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Sample records for ahr dna binding

  1. A high-resolution structure of the DNA-binding domain of AhrC, the arginine repressor/activator protein from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.; Phillips, Simon E. V.

    2007-11-01

    The structure of the winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding domain of AhrC has been determined at 1.0 Å resolution. The largely hydrophobic β-wing shows high B factors and may mediate the dimer interface in operator complexes. In Bacillus subtilis the concentration of l-arginine is controlled by the transcriptional regulator AhrC, which interacts with 18 bp DNA operator sites called ARG boxes in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons. AhrC is a 100 kDa homohexamer, with each subunit having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core, mediating intersubunit interactions and binding of the co-repressor l-arginine, whilst the N-terminal domains contain a winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif and are arranged around the periphery. The N-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized and it has been shown that the fragment still binds DNA operators as a recombinant monomer. The DNA-binding domain has also been crystallized and the crystal structure refined to 1.0 Å resolution is presented.

  2. The licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin reduces DNA-binding activity of AhR in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tsz Yan; Lin, Shu-mei; Poon, Ching Ho; Leung, Lai K

    2014-09-25

    Licorice is derived from the rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra. It has been used for confectioneries or culinary purposes. The rhizomes contain many flavonoidal compounds that have been shown to be biologically active. In the present study, effect of the licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ILN) on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced XRE transactivation and the downstream expression were investigated in MCF-7 cells. The environmental toxicant PAHs are pro-carcinogens and are biotransformed into their ultimate genotoxic structures by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 enzymes. Reporter gene assay revealed that ILN reduced XRE transactivation triggered by 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Our EMSA results also demonstrated that the flavonoid diminished DMBA-induced XRE binding. The reduced transactivation could be the result of a decreased amount of AhR translocating from cytosol to nucleus as shown in Western analysis. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay demonstrated that expressions of genes with XRE-containing promoters, including CYP1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, followed the same pattern of XRE transactivation. The present study illustrated that ILN might downregulate PAH-induced expressions through antagonizing AhR translocation. PMID:25110319

  3. Structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AhrC bound to its corepressor l-arginine

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.; Phillips, Simon E. V.

    2007-11-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain hexameric core of AhrC, with bound corepressor (l-arginine), has been solved at 1.95 Å resolution. Binding of l-arginine results in a rotation between the two trimers of the hexamer, leading to the activation of the DNA-binding state. The arginine repressor/activator protein (AhrC) from Bacillus subtilis belongs to a large family of multifunctional transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of bacterial arginine metabolism. AhrC interacts with operator sites in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons, acting as a transcriptional repressor at biosynthetic sites and an activator of transcription at catabolic sites. AhrC is a hexamer of identical subunits, each having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core of the protein and are involved in oligomerization and l-arginine binding. The N-terminal domains lie on the outside of the compact core and play a role in binding to 18 bp DNA operators called ARG boxes. The C-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized, and also crystallized as a hexamer with the bound corepressor l-arginine. Here, the crystal structure refined to 1.95 Å is presented.

  4. In silico predictive studies of mAHR congener binding using homology modelling and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Panda, Roshni; Cleave, A Suneetha Susan; Suresh, P K

    2014-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is one of the principal xenobiotic, nuclear receptor that is responsible for the early events involved in the transcription of a complex set of genes comprising the CYP450 gene family. In the present computational study, homology modelling and molecular docking were carried out with the objective of predicting the relationship between the binding efficiency and the lipophilicity of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the AHR in silico. Homology model of the murine AHR was constructed by several automated servers and assessed by PROCHECK, ERRAT, VERIFY3D and WHAT IF. The resulting model of the AHR by MODWEB was used to carry out molecular docking of 36 PCB congeners using PatchDock server. The lipophilicity of the congeners was predicted using the XLOGP3 tool. The results suggest that the lipophilicity influences binding energy scores and is positively correlated with the same. Score and Log P were correlated with r = +0.506 at p = 0.01 level. In addition, the number of chlorine (Cl) atoms and Log P were highly correlated with r = +0.900 at p = 0.01 level. The number of Cl atoms and scores also showed a moderate positive correlation of r = +0.481 at p = 0.01 level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing PatchDock in the docking of AHR to the environmentally deleterious congeners and attempting to correlate structural features of the AHR with its biochemical properties with regards to PCBs. The result of this study are consistent with those of other computational studies reported in the previous literature that suggests that a combination of docking, scoring and ranking organic pollutants could be a possible predictive tool for investigating ligand-mediated toxicity, for their subsequent validation using wet lab-based studies. PMID:23081860

  5. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor regulates megakaryocytic polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephan; T. Papoutsakis, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    Summary We propose that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a novel transcriptional regulator of megakaryopoietic polyploidization. Functional evidence was obtained that AHR impacts in vivo megakaryocytic differentiation and maturation; compared to wild-type mice, AHR-null mice had lower platelet counts, fewer numbers of newly synthesized platelets, increased bleeding times and lower-ploidy megakaryocytes (Mks). AHR mRNA increased 3·6-fold during ex vivo megakaryocytic differentiation, but reduced or remained constant during parallel isogenic granulocytic or erythroid differentiation. We interrogated the role of AHR in megakaryopoiesis using a validated Mk model of megakaryopoiesis, the human megakaryoblastic leukaemia CHRF cell line. Upon CHRF Mk differentiation, AHR mRNA and protein levels increased, AHR protein shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AHR binding to its consensus DNA binding sequence increased. Protein and mRNA levels of the AHR transcriptional target HES1 also increased. Mk differentiation of CHRF cells where AHR or HES1 was knocked-down using RNAi resulted in lower ploidy distributions and cells that were incapable of reaching ploidy classes ≥16n. AHR knockdown also resulted in increased DNA synthesis of lower ploidy cells, without impacting apoptosis. Together, these data support a role for AHR in Mk polyploidization and in vivo platelet function, and warrant further detailed investigations. PMID:21226706

  6. Access Path to the Ligand Binding Pocket May Play a Role in Xenobiotics Selection by AhR

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Erdei, Áron; Gyimesi, Gergely; Magyar, Csaba; Hegedűs, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of multidrug binding at the atomic level would facilitate drug design and strategies to modulate drug metabolism, including drug transport, oxidation, and conjugation. Therefore we explored the mechanism of promiscuous binding of small molecules by studying the ligand binding domain, the PAS-B domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because of the low sequence identities of PAS domains to be used for homology modeling, structural features of the widely employed HIF-2α and a more recent suitable template, CLOCK were compared. These structures were used to build AhR PAS-B homology models. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to characterize dynamic properties of the PAS-B domain and the generated conformational ensembles were employed in in silico docking. In order to understand structural and ligand binding features we compared the stability and dynamics of the promiscuous AhR PAS-B to other PAS domains exhibiting specific interactions or no ligand binding function. Our exhaustive in silico binding studies, in which we dock a wide spectrum of ligand molecules to the conformational ensembles, suggest that ligand specificity and selection may be determined not only by the PAS-B domain itself, but also by other parts of AhR and its protein interacting partners. We propose that ligand binding pocket and access channels leading to the pocket play equally important roles in discrimination of endogenous molecules and xenobiotics. PMID:26727491

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel aryl hydrocarbon receptor isoform, AHR1β, in the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Iwabuchi, Kohei; Nomaru, Koji; Nagahama, Nobumasa; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato

    2013-12-01

    Dioxins including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) cause toxic effects through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated signaling pathway. Our previous studies have investigated the function of 2 AHR isoforms (AHR1 and AHR2) in avian species and identified a third AHR in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. Knowledge of multiple avian AHRs is indispensable to understand molecular mechanisms of AHR-mediated toxic effects and establish risk assessment framework for environmental AHR ligands in avian species. In this study, we successfully isolated a third novel AHR1-like cDNA from chicken and designated it as chicken AHR1 beta (ckAHR1β). The mRNA expression of ckAHR1β was primarily detected in the liver, and the hepatic protein expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Although mRNA expression of ckAHR1β was not altered by in ovo TCDD exposure, ckAHR1β exhibited specific binding to [(3)H]TCDD, TCDD-dependent nuclear translocation, and interaction with xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs) and AHR nuclear translocators (ARNTs). In vitro XRE-driven reporter gene assays revealed ckAHR1β-mediated transactivation of TCDD in a dose-dependent manner, showing a 10-fold reduced sensitivity (high EC50) compared with that mediated by ckAHR1. The mutation of Val(371) to Ser(371) in the ligand-binding domain of ckAHR1β shifted the TCDD-EC50 toward the value observed in ckAHR1, indicating the critical roles of the amino acid in sensitivity. Furthermore, ckAHR1β-mediated transactivation of TCDD was enhanced by 17β-estradiol (E2)-activated chicken estrogen receptor α (ckERα), suggesting a positive cross talk between ckERα and ckAHR1β signaling pathway. Both TCDD-induced and its enhanced activities by E2 were suppressed by the ckAHR repressor in a manner similar to ckAHR1. Collectively, our findings discover the role of ckAHR1β in dioxin toxicity and give an insight into the evolutionary history of the AHR signaling pathway. PMID:23997109

  8. Species-specific relative AHR1 binding affinities of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran explain avian species differences in its relative potency.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Jones, Stephanie P; Crump, Doug; Hahn, Mark E; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-04-01

    Results of recent studies showed that 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are equipotent in domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) while PeCDF is more potent than TCDD in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). To elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying these differences in relative potency of PeCDF among avian species, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to species-specific differential binding affinity of PeCDF to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1). Here, we modified a cell-based binding assay that allowed us to measure the binding affinity of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) to avian AHR1 expressed in COS-7 (fibroblast-like cells). The results of the binding assay show that PeCDF and TCDD bind with equal affinity to chicken AHR1, but PeCDF binds with greater affinity than TCDD to pheasant (3-fold) and Japanese quail (5-fold) AHR1. The current report introduces a COS-7 whole-cell binding assay and provides a mechanistic explanation for differential relative potencies of PeCDF among species of birds. PMID:24434118

  9. Measured and predicted affinities of binding and relative potencies to activate the AhR of PAHs and their alkylated analogues.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Shin, Woong-Hee; Hong, Seongjin; Kang, Habyeong; Jung, Dawoon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Seok, Chaok; Giesy, John P; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms are important components of crude oil. Both groups of PAHs have been reported to cause dioxin-like responses, mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thus, characterization of binding affinity to the AhR of unsubstituted or alkylated PAHs is important to understand the toxicological consequences of oil contamination on ecosystems. We investigated the potencies of major PAHs of crude oil, e.g., chrysene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene, and their alkylated forms (n=17) to upregulate expression of AhR-mediated processes by use of the H4IIE-luc transactivation bioassay. In addition, molecular descriptors of different AhR activation potencies among PAHs were investigated by use of computational molecular docking models. Based on responses of the H4IIE-luc in vitro assay, it was shown that potencies of PAHs were determined by alkylation in addition to the number and conformation of rings. Potencies of AhR-mediated processes were generally greater when a chrysene group was substituted, especially in 1-methyl-chrysene. Significant negative correlations were observed between the in vitro dioxin-like potency measured in H4IIE-luc cells and the binding distance estimated from the in silico modeling. The difference in relative potency for AhR activation observed among PAHs and their alkylated forms could be explained by differences among binding distances in the ligand binding domain of the AhR caused by alkylation. The docking model developed in the present study may have utility in predicting risks of environmental contaminants of which toxicities are mediated by AhR binding. PMID:26037956

  10. Unusual monoclonal DNA binding immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Sawada, S; Iijima, S; Kuwana, K; Nishinarita, S; Takeuchi, J; Shida, M; Karasaki, M; Amaki, I

    1983-03-01

    The monoclonal antibodies directed against DNA were produced by somatic cell hybridization with parental cells (SP-2) and spleen cells from nonimmunized autoimmune MRL/lpr mice. The immunoglobulins were recovered from the culture supernatant from hybridoma by a solid immunoadsorbent and antibody immunoprecipitation. The results from the specificities of DNA binding monoclonal immunoglobulins suggest that the antibodies to DNA have the antibody combining sites for both epitope of double stranded helix and base of DNA and support the concept of the multiple antigen binding potentials of the hybridoma autoantibodies. PMID:6857646

  11. Different AhR binding sites of diterpenoid ligands from Andrographis paniculata caused differential CYP1A1 induction in primary culture in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Remsungnen, Tawun; Nemoto, Nobuo; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2011-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been employed as a folklore remedy. Andrographolide (Andro), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DHA), andrographiside (AS), and neoandrographolide (Neo), are major diterpenoids isolated from this plant. In the present study, influence of the four diterpenoids on CYP1A1 mRNA expression was investigated in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Additionally, binding of these compounds to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was examined using molecular docking analysis to clarify mechanism of CYP1A1 induction. Andro and DHA induced CYP1A1 expression by itself, and co-treatment with a CYP1A1 inducer (BNF, beta-naphthoflavone) showed a synergistic increase of CYP1A1 expression. Andro demonstrated higher enhancing activity than DHA at every similar concentration. On the other hand, Neo suppressed BNF-induced CYP1A1 expression, but AS did not modify the induction. Results from molecular docking analysis of BNF and four diterpenoids on ligand binding domain of AhR were consistent with levels of CYP1A1 mRNA expressions. Furthermore, difference of binding sites of BNF in the presence of diterpenoids might affect the synergism or inhibition of CYP1A1 expression. These results suggest that use of A. paniculata as a health supplement should be concerned in term of herb-drugs interactions or risk of carcinogenesis, according to its ability to influence CYP1A1 expression. PMID:21963808

