout the stratum corneum and viable epidermis when the former was applied. Thus, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the epidermis appears to be enhanced upon application of the pro-molecule compared to resveratrol. PMID:17826862

  13. Potentiation of resveratrol-induced apoptosis by matrine in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiuyuan; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Xinxin; Zhang, Xumeng; He, Qiyang

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has received considerable attention due to its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. In the present study, we first evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Resveratrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induction of p53 expression. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that resveratrol arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 and S phase. We further focused on the combination of matrine, a natural component extracted from the traditional Chinese medical herb Sophora flavescens Ait., as a mechanism to potentiate the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells. Both MTT and colony formation assay results indicated that the combined treatment of resveratrol and matrine exhibited a synergistic antiproliferative effect. In addition, resveratrol-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced by matrine, which could be attributed to activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, downregulation of survivin, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm). Our findings suggest that the combination treatment of resveratrol and matrine is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer; it also provides new insights into the mechanisms of combined therapy.

  14. Resveratrol improves muscle function but not oxidative capacity in young mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bradley S; Delgado-Diaz, Diana C; Carson, James; Fayad, Raja; Wilson, L Britt; Kostek, Matthew C

    2014-03-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have reduced muscle function due to chronic muscle damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and reduced oxidative capacity. Resveratrol reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, and increases oxidative capacity in other disease models. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resveratrol on muscle function, muscle pathology, and oxidative capacity in young mdx mice. For this, 4- to 5-week-old male mdx mice were randomized into control or resveratrol-treated groups and given resveratrol (100 mg/kg body mass) or an equal volume of water by gavage every other day for 8 weeks. Muscle function was assessed pre- and post-treatment. Central nucleation, total immune cell infiltrate, oxidative stress, and oxidative capacity were measured post-treatment. Resveratrol mediated substantial improvements in rotarod performance and in-situ peak tension by 53% and 17%, respectively, and slight improvements in central nucleation and oxidative stress. Resveratrol did not affect total immune cell infiltrate at 12 weeks of age, and had no effect on oxidative capacity. Resveratrol improves muscle function in mdx mice despite small changes in muscle pathology. The likely mechanism is a resveratrol-mediated reduction in immune cell infiltrate at the early stages of this disease, as previously reported by our laboratory.

  15. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2016-03-05

    Sirt1 is a NAD⁺-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  16. Preparation of resveratrol-loaded nanoporous silica materials with different structures

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Margarita; Szegedi, Agnes; Mavrodinova, Vesselina; Novak Tušar, Natasa; Mihály, Judith; Klébert, Szilvia; Benbassat, Niko; Yoncheva, Krassimira

    2014-11-15

    Solid, nanoporous silica-based spherical mesoporous MCM-41 and KIL-2 with interparticle mesoporosity as well as nanosized zeolite BEA materials differing in morphology and pore size distribution, were used as carriers for the preparation of resveratrol-loaded delivery systems. Two preparation methods have been applied: (i) loading by mixing of resveratrol and mesoporous carrier in solid state and (ii) deposition in ethanol solution. The parent and the resveratrol loaded carriers were characterized by XRD, TEM, N2 physisorption, thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of the support structure on the adsorption capacity and the release kinetics of this poorly soluble compound were investigated. Our results indicated that the chosen nanoporous silica supports are suitable for stabilization of trans-resveratrol and reveal controlled release and ability to protect the supported compound against degradation regardless of loading method. The solid-state dry mixing appears very effective for preparation of drug formulations composed of poorly soluble compound. - Graphical abstract: trans-Resveratrol was stabilized in the pores of BEA zeolite, MCM-41and KIL2 mesoporous silicas. - Highlights: • BEA, KIL-2 and MCM-41 materials were used as carriers for resveratrol loading. • Resveratrol encapsulation in ethanol solution and solid state procedure were applied. • The solid-state preparation appears very effective for stabilization of trans-resveratrol.

  17. Protective effect of resveratrol on arsenic trioxide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiqian; Liu, Yan; Ge, Ming; Jing, Jiang; Chen, Yan; Jiang, Huijie; Yu, Hongxiang; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES Arsenic, which causes human carcinogenicity, is ubiquitous in the environment. This study was designed to evaluate modulation of arsenic induced cancer by resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in vegetal dietary sources that has antioxidant and chemopreventive properties, in arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced Male Wistar rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Adult rats received 3 mg/kg As2O3 (intravenous injection, iv.) on alternate days for 4 days. Resveratrol (8 mg/kg) was administered (iv.) 1 h before As2O3 treatment. The plasma and homogenization enzymes associated with oxidative stress of rat kidneys were measured, the kidneys were examined histologically and trace element contents were assessed. RESULTS Rats treated with As2O3 had significantly higher oxidative stress and kidney arsenic accumulation; however, pretreatment with resveratrol reversed these changes. In addition, prior to treatment with resveratrol resulted in lower blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and insignificant renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis. Furthermore, the presence of resveratrol preserved the selenium content (0.805 ± 0.059 µg/g) of kidneys in rats treated with As2O3. However, resveratrol had no effect on zinc level in the kidney relative to As2O3-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS Our data show that supplementation with resveratrol alleviated nephrotoxicity by improving antioxidant capacity and arsenic efflux. These findings suggest that resveratrol has the potential to protect against kidney damage in populations exposed to arsenic. PMID:24741408

  18. Enhancing delivery and cytotoxicity of resveratrol through a dual nanoencapsulation approach.

    PubMed

    Soo, Ernest; Thakur, Sachin; Qu, Zhi; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; Parekh, Harendra S; Popat, Amirali

    2016-01-15

    Despite the known anticancer potential of resveratrol, its clinical applications are often hindered by physicochemical limitations such as poor solubility and stability. The encapsulation of resveratrol in formulations such as polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes has shown limited success. This study aimed to develop and optimize a novel drug carrier by co-encapsulating pristine resveratrol alongside cyclodextrin-resveratrol inclusion complexes in the lipophilic and hydrophilic compartments of liposomes, respectively by using a novel dual carrier approach. The particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the final formulation were 131±1.30nm, 0.089±0.005 and -2.64±0.51mV, respectively. Compared to free resveratrol and conventional liposomal formulations with drug release profile of 40-60%, our novel nanoformulations showed complete (100%) drug release in 24h. The formulation was stable for 14days at 4°C. We also studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of resveratrol encapsulated liposomes in HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity profile of our liposomes was observed to be dose dependent and enhanced in comparison to free resveratrol (in DMSO). Our study demonstrates that co-encapsulation of pristine resveratrol along with its cyclodextrin complex in liposomal formulations is a plausible option for the enhanced delivery of the hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agent.

  19. Enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol by piceid-β-D-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Li, Dai; Gao, Ziqing; Zhang, Chunzhi

    2014-07-01

    Resveratrol is now gaining much attention because of its pharmacological properties. Polygonum cuspidatum has the highest content of resveratrol in plants and is the best material offering resveratrol. However, the content of resveratrol in P. cuspidatum is much lower compared with its glycoside polydatin. In this study, enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol by piceid-β-D-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae sp. 100 was investigated. The biotransformation conditions were optimized. Under the optimized conditions of 60 °C, pH 5.0, substrate concentration of 40 g/L and piceid-β-D-glucosidase activity of 5 U/mL, enzymatic transformation of polydatin from P. cuspidatum was successfully performed, during which 22.5 g/L of resveratrol was produced after reacting for 4 h, with the substrate conversion rate of 2 g/h/U of piceid-β-D-glucosidase. A feasible and environment friendly process of enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol was developed, which provides a promising and competitive alternative for the production of resveratrol. PMID:24362562

  20. Microbial metabolism Part 14 Isolation and bioactivity evaluation of microbial metabolites of resveratrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungi, Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 13144) and Penicillium chrysogenium (ATCC 9480) transformed resveratrol (1) to resveratrol-3-O-sulfate (4). The former, in addition, gave 5-methoxyresveratrol-3-O-ß-glucoside (2) with the latter yielding 5-methoxyresveratrol-3-O-sulfate (3). The structures were es...

  1. Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Sirt1 is a NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation. PMID:26959057

  2. Influence of exercise training with resveratrol supplementation on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    PubMed

    Polley, Kristine R; Jenkins, Nathan; O'Connor, Patrick; McCully, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity reduces, and exercise training increases, mitochondrial capacity. In rodents, exercise training effects can be augmented by large doses of resveratrol supplementation but whether this can occur in humans with a smaller dose is unclear. This study sought to determine the effects of resveratrol supplementation in combination with exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity. Sixteen healthy young adults were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume either placebo or 500 mg of resveratrol plus 10 mg of piperine, a bioenhancer to increase bioavailibilty and bioefficacy of resveratrol. Participants ingested the pills daily for 4 weeks and completed 3 sessions per week of submaximal endurance training of the wrist flexor muscles of the nondominant arm. The contralateral arm served as an untrained control. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Changes in mitochondrial capacity from baseline to post-testing indicated significant differences between the resveratrol+piperine-trained arm and the placebo-trained arm (p = 0.02), with the resveratrol+piperine group increasing about 40% from baseline (Δk = 0.58), while the placebo group increased about 10% from baseline (Δk = 0.13). Neither the placebo group nor the resveratrol+piperine group exhibited changes in mitochondrial capacity in the untrained arm. In conclusion, low-intensity exercise training can increase forearm skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity when combined with resveratrol and piperine supplementation.

  3. Effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; García-Barcina, María; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-de; Bidaurrazaga, Joseba; de Luco, Marian Fernández; Gutiérrez-Stampa, Marian; Larzabal, Mikel; Hijona, Elisabeth; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Echenique-Elizondo, Miguel; Arenas, Juan I

    2006-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is a polyphenol with important antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice. Methods Mice were randomly distributed into four groups (control, resveratrol-treated control, alcohol and resveratrol-treated alcohol). Chronic alcohol intoxication was induced by progressively administering alcohol in drinking water up to 40% v/v. The mice administered resveratrol received 10 mg/ml in drinking water. The animals had free access to standard diet. Blood levels were determined for transaminases, IL-1 and TNF-α. A histological evaluation was made of liver damage, and survival among the animals was recorded. Results Transaminase concentration was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the rest of the groups (p < 0.05). IL-1 levels were significantly reduced in the alcohol plus resveratrol group compared with the alcohol group (p < 0.05). TNF-α was not detected in any group. Histologically, the liver lesions were more severe in the alcohol group, though no significant differences between groups were observed. Mortality in the alcohol group was 78% in the seventh week, versus 22% in the alcohol plus resveratrol group (p < 0.001). All mice in the alcohol group died before the ninth week. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that resveratrol reduces mortality and liver damage in mice. PMID:17105669

  4. Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...

  5. Resveratrol inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis by antagonizing the hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yongheng; Lu, Hong; Wu, Cunzao; Liang, Yong; Wang, Silu; Lin, Chengcheng; Chen, Bicheng; Xia, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biologic process in which tubular cells lose their epithelial phenotypes and acquire new characteristic features of mesenchymal properties, is increasingly recognized as an integral part of renal tissue fibrogenesis. Recent studies indicate that resveratrol, a botanical compound derived mainly from the skins of red grapes, may have anti-fibrotic effects in many tissues, but the potential molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we identified that resveratrol inhibits the induction of EMT and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) through antagonizing the hedgehog pathway in vitro and in vivo. In rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg/day) significantly reduced serum creatinine. Resveratrol also decreased expression of TGF-β1, and inhibited the phenotypic transition from epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells, and the deposition of ECM in UUO rats. In cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), TGF-β1-induced EMT and ECM synthesis was abolished with the treatment of resveratrol. The induction of EMT was associated with the activation of the hedgehog pathway. Resveratrol treatment markedly inhibited the over-activity of the hedgehog pathway in the obstructed kidney and in TGF-β1-treated NRK-52E cells, resulted in reduction of cellular proliferation, EMT and ECM accumulation. Thus, these results suggest that resveratrol is able to inhibit EMT and fibrosis in vivo and in vitro through antagonizing the hedgehog pathway, and resveratrol may have therapeutic potential for patients with fibrotic kidney diseases.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of resveratrol derivatives as new chemical entities for cancer.

    PubMed

    Mulakayala, Chaitanya; Babajan, B; Madhusudana, P; Anuradha, C M; Rao, Raja Mohan; Nune, Ravi Prakash; Manna, Sunil Kumar; Mulakayala, Naveen; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

    2013-04-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to be active in inhibiting multistage carcinogenesis. The potential use of resveratrol in cancer chemoprevention or chemotherapy settings has been hindered by its short half-life and low bioavailability. Considering the above remarks, using resveratrol as a prototype, we have synthesized two derivatives of resveratrol. Their activity was evaluated using in vitro and in silico analysis. Biological evaluation of resveratrol analogues on U937 cells had shown that two synthesized analogues of resveratrol had higher rates of inhibition than the parental molecule at 10μM concentration. EMSA conducted for NF-kB revealed that these molecules significantly interfered in the DNA binding ability of NF-kB. It was found that these molecules suppressed the expression of TNFα, TNFR, IL-8, actin and activated the expression of FasL, FasR genes. To understand possible molecular mechanism of the action we performed docking and dynamic studies, using NF-kB as a receptor. Results showed that resveratrol, RA1 and RA2 interacted with the residues involved in DNA binding. Resveratrol analogues by interacting NF-kB might have prevented its translocation and also by interacting with the residues involved in DNA binding might have prevented the binding of NF-kB to DNA. This may be the reason for suppression of NF-kB binding to DNA.

  7. Protection of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaolu; Wang, Kai; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Fuliang; Zhao, Fengqi; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of high-producing dairy cows are likely to be subject to oxidative stress (OS) due to the intensive cell metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytoprotective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced OS in cultured bovine MECs (MAC-T). Pretreatment of MAC-T cells with resveratrol could rescue the decrease in cell viability and resulted in lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after H2O2 exposure. Resveratrol helped MAC-T cells to prevent H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant defense genes in MAC-T cells under normal/oxidative conditions. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was required for the cytoprotective effects on MAC-T cells by resveratrol, as knockdown of Nrf2 significantly abolished resveratrol-induced cytoprotective effects against OS. In addition, by using selective inhibitors, we further confirmed that the induction of Nrf2 by resveratrol was mediated through the prolonged activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways but negatively regulated by p38/MAPK pathway. Overall, resveratrol has beneficial effects on bovine MECs redox balance and may be potentially used as a therapeutic medicine against oxidative insult in lactating animals. PMID:26962394

  8. Ultraviolet light converts propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker and potential lupus-inducing drug, into a proinflammatory AhR ligand.

    PubMed

    Dorgham, Karim; Amoura, Zahir; Parizot, Christophe; Arnaud, Laurent; Frances, Camille; Pionneau, Cédric; Devilliers, Hervé; Pinto, Sandra; Zoorob, Rima; Miyara, Makoto; Larsen, Martin; Yssel, Hans; Gorochov, Guy; Mathian, Alexis

    2015-11-01

    UV light and some medications are known to trigger lupus erythematosus (LE). A common mechanism underlying the immunopathologic effect, resulting from exposure to these two seemingly unrelated factors, remains unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a key role in the regulation of IL-22 production in humans and can be activated by both xenobiotics and naturally occurring photoproducts. A significant expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was observed in the peripheral blood of active systemic LE (SLE) patients, compared to inactive patients and controls. We also show that propranolol, a potential lupus-inducing drug, induced stronger AhR activation in PBMCs of SLE patients than in those of controls. AhR agonist activity of propranolol was enhanced by UV light exposure. MS analysis of irradiated propranolol revealed the generation of a proinflammatory photoproduct. This compound behaves like the prototypic AhR ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole, a cutaneous UV light-induced tryptophan metabolite, both promoting IL-22, IL-8, and CCL2 secretion by T-cells and macrophages. Finally, LE patients exhibit signs of cutaneous AhR activation that correlate with lesional expression of the same proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting a role for photometabolites in the induction of skin inflammation. The AhR might therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention in LE. PMID:26354876

  9. Ultraviolet light converts propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker and potential lupus-inducing drug, into a proinflammatory AhR ligand.

    PubMed

    Dorgham, Karim; Amoura, Zahir; Parizot, Christophe; Arnaud, Laurent; Frances, Camille; Pionneau, Cédric; Devilliers, Hervé; Pinto, Sandra; Zoorob, Rima; Miyara, Makoto; Larsen, Martin; Yssel, Hans; Gorochov, Guy; Mathian, Alexis

    2015-11-01

    UV light and some medications are known to trigger lupus erythematosus (LE). A common mechanism underlying the immunopathologic effect, resulting from exposure to these two seemingly unrelated factors, remains unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a key role in the regulation of IL-22 production in humans and can be activated by both xenobiotics and naturally occurring photoproducts. A significant expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was observed in the peripheral blood of active systemic LE (SLE) patients, compared to inactive patients and controls. We also show that propranolol, a potential lupus-inducing drug, induced stronger AhR activation in PBMCs of SLE patients than in those of controls. AhR agonist activity of propranolol was enhanced by UV light exposure. MS analysis of irradiated propranolol revealed the generation of a proinflammatory photoproduct. This compound behaves like the prototypic AhR ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole, a cutaneous UV light-induced tryptophan metabolite, both promoting IL-22, IL-8, and CCL2 secretion by T-cells and macrophages. Finally, LE patients exhibit signs of cutaneous AhR activation that correlate with lesional expression of the same proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting a role for photometabolites in the induction of skin inflammation. The AhR might therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention in LE.

  10. Novel Aza-resveratrol analogs: synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity against breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Areej; Dandawate, Prasad; Rub, Rukhsana; Padhye, Subhash; Aphale, Shama; Moghe, Alpana; Jagyasi, Amrit; Venkateswara Swamy, K; Singh, Bhupendra; Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Bhat, Hari K

    2013-02-01

    Novel Aza-resveratrol analogs were synthesized, structurally characterized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, which exhibited superior inhibitory activity than parent resveratrol compound. The binding mechanism of these compounds with estrogen receptor-α was rationalized by molecular docking studies which indicated additional hydrogen binding interactions and tight binding in the protein cavity. Induction of Beclin-1 protein expression in breast cancer cell lines after treatment with newly synthesized resveratrol analogs indicated inhibition of growth of these cell lines through autophagy. The study highlighted the advantage of introducing the imino-linkage in resveratrol motif in enhancing the anticancer potential of resveratrol suggesting that these analogs can serve as better therapeutic agents against breast cancer and can provide starting point for building more potent analogs in future.

  11. Design, synthesis, biological and structural evaluation of functionalized resveratrol analogues as inhibitors of quinone reductase 2.

    PubMed

    St John, Sarah E; Jensen, Katherine C; Kang, Soosung; Chen, Yafang; Calamini, Barbara; Mesecar, Andrew D; Lipton, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxylstilbene) has been proposed to elicit a variety of positive health effects including protection against cancer and cardiovascular disease. The highest affinity target of resveratrol identified so far is the oxidoreductase enzyme quinone reductase 2 (QR2), which is believed to function in metabolic reduction and detoxification processes; however, evidence exists linking QR2 to the metabolic activation of quinones, which can lead to cell toxicity. Therefore, inhibition of QR2 by resveratrol may protect cells against reactive intermediates and eventually cancer. With the aim of identifying novel inhibitors of QR2, we designed, synthesized, and tested two generations of resveratrol analogue libraries for inhibition of QR2. In addition, X-ray crystal structures of six of the resveratrol analogues in the active site of QR2 were determined. Several novel inhibitors of QR2 were successfully identified as well as a compound that inhibits QR2 with a novel binding orientation.

  12. Novel Resveratrol-Based Aspirin Prodrugs: Synthesis, Metabolism, and Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingdong; Fu, Junsheng; Shurlknight, Kelly L; Soroka, Dominique N; Hu, Yuhui; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-08-27

    Regular aspirin use has been convincingly shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, long-term use of aspirin leads to gastrotoxicity. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel class of resveratrol-based aspirin prodrugs to simultaneously release aspirin and resveratrol to attenuate the side effects caused by aspirin. Prodrug RAH exerted enhanced anticancer activities which are better than a physical mixture of aspirin and resveratrol as well as each individually. Metabolism of RAH in mice showed that the majority of RAH is decomposed to release resveratrol and aspirin or salicylic acid either in the intestine or after absorption. Mechanistic studies demonstrate RAH inhibits cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclins and induces apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 in cancer cells. These findings highlighted the improved anticancer properties of resveratrol-based aspirin prodrugs. RAH may represent novel and safe alternatives of aspirin for the purpose of daily use in the future.

  13. Acute Resveratrol Consumption Improves Neurovascular Coupling Capacity in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rachel H.X.; Raederstorff, Daniel; Howe, Peter R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor cerebral perfusion may contribute to cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that resveratrol can enhance cerebral vasodilator function and thereby alleviate the cognitive deficits in T2DM. We have already reported that acute resveratrol consumption improved cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) to hypercapnia. We now report the effects of resveratrol on neurovascular coupling capacity (CVR to cognitive stimuli), cognitive performance and correlations with plasma resveratrol concentrations. Methods: Thirty-six T2DM adults aged 40–80 years were randomized to consume single doses of resveratrol (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg) at weekly intervals. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to monitor changes in blood flow velocity (BFV) during a cognitive test battery. The battery consisted of dual-tasking (finger tapping with both Trail Making task and Serial Subtraction 3 task) and a computerized multi-tasking test that required attending to four tasks simultaneously. CVR to cognitive tasks was calculated as the per cent increase in BFV from pre-test basal to peak mean blood flow velocity and also as the area under the curve for BFV. Results: Compared to placebo, 75 mg resveratrol significantly improved neurovascular coupling capacity, which correlated with plasma total resveratrol levels. Enhanced performance on the multi-tasking test battery was also evident following 75 mg and 300 mg of resveratrol. Conclusion: a single 75 mg dose of resveratrol was able to improve neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in T2DM. Evaluation of benefits of chronic resveratrol supplementation is now warranted. PMID:27420093

  14. Can resveratrol in wine protect against the carcinogenicity of ethanol? A probabilistic dose-response assessment.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Godelmann, Rolf; Witt, Barbara; Riedel, Kerstin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol, which may occur in wine, was suggested to act as a chemopreventive agent against the carcinogenic effects of ethanol. The assumption was based on data from experimental animals, which have shown that resveratrol above certain thresholds may reduce the incidence of tumours in several of the alcohol-related cancer sites (colon, liver and female breast). Using a probabilistic Monte Carlo type methodology, we estimated daily intake based on chemical analysis of resveratrol (n = 672) and ethanol (n = 867). Benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling was conducted for resveratrol based on eight animal experiments, whereas BMD data for ethanol were taken from the literature. The margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated for both substances as an indicator if the intake may reach effective dosages. For intake of one 100-mL glass of wine, the average MOE was found to be 4.1 for ethanol and 459,937 for resveratrol. In the best-case scenario for resveratrol (e.g., very high contents and assuming a low effective dosage), the minimum MOE would be 111, which means that 111 glasses of wine need to be consumed daily to reach the BMD. The MOE ratio between resveratrol and ethanol is 166,128 on average, meaning that per glass of wine, ethanol is more than 100,000 times more potent than resveratrol. As resveratrol intake may not optimally reach the effective dosage, our study excludes a preventive effect of this substance on alcohol-related cancer. Commercial information about cancer-preventive or -protective effects of resveratrol in wine is misleading and must be prohibited. PMID:23784940

  15. TCF4 Is a Molecular Target of Resveratrol in the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays an essential role in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. T-cell factor-4 (TCF4) is a member of the TCF/LEF (lymphoid enhancer factor) family of transcription factors, and dysregulation of β-catenin is decisive for the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. However, the role of TCF4 in the transcriptional regulation of its target gene remained poorly understood. Resveratrol is a dietary phytoalexin and present in many plants, including grape skin, nuts and fruits. Although resveratrol has been widely implicated in anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic properties in several cancer models, the underlying cellular mechanisms are only partially understood. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of resveratrol in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of resveratrol and other phytochemicals decreased the expression of TCF4. Resveratrol decreases cellular accumulation of exogenously-introduced TCF4 protein, but did not change the TCF4 transcription. The inhibition of proteasomal degradation using MG132 (carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal) and lactacystin ameliorates resveratrol-stimulated down-regulation of TCF4. The half-life of TCF4 was decreased in the cells exposed to resveratrol. Resveratrol increased phosphorylation of TCF4 at serine/threonine residues through ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and p38-dependent pathways. The TCF4 knockdown decreased TCF/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity and sensitized resveratrol-induced apoptosis. The current study provides a new mechanistic link between resveratrol and TCF4 down-regulation and significant benefits for further preclinical and clinical practice. PMID:25961950

  16. Can resveratrol in wine protect against the carcinogenicity of ethanol? A probabilistic dose-response assessment.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Godelmann, Rolf; Witt, Barbara; Riedel, Kerstin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol, which may occur in wine, was suggested to act as a chemopreventive agent against the carcinogenic effects of ethanol. The assumption was based on data from experimental animals, which have shown that resveratrol above certain thresholds may reduce the incidence of tumours in several of the alcohol-related cancer sites (colon, liver and female breast). Using a probabilistic Monte Carlo type methodology, we estimated daily intake based on chemical analysis of resveratrol (n = 672) and ethanol (n = 867). Benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling was conducted for resveratrol based on eight animal experiments, whereas BMD data for ethanol were taken from the literature. The margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated for both substances as an indicator if the intake may reach effective dosages. For intake of one 100-mL glass of wine, the average MOE was found to be 4.1 for ethanol and 459,937 for resveratrol. In the best-case scenario for resveratrol (e.g., very high contents and assuming a low effective dosage), the minimum MOE would be 111, which means that 111 glasses of wine need to be consumed daily to reach the BMD. The MOE ratio between resveratrol and ethanol is 166,128 on average, meaning that per glass of wine, ethanol is more than 100,000 times more potent than resveratrol. As resveratrol intake may not optimally reach the effective dosage, our study excludes a preventive effect of this substance on alcohol-related cancer. Commercial information about cancer-preventive or -protective effects of resveratrol in wine is misleading and must be prohibited.