  12. In vitro and in silico evaluation of transactivation potencies of avian AHR1 and AHR2 by endogenous ligands: Implications for the physiological role of avian AHR2.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sung; Hwang, Ji-Hee; Hirano, Masashi; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and it mediates the toxic effects of exogenous ligands, including dioxins. Recent studies reported that AHRs activated by endogenous ligands play critical roles in mammalian physiological homeostasis. Avian species possess at least two AHR isoforms (AHR1 and AHR2), which exhibit species- and isoform-specific transactivation potencies to exogenous ligands, whereas mammals possess a single AHR. To delineate the profiles and roles of endogenous ligands for avian AHR isoforms, we investigated in vitro transactivation potencies of avian AHRs (AHR1 and AHR2 from the jungle crow, Corvus macrorhynchos; common cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo; and black-footed albatross, Phoebastria nigripes) treated with the endogenous tryptophan metabolites 6-formylindolo [3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ), l-kynurenine (l-Kyn), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and indoxyl sulfate (IS). Furthermore, we analyzed the binding mode of these ligands to each avian AHR isoform by in silico docking simulations. The EC50 of FICZ (0.009-0.032nM) was similar regardless of the species or isoform of AHR. The estimated in silico binding mode of FICZ to AHRs was well conserved in both isoforms. The transactivation potencies of avian AHRs to other tryptophan metabolites were 10(5)-10(7) fold lower than those for FICZ, and EC50 values varied in a species- and isoform-specific manner. This was consistent with poor conservation of the binding mode of l-Kyn, KYNA, and IS predicted in in silico docking simulations. Our results suggest that in avian species, FICZ is the most potent endogenous AHR ligand, and that AHR1 and AHR2 are physiologically functional. PMID:27060260

  13. Pityriazepin and other potent AhR ligands isolated from Malassezia furfur yeast.

    PubMed

    Mexia, Nikitia; Gaitanis, Georgios; Velegraki, Aristea; Soshilov, Anatoly; Denison, Michael S; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2015-04-01

    Malassezia furfur yeast strains isolated from diseased human skin preferentially biosynthesize indole alkaloids which can be detected in the human skin and are highly potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. Chemical analysis of an EtOAc extract of a M. furfur strain obtained from diseased human skin and grown on l-tryptophan agar revealed several known AhR active tryptophan metabolites along with a previously unidentified compound, pityriazepin. While its structure resembled that of the known alkaloid pityriacitrin, the comprised pyridine ring had been transformed into an azepinone. The indoloazepinone scaffold of pityriazepin is extremely rare in nature and has only been reported once previously. Pityriazepin, like the other isolated compounds, was found to be a potent activator of the AhR-dependent reporter gene assay in recombinant cell lines derived from four different species, although significant species differences in relative potency were observed. The ability of pityriazepin to competitively bind to the AhR and directly stimulate AhR DNA binding classified it as a new naturally-occurring potent AhR agonist. M. furfur produces an expanded collection of extremely potent naturally occurring AhR agonists, which produce their biological effects in a species-specific manner. PMID:25721496

  14. Pityriazepin and other potent AhR ligands isolated from Malassezia furfur yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mexia, Nikitia; Gaitanis, George; Velegraki, Aristea; Soshilov, Anatoly; Denison, Michael S.; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia furfur yeast strains isolated from diseased human skin preferentially biosynthesize indole alkaloids which can be detected in human skin and are highly potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. Chemical analysis of an EtOAc extract of a M. furfur strain obtained from diseased human skin and grown on L-tryptophan agar revealed several known AhR active tryptophan metabolites along with a previously unidentified compound, pityriazepin. While its structure resembled that of the known alkaloid pityriacitrin, the comprised pyridine ring had been transformed into an azepinone. The indoloazepinone scaffold of pityriazepin is extremely rare in nature and has only been reported once previously. Pityriazepin, like the other isolated compounds, was found to be a potent activator of the AhR-dependent reporter gene assays in recombinant cell lines derived from four different species, although significant species differences in relative potency was observed. The ability of pityriazepin to competitively bind to the AhR and directly stimulate AhR DNA binding classified it as a new naturally-occurring potent AhR agonist. Malassezia furfur produces an expanded collection of extremely potent naturally occurring AhR agonists, which produce their biological effects in a species-specific manner.1 PMID:25721496

  15. DNA Binding Hydroxyl Radical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vicky J; Konigsfeld, Katie M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2011-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA. PMID:22125376

  16. Amino acid sequence of the AhR1 ligand-binding domain predicts avian sensitivity to dioxin like compounds: in vivo verification in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Eng, Margaret L; Elliott, John E; Jones, Stephanie P; Williams, Tony D; Drouillard, Ken G; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-12-01

    Research has demonstrated that the sensitivity of avian species to the embyrotoxic effects of dioxin-like compounds can be predicted by the amino acid identities at two key sites within the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AhR1). The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has been established as a highly sensitive species to the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds. Results from genotyping and in vitro assays predict that the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is also highly sensitive to dioxin-like compound toxicity. The objective of the present study was to test that prediction in vivo. To do this, we used egg injections in field nesting starlings with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl. Eggs were dosed with either the vehicle control or 1 of 5 doses (1.4, 7.1, 15.9, 32.1, and 52.9 ng PCB-126/g egg). A dose-dependent increase in embryo mortality occurred, and the median lethal dose (LD50; 95% confidence interval [CI]) was 5.61 (2.33-9.08) ng/g. Hepatic CYP1A4/5 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in hatchlings also increased in a dose-dependent manner, with CYP1A4 being more induced than CYP1A5. No effect of dose on morphological measures was seen, and we did not observe any overt malformations. These results indicate that, other than the chicken, the European starling is the most sensitive species to the effects of PCB-126 on avian embryo mortality reported to date, which supports the prediction of relative sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds based on amino acid sequence of the AhR1. PMID:25209921

  17. New DNA-binding radioprotectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roger

    The normal tissue damage associated with cancer radiotherapy has motivated the development at Peter Mac of a new class of DNA-binding radioprotecting drugs that could be applied top-ically to normal tissues at risk. Methylproamine (MP), the lead compound, reduces radiation induced cell kill at low concentrations. For example, experiments comparing the clonogenic survival of transformed human keratinocytes treated with 30 micromolar MP before and dur-ing various doses of ionising radiation, with the radiation dose response for untreated cells, indicate a dose reduction factor (DRF) of 2. Similar survival curve experiments using various concentrations of MP, with parallel measurements of uptake of MP into cell nuclei, have en-abled the relationship between drug uptake and extent of radioprotection to be established. Radioprotection has also been demonstrated after systemic administration to mice, for three different endpoints, namely lung, jejunum and bone marrow (survival at 30 days post-TBI). The results of pulse radiolysis studies indicated that the drugs act by reduction of transient radiation-induced oxidative species on DNA. This hypothesis was substantiated by the results of experiments in which MP radioprotection of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, assessed as -H2AX foci, in the human keratinocyte cell line. For both endpoints, the extent of radioprotection increased with MP concentration up to a maximal value. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radioprotection by MP is mediated by attenuation of the extent of initial DNA damage. However, although MP is a potent radioprotector, it becomes cytotoxic at higher concentrations. This limitation has been addressed in an extensive program of lead optimisation and some promising analogues have emerged from which the next lead will be selected. Given the clinical potential of topical radioprotection, the new analogues are being assessed in terms of delivery to mouse oral mucosa. This is

  18. DNA Binding to the Silica Surface.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bobo; Shin, Yun Kyung; Hassanali, Ali A; Singer, Sherwin J

    2015-08-27

    We investigate the DNA-silica binding mechanism using molecular dynamics simulations. This system is of technological importance, and also of interest to explore how negatively charged DNA can bind to a silica surface, which is also negatively charged at pH values above its isoelectric point near pH 3. We find that the two major binding mechanisms are attractive interactions between DNA phosphate and surface silanol groups and hydrophobic bonding between DNA base and silica hydrophobic region. Umbrella sampling and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) are used to calculate the free energy surface for detachment of DNA from a binding configuration to a location far from the silica surface. Several factors explain why single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) has been observed to be more strongly attracted to silica than double-stranded (dsDNA): (1) ssDNA is more flexible and therefore able to maximize the number of binding interactions. (2) ssDNA has free unpaired bases to form hydrophobic attachment to silica while dsDNA has to break hydrogen bonds with base partners to get free bases. (3) The linear charge density of dsDNA is twice that of ssDNA. We devise a procedure to approximate the atomic forces between biomolecules and amorphous silica to enable large-scale biomolecule-silica simulations as reported here. PMID:25966319

  19. AhR signalling and dioxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years. Although TCDD has been classified by the WHO as a human carcinogen, its carcinogenic potential to humans is not clearly demonstrated. It was first believed that AhR activation accounted for most, if not all, biological properties of dioxins. However, certain AhR agonists found in vegetables do not induce chloracne, and other chemicals, in particular certain therapeutic agents, may induce a chloracne-like syndrome without activating AhR. It is time to rethink the mechanism of dioxin toxicity and analyse in more details the biological events following exposure to these compounds and other AhR agonists, some of which have a very different chemical structure than TCDD. In particular various food-containing AhR agonists are non-toxic and may on the contrary have beneficial properties to human health. PMID:24239782

  20. The Sunscreen Octyl Methoxycinnamate Binds to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrell, Johannes; Vohra, Shikhar; Nordlund, T. M.

    2000-03-01

    Sunscreens are designed to prevent skin cancer by absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun before it gets to the DNA in skin cells. The purpose of this work is to determine whether or not octyl methoxycinnamate, an active ingredient in many sunscreens, will bind to DNA. If so, the sunscreen could transfer the energy it absorbed from the sun to the DNA and cause damage. To determine this, we prepared samples with varying concentrations of cinnamate added to herring sperm DNA, sonicating the mixture to disperse the hydrophobic sunscreen into solution. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the mixtures showed (i) much more sunscreen was dispersed into solution when DNA was present, and (ii) the spectra of both DNA and sunscreen differed from those of the separate solutions. We conclude that the octyl methoxycinnamate can indeed bind to DNA in aqueous solution. Energy transfer experiments from DNA to sunscreen and from sunscreen to 2-aminopurine- (a fluorescent DNA base) labeled DNA will be presented.

  1. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  2. The Q-rich/PST domain of the AHR regulates both ligand-induced nuclear transport and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Anna; Henkler, Frank; Brinkmann, Joep; Sowada, Juliane; Genkinger, Doris; Kern, Christian; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) shuttles continuously between cytoplasm and nucleus, unless ligand-binding triggers association with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and subsequent binding to cognate DNA motifs. We have now identified Val 647 as mandatory residue for export from the nucleus and AHR-function. This residue prevents inactivation of the receptor as a consequence of nuclear sequestration via constitutive import. Concomitantly mutants lacking this residue are exclusively localised in the nucleus. Although ligands accelerate nuclear import transiently, stable nuclear transition depends on a motif adjacent to Val 647 that comprises residues 650–661. Together, this defined region within the Q-rich domain regulates intracellular trafficking of the AHR in context of both nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and receptor activation. Nuclear export therefore depends on the previously characterised N-terminal NES and the newly identified motif that includes V647. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of full-length human AHR is further affected by a section of the PST domain that shows sequence similarities with nuclear export signals. In concert, these motifs maintain a predominant cytoplasmic compartmentalisation, receptive for ligand binding. PMID:27535013

  3. The Q-rich/PST domain of the AHR regulates both ligand-induced nuclear transport and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Anna; Henkler, Frank; Brinkmann, Joep; Sowada, Juliane; Genkinger, Doris; Kern, Christian; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) shuttles continuously between cytoplasm and nucleus, unless ligand-binding triggers association with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and subsequent binding to cognate DNA motifs. We have now identified Val 647 as mandatory residue for export from the nucleus and AHR-function. This residue prevents inactivation of the receptor as a consequence of nuclear sequestration via constitutive import. Concomitantly mutants lacking this residue are exclusively localised in the nucleus. Although ligands accelerate nuclear import transiently, stable nuclear transition depends on a motif adjacent to Val 647 that comprises residues 650-661. Together, this defined region within the Q-rich domain regulates intracellular trafficking of the AHR in context of both nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and receptor activation. Nuclear export therefore depends on the previously characterised N-terminal NES and the newly identified motif that includes V647. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of full-length human AHR is further affected by a section of the PST domain that shows sequence similarities with nuclear export signals. In concert, these motifs maintain a predominant cytoplasmic compartmentalisation, receptive for ligand binding. PMID:27535013

  4. Free-radical-mediated DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, P J

    1985-01-01

    Free-radical metabolites can be generated metabolically by a one-electron reductase-catalyzed reaction or a "peroxidase" catalyzed oxidation or by photoactivation of a wide variety of aromatic xenobiotics. Radicals may also be generated during lipid peroxidation. Some radicals can react with DNA or bind covalently or noncovalently as a dismutation product or as a dimer, trimer or polymeric product. Modification to the DNA can result in single-strand breaks, loss of template activity, and crosslinking. The binding can prevent enzymic digestion. In some cases, the radicals react with oxygen, resulting before conversion to DNA reactive oxygen species. Most radicals probably do not interact with DNA. PMID:3007090

  5. Association of polymorphisms in AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes with levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Yongwen Chen; Yun Bai; Jing Yuan; Weihong Chen; Jianya Sun; Hong Wang; Huashan Liang; Liang Guo; Xiaobo Yang; Hao Tan; Yougong Su; Qingyi Wei; Tangchun Wu

    2006-09-15

    Accumulating evidence has shown that both DNA damage caused by the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes contribute to individual susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis. However, the functional relevance of genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes in exposed individuals is still unclear. In this study of 240 coke-oven workers (the exposed group) and 123 non-coke-oven workers (the control group), we genotyped for polymorphisms in the AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes by PCR methods, and determined the levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. It was found that the ln-transformed Olive tail moment (Olive TM) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, in the exposed group, the Olive TM values in subjects with the AhR Lys{sup 554} variant genotype were higher than those with the AhR Arg{sup 554}/Arg{sup 554} genotype. Similarly, the Olive TM values in the non-coke-oven workers with the CYP1A1 MspI CC + CT genotype were lower than the values of those with the CYP1A1 MspI TT genotype. However, these differences were not evident for GSTM1 and GSTT1. These results suggested that the polymorphism of AhR might modulate the effects of PAHs in the exposed group; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism may have affected the levels of PAH-induced DNA damage warrant further investigation.