  17. Phenotype refinement strengthens the association of AHR and CYP1A1 genotype with caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    McMahon, George; Taylor, Amy E; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    Two genetic loci, one in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene region (rs2472297) and one near the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene (rs6968865), have been associated with habitual caffeine consumption. We sought to establish whether a more refined and comprehensive assessment of caffeine consumption would provide stronger evidence of association, and whether a combined allelic score comprising these two variants would further strengthen the association. We used data from between 4,460 and 7,520 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in the United Kingdom. Self-report data on coffee, tea and cola consumption (including consumption of decaffeinated drinks) were available at multiple time points. Both genotypes were individually associated with total caffeine consumption, and with coffee and tea consumption. There was no association with cola consumption, possibly due to low levels of consumption in this sample. There was also no association with measures of decaffeinated drink consumption, indicating that the observed association is most likely mediated via caffeine. The association was strengthened when a combined allelic score was used, accounting for up to 1.28% of phenotypic variance. This was not associated with potential confounders of observational association. A combined allelic score accounts for sufficient phenotypic variance in caffeine consumption that this may be useful in Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies may therefore be able to use this combined allelic score to explore causal effects of habitual caffeine consumption on health outcomes. PMID:25075865

  18. Phenotype Refinement Strengthens the Association of AHR and CYP1A1 Genotype with Caffeine Consumption

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, George; Taylor, Amy E.; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    Two genetic loci, one in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene region (rs2472297) and one near the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene (rs6968865), have been associated with habitual caffeine consumption. We sought to establish whether a more refined and comprehensive assessment of caffeine consumption would provide stronger evidence of association, and whether a combined allelic score comprising these two variants would further strengthen the association. We used data from between 4,460 and 7,520 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in the United Kingdom. Self-report data on coffee, tea and cola consumption (including consumption of decaffeinated drinks) were available at multiple time points. Both genotypes were individually associated with total caffeine consumption, and with coffee and tea consumption. There was no association with cola consumption, possibly due to low levels of consumption in this sample. There was also no association with measures of decaffeinated drink consumption, indicating that the observed association is most likely mediated via caffeine. The association was strengthened when a combined allelic score was used, accounting for up to 1.28% of phenotypic variance. This was not associated with potential confounders of observational association. A combined allelic score accounts for sufficient phenotypic variance in caffeine consumption that this may be useful in Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies may therefore be able to use this combined allelic score to explore causal effects of habitual caffeine consumption on health outcomes. PMID:25075865

  19. Increased resveratrol production in wines using engineered wine strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and relaxed antibiotic or auxotrophic selection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Liang, Jing-Long; Kang, Lin-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Jia-Jun; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Guo, Li-Qiong; Lin, Jun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse beneficial effects on human health. Red wine is the major dietary source of resveratrol but the amount that people can obtain from wines is limited. To increase the resveratrol production in wines, two expression vectors carrying 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase gene (RS) from Vitis vinifera were transformed into industrial wine strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118. When cultured with 1 mM p-coumaric acid, the engineered strains grown with and without the addition of antibiotics produced 8.249 and 3.317 mg/L of trans-resveratrol in the culture broth, respectively. Resveratrol content of the wine fermented with engineered strains was twice higher than that of the control, indicating that our engineered strains could increase the production of resveratrol during wine fermentation.

  20. Resveratrol directly targets DDX5 resulting in suppression of the mTORC1 pathway in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, T; Iizumi, Y; Watanabe, M; Masuda, M; Morita, M; Aono, Y; Toriyama, S; Oishi, M; Goi, W; Sakai, T

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol has various attractive bioactivities, such as prevention of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and obesity-related diseases. Therefore, identifying its direct binding proteins is expected to discover druggable targets. Sirtuin 1 and phosphodiesterases have so far been found as the direct molecular targets of resveratrol. We herein identified 11 novel resveratrol-binding proteins, including the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 5 (DDX5, also known as p68), using resveratrol-immobilized beads. Treatment with resveratrol induced degradation of DDX5 in prostate cancer cells. Depletion of DDX5 caused apoptosis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Moreover, knockdown of DDX5 attenuated the inhibitory activities of resveratrol against mTORC1 signaling and cancer cell growth. These data show that resveratrol directly targets DDX5 and induces cancer cell death by inhibiting the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:27148684

  1. Behavioral Rhythmicity of Mice Lacking AhR and Attenuation of Light-induced Phase Shift by 2,3,7,8-Tetracholordibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Motoko; Lin, Tien-Min; Peterson, Richard E.; Cooke, Paul S.; Tischkau, Shelley A.

    2008-01-01

    Transcription factors belonging to the Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domain family are highly conserved and many are involved in circadian rhythm regulation. One member of this family, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is an orphan receptor whose physiological role is unknown. Recent findings have led to the hypothesis that AhR has a role in circadian rhythm, which is the focus of the present investigation. First, time-of-day dependent mRNA expression of AhR and its signaling target, cytochrome p4501A1 (Cyp1a1) was determined in C57BL/6J mice by quantitative RT-PCR. Circadian expression of AhR and Cyp1a1 was observed both in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and liver. Next, the circadian phenotype of mice lacking AhR (AhRKO) was investigated using behavioral monitoring. Intact AhRKO mice had robust circadian rhythmicity with a similar tau under constant conditions compared to wild-type mice, but a significant difference in tau was observed between genotypes in ovariectomized female mice. Time to re-entrainment following 6-h advances or delays of the light/dark cycle was not significantly different between genotypes. However, mice exposed to the AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 1 μg/kg BW) displayed decreased phase shifts in response to light and had altered expression of Per1 and Bmal1. These results suggest that chronic activation of AhR may affect the ability of the circadian timekeeping system to adjust to alterations in environmental lighting by affecting canonical clock genes. Further studies are necessary to decipher the mechanism of how AhR agonists could disrupt light-induced phase shifts. If AhR does have a role in circadian rhythm, it may share redundant roles with other PAS domain proteins and/or the role of AhR may not be exhibited in the behavioral activity rhythm, but could be important elsewhere in the peripheral circadian system. PMID:18487412

  2. Bioavailability and safety study of resveratrol 500 mg tablets in healthy male and female volunteers

    PubMed Central

    SERGIDES, CHRISTAKIS; CHIRILĂ, MARINELA; SILVESTRO, LUIGI; PITTA, DAPHNE; PITTAS, ANDREAS

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, trans-resveratrol has received widespread attention as a preventive agent for numerous diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that it has significant biological and pharmacological properties. Trans-resveratrol has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-aging, cardioprotective and neuroprotective properties, which can be relevant in chronic diseases and longevity in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and extend of absorption, and also the safety of resveratrol following a single 500 mg oral dose. This was an open label, single dose, one period, bioavailability study in 15 healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. Blood samples were collected at predefined time points up to 24 h after resveratrol administration, and plasma concentrations of resveratrol and its conjugated (glucuronated and sulphated) metabolites were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Tmax, T1/2 and MRT, were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles and found to be in good agreement with previously reported data. Cmax and AUC0-inf were lower for resveratrol when compared with the values for its glucuronated and sulphated metabolites. Cmax for resveratrol, glucuronated resveratrol and sulphated resveratrol were 71.2±42.4 ng/ml, 4,083.9±1,704.4 ng/ml and 1,516.0±639.0 ng/ml, respectively, while the AUC0-inf values were 179.1±79.1 ng/ml, 39,732.4±16,145.6 ng/ml and 14,441.7±7,593.2 ng/ml, respectively. No adverse reactions associated with resveratrol were reported during the study. The plasma concentrations of resveratrol (free and conjugated) were in agreement with those mentioned in the literature, and were adequate to promote the pharmacological activities of resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol 500 mg tablets were well-tolerated by all

  3. The Phytoalexin Resveratrol Ameliorates Ochratoxin A Toxicity in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) Cells.

    PubMed

    Raghubeer, Shanel; Nagiah, Savania; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil

    2015-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. It contaminates human and animal food products, and chronic exposure is associated with renal fibrosis in humans (Balkan endemic nephropathy). Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, possesses anti-cancer and antioxidant properties. We investigated the mechanism of cellular oxidative stress induced by OTA, and the effect of resveratrol in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells over 24 and 48 h. Cells were exposed to OTA [IC50 = 1.5 μM (24 h) and 9.4 μM (48 h) determined using MTT assay] and 25 μM resveratrol. Glutathione was quantified by luminometry and gene expression of Nrf2 and OGG1 was determined by qPCR. Protein expression of Nrf2, LonP1, SIRT3, and pSIRT1 was assessed by Western blot, DNA damage (comet assay), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (flow cytometry). At 24 h, resveratrol increased mRNA expression of the DNA repair enzyme, OGG1 (P < 0.05), whereas OTA and OTA+resveratrol significantly decreased OGG1 expression (P < 0.05). OGG1 expression increased during 48-h exposure to resveratrol and OTA+resveratrol (P < 0.05). Comet tail lengths doubled in 48-h OTA-treated cells, whereas at both time periods, OTA+resveratrol yielded shorter comet tails (P < 0.0001). During 24- and 48-h exposure, OTA, resveratrol, and OTA+resveratrol significantly decreased mRNA expression of Nrf2 (P < 0.05). Luminometry analysis of GSH revealed an increase by OTA+resveratrol for 24 and 48 h (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Western blot analysis showed decreased Nrf2 protein expression during 24-h exposure, but increased Nrf2 expression during 48 h. LonP1 protein expression increased during 24-h exposure to OTA (P < 0.05) and OTA+resveratrol (P < 0.0011) and during 48-h exposure to resveratrol (P < 0.0005).

  4. Sequence and in vitro function of chicken, ring-necked pheasant, and Japanese quail AHR1 predict in vivo sensitivity to dioxins.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Wu, Dongmei; Crump, Doug; Hervé, Jessica C; Jones, Stephanie P; Hahn, Mark E; Karchner, Sibel I; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2012-03-01

    There are large differences in sensitivity to the toxic and biochemical effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) among vertebrates. Previously, we demonstrated that the difference in sensitivity between domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) to aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1)-dependent changes in gene expression following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is based upon the identities of the amino acids at two sites within the ligand binding domain of AHR1 (chicken--highly sensitive; Ile324_Ser380 vs common tern--250-fold less sensitive than chicken; Val325_Ala381). Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) the sensitivity of other avian species to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) is also determined by the amino acids at sites that are equivalent to sites 324 and 380 in chicken, and (ii) Ile324_Ala380 and Val324_Ser380 genotypes confer intermediate sensitivity to DLCs in birds. We compared ligand-induced transactivation function of full-length AHR1s from chicken, common tern, ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; Ile324_Ala380) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; Val324_Ala380), and three Japanese quail AHR1 mutants. The results support our hypothesis that avian species can be grouped into three general classes of sensitivity to DLCs. Both AHR1 genotype and in vitro transactivation assays predict in vivo sensitivity. Contrary to the assumption that TCDD is the most potent DLC, PeCDF was more potent than TCDD at activating Japanese quail (13- to 26-fold) and common tern (23- to 30-fold) AHR1. Our results support and expand previous in vitro and in vivo work that demonstrated ligand-dependent species differences in AHR1 affinity. The findings and methods will be of use for DLC risk assessments.

  5. Resveratrol-salicylate derivatives as selective DNMT3 inhibitors and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Aldawsari, Fahad S; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Yoo, Jakyung; Luo, Minkui; Medina-Franco, José L; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol with plethora of biological activities. Resveratrol has previously shown to decrease DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes expression and to reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes. Currently, it seems that no resveratrol analogs have been developed as DNMT inhibitors. Recently, we reported the synthesis of resveratrol-salicylate derivatives and by examining the chemical structure of these analogs, we proposed that these compounds could exhibit DNMT inhibition especially that they resembled NSC 14778, a compound we previously identified as a DNMT inhibitor by virtual screening. Indeed, using in vitro DNMT inhibition assay, some of the resveratrol-salicylate analogs we screened in this work that showed selective inhibition against DNMT3 enzymes which were greater than resveratrol. A molecular docking study revealed key binding interactions with DNMT3A and DNMT3B enzymes. In addition, the most active analog, 10 showed considerable cytotoxicity against three human cancer cells; HT-29, HepG2 and SK-BR-3, which was greater than resveratrol. Further studies are needed to understand the anticancer mechanisms of these derivatives.

  6. Neuroprotective properties and mechanisms of resveratrol in in vitro and in vivo experimental cerebral stroke models.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nilendra; Agrawal, Megha; Doré, Sylvain

    2013-08-21

    Resveratrol, a natural stilbene present at relatively high concentrations in grape skin and seeds and red wine, is known for its purported antioxidant activity in the vascular and nervous systems. In contrast to its direct antioxidant role within the central nervous system, recent research supports a protective mechanism through increasing endogenous cellular antioxidant defenses, which triggers a cascade of parallel neuroprotective pathways. A growing body of in vitro and in vivo evidence indicates that resveratrol acts through multiple pathways and reduces ischemic damage in vital organs, such as the heart and the brain, in various rodent models. Most of the protective biological actions of resveratrol have been associated with its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties and other indirect pathways. Continued public interest and increasing resveratrol supplements on the market warrant a review of the available in vitro and in vivo science reported in the stroke-related literature. Rigorous clinical trials evaluating the effects of resveratrol in stroke are absent, though the general population consumption appears to be relatively safe. Resveratrol has shown potential for treating stroke in laboratory animals and in vitro human cell studies, yet there is still a need for human research in preclinical settings. This review summarizes many of the findings on the neuroprotective potential of resveratrol in cerebral stroke, focusing on both the in vitro and in vivo experimental models and some proposed mechanisms of action.

  7. Resveratrol: How Much Wine Do You Have to Drink to Stay Healthy?

    PubMed

    Weiskirchen, Sabine; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring stilbene endowed with multiple health-promoting effects. It is produced by certain plants including several dietary sources such as grapes, apples, raspberries, blueberries, plums, peanuts, and products derived therefrom (e.g., wine). Resveratrol can be isolated and purified from these biological sources or synthesized in a few steps with an overall high yield. This compound and its glucoside, the trans-polydatin piceid, have received worldwide attention for their beneficial effects on cardiovascular, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, metabolic, and age-related diseases. These health-promoting effects are particularly attractive given the prevalence of resveratrol-based nutraceuticals and the paradoxical epidemiologic observation that wine consumption is inversely correlated to the incidence of coronary heart disease. However, the notion of resveratrol as a "magic bullet" was recently challenged by clinical trials showing that this polyphenol does not have a substantial influence on health status and mortality risk. In the present review, we discuss the proposed therapeutic attributes and the mode of molecular actions of resveratrol. We also cover recent pharmacologic efforts to improve the poor bioavailability of resveratrol and influence the transition between body systems in humans. We conclude with some thoughts about future research directions that might be meaningful for resolving controversies surrounding resveratrol. PMID:27422505

  8. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhash K.; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2015-01-01

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca2+ homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload. PMID:26638758

  9. Resveratrol-activated AMPK/SIRT1/autophagy in cellular models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuncheng; Li, Xinqun; Zhu, Julie Xiaohong; Xie, Wenjie; Le, Weidong; Fan, Zhen; Jankovic, Joseph; Pan, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Excessive misfolded proteins and/or dysfunctional mitochondria, which may cause energy deficiency, have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Enhanced clearance of misfolded proteins or injured mitochondria via autophagy has been reported to have neuroprotective roles in PD models. The fact that resveratrol is a known compound with multiple beneficial effects similar to those associated with energy metabolism led us to explore whether neuroprotective effects of resveratrol are related to its role in autophagy regulation. We tested whether modulation of mammalian silent information regulator 2 (SIRT1) and/or metabolic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are involved in autophagy induction by resveratrol, leading to neuronal survival. Our results showed that resveratrol protected against rotenone-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and enhanced degradation of α-synucleins in α-synuclein-expressing PC12 cell lines via autophagy induction. We found that suppression of AMPK and/or SIRT1 caused decrease of protein level of LC3-II, indicating that AMPK and/or SIRT1 are required in resveratrol-mediated autophagy induction. Moreover, suppression of AMPK caused inhibition of SIRT1 activity and attenuated protective effects of resveratrol on rotenone-induced apoptosis, further suggesting that AMPK-SIRT1-autophagy pathway plays an important role in the neuroprotection by resveratrol on PD cellular models.

  10. Ammonia impairs glutamatergic communication in astroglial cells: protective role of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Hansel, Gisele; Scherer, Emilene B S; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia is a key toxin in the precipitation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with liver failure. In response to ammonia, various toxic events are triggered in astroglial cells, and alterations in brain glutamate communication are common. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that has been extensively studied in pathological events because it presents several beneficial effects, including some in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously described that resveratrol is able to significantly modulate glial functioning and has a protective effect during ammonia challenge in vitro. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms by which resveratrol can protect C6 astroglial cells from glutamatergic alterations induced by ammonia. Resveratrol was able to prevent all the effects triggered by ammonia: (i) decrease in glutamate uptake activity and expression of the EAAC1 glutamate transporter, the main glutamate transporter present in C6 cells; (ii) increase of glutamate release, which was also dependent on the activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter NKCC1; (iii) reduction in GS activity and intracellular GSH content; and (iv) impairment of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. Interestingly, resveratrol, per se, also positively modulated the astroglial functions evaluated. Moreover, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), an enzyme that is part of the cellular defense system, mediated some of the effects of resveratrol. In conclusion, the mechanisms of the putative protective role of resveratrol against ammonia toxicity involve the modulation of pathways and molecules related to glutamate communication in astroglial cells.

  11. Resveratrol Is Active against Leishmania amazonensis: In Vitro Effect of Its Association with Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Christian; Soares, Deivid Costa; do Nascimento, Michelle Tanny Cunha; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena; Sarzedas, Carolina Galvão; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in black grapes and red wine and has many biological activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol alone and in association with amphotericin B (AMB) against Leishmania amazonensis. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol possesses both antipromastigote and antiamastigote effects, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 27 and 42 μM, respectively. The association of resveratrol with AMB showed synergy for L. amazonensis amastigotes, as demonstrated by the mean sums of fractional inhibitory index concentration (mean ΣFIC) of 0.483, although for promastigotes, this association was indifferent. Treatment with resveratrol increased the percentage of promastigotes in the sub-G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, reduced the mitochondrial potential, and showed an elevated choline peak and CH2-to-CH3 ratio in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis; all these features indicate parasite death. Resveratrol also decreased the activity of the enzyme arginase in uninfected and infected macrophages with and without stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), also implicating arginase inhibition in parasite death. The anti-Leishmania effect of resveratrol and its potential synergistic association with AMB indicate that these compounds should be subjected to further studies of drug association therapy in vivo. PMID:25114129

  12. Resveratrol improves survival, hemodynamics and energetics in a rat model of hypertension leading to heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Ruiz, Matthieu; Piquereau, Jérôme; Mateo, Philippe; Fortin, Dominique; Veksler, Vladimir; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by contractile dysfunction associated with altered energy metabolism. This study was aimed at determining whether resveratrol, a polyphenol known to activate energy metabolism, could be beneficial as a metabolic therapy of HF. Survival, ventricular and vascular function as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism were assessed in a hypertensive model of HF, the Dahl salt-sensitive rat fed with a high-salt diet (HS-NT). Resveratrol (18 mg/kg/day; HS-RSV) was given for 8 weeks after hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were established (which occurred 3 weeks after salt addition). Resveratrol treatment improved survival (64% in HS-RSV versus 15% in HS-NT, p<0.001), and prevented the 25% reduction in body weight in HS-NT (P<0.001). Moreover, RSV counteracted the development of cardiac dysfunction (fractional shortening -34% in HS-NT) as evaluated by echocardiography, which occurred without regression of hypertension or hypertrophy. Moreover, aortic endothelial dysfunction present in HS-NT was prevented in resveratrol-treated rats. Resveratrol treatment tended to preserve mitochondrial mass and biogenesis and completely protected mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) expression. We conclude that resveratrol treatment exerts beneficial protective effects on survival, endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation and cardiac contractile and mitochondrial function, suggesting that resveratrol or metabolic activators could be a relevant therapy in hypertension-induced HF. PMID:22028869

  13. A sensitive resveratrol assay with a simple probe methylene blue by resonance light scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Haiyan; Dai, Kaijin; Luo, Qizhi; Duan, Wenjun; Xie, Yang

    2011-01-01

    A novel resonance light scattering (RLS) method was developed for the determination of resveratrol based on the interaction between resveratrol and methylene blue (MB). It was found that at pH 8.69, the weak RLS intensity of MB was remarkably enhanced by the addition of trace amount of resveratrol with the maximum peak located at 385.0 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship between the enhanced RLS intensities and the concentrations of resveratrol was obtained over the range of 2.0-14.0 μg ml -1 with the detection limit (3 σ) of 0.63 μg ml -1. The results of the analysis of resveratrol in synthetic samples and human urine are satisfactory, which showed it may provide a more sensitive, convenient, rapid and reproducible method for the detection of resveratrol, especially in biological and pharmaceutical field. In this work, the characteristics of RLS, absorption and fluorescence spectra of the resveratrol-MB system, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated.

  14. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhash K; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B; Hajjar, Roger J; Dyck, Jason R B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2015-12-07

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca(2+) homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload.

  15. Resveratrol attenuates peripheral and brain inflammation and reduces ischemic brain injury in aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sae Im; Shin, Jin A; Cho, Sunghee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is known to improve metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. Visceral obesity is a sign of aging and is considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the brain and its effects on ischemic brain injury in aged female mice. Mice treated with resveratrol (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduced levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in the size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue. Resveratrol also reduced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and immunoglobulin G extravasation in the brain. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated smaller infarct size, improved neurological function, and blunted peripheral inflammation at 3 days postischemic stroke. These results showed that resveratrol counteracted inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and in the brain and reduced stroke-induced brain injury and peripheral inflammation in aged female mice. Therefore, resveratrol administration can be a valuable strategy for the prevention of age-associated and disease-provoked inflammation in postmenopausal women.

  16. Resveratrol shows neuronal and vascular-protective effects in older, obese, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Hnin Ei; Irwin, Jordon Candice; Vella, Rebecca Kate; Fenning, Andrew Stuart

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes-induced CVD is the most significant complication of prolonged hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant compound, when administered at a dose that can be reasonably obtained through supplementation could prevent the development of cardiovascular complications in older, obese, diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 6-month old, obese, male Wistar rats via a single intravenous dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Randomly selected animals were administered resveratrol (2 mg/kg) via oral gavage daily for 8 weeks. Body weights, blood glucose levels, food intake and water consumption were monitored, and assessments of vascular reactivity, tactile allodynia and left ventricular function were performed. Resveratrol therapy significantly improved tactile allodynia and vascular contractile functionality in diabetic rats (P<0·05). There were no significant changes in standardised vasorelaxation responses, plasma glucose concentrations, water consumption, body weight, left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney hypertrophy, heart rate or left ventricular compliance with resveratrol administration. Resveratrol-mediated improvements in vascular and nerve function in old, obese, diabetic rats were associated with its reported antioxidant effects. Resveratrol did not improve cardiac function nor mitigate the classic clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus (i.e. hyperglycaemia, polydypsia and a failure to thrive). This suggests that supplementation with resveratrol at a dose achievable with commercially available supplements would not produce significant cardioprotective effects in people with diabetes mellitus.

  17. Strategies for enhancing resveratrol production and the expression of pathway enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Shao, Dongyan; Shi, Junling; Huang, Qingsheng; Yang, Hui; Jin, Mingliang

    2016-09-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is one of the most promising stilbenes, a type of natural phenol that is produced naturally by some plant species in response to stress. Resveratrol exhibits multiple bioactivities and is used in the agriculture, medical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its antitumor, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and antioxidant properties. Due to the increasing demand, an active area of investigation is the use of plant cell culture and metabolic engineering techniques to produce large quantities of active resveratrol. However, most recent studies have focused on the efficiency of synthesizing resveratrol in vitro, but have not investigated the contributions of the transcriptional activities of the genes encoding the related enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway. This article reviews recently developed methods for the biosynthesis of resveratrol and comprehensively reviews the current state of knowledge of the function of the key pathway enzymes in resveratrol synthesis. Approaches for enhancing resveratrol production, such as introducing non-pathway genes and co-localizing enzymes are described in detail.

  18. Signaling mechanisms underlying the glioprotective effects of resveratrol against mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bellaver, Bruna; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Souza, Débora Guerini; Rodrigues, Marília Danielly Nunes; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Wajner, Moacir; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and, neuroprotective effects. Resveratrol also plays a significant role modulating glial functionality, protecting the health of neuroglial cells against several neuropsychiatric in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Mitochondrial impairment strongly affected astrocyte functions and consequently brain homeostasis. Molecules that promote astrocyte mitochondrial protection are fundamental to maintain brain energy balance and cellular redox state, contributing to brain healthy. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate some glioprotective mechanisms of resveratrol against mitochondrial damage promoted by azide exposure in hippocampal primary astrocyte cultures. Azide treatment provoked deleterious effects, including the dysfunction of mitochondria, the deterioration of redox homeostasis, the augmentation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and impairment of glutamate uptake activity. However, resveratrol prevented these effects, protecting hippocampal astrocytes against azide-induced cytotoxicity through the heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway and inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation. Resveratrol also protected astrocytes via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. These results contribute to the comprehension of the mechanisms by which resveratrol mediates hippocampal astrocyte protection against mitochondrial failure and implicate resveratrol as an important glioprotective molecule.

  19. SIRT1 IS INVOLVED IN ENERGY METABOLISM: THE ROLE OF CHRONIC ETHANOL FEEDING AND RESVERATROL

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Joan; French, Barbara A.; Li, Jun; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Fu, Paul; French, Samuel W.