  6. Stretching DNA to quantify nonspecific protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Sachin; Fountain, Chandler; Dunlap, David; Family, Fereydoon; Finzi, Laura

    2012-07-01

    Nonspecific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA can be an important mechanism for target search and storage. This seems to be the case for the lambda repressor protein (CI), which maintains lysogeny after infection of E. coli. CI binds specifically at two distant regions along the viral genome and induces the formation of a repressive DNA loop. However, single-molecule imaging as well as thermodynamic and kinetic measurements of CI-mediated looping show that CI also binds to DNA nonspecifically and that this mode of binding may play an important role in maintaining lysogeny. This paper presents a robust phenomenological approach using a recently developed method based on the partition function, which allows calculation of the number of proteins bound nonspecific to DNA from measurements of the DNA extension as a function of applied force. This approach was used to analyze several cycles of extension and relaxation of λ DNA performed at several CI concentrations to measure the dissociation constant for nonspecific binding of CI (˜100 nM), and to obtain a measurement of the induced DNA compaction (˜10%) by CI.

  7. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5' flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. PMID:23624173

  8. Aminoglycoside binding to Oxytricha Nova Telomeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Nihar; Andreasen, Katrine F.; Kumar, Sunil; Hyde-volpe, David; Arya, Dev P.

    2012-01-01

    Telomeric DNA sequences have been at the center stage of drug design for cancer treatment in recent years. The ability of these DNA structures to form four stranded nucleic acid structures, called G-quadruplexes, has been perceived as target for inhibiting telomerase activity vital for the longevity of cancer cells. Being highly diverse in structural forms, these G-quadruplexes are subjects of detailed studies of ligand–DNA interactions of different classes, which will pave the way for logical design of more potent ligands in future. The binding of aminoglycosides were investigated with Oxytricha Nova quadruplex forming DNA sequence (GGGGTTTTGGGG)2. Isothermal Titration calorimetry (ITC) determined ligand to quadruplex binding ratio shows 1:1 neomycin:quadruplex binding with association constants (Ka ) ~ 105M−1 while paromomycin was found to have a two-fold weaker affinity than neomycin. The CD titration experiments with neomycin resulted in minimal changes in the CD signal. FID assays, performed to determine the minimum concentration required to displace half of the fluorescent probe bound, showed neomycin as the best of the all aminoglycosides studied for quadruplex binding. Initial NMR footprint suggests that ligand-DNA interactions occur in the wide groove of the quadruplex. Computational docking studies also indicate that aminoglycosides bind in the wide groove of the quadruplex. PMID:20886815

  9. DNA Origami Seesaws as Comparative Binding Assay.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Philipp C; Høiberg, Hans C; Simmel, Stephanie S; Holzmeister, Phil; Tinnefeld, Philip; Liedl, Tim

    2016-06-16

    The application of commonly used force spectroscopy in biological systems is often limited by the need for an invasive tether connecting the molecules of interest to a bead or cantilever tip. Here we present a DNA origami-based prototype in a comparative binding assay. It has the advantage of in situ readout without any physical connection to the macroscopic world. The seesaw-like structure has a lever that is able to move freely relative to its base. Binding partners on each side force the structure into discrete and distinguishable conformations. Model experiments with competing DNA hybridisation reactions yielded a drastic shift towards the conformation with the stronger binding interaction. With reference DNA duplexes of tuneable length on one side, this device can be used to measure ligand interactions in comparative assays. PMID:27038073

  10. C60 fullerene binding to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehri, Mansoor H.; Cox, Barry J.; Hill, James M.

    2014-09-01

    Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in various areas of science and technology. Owing to their exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties, they have many applications, particularly in cosmetic and medical products. Using the Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential function and the continuum approximation, which assumes that intermolecular interactions can be approximated by average atomic surface densities, we determine the binding energies of a C60 fullerene with respect to both single-strand and double-strand DNA molecules. We assume that all configurations are in a vacuum and that the C60 fullerene is initially at rest. Double integrals are performed to determine the interaction energy of the system. We find that the C60 fullerene binds to the double-strand DNA molecule, at either the major or minor grooves, with binding energies of -4.7 eV or -2.3 eV, respectively, and that the C60 molecule binds to the single-strand DNA molecule with a binding energy of -1.6 eV. Our results suggest that the C60 molecule is most likely to be linked to the major groove of the dsDNA molecule.

  11. DNA Triplexes That Bind Several Cofactor Molecules.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Sven; Richert, Clemens

    2015-12-14

    Cofactors are critical for energy-consuming processes in the cell. Harnessing such processes for practical applications requires control over the concentration of cofactors. We have recently shown that DNA triplex motifs with a designed binding site can be used to capture and release nucleotides with low micromolar dissociation constants. In order to increase the storage capacity of such triplex motifs, we have explored the limits of ligand binding through designed cavities in the oligopurine tract. Oligonucleotides with up to six non-nucleotide bridges between purines were synthesized and their ability to bind ATP, cAMP or FAD was measured. Triplex motifs with several single-nucleotide binding sites were found to bind purines more tightly than triplexes with one large binding site. The optimized triplex consists of 59 residues and four C3-bridges. It can bind up to four equivalents of ligand with apparent Kd values of 52 µM for ATP, 9 µM for FAD, and 2 µM for cAMP. An immobilized version fuels bioluminescence via release of ATP at body temperature. These results show that motifs for high-density capture, storage and release of energy-rich biomolecules can be constructed from synthetic DNA. PMID:26561335

  12. Integration of Genome-Wide Computation DRE Search, AhR ChIP-chip and Gene Expression Analyses of TCDD-Elicited Responses in the Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor (TF) that mediates responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Integration of TCDD-induced genome-wide AhR enrichment, differential gene expression and computational dioxin response element (DRE) analyses further elucidate the hepatic AhR regulatory network. Results Global ChIP-chip and gene expression analyses were performed on hepatic tissue from immature ovariectomized mice orally gavaged with 30 μg/kg TCDD. ChIP-chip analysis identified 14,446 and 974 AhR enriched regions (1% false discovery rate) at 2 and 24 hrs, respectively. Enrichment density was greatest in the proximal promoter, and more specifically, within ± 1.5 kb of a transcriptional start site (TSS). AhR enrichment also occurred distal to a TSS (e.g. intergenic DNA and 3' UTR), extending the potential gene expression regulatory roles of the AhR. Although TF binding site analyses identified over-represented DRE sequences within enriched regions, approximately 50% of all AhR enriched regions lacked a DRE core (5'-GCGTG-3'). Microarray analysis identified 1,896 number of TCDD-responsive genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t) > 0.999). Integrating this gene expression data with our ChIP-chip and DRE analyses only identified 625 differentially expressed genes that involved an AhR interaction at a DRE. Functional annotation analysis of differentially regulated genes associated with AhR enrichment identified overrepresented processes related to fatty acid and lipid metabolism and transport, and xenobiotic metabolism, which are consistent with TCDD-elicited steatosis in the mouse liver. Conclusions Details of the AhR regulatory network have been expanded to include AhR-DNA interactions within intragenic and intergenic genomic regions. Moreover, the AhR can interact with DNA independent of a DRE core suggesting there are alternative mechanisms of AhR-mediated gene regulation. PMID:21762485

  13. Evolution of Protein-binding DNA Sequences through Competitive Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence; Levine, Herbert

    2002-03-01

    The dynamics of in vitro DNA evolution controlled via competitive binding of DNA sequences to proteins has been explored in a recent serial transfer experiment footnote B. Dubertret, S.Liu, Q. Ouyang, A. Libchaber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 6022 (2001).. Motivated by the experiment, we investigate a continuum model for this evolution process in various parameter regimes. We establish a self-consistent mean-field evolution equation, determine its dynamical properties and finite population size corrections. In addition, we discuss the experimental implications of our results.

  14. AhR sensing of bacterial pigments regulates antibacterial defence.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alves, Pedro; Faé, Kellen; Houthuys, Erica; Dorhoi, Anca; Kreuchwig, Annika; Furkert, Jens; Barison, Nicola; Diehl, Anne; Munder, Antje; Constant, Patricia; Skrahina, Tatsiana; Guhlich-Bornhof, Ute; Klemm, Marion; Koehler, Anne-Britta; Bandermann, Silke; Goosmann, Christian; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Hurwitz, Robert; Brinkmann, Volker; Fillatreau, Simon; Daffe, Mamadou; Tümmler, Burkhard; Kolbe, Michael; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Krause, Gerd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2014-08-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly conserved ligand-dependent transcription factor that senses environmental toxins and endogenous ligands, thereby inducing detoxifying enzymes and modulating immune cell differentiation and responses. We hypothesized that AhR evolved to sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. We characterized bacterial pigmented virulence factors, namely the phenazines from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the naphthoquinone phthiocol from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as ligands of AhR. Upon ligand binding, AhR activation leads to virulence factor degradation and regulated cytokine and chemokine production. The relevance of AhR to host defence is underlined by heightened susceptibility of AhR-deficient mice to both P. aeruginosa and M. tuberculosis. Thus, we demonstrate that AhR senses distinct bacterial virulence factors and controls antibacterial responses, supporting a previously unidentified role for AhR as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, and identify bacterial pigments as a new class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. PMID:25119038

  15. Programmable DNA-binding Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Meghan S.; Melander, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant gene expression is responsible for a myriad of human diseases from infectious diseases to cancer. Precise regulation of these genes via specific interactions with the DNA double helix could pave the way for novel therapeutics. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are small molecules capable of binding to pre-determined DNA sequences up to 16 base pairs with affinity and specificity comparable to natural transcription factors. In the three decades since their development, great strides have been made relating to synthetic accessibility and improved sequence specificity and binding affinity. This perspective presents a brief history of early seminal developments in the field and highlights recent reports of the utility of polyamides as both genetic modulators and molecular probes. PMID:23665141

  16. Detection of the TCDD Binding-Fingerprint within the Ah Receptor Ligand Binding Domain by Structurally Driven Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Pandini, Alessandro; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Song, Yujuan; Zhao, Jing; Bonati, Laura; Denison, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent, basic helix–loop–helix Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-containing transcription factor that can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, including the toxic environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Our previous three-dimensional homology model of the mouse AhR (mAhR) PAS B ligand binding domain allowed identification of the binding site and its experimental validation. We have extended this analysis by conducting comparative structural modeling studies of the ligand binding domains of six additional high-affinity mammalian AhRs. These results, coupled with site-directed mutagenesis and AhR functional analysis, have allowed detection of the “TCDD binding-fingerprint” of conserved residues within the ligand binding cavity necessary for high-affinity TCDD binding and TCDD-dependent AhR transformation DNA binding. The essential role of selected residues was further evaluated using molecular docking simulations of TCDD with both wild-type and mutant mAhRs. Taken together, our results dramatically improve our understanding of the molecular determinants of TCDD binding and provide a basis for future studies directed toward rationalizing the observed species differences in AhR sensitivity to TCDD and understanding the mechanistic basis for the dramatic diversity in AhR ligand structure. PMID:19456125

  17. DNA Triplexes That Bind Several Cofactor Molecules.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Sven; Richert, Clemens

    2015-12-14

    Invited for the cover of this issue are Sven Vollmer and Clemens Richert of the University of Stuttgart. The cover image hints at the analogy between a honey comb, as a macroscopic storage device, and DNA triplexes with designed binding sites, as molecular storage motifs that can release ATP to fuel a bioluminescence reaction. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201503220. PMID:26534779

  18. DNA-aptamers binding aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Nadia; Strehlitz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short, single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are able to bind specifically and with high affinity to their non-nucleic acid target molecules. This binding reaction enables their application as biorecognition elements in biosensors and assays. As antibiotic residues pose a problem contributing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and thereby reducing the effectiveness of the drug to fight human infections, we selected aptamers targeted against the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A with the aim of constructing a robust and functional assay that can be used for water analysis. With this work we show that aptamers that were derived from a Capture-SELEX procedure targeting against kanamycin A also display binding to related aminoglycoside antibiotics. The binding patterns differ among all tested aptamers so that there are highly substance specific aptamers and more group specific aptamers binding to a different variety of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Also the region of the aminoglycoside antibiotics responsible for aptamer binding can be estimated. Affinities of the different aptamers for their target substance, kanamycin A, are measured with different approaches and are in the micromolar range. Finally, the proof of principle of an assay for detection of kanamycin A in a real water sample is given. PMID:24566637

  19. INSIGHTS FROM AHR AND ARNT GENE KNOCKOUT STUDIES REGARDING RESPONSES TO TCDD AND REGULATION OF NORMAL EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are members of the Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) family of proteins. The AhR binds members of the chemical family that includes dioxins, furans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A ligand-AhR-ARNT comp...

  20. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  1. DNA Shape versus Sequence Variations in the Protein Binding Process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanying; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2016-02-01

    The binding process of a protein with a DNA involves three stages: approach, encounter, and association. It has been known that the complexation of protein and DNA involves mutual conformational changes, especially for a specific sequence association. However, it is still unclear how the conformation and the information in the DNA sequences affects the binding process. What is the extent to which the DNA structure adopted in the complex is induced by protein binding, or is instead intrinsic to the DNA sequence? In this study, we used the multiscale simulation method to explore the binding process of a protein with DNA in terms of DNA sequence, conformation, and interactions. We found that in the approach stage the protein can bind both the major and minor groove of the DNA, but uses different features to locate the binding site. The intrinsic conformational properties of the DNA play a significant role in this binding stage. By comparing the specific DNA with the nonspecific in unbound, intermediate, and associated states, we found that for a specific DNA sequence, ∼40% of the bending in the association forms is intrinsic and that ∼60% is induced by the protein. The protein does not induce appreciable bending of nonspecific DNA. In addition, we proposed that the DNA shape variations induced by protein binding are required in the early stage of the binding process, so that the protein is able to approach, encounter, and form an intermediate at the correct site on DNA. PMID:26840719

  2. Computational Design of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer; Song, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of engineered and naturally occurring sequence perturbations to protein-DNA interfaces requires accurate computational modeling technologies. It has been well established that computational design to accommodate small numbers of DNA target site substitutions is possible. This chapter details the basic method of design used in the Rosetta macromolecular modeling program that has been successfully used to modulate the specificity of DNA-binding proteins. More recently, combining computational design and directed evolution has become a common approach for increasing the success rate of protein engineering projects. The power of such high-throughput screening depends on computational methods producing multiple potential solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes several protocols for increasing the diversity of designed output. Lastly, we describe an approach for building comparative models of protein-DNA complexes in order to utilize information from homologous sequences. These models can be used to explore how nature modulates specificity of protein-DNA interfaces and potentially can even be used as starting templates for further engineering. PMID:27094297

  3. DNA binding studies of Vinca alkaloids: experimental and computational evidence.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Prateek; Gupta, Surendra P; Pandav, Kumud; Barthwal, Ritu; Jayaram, B; Kumar, Surat

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescence studies on the indole alkaloids vinblastine sulfate, vincristine sulfate, vincamine and catharanthine have demonstrated the DNA binding ability of these molecules. The binding mode of these molecules in the minor groove of DNA is non-specific. A new parameter of the purine-pyrimidine base sequence specificty was observed in order to define the non-specific DNA binding of ligands. Catharanthine had shown 'same' pattern of 'Pu-Py' specificity while evaluating its DNA binding profile. The proton resonances of a DNA decamer duplex were assigned. The models of the drug:DNA complexes were analyzed for DNA binding features. The effect of temperature on the DNA binding was also evaluated. PMID:22545401

  4. Helicase binding to DnaI exposes a cryptic DNA-binding site during helicase loading in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Charikleia; Schaeffer, Patrick M.; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Soultanas, Panos

    2006-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis DnaI, DnaB and DnaD proteins load the replicative ring helicase DnaC onto DNA during priming of DNA replication. Here we show that DnaI consists of a C-terminal domain (Cd) with ATPase and DNA-binding activities and an N-terminal domain (Nd) that interacts with the replicative ring helicase. A Zn2+-binding module mediates the interaction with the helicase and C67, C70 and H84 are involved in the coordination of the Zn2+. DnaI binds ATP and exhibits ATPase activity that is not stimulated by ssDNA, because the DNA-binding site on Cd is masked by Nd. The ATPase activity resides on the Cd domain and when detached from the Nd domain, it becomes sensitive to stimulation by ssDNA because its cryptic DNA-binding site is exposed. Therefore, Nd acts as a molecular ‘switch’ regulating access to the ssDNA binding site on Cd, in response to binding of the helicase. DnaI is sufficient to load the replicative helicase from a complex with six DnaI molecules, so there is no requirement for a dual helicase loader system. PMID:17003052

  5. Helicase binding to DnaI exposes a cryptic DNA-binding site during helicase loading in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Charikleia; Schaeffer, Patrick M; Dixon, Nicholas E; Soultanas, Panos

    2006-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis DnaI, DnaB and DnaD proteins load the replicative ring helicase DnaC onto DNA during priming of DNA replication. Here we show that DnaI consists of a C-terminal domain (Cd) with ATPase and DNA-binding activities and an N-terminal domain (Nd) that interacts with the replicative ring helicase. A Zn2+-binding module mediates the interaction with the helicase and C67, C70 and H84 are involved in the coordination of the Zn2+. DnaI binds ATP and exhibits ATPase activity that is not stimulated by ssDNA, because the DNA-binding site on Cd is masked by Nd. The ATPase activity resides on the Cd domain and when detached from the Nd domain, it becomes sensitive to stimulation by ssDNA because its cryptic DNA-binding site is exposed. Therefore, Nd acts as a molecular 'switch' regulating access to the ssDNA binding site on Cd, in response to binding of the helicase. DnaI is sufficient to load the replicative helicase from a complex with six DnaI molecules, so there is no requirement for a dual helicase loader system. PMID:17003052

  6. A thermodynamic signature for drug-DNA binding mode.

    PubMed

    Chaires, Jonathan B

    2006-09-01

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, acting as chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. Two common binding modes for these small molecules are intercalation or groove-binding. Intercalation results from insertion of a planar aromatic substituent between DNA base pairs, with concomitant unwinding and lengthening of the DNA helix. Groove binding, in contrast, does not perturb the duplex structure to any great extent. Groove-binders are typically crescent-shaped, and fit snugly into the minor groove with little distortion of the DNA structure. Recent calorimetric studies have determined the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the DNA binding of representative DNA binding compounds. Analysis of such thermodynamic data culled from the literature reveals distinctive thermodynamic signatures for groove-binding and intercalating compounds. Plots of the binding enthalpy (DeltaH) against binding entropy (-TDeltaS) for 26 drug-DNA interactions reveal that groove-binding interactions are clustered in a region of the graph with favorable entropy contributions to the free energy, while intercalators are clustered in a region with unfavorable entropy but favorable enthalpy contributions. Groove-binding is predominantly entropically driven, while intercalation in enthalpically driven. The molecular basis of the contrasting thermodynamic signatures for the two binding modes is by no means clear, but the pattern should be of use in categorizing new DNA binding agents. PMID:16730635

  7. DNA binding and recognition by binuclear transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changlin; Yan, Rui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Siwang; Liao, Zhanru; Li, Dongfeng; Xu, Hui-Bie F.

    2001-09-01

    The development of small molecules that can bind and recognize DNA with sequence- or stereo-specificity under physiological conditions has been attracting a great interest in chemistry and biochemistry. Here, spectroscopic characterization and gel electrophoresis methods have been utilized to investigate the DNA binding and recognition by a variety of binuclear transition metal complexes. The result indicate that the structures and charges of binuclear transition metal complexes, compositions of coordination spheres, central metal ions and their coordination unsaturation, and separations between two central metal atoms can exert significant effects on the DNA binding and recognition. If there are not intercalative ligands into DNA base pairs or kinetically substitutable ligands by DNA phosphate groups within coordination sphere, the coordination saturation and compact binuclear transition metal complexes weaker bind to DNA than the coordination unsaturation and extended ones to DNA. Since the different transtiometal ions exhibit different affinities to DNA phosphate oxygen atoms, the binding interactions between their binuclear complexes and DNA are controlled by the affinity. He binuclear complexes with one or more negative charges lead to a consequence that they can not efficient associate with DNA, because DNA phosphodiester backbone is negatively charged. Whenthe separations between two central transition metal atoms is more than the distance between two DNA base pairs, the binuclear complexes could bind and recognize the DNA sequence with two or more base pairs. The protonated and positively charged ligands can strengthen the DNA binding and recognition by these binuclear metal complexes. Based on such DNA binding and recognition principles, the binuclear zinc complex designed in the study preferentially bind and recognize the following DNA sequence on pBR322 DNA with binding constant K.

  8. Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Foti, M; Omichinski, J G; Stahl, S; Maloney, D; West, J; Schweitzer, B I

    1999-02-01

    We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site. PMID:10037146

  9. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brázda, Václav; Hároníková, Lucia; Liao, Jack C. C.; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  10. DNA and RNA quadruplex-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brázda, Václav; Hároníková, Lucia; Liao, Jack C C; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  11. NMR Solution Structure and DNA Binding Model of the DNA Binding Domain of Competence Protein A

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Carey A.; Bobay, Benjamin G.; Thompson, Richele J.; Perego, Marta; Cavanagh, John

    2010-01-01

    Competence protein A (ComA) is a response regulator protein involved in the development of genetic competence in the Gram-positive spore forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, as well as the regulation of the production of degradative enzymes and antibiotic synthesis. ComA belongs to the NarL family of proteins which are characterized by a C-terminal transcriptional activator domain that consists of a bundle of four helices, where the second and third helices (α8 and α9) form a helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain. Using NMR spectroscopy, the high resolution three-dimensional solution structure of the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of ComA (ComAC) has been determined. In addition, surface plasmon resonance and NMR protein-DNA titration experiments allowed for the analysis of the interaction of ComAC with its target DNA sequences. Combining the solution structure and biochemical data, a model of ComAC bound to the ComA recognition sequences on the srfA promoter has been developed. The model shows that for DNA binding, ComA uses the conserved helix-turn-helix motif present in other NarL family members. However, the model also reveals that ComA may use a slightly different part of the helix-turn-helix motif and there appears to be some associated domain re-orientation. These observations suggest a basis for DNA binding specificity within the NarL family. PMID:20302877

  12. CAP binding to B and Z forms of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fried, M G; Wu, H M; Crothers, D M

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the interaction between the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CAP) and a small DNA fragment containing its specific recognition sequence by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding of CAP to this fragment induces a B to "C-like" change in the CD spectrum, which is different from that observed for non-specific binding. A one-to-one (CAP dimer to DNA) binding stoichiometry was deduced from spectroscopic titration data, as was a non-specific binding site size of 17 bp/dimer. In addition, we have compared the non-specific binding affinity of CAP for the B and Z forms of synthetic DNA copolymers. A slight preference for the B form was found. These results do not support the recent specific suggestion that CAP binds to a left-handed form of DNA (1), but indicate more generally that an optically detectable conformational change takes place in DNA on binding CAP. Images PMID:6344018

  13. Sequence-Specific DNA Binding by a Short Peptide Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanian, Robert V.; McKnight, C. James; Kim, Peter S.

    1990-08-01

    A recently described class of DNA binding proteins is characterized by the "bZIP" motif, which consists of a basic region that contacts DNA and an adjacent "leucine zipper" that mediates protein dimerization. A peptide model for the basic region of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 has been developed in which the leucine zipper has been replaced by a disulfide bond. The 34-residue peptide dimer, but not the reduced monomer, binds DNA with nanomolar affinity at 4^circC. DNA binding is sequence-specific as judged by deoxyribonuclease I footprinting. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggests that the peptide adopts a helical structure when bound to DNA. These results demonstrate directly that the GCN4 basic region is sufficient for sequence-specific DNA binding and suggest that a major function of the GCN4 leucine zipper is simply to mediate protein dimerization. Our approach provides a strategy for the design of short sequence-specific DNA binding peptides.

  14. Comparative in vitro transformation of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)

    SciTech Connect

    Riddick, D.S.; Harper, P.A.; Okey, A.B.; Riddick, D.S. )

    1992-02-26

    The induction of CYP1A1 by halogenated (e.g. TCDD) and nonhalogenated (e.g. MC) aromatic hydrocarbons is mediated by the AhR. In cytosol prepared from the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1, AhR bound TCDD with 3 to 4-fold greater affinity than MC, whereas TCDD was 960-fold more potent than MC as an inducer of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in cultured Hepa-1 cells. The objective of this study was to compare the potency and efficacy of TCDD and MC with respect to transformation of the cytosolic AhR to its DNA-binding form. Following incubation of Hepa-1 cytosol with TCDD or MC at 30 C for 4 h, the extent of AhR transformation was assessed by measuring interaction of the AhR-ligand complex with a {sup 32}P-labeled 26-bp oligonucleotide containing a single dioxin-responsive element (DRE) consensus sequence in a gel retardation assay. Concentration-response studies indicated that TCDD and MC did not differ significantly in AhR transformation potency, but MC displayed only about 70% of the efficacy of TCDD. In vitro transformation efficacy appears to be a determinant of AHH induction efficacy, but the small difference between TCDD and MC in transformation potency does not seem adequate to explain quantitatively the large difference in AHH induction potency displayed by these ligands.

  15. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models.

    PubMed

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-05-01

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers. PMID:26912662

  16. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models*

    PubMed Central

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers. PMID:26912662

  17. The detection of DNA-binding proteins by protein blotting.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, B; Steinberg, J; Laemmli, U K; Weintraub, H

    1980-01-01

    A method, called "protein blotting," for the detection of DNA-binding proteins is described. Proteins are separated on an SDA-polyacrylamide gel. The gel is sandwiched between 2 nitrocellulose filters and the proteins allowed to diffuse out of the gel and onto the filters. The proteins are tightly bound to each filter, producing a replica of the original gel pattern. The replica is used to detect DNA-binding proteins, RNA-binding proteins or histone-binding proteins by incubation of the filter with [32P]DNA, [125I]RNA, or [125I] histone. Evidence is also presented that specific protein-DNA interactions may be detected by this technique; under appropriate conditions, the lac repressor binds only to DNA containing the lac operator. Strategies for the detection of specific protein-DNA interactions are discussed. Images PMID:6243775

  18. Flavonoid-DNA binding studies and thermodynamic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Shaheen, Amber; Yaqub, Azra; Perveen, Fouzia; Sabahat, Sana; Mumtaz, Misbah; Jacob, Claus; Ba, Lalla Aicha; Mohammed, Hamdoon A.

    2011-09-01

    Interactional studies of new flavonoid derivatives (Fl) with chicken blood ds.DNA were investigated spectrophotometrically in DMSO-H 2O (9:1 v/v) at various temperatures. Spectral parameters suggest considerable binding between the flavonoid derivatives studied and ds.DNA. The binding constant values lie in the enhanced-binding range. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from UV studies also point to strong spontaneous binding of Fl with ds.DNA. Viscometric studies complimented the UV results where a small linear increase in relative viscosity of the DNA solution was observed with added optimal flavonoid concentration. An overall mixed mode of interaction (intercalative plus groove binding) is proposed between DNA and flavonoids. Conclusively, investigated flavonoid derivatives are found to be strong DNA binders and seem to be promising drug candidates like their natural analogues.