    2010-01-01

    Sirt1, a deacetylase involved in regulating energy metabolism in response to calorie restriction, is up regulated after chronic ethanol feeding using the intragastric feeding model of alcohol liver disease. PGC1α is also up regulated in response to ethanol. These changes are consistent with activation of the Sirt1/PGC1α pathway of metabolism and aging, involved in alcohol liver disease including steatosis, necrosis and fibrosis of the liver. To test this hypothesis, male rats fed ethanol intragastrically for 1 month were compared with rats fed ethanol plus resveratrol or naringin. Liver histology showed macrovesicular steatosis caused by ethanol and this change was unchanged by resveratrol or naringin treatment. Necrosis occurred with ethanol alone but was accentuated by resveratrol treatment, as was fibrosis. The expression of Sirt1 and PGC1α was increased by ethanol but not when naringin or resveratrol was fed with ethanol. Sirt3 was also up regulated by ethanol but not when resveratrol was fed with ethanol. These results support the concept that ethanol induces the Sirt1/PGC1α pathway of gene regulation and both naringin and resveratrol prevent the activation of this pathway by ethanol. However, resveratrol did not reduce the liver pathology caused by chronic ethanol feeding. PMID:18793633

  20. Signaling mechanisms underlying the glioprotective effects of resveratrol against mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bellaver, Bruna; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Souza, Débora Guerini; Rodrigues, Marília Danielly Nunes; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Wajner, Moacir; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and, neuroprotective effects. Resveratrol also plays a significant role modulating glial functionality, protecting the health of neuroglial cells against several neuropsychiatric in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Mitochondrial impairment strongly affected astrocyte functions and consequently brain homeostasis. Molecules that promote astrocyte mitochondrial protection are fundamental to maintain brain energy balance and cellular redox state, contributing to brain healthy. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate some glioprotective mechanisms of resveratrol against mitochondrial damage promoted by azide exposure in hippocampal primary astrocyte cultures. Azide treatment provoked deleterious effects, including the dysfunction of mitochondria, the deterioration of redox homeostasis, the augmentation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and impairment of glutamate uptake activity. However, resveratrol prevented these effects, protecting hippocampal astrocytes against azide-induced cytotoxicity through the heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway and inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation. Resveratrol also protected astrocytes via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. These results contribute to the comprehension of the mechanisms by which resveratrol mediates hippocampal astrocyte protection against mitochondrial failure and implicate resveratrol as an important glioprotective molecule. PMID:27373419

  1. Resveratrol induces apoptosis in K562 cells via the regulation of mitochondrial signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binghua; Liu, Jiao; Gong, Zhanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, an edible polyphenolic phytoalexin obtained primarily from root extracts of the oriental plant, Polygonum cuspidatum and from grapes and red wine, has been reported as an anticancer compound against several types of cancer, the accurate molecular mechanisms of by which it induces apoptosis are limited. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol on human leukemia K562 cells apoptosis was examined. Our results showed that resveratrol significantly decreased cell viability and triggered cell apoptosis in K562 cells. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the activation of caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP was also observed in K562 cells treated with resveratrol. Thus, we considered that the resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells might be mediated through the mitochondria pathway, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of resveratrol as a potential cancer therapeutic compound. PMID:26629245

  2. Cleavage of resveratrol in fungi: characterization of the enzyme Rco1 from Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Brefort, Thomas; Scherzinger, Daniel; Limón, M Carmen; Estrada, Alejandro F; Trautmann, Danika; Mengel, Carina; Avalos, Javier; Al-Babili, Salim

    2011-02-01

    Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, contains two genes encoding members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family, a group of enzymes that cleave double bonds in different substrates. One of them, Cco1, was formerly identified as a β-carotene cleaving enzyme. Here we elucidate the function of the protein encoded by the second gene, termed here as Ustilago maydis Resveratrol cleavage oxygenase 1 (Um Rco1). In vitro incubations of heterologously expressed and purified UM Rco1 with different carotenoid and stilbene substrates demonstrate that it cleaves the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of the phytoalexin resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. Um Rco1 exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity, as suggested by the lack of activity on carotenoids and the other resveratrol-related compounds tested. The activity of Um Rco1 was confirmed by incubation of U. maydis rco1 deletion and over-expression strains with resveratrol. Furthermore, treatment with resveratrol resulted in striking alterations of cell morphology. However, pathogenicity assays indicated that Um rco1 is largely dispensable for biotrophic development. Our work reveals Um Rco1 as the first eukaryotic resveratrol cleavage enzyme identified so far. Moreover, Um Rco1 represents a subfamily of fungal enzymes likely involved in the degradation of stilbene compounds, as suggested by the cleavage of resveratrol by homologs from Aspergillus fumigatus, Chaetomium globosum and Botryotinia fuckeliana.

  3. Resveratrol and health from a consumer perspective: perception, attitude, and adoption of a new functional ingredient.

    PubMed

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol is an ingredient widely researched, with growing evidence of health-promoting effects. However, the reactions of supplement or food consumers to resveratrol has not been researched, and the ingredient is yet unknown to most consumers. We used respective literature and our own resveratrol consumer studies with Danish and U.S. consumers to look at current findings and future research directions for three questions. (1) Which factors determine consumer interest in a yet unknown functional ingredient such as resveratrol? (2) How should resveratrol be marketed as a new functional ingredient to be understood and favorably perceived? (3) What could be the effects of adoption of an ingredient such as resveratrol on the healthy lifestyle of a consumer? Literature and first results indicate that personal relevance and familiarity are crucial factors; however, consumers show little interest in resveratrol and lack relevant knowledge, especially in Denmark. Favorable attitudes were explained by health outcome expectations, use of complementary and alternative medicine, and interest in the indulgence dimension of food. Nonscientifically phrased communication led to more favorable attitudes in Danish consumers; scientifically phrased communication, though, made U.S. consumers more likely to retain favorable attitudes in the presence of contradictory evidence. We discuss future research directions in different cultural backgrounds and market contexts and for different foods. PMID:26315295

  4. Strategies for enhancing resveratrol production and the expression of pathway enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Shao, Dongyan; Shi, Junling; Huang, Qingsheng; Yang, Hui; Jin, Mingliang

    2016-09-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is one of the most promising stilbenes, a type of natural phenol that is produced naturally by some plant species in response to stress. Resveratrol exhibits multiple bioactivities and is used in the agriculture, medical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its antitumor, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and antioxidant properties. Due to the increasing demand, an active area of investigation is the use of plant cell culture and metabolic engineering techniques to produce large quantities of active resveratrol. However, most recent studies have focused on the efficiency of synthesizing resveratrol in vitro, but have not investigated the contributions of the transcriptional activities of the genes encoding the related enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway. This article reviews recently developed methods for the biosynthesis of resveratrol and comprehensively reviews the current state of knowledge of the function of the key pathway enzymes in resveratrol synthesis. Approaches for enhancing resveratrol production, such as introducing non-pathway genes and co-localizing enzymes are described in detail. PMID:27405437

  5. Resveratrol and health from a consumer perspective: perception, attitude, and adoption of a new functional ingredient.

    PubMed

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol is an ingredient widely researched, with growing evidence of health-promoting effects. However, the reactions of supplement or food consumers to resveratrol has not been researched, and the ingredient is yet unknown to most consumers. We used respective literature and our own resveratrol consumer studies with Danish and U.S. consumers to look at current findings and future research directions for three questions. (1) Which factors determine consumer interest in a yet unknown functional ingredient such as resveratrol? (2) How should resveratrol be marketed as a new functional ingredient to be understood and favorably perceived? (3) What could be the effects of adoption of an ingredient such as resveratrol on the healthy lifestyle of a consumer? Literature and first results indicate that personal relevance and familiarity are crucial factors; however, consumers show little interest in resveratrol and lack relevant knowledge, especially in Denmark. Favorable attitudes were explained by health outcome expectations, use of complementary and alternative medicine, and interest in the indulgence dimension of food. Nonscientifically phrased communication led to more favorable attitudes in Danish consumers; scientifically phrased communication, though, made U.S. consumers more likely to retain favorable attitudes in the presence of contradictory evidence. We discuss future research directions in different cultural backgrounds and market contexts and for different foods.

  6. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to overcome intestinal resveratrol toxicity and presystemic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seljak, Katarina Bolko; Berginc, Katja; Trontelj, Jurij; Zvonar, Alenka; Kristl, Albin; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    A mixed lipid-mixed surfactant self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed to exploit the health benefits of resveratrol, a Biopharmaceutical Classification System Class 2 natural polyphenol, subject to extensive intestinal presystemic metabolism. SMEDDS with a mixed lipid phase (castor oil/Capmul MCM 1:1) and a mixed surfactant phase (Kolliphor EL/Kolliphor RH 40 1:1) was developed and evaluated for its self-emulsifying properties and in vitro dispersion. The impact of SMEDDS on the permeability properties of resveratrol and its metabolite fluxes through the rat intestine and Caco-2 cells was monitored. The inhibitory effect of selected SMEDDS components on the efflux transporters multidrug resistance-associated protein and P-gp as well as cytotoxicity was assessed on Caco-2 cells. The formulation allowed for high resveratrol loading (122.5 mg/g SMEDDS), excellent self-emulsifying properties, and very rapid release. When formulated in SMEDDS, resveratrol metabolite efflux significantly declined. The formulation (SMEDDS without incorporated resveratrol) and its individual components did not compromise in vitro cell vitality and integrity. Mixed lipid-mixed surfactant SMEDDS is a prospective formulation to improve resveratrol biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological properties, leading the way to resveratrol use not only as a supplement but also as a pharmacological drug.

  7. Resveratrol ameliorates high glucose-induced protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Ja; Feliers, Denis; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Li, Manli; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2010-01-01

    High glucose-induced protein synthesis in the glomerular epithelial cell (GEC) is partly dependent on reduction in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We evaluated the effect of resveratrol, a phytophenol known to stimulate AMPK, on protein synthesis. Resveratrol completely inhibited high glucose stimulation of protein synthesis and synthesis of fibronectin, an important matrix protein, at 3 days. Resveratrol dose-dependently increased AMPK phosphorylation and abolished high glucose-induced reduction in its phosphorylation. We examined the effect of resveratrol on critical steps in mRNA translation, a critical event in protein synthesis. Resveratrol inhibited high glucose-induced changes in association of eIF4E with eIF4G, phosphorylation of eIF4E, eEF2, eEF2 kinase and, p70S6 kinase, indicating that it affects important events in both initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation. Upstream regulators of AMPK in high glucose-treated GEC were explored. High glucose augmented acetylation of LKB1, the upstream kinase for AMPK, and inhibited its activity. Resveratrol prevented acetylation of LKB1 and restored its activity in high glucose-treated cells; this action did not appear to depend on SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. Our data show that resveratrol ameliorates protein synthesis by regulating the LKB1-AMPK axis.

  8. Resveratrol: How Much Wine Do You Have to Drink to Stay Healthy?

    PubMed

    Weiskirchen, Sabine; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring stilbene endowed with multiple health-promoting effects. It is produced by certain plants including several dietary sources such as grapes, apples, raspberries, blueberries, plums, peanuts, and products derived therefrom (e.g., wine). Resveratrol can be isolated and purified from these biological sources or synthesized in a few steps with an overall high yield. This compound and its glucoside, the trans-polydatin piceid, have received worldwide attention for their beneficial effects on cardiovascular, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, metabolic, and age-related diseases. These health-promoting effects are particularly attractive given the prevalence of resveratrol-based nutraceuticals and the paradoxical epidemiologic observation that wine consumption is inversely correlated to the incidence of coronary heart disease. However, the notion of resveratrol as a "magic bullet" was recently challenged by clinical trials showing that this polyphenol does not have a substantial influence on health status and mortality risk. In the present review, we discuss the proposed therapeutic attributes and the mode of molecular actions of resveratrol. We also cover recent pharmacologic efforts to improve the poor bioavailability of resveratrol and influence the transition between body systems in humans. We conclude with some thoughts about future research directions that might be meaningful for resolving controversies surrounding resveratrol.

  9. Resveratrol shows neuronal and vascular-protective effects in older, obese, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Hnin Ei; Irwin, Jordon Candice; Vella, Rebecca Kate; Fenning, Andrew Stuart

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes-induced CVD is the most significant complication of prolonged hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant compound, when administered at a dose that can be reasonably obtained through supplementation could prevent the development of cardiovascular complications in older, obese, diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 6-month old, obese, male Wistar rats via a single intravenous dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Randomly selected animals were administered resveratrol (2 mg/kg) via oral gavage daily for 8 weeks. Body weights, blood glucose levels, food intake and water consumption were monitored, and assessments of vascular reactivity, tactile allodynia and left ventricular function were performed. Resveratrol therapy significantly improved tactile allodynia and vascular contractile functionality in diabetic rats (P<0·05). There were no significant changes in standardised vasorelaxation responses, plasma glucose concentrations, water consumption, body weight, left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney hypertrophy, heart rate or left ventricular compliance with resveratrol administration. Resveratrol-mediated improvements in vascular and nerve function in old, obese, diabetic rats were associated with its reported antioxidant effects. Resveratrol did not improve cardiac function nor mitigate the classic clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus (i.e. hyperglycaemia, polydypsia and a failure to thrive). This suggests that supplementation with resveratrol at a dose achievable with commercially available supplements would not produce significant cardioprotective effects in people with diabetes mellitus. PMID:27153202

  10. Excited-State Proton Transfer in Resveratrol and Proposed Mechanism for Plant Resistance to Fungal Infection.

    PubMed

    Simkovitch, Ron; Huppert, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques were employed to study the photophysics and photochemistry of trans-resveratrol. trans-Resveratrol is found in large quantities in fungi-infected grapevine-leaf tissue and plays a direct role in the resistance to plant disease. We found that trans-resveratrol in liquid solution undergoes a trans-cis isomerization process in the excited state at a rate that depends partially on the solvent viscosity, as was found in previous studies on trans-stilbene. The hydroxyl groups of the phenol moieties in resveratrol are weak photoacids. In water and methanol solutions containing weak bases such as acetate, a proton is transferred to the base within the lifetime of the excited state. When resveratrol is adsorbed on cellulose (also a component of the plant's cell wall), the cis-trans process is slow and the lifetime of the excited state increases from several tens of picoseconds in ethanol to about 1.5 ns. Excited-state proton transfer occurs when resveratrol is adsorbed on cellulose and acetate ions are in close proximity to the phenol moieties. We propose that proton transfer from excited resveratrol to the fungus acid-sensing chemoreceptor is one of the plant's resistance mechanisms to fungal infection.

  11. Resveratrol induces apoptosis in K562 cells via the regulation of mitochondrial signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Binghua; Liu, Jiao; Gong, Zhanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, an edible polyphenolic phytoalexin obtained primarily from root extracts of the oriental plant, Polygonum cuspidatum and from grapes and red wine, has been reported as an anticancer compound against several types of cancer, the accurate molecular mechanisms of by which it induces apoptosis are limited. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol on human leukemia K562 cells apoptosis was examined. Our results showed that resveratrol significantly decreased cell viability and triggered cell apoptosis in K562 cells. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the activation of caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP was also observed in K562 cells treated with resveratrol. Thus, we considered that the resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells might be mediated through the mitochondria pathway, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of resveratrol as a potential cancer therapeutic compound. PMID:26629245

  12. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Vispute, Saurabh G; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (-105/+1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200μg/kg of TCDD died within 20days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xingguo; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression.

  14. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Vispute, Saurabh G; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (-105/+1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200μg/kg of TCDD died within 20days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. PMID:24769090

  15. Sexually antagonistic genes: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Rice, W R

    1992-06-01

    When selection differs between the sexes, a mutation beneficial to one sex may be harmful to the other (sexually antagonistic). Because the sexes share a common gene pool, selection in one sex can interfere with the other's adaptive evolution. Theory predicts that sexually antagonistic mutations should accumulate in tight linkage with a new sex-determining gene, even when the harm to benefit ratio is high. Genetic markers and artificial selection were used to make a pair of autosomal genes segregate like a new pair of sex-determining genes in a Drosophila melanogaster model system. A 29-generation study provides experimental evidence that sexually antagonistic genes may be common in nature and will accumulate in response to a new sex-determining gene. PMID:1604317

  16. Co-ordinated autophagy with resveratrol and γ-tocotrienol confers synergetic cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Lekli, Istvan; Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Ahsan, Md Kaimul; Juhasz, Bela; Bak, Istvan; Tosaki, Arpad; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Lawrence M; Das, Dipak K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study compared two dietary phytochemicals, grape-derived resveratrol and palm oil-derived γ-tocotrienol, either alone or in combination, on the contribution of autophagy in cardioprotection during ischaemia and reperfusion. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 250 and 300 g were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: vehicle, ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), resveratrol + I/R, γ-tocotrienol + I/R, resveratrol +γ-tocotrienol + I/R. For resveratrol treatments, the rats were gavaged with resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg) for 15 days while for γ-tocotrienol experiments the rats were gavaged with γ-tocotrienol (0.3 mg/kg) for 30 days. For the combined resveratrol +γ-tocotrienol experiments, the rats were gavaged with γ-tocotrienol for 15 days, and then gavaging continued with resveratrol along with γ-tocotrienol for a further period of 15 days. After 30 days, isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 30 min. of global ischaemia followed by 2 hrs of reperfusion. Our results showed for the first time that at least in part, the cardioprotection (evidenced from the ventricular performance, myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis) with resveratrol and γ-toctrienol was achieved by their abilities to induce autophagy. Most importantly, resveratrol and γ-tocotrienol acted synergistically providing greater degree of cardioprotection simultaneously generating greater amount of survival signal through the activation of Akt-Bcl-2 survival pathway. Autophagy was accompanied by the activation of Beclin and LC3-II as well as mTOR signalling, which were inhibited by either 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) or Wortmannin. The autophagy was confirmed from the results of transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy as well as with confocal microscopy. It is tempting to speculate that during ischaemia and reperfusion autophagy along with enhanced survival signals helps to recover the cells from injury. PMID:19799646

  17. Therapy with resveratrol attenuates obesity-associated allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    André, Diana Majolli; Calixto, Marina Ciarallo; Sollon, Carolina; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Leiria, Luiz O; Tobar, Natalia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Antunes, Edson

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance have been associated with deterioration in asthma outcomes. High oxidative stress and deficient activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have emerged as important regulators linking insulin resistance and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on obesity-associated allergic pulmonary inflammation. Male C57/Bl6 mice fed with high-fat diet to induce obesity (obese group) or standard-chow diet (lean group) were treated or not with resveratrol (100mg/kg/day, two weeks). Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). At 48h thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was performed, and lungs collected for morphological studies and Western blot analysis. Treatment of obese mice with resveratrol significantly reduced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, as well as the body measures (body mass, fat mass, % fat, and body area). OVA-challenge promoted a higher increase in pulmonary eosinophil infiltration in obese compared with lean mice, which was nearly abrogated by resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol markedly increased the phosphorylated AMPK expression in lung tissues of obese compared with lean mice. Resveratrol reduced the p47phox expression and reactive-oxygen species (ROS) production, and elevated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in lung tissues of obese mice. The increased pulmonary levels of TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in obese mice were also normalized after resveratrol treatment. In lean mice, resveratrol failed to affect the levels of fasting glucose, p47phox, ROS levels, TNF-α, iNOS and phosphorylated AMPK. Resveratrol exhibits protective effects in obesity-associated lung inflammation that is accompanied by local AMPK activation and antioxidant property. PMID:27344038

  18. Resveratrol counters systemic lupus erythematosus-associated atherogenicity by normalizing cholesterol efflux.

    PubMed

    Voloshyna, Iryna; Teboul, Isaac; Littlefield, Michael J; Siegart, Nicolle M; Turi, George K; Fazzari, Melissa J; Carsons, Steven E; DeLeon, Joshua; Reiss, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is a bioactive molecule used in dietary supplements and herbal medicines and consumed worldwide. Numerous investigations by our group and others have indicated cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol. The present study explored potential atheroprotective actions of resveratrol on cholesterol efflux in cultured human macrophages exposed to plasma from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. These results were confirmed in ApoE(-/-)Fas(-/-) double knockout mice, displaying a lupus profile with accelerated atherosclerosis. Resveratrol treatment attenuated atherosclerosis in these mice. THP-1 human macrophages were exposed to 10% pooled or individual plasma from patients who met diagnostic criteria for SLE. Expression of multiple proteins involved in reverse cholesterol transport (ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-B1, and cytochrome P450 27-hydroxylase) was assessed using QRT-PCR and Western blotting techniques. Ten-week-old ApoE(-/-)Fas(-/-) double knockout mice (n = 30) were randomly divided into two equal groups of 15, one of which received 0.01% resveratrol for 10 consecutive weeks. Atherosclerosis progression was evaluated in murine aortas. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were cultured and expression of cholesterol efflux proteins was analyzed in each group of mice. Our data indicate that inhibition of cholesterol efflux by lupus plasma in THP-1 human macrophages is rescued by resveratrol. Similarly, administration of resveratrol in a lupus-like murine model reduces plaque formation in vivo and augments cholesterol efflux in BMDM. This study presents evidence for a beneficial role of resveratrol in atherosclerosis in the specific setting of SLE. Therefore, resveratrol may merit investigation as an additional resource available to reduce lipid deposition and atherosclerosis in humans, especially in such vulnerable populations as lupus patients. PMID:27190277

  19. Chronic treatment with resveratrol improves overactive bladder in obese mice via antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Eduardo C; Calmasini, Fabiano B; de Oliveira, Mariana G; Silva, Fábio H; da Silva, Carmem P V; André, Diana M; Leonardo, Flávia C; Delbin, Maria A; Antunes, Edson

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate whether oral intake with resveratrol ameliorates overactive bladder in high-fat fed mice. Male C57BL6 mice fed with standard chow or high-fat diet to induce obesity received a two-week therapy with resveratrol (100mg/kg, given as a daily gavage). Weight and metabolic profile, together with cystometry and in vitro bladder contractions were evaluated. Measurements of gp91phox and SOD1 mRNA expressions and reactive-oxygen species (ROS) in bladder tissues, and serum TBARS were performed. Obese mice exhibited increases in body weight and epididymal fat mass, which were significantly reduced by oral treatment with resveratrol. Cystometric study in obese mice showed increases in non-voiding contractions, post-voiding pressure and voiding frequency that were reversed by resveratrol treatment. Likewise, the in vitro bladder overactivity in response to electrical-field stimulation (80V, 1-32Hz) or carbachol (1nM to 10mM) were normalized by resveratrol. The gp91phox and SOD1 mRNA expressions in bladder tissues were markedly higher in obese mice compared with lean group. In addition, ROS levels in bladder tissues and serum lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay) were markedly higher in obese compared with lean mice, all of which were reduced by resveratrol treatment. In lean group, resveratrol had no effect in any parameter evaluated. Our results show that two-week therapy of obese mice with resveratrol reduces the systemic and bladder oxidative stress, and greatly ameliorated the cystometry alterations and in vitro bladder overactivity. Resveratrol treatment could be an option to prevent obesity-associated overactive bladder.

  20. Methylation Landscape of Human Breast Cancer Cells in Response to Dietary Compound Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Medina-Aguilar, Rubiceli; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Marchat, Laurence A; Gariglio, Patricio; García Mena, Jaime; Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio; Ruíz-García, Erika; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Hernández Juárez, Jennifer; Flores-Pérez, Ali; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent epigenetic alteration in cancer cells that has emerged as a pivotal mechanism for tumorigenesis. Accordingly, novel therapies targeting the epigenome are being explored with the aim to restore normal DNA methylation patterns on oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. A limited number of studies indicate that dietary compound resveratrol modulates DNA methylation of several cancer-related genes; however a complete view of changes in methylome by resveratrol has not been reported yet. In this study we performed a genome-wide survey of DNA methylation signatures in triple negative breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Our data showed that resveratrol treatment for 24 h and 48 h decreased gene promoter hypermethylation and increased DNA hypomethylation. Of 2476 hypermethylated genes in control cells, 1,459 and 1,547 were differentially hypomethylated after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Remarkably, resveratrol did not induce widespread non-specific DNA hyper- or hypomethylation as changes in methylation were found in only 12.5% of 27,728 CpG loci. Moreover, resveratrol restores the hypomethylated and hypermethylated status of key tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Importantly, the integrative analysis of methylome and transcriptome profiles in response to resveratrol showed that methylation alterations were concordant with changes in mRNA expression. Our findings reveal for the first time the impact of resveratrol on the methylome of breast cancer cells and identify novel potential targets for epigenetic therapy. We propose that resveratrol may be considered as a dietary epidrug as it may exert its anti-tumor activities by modifying the methylation status of cancer -related genes which deserves further in vivo characterization. PMID:27355345

  1. Resveratrol modulates drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in a healthy volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Chow, H-H Sherry; Garland, Linda L; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Vining, Donna R; Chew, Wade M; Miller, Jessica A; Perloff, Marjorie; Crowell, James A; Alberts, David S

    2010-09-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exhibit cancer-preventive activities in preclinical studies. We conducted a clinical study to determine the effect of pharmacologic doses of resveratrol on drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent baseline assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and phase II detoxification enzymes. CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were measured by the metabolism of caffeine, dextromethorphan, losartan, and buspirone, respectively. Blood lymphocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST-pi level and serum total and direct bilirubin, a surrogate for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 activity, were measured to assess phase II enzymes. After the baseline evaluation, study participants took 1 g of resveratrol once daily for 4 weeks. Enzyme assessment was repeated upon intervention completion. Resveratrol intervention was found to inhibit the phenotypic indices of CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP2C9 and to induce the phenotypic index of 1A2. Overall, GST and UGT1A1 activities were minimally affected by the intervention, although an induction of GST-pi level and UGT1A1 activity was observed in individuals with low baseline enzyme level/activity. We conclude that resveratrol can modulate enzyme systems involved in carcinogen activation and detoxification, which may be one mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits carcinogenesis. However, pharmacologic doses of resveratrol could potentially lead to increased adverse drug reactions or altered drug efficacy due to inhibition or induction of certain CYPs. Further clinical development of resveratrol for cancer prevention should consider evaluation of lower doses of resveratrol to minimize adverse metabolic drug interactions. PMID:20716633

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ronald G.; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A.; Brewer, James B.; Rissman, Robert A.; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Methods: Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Results: Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions: Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood–brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. PMID:26362286

  3. De novo production of resveratrol from glucose or ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingji; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Chen, Yun; Rodriguez, Angelica; Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant compound, used as food supplement and cosmetic ingredient. Microbial production of resveratrol has until now been achieved by supplementation of expensive substrates, p-coumaric acid or aromatic amino acids. Here we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce resveratrol directly from glucose or ethanol via tyrosine intermediate. First we introduced the biosynthetic pathway, consisting of tyrosine ammonia-lyase from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus, 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase from Vitis vinifera, and obtained 2.73 ± 0.05 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose. Then we over-expressed feedback-insensitive alleles of ARO4 encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate and ARO7 encoding chorismate mutase, resulting in production of 4.85 ± 0.31 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose as the sole carbon source. Next we improved the supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by over-expressing a post-translational de-regulated version of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase encoding gene ACC1; this strategy further increased resveratrol production to 6.39 ± 0.03 mg L(-1). Subsequently, we improved the strain by performing multiple-integration of pathway genes resulting in resveratrol production of 235.57 ± 7.00 mg L(-1). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of the final strain with glucose or ethanol as carbon source resulted in a resveratrol titer of 415.65 and 531.41 mg L(-1), respectively. PMID:26344106

  4. Methylation Landscape of Human Breast Cancer Cells in Response to Dietary Compound Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Medina-Aguilar, Rubiceli; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Marchat, Laurence A; Gariglio, Patricio; García Mena, Jaime; Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio; Ruíz-García, Erika; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Hernández Juárez, Jennifer; Flores-Pérez, Ali; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent epigenetic alteration in cancer cells that has emerged as a pivotal mechanism for tumorigenesis. Accordingly, novel therapies targeting the epigenome are being explored with the aim to restore normal DNA methylation patterns on oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. A limited number of studies indicate that dietary compound resveratrol modulates DNA methylation of several cancer-related genes; however a complete view of changes in methylome by resveratrol has not been reported yet. In this study we performed a genome-wide survey of DNA methylation signatures in triple negative breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Our data showed that resveratrol treatment for 24 h and 48 h decreased gene promoter hypermethylation and increased DNA hypomethylation. Of 2476 hypermethylated genes in control cells, 1,459 and 1,547 were differentially hypomethylated after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Remarkably, resveratrol did not induce widespread non-specific DNA hyper- or hypomethylation as changes in methylation were found in only 12.5% of 27,728 CpG loci. Moreover, resveratrol restores the hypomethylated and hypermethylated status of key tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Importantly, the integrative analysis of methylome and transcriptome profiles in response to resveratrol showed that methylation alterations were concordant with changes in mRNA expression. Our findings reveal for the first time the impact of resveratrol on the methylome of breast cancer cells and identify novel potential targets for epigenetic therapy. We propose that resveratrol may be considered as a dietary epidrug as it may exert its anti-tumor activities by modifying the methylation status of cancer -related genes which deserves further in vivo characterization.

  5. Methylation Landscape of Human Breast Cancer Cells in Response to Dietary Compound Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Aguilar, Rubiceli; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Marchat, Laurence A.; Gariglio, Patricio; García Mena, Jaime; Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio; Ruíz-García, Erika; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Hernández Juárez, Jennifer; Flores-Pérez, Ali; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent epigenetic alteration in cancer cells that has emerged as a pivotal mechanism for tumorigenesis. Accordingly, novel therapies targeting the epigenome are being explored with the aim to restore normal DNA methylation patterns on oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. A limited number of studies indicate that dietary compound resveratrol modulates DNA methylation of several cancer-related genes; however a complete view of changes in methylome by resveratrol has not been reported yet. In this study we performed a genome-wide survey of DNA methylation signatures in triple negative breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Our data showed that resveratrol treatment for 24 h and 48 h decreased gene promoter hypermethylation and increased DNA hypomethylation. Of 2476 hypermethylated genes in control cells, 1,459 and 1,547 were differentially hypomethylated after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Remarkably, resveratrol did not induce widespread non-specific DNA hyper- or hypomethylation as changes in methylation were found in only 12.5% of 27,728 CpG loci. Moreover, resveratrol restores the hypomethylated and hypermethylated status of key tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Importantly, the integrative analysis of methylome and transcriptome profiles in response to resveratrol showed that methylation alterations were concordant with changes in mRNA expression. Our findings reveal for the first time the impact of resveratrol on the methylome of breast cancer cells and identify novel potential targets for epigenetic therapy. We propose that resveratrol may be considered as a dietary epidrug as it may exert its anti-tumor activities by modifying the methylation status of cancer -related genes which deserves further in vivo characterization. PMID:27355345

  6. De novo production of resveratrol from glucose or ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingji; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Chen, Yun; Rodriguez, Angelica; Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant compound, used as food supplement and cosmetic ingredient. Microbial production of resveratrol has until now been achieved by supplementation of expensive substrates, p-coumaric acid or aromatic amino acids. Here we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce resveratrol directly from glucose or ethanol via tyrosine intermediate. First we introduced the biosynthetic pathway, consisting of tyrosine ammonia-lyase from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus, 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase from Vitis vinifera, and obtained 2.73 ± 0.05 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose. Then we over-expressed feedback-insensitive alleles of ARO4 encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate and ARO7 encoding chorismate mutase, resulting in production of 4.85 ± 0.31 mg L(-1) resveratrol from glucose as the sole carbon source. Next we improved the supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by over-expressing a post-translational de-regulated version of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase encoding gene ACC1; this strategy further increased resveratrol production to 6.39 ± 0.03 mg L(-1). Subsequently, we improved the strain by performing multiple-integration of pathway genes resulting in resveratrol production of 235.57 ± 7.00 mg L(-1). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of the final strain with glucose or ethanol as carbon source resulted in a resveratrol titer of 415.65 and 531.41 mg L(-1), respectively.

  7. Resveratrol synthesis under natural conditions and after UV-C irradiation in berry skin is associated with berry development stages in 'Beihong' (V. vinifera×V. amurensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Fang; Ma, Ling; Xi, Hui-Fen; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Though UV-C irradiation may induce the synthesis of resveratrol in grape berry skins, it is unclear which developmental stage is most sensitive to UV-C induction. In this study, we investigated resveratrol content and gene expression of 'Beihong' (Vitisvinifera×Vitisamurensis) berries by UV-C irradiation compared with under natural conditions during different developmental stages. Under natural condition, resveratrol synthesis was related to veraison. Before veraison, resveratrol content was very low; however, total resveratrol increased about 500% from veraison to maturity in the main forms of piceids. UV-C irradiation significantly stimulated resveratrol synthesis, mainly in the form of trans-resveratrol. Young berries at 55days after anthesis were most sensitive to UV-C irradiation, the total resveratrol in the skin of UV-C irradiated berry is about 90 times higher than that of the control; however, resveratrol synthesis subsequently declined, which may be attributed to STS regulation by Myb14.

  8. [Advances of resveratrol synthase gene in the application of genetic engineering and biofunctional investigation].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shigang; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Shancang; Wang, Qingguo; Liu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Resveratrol synthase (RS) plays a key role in resveratrol (Res) biosynthesis. RS gene has been formerly reported to be transformed into many plant species and microorganisms, and to play certain roles in metabolic and regulation processes. In this paper, the transformations of RS gene in plants, and the related changes of biological properties, such as metabolites, anti-pathogen activities, anti-radical properties, and developmental characters in transgenic plants, as well as the production of resveratrol in microbes by utilizing RS gene were summarized. Moreover, the application prospects of RS gene in bioengineering were also addressed.

  9. [Effects of resveratrol-induced cellular autophagy in control of neurodegenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Wang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Cellular autophagy is a major degradative pathway for clearance of aggregate-prone proteins and damaged organelles. It plays an important role in regulating cellular homeostasis, cell growth and development, and disease development. Dysfunctional autophagy contributes to the pathology of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, in which specific pathological protein accumulation occurs. A growing body of evidence suggests that resveratrol plays a significantly role in the regulation of autophagy and clearance of pathological proteins. Resveratrol is a potential drug for neurodegenerative diseases therapy. This review focuses on the effects of resveratrol on cellular autophagy and clinical application in the control of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27405156

  10. Resveratrol Directly Binds to Mitochondrial Complex I and Increases Oxidative Stress in Brain Mitochondria of Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chupin, Stéphanie; Baron, Stéphanie; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Vessières, Emilie; Ayer, Audrey; Henrion, Daniel; Lenaers, Guy; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is often described as a promising therapeutic molecule for numerous diseases, especially in metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. While the mechanism of action is still debated, an increasing literature reports that resveratrol regulates the mitochondrial respiratory chain function. In a recent study we have identified mitochondrial complex I as a direct target of this molecule. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and consequences of such an interaction still require further investigation. In this study, we identified in silico by docking study a binding site for resveratrol at the nucleotide pocket of complex I. In vitro, using solubilized complex I, we demonstrated a competition between NAD+ and resveratrol. At low doses (<5μM), resveratrol stimulated complex I activity, whereas at high dose (50 μM) it rather decreased it. In vivo, in brain mitochondria from resveratrol treated young mice, we showed that complex I activity was increased, whereas the respiration rate was not improved. Moreover, in old mice with low antioxidant defenses, we demonstrated that complex I activation by resveratrol led to oxidative stress. These results bring new insights into the mechanism of action of resveratrol on mitochondria and highlight the importance of the balance between pro- and antioxidant effects of resveratrol depending on its dose and age. These parameters should be taken into account when clinical trials using resveratrol or analogues have to be designed. PMID:26684010

  11. Resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity involving extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and ternary complex factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rössler, Oliver G.; Glatzel, Daniel; Thiel, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Many intracellular functions have been attributed to resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and in other plants. Here, we show that resveratrol induces the expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 in human embryonic kidney cells. Using a chromosomally embedded Egr-1-responsive reporter gene, we show that the Egr-1 activity was significantly elevated in resveratrol-treated cells, indicating that the newly synthesized Egr-1 protein was biologically active. Stimulus-transcription coupling leading to the resveratrol-induced upregulation of Egr-1 expression and activity requires the protein kinases Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK, while MAP kinase phosphatase-1 functions as a nuclear shut-off device that interrupts the signaling cascade connecting resveratrol stimulation with enhanced Egr-1 expression. On the transcriptional level, Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element-driven gene transcription, connects the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by resveratrol with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. These data were corroborated by the observation that stimulation of the cells with resveratrol increased the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. The SRE as well as the GC-rich DNA binding site of Egr-1 function as resveratrol-responsive elements. Thus, resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of the stimulus-regulated protein kinases Raf and ERK and the stimulus-responsive transcription factors TCF and Egr-1. - Highlights: • The plant polyphenol resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity. • The stimulation of Egr-1 requires the protein kinases ERK and Raf. • Resveratrol treatment upregulates the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. • Resveratrol-induced stimulation of Egr-1 requires ternary complex factors. • Two distinct resveratrol-responsive elements were identified.

  12. Effects of pterostilbene and resveratrol on brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Age is the greatest universal risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. During aging, these conditions progress from minor loss of function to major disruptions in daily life, loss of independence and ultimately death. Because approximately 25% of the world population is expected to be older than age 65 by 2050, and no treatments exist to halt or reverse ongoing neurodegeneration, the need for effective prevention strategies is more pressing that ever before. A growing body of research supports the role of diet in healthy aging, particularly diets rich in bioactive phytochemical compounds. Recently, stilbenes such as resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) and its analogue, pterostilbene, have gained a significant amount of attention for their potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, evidence for the beneficial effects of stilbenes on cerebral function is just beginning to emerge. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of resveratrol and pterostilbene in improving brain health during aging, with specific focus on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory signaling and behavioral outcomes.

  13. Synthesis of potential mescaline antagonists.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, F; Nieforth, K A

    1976-10-01

    1-[2-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-pyrroline, 2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, N-n-propylmescaline, N-cyclopropylmethylmescaline, and N-allylmescaline were synthesized as potential mescaline antagonists. The ability of these compounds to antagonize mescaline-induced disruption of swim behavior is also given.

  14. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  15. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  16. Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acid: Its Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G; Kataki, Manjir Sarma; Shah, Kajri; Pathak, Yashwant; Panguluri, Siva Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present review aims at summarizing the major therapeutic roles of resveratrol and omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) along with their related pathways. This article reviews some of the key studies involving the health benefits of resveratrol and O3FAs. Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the most important pathophysiological factors associated with various cardiovascular disease conditions. Resveratrol, with the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, has been proven to be a significantly protective compound in restoring the normal cardiac health. A plethora of research also demonstrated the reduction of the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke, and their complications by O3FAs derived from fish and fish oils. This review describes the potential cardioprotective role of resveratrol and O3FAs in ameliorating the endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  17. Improving resveratrol bioaccessibility using biopolymer nanoparticles and complexes: impact of protein-carbohydrate maillard conjugation.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Pérez-Ciordia, Sonia; Marín-Arroyo, María R; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-22

    The impact of encapsulating resveratrol in biopolymer nanoparticles or biopolymer complexes on its physicochemical stability and bioaccessibility was determined. The biopolymer nanoparticles consisted of a zein core surrounded by a caseinate or caseinate-dextran shell. The biopolymer complexes consisted of resveratrol bound to caseinate or caseinate-dextran. The caseinate-dextran conjugates were formed using the Maillard reaction. Both the biopolymer nanoparticles and complexes protected trans-resveratrol from isomerization when exposed to UV light, with the nanoparticles being more effective. Nanoparticles coated by caseinate-dextran were more stable to aggregation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions than those coated by caseinate, presumably due to greater steric repulsion. The bioaccessibility of resveratrol was enhanced when it was encapsulated in both biopolymer nanoparticles and biopolymer complexes. These results have important implications for the development of effective delivery systems for incorporating lipophilic nutraceuticals into functional foods and beverages. PMID:25843145

  18. [The role of resveratrol in the regulation of cell metabolism--a review].

    PubMed

    Pieszka, Marek; Szczurek, Paulina; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Oczkowicz, Maria; Pieszka, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Moderate wine drinking is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease, and reduced risk of cancer. This phenomenon is called the "French paradox", since it was observed for the first time in France--a country famous for its wine production. In the literature, the cardioprotective effect of wine is very well described and attributed mainly to contained therein resveratrol. Recently, it has been demonstrated that resveratrol extends the lifespan of yeast through activation of the SirT1 longevity gene, which is also responsible for the longevity caused by caloric restriction. Furthermore, resveratrol exhibits high biological activity, affecting cell structures and contributing to their protection. This paper summarizes the available reports on functional and molecular aspects of resveratrol, wines and grapes as a result of the activation of longevity genes. PMID:26943309

  19. Preparation of resveratrol-loaded nanoporous silica materials with different structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Margarita; Szegedi, Agnes; Mavrodinova, Vesselina; Novak Tušar, Natasa; Mihály, Judith; Klébert, Szilvia; Benbassat, Niko; Yoncheva, Krassimira

    2014-11-01

    Solid, nanoporous silica-based spherical mesoporous MCM-41 and KIL-2 with interparticle mesoporosity as well as nanosized zeolite BEA materials differing in morphology and pore size distribution, were used as carriers for the preparation of resveratrol-loaded delivery systems. Two preparation methods have been applied: (i) loading by mixing of resveratrol and mesoporous carrier in solid state and (ii) deposition in ethanol solution. The parent and the resveratrol loaded carriers were characterized by XRD, TEM, N2 physisorption, thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of the support structure on the adsorption capacity and the release kinetics of this poorly soluble compound were investigated. Our results indicated that the chosen nanoporous silica supports are suitable for stabilization of trans-resveratrol and reveal controlled release and ability to protect the supported compound against degradation regardless of loading method. The solid-state dry mixing appears very effective for preparation of drug formulations composed of poorly soluble compound.

  20. Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acid: Its Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G.; Kataki, Manjir Sarma; Shah, Kajri; Pathak, Yashwant; Panguluri, Siva Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present review aims at summarizing the major therapeutic roles of resveratrol and omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) along with their related pathways. This article reviews some of the key studies involving the health benefits of resveratrol and O3FAs. Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the most important pathophysiological factors associated with various cardiovascular disease conditions. Resveratrol, with the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, has been proven to be a significantly protective compound in restoring the normal cardiac health. A plethora of research also demonstrated the reduction of the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke, and their complications by O3FAs derived from fish and fish oils. This review describes the potential cardioprotective role of resveratrol and O3FAs in ameliorating the endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26697434

  1. Resveratrol--a potential inhibitor of biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Nimmy; Goel, A K; Sivakumar, K C; Kumar, R Ajay; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-02-15

    Resveratrol, a phytochemical commonly found in the skin of grapes and berries, was tested for its biofilm inhibitory activity against Vibrio cholerae. Biofilm inhibition was assessed using crystal violet assay. MTT assay was performed to check the viability of the treated bacterial cells and the biofilm architecture was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The possible target of the compound was determined by docking analysis. Results showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the compound could significantly inhibit biofilm formation in V. cholerae in a concentration-dependent manner. AphB was found to be the putative target of resveratrol using docking analysis. The results generated in this study proved that resveratrol is a potent biofilm inhibitor of V. cholerae and can be used as a novel therapeutic agent against cholera. To our knowledge, this is the first report of resveratrol showing antibiofilm activity against V. cholerae. PMID:24182988

  2. Resveratrol Increases the Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelé, Pauline; Lofek-Czubek, Sébastien; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that has shown protective effects against many disorders including, several types of cancers and other age-associated diseases as well as blood disorders in cultured cells and/or animal models. However, whether resveratrol has any impact specifically on normal blood stem cells remains unknown. Here we show that a three-week treatment of resveratrol increases the frequency and total numbers of normal bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) without any impact on their competitive repopulation capacity. In addition, we show that resveratrol enhances the bone marrow multipotent progenitor capacity in vivo. These results have therapeutic value for disorders of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) as well as for bone marrow transplantation settings. PMID:25163926

  3. Resveratrol induces ordered domains formation in biomembranes: Implication for its pleiotropic action.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana Rute; Nunes, Cláudia; Reis, Salette

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol compound with great value in cancer therapy, cardiovascular protection, and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanism by which resveratrol exerts such pleiotropic effects is not yet clear and there is a huge need to understand the influence of this compound on the regulation of lipid domains formation on membrane structure. The aim of the present study was to reveal potential molecular interactions between resveratrol and lipid rafts found in cell membranes by means of Förster resonance energy transfer, DPH fluorescence quenching, and triton X-100 detergent resistance assay. Liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin were used as model membranes. The results revealed that resveratrol induces phase separation and formation of liquid-ordered domains in bilayer structures. The formation of such tightly packed lipid rafts is important for different signal transduction pathways, through the regulation of membrane-associating proteins, that can justify several pharmacological activities of this compound. PMID:26456556

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of a novel resveratrol-salicylate hybrid analog.

    PubMed

    Aldawsari, Fahad S; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Aljuhani, Naif; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Medina-Franco, José L; Siraki, Arno G; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound with a plethora of activities as well as limitations. We recently reported a series of resveratrol-salicylate analogs with potential chemopreventive activity. Herein, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of these resveratrol derivatives. Using an in vitro COX inhibition assay, and two in vivo protocols (carrageenan-induced peritonitis and paw edema), we identified a novel compound (C10) as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. The enhanced potency of C10 was associated with the ability of C10 to decrease the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme at 10mg/kg, whereas resveratrol and it's natural analog (TMS) did not exert the same effect. Additionally, C10 significantly reduced the concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Because of the proven association between cancer, inflammation, and oxidative stress, we believe that C10 is a promising chemopreventive molecule.

  5. [The role of resveratrol in the regulation of cell metabolism--a review].

    PubMed

    Pieszka, Marek; Szczurek, Paulina; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Oczkowicz, Maria; Pieszka, Magdalena

    2016-02-25

    Moderate wine drinking is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease, and reduced risk of cancer. This phenomenon is called the "French paradox", since it was observed for the first time in France--a country famous for its wine production. In the literature, the cardioprotective effect of wine is very well described and attributed mainly to contained therein resveratrol. Recently, it has been demonstrated that resveratrol extends the lifespan of yeast through activation of the SirT1 longevity gene, which is also responsible for the longevity caused by caloric restriction. Furthermore, resveratrol exhibits high biological activity, affecting cell structures and contributing to their protection. This paper summarizes the available reports on functional and molecular aspects of resveratrol, wines and grapes as a result of the activation of longevity genes.

  6. Alterations of antioxidant status in asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic individuals after resveratrol intake.

    PubMed

    Apostolidou, C; Adamopoulos, K; Iliadis, S; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C

    2015-08-01

    High cholesterol is one of the risk factors for atherogenesis, leading to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The focus of this study was to evaluate the role and the pathways of action of a natural antioxidant, resveratrol, in asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic (AHC) individuals. Forty healthy AHCs and normocholesterolemics (NCs) participated in the study. They received random-order resveratrol and placebo capsules for four weeks. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin E and total cholesterol (TC) were measured at baseline and at the end of each intervention. Resveratrol provided a direct antioxidant effect in healthy NC individuals, but in AHC individuals, with a higher demand for antioxidant activity due to higher cholesterol levels, it acted by facilitating an increase in vitamin E. Our findings suggest that resveratrol acts synergistically with other antioxidants against oxidative stress and highlights the importance of hypercholesterolemic individuals consuming natural antioxidants instead of medications to reduce the risk of CVD, while the situation is still reversible. PMID:27108746

  7. Resveratrol inhibits the expression of SREBP1 in cell model of steatosis via Sirt1-FOXO1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Fu, Yu-Cai; Xu, Wen-Can; Feng, Ya-Qing; Fang, Shi-Rong; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2009-03-13

    Recent studies in mice have shown that resveratrol can protect the liver from fat accumulation induced by high fat diet. However, the exact mechanism is largely unknown. To explore the possible mechanism, we investigated the anti-lipogenic effect of resveratrol in vitro model. Oil Red O staining revealed that resveratrol could significantly ameliorate the excessive triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells induced by palmitate. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that resveratrol upregulated the expression of Sirt1 and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), whereas downregulated the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein1 (SREBP1). Moreover, resveratrol was shown to inhibit the activity of SREBP1, as evaluated by immunofluorescence assay. Our results suggest that resveratrol may attenuate fat deposition by inhibiting SREBP1 expression via Sirt1-FOXO1 pathway and thus may have application for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:19285015

  8. Measured and predicted affinities of binding and relative potencies to activate the AhR of PAHs and their alkylated analogues.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Shin, Woong-Hee; Hong, Seongjin; Kang, Habyeong; Jung, Dawoon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Seok, Chaok; Giesy, John P; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms are important components of crude oil. Both groups of PAHs have been reported to cause dioxin-like responses, mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thus, characterization of binding affinity to the AhR of unsubstituted or alkylated PAHs is important to understand the toxicological consequences of oil contamination on ecosystems. We investigated the potencies of major PAHs of crude oil, e.g., chrysene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene, and their alkylated forms (n=17) to upregulate expression of AhR-mediated processes by use of the H4IIE-luc transactivation bioassay. In addition, molecular descriptors of different AhR activation potencies among PAHs were investigated by use of computational molecular docking models. Based on responses of the H4IIE-luc in vitro assay, it was shown that potencies of PAHs were determined by alkylation in addition to the number and conformation of rings. Potencies of AhR-mediated processes were generally greater when a chrysene group was substituted, especially in 1-methyl-chrysene. Significant negative correlations were observed between the in vitro dioxin-like potency measured in H4IIE-luc cells and the binding distance estimated from the in silico modeling. The difference in relative potency for AhR activation observed among PAHs and their alkylated forms could be explained by differences among binding distances in the ligand binding domain of the AhR caused by alkylation. The docking model developed in the present study may have utility in predicting risks of environmental contaminants of which toxicities are mediated by AhR binding.

  9. Effects of 4-nitrophenol on expression of the ER-α and AhR signaling pathway-associated genes in the small intestine of rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Song, Meiyan; Watanabe, Gen; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Rui, Xiaoli; Li, ChunMei

    2016-09-01

    4-Nitrophenol (PNP) is a persistent organic pollutant that was proven to be an environmental endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway in regulating the damage response to PNP in the small intestine of rats. Wistar-Imamichi male rats (21 d) were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and PNP group. Each group had three processes that were gavaged with PNP or vehicle daily: single dose (1 d), repeated dose (3 consecutive days) (3 d), and repeated dose with recovery (3 consecutive days and 3 recovery days) (6 d). The weight of the body, the related viscera, and small intestine were examined. Histological parameters of the small intestine and the quantity of mucus proteins secreted by small goblet cells were determined using HE staining and PAS staining. The mRNA expression of AhR, ER-α, CYP1A1, and GST was measured by real-time qPCR. In addition, we also analyzed the AhR, ER-α, and CYP1A1 expression in the small intestine by immunohistochemical staining. The small intestines histologically changed in the PNP-treated rat and the expression of AhR, CYP1A1, and GST was increased. While ER-α was significantly decreased in the small intestine, simultaneously, when rats were exposed to a longer PNP treatment, the damages disappeared. Our results demonstrate that PNP has an effect on the expression of AhR signaling pathway genes, AhR, CYP1A1, and GST, and ER-α in the rat small intestine.

  10. Combined chemical and toxicological long-term monitoring for AhR agonists with SPMD-based virtual organisms in drinking water Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxian; Song, Guoqiang; Li, Aimin; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Tong, Anthony Z; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-08-01

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were employed for time-integrating, long-term sampling combined biological and chemical analyses for exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) in a drinking water reservoir, China. The SPMDs were deployed at four and five sites in the Danjiangkou (DJK) reservoir over two periods of 26 and 31 d to sequester the hydrophobic contaminants in water. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the SPMDs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists PAHs and PCBs were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS instrument. The cause-effect relationship between the observed AhR activities and chemical concentrations of detected AhR agonists was examined. The results show that the extracts from the SPMD samples could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) was not correlated with the bioassay-derived TCDD equivalent (TEQbio). The known AhR agonists could only account for 2-10% of the observed AhR responses among which the contribution of PCBs could almost be neglected. Unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a greater proportion of the TCDD equivalent (TCDD-EQ) in SPMD samples from DJK. Based on the first assessment, the VO followed by the combination of chemical and biological analyses emerges as a resource efficient water monitoring device in ecotoxicological assessment for toxicologically relevant compounds which are readily available for uptake by resident aquatic biota in drinking water resources. PMID:24548649

  11. Disruption of period gene expression alters the inductive effects of dioxin on the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Qu Xiaoyu; Metz, Richard P.; Porter, Weston W.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Earnest, David J.