  19. Pentoxifylline affects idarubicin binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Gołuński, Grzegorz; Borowik, Agnieszka; Lipińska, Andrea; Romanik, Monika; Derewońko, Natalia; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Anticancer drug idarubicin - derivative of doxorubicin - is commonly used in treatment of numerous cancer types. However, in contrast to doxorubicin, its biophysical properties are not well established yet. Additionally, potential direct interactions of idarubicin with other biologically active aromatic compounds, such as pentoxifylline - representative of methylxanthines - were not studied at all. Potential formation of such hetero-aggregates may result in sequestration of the anticancer drug and, in consequence, reduction of its biological activity. This work provide description of the idarubicin biophysical properties as well as assess influence of pentoxifylline on idarubicin interactions with DNA. To achieve these goals we employed spectrophotometric methods coupled with analysis with the appropriate mathematical models as well as flow cytometry and Ames test. Obtained results show influence of pentoxifylline on idarubicin binding to DNA and are well in agreement with the data previously published for other aromatic ligands. Additionally it may be hypothesized that direct interactions between idarubicin and pentoxifylline may influence the anticancer drug biological activity. PMID:26921593

  20. Tuning Genetic Clocks Employing DNA Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Shridhar; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2012-01-01

    Periodic oscillations play a key role in cell physiology from the cell cycle to circadian clocks. The interplay of positive and negative feedback loops among genes and proteins is ubiquitous in these networks. Often, delays in a negative feedback loop and/or degradation rates are a crucial mechanism to obtain sustained oscillations. How does nature control delays and kinetic rates in feedback networks? Known mechanisms include proper selection of the number of steps composing a feedback loop and alteration of protease activity, respectively. Here, we show that a remarkably simple means to control both delays and effective kinetic rates is the employment of DNA binding sites. We illustrate this design principle on a widely studied activator-repressor clock motif, which is ubiquitous in natural systems. By suitably employing DNA target sites for the activator and/or the repressor, one can switch the clock “on” and “off” and precisely tune its period to a desired value. Our study reveals a design principle to engineer dynamic behavior in biomolecular networks, which may be largely exploited by natural systems and employed for the rational design of synthetic circuits. PMID:22859962

  1. The DNA-binding network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Minch, Kyle J.; Rustad, Tige R.; Peterson, Eliza J. R.; Winkler, Jessica; Reiss, David J.; Ma, Shuyi; Hickey, Mark; Brabant, William; Morrison, Bob; Turkarslan, Serdar; Mawhinney, Chris; Galagan, James E.; Price, Nathan D.; Baliga, Nitin S.; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infects 30% of all humans and kills someone every 20–30 s. Here we report genome-wide binding for ~80% of all predicted MTB transcription factors (TFs), and assayed global expression following induction of each TF. The MTB DNA-binding network consists of ~16,000 binding events from 154 TFs. We identify >50 TF-DNA consensus motifs and >1,150 promoter-binding events directly associated with proximal gene regulation. An additional ~4,200 binding events are in promoter windows and represent strong candidates for direct transcriptional regulation under appropriate environmental conditions. However, we also identify >10,000 ‘dormant’ DNA-binding events that cannot be linked directly with proximal transcriptional control, suggesting that widespread DNA binding may be a common feature that should be considered when developing global models of coordinated gene expression. PMID:25581030

  2. MCM ring hexamerization is a prerequisite for DNA-binding

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Froelich, Clifford A.; Nourse, Amanda; Enemark, Eric J.

    2015-09-13

    The hexameric Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) protein complex forms a ring that unwinds DNA at the replication fork in eukaryotes and archaea. Our recent crystal structure of an archaeal MCM N-terminal domain bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) revealed ssDNA associating across tight subunit interfaces but not at the loose interfaces, indicating that DNA-binding is governed not only by the DNA-binding residues of the subunits (MCM ssDNA-binding motif, MSSB) but also by the relative orientation of the subunits. We now extend these findings to show that DNA-binding by the MCM N-terminal domain of the archaeal organism Pyrococcus furiosus occurs specifically in themore » hexameric oligomeric form. We show that mutants defective for hexamerization are defective in binding ssDNA despite retaining all the residues observed to interact with ssDNA in the crystal structure. One mutation that exhibits severely defective hexamerization and ssDNA-binding is at a conserved phenylalanine that aligns with the mouse Mcm4(Chaos3) mutation associated with chromosomal instability, cancer, and decreased intersubunit association.« less

  3. MCM ring hexamerization is a prerequisite for DNA-binding

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, Clifford A.; Nourse, Amanda; Enemark, Eric J.

    2015-09-13

    The hexameric Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) protein complex forms a ring that unwinds DNA at the replication fork in eukaryotes and archaea. Our recent crystal structure of an archaeal MCM N-terminal domain bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) revealed ssDNA associating across tight subunit interfaces but not at the loose interfaces, indicating that DNA-binding is governed not only by the DNA-binding residues of the subunits (MCM ssDNA-binding motif, MSSB) but also by the relative orientation of the subunits. We now extend these findings to show that DNA-binding by the MCM N-terminal domain of the archaeal organism Pyrococcus furiosus occurs specifically in the hexameric oligomeric form. We show that mutants defective for hexamerization are defective in binding ssDNA despite retaining all the residues observed to interact with ssDNA in the crystal structure. One mutation that exhibits severely defective hexamerization and ssDNA-binding is at a conserved phenylalanine that aligns with the mouse Mcm4(Chaos3) mutation associated with chromosomal instability, cancer, and decreased intersubunit association.

  4. Crystal Structure of the Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding Protein 1 (Chd1) DNA-binding Domain in Complex with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma A.; Heroux A.; Jenkins K. R.; Bowman G. D.

    2011-12-09

    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent machines that dynamically alter the chromatin packaging of eukaryotic genomes by assembling, sliding, and displacing nucleosomes. The Chd1 chromatin remodeler possesses a C-terminal DNA-binding domain that is required for efficient nucleosome sliding and believed to be essential for sensing the length of DNA flanking the nucleosome core. The structure of the Chd1 DNA-binding domain was recently shown to consist of a SANT and SLIDE domain, analogous to the DNA-binding domain of the ISWI family, yet the details of how Chd1 recognized DNA were not known. Here we present the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chd1 DNA-binding domain in complex with a DNA duplex. The bound DNA duplex is straight, consistent with the preference exhibited by the Chd1 DNA-binding domain for extranucleosomal DNA. Comparison of this structure with the recently solved ISW1a DNA-binding domain bound to DNA reveals that DNA lays across each protein at a distinct angle, yet contacts similar surfaces on the SANT and SLIDE domains. In contrast to the minor groove binding seen for Isw1 and predicted for Chd1, the SLIDE domain of the Chd1 DNA-binding domain contacts the DNA major groove. The majority of direct contacts with the phosphate backbone occur only on one DNA strand, suggesting that Chd1 may not strongly discriminate between major and minor grooves.

  5. DNA binding proteins that alter nucleic acid flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Micah; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Maher, L. J., III; Williams, Mark C.

    2007-09-01

    Dual - beam optical tweezers experiments subject single molecules of DNA to high forces (~ 300 pN) with 0.1 pN accuracy, probing the energy and specificity of nucleic acid - ligand structures. Stretching phage λ-DNA reveals an increase in the applied force up to a critical force known as the overstretching transition. In this region, base pairing and stacking are disrupted as double stranded DNA (dsDNA) is melted. Proteins that bind to the double strand will tend to stabilize dsDNA, and melting will occur at higher forces. Proteins that bind to single stranded DNA (ssDNA) destabilize melting, provided that the rate of association is comparable to the pulling rate of the experiment. Many proteins, however, exhibit some affinity for both dsDNA and ssDNA. We describe experiments upon DNA + HMGB2 (box A), a nuclear protein that is believed to facilitate transcription. By characterizing changes in the structure of dsDNA with a polymer model of elasticity, we have determined the equilibrium association constant for HMGB2 to be K ds = 0.15 +/- 0.7 10 9 M -1 for dsDNA binding. Analysis of the melting transition reveals an equilibrium association constant for HMGB2 to ssDNA to be K ss = 0.039 +/- 0.019 10 9 M -1 for ssDNA binding.

  6. Comparing binding site information to binding affinity reveals that Crp/DNA complexes have several distinct binding conformers

    PubMed Central

    Holmquist, Peter C.; Holmquist, Gerald P.; Summers, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) binds to DNA as several different conformers. This situation has precluded discovering a high correlation between any sequence property and binding affinity for proteins that bend DNA. Experimentally quantified affinities of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cAMP receptor protein (SyCrp1), the Escherichia coli Crp (EcCrp, also CAP) and DNA were analyzed to mathematically describe, and make human-readable, the relationship of DNA sequence and binding affinity in a given system. Here, sequence logos and weight matrices were built to model SyCrp1 binding sequences. Comparing the weight matrix model to binding affinity revealed several distinct binding conformations. These Crp/DNA conformations were asymmetrical (non-palindromic). PMID:21586590

  7. DNA linking number change induced by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Xiao, Yazhong; Liu, Chang; Li, Chenzhong; Leng, Fenfei

    2010-01-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins play a key role in many fundamental biological processes, such as transcription, DNA replication and recombination. Very often, these DNA-binding proteins introduce structural changes to the target DNA-binding sites including DNA bending, twisting or untwisting and wrapping, which in many cases induce a linking number change (ΔLk) to the DNA-binding site. Due to the lack of a feasible approach, ΔLk induced by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins has not been fully explored. In this paper we successfully constructed a series of DNA plasmids that carry many tandem copies of a DNA-binding site for one sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, such as λ O, LacI, GalR, CRP and AraC. In this case, the protein-induced ΔLk was greatly amplified and can be measured experimentally. Indeed, not only were we able to simultaneously determine the protein-induced ΔLk and the DNA-binding constant for λ O and GalR, but also we demonstrated that the protein-induced ΔLk is an intrinsic property for these sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Our results also showed that protein-mediated DNA looping by AraC and LacI can induce a ΔLk to the plasmid DNA templates. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the protein-induced ΔLk does not correlate with the protein-induced DNA bending by the DNA-binding proteins. PMID:20185570

  8. High-throughput analysis of protein-DNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions mediate most regulatory processes underlying gene expression, such as transcriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs) or chromatin organization. Current knowledge about DNA-binding specificities of TFs is based mostly on low- to medium-throughput methodologies that are time-consuming and often fail to identify DNA motifs recognized by a TF with lower affinity but retaining biological relevance. The use of protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) offers a high-throughput alternative for the identification of protein-DNA specificities. PBM consists in an array of pseudorandomized DNA sequences that are optimized to include all the possible 10- or 11-mer DNA sequences, allowing the determination of binding specificities of most eukaryotic TFs. PBMs that can be synthesized by several manufacturing companies as single-stranded DNA are converted into double-stranded in a simple primer extension reaction. The protein of interest fused to an epitope tag is then incubated onto the PBM, and specific DNA-protein complexes are revealed in a series of immunological reactions coupled to a fluorophore. After scanning and quantifying PBMs, specific DNA motifs recognized by the protein are identified with ready-to-use scripts, generating comprehensive but accessible information about the DNA-binding specificity of the protein. This chapter describes detailed procedures for preparation of double-stranded PBMs, incubation with recombinant protein, and detection of protein-DNA complexes. Finally, we outline some cues for evaluating the biological role of DNA motifs obtained in vitro. PMID:24057393

  9. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  10. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This also represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.

  11. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  12. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Corrada, Dario; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms underlying the

  13. DNA-Based Nanostructures: Changes of Mechanical Properties of DNA upon Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechipurenko, Yury; Grokhovsky, Sergey; Gursky, Georgy; Nechipurenko, Dmitry; Polozov, Robert

    The formation of DNA-based nanostructures involves the binding of different kinds of ligands to DNA as well as the interaction of DNA molecules with each other. Complex formation between ligand and DNA can alter physicochemical properties of the DNA molecule. In the present work, the accessibility of DNA-ligand complexes to cleavage by DNase I are considered, and the exact algorithms for analysis of diagrams of DNase I footprinting for ligand-DNA complexes are obtained. Changes of mechanical properties of the DNA upon ligand binding are also demonstrated by the cleavage patterns generated upon ultrasound irradiation of cis-platin-DNA complexes. Propagation of the mechanical perturbations along DNA in the presence of bound ligands is considered in terms of a string model with a heterogeneity corresponding to the position of a bound ligand on DNA. This model can reproduce qualitatively the cleavage patterns obtained upon ultrasound irradiation of cis-platin-DNA complexes.

  14. Quantitative modeling of transcription factor binding specificities using DNA shape.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianyin; Shen, Ning; Yang, Lin; Abe, Namiko; Horton, John; Mann, Richard S; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Gordân, Raluca; Rohs, Remo

    2015-04-14

    DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs) are a key component of gene regulatory processes. Underlying mechanisms that explain the highly specific binding of TFs to their genomic target sites are poorly understood. A better understanding of TF-DNA binding requires the ability to quantitatively model TF binding to accessible DNA as its basic step, before additional in vivo components can be considered. Traditionally, these models were built based on nucleotide sequence. Here, we integrated 3D DNA shape information derived with a high-throughput approach into the modeling of TF binding specificities. Using support vector regression, we trained quantitative models of TF binding specificity based on protein binding microarray (PBM) data for 68 mammalian TFs. The evaluation of our models included cross-validation on specific PBM array designs, testing across different PBM array designs, and using PBM-trained models to predict relative binding affinities derived from in vitro selection combined with deep sequencing (SELEX-seq). Our results showed that shape-augmented models compared favorably to sequence-based models. Although both k-mer and DNA shape features can encode interdependencies between nucleotide positions of the binding site, using DNA shape features reduced the dimensionality of the feature space. In addition, analyzing the feature weights of DNA shape-augmented models uncovered TF family-specific structural readout mechanisms that were not revealed by the DNA sequence. As such, this work combines knowledge from structural biology and genomics, and suggests a new path toward understanding TF binding and genome function. PMID:25775564

  15. NMR structural analysis of Sleeping Beauty transposase binding to DNA

    PubMed Central

    E Carpentier, Claire; Schreifels, Jeffrey M; Aronovich, Elena L; Carlson, Daniel F; Hackett, Perry B; Nesmelova, Irina V

    2014-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is the most widely used DNA transposon in genetic applications and is the only DNA transposon thus far in clinical trials for human gene therapy. In the absence of atomic level structural information, the development of SB transposon relied primarily on the biochemical and genetic homology data. While these studies were successful and have yielded hyperactive transposases, structural information is needed to gain a mechanistic understanding of transposase activity and guides to further improvement. We have initiated a structural study of SB transposase using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to investigate the properties of the DNA-binding domain of SB transposase in solution. We show that at physiologic salt concentrations, the SB DNA-binding domain remains mostly unstructured but its N-terminal PAI subdomain forms a compact, three-helical structure with a helix-turn-helix motif at higher concentrations of NaCl. Furthermore, we show that the full-length SB DNA-binding domain associates differently with inner and outer binding sites of the transposon DNA. We also show that the PAI subdomain of SB DNA-binding domain has a dominant role in transposase's attachment to the inverted terminal repeats of the transposon DNA. Overall, our data validate several earlier predictions and provide new insights on how SB transposase recognizes transposon DNA. PMID:24243759

  16. EMSA Analysis of DNA Binding By Rgg Proteins

    PubMed Central

    LaSarre, Breah; Federle, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, interaction of various proteins with DNA is essential for the regulation of specific target gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is an in vitro approach allowing for the visualization of these protein-DNA interactions. Rgg proteins comprise a family of transcriptional regulators widespread among the Firmicutes. Some of these proteins function independently to regulate target gene expression, while others have now been demonstrated to function as effectors of cell-to-cell communication, having regulatory activities that are modulated via direct interaction with small signaling peptides. EMSA analysis can be used to assess DNA binding of either type of Rgg protein. EMSA analysis of Rgg protein activity has facilitated in vitro confirmation of regulatory targets, identification of precise DNA binding sites via DNA probe mutagenesis, and characterization of the mechanism by which some cognate signaling peptides modulate Rgg protein function (e.g. interruption of DNA-binding in some cases).

  17. Disruption of period gene expression alters the inductive effects of dioxin on the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Qu Xiaoyu; Metz, Richard P.; Porter, Weston W.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Earnest, David J.

    2009-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are transcription factors that express Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) DNA-binding motifs and mediate the metabolism of drugs and environmental toxins in the liver. Because these transcription factors interact with other PAS genes in molecular feedback loops forming the mammalian circadian clockworks, we determined whether targeted disruption or siRNA inhibition of Per1 and Per2 expression alters toxin-mediated regulation of the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver and Hepa1c1c7 hepatoma cells in vitro. Treatment with the prototypical Ahr ligand, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), had inductive effects on the primary targets of AhR signaling, Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1, in the liver of all animals, but genotype-based differences were evident such that the toxin-mediated induction of Cyp1A1 expression was significantly greater (2-fold) in mice with targeted disruption of Per1 (Per1{sup ldc} and Per1{sup ldc}/Per2{sup ldc}). In vitro experiments yielded similar results demonstrating that siRNA inhibition of Per1 significantly increases the TCDD-induced expression of Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1 in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Per2 inhibition in siRNA-infected Hepa1c1c7 cells had the opposite effect and significantly decreased both the induction of these p450 genes as well as AhR and Arnt expression in response to TCDD treatment. These findings suggest that Per1 may play a distinctive role in modulating AhR-regulated responses to TCDD in the liver.

  18. The DNA-bending protein HMG-1 enhances progesterone receptor binding to its target DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, S A; Prendergast, P; Wagner, J P; Nissen, M; Reeves, R; Pettijohn, D E; Edwards, D P

    1994-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcriptional activators that exert their effects by binding as dimers to cis-acting DNA sequences termed hormone response elements. When human progesterone receptor (PR), expressed as a full-length protein in a baculovirus system, was purified to homogeneity, it retained its ability to bind hormonal ligand and to dimerize but exhibited a dramatic loss in DNA binding activity for specific progesterone response elements (PREs). Addition of nuclear extracts from several cellular sources restored DNA binding activity, suggesting that PR requires a ubiquitous accessory protein for efficient interaction with specific DNA sequences. Here we have demonstrated that the high-mobility-group chromatin protein HMG-1, as a highly purified protein, dramatically enhanced binding of purified PR to PREs in gel mobility shift assays. This effect appeared to be highly selective for HMG-1, since a number of other nonspecific proteins failed to enhance PRE binding. Moreover, HMG-1 was effective when added in stoichiometric amounts with receptor, and it was capable of enhancing the DNA binding of both the A and B amino-terminal variants of PR. The presence of HMG-1 measurably increased the binding affinity of purified PR by 10-fold when a synthetic palindromic PRE was the target DNA. The increase in binding affinity for a partial palindromic PRE present in natural target genes was greater than 10-fold. Coimmunoprecipitation assays using anti-PR or anti-HMG-1 antibodies demonstrated that both PR and HMG-1 are present in the enhanced complex with PRE. HMG-1 protein has two conserved DNA binding domains (A and B), which recognize DNA structure rather than specific sequences. The A- or B-box domain expressed and purified from Escherichia coli independently stimulated the binding of PR to PRE, and the B box was able to functionally substitute for HMG-1 in enhancing PR binding. DNA ligase-mediated ring closure assays demonstrated that both the

  19. Binding-activated localization microscopy of DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Ingmar; Ries, Jonas; Klotzsch, Enrico; Ewers, Helge; Vogel, Viola

    2011-09-14

    Many nucleic acid stains show a strong fluorescence enhancement upon binding to double-stranded DNA. Here we exploit this property to perform superresolution microscopy based on the localization of individual binding events. The dynamic labeling scheme and the optimization of fluorophore brightness yielded a resolution of ∼14 nm (fwhm) and a spatial sampling of 1/nm. We illustrate our approach with two different DNA-binding dyes and apply it to visualize the organization of the bacterial chromosome in fixed Escherichia coli cells. In general, the principle of binding-activated localization microscopy (BALM) can be extended to other dyes and targets such as protein structures. PMID:21838238

  20. Identification of novel DNA binding proteins using DNA affinity chromatography-pulldown

    PubMed Central

    Jutras, Brandon L; Verma, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    Methods are presented through which one may isolate and identify novel bacterial DNA-binding proteins. Briefly, the DNA sequence of interest is affixed to beads, then incubated with bacterial cytoplasmic extract. Washes with buffers containing non-specific DNA and low salt concentrations will remove non-adhering and low-specificity DNA-binding proteins, while subsequent washes with higher salt concentrations will elute more specific DNA-binding proteins. Eluted proteins may then be identified by standard proteomic techniques. PMID:22307548

  1. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates resistance to apoptosis induced in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Vogel, Helena; Li, Wen; Ito, Tomohiro; Sweeney, Colleen; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Matsumura, Fumio; Vogel, Christoph F A

    2015-05-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known as a ligand binding transcription factor regulating various biological effects. Previously we have shown that long-term exposure to estrogen in breast cancer cells caused not only down regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) but also overexpression of AhR. The AhR interacts with several cell signaling pathways associated with induction of tyrosine kinases, cytokines and growth factors which may support the survival roles of AhR escaping from apoptosis elicited by a variety of apoptosis inducing agents in breast cancer. In this study, we studied the anti-apoptotic role of AhR in different breast cancer cells when apoptosis was induced by exposure to UV light and chemotherapeutic agents. Activation of AhR by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in AhR overexpressing breast cancer cells effectively suppressed the apoptotic response induced by UV-irradiation, doxorubicin, lapatinib and paclitaxel. The anti-apoptotic response of TCDD was uniformly antagonized by the treatment with 3'methoxy-4'nitroflavone (MNF), a specific antagonist of AhR. TCDD's survival action of apoptosis was accompanied with the induction of well-known inflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NF-κB subunit RelB. Moreover, TCDD increased the activity of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), which metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine (Kyn) and mediates tumor immunity. Kyn also acts as an AhR ligand like TCDD, and kyn induced an anti-apoptotic response in breast cancer cells. Accordingly, our present study suggests that AhR plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer via the suppression of apoptosis, and provides an idea that the use of AhR antagonists with chemotherapeutic agents may effectively synergize the elimination of breast cancer cells. PMID:25987214

  2. Molecular forces for the binding and condensation of DNA molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xian-E; Yang, Jie

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to investigate the binding between a double-stranded DNA and bilayers of cationic lipids and zwitterionic lipids in low ionic-strength solutions. The binding of a DNA molecule to freshly cleaved mica surface in solution has also been measured. The binding of DNA molecules to cationic lipid bilayers has a minimal strength of approximately 45 pN. On zwitterionic lipid bilayers and mica surface, the minimal binding strength is approximately twice that value. The binding also has a dynamic nature, with only a certain percentage of recorded force curves containing the binding characteristics. Divalent Mg(2+) ions enhance the binding by increasing that percentage without any effect on the binding strength. We have also observed a long-range attraction between DNA molecules and cationic lipid bilayers with a strength much larger than the minimum force and a range well over 50 nm, possibly related to the driving force responsible for the two-dimensional condensation of DNA. PMID:11751322

  3. MHF complex senses branched DNA via binding a pair of crossover DNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Saro, Dorina; Sachpatzidis, Aristidis; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Schlingman, Daniel; Zheng, Xiao-Feng; Mack, Andrew; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Mochrie, Simon; Regan, Lynne; Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Sung, Patrick; Xiong, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The conserved MHF1-MHF2 (MHF) complex functions in the activation of the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway of DNA damage response, in regulating homologous recombination, and in DNA replication fork maintenance. MHF facilitates the processing of multiple types of branched DNAs by the FA DNA translocase FANCM. Here we report the crystal structure of a human MHF-DNA complex that reveals the DNA binding mode of MHF. The structure suggests an MHF preference for branched DNA over double stranded DNA through engaging two duplex arms, which is supported by single molecule studies. Biochemical analyses verify that MHF preferentially engage DNA forks or various four-way junctions independent of the junction-site structure. Genetic experiments provide evidence that the observed DNA-binding interface of MHF is important for cellular resistance to DNA damage. These results provide insights into how the MHF complex recognizes branched DNA and stimulates FANCM activity at such a structure to promote genome maintenance. PMID:24390579

  4. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J.; Yan, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.

  5. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA. PMID:25787788

  6. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  7. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  8. Fused protein domains inhibit DNA binding by LexA.

    PubMed Central

    Golemis, E A; Brent, R

    1992-01-01

    Many studies of transcription activation employ fusions of activation domains to DNA binding domains derived from the bacterial repressor LexA and the yeast activator GAL4. Such studies often implicitly assume that DNA binding by the chimeric proteins is equivalent to that of the protein donating the DNA binding moiety. To directly investigate this issue, we compared operator binding by a series of LexA-derivative proteins to operator binding by native LexA, by using both in vivo and in vitro assays. We show that operator binding by many proteins such as LexA-Myc, LexA-Fos, and LexA-Bicoid is severely impaired, while binding of other LexA-derivative proteins, such as those that carry bacterially encoded acidic sequences ("acid blobs"), is not. Our results also show that DNA binding by LexA derivatives that contain the LexA carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (amino acids 88 to 202) is considerably stronger than binding by fusions that lack it and that heterologous dimerization motifs cannot substitute for the LexA88-202 function. These results suggest the need to reevaluate some previous studies of activation that employed LexA derivatives and modifications to recent experimental approaches that use LexA and GAL4 derivatives to detect and study protein-protein interactions. Images PMID:1620111

  9. Quantitative Determination of DNA-Ligand Binding Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eamonn F.

    2007-01-01

    The effective use of fluorescence spectroscopy for determining the binding of the intercalcating agent crhidium bromide to DNA is being described. The analysis used simple measurement techniques and hence can be easily adopted by the students for a better understanding.

  10. Sequence-specific binding of luzopeptin to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K R; Davies, H; Adams, G R; Portugal, J; Waring, M J

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the binding of luzopeptin, an antitumor antibiotic, to five DNA fragments of varying base composition. The drug forms a tight, possibly covalent, complex with the DNA causing a reduction in mobility on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels and some smearing of the bands consistent with intramolecular cross-linking of DNA duplexes. DNAase I and micrococcal nuclease footprinting experiments suggest that the drug binds best to regions containing alternating A and T residues, although no consensus di- or trinucleotide sequence emerges. Binding to other sites is not excluded and at moderate ligand concentrations the DNA is almost totally protected from enzyme attack. Ligand-induced enhancement of DNAase I cleavage is observed at both AT and GC-rich regions. The sequence selectivity and characteristics of luzopeptin binding are quite different from those of echinomycin, a bifunctional intercalator of related structure. Images PMID:3362673

  11. Visually Relating Gene Expression and in vivo DNA Binding Data

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Min-Yu; Mackey, Lester; Ker?,; nen, Soile V. E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Jordan, Michael I.; Knowles, David W.; Biggin, Mark D.; Hamann, Bernd

    2011-09-20

    Gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data provide important information for understanding gene regulatory networks: in vivo DNA binding data indicate genomic regions where transcription factors are bound, and expression data show the output resulting from this binding. Thus, there must be functional relationships between these two types of data. While visualization and data analysis tools exist for each data type alone, there is a lack of tools that can easily explore the relationship between them. We propose an approach that uses the average expression driven by multiple of ciscontrol regions to visually relate gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data. We demonstrate the utility of this tool with examples from the network controlling early Drosophila development. The results obtained support the idea that the level of occupancy of a transcription factor on DNA strongly determines the degree to which the factor regulates a target gene, and in some cases also controls whether the regulation is positive or negative.

  12. Structural basis for DNA binding by replication initiator Mcm10

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Eric M.; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; Haworth, Justin; Greer, Briana; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Chazin, Walter J.; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2009-06-30

    Mcm10 is an essential eukaryotic DNA replication protein required for assembly and progression of the replication fork. The highly conserved internal domain (Mcm10-ID) has been shown to physically interact with single-stranded (ss) DNA, DNA polymerase alpha, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The crystal structure of Xenopus laevis Mcm10-ID presented here reveals a DNA binding architecture composed of an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-fold followed in tandem by a variant and highly basic zinc finger. NMR chemical shift perturbation and mutational studies of DNA binding activity in vitro reveal how Mcm10 uses this unique surface to engage ssDNA. Corresponding mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae result in increased sensitivity to replication stress, demonstrating the functional importance of DNA binding by this region of Mcm10 to replication. In addition, mapping Mcm10 mutations known to disrupt PCNA, polymerase alpha, and DNA interactions onto the crystal structure provides insight into how Mcm10 might coordinate protein and DNA binding within the replisome.