    2009-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are transcription factors that express Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) DNA-binding motifs and mediate the metabolism of drugs and environmental toxins in the liver. Because these transcription factors interact with other PAS genes in molecular feedback loops forming the mammalian circadian clockworks, we determined whether targeted disruption or siRNA inhibition of Per1 and Per2 expression alters toxin-mediated regulation of the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver and Hepa1c1c7 hepatoma cells in vitro. Treatment with the prototypical Ahr ligand, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), had inductive effects on the primary targets of AhR signaling, Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1, in the liver of all animals, but genotype-based differences were evident such that the toxin-mediated induction of Cyp1A1 expression was significantly greater (2-fold) in mice with targeted disruption of Per1 (Per1{sup ldc} and Per1{sup ldc}/Per2{sup ldc}). In vitro experiments yielded similar results demonstrating that siRNA inhibition of Per1 significantly increases the TCDD-induced expression of Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1 in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Per2 inhibition in siRNA-infected Hepa1c1c7 cells had the opposite effect and significantly decreased both the induction of these p450 genes as well as AhR and Arnt expression in response to TCDD treatment. These findings suggest that Per1 may play a distinctive role in modulating AhR-regulated responses to TCDD in the liver.

  12. Combined chemical and toxicological long-term monitoring for AhR agonists with SPMD-based virtual organisms in drinking water Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxian; Song, Guoqiang; Li, Aimin; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Tong, Anthony Z; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-08-01

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were employed for time-integrating, long-term sampling combined biological and chemical analyses for exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) in a drinking water reservoir, China. The SPMDs were deployed at four and five sites in the Danjiangkou (DJK) reservoir over two periods of 26 and 31 d to sequester the hydrophobic contaminants in water. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the SPMDs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists PAHs and PCBs were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS instrument. The cause-effect relationship between the observed AhR activities and chemical concentrations of detected AhR agonists was examined. The results show that the extracts from the SPMD samples could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) was not correlated with the bioassay-derived TCDD equivalent (TEQbio). The known AhR agonists could only account for 2-10% of the observed AhR responses among which the contribution of PCBs could almost be neglected. Unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a greater proportion of the TCDD equivalent (TCDD-EQ) in SPMD samples from DJK. Based on the first assessment, the VO followed by the combination of chemical and biological analyses emerges as a resource efficient water monitoring device in ecotoxicological assessment for toxicologically relevant compounds which are readily available for uptake by resident aquatic biota in drinking water resources.

  13. Resveratrol Treatment Inhibits Proliferation of and Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Miao; Zhong, Lu-Xing; Zhan, Zheng-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hao; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Resveratrol, a natural isolate from plant sources, has a long and important history in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study we investigated the effect of resveratrol on human colon cancer cell lines. Material/Methods We used the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) for determination of colon cancer cell viability. Apoptosis induction was analyzed using the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The siRNA Transfection Reagent kit (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.) was used for the administration of COX-2 silencer RNA (siRNA) into the colon cancer cells. Primer Express® software for Real-Time PCR ver. 3.0 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) was used to prepare the primers for RT-PCR. Results The results revealed that exposure of colon cancer cells to resveratrol inhibited cell viability. Resveratrol exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on cell viability at 30 μM concentration after 48 h of exposure. We observed that 30-μM doses of resveratrol for 72 h led to 18, 29, and 34% reduction in the viability of HCA-17, SW480, and HT29 cells, respectively. It also significantly induced apoptosis in both of the tested carcinoma cell lines. The population of apoptotic cells in HCA-17 and SW480 cell lines after 48 h of resveratrol treatment was 59.8±4 and 67.2±4%, respectively, compared to 2.3±1% in the control cells. The colon cancer cells exposed to resveratrol showed significantly lower cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin receptor expression. Treatment of colon cancer cells with the inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, indomethacin, and administration of silencer RNA for cyclooxygenase-2 also produced similar results. Conclusions These findings suggest that resveratrol treatment can be a promising strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27040803

  14. Resveratrol extends lifespan and preserves glia but not neurons of the Nothobranchius guentheri optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Genade, T; Lang, D M

    2013-02-01

    Resveratrol is reported as having neuroprotective properties, however, much of this reputation has come from research using disease and injury models of neurodegeneration and not neurodegenerative-ageing. The results published here pertain to the affect resveratrol has on neurodegenerative-ageing. Resveratrol had previously been used to extend the lifespan of Nothobranchius furzeri wherein it preserved cognition and reduced ageing-associated neurodegeneration. No cell-type specific antibodies were then identified which could be used to investigate the nature of the neurodegeneration or resveratrols effect on CNS cells. Using wholemounts stained with SMI31 anti-phospho-neurolament, GA-5 and DAKO Z0334 anti-GFAP antibodies, E587 antiserum against NCAMs and anti-tenascin-R antibodies we determined what cellular changes occurred with age in the optic tectum of Nothobranchius guentheri. We show that resveratrol-treatment extended the lifespan of N. guentheri but did not preserve neuron density of the optic tectum stratum griseum superciale even though it did reduce the proportion of degenerate (SMI31 antigen accumulating) neurons in the optic tectum. Resveratrol-treatment did prevent the ageing-dependent loss of radial glia lining the optic tectum of N. guentheri. The ageing-related loss of NCAM expression and tenascin-R expressing perineuronal nets was also prevented by resveratrol-treatment. Glial and perineuronal density as well as NCAM expression appear to correlate well with age. These results suggest that the anti-ageing properties of resveratrol in vertebrates may be unrelated to the protection of neurons.

  15. Protective effects of resveratrol against UVA-induced damage in ARPE19 cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Li, Hsin-Ju; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Su, Ching-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Lan; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD. PMID:25775159

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Expressing a Peanut Resveratrol Synthase Gene in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Qingguo; Yao, Fangyin; Yang, Lianqun; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a type of natural plant stilbenes and phytoalexins that only exists in a few plant species. Studies have shown that the Res could be biosynthesized and accumulated within plants, once the complete metabolic pathway and related enzymes, such as the key enzyme resveratrol synthase (RS), existed. In this study, a RS gene named PNRS1 was cloned from the peanut, and the activity was confirmed in E. coli. Using transgenic approach, the PNRS1 transgenic rice was obtained. In T3 generation, the Res production and accumulation were further detected by HPLC. Our data revealed that compared to the wild type rice which trans-resveratrol was undetectable, in transgenic rice, the trans-resveratrol could be synthesized and achieved up to 0.697 μg/g FW in seedlings and 3.053 μg/g DW in seeds. Furthermore, the concentration of trans-resveratrol in transgenic rice seedlings could be induced up to eight or four-fold higher by ultraviolet (UV-C) or dark, respectively. Simultaneously, the endogenous increased of Res also showed the advantages in protecting the host plant from UV-C caused damage or dark-induced senescence. Our data indicated that Res was involved in host-defense responses against environmental stresses in transgenic rice. Here the results describes the processes of a peanut resveratrol synthase gene transformed into rice, and the detection of trans-resveratrol in transgenic rice, and the role of trans-resveratrol as a phytoalexin in transgenic rice when treated by UV-C and dark. These findings present new outcomes of transgenic approaches for functional genes and their corresponding physiological functions, and shed some light on broadening available resources of Res, nutritional improvement of crops, and new variety cultivation by genetic engineering. PMID:26302213

  17. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems as a tool to improve solubility and bioavailability of resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Balata, Gehan F; Essa, Ebtessam A; Shamardl, Hanan A; Zaidan, Samira H; Abourehab, Mohammed AS

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound which has a broad range of desirable biological actions which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and antitumor activities. However, there is concern that the bioavailability of resveratrol may limit some of its clinical utility. So, the aim of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate and oral hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of resveratrol. This was achieved using self-emulsifying drug delivery system. The solubility of resveratrol was determined in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. Phase diagram was plotted to identify the efficient self-emulsification regions using olive oil, Tween 80, and propylene glycol. The prepared self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations were tested for thermodynamic stability, emulsification efficiency, droplet size, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release. Self-emulsification time averaged 17–99 seconds without precipitation and the mean droplet sizes ranged from 285 to 823 nm with overall zeta potential of −2.24 to −15.4 mv. All formulations improved drug dissolution in relation to unprocessed drug with a trend of decreased dissolution parameters with increasing oil content. The optimized formula, F19, with dissolution efficiency of 94% compared to only 42% of pure drug was used to study the in vivo hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of resveratrol in diabetic-induced albino rats and comparing these effects with that of pure resveratrol in different doses. Treatment with the optimized formula, F19, at 10 mg/kg had significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic-induced albino rats which were nearly similar to the high dose (20 mg/kg) of unprocessed resveratrol. From the study, it was concluded that formulation F19 has good emulsification property with uniform globule size, satisfactory in vitro drug release profile, and significant in vivo hypoglycemic effects which identify future

  18. Production of highly bioactive resveratrol analogues pterostilbene and piceatannol in metabolically engineered grapevine cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Morante-Carriel, Jaime A; Ramírez-Estrada, Karla; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine stilbenes, particularly trans-resveratrol, have a demonstrated pharmacological activity. Other natural stilbenes derived from resveratrol such as pterostilbene or piceatannol, display higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than the parent compound, but are far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain these bioactive resveratrol derivatives, there is a need to develop new bioproduction systems. Grapevine cell cultures are able to produce large amounts of easily recoverable extracellular resveratrol when elicited with methylated cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate. We devised this system as an interesting starting point of a metabolic engineering-based strategy to produce resveratrol derivatives using resveratrol-converting enzymes. Constitutive expression of either Vitis vinifera resveratrol O-methyltransferase (VvROMT) or human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) led to pterostilbene or piceatannol, respectively, after the engineered cell cultures were treated with the aforementioned elicitors. Functionality of both gene products was first assessed in planta by Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltration assays, in which tobacco cells transiently expressed stilbene synthase and VvROMT or HsCYP1B1. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with VvROMT produced pterostilbene, which was detected in both intra- and extracellular compartments, at a level of micrograms per litre. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with HsCYP1B1 produced about 20 mg/L culture of piceatannol, displaying a sevenfold increase in relation to wild-type cultures, and reaching an extracellular distribution of up to 45% of total production. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of this novel system for the bioproduction of natural and more bioactive resveratrol derivatives and suggest new ways for the improvement of production yields.

  19. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems as a tool to improve solubility and bioavailability of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Balata, Gehan F; Essa, Ebtessam A; Shamardl, Hanan A; Zaidan, Samira H; Abourehab, Mohammed As

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound which has a broad range of desirable biological actions which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and antitumor activities. However, there is concern that the bioavailability of resveratrol may limit some of its clinical utility. So, the aim of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate and oral hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of resveratrol. This was achieved using self-emulsifying drug delivery system. The solubility of resveratrol was determined in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. Phase diagram was plotted to identify the efficient self-emulsification regions using olive oil, Tween 80, and propylene glycol. The prepared self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations were tested for thermodynamic stability, emulsification efficiency, droplet size, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release. Self-emulsification time averaged 17-99 seconds without precipitation and the mean droplet sizes ranged from 285 to 823 nm with overall zeta potential of -2.24 to -15.4 mv. All formulations improved drug dissolution in relation to unprocessed drug with a trend of decreased dissolution parameters with increasing oil content. The optimized formula, F19, with dissolution efficiency of 94% compared to only 42% of pure drug was used to study the in vivo hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of resveratrol in diabetic-induced albino rats and comparing these effects with that of pure resveratrol in different doses. Treatment with the optimized formula, F19, at 10 mg/kg had significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic-induced albino rats which were nearly similar to the high dose (20 mg/kg) of unprocessed resveratrol. From the study, it was concluded that formulation F19 has good emulsification property with uniform globule size, satisfactory in vitro drug release profile, and significant in vivo hypoglycemic effects which identify future opportunities

  20. Resveratrol Inhibits Aortic Root Dilatation in the Fbn1C1039G/+ Marfan Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hibender, Stijntje; Franken, Romy; van Roomen, Cindy; ter Braake, Anique; van der Made, Ingeborg; Schermer, Edith E.; Gunst, Quinn; van den Hoff, Maurice J.; Lutgens, Esther; Pinto, Yigal M.; Groenink, Maarten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J.M.; de Vries, Carlie J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. Patients with MFS are at risk of aortic aneurysm formation and dissection. Usually, blood pressure–lowering drugs are used to reduce aortic events; however, this is not sufficient for most patients. In the aorta of smooth muscle cell–specific sirtuin-1–deficient mice, spontaneous aneurysm formation and senescence are observed. Resveratrol is known to enhance sirtuin-1 activity and to reduce senescence, which prompted us to investigate the effectiveness of resveratrol in inhibition of aortic dilatation in the Fbn1C1039G/+ MFS mouse model. Approach and Results— Aortic senescence strongly correlates with aortic root dilatation rate in MFS mice. However, although resveratrol inhibits aortic dilatation, it only shows a trend toward reduced aortic senescence. Resveratrol enhances nuclear localization of sirtuin-1 in the vessel wall and, in contrast to losartan, does not affect leukocyte infiltration nor activation of SMAD2 and extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Interestingly, specific sirtuin-1 activation (SRT1720) or inhibition (sirtinol) in MFS mice does not affect aortic root dilatation rate, although senescence is changed. Resveratrol reduces aortic elastin breaks and decreases micro-RNA-29b expression coinciding with enhanced antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression and decreased number of terminal apoptotic cells. In cultured smooth muscle cells, the resveratrol effect on micro-RNA-29b downregulation is endothelial cell and nuclear factor κB-dependent. Conclusions— Resveratrol inhibits aortic root dilatation in MFS mice by promoting elastin integrity and smooth muscle cell survival, involving downregulation of the aneurysm-related micro-RNA-29b in the aorta. On the basis of these data, resveratrol holds promise as a novel intervention strategy for patients with MFS. PMID:27283746

  1. Production of highly bioactive resveratrol analogues pterostilbene and piceatannol in metabolically engineered grapevine cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Morante-Carriel, Jaime A; Ramírez-Estrada, Karla; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine stilbenes, particularly trans-resveratrol, have a demonstrated pharmacological activity. Other natural stilbenes derived from resveratrol such as pterostilbene or piceatannol, display higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than the parent compound, but are far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain these bioactive resveratrol derivatives, there is a need to develop new bioproduction systems. Grapevine cell cultures are able to produce large amounts of easily recoverable extracellular resveratrol when elicited with methylated cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate. We devised this system as an interesting starting point of a metabolic engineering-based strategy to produce resveratrol derivatives using resveratrol-converting enzymes. Constitutive expression of either Vitis vinifera resveratrol O-methyltransferase (VvROMT) or human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) led to pterostilbene or piceatannol, respectively, after the engineered cell cultures were treated with the aforementioned elicitors. Functionality of both gene products was first assessed in planta by Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltration assays, in which tobacco cells transiently expressed stilbene synthase and VvROMT or HsCYP1B1. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with VvROMT produced pterostilbene, which was detected in both intra- and extracellular compartments, at a level of micrograms per litre. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with HsCYP1B1 produced about 20 mg/L culture of piceatannol, displaying a sevenfold increase in relation to wild-type cultures, and reaching an extracellular distribution of up to 45% of total production. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of this novel system for the bioproduction of natural and more bioactive resveratrol derivatives and suggest new ways for the improvement of production yields. PMID:26947765

  2. Resveratrol as a Bioenhancer to Improve Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Apigenin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Ah; Ha, Sang Keun; Cho, EunJung; Choi, Inwook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs) in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ARMs prominently inhibited (p < 0.05) the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Otherwise no such activity was observed by hepatic metabolites of apigenin alone (AMs). ARMs also effectively suppressed protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Co-administration of apigenin (50 mg/kg) and resveratrol (25 mg/kg) also showed a significant reduction of carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (61.20% to 23.81%). Co-administration of apigenin and resveratrol led to a 2.39 fold increase in plasma apigenin levels compared to administration of apigenin alone, suggesting that co-administration of resveratrol could increase bioavailability of apigenin. When the action of resveratrol on the main apigenin metabolizing enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), was investigated, resveratrol mainly inhibited the formation of apigenin glucuronides by UGT1A9 in a non-competitive manner with a Ki value of 7.782 μM. These results suggested that resveratrol helps apigenin to bypass hepatic metabolism and maintain apigenin’s anti-inflammatory activities in the body. PMID:26610561

  3. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Hung, Chein-Hui; Chang, Nai Wen; Lin, Chingju

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  4. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  5. Silencing of miR-124 induces neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through promoting AHR.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsui-Chin; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Wu, Pei-Yi; Lee, Hsinyu; Liao, Yung-Feng; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2011-11-16

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. We investigate whether miR-124, the abundant neuronal miRNA, plays a pivotal role in neuroblastoma. Knockdown of miR-124 promotes neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Further miR-124 is predicted to target aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) which may promote neuroblastoma cell differentiation. We validate that miR-124 may suppress the expression of AHR by targeting its 3'-UTR. These results suggest that miR-124 could serve as a potential therapeutic target of neuroblastoma.

  6. Resveratrol as a Pan-HDAC Inhibitor Alters the Acetylation Status of Jistone Proteins in Human-Derived Hepatoblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Alexander; Busch, Christian; Weiland, Timo; Noor, Seema; Leischner, Christian; Schleicher, Sabine; Mayer, Mascha; Weiss, Thomas S.; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Lauer, Ulrich M.; Bitzer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The polyphenolic alcohol resveratrol has demonstrated promising activities for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Different modes of action have been described for resveratrol including the activation of sirtuins, which represent the class III histone deacetylases (HDACs). However, little is known about the activity of resveratrol on the classical HDACs of class I, II and IV, although these classes are involved in cancer development or progression and inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi) are currently under investigation as promising novel anticancer drugs. We could show by in silico docking studies that resveratrol has the chemical structure to inhibit the activity of different human HDAC enzymes. In vitro analyses of overall HDAC inhibition and a detailed HDAC profiling showed that resveratrol inhibited all eleven human HDACs of class I, II and IV in a dose-dependent manner. Transferring this molecular mechanism into cancer therapy strategies, resveratrol treatment was analyzed on solid tumor cell lines. Despite the fact that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be particularly resistant against conventional chemotherapeutics, treatment of HCC with established HDACi already has shown promising results. Testing of resveratrol on hepatoma cell lines HepG2, Hep3B and HuH7 revealed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on all cell lines. Interestingly, only for HepG2 cells a specific inhibition of HDACs and in turn a histone hyperacetylation caused by resveratrol was detected. Additional testing of human blood samples demonstrated a HDACi activity by resveratrol ex vivo. Concluding toxicity studies showed that primary human hepatocytes tolerated resveratrol, whereas in vivo chicken embryotoxicity assays demonstrated severe toxicity at high concentrations. Taken together, this novel pan-HDACi activity opens up a new perspective of resveratrol for cancer therapy alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics. Moreover, resveratrol may serve as a lead

  7. Determination of piceid and resveratrol in Spanish wines deriving from Monastrell (Vitis vinifera L.) grape variety.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Labanda, Juan F; Mallavia, Ricardo; Pérez-Fons, Laura; Lizama, Victoria; Saura, Domingo; Micol, Vicente

    2004-08-25

    The presence of stilbenes in wine is becoming an important issue due to their claimed relation to a low incidence in coronary diseases and their increasing implication as cancer chemopreventive and neuroprotective agents. Total resveratrol content, quantified as glucoside and aglycone forms of resveratrol, has been determined in a survey of 45 Monastrell monovarietal Spanish red wine types (around 135 wine samples), belonging to Alicante and Bullas appellations. The average between ratio glucoside/aglycone forms of resveratrol in these wines was considerably high, ranging from 82 to 91% of resveratrol in its glycosidic form. This characteristic was observed in a high percentage of the studied wines, which were made under different winemaking procedures, and from different vintages (1995-2002). In addition, wines made using macerative fermentations with double amount of solid parts ("doble pasta") reached the highest levels of total stilbene content expressed as resveratrol equivalent, i.e., 30 mg/L (average of 18.8 mg/L). It can be concluded that high resveratrol glucoside concentration and low free isomer content can be considered characteristics of the Monastrell variety, as it happens to red wines deriving from other varieties grown at warm climates. This fact, also observed for other French and Portuguese red varieties, might play an important role in food habits involving these types of wines.

  8. Resveratrol Regulates Pathologic Angiogenesis by a Eukaryotic Elongation Factor-2 Kinase-Regulated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aslam A.; Dace, Dru S.; Ryazanov, Alexey G.; Kelly, Jennifer; Apte, Rajendra S.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis is central to the pathophysiology of diverse disease processes including cancers, ischemic and atherosclerotic heart disease, and visually debilitating eye disease. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin that has been demonstrated to ameliorate and decelerate the aging process as well as blunt end organ damage from obesity. These effects of resveratrol are largely mediated by members of the sirtuin family of proteins. We demonstrate that resveratrol can inhibit pathological angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro by a sirtuin-independent pathway. Resveratrol inhibits the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells by activating eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase. The active kinase in turn phosphorylates and inactivates elongation factor-2, a key mediator of ribosomal transfer and protein translation. Functional inhibition of the kinase by gene deletion in vivo or RNA as well as pharmacological inhibition in vitro is able to completely reverse the effects of resveratrol on blood vessel growth. These studies have identified a novel and critical pathway that promotes aberrant vascular proliferation and one that is amenable to modulation by pharmacological means. In addition, these results have uncovered a sirtuin-independent pathway by which resveratrol regulates angiogenesis. PMID:20472894

  9. Autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in adjuvant-arthritis rats treatment with resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junqiang; Song, Xianbin; Cao, Wei; Lu, Jinseng; Wang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Zhicheng; Chen, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol derivatives which exhibits a pro-apoptotic effect in a variety of human cancers by triggering mitochondria apoptosis pathway and autophagy. However, there are scarcely reports on its apoptosis-promoting effect in abnormal proliferation fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism and apoptosis-inducing effects of resveratrol on the abnormal proliferation of FLSs in adjuvant-arthritis (AA) rats. Since using resveratrol for 12 days resulted in a significant decreasing the swelling degree of the paw, reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enhancing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase ratio in AA rats. Moreover, we found that 5 μMH2O2 could increase cells viability, Beclin1, LC3A/B, MnSOD, SIRT3 protein expression in FLSs. But, resveratrol could reverse these effects by changing mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) to promote mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation in 5 μMH2O2-treatment FLSs. These results suggest that oxidative stress existed in AA rats. Resveratrol could suppress oxidative stress in AA rats and increase mtROS production by reducing autophagy protein Beclin1, LC3A/B and oxidative stress protein MnSOD to promoted the apoptosis of FLSs. Thus, targeting of mtROS may be a crucial mechanism of resveratrol confers patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27611176

  10. PTEN Mediates the Antioxidant Effect of Resveratrol at Nutritionally Relevant Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Inglés, Marta; Gambini, Juan; Miguel, M. Graça; Bonet-Costa, Vicent; Abdelaziz, Kheira M.; El Alami, Marya; Viña, Jose; Borrás, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Antioxidant properties of resveratrol have been intensively studied for the last years, both in vivo and in vitro. Its bioavailability after an oral dose is very low and therefore it is very important to make sure that plasma concentrations of free resveratrol are sufficient enough to be active as antioxidant. Aims. In the present study, using nutritionally relevant concentrations of resveratrol, we aim to confirm its antioxidant capacity on reducing peroxide levels and look for the molecular pathway involved in this antioxidant effect. Methods. We used mammary gland tumor cells (MCF-7), which were pretreated with different concentrations of resveratrol for 48 h, and/or a PTEN inhibitor (bpV: bipy). Hydrogen peroxide levels were determined by fluorimetry, PTEN levels and Akt phosphorylation by Western Blotting, and mRNA expression of antioxidant genes by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. Resveratrol treatment for 48 h lowered peroxide levels in MCF-7, even at low nutritional concentrations (1 nM). This effect was mediated by the activation of PTEN/Akt pathway, which resulted in an upregulation of catalase and MnSOD mRNA levels. Conclusion. Resveratrol acts as an antioxidant at nutritionally relevant concentrations by inducing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, through a mechanism involving PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:24812624

  11. Structural determinants of resveratrol for cell proliferation inhibition potency: experimental and docking studies of new analogs.

    PubMed

    Mazué, Frédéric; Colin, Didier; Gobbo, Jessica; Wegner, Maria; Rescifina, Antonio; Spatafora, Carmela; Fasseur, Dominique; Delmas, Dominique; Meunier, Philippe; Tringali, Corrado; Latruffe, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    Resveratrol is the subject of intense research because of the abundance of this compound in the human diet and as one of the most valuable natural chemopreventive agents. Further advances require new resveratrol analogs be used to identify the structural determinants of resveratrol for the inhibition potency of cell proliferation by comparing experimental and docking studies. Therefore, we synthesized new trans/(E)- and cis/(Z)-resveratrol - analogs not reported to date - by modifying the hydroxylation pattern of resveratrol and a double bond geometry. We included them in a larger panel of 14 molecules, including (Z)-3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene, the most powerful molecule that is used as reference. Using a docking model complementary to experimental studies on the proliferation inhibition of the human colorectal tumor SW480 cell line, we show that methylation is the determinant substitution in inhibition efficacy, but only in molecules bearing a Z configuration. Most of the synthetic methylated derivatives (E or Z) stop mitosis at the M phase and lead to polyploid cells, while (E)-resveratrol inhibits cells at the S phase. Docking studies show that almost all of the docked structures of (Z)-polymethoxy isomers, but not most of the (E)-polymethoxy isomers substantially overlap the docked structure of combretastatin A-4, taken as reference ligand at the colchicine-tubulin binding site. PMID:20395019

  12. Thermogenesis is involved in the body-fat lowering effects of resveratrol in rats.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Miranda, Jonatan; Macarulla, M Teresa; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P

    2013-11-15

    The effect of resveratrol on thermogenesis in skeletal muscle and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was investigated. Rats were fed an obesogenic diet supplemented with resveratrol (30mg/kg/day) or not supplemented for 6weeks. Resveratrol intake led to increased gene expression of mitochondrial-transcription-factor-A (TFAM), mitochondrial-protein-cytochrome-C-oxidase subunit-2 (COX2), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator1-α (PGC-1α) in IBAT and increased UCP1protein expression; however, peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-α (PPARα) expression remained unchanged. In gastrocnemius muscle, resveratrol increased the gene expression of TFAM and COX2; however, no changes were observed in levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α and PPARβ/δ. Acetylated-PGC-1α was decreased in the resveratrol-treated group, indicating a higher level of activation, and a significant increase of UCP3 protein expression was observed in this group. The increases in UCP protein expression in two important thermogenic tissues after resveratrol treatment may contribute to increased whole-body energy dissipation, which may help to better understand the body-fat lowering effect of this polyphenol.