  13. The bacterial DnaA-trio replication origin element specifies single-stranded DNA initiator binding.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Tomas T; Harran, Omar; Murray, Heath

    2016-06-16

    DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure accurate inheritance of genetic information. In all organisms, initiator proteins possessing AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) domains bind replication origins to license new rounds of DNA synthesis. In bacteria the master initiator protein, DnaA, is highly conserved and has two crucial DNA binding activities. DnaA monomers recognize the replication origin (oriC) by binding double-stranded DNA sequences (DnaA-boxes); subsequently, DnaA filaments assemble and promote duplex unwinding by engaging and stretching a single DNA strand. While the specificity for duplex DnaA-boxes by DnaA has been appreciated for over 30 years, the sequence specificity for single-strand DNA binding has remained unknown. Here we identify a new indispensable bacterial replication origin element composed of a repeating trinucleotide motif that we term the DnaA-trio. We show that the function of the DnaA-trio is to stabilize DnaA filaments on a single DNA strand, thus providing essential precision to this binding mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis detects DnaA-trios in replication origins throughout the bacterial kingdom, indicating that this element is part of the core oriC structure. The discovery and characterization of the novel DnaA-trio extends our fundamental understanding of bacterial DNA replication initiation, and because of the conserved structure of AAA+ initiator proteins these findings raise the possibility of specific recognition motifs within replication origins of higher organisms. PMID:27281207

  14. The DNA-Binding Domain of Yeast Rap1 Interacts with Double-Stranded DNA in Multiple Binding Modes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae repressor-activator protein 1 (Rap1) is an essential protein involved in multiple steps of DNA regulation, as an activator in transcription, as a repressor at silencer elements, and as a major component of the shelterin-like complex at telomeres. All the known functions of Rap1 require the known high-affinity and specific interaction of the DNA-binding domain with its recognition sequences. In this work, we focus on the interaction of the DNA-binding domain of Rap1 (Rap1DBD) with double-stranded DNA substrates. Unexpectedly, we found that while Rap1DBD forms a high-affinity 1:1 complex with its DNA recognition site, it can also form lower-affinity complexes with higher stoichiometries on DNA. These lower-affinity interactions are independent of the presence of the recognition sequence, and we propose they originate from the ability of Rap1DBD to bind to DNA in two different binding modes. In one high-affinity binding mode, Rap1DBD likely binds in the conformation observed in the available crystal structures. In the other alternative lower-affinity binding mode, we propose that a single Myb-like domain of the Rap1DBD makes interactions with DNA, allowing for more than one protein molecule to bind to the DNA substrates. Our findings suggest that the Rap1DBD does not simply target the protein to its recognition sequence but rather it might be a possible point of regulation. PMID:25382181

  15. Structures of apo IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains: effect of loop L1 on DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Escalante, Carlos R.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2013-11-20

    Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are transcription factors essential in the activation of interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene in response to viral infections. Although, both proteins recognize the same consensus IRF binding site AANNGAAA, they have distinct DNA binding preferences for sites in vivo. The X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains (DBDs) bound to IFN-{beta} promoter elements revealed flexibility in the loops (L1-L3) and the residues that make contacts with the target sequence. To characterize the conformational changes that occur on DNA binding and how they differ between IRF family members, we have solved the X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DBDs in the absence of DNA. We found that loop L1, carrying the conserved histidine that interacts with the DNA minor groove, is disordered in apo IRF-3 but is ordered in apo IRF-7. This is reflected in differences in DNA binding affinities when the conserved histidine in loop L1 is mutated to alanine in the two proteins. The stability of loop L1 in IRF-7 derives from a unique combination of hydrophobic residues that pack against the protein core. Together, our data show that differences in flexibility of loop L1 are an important determinant of differential IRF-DNA binding.

  16. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated disruption of vitellogenin synthesis in the fish liver: Cross-talk between AHR- and ERα-signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bemanian, Vahid; Male, Rune; Goksøyr, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Background In the fish liver, the synthesis of egg yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG) is under control of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are suspected to have antiestrogenic effects. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is the initial cellular target for TCDD and related compounds. The AHR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that stimulates the expression of the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). In this study, the effects of activation of AHR on the hepatic expression of VTG and ERα genes, in primary cultured salmon hepatocytes, have been investigated. Results The expression of the genes encoding VTG and ERα were strongly induced by 17β-estradiol (E2). However, the expression of VTG was disrupted by exposure of the cells to TCDD while CYP1A expression was enhanced. The effect of TCDD on VTG and CYP1A expression was annulled by the AHR-inhibitor α-naphthoflavone. Furthermore, exposure of the cells to TCDD abolished E2-induced accumulation of ERα mRNA. The AHR-mediated inhibitory effects on the expression of the VTG and ERα genes may occur at transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional levels. Nuclear run-off experiments revealed that simultaneous exposure of the cells to E2 and TCDD strongly inhibited the initiation of transcription of the VTG and ERα genes. In addition, inhibition of RNA synthesis by actinomycin D treatment showed that post-transcriptional levels of VTG and ERα mRNAs were not significantly altered upon treatment of the cells with TCDD. These results suggested that activation of AHR may inhibit the transactivation capacity of the ERα. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts prepared from cells treated for one or two hours with E2, alone or in mixture with TCDD, showed a strong reduction in the DNA binding activities upon TCDD treatment. These results also suggested

  17. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5′ ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3′–5′ exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and

  18. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and localization of the

  19. dimerization and DNA binding alter phosphorylation of Fos and Jun

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, C.; Baker, S.J.; Curran, T. ); Lees-Miller, S.P.; Anderson, C.W. ); Marshak, D.R. )

    1993-07-15

    Fos and Jun form dimeric complexes that bind to activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. The levels of expression and activities of these proteins are regulated by a variety of extracellular stimuli. They are thought to function in nuclear signal transduction processes in many different cell types. The role of Fos and Jun in gene transcription is complex and may be regulated in several ways including association with different dimerization partners, interactions with other transcription factors, effects on DNA topology, and reduction/oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue in the DNA-binding domain. In addition, phosphorylation has been suggested to control the activity of Fos and Jun. Here the authors show that phosphorylation of Fos and Jun by several protein kinases is affected by dimerization and binding to DNA. Jun homodimers are phosphorylated efficiently by casein kinase II, whereas Fos-Jun heterodimers are not. DNA binding also reduces phosphorylation of Jun by casein kinase II, p34[sup cdc2] (cdc2) kinase, and protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of Fos by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cdc2 is relatively insensitive to dimerization and DNA binding, whereas phosphorylation of Fos and Jun by DNA-dependent protein kinase is dramatically stimulated by binding to the AP-1 site. These results imply that different protein kinases can distinguish among Fos and Jun proteins in the form of monomers, homodimers, and heterodimers and between DNA-bound and non-DNA-bound proteins. Thus, potentially, these different states of Fos and Jun can be recognized and regulated independently by phosphorylation. 44 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Defining a minimal estrogen receptor DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Mader, S; Chambon, P; White, J H

    1993-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a transcriptional regulator which binds to cognate palindromic DNA sequences known as estrogen response elements (EREs). A 66 amino acid core region which contains two zinc fingers and is highly conserved among the nuclear receptors is essential for site specific DNA recognition. However, it remains unclear how many flanking amino acids in addition to the zinc finger core are required for DNA binding. Here, we have characterized the minimal DNA binding region of the human ER by analysing the DNA binding properties of a series of deletion mutants expressed in bacteria. We find that the 66 amino acid zinc finger core of the DBD fails to bind DNA, and that the C-terminal end of the minimal ER DBD required for binding to perfectly palindromic EREs corresponds to the limit of 100% amino acid homology between the chicken and human receptors, which represents the boundary between regions C and D in the ER. Moreover, amino acids of region D up to 30 residues C-terminal to the zinc fingers greatly stabilize DNA binding by the DBD to perfectly palindromic EREs and are absolutely required for formation of gel retardation complexes by the DBD on certain physiological imperfectly palindromic EREs. These results indicate that in addition to the zinc finger core, amino acids C-terminal to the core in regions C and D play a key role in DNA binding by the ER, particularly to imperfectly palindromic response elements. The ER DBD expressed in E. coli binds as a dimer to ERE palindromes in a highly cooperative manner and forms only low levels of monomeric protein-DNA complexes on either palindromic or half-palindromic response elements. Conversion of ER amino acids 222 to 226, which lie within region C, to the corresponding residues of the human RAR alpha abolishes formation of dimeric protein-DNA complexes. Conversely, replacement of the same region of RAR alpha with ER residues 222 to 226 creates a derivative that, unlike the RAR alpha DBD, binds

  1. Pax-3-DNA interaction: flexibility in the DNA binding and induction of DNA conformational changes by paired domains.

    PubMed Central

    Chalepakis, G; Wijnholds, J; Gruss, P

    1994-01-01

    The mouse Pax-3 gene encodes a protein that is a member of the Pax family of DNA binding proteins. Pax-3 contains two DNA binding domains: a paired domain (PD) and a paired type homeodomain (HD). Both domains are separated by 53 amino acids and interact synergistically with a sequence harboring an ATTA motif (binding to the HD) and a GTTCC site (binding to the PD) separated by 5 base pairs. Here we show that the interaction of Pax-3 with these two binding sites is independent of their angular orientation. In addition, the protein spacer region between the HD and the PD can be shortened without changing the spatial flexibility of the two DNA binding domains which interact with DNA. Furthermore, by using circular permutation analysis we determined that binding of Pax-3 to a DNA fragment containing a specific binding site causes conformational changes in the DNA, as indicated by the different mobilities of the Pax-3-DNA complexes. The ability to change the conformation of the DNA was found to be an intrinsic property of the Pax-3 PD and of all Pax proteins that we tested so far. These in vitro studies suggest that interaction of Pax proteins with their specific sequences in vivo may result in an altered DNA conformation. Images PMID:8065927

  2. Characterization of DNA Binding and Retinoic Acid Binding Properties of Retinoic Acid Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Na; Schule, Roland; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Evans, Ronald M.

    1991-05-01

    High-level expression of the full-length human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α and the DNA binding domain of the RAR in Escherichia coli was achieved by using a T7 RNA polymerase-directed expression system. After induction, full-length RAR protein was produced at an estimated level of 20% of the total bacterial proteins. Both intact RAR molecules and the DNA binding domain bind to the cognate DNA response element with high specificity in the absence of retinoic acid. However, this binding is enhanced to a great extent upon the addition of eukaryotic cell extracts. The factor responsible for this enhancement is heat-sensitive and forms a complex with RAR that binds to DNA and exhibits a distinct migration pattern in the gel-mobility-shift assay. The interaction site of the factor with RAR is localized in the 70-amino acid DNA binding region of RAR. The hormone binding ability of the RARα protein was assayed by a charcoal absorption assay and the RAR protein was found to bind to retinoic acid with a K_d of 2.1 x 10-10 M.

  3. [Binding of ions of trivalent iron with DNA].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, V A; Gladchenko, G O; Valeev, V A

    1983-01-01

    The DNA helix-coil transition in nonbuffer solutions of Fe(NO3)3 was studied. Calculation of the ionic equilibrium indicated that in these solutions iron exists in the form of mono-, bi- or trivalent hydroxide, the formation of which decreases pH. A component of the DNA thermal stability variation associated with DNA binding to iron ions was calculated. An increase in the iron contents produces an increase in the melting range which was determined by a rise in the melting end temperature when binding the ions with phosphates and a drop in the melting beginning temperature when binding to DNA bases. A main contribution to the former effect is made by [Fe2(OH)3]3+ ions and to the latter effect by [FeOH]2+ ions. The constants of ion binding are higher for bases than for phosphates. Differential UV spectra of native and denatured DNA due to iron ions were measured. Calculations of conformation and coordination components of these spectra show that G-C pairs are one of the possible sites of iron ion binding with DNA. PMID:6621527

  4. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA crosslinking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5′ → 3′ exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATACseq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases, and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches. PMID:26038153

  5. DNA-binding proteins in plant mitochondria: implications for transcription.

    PubMed

    Gualberto, José M; Kühn, Kristina

    2014-11-01

    The structural complexity of plant mitochondrial genomes correlates with the variety of single-strand DNA-binding proteins found in plant mitochondria. Most of these are plant-specific and have roles in homologous recombination and genome maintenance. Mitochondrial nucleoids thus differ fundamentally between plants and yeast or animals, where the principal nucleoid protein is a DNA-packaging protein that binds double-stranded DNA. Major transcriptional cofactors identified in mitochondria of non-plant species are also seemingly absent from plants. This article reviews current knowledge on plant mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins and discusses that those may affect the accessibility and conformation of transcription start sites, thus functioning as transcriptional modulators without being dedicated transcription factors. PMID:24561574

  6. Competition for DNA binding sites using Promega DNA IQ™ paramagnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; De Moors, Anick

    2012-09-01

    The Promega DNA IQ™ system is easily amenable to automation and has been an integral part of standard operating procedures for many forensic laboratories including those of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) since 2004. Due to some failure to extract DNA from samples that should have produced DNA using our validated automated DNA IQ™-based protocol, the competition for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ magnetic beads was more closely examined. Heme from heavily blooded samples interfered slightly with DNA binding. Increasing the concentration of Proteinase K during lysis of these samples did not enhance DNA recovery. However, diluting the sample lysate following lysis prior to DNA extraction overcame the reduction in DNA yield and preserved portions of the lysates for subsequent manual or automated extraction. Dye/chemicals from black denim lysates competed for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ beads and significantly reduced DNA recovery. Increasing the size or number of black denim cuttings during lysis had a direct adverse effect on DNA yield from various blood volumes. The dilution approach was successful on these samples and permitted the extraction of high DNA yields. Alternatively, shortening the incubation time for cell lysis to 30 min instead of the usual overnight at 56 °C prevented competition from black denim dye/chemicals and increased DNA yields. PMID:22264505

  7. SA1 and TRF1 synergistically bind to telomeric DNA and promote DNA-DNA pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Jiangguo; Countryman, Preston; Pan, Hai; Parminder Kaur Team; Robert Riehn Team; Patricia Opresko Team; Jane Tao Team; Susan Smith Team

    Impaired telomere cohesion leads to increased aneuploidy and early onset of tumorigenesis. Cohesion is thought to occur through the entrapment of two DNA strands within tripartite cohesin ring(s), along with a fourth subunit (SA1/SA2). Surprisingly, cohesion rings are not essential for telomere cohesion, which instead requires SA1 and shelterin proteins including TRF1. However, neither this unique cohesion mechanism at telomeres or DNA-binding properties of SA1 is understood. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging of quantum dot-labeled proteins on DNA we discover that while SA1 diffuses across multiple telomeric and non-telomeric regions, the diffusion mediated through its N-terminal domain is slower at telomeric regions. However, addition of TRF1 traps SA1 within telomeric regions, which form longer DNA-DNA pairing tracts than with TRF1 alone, as revealed by atomic force microscopy. Together, these experimental results and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that TRF1 and SA1 synergistically interact with DNA to support telomere cohesion without cohesin rings.