  13. Effects of Resveratrol in Pregnancy Using Murine Models with Reduced Blood Supply to the Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Rajan; Stanley, Joanna L.; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F.; Andersson, Irene J.; Sibley, Colin P.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Baker, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) contribute significantly to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Although the causes of PE and FGR are not fully understood, both conditions are known to be associated with impaired uterine artery blood flow. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in a number of plants, has been shown to induce relaxation of uterine arteries in vitro as well as improve many pathological conditions associated with PE and FGR. We hypothesized that treatment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS−/−) and catechol-O-methyltransferase knockout mice (COMT−/−) with resveratrol during pregnancy would improve uterine artery blood flow and therefore ameliorate the PE-like phenotype and FGR in these murine models. Pregnant C57BL/6J, eNOS−/− and COMT−/− mice received either resveratrol supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) or control diet between gestational day (GD) 0.5 and GD 18.5. Resveratrol supplementation significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity and fetal weight in COMT−/− but not in eNOS−/− mice. There were no effects of resveratrol on litter size and placental weight among the groups. In conclusion, resveratrol increased uterine artery blood flow velocity and fetal weight in COMT−/− mice, suggesting potential as a therapeutic strategy for PE and FGR. PMID:23667712

  14. Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for selective recognition of resveratrol in wine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Xie, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2013-07-26

    The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for resveratrol were prepared by using surface molecular imprinting technique with a super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as a supporter. Rhapontigenin, which is the analogues of resveratrol, was selected as dummy template molecules to avoid the leakage of trace amount of resveratrol. Acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were chosen as functional monomers and cross-linker, respectively. The obtained MMIPs were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the target analytes. The resulting MMIPs exhibited high saturation magnetization of 53.14emug(-1) leading to the fast separation. The adsorption test showed that the MMIPs had high adsorption capacity for resveratrol and contained homogeneous binding sites. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbent of solid phase extraction for determination of resveratrol in real wine samples, and the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 79.3% to 90.6% with the limit of detection of 4.42ngmL(-1). The prepared MMIPs could be employed to selectively pre-concentrate and determine resveratrol from wine samples. PMID:23481473

  15. Curcumin and Resveratrol in the Management of Cognitive Disorders: What is the Clinical Evidence?

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Gabriela; Di Giacomo, Silvia

    2016-09-17

    A growing body of in vitro and in vivo evidences shows a possible role of polyphenols in counteracting neurodegeneration: curcumin and resveratrol are attractive substances in this regard. In fact, epidemiological studies highlight a neuroprotective effect of turmeric (rhizome of Curcuma longa L.), the main source of curcumin. Moreover, the consumption of red wine, the main source of resveratrol, has been related to a lower risk of developing dementia. In this review, we analyzed the published clinical trials investigating curcumin and resveratrol in the prevention or treatment of cognitive disorders. The ongoing studies were also described, in order to give an overview of the current search on this topic. The results of published trials (five for curcumin, six for resveratrol) are disappointing and do not allow to draw conclusions about the therapeutic or neuroprotective potential of curcumin and resveratrol. These compounds, being capable of interfering with several processes implicated in the early stages of dementia, could be useful in preventing or in slowing down the pathology. To this aim, an early diagnosis using peripheral biomarkers becomes necessary. Furthermore, the potential preventive activity of curcumin and resveratrol should be evaluated in long-term exposure clinical trials, using preparations with high bioavailability and that are well standardized.

  16. Metformin and resveratrol ameliorate muscle insulin resistance through preventing lipolysis and inflammation in hypoxic adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Li, Aiyun; Feng, Xin; Hou, Ting; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Ning

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of metformin and resveratrol on muscle insulin resistance with emphasis on the regulation of lipolysis in hypoxic adipose tissue. ICR mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 10days with administration of metformin, resveratrol, or intraperitoneal injection of digoxin. Adipose hypoxia, inflammation and cAMP/PKA-dependent lipolysis were investigated. Moreover, lipid deposition and insulin resistance were examined in the muscle. Metformin and resveratrol attenuated adipose hypoxia, inhibited HIF-1α expression and inflammation in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. Metformin and resveratrol inhibited lipolysis through prevention of PKA/HSL activation by decreasing the accumulation of cAMP via preserving PDE3B. Metformin and resveratrol reduced FFAs influx and DAG accumulation, and thus improved insulin signaling in the muscle by inhibiting PKCθ translocation. This study presents a new view of regulating lipid metabolism to ameliorate insulin resistance and provides the clinical guiding significance for obesity and type 2 diabetes with metformin and resveratrol treatment. PMID:27343375

  17. Polycaprolactone scaffold engineered for sustained release of resveratrol: therapeutic enhancement in bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Manjunath Srinivas; Ahmed, Shiek SSJ; Dhanasekaran, M; Santosh, S Winkins

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials-based three-dimensional scaffolds are being extensively investigated in bone tissue engineering. A potential scaffold should be osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic for enhanced bone formation. In this study, a three-dimensional porous polycapro-lactone (PCL) scaffold was engineered for prolonged release of resveratrol. Resveratrol-loaded albumin nanoparticles (RNP) were synthesized and entrapped into a PCL scaffold to form PCL-RNP by a solvent casting and leaching method. An X-ray diffraction study of RNP and PCL-RNP showed that resveratrol underwent amorphization, which is highly desired in drug delivery. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that resveratrol was not chemically modified during the entrapment process. Release of resveratrol from PCL-RNP was sustained, with a cumulative release of 64% at the end of day 12. The scaffold was evaluated for its bone-forming potential in vitro using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for 16 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity assayed on days 8 and 12 showed a significant increase in activity (1.6-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively) induced by PCL-RNP compared with the PCL scaffold (the positive control). Moreover, von Kossa staining for calcium deposits on day 16 showed increased mineralization in PCL-RNP. These results suggest PCL-RNP significantly improves mineralization due to its controlled and prolonged release of resveratrol, thereby increasing the therapeutic potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24399875

  18. Resveratrol induces human keratinocyte damage via the activation of class III histone deacetylase, Sirt1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Kim, Jin-Shang; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, You-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human skin diseases are various and induce chronic inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and certain forms of ichthyosis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by circumscribed, red, thickened plaques. Regulation of the balance between growth, differentiation and death is critical to keratinocytes; when altered, epidermal keratinocytes undergo hyperproliferation, abnormal differentiation and inflammatory infiltration. In the present study, we focused on the effects of resveratrol, found in red wine and peanuts, on the cell death of keratinocytes. We additionally studied the mechanism of resveratrol on Sirt1, a class III histone deacetylase, and Akt phosphorylation. Resveratrol caused apoptosis and increased Sirt1 expression in human HaCaT keratinocytes, following a decrease in the p62 protein level. Inhibition of Sirt1 by Sirt1 inhibitor restored cell viability and protein levels. Furthermore, we showed that resveratrol-induced Sirt1 blocked Akt phosphorylation. The present results indicated that resveratrol inhibited the Akt pathways by inducing Sirt1, thus leading to cell death. These data suggest that resveratrol-mediated activation of Sirt1 histone deacetylase may be a potential therapeutic target for skin diseases including psoriasis.

  19. Resveratrol-based benzoselenophenes with an enhanced antioxidant and chain breaking capacity.

    PubMed

    Tanini, Damiano; Panzella, Lucia; Amorati, Riccardo; Capperucci, Antonella; Pizzo, Elio; Napolitano, Alessandra; Menichetti, Stefano; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-05-28

    The structural modification of the resveratrol scaffold is currently an active issue in the quest for more potent and versatile antioxidant derivatives for biomedical applications. Disclosed herein is an expedient and efficient entry to a novel class of resveratrol derivatives featuring an unprecedented 2-phenylbenzoselenophene skeleton. The new compounds were obtained in good yields by direct selenenylation of resveratrol with Se(0) and SO2Cl2 in dry THF. Varying the [Se : SO2Cl2 : resveratrol] ratio resulted in the formation of the parent benzoselenophene (1) and/or mono (2) and/or dichloro (3) benzoselenophene derivatives. All the benzoselenophene derivatives proved to be more efficient than resveratrol in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, with 1 showing an activity nearly comparable to that of Trolox. 1-3 also proved to be more efficient inhibitors than the parent resveratrol in kinetic experiments of styrene autoxidation. DFT calculations of the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) revealed that the introduction of the Se-atom causes a significant decrease of the BDE of 3-OH and 5-OH, with just a small increase of the 4'-OH BDE. Compounds 1-3 showed no cytotoxicity at 5 μM concentrations on human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and intestinal (CaCo-2) cell lines.

  20. Autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in adjuvant-arthritis rats treatment with resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junqiang; Song, Xianbin; Cao, Wei; Lu, Jinseng; Wang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Zhicheng; Chen, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol derivatives which exhibits a pro-apoptotic effect in a variety of human cancers by triggering mitochondria apoptosis pathway and autophagy. However, there are scarcely reports on its apoptosis-promoting effect in abnormal proliferation fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism and apoptosis-inducing effects of resveratrol on the abnormal proliferation of FLSs in adjuvant-arthritis (AA) rats. Since using resveratrol for 12 days resulted in a significant decreasing the swelling degree of the paw, reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enhancing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase ratio in AA rats. Moreover, we found that 5 μMH2O2 could increase cells viability, Beclin1, LC3A/B, MnSOD, SIRT3 protein expression in FLSs. But, resveratrol could reverse these effects by changing mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) to promote mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation in 5 μMH2O2-treatment FLSs. These results suggest that oxidative stress existed in AA rats. Resveratrol could suppress oxidative stress in AA rats and increase mtROS production by reducing autophagy protein Beclin1, LC3A/B and oxidative stress protein MnSOD to promoted the apoptosis of FLSs. Thus, targeting of mtROS may be a crucial mechanism of resveratrol confers patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27611176

  1. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ashim; Bath, Sundeep; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  2. Resveratrol Protects PC12 Cell against 6-OHDA Damage via CXCR4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Wenchuang; Wang, Hui; Bao, Lihua; Li, Guibao; Li, Tao; Song, Shouyang; Li, Hongyu; Hao, Jing; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, herbal nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound naturally derived from grapes, has long been acknowledged to possess extensive biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we intended to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of PC12 cells and further explore the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, PC12 cells were exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of resveratrol (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 μM). The results showed that resveratrol increased cell viability, alleviated the MMP reduction, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells as measured by MTT assay, JC-1 staining, and Hoechst/PI double staining (all p < 0.01). Immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting revealed that resveratrol averts 6-OHDA induced CXCR4 upregulation (p < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that resveratrol could effectively protect PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via CXCR4 signaling pathway. PMID:26681969

  3. Curcumin and Resveratrol in the Management of Cognitive Disorders: What is the Clinical Evidence?

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Gabriela; Di Giacomo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of in vitro and in vivo evidences shows a possible role of polyphenols in counteracting neurodegeneration: curcumin and resveratrol are attractive substances in this regard. In fact, epidemiological studies highlight a neuroprotective effect of turmeric (rhizome of Curcuma longa L.), the main source of curcumin. Moreover, the consumption of red wine, the main source of resveratrol, has been related to a lower risk of developing dementia. In this review, we analyzed the published clinical trials investigating curcumin and resveratrol in the prevention or treatment of cognitive disorders. The ongoing studies were also described, in order to give an overview of the current search on this topic. The results of published trials (five for curcumin, six for resveratrol) are disappointing and do not allow to draw conclusions about the therapeutic or neuroprotective potential of curcumin and resveratrol. These compounds, being capable of interfering with several processes implicated in the early stages of dementia, could be useful in preventing or in slowing down the pathology. To this aim, an early diagnosis using peripheral biomarkers becomes necessary. Furthermore, the potential preventive activity of curcumin and resveratrol should be evaluated in long-term exposure clinical trials, using preparations with high bioavailability and that are well standardized. PMID:27649135

  4. Resveratrol amplifies BMP-4-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis via p38 MAP kinase in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that possesses health‑related properties, and is predominantly found in grapes and berries. Bone morphogenetic protein‑4 (BMP‑4) stimulates osteocalcin synthesis via p38 mitogen‑activated protein (MAP) kinase in osteoblast‑like MC3T3‑E1 cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on BMP‑4‑induced osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in MC3T3‑E1 cells. Resveratrol alone had no effect on OPG expression levels, but significantly enhanced BMP‑4‑induced OPG release. In addition, resveratrol markedly amplified the mRNA expression levels of BMP‑4‑induced OPG. SB203580 is an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, which was shown to suppress BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG release. BMP‑4‑induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was also enhanced by resveratrol. Furthermore, SB203580 significantly reduced the resveratrol‑induced amplification of BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG release. These results suggested that resveratrol was able to upregulate BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG synthesis via the amplification of p38 MAP kinase activity in osteoblasts.

  5. Improving effect of chronic resveratrol treatment on central monoamine synthesis and cognition in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sarubbo, F; Ramis, M R; Aparicio, S; Ruiz, L; Esteban, S; Miralles, A; Moranta, D

    2015-06-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol exhibiting antioxidant and neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases. However, neuroprotective properties during normal aging have not been clearly demonstrated. We analyzed the in vivo effects of chronic administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) in old male rats (Wistar, 20 months), on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activities which mediate central monoaminergic neurotransmitters synthesis, and besides, on hippocampal-dependent working memory test (radial maze). Our results show an age-related decline in neurochemical parameters that were reversed by resveratrol administration. The resveratrol treatment enhances serotonin (5-HT) levels in pineal gland, in hippocampus, and in striatum, and those of noradrenaline (NA) in hippocampus and also dopamine (DA) in striatum. These changes were largely due to an increased activity of TPH-1 (463 % in pineal gland), TPH-2 (70-51 % in hippocampus and striatum), and TH (150-36 % in hippocampus and striatum). Additionally, the observed hippocampal effects correlate with a resveratrol-induced restorative effect on working memory (radial maze). In conclusion, this study suggests resveratrol treatment as a restoring therapy for the impaired cognitive functions occurring along normal aging process, by preventing 5-HT, DA, and NA neurotransmission decline.

  6. Resveratrol ameliorates cisplatin-induced oxidative injury in New Zealand rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cigremis, Yilmaz; Akgoz, Muslum; Ozen, Hasan; Karaman, Musa; Kart, Asım; Gecer, Murat; Atalan, Gultekin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the preventive role of resveratrol in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The study used groups of New Zealand rabbits that were treated as follows: group C (cisplatin treated), group R (resveratrol treated), group R+C (resveratrol + cisplatin treatment), and group E (control group). Kidney levels of glutathione were significantly lower in group C than in groups E and R, whereas glutathione levels in group R+C were found to be similar to the control values. Malondialdehyde levels in group C were significantly higher than in groups E and R. However, malondialdehyde levels in group R+C were similar to group E. Kidney levels of nitric oxide were significantly higher in the cisplatin group than in the control, whereas nitric oxide levels were at basal values in group R+C. Cisplatin treatment significantly reduced kidney levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity compared with those of group E, whereas resveratrol treatment significantly increased levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in group R+C. However, cisplatin injection did not affect mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, or catalase enzymes. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that cisplatin caused kidney damage, which was mostly prevented by resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, resveratrol ameliorates cisplatin-induced oxidative injury in the kidney of rabbit.

  7. Resveratrol inhibits BMP-4-stimulated VEGF synthesis in osteoblasts: suppression of S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Akira; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2014-04-01

    Resveratrol is well known as a natural polyphenol abundantly found in red wine. We previously reported that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis via p70 S6 kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on the BMP-4-stimulated VEGF synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Resveratrol significantly suppressed BMP-4-stimulated release and expression levels of VEGF mRNA. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1 with potencies greater than resveratrol, also reduced VEGF release and the mRNA levels. Both resveratrol and SRT1720 markedly attenuated the BMP-4-induced phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase without affecting the BMP-4-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol attenuates BMP-4-stimulated VEGF synthesis through suppression of the activation of p70 S6 kinase in osteoblasts, and that the inhibitory effect is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation.

  8. The effect of resveratrol on longevity across species: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hector, Katie L; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2012-10-23

    Resveratrol has shown evidence of decreasing cancer incidence, heart disease, metabolic syndrome and neural degeneration in animal studies. However, the effects on longevity are mixed. We aimed to quantify the current knowledge of life extension from resveratrol. We used meta-analytic techniques to assess the effect resveratrol has on survival, using data from 19 published papers, including six species: yeast, nematodes, mice, fruitflies, Mexican fruitflies and turquoise killifish. Overall, our results indicate that resveratrol acts as a life-extending agent. The effect is most potent in yeast and nematodes, with diminished reliability in most higher-order species. Turquoise killifish were especially sensitive to life-extending effects of resveratrol but showed much variation. Much of the considerable heterogeneity in our analysis was owing to unexplained variation between studies. In summary, we can report that few species conclusively show life extension in response to resveratrol. As such, we question the practice of the substance being marketed as a life-extending health supplement for humans. PMID:22718956

  9. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population: wine and resveratrol intake.

    PubMed

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-02-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and resveratrol intake, and SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung function in the general population. Effects of red and white wine and resveratrol intake on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC were analysed in the population-based Doetinchem cohort (n=3,224). Associations of four tagging SIRT1 SNPs with lung function were analysed in the Doetinchem (n=1,152) and Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen (n=1,390) cohorts. Resveratrol intake was associated with higher FVC levels, and white wine intake with higher FEV(1) levels and lower risk of airway obstruction. SIRT1 SNPs were not significantly associated with level or course of lung function, either directly or indirectly via wine or resveratrol intake. This study shows a positive association of resveratrol intake with lung function in the general population, confirms the previously reported positive association of white wine intake with higher levels of FEV(1), and additionally shows an association with a higher FEV(1)/FVC ratio. These effects probably do not run via SNPs in SIRT1.

  10. The effect of resveratrol on longevity across species: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hector, Katie L; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2012-10-23

    Resveratrol has shown evidence of decreasing cancer incidence, heart disease, metabolic syndrome and neural degeneration in animal studies. However, the effects on longevity are mixed. We aimed to quantify the current knowledge of life extension from resveratrol. We used meta-analytic techniques to assess the effect resveratrol has on survival, using data from 19 published papers, including six species: yeast, nematodes, mice, fruitflies, Mexican fruitflies and turquoise killifish. Overall, our results indicate that resveratrol acts as a life-extending agent. The effect is most potent in yeast and nematodes, with diminished reliability in most higher-order species. Turquoise killifish were especially sensitive to life-extending effects of resveratrol but showed much variation. Much of the considerable heterogeneity in our analysis was owing to unexplained variation between studies. In summary, we can report that few species conclusively show life extension in response to resveratrol. As such, we question the practice of the substance being marketed as a life-extending health supplement for humans.

  11. Resveratrol attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced myocardial apoptosis by autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Ting, Wei-Jen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Yang, Jing-Yi; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is a Sirt-1-specific activator, which also exerts cardioprotective effects that regulate redox signalling during oxidative stress and autophagy during cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective This study investigated the protective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in cardiomyocytes. Design In this article, hydrogen peroxide-induced autophagy and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were studied at an increasing concentration from 0 to 100 µM. Results Resveratrol pretreatment with concentrations of 10, 20, and 50 µM inhibits autophagic apoptosis by increasing p-Akt and Bcl-2 protein levels in H9c2 cells. Interestingly, resveratrol treatment activates the Beclin-1, LC3, p62, and the lysosome-associated protein LAMP2a within 24 h of administration. Conclusions These results suggest that resveratrol-regulated autophagy may play a role in degrading damaged organelles in H9c2 cells rather than causing apoptosis, and this may be a possible mechanism by which resveratrol protects the heart during CVD. PMID:27211317

  12. Resveratrol as a novel treatment for diseases with mTOR pathway hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Berger, Sara Malka; Holz, Marina K

    2015-08-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is hyperactivated in a variety of cancers and tumor syndromes. Therefore, mTORC1 inhibitors are being actively investigated for treatment of neoplasms. The concern with the monotherapy use of mTORC1 inhibitors, such as rapamycin, is that they cause upregulation of autophagy, a cell survival mechanism, and suppress the negative feedback loop to the oncogene Akt. In turn, Akt promotes cell survival, causing the therapy to be partially effective, but relapse occurs upon cessation of treatment. In this review, we describe the current literature on resveratrol as well as our work, which uses rapamycin in combination with resveratrol. We found that this combination treatment efficiently blocked upregulation of autophagy and restored inhibition of Akt in different cancer and tumor models. Interestingly, the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol selectively promoted apoptosis of cells with mTOR pathway hyperactivation. Moreover, this combination prevented tumor growth and lung metastasis when tested in mouse models. Finally, mass spectrometry-based identification of cellular targets of resveratrol provided mechanistic insight into the mode of action of resveratrol. The addition of resveratrol to rapamycin treatment may be a promising option for selective and targeted therapy for diseases with mTORC1 hyperactivation. PMID:26200935

  13. Resveratrol improves ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sehirli, Ozer; Sakarcan, Abdullah; Velioglu-Oguenc, Ayliz; Cetinel, Sule; Gedik, Nursal; Yegen, Berrak C.; Sener, Goeksel . E-mail: gsener@marmara.edu.tr

    2007-07-01

    Regarding the mechanisms of ifosfamide (IFO)-induced urinary toxicity, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione are suggested. This investigation elucidates the role of free radicals in IFO-induced toxicity and the protection by resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin. Wistar albino rats were injected intraperioneally with saline (0.9% NaCl; control), saline + resveratrol (RVT; 10 mg/kg/day), ifosfamide (IFO; 50 mg/kg/day) or IFO + RVT for 5 days. Urine was collected for 24 h during the 5th day, and at the 120th h after the first injections, animals were killed by decapitation and trunk blood was collected. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, total antioxidant capacity (AOC) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, IL-{beta} and IL-6 were assayed in plasma samples. Kidney and bladder tissues were obtained for biochemical and histological analysis. Formation of reactive oxygen species in the tissue samples was monitored by using chemiluminescence (CL) technique with luminol and lucigenin probes. The results demonstrated that IFO induced a Fanconi syndrome characterized by increased urinary sodium, phosphate, glucose and protein, along with increased serum creatinine and urea levels. On the other hand, RVT markedly ameliorated the severity of renal dysfunction induced by IFO. Furthermore IFO caused a significant decrease in plasma AOC, which was accompanied with significant increases in the levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators and LDH activity, while RVT treatment reversed all these biochemical indices. In the saline-treated IFO group, glutathione levels were decreased significantly, while the malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity and collagen content were increased in both tissues, which were in parallel with the increases in CL values. In the RVT-treated IFO group, all of these oxidant responses were prevented significantly. Our results suggest that IFO causes oxidative damage in the renal

  14. Resveratrol metabolite profiling in clinical nutrition research--from diet to uncovering disease risk biomarkers: epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Rabassa, Montserrat; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol is a bioactive plant compound that has drawn scientific and media attention owing to its protective effects against a wide variety of illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In the last two decades, a plethora of preclinical studies have shown these beneficial effects, and some of them have been supported by clinical trials. However, there are few epidemiological studies assessing these relationships, showing mostly inconsistent results among them. This could be partially due to the difficulty of accurately estimating dietary resveratrol exposure. The development of Phenol-Explorer, a database containing resveratrol food-composition data, will facilitate the estimation of resveratrol intake. Moreover, the discovery and validation of a nutritional biomarker of this exposure, urinary resveratrol metabolite profile, will allow a more accurate assessment of dietary resveratrol exposure. Few epidemiological studies have assessed the potential health effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol was not associated with total mortality, cancer, or cardiovascular events, but it was associated with an improvement of serum glucose and triglyceride levels and a decrease in heart rate. Together, these findings suggest a potential cardioprotective effect of resveratrol in epidemiological studies, although the evidence is still scarce.

  15. Comparison of effect of resveratrol and vanadium on diabetes related dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Shahi, Majid; Haidari, Fatemeh; Shiri, Mohamad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Resveratrol a natural polyphenolicstilbene derivative has wide variety of biological activities. There is also a large body of evidence demonstrating positive effect of resveratrol in treatment of various metabolic complications including metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-hyperglycemic and anti-dyslipidemic effects of resveratrol. Methods: We used 40 diabetic streptozotocin Wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups (n=8 in each) including normal control, normal treated with resveratrol, diabetic control, diabetic treated with vanadium , diabetic treated with resveratrol . Resveratrol (25 mg/kgbw) and vanadate (0.2 mg/kgbw) was orally gavaged for 40 days and blood samples were directly collected from heart. Results: Diabetic rats treated with resveratrol in comparison to control diabetic rats demonstrated a significant (p = 0.001) decline in serum glucose concentration, and high plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-c were reduced (p = 0.031, p = 0.004 respectively). Furthermore, body weight loss trend that observed in diabetic rats alleviated by resveratrol and vanadate. However triglyceride, VLDL-c and HDL-c levels did not changed significantly. Conclusion: In conclusion Resveratrol ameliorated dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However further investigations in peculiar human studies are required. PMID:24312761

  16. Resveratrol induced inhibition of Escherichia coli proceeds via membrane oxidation and independent of diffusible reactive oxygen species generation.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Mahesh; Goswami, Manish; Chakraborty, Saikat; Jawali, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (5-[(E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]benzene-1,3-diol), a redox active phytoalexin with a large number of beneficial activities is also known for antibacterial property. However the mechanism of action of resveratrol against bacteria remains unknown. Due to its extensive redox property it was envisaged if reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by resveratrol could be a reason behind its antibacterial activity. Employing Escherichia coli as a model organism we have evaluated the role of diffusible reactive oxygen species in the events leading to inhibition of this organism by resveratrol. Evidence for the role of ROS in E. coli treated with resveratrol was investigated by direct quantification of ROS by flow cytometry, supplementation with ROS scavengers, depletion of intracellular glutathione, employing mutants devoid of enzymatic antioxidant defences, induction of adaptive response prior to resveratrol challenge and monitoring oxidative stress response elements oxyR, soxS and soxR upon resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol treatment did not result in scavengable ROS generation in E. coli cells. However, evidence towards membrane damage was obtained by potassium leakage (atomic absorption spectrometry) and propidium iodide uptake (flow cytometry and microscopy) as an early event. Based on the comprehensive evidences this study concludes for the first time the antibacterial property of resveratrol against E. coli does not progress via the diffusible ROS but is mediated by site-specific oxidative damage to the cell membrane as the primary event.

  17. Resveratrol induced inhibition of Escherichia coli proceeds via membrane oxidation and independent of diffusible reactive oxygen species generation

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Mahesh; Goswami, Manish; Chakraborty, Saikat; Jawali, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (5-[(E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]benzene-1,3-diol), a redox active phytoalexin with a large number of beneficial activities is also known for antibacterial property. However the mechanism of action of resveratrol against bacteria remains unknown. Due to its extensive redox property it was envisaged if reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by resveratrol could be a reason behind its antibacterial activity. Employing Escherichia coli as a model organism we have evaluated the role of diffusible reactive oxygen species in the events leading to inhibition of this organism by resveratrol. Evidence for the role of ROS in E. coli treated with resveratrol was investigated by direct quantification of ROS by flow cytometry, supplementation with ROS scavengers, depletion of intracellular glutathione, employing mutants devoid of enzymatic antioxidant defences, induction of adaptive response prior to resveratrol challenge and monitoring oxidative stress response elements oxyR, soxS and soxR upon resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol treatment did not result in scavengable ROS generation in E. coli cells. However, evidence towards membrane damage was obtained by potassium leakage (atomic absorption spectrometry) and propidium iodide uptake (flow cytometry and microscopy) as an early event. Based on the comprehensive evidences this study concludes for the first time the antibacterial property of resveratrol against E. coli does not progress via the diffusible ROS but is mediated by site-specific oxidative damage to the cell membrane as the primary event. PMID:25009788

  18. Subchronic oral toxicity and cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol with cancer preventive activity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W.D.; Morrissey, R.L.; Usborne, A.L.; Kapetanovic, I.; Crowell, J.A.; Muzzio, M.; McCormick, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the subchronic oral toxicity of resveratrol, CD rats received daily gavage doses of 0, 200, 400, or 1000 mg resveratrol/kg/day, and beagle dogs received daily capsule doses of 0, 200, 600, or 1200 mg resveratrol/kg/day for 90 days. Resveratrol induced only minimal toxicity, consisting of dose-related reductions in body weight gain in female rats and both sexes of dogs, and a statistically significant increase in bilirubin levels in rats at the 1000 mg/kg/day dose. Clinical observations, hematology, ophthalmology, neurotoxicity evaluations (functional observational batteries), organ weights, and gross pathology provided no biologically significant evidence of resveratrol toxicity in either species. In rats, the high dose of resveratrol reduced the incidence of cardiomyopathy; no other microscopic changes were seen. Histopathologic changes in dogs were limited to minimal inflammatory infiltrates in the kidney and urinary bladder, which were not considered toxicologically significant. A cardiovascular safety pharmacology (telemetry) study in dogs revealed no evidence of resveratrol toxicity. Based on body weight effects, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for resveratrol was 200 mg/kg/day in rats and 600 mg/kg/day in dogs. The apparent cardioprotective activity of resveratrol in rats demonstrates that its potentially beneficial activities may extend beyond efficacy in cancer prevention. PMID:21939727

  19. Phosphoproteomics Reveals Resveratrol-Dependent Inhibition of Akt/mTORC1/S6K1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, regulates many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, aging and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol action in cells are not completely understood. Intriguingly, resveratrol treatment of cells growing in nutrient-rich conditions induces autophagy, while acute resveratrol treatment of cells in a serum-deprived state inhibits autophagy. In this study, we performed a phosphoproteomic analysis after applying resveratrol to serum-starved cells with the goal of identifying the acute signaling events initiated by resveratrol in a serum-deprived state. We determined that resveratrol in serum-starved conditions reduces the phosphorylation of several proteins belonging to the mTORC1 signaling pathway, most significantly, PRAS40 at T246 and S183. Under these same conditions, we also found that resveratrol altered the phosphorylation of several proteins involved in various biological processes, most notably transcriptional modulators, represented by p53, FOXA1, and AATF. Together these data provide a more comprehensive view of both the spectrum of phosphoproteins upon which resveratrol acts as well as the potential mechanisms by which it inhibits autophagy in serum-deprived cells. PMID:25311616

  20. Inhibitory effects of resveratrol on melanin synthesis in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation in Guinea pig skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek Hwan; Seo, Jae Ok; Baek, So-Hyeon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound found in various natural products such as grapes and berries and possesses anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-aging properties. Recently, it has been reported that resveratrol inhibits α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone signaling, viability, and migration in melanoma cells. However, these effects have not been confirmed in vivo, specifically brownish guinea pigs. To evaluate the potential of resveratrol as a regulator of melanin for hyperpigmentation therapy, the influence of resveratrol on pigmentation was investigated by ultraviolet B-induced hyperpigmentation in brownish guinea pig skin. We found that resveratrol reduced the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanoma cells. Furthermore, topical application of resveratrol was demonstrated to significantly decrease hyperpigmentation on ultraviolet B-stimulated guinea pig skin in vivo. Based on our histological data, resveratrol inhibits melanin synthesis via a reduction in tyrosinase-related protein 2 among the melanogenic enzymes. This study is the first to provide evidence supporting resveratrol as a depigmentation agent, along with further clinical investigation of resveratrol in ultraviolet B-induced skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and skin photoaging.

  1. Resveratrol up-regulates AMPA receptor expression via AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated protein translation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Amato, Stephen; Gilbert, James; Man, Heng-Ye

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that confers overall health benefits including positive regulation in brain function such as learning and cognition. However, whether and how resveratrol affects synaptic activity remains largely unknown. α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are glutamatergic receptors that mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmission and synaptic plasticity, and thus play a critical role in higher brain functions, including learning and memory. We find that in rat primary neurons, resveratrol can rapidly increase AMPAR protein level, AMPAR synaptic accumulation and the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. The resveratrol effect on AMPAR protein expression is independent of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the conventional downstream target of resveratrol, but rather is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequent downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Application of the AMPK specific activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) mimics the effects of resveratrol on both signaling and AMPAR expression. The resveratrol-induced increase in AMPAR expression results from elevated protein synthesis via regulation of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E/4G complex. Disruption of the translation initiation complex completely blocks resveratrol-dependent AMPAR up-regulation. These findings indicate that resveratrol may regulate brain function through facilitation of AMPAR biogenesis and synaptic transmission.

  2. Phosphoproteomics reveals resveratrol-dependent inhibition of Akt/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Doubleday, Peter F; Berger, Sara Malka; Ballif, Bryan A; Holz, Marina K

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, regulates many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, aging and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol action in cells are not completely understood. Intriguingly, resveratrol treatment of cells growing in nutrient-rich conditions induces autophagy, while acute resveratrol treatment of cells in a serum-deprived state inhibits autophagy. In this study, we performed a phosphoproteomic analysis after applying resveratrol to serum-starved cells with the goal of identifying the acute signaling events initiated by resveratrol in a serum-deprived state. We determined that resveratrol in serum-starved conditions reduces the phosphorylation of several proteins belonging to the mTORC1 signaling pathway, most significantly, PRAS40 at T246 and S183. Under these same conditions, we also found that resveratrol altered the phosphorylation of several proteins involved in various biological processes, most notably transcriptional modulators, represented by p53, FOXA1, and AATF. Together these data provide a more comprehensive view of both the spectrum of phosphoproteins upon which resveratrol acts as well as the potential mechanisms by which it inhibits autophagy in serum-deprived cells.

  3. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar; Hsieh Tzechen; Ungvari, Zoltan; Wu, Joseph M. . E-mail: Joseph_Wu@nymc.edu

    2006-07-21

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol.

  4. Resveratrol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in rhabdosarcoma cells through blocking IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Gu, Zhiwen; Wang, Yuyue; Shi, Mei; Ji, Yun; Sun, Jing; Xu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lirong; Jiang, Jingtin; Shi, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin and resveratrol, as major active components in Polygonum cuspidatum, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the effect and mechanism of polydatin and resveratrol on enterovirus 71 (EV71) have not been reported. In this study, resveratrol revealed strong antiviral activity on EV71, while polydatin had weak effect. Neither polydatin nor resveratrol exhibited influence on viral attachment. Resveratrol could effectively inhibit the synthesis of EV71/VP1 and the phosphorylation of IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, IKBα, NF-κB p50 and NF-κB p65, respectively. Meanwhile, the remarkably increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in EV71-infected rhabdosarcoma (RD) cells could be blocked by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited EV71 replication and cytokine secretion in EV71-infected RD cells through blocking IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, resveratrol may have potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection. PMID:25692777

  5. Resveratrol Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Replication and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Rhabdosarcoma Cells through Blocking IKKs/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Gu, Zhiwen; Wang, Yuyue; Shi, Mei; Ji, Yun; Sun, Jing; Xu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lirong; Jiang, Jingtin; Shi, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin and resveratrol, as major active components in Polygonum cuspidatum, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the effect and mechanism of polydatin and resveratrol on enterovirus 71 (EV71) have not been reported. In this study, resveratrol revealed strong antiviral activity on EV71, while polydatin had weak effect. Neither polydatin nor resveratrol exhibited influence on viral attachment. Resveratrol could effectively inhibit the synthesis of EV71/VP1 and the phosphorylation of IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, IKBα, NF-κB p50 and NF-κB p65, respectively. Meanwhile, the remarkably increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in EV71-infected rhabdosarcoma (RD) cells could be blocked by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited EV71 replication and cytokine secretion in EV71-infected RD cells through blocking IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, resveratrol may have potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection. PMID:25692777

  6. Resveratrol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in rhabdosarcoma cells through blocking IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Gu, Zhiwen; Wang, Yuyue; Shi, Mei; Ji, Yun; Sun, Jing; Xu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lirong; Jiang, Jingtin; Shi, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin and resveratrol, as major active components in Polygonum cuspidatum, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the effect and mechanism of polydatin and resveratrol on enterovirus 71 (EV71) have not been reported. In this study, resveratrol revealed strong antiviral activity on EV71, while polydatin had weak effect. Neither polydatin nor resveratrol exhibited influence on viral attachment. Resveratrol could effectively inhibit the synthesis of EV71/VP1 and the phosphorylation of IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, IKBα, NF-κB p50 and NF-κB p65, respectively. Meanwhile, the remarkably increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in EV71-infected rhabdosarcoma (RD) cells could be blocked by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited EV71 replication and cytokine secretion in EV71-infected RD cells through blocking IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, resveratrol may have potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection.

  7. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse; Biensø, Rasmus; Schmidt, Jakob; Hellsten, Ylva; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Healthy, physically inactive men (60–72 years old) were randomized to either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250 mg resveratrol or placebo or to 8 weeks of high-intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α mRNA ∼1.5-fold, cytochrome c protein ∼1.3-fold, cytochrome c oxidase I protein ∼1.5-fold, citrate synthase activity ∼1.3-fold, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity ∼1.3-fold, inhibitor of κB-α and inhibitor of κB-β protein content ∼1.3-fold and time to exhaustion in the one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test by ∼1.2-fold, with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ∼25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably, however, resveratrol blunted an exercise training-induced decrease (∼20%) in protein carbonylation and decrease (∼40%) in tumour necrosis factor α mRNA content in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, resveratrol did not elicit metabolic improvements in healthy aged subjects; in fact, resveratrol even impaired the observed exercise training-induced improvements in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle. Collectively, this highlights the metabolic efficacy of exercise training in aged subjects and does not support the contention that resveratrol is a potential exercise mimetic in healthy aged subjects. PMID:24514907

  8. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    PubMed Central

    Gliemann, Lasse; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Peronard, Sebastian Louis; Grandjean, Simon Udsen; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, and improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1 signalling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg m−2; mean arterial pressure (MAP): 95.8 ± 2.2 mmHg; maximal oxygen uptake: 2488 ± 72 ml O2 min−1) were randomized into 8 weeks of either daily intake of either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n= 14) or of placebo (n= 13) concomitant with high-intensity exercise training. Exercise training led to a 45% greater (P < 0.05) increase in maximal oxygen uptake in the placebo group than in the resveratrol group and to a decrease in MAP in the placebo group only (−4.8 ± 1.7 mmHg; P < 0.05). The interstitial level of vasodilator prostacyclin was lower in the resveratrol than in the placebo group after training (980 ± 90 vs. 1174 ± 121 pg ml−1; P < 0.02) and muscle thromboxane synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P < 0.05). Resveratrol administration also abolished the positive effects of exercise on low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and triglyceride concentrations in blood (P < 0.05). Resveratrol did not alter the effect of exercise training on the atherosclerosis marker vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation can blunt these effects. PMID:23878368

  9. Resveratrol Ameliorates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Thomas Nordstrøm; Thorsen, Kasper; Jessen, Niels; Stenderup, Karin; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2015-01-01

    Background The polyphenol resveratrol has anti-inflammatory effects in various cells, tissues, animals and human settings of low-grade inflammation. Psoriasis is a disease of both localized and systemic low-grade inflammation. The Sirtuin1 enzyme thought to mediate the effects of resveratrol is present in skin and resveratrol is known to down regulate NF-κB; an important contributor in the development of psoriasis. Consequently we investigated whether resveratrol has an effect on an Imiquimod induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice and sought to identify candidate genes, pathways and interleukins mediating the effects. Methods The study consisted of three treatment groups: A control group, an Imiquimod group and an Imiquimod+resveratrol group. Psoriasis severity was assessed using elements of the Psoriasis Area Severity Index, skin thickness measurements, and histological examination. We performed an RNA microarray from lesional skin and afterwards Ingenuity pathway analysis to identify affected signalling pathways. Our microarray was compared to a previously deposited microarray to determine if gene changes were psoriasis-like, and to a human microarray to determine if findings could be relevant in a human setting. Results Imiquimod treatment induced a psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Resveratrol significantly diminished the severity of the psoriasis-like skin inflammation. The RNA microarray revealed a psoriasis-like gene expression-profile in the Imiquimod treated group, and highlighted several resveratrol dependent changes in relevant genes, such as increased expression of genes associated with retinoic acid stimulation and reduced expression of genes involved in IL-17 dependent pathways. Quantitative PCR confirmed a resveratrol dependent decrease in mRNA levels of IL-17A and IL-19; both central in developing psoriasis. Conclusions Resveratrol ameliorates psoriasis, and changes expression of retinoic acid stimulated genes, IL-17 signalling pathways

  10. Novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance its oral bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Ana Rute; Lúcio, Marlene; Martins, Susana; Lima, José Luís Costa; Reis, Salette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and red wines. Interest in this polyphenol has increased due to its pharmacological cardio- and neuroprotective, chemopreventive, and antiaging effects, among others. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetic properties are less favorable, since the compound has poor bioavailability, low water solubility, and is chemically unstable. To overcome these problems, we developed two novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance resveratrol’s oral bioavailability for further use in medicines, supplements, and nutraceuticals. Methods and materials Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with resveratrol were successfully produced by a modified hot homogenization technique. These were completely characterized to evaluate the quality of the developed resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles. Results Cryo-scanning electron microscopy morphology studies showed spherical and uniform nanoparticles with a smooth surface. An average resveratrol entrapment efficiency of ~70% was obtained for both SLNs and NLCs. Dynamic light scattering measurements gave a Z-average of 150–250 nm, polydispersity index of ~0.2, and a highly negative zeta potential of around −30 mV with no statistically significant differences in the presence of resveratrol. These characteristics remained unchanged for at least 2 months, suggesting good stability. Differential scanning calorimetry studies confirmed the solid state of the SLNs and NLCs at both room and body temperatures. The NLCs had a less ordered crystalline structure conferred by the inclusion of the liquid lipid, since they had lower values for phase transition temperature, melting enthalpy, and the recrystallization index. The presence of resveratrol induced a disorder in the crystal structure of the nanoparticles, suggesting a favoring of its entrapment. The in vitro release studies on conditions of storage showed a negligible

  11. Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M; Suganthi, R U; Thammiaha, V

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated feed by poultry affects the health of broiler birds causing severe economic losses. The use of phytochemicals is a safe, effective, alternative and practical approach to combat the toxic effect of AF in broilers. Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from red grapes, berries and peanuts, exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Our study was aimed at evaluating the possible protective effects of resveratrol against the adverse effects of AFB1 in broiler birds. A feeding trial of 42 days of duration was undertaken in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments: G1-AFB1(1.0 ppm); G2-CTR (basal diet alone); G3-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 0.5%; G4-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 1%; and G5-Resv 1%. Gain in body weight (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was observed to be highest (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 birds followed by the control group. Feed conversion ratio was lowest in G2-CTR birds and failed to record any significant variation (p > 0.05) between groups as well as within groups. Birds fed resveratrol at both 0.5% and 1.0% levels in combination with AFB1 as well as alone along with basal diet had lower BWG and FI between the fourth and fifth week and also at the fifth week (p < 0.05). No variation (p > 0.05) was obtained in the FCR of AFB1 and resveratrol group of broiler birds. AFB1 feeding significantly increased the activities of aspartate-(AST) and alanine-(ALT) amino transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05) but lowered glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. Supplementation of resveratrol helped in increasing the activities of the oxidative enzymes and in improving the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and total protein (TP) significantly (p < 0.05) and protein values. The livers of AFB1 group showed degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and microgranuloma formation. In resveratrol supplemented birds, the severity and degree of the

  12. Resveratrol causes cell cycle arrest, decreased collagen synthesis, and apoptosis in rat intestinal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patricia; Schmiedlin-Ren, Phyllissa; Mathias, Jason S; Tang, Huaijing; Christman, Gregory M; Zimmermann, Ellen M

    2012-02-01

    One of the most difficult and treatment-resistant complications of Crohn's disease is the development of fibrotic intestinal strictures due to mesenchymal cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in berries, peanuts, grapes, and red wine, has been shown to inhibit fibrosis in vasculature, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and esophagus in animal models. Resveratrol has also been shown to inhibit oxidation, inflammation, and cell proliferation and to decrease collagen synthesis in several cell types or animal models. The aim of this study was to determine whether resveratrol has antifibrotic effects on intestinal smooth muscle cells. Responses to resveratrol by cultured smooth muscle cells isolated from colons of untreated Lewis rats were examined; this rat strain is used in a model of Crohn's disease with prominent intestinal fibrosis. A relative decrease in cell numbers following treatment with 50 and 100 μM resveratrol was evident at 24 h (P ≤ 0.005). This effect was largely due to cell cycle arrest, with an increase in the percent of cells in S phase from 8 to 25-35% (P < 0.05). Cell viability was unchanged until 2-3 days of treatment when there was a 1.2- to 5.0-fold increase in the percent of apoptotic cells, depending on the assay (P < 0.05). Expression of collagen type I protein was decreased following treatment with resveratrol for 24 h (to 44 and 25% of control levels with 50 and 100 μM resveratrol, respectively; P < 0.05). Expression of procollagen types I and III mRNA was also decreased with resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol (50 μM) diminished the proliferative response to TGF-β₁ (P = 0.02) as well as IGF-I-stimulated collagen production (P = 0.02). Thus resveratrol decreases intestinal smooth muscle cell numbers through its effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and also decreases collagen synthesis by the cells. These effects could be useful in preventing the smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and collagen

  13. Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M; Suganthi, R U; Thammiaha, V

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated feed by poultry affects the health of broiler birds causing severe economic losses. The use of phytochemicals is a safe, effective, alternative and practical approach to combat the toxic effect of AF in broilers. Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from red grapes, berries and peanuts, exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Our study was aimed at evaluating the possible protective effects of resveratrol against the adverse effects of AFB1 in broiler birds. A feeding trial of 42 days of duration was undertaken in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments: G1-AFB1(1.0 ppm); G2-CTR (basal diet alone); G3-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 0.5%; G4-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 1%; and G5-Resv 1%. Gain in body weight (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was observed to be highest (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 birds followed by the control group. Feed conversion ratio was lowest in G2-CTR birds and failed to record any significant variation (p > 0.05) between groups as well as within groups. Birds fed resveratrol at both 0.5% and 1.0% levels in combination with AFB1 as well as alone along with basal diet had lower BWG and FI between the fourth and fifth week and also at the fifth week (p < 0.05). No variation (p > 0.05) was obtained in the FCR of AFB1 and resveratrol group of broiler birds. AFB1 feeding significantly increased the activities of aspartate-(AST) and alanine-(ALT) amino transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05) but lowered glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. Supplementation of resveratrol helped in increasing the activities of the oxidative enzymes and in improving the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and total protein (TP) significantly (p < 0.05) and protein values. The livers of AFB1 group showed degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and microgranuloma formation. In resveratrol supplemented birds, the severity and degree of the

  14. Convergent Effects of Resveratrol and PYK2 on Prostate Cells.

    PubMed

    Conte, Andrea; Kisslinger, Annamaria; Procaccini, Claudio; Paladino, Simona; Oliviero, Olimpia; de Amicis, Francesca; Faicchia, Deriggio; Fasano, Dominga; Caputo, Marilena; Matarese, Giuseppe; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Tramontano, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol, is under consideration as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for several diseases, including cancer. However, its mechanisms of action and its effects on non-tumor cells, fundamental to understand its real efficacy as chemopreventive agent, remain largely unknown. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase acting as signaling mediator of different stimuli, behaves as tumor-suppressor in prostate. Since, PYK2 and RSV share several fields of interaction, including oxidative stress, we have investigated their functional relationship in human non-transformed prostate EPN cells and in their tumor-prone counterpart EPN-PKM, expressing a PYK2 dead-kinase mutant. We show that RSV has a strong biological activity in both cell lines, decreasing ROS production, inducing morphological changes and reversible growth arrest, and activating autophagy but not apoptosis. Interestingly, the PYK2 mutant increases basal ROS and autophagy levels, and modulates the intensity of RSV effects. In particular, the anti-oxidant effect of RSV is more potent in EPN than in EPN-PKM, whereas its anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effects are more significant in EPN-PKM. Consistently, PYK2 depletion by RNAi replicates the effects of the PKM mutant. Taken together, our results reveal that PYK2 and RSV act on common cellular pathways and suggest that RSV effects on prostate cells may depend on mutational-state or expression levels of PYK2 that emerges as a possible mediator of RSV mechanisms of action. Moreover, the observation that resveratrol effects are reversible and not associated to apoptosis in tumor-prone EPN-PKM cells suggests caution for its use in humans. PMID:27649143

  15. Resveratrol nanosuspensions: interaction of preservatives with nanocrystal production.

    PubMed

    Kobierski, S; Ofori-Kwakye, K; Müller, R H; Keck, C M

    2011-12-01

    The effect of six different preservatives on the production process and stability of resveratrol nanosuspensions was investigated. Nanosuspensions of the anti-oxidant resveratrol were prepared by high pressure homogenization (1,500 bar, 20 homogenization cycles). The preservatives used were: caprylyl glycol (0.75%), Euxyl PE 9010 (1.0%), Hydrolite-5 (2.0), Phenonip (0.75%), Rokonsal PB-5 (0.5%) and MultiEx Naturotics (2.0%). Preservation is essential for oral and dermal nanosuspensions, but can impair the stability. The effect of the preservatives on stability as a function of cycle numbers was determined by size measurements (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffraction (LD) and light microscopy). Zeta potential measurements were performed for determination of the Stern potential (measurements in water) and as stability criterion (measurements in original dispersion medium), to elucidate the mechanism of destabilization. The preservatives could be placed into three groups. Hydrolite-5 did not affect the production process and the short term stability, sizes were practically identical to the preservative-free nanosuspension (e.g. PCS diameters 196 nm and 184 nm, respectively). All other preservatives impaired the stability medium to pronounced, being most pronounced for MultiEx Naturotics. Hydrolite-5 is recommended as preservative of choice. A mechanistic model was developed to explain the absence and the different degrees of destabilization. In general, when screening for suitable preservatives, suspensions are produced, different preservatives added and the size changes are monitored over long-term. The destabilizing effect of the preservatives on nanosuspensions became evident when added in the production process immediately, thus this can be used as a screening tool for optimal, non-destabilizing preservatives, replacing or minimizing time-consuming long-term stability studies.

  16. Convergent Effects of Resveratrol and PYK2 on Prostate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Andrea; Kisslinger, Annamaria; Procaccini, Claudio; Paladino, Simona; Oliviero, Olimpia; de Amicis, Francesca; Faicchia, Deriggio; Fasano, Dominga; Caputo, Marilena; Matarese, Giuseppe; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Tramontano, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol, is under consideration as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for several diseases, including cancer. However, its mechanisms of action and its effects on non-tumor cells, fundamental to understand its real efficacy as chemopreventive agent, remain largely unknown. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase acting as signaling mediator of different stimuli, behaves as tumor-suppressor in prostate. Since, PYK2 and RSV share several fields of interaction, including oxidative stress, we have investigated their functional relationship in human non-transformed prostate EPN cells and in their tumor-prone counterpart EPN-PKM, expressing a PYK2 dead-kinase mutant. We show that RSV has a strong biological activity in both cell lines, decreasing ROS production, inducing morphological changes and reversible growth arrest, and activating autophagy but not apoptosis. Interestingly, the PYK2 mutant increases basal ROS and autophagy levels, and modulates the intensity of RSV effects. In particular, the anti-oxidant effect of RSV is more potent in EPN than in EPN-PKM, whereas its anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effects are more significant in EPN-PKM. Consistently, PYK2 depletion by RNAi replicates the effects of the PKM mutant. Taken together, our results reveal that PYK2 and RSV act on common cellular pathways and suggest that RSV effects on prostate cells may depend on mutational-state or expression levels of PYK2 that emerges as a possible mediator of RSV mechanisms of action. Moreover, the observation that resveratrol effects are reversible and not associated to apoptosis in tumor-prone EPN-PKM cells suggests caution for its use in humans. PMID:27649143

  17. Biological effects of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) in vivo are enhanced by loss of CYP1A function in an Ahr2-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wincent, Emma; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jönsson, Maria E; Hahn, Mark E; Stegeman, John J

    2016-06-15

    6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist that is efficiently metabolized by AHR-regulated cytochrome P4501 enzymes. FICZ is a proposed physiological AHR ligand that induces its own degradation as part of a regulatory negative feedback loop. In vitro studies in cells show that CYP1 inhibition in the presence of FICZ results in enhanced AHR activation, suggesting that FICZ accumulates in the cell when its metabolism is blocked. We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to investigate the in vivo effects of FICZ when CYP1A is knocked down or inhibited. Embryos were injected with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting CYP1A (CYP1A-MO), Ahr2, or a combination of both. FICZ exposure of non-injected embryos or embryos injected with control morpholino had little effect. In CYP1A-MO-injected embryos, however, FICZ dramatically increased mortality, incidence and severity of pericardial edema and circulation failure, reduced hatching frequency, blocked swim bladder inflation, and strongly potentiated expression of Ahr2-regulated genes. These effects were substantially reduced in embryos with a combined knockdown of Ahr2 and CYP1A, indicating that the toxicity was mediated at least partly by Ahr2. Co-exposure to the CYP1 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (αNF) and FICZ had similar effects as the combination of CYP1A-MO and FICZ. HPLC analysis of FICZ-exposed embryos showed increased levels of FICZ after concomitant CYP1A-MO injection or αNF co-exposure. Together, these results show that a functioning CYP1/AHR feedback loop is crucial for regulation of AHR signaling by a potential physiological ligand in vivo and further highlights the role of CYP1 enzymes in regulating biological effects of FICZ.

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbons upregulate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and induce changes in actin cytoskeleton. Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Hernández, O D; Mejía-García, A; Sánchez-Ocampo, E M; Castro-Muñozledo, F; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Elizondo, G

    2009-12-21

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in several cellular functions including glycolysis, membrane transport, microtubule assembly, DNA replication and repair, nuclear RNA export, apoptosis, and the detection of nitric oxide stress. Therefore, modifications in the regulatory ability and function of GAPDH may alter cellular homeostasis. We report here that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and beta-naphthoflavone, which are well-known ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), increase GAPDH mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, respectively. These compounds fail to induce GAPDH transcription in an AhR-null mouse model, suggesting that the increase in GAPDH level is dependent upon AhR activation. To analyse the consequences of AhR ligands on GAPDH function, mice were treated with TCDD and the level of liver activity of GAPDH was determined. The results showed that TCDD treatment increased GAPDH activity. On the other hand, treatment of Hepa-1 cells with beta-naphthoflavone leads to an increase in microfilament density when compared to untreated cultures. Collectively, these results suggest that AhR ligands, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons, can modify GAPDH expression and, therefore, have the potential to alter the multiple functions of this enzyme.

  19. USE OF THE TEQ MODEL FOR ASSESSING AHR MEDIATED TOXICITY RISKS TO POPULATIONS OF LAKE TROUT AND OTHER SPECIES IN LAKE ONTARIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity equivalence (TEQ) model for assessing aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated toxicity risks associated with polyhalogenated aromatic chemicals structurally similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been applied to human health risks for more than 15...

  20. Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2013-12-01

    Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1.

  1. Resveratrol attenuates inflammation-induced hyperexcitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis neurons associated with hyperalgesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Kenta; Takehana, Shiori; Shibuya, Eri; Matsuzawa, Nichiwa; Hidaka, Shiori; Kanai, Yurie; Inoue, Maki; Kubota, Yoshiko; Shimazu, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    Background Resveratrol, a component of red wine, has been reported to decrease prostaglandin E2 production by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-2 cascade and to modulate various voltage-dependent ion channels, suggesting that resveratrol could attenuate inflammatory hyperalgesia. However, the effects of resveratrol on inflammation-induced hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons in vivo remain to be determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether daily systemic administration of resveratrol to rats attenuates the inflammation-induced hyperexcitability of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide-dynamic range neurons associated with hyperalgesia. Results Inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant into the whisker pad. The threshold of escape from mechanical stimulation applied to whisker pad in inflamed rats was significantly lower than in control rats. The decreased mechanical threshold in inflamed rats was restored to control levels by daily systemic administration of resveratrol (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The mean discharge frequency of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide-dynamic range neurons to both nonnoxious and noxious mechanical stimuli in inflamed rats was significantly decreased after resveratrol administration. In addition, the increased mean spontaneous discharge of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide-dynamic range neurons in inflamed rats was significantly decreased after resveratrol administration. Similarly, resveratrol significantly diminished noxious pinch-evoked mean after discharge frequency and occurrence in inflamed rats. Finally, resveratrol restored the expanded mean size of the receptive field in inflamed rats to control levels. Conclusion These results suggest that chronic administration of resveratrol attenuates inflammation-induced mechanical inflammatory hyperalgesia and that this effect is due primarily to the suppression of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide dynamic range neuron

  2. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Corrada, Dario; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms underlying the

  3. AHR2 knockdown prevents PAH-mediated cardiac toxicity and XRE- and ARE-associated gene induction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tiem, Lindsey A.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants often present in aquatic systems as complex mixtures. Embryonic fish are sensitive to the developmental toxicity of some PAHs, but the exact mechanisms involved in this toxicity are still unknown. This study explored the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the oxidative stress response of zebrafish to the embryotoxicity of select PAHs. Embryos were exposed to two PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF; a strong AHR agonist) and fluoranthene (FL; a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor), alone and in combination. CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and redox-responsive genes glutathione s-transferase pi 2 (GSTp2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), MnSOD and CuZnSOD mRNA expression was examined. CYP1 activity was measured via an in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethlyase (EROD) activity assay, and the area of the pericardium was measured as an index of cardiotoxicity. BkF or FL alone caused no deformities whereas BkF + FL resulted in extreme pericardial effusion. BkF induced CYP activity above controls and co-exposure with FL inhibited this activity. BkF induced expression of all three CYPs, GSTp2, and GCLc. BkF + FL caused greater than additive induction of the three CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc but had no effect on MnSOD or CuZnSOD. AHR2 knockdown protected against the cardiac deformities caused by BkF + FL and significantly inhibited the induction of the CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc after BkF + FL compared to non-injected controls. These results further show the protective role of AHR2 knockdown against cardiotoxic PAHs and the role of AHR2 as a mediator of redox-responsive gene induction. - Research Highlights: > Co-exposure of the PAHs BkF and FL causes cardiotoxicity in zebrafish. > BkF and FL co-exposure upregulates certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes. > AHR2 knockdown prevents the deformities caused by BkF and FL co-exposure. > AHR2

  4. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  5. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Mark K.; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M.; Ebbesen, Lene H.; Radko, Yulia; Christensen, Lars P.; Jessen, Niels; Richelsen, Bjørn; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is seen with obesity and is suggested to be a mediator of insulin resistance. The eliciting factor of low-grade inflammation is unknown but increased permeability of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulting in endotoxemia could be a candidate. Here we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was increased despite similar plasma glucose level resulting in an increase in the insulinogenic index (IGI; delta0-15insulin / delta0-15glucose) from 13.73 to 22.40 pmol/mmol (P < 0.001). This aberration in insulin and glucose homeostasis was normalized by resveratrol. In conclusion: Low-dose LPS enhanced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without affecting the blood glucose suggesting increased insulin resistance. Resveratrol restored LPS-induced alteration of the insulin secretion and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects specifically in epididymal adipose tissue possibly due to preferential accumulation of resveratrol metabolites pointing towards a possible important involvement of this tissue for the effects on insulin resistance and insulin

  6. Role of resveratrol in FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenic gene expression in the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joo-Man; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Bae, Jin-Sik; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Ahn, Yong-Ho

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Insulin-suppression of PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression is counteracted by resveratrol. {yields} Resveratrol upregulates hepatic gluconeogenic genes by attenuating insulin signaling and deacetylating FOXO1, which are SIRT1-independent in the cytosol and SIRT1-dependent in the nucleus, respectively. {yields} Resveratrol increases the binding activity of Foxo1 to the IRE of PEPCK and G6Pase. -- Abstract: During a state of fasting, the blood glucose level is maintained by hepatic gluconeogenesis. SIRT1 is an important metabolic regulator during nutrient deprivation and the liver-specific knockdown of SIRT1 resulted in decreased glucose production. We hypothesize that SIRT1 is responsible for the upregulation of insulin-suppressed gluconeogenic genes through the deacetylation of FOXO1. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with resveratrol increased insulin-repressed PEPCK and G6Pase mRNA levels, which depend on SIRT1 activity. We found that the resveratrol treatment resulted in a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO1, which are independent of SIRT1 action. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that resveratrol caused the nuclear localization of FOXO1. In the nucleus, FOXO1 is deacetylated by SIRT1, which might make it more accessible to the IRE of the PEPCK and G6Pase promoter, causing an increase in their gene expression. Our results indicate that resveratrol upregulates the expression of gluconeogenic genes by attenuating insulin signaling and by deacetylating FOXO1, which are SIRT1-independent in the cytosol and SIRT1-dependent in the nucleus, respectively.

  7. Preparation and optimization of resveratrol nanosuspensions by antisolvent precipitation using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jifu; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jimei; Li, Qiankui; Zhao, Zhongxi; Liu, Jiyong

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic component, has inspired considerable interest for its extensive physiological activities. However, the poor solubility of resveratrol circumscribes its therapeutic applications. The purpose of this study was to optimize and prepare resveratrol nanosuspensions using the antisolvent precipitation method. The effects of crucial formulation and process variables (drug concentration, stabilizer, and surfactant contents) on particle size were investigated by utilizing a three-factor three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) to perform this experiment. Different mathematical polynomial models were used to identify the impact of selected parameters and to evaluate their interrelationship for predictive formulation purposes. The optimal formulation consisted of drug 29.2 (mg/ml), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K17 0.38%, and F188 3.63%, respectively. The morphology of nanosuspensions was found to be near-spherical shaped by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles were in the amorphous state. Furthermore, in comparison to raw material, resveratrol nanosuspensions showed significantly enhanced saturation solubility and accelerated dissolution rate resulting from the decrease in particle size and the amorphous status of nanoparticles. Meanwhile, resveratrol nanosuspensions exhibited the similar antioxidant potency to that of raw resveratrol. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed that the C max and AUC0→∞ values of nanosuspension were approximately 3.35- and 1.27-fold greater than those of reference preparation, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that this study provides a beneficial approach to address the poor solubility issue of the resveratrol and affords a rational strategy to widen the application range of this interesting substance.

  8. Resveratrol restored Nrf2 function, reduced renal inflammation, and mitigated hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Javkhedkar, Apurva A; Quiroz, Yasmir; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F; Banday, Anees A

    2015-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports the role of oxidative stress and renal interstitial inflammation in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic stilbene, which can lower oxidative stress by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), the master regulator of numerous genes encoding antioxidant and phase II-detoxifying enzymes and molecules. Given the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of hypertension, we conducted this study to test the hypothesis that long-term administration of resveratrol will attenuate renal inflammation and oxidative stress and, hence, progression of hypertension in the young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and control [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] rats were treated for 9 wk with resveratrol or vehicle in their drinking water. Vehicle-treated SHR exhibited renal inflammatory injury and oxidative stress, as evidenced by glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increased levels of renal 8-isoprostane and protein carbonylation. This was associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and downregulations of Nrf2 and phase II antioxidant enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Resveratrol treatment mitigated renal inflammation and injury, reduced oxidative stress, normalized antioxidant capacity, restored Nrf2 and GST activity, and attenuated the progression of hypertension in SHR. However, resveratrol had no effect on these parameters in WKY rats. In conclusion, development and progression of hypertension in the SHR are associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired Nrf2-GST activity in the kidney. Long-term administration of resveratrol restores Nrf2 expression, ameliorates inflammation, and attenuates development of hypertension in SHR. Clinical studies are needed to explore efficacy of resveratrol in human hypertension.

  9. trans-Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant from grapes, increases sperm output in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Juan, M Emília; González-Pons, Eulalia; Munuera, Thais; Ballester, Joan; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Planas, Joana M

    2005-04-01

    trans-Resveratrol was reported to have health benefits including anticarcinogenic effects and protection against cardiovascular disease. One of the mechanisms by which it exerts its action is through modulating the estrogen response systems. Because estrogen is involved in male reproductive biology, we investigated the effect of trans-resveratrol on testis and spermatogenesis. Adult male rats were divided into 2 groups. The treated group was administered by gavage 20 mg/(kg . d) of trans-resveratrol suspended in 10 g/L of carboxymethylcellulose for 90 d, whereas the control group received only carboxymethylcellulose during the same period. The relative weight of testes did not differ between the groups. However, the diameter of the seminiferous tubules was significantly reduced from 437.5 +/- 0.1 mum in the controls to 310.9 +/- 0.1 mum in the resveratrol-treated rats. This decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in tubular density, from 3.20 +/- 0.18 in controls to 6.58 +/- 0.18 tubules/mm(2) in the treated group. Moreover, sperm counts were significantly greater in the resveratrol-treated rats (24.8 +/- 3.30 x 10(7)) than in the control group (14.1 +/- 0.80 x 10(7)), but sperm quality did not differ. Serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and testosterone were significantly higher in the resveratrol-treated group. We identified a novel activity of trans-resveratrol. The daily oral administration of this phytochemical to adult male rats enhanced sperm production by stimulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, without inducing adverse effects.

  10. Changes in white adipose tissue metabolism induced by resveratrol in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of biological functions have been ascribed to resveratrol. Recently, this polyphenol has been shown to have body fat lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to assess some of the potential underlying mechanisms of action which take place in adipose tissue. Methods Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and treated with 30 mg resveratrol/kg body weight/d. All rats were fed an obesogenic diet and after six weeks of treatment white adipose tissues were dissected. Lipoprotein lipase activity was assessed by fluorimetry, acetyl-CoA carboxylase by radiometry, and malic enzyme, glucose-6P-dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase by spectrophotometry. Gene expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triglyceride lipase, PPAR-gamma, SREBP-1c and perilipin were assessed by Real time RT-PCR. The amount of resveratrol metabolites in adipose tissue was measured by chromatography. Results There was no difference in the final body weight of the rats; however, adipose tissues were significantly decreased in the resveratrol-treated group. Resveratrol reduced the activity of lipogenic enzymes, as well as that of heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase. Moreover, a significant reduction was induced by this polyphenol in hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA levels. No significant changes were observed in other genes. Total amount of resveratrol metabolites in adipose tissue was 2.66 ± 0.55 nmol/g tissue. Conclusions It can be proposed that the body fat-lowering effect of resveratrol is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in fatty acid uptake from circulating triacylglycerols and also in de novo lipogenesis. PMID:21569266

  11. Systemic administration of resveratrol suppress the nociceptive neuronal activity of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Inoue, Maki; Kubota, Yoshiko; Ito, Yukihiko; Yui, Kei; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Although a modulatory role has been reported for the red wine polyphenol resveratrol on several types of ion channels and excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system, the acute effects of resveratrol in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission of the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute intravenous resveratrol administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 18 SpVc neurons in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Responses to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli were analyzed in the present study. The mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neurons in response to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was inhibited by resveratrol (0.5-2 mg/kg, i.v.) and maximum inhibition of the discharge frequency of both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was seen within 10 min. These inhibitory effects were reversed after approximately 20 min. The relative magnitude of inhibition by resveratrol of SpVc WDR neuronal discharge frequency was significantly greater for noxious than non-noxious stimulation. These results suggest that, in the absence of inflammatory or neuropathic pain, acute intravenous resveratrol administration suppresses trigeminal sensory transmission, including nociception, and so resveratrol may be used as a complementary and alternative medicine therapeutic agent for the treatment of trigeminal nociceptive pain, including hyperalgesia. PMID:26608254

  12. Systemic administration of resveratrol suppress the nociceptive neuronal activity of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Inoue, Maki; Kubota, Yoshiko; Ito, Yukihiko; Yui, Kei; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Although a modulatory role has been reported for the red wine polyphenol resveratrol on several types of ion channels and excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system, the acute effects of resveratrol in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission of the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute intravenous resveratrol administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 18 SpVc neurons in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Responses to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli were analyzed in the present study. The mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neurons in response to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was inhibited by resveratrol (0.5-2 mg/kg, i.v.) and maximum inhibition of the discharge frequency of both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was seen within 10 min. These inhibitory effects were reversed after approximately 20 min. The relative magnitude of inhibition by resveratrol of SpVc WDR neuronal discharge frequency was significantly greater for noxious than non-noxious stimulation. These results suggest that, in the absence of inflammatory or neuropathic pain, acute intravenous resveratrol administration suppresses trigeminal sensory transmission, including nociception, and so resveratrol may be used as a complementary and alternative medicine therapeutic agent for the treatment of trigeminal nociceptive pain, including hyperalgesia.

  13. [Optimization and in vitro characterization of resveratrol-loaded poloxamer 403/407 mixed micelles].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-feng; Gao, Ming-yue; Wang, Hui-min; Liu, Qiao-yu; Mao, Shi-rui

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to prepare resveratrol loaded mixed micelles composed of poloxamer 403 and poloxamer 407, and optimize the formulation in order to achieve higher drug solubility and sustained drug release. Firstly, a thin-film hydration method was utilized to prepare the micelles. By using drug-loading, encapsulation yield and particle size of the micelles as criteria, influence of three variables, namely poloxamer 407 mass fraction, amount of water and feeding of resveratrol, on the quality of the micelles was optimized with a central composite design method. Steady fluorescence measurement was carried out to evaluate the critical micelle concentration of the carriers. Micelle stability upon dilution with simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid was investigated. The in vitro release of resveratrol from the mixed micelles was monitored by dialysis method. It was observed that the particle size of the optimized micelle formulation was 24 nm, with drug-loading 11.78%, and encapsulation yield 82.51%. The mixed micelles increased the solubility of resveratrol for about 197 times. Moreover, the mixed micelles had a low critical micelle concentration of 0.05 mg · mL(-1) in water and no apparent changes in particle size and drug content were observed upon micelles dilution, indicating improved kinetic stability. Resveratrol was released from the micelles in a controlled manner for over 20 h, and the release process can be well described by Higuchi equation. Therefore, resveratrol-loaded poloxamer 403/407 mixed micelles could improve the solubility of resveratrol significantly and sustained drug release behavior can be achieved.

  14. Antidepressant-like effect of trans-resveratrol in chronic stress model: behavioral and neurochemical evidences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingcong; Wang, Rui; Chen, Chunbai; Du, Xia; Ruan, Lina; Sun, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Lu; O'Donnell, James M; Pan, Jianchun; Xu, Ying

    2013-03-01

    Trans-resveratrol is a phenolic compound enriched in polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities. There is only limited information about the antidepressant-like effect of trans-resveratrol. The present study investigated whether trans-resveratrol has antidepressant-like activity in rats exposed to chronic stress by using two behavioral tasks, shuttle box and sucrose preference tests. The monoamines (5-HT, noradrenaline and dopamine) and their metabolites as well as monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme activities in different brain regions were also measured. Compared to unstressed rats, those exposed to chronic stress paradigm showed performance deficits in the shuttle box, reduced sucrose preference, less weight gain and the increase in the ratio of adrenal gland to body weight, which were reversed by chronic treatment with trans-resveratrol (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.g.). The neurochemical assay showed that higher dose of trans-resveratrol (80 mg/kg) produced a marked increase of 5-HT levels in three brain regions, the frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Noradrenaline and dopamine levels were also increased both in the frontal cortex and striatum. Furthermore, chronic treatment with trans-resveratrol was found to inhibit monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity in all the four brain regions, particularly in the frontal cortex and hippocampus; while MAO-B activity was not affected. These findings indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of trans-resveratrol involves the regulation of the central serotonin and noradrenaline levels and the related MAO-A activities. PMID:23174668

  15. Substrates and enzyme activities related to biotransformation of resveratrol from phenylalanine by Alternaria sp. MG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhua; Shi, Junling; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-12-01

    To identify the substrates and enzymes related to resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1, different substrates were used to produce resveratrol, and their influence on resveratrol production was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Formation of resveratrol and related intermediates was identified using mass spectrum. During the biotransformation, activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), were analyzed and tracked. The reaction system contained 100 mL 0.2 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 120 g/L Alternaria sp. MG1 cells, 0.1 g/L MgSO₄, and 0.2 g/L CaSO₄ and different substrates according to the experimental design. The biotransformation was carried out for 21 h at 28 °C and 120 rpm. Resveratrol formation was identified when phenylalanine, tyrosine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were separately used as the only substrate. Accumulation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and resveratrol and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were identified and changed in different trends during transformation with phenylalanine as the only substrate. The addition of carbohydrates and the increase of phenylalanine concentration promoted resveratrol production and yielded the highest value (4.57 μg/L) when 2 g/L glucose, 1 g/L cyclodextrin, and phenylalanine (4.7 mmol/L) were used simultaneously.

  16. Resveratrol ameliorates muscular pathology in the dystrophic mdx mouse, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yusuke S; Kuno, Atsushi; Hosoda, Ryusuke; Tanno, Masaya; Miura, Tetsuji; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Horio, Yoshiyuki

    2011-09-01

    Muscular dystrophies are inherited myogenic disorders accompanied by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and degeneration. We previously showed that resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), an antioxidant and activator of the NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1, delays the progression of heart failure and prolongs the lifespan of δ-sarcoglycan-deficient hamsters. Because a defect of dystroglycan complex causes muscular dystrophies, and δ-sarcoglycan is a component of this complex, we hypothesized that resveratrol might be a new therapeutic tool for muscular dystrophies. Here, we examined resveratrol's effect in mdx mice, an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. mdx mice that received resveratrol in the diet for 32 weeks (4 g/kg diet) showed significantly less muscle mass loss and nonmuscle interstitial tissue in the biceps femoris compared with mdx mice fed a control diet. In the muscles of these mice, resveratrol significantly decreased oxidative damage shown by the immunostaining of nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and suppressed the up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunits Nox4, Duox1, and p47(phox). Resveratrol also reduced the number of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)(+) myofibroblast cells and endomysial fibrosis in the biceps femoris, although the infiltration of CD45(+) inflammatory cells and increase in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were still observed. In C2C12 myoblast cells, resveratrol pretreatment suppressed the TGF-β1-induced increase in reactive oxygen species, fibronectin production, and expression of α-SMA, and SIRT1 knockdown blocked these inhibitory effects. SIRT1 small interfering RNA also increased the expression of Nox4, p47(phox), and α-SMA in C2C12 cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that SIRT1 activation may be a useful strategy for treating muscular dystrophies. PMID:21652783

  17. Trans-resveratrol induces a potential anti-lipogenic effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, U; Castilla-Madrigal, R; Lostao, M P; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2015-01-01

    A DNA microarray analysis was conducted in Caco-2 cells to analyse the protective effects of trans-resveratrol on enterocyte physiology and metabolism in pro-inflammatory conditions. Cells were pre-treated with 50 μΜ of trans-resveratrol and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added for 48 h. The microarray analysis revealed 121 genes differentially expressed between resveratrol-treated and non-treated cells (B> 0, is the odd thatthe gene is differentially expressed). Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1), histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), NADPH oxidase (NOX1) and sprouty homolog 1 (SPRY), were upregulated by LPS treatment, but significantly blocked by trans-resveratrol pre-treatment (padj< 0.05, after adjusting for Benjamini-Hocheberg procedure). Moreover, genes implicated in synthesis of lipids (z-score= -1.195) and concentration of cholesterol (z-score= -0.109), were markedly downregulated by trans-resveratrol. Other genes involved in fat turnover, but also in cell death and survival function, such as transcription factors Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and amphiregulin (AREG), were also significantly inhibited by trans-resveratrol pre-treatment. RT-qPCR-data confirmed the microarray results. Special mention deserves acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) and endothelial lipase (LIPG), which were downregulated by this stilbene and have been previously associated with fatty acid synthesis and obesity in other tissues. This study envisages that trans-resveratrol might exert an important anti-lipogenic effect at intestinal level under pro-inflammatory conditions, which has not been previously described. PMID:26667767

  18. Effects of resveratrol on growth and skeletal muscle physiology of juvenile southern flounder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Whitney N; Baumgarner, Bradley L; Watanabe, Wade O; Alam, Md Shah; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring antioxidant that has been widely studied in mammals due to its potential to extend lifespan. However, antioxidants may also limit protein damage and therefore reduce rates of protein degradation, providing a potential avenue for enhancing growth in an aquaculture setting. The present study tested the hypotheses that in Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, resveratrol would decrease protein carbonylation and 4-HNE (indicators of protein and lipid oxidative damage, respectively), levels of ubiquitinylation and LC3 (indicators of non-lysosomal and lysosomal protein degradation, respectively), while having no effect on S6K activation (indicator of protein synthesis). These effects were predicted to increase growth rate. Mitochondrial volume density was also examined since resveratrol may lead to the proliferation of mitochondria, which are the principal source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative damage. Juvenile fish (n=142) were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 600 μg