  8. DNA binding fluorescent proteins for the direct visualization of large DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonghyun; Oh, Yeeun; Lee, Jungyoon; Choe, Sojeong; Lim, Sangyong; Lee, Hyun Soo; Jo, Kyubong; Schwartz, David C

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins that also bind DNA molecules are useful reagents for a broad range of biological applications because they can be optically localized and tracked within cells, or provide versatile labels for in vitro experiments. We report a novel design for a fluorescent, DNA-binding protein (FP-DBP) that completely 'paints' entire DNA molecules, whereby sequence-independent DNA binding is accomplished by linking a fluorescent protein to two small peptides (KWKWKKA) using lysine for binding to the DNA phosphates, and tryptophan for intercalating between DNA bases. Importantly, this ubiquitous binding motif enables fluorescent proteins (Kd = 14.7 μM) to confluently stain DNA molecules and such binding is reversible via pH shifts. These proteins offer useful robust advantages for single DNA molecule studies: lack of fluorophore mediated photocleavage and staining that does not perturb polymer contour lengths. Accordingly, we demonstrate confluent staining of naked DNA molecules presented within microfluidic devices, or localized within live bacterial cells. PMID:26264666

  9. DNA binding fluorescent proteins for the direct visualization of large DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonghyun; Oh, Yeeun; Lee, Jungyoon; Choe, Sojeong; Lim, Sangyong; Lee, Hyun Soo; Jo, Kyubong; Schwartz, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins that also bind DNA molecules are useful reagents for a broad range of biological applications because they can be optically localized and tracked within cells, or provide versatile labels for in vitro experiments. We report a novel design for a fluorescent, DNA-binding protein (FP-DBP) that completely ‘paints’ entire DNA molecules, whereby sequence-independent DNA binding is accomplished by linking a fluorescent protein to two small peptides (KWKWKKA) using lysine for binding to the DNA phosphates, and tryptophan for intercalating between DNA bases. Importantly, this ubiquitous binding motif enables fluorescent proteins (Kd = 14.7 μM) to confluently stain DNA molecules and such binding is reversible via pH shifts. These proteins offer useful robust advantages for single DNA molecule studies: lack of fluorophore mediated photocleavage and staining that does not perturb polymer contour lengths. Accordingly, we demonstrate confluent staining of naked DNA molecules presented within microfluidic devices, or localized within live bacterial cells. PMID:26264666

  10. Cytotoxic activity and DNA-binding properties of isoeuxanthone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui Fang; Yan, Hong; Gao, Xianghua; Niu, Baolong; Guo, Ruijie; Wei, Liqiao; Xu, Bingshe; Tang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the interactions of different groups substituted isoeuxanthone derivatives with calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) were investigated by spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that the xanthone derivatives could intercalate into the DNA base pairs by the plane of xanthone ring and the various substituents may influence the binding affinity with DNA according to the calculated quenching constant values. Furthermore, two tumor cell lines including the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of xanthone derivatives by acid phosphatase assay. Analyses showed that the oxiranylmethoxy substituted xanthone exhibited more effective cytotoxic activity against the cancer cells than the other substituted xanthones. The effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro agreed with the studies of DNA-binding. PMID:24583780

  11. Signatures of Protein-DNA Recognition in Free DNA Binding Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Locasale, J.; Napoli, A; Chen, S; Berman, H; Lawson, C

    2009-01-01

    One obstacle to achieving complete understanding of the principles underlying sequence-dependent recognition of DNA is the paucity of structural data for DNA recognition sequences in their free (unbound) state. Here, we carried out crystallization screening of 50 DNA duplexes containing cognate protein binding sites and obtained new crystal structures of free DNA binding sites for three distinct modes of DNA recognition: anti-parallel ? strands (MetR), helix-turn-helix motif + hinge helices (PurR), and zinc fingers (Zif268). Structural changes between free and protein-bound DNA are manifested differently in each case. The new DNA structures reveal that distinctive sequence-dependent DNA geometry dominates recognition by MetR, protein-induced bending of DNA dictates recognition by PurR, and deformability of DNA along the A-B continuum is important in recognition by Zif268. Together, our findings show that crystal structures of free DNA binding sites provide new information about the nature of protein-DNA interactions and thus lend insights towards a structural code for DNA recognition.

  12. enDNA-Prot: Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins by Applying Ensemble Learning

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ruifeng; Zhou, Jiyun; Liu, Bin; Yao, Lin; He, Yulan; Zou, Quan; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins are crucial for various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression. Developing an effective model for identifying DNA-binding proteins is an urgent research problem. Up to now, many methods have been proposed, but most of them focus on only one classifier and cannot make full use of the large number of negative samples to improve predicting performance. This study proposed a predictor called enDNA-Prot for DNA-binding protein identification by employing the ensemble learning technique. Experiential results showed that enDNA-Prot was comparable with DNA-Prot and outperformed DNAbinder and iDNA-Prot with performance improvement in the range of 3.97–9.52% in ACC and 0.08–0.19 in MCC. Furthermore, when the benchmark dataset was expanded with negative samples, the performance of enDNA-Prot outperformed the three existing methods by 2.83–16.63% in terms of ACC and 0.02–0.16 in terms of MCC. It indicated that enDNA-Prot is an effective method for DNA-binding protein identification and expanding training dataset with negative samples can improve its performance. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, we developed a user-friendly web-server for enDNA-Prot which is freely accessible to the public. PMID:24977146

  13. DnaT is a PriC-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-09-01

    DnaT and PriC are replication restart primosomal proteins required for re-initiating chromosomal DNA replication. DnaT is a component of the PriA-dependent primosome, while PriC belongs to the PriC-dependent primosome. Whether DnaT can interact with PriC is still unknown. In this study, we define a direct interaction between PriC, a key initiator protein in PriC-mediated DNA replication restart, and DnaT, a DnaB/C complex loader protein, from Klebsiella pneumoniae. In fluorescence titrations, PriC bound to single-stranded DNA with a binding-site size of approximately 9 nt. Gold nanoparticle assay showed that the solution of DnaT-PriC changed from red to purple, which indicated the protein-protein interactions due to gold nanoparticle aggregate. In addition, this DnaT-PriC complex could be co-purified by the heparin HP column. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the Kd value of DnaT bound to PriC was 2.9 × 10(-8) M. These results constitute a pioneering study of the DnaT-PriC interaction and present a putative link between the two independent replication restart pathways, namely, PriA- and PriC-dependent primosome assemblies. Further research can directly focus on determining how DnaT binds to the PriC-SSB-DNA tricomplex and regulates the PriC-dependent replication restart. PMID:27387236

  14. Tight-binding approach to strain-dependent DNA electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Sadeq; Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Small mechanical strain perturbations are considered in calculations of the poly(G)-poly(C) DNA molecular electronic structure, using a tight-binding framework in conjunction with the theories of Slater-Koster and linear elasticity. Results reveal a strain-induced band gap for DNA which is linearly dependent on the induced strain. Local density of states calculations expose that the contribution of the guanine-cytosine base pairs in the charge transport mechanism is significantly enhanced relative to the backbones when DNA is compressed. Transport investigations also disclose a strain-induced metal-semiconductor transition for the DNA molecule, which suggests possible potential uses for sensing applications.

  15. pH-dependent specific binding and combing of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, J F; Bensimon, D; Jullien, L; Bensimon, A; Croquette, V

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in the rapid sequencing, mapping, and analysis of DNA rely on the specific binding of DNA to specially treated surfaces. We show here that specific binding of DNA via its unmodified extremities can be achieved on a great variety of surfaces by a judicious choice of the pH. On hydrophobic surfaces the best binding efficiency is reached at a pH of approximately 5.5. At that pH a approximately 40-kbp DNA is 10 times more likely to bind by an extremity than by a midsegment. A model is proposed to account for the differential adsorption of the molecule extremities and midsection as a function of pH. The pH-dependent specific binding can be used to align anchored DNA molecules by a receding meniscus, a process called molecular combing. The resulting properties of the combed molecules will be discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9336201

  16. Folic acid binds DNA and RNA at different locations.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-03-01

    We located multiple binding sites for folic acid on DNA and tRNA at physiological conditions, using FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. Structural analysis revealed that folic acid binds DNA and tRNA at multiple sites via hydrophilic, hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of Kfolic acid-DNA=1.1 (±0.3)×10(4) M(-1) and Kfolic acid-tRNA=6.4 (±0.5)×10(3) M(-1). Molecular modeling showed the participation of several nucleobases in folic acid complexes with DNA and tRNA, stabilized by H-bonding network. Two types of complexes were located for folic acid-tRNA adducts, one at the major groove and the other with TΨC loop, while acid binding occurs at major and minor grooves of DNA duplex. Folic acid complexation induced more alterations of DNA structure than tRNA. PMID:25555838

  17. IFI16 Preferentially Binds to DNA with Quadruplex Structure and Enhances DNA Quadruplex Formation.

    PubMed

    Hároníková, Lucia; Coufal, Jan; Kejnovská, Iva; Jagelská, Eva B; Fojta, Miroslav; Dvořáková, Petra; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Brázda, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is a member of the HIN-200 protein family, containing two HIN domains and one PYRIN domain. IFI16 acts as a sensor of viral and bacterial DNA and is important for innate immune responses. IFI16 binds DNA and binding has been described to be DNA length-dependent, but a preference for supercoiled DNA has also been demonstrated. Here we report a specific preference of IFI16 for binding to quadruplex DNA compared to other DNA structures. IFI16 binds to quadruplex DNA with significantly higher affinity than to the same sequence in double stranded DNA. By circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy we also demonstrated the ability of IFI16 to stabilize quadruplex structures with quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides derived from human telomere (HTEL) sequences and the MYC promotor. A novel H/D exchange mass spectrometry approach was developed to assess protein interactions with quadruplex DNA. Quadruplex DNA changed the IFI16 deuteration profile in parts of the PYRIN domain (aa 0-80) and in structurally identical parts of both HIN domains (aa 271-302 and aa 586-617) compared to single stranded or double stranded DNAs, supporting the preferential affinity of IFI16 for structured DNA. Our results reveal the importance of quadruplex DNA structure in IFI16 binding and improve our understanding of how IFI16 senses DNA. IFI16 selectivity for quadruplex structure provides a mechanistic framework for IFI16 in immunity and cellular processes including DNA damage responses and cell proliferation. PMID:27280708

  18. IFI16 Preferentially Binds to DNA with Quadruplex Structure and Enhances DNA Quadruplex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hároníková, Lucia; Coufal, Jan; Kejnovská, Iva; Jagelská, Eva B.; Fojta, Miroslav; Dvořáková, Petra; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Brázda, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is a member of the HIN-200 protein family, containing two HIN domains and one PYRIN domain. IFI16 acts as a sensor of viral and bacterial DNA and is important for innate immune responses. IFI16 binds DNA and binding has been described to be DNA length-dependent, but a preference for supercoiled DNA has also been demonstrated. Here we report a specific preference of IFI16 for binding to quadruplex DNA compared to other DNA structures. IFI16 binds to quadruplex DNA with significantly higher affinity than to the same sequence in double stranded DNA. By circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy we also demonstrated the ability of IFI16 to stabilize quadruplex structures with quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides derived from human telomere (HTEL) sequences and the MYC promotor. A novel H/D exchange mass spectrometry approach was developed to assess protein interactions with quadruplex DNA. Quadruplex DNA changed the IFI16 deuteration profile in parts of the PYRIN domain (aa 0–80) and in structurally identical parts of both HIN domains (aa 271–302 and aa 586–617) compared to single stranded or double stranded DNAs, supporting the preferential affinity of IFI16 for structured DNA. Our results reveal the importance of quadruplex DNA structure in IFI16 binding and improve our understanding of how IFI16 senses DNA. IFI16 selectivity for quadruplex structure provides a mechanistic framework for IFI16 in immunity and cellular processes including DNA damage responses and cell proliferation. PMID:27280708

  19. Mechanistic insight into ligand binding to G-quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Novellino, Ettore; Cavalli, Andrea; Parrinello, Michele; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Specific guanine-rich regions in human genome can form higher-order DNA structures called G-quadruplexes, which regulate many relevant biological processes. For instance, the formation of G-quadruplex at telomeres can alter cellular functions, inducing apoptosis. Thus, developing small molecules that are able to bind and stabilize the telomeric G-quadruplexes represents an attractive strategy for antitumor therapy. An example is 3-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-7-hydroxy-8-((4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (compound 1), recently identified as potent ligand of the G-quadruplex [d(TGGGGT)]4 with promising in vitro antitumor activity. The experimental observations are suggestive of a complex binding mechanism that, despite efforts, has defied full characterization. Here, we provide through metadynamics simulations a comprehensive understanding of the binding mechanism of 1 to the G-quadruplex [d(TGGGGT)]4. In our calculations, the ligand explores all the available binding sites on the DNA structure and the free-energy landscape of the whole binding process is computed. We have thus disclosed a peculiar hopping binding mechanism whereas 1 is able to bind both to the groove and to the 3’ end of the G-quadruplex. Our results fully explain the available experimental data, rendering our approach of great value for further ligand/DNA studies. PMID:24753420

  20. The Binding Process of a Nonspecific Enzyme with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuanying; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2011-09-07

    Protein-DNA recognition of a nonspecific complex is modeled to understand the nature of the transient encounter states. We consider the structural and energetic features and the role of water in the DNA grooves in the process of protein-DNA recognition. Here we have used the nuclease domain of colicin E7 (N-ColE7) from Escherichia coli in complex with a 12-bp DNA duplex as the model system to consider how a protein approaches, encounters, and associates with DNA. Multiscale simulation studies using Brownian dynamics and molecular-dynamics simulations were performed to provide the binding process on multiple length- and timescales. We define the encounter states and identified the spatial and orientational aspects. For the molecular length-scales, we used molecular-dynamics simulations. Several intermediate binding states were found, which have different positions and orientations of protein around DNA including major and minor groove orientations. The results show that the contact number and the hydrated interfacial area are measures that facilitate better understanding of sequence-independent protein-DNA binding landscapes and pathways.

  1. The Binding Process of a Nonspecific Enzyme with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanying; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Protein-DNA recognition of a nonspecific complex is modeled to understand the nature of the transient encounter states. We consider the structural and energetic features and the role of water in the DNA grooves in the process of protein-DNA recognition. Here we have used the nuclease domain of colicin E7 (N-ColE7) from Escherichia coli in complex with a 12-bp DNA duplex as the model system to consider how a protein approaches, encounters, and associates with DNA. Multiscale simulation studies using Brownian dynamics and molecular-dynamics simulations were performed to provide the binding process on multiple length- and timescales. We define the encounter states and identified the spatial and orientational aspects. For the molecular length-scales, we used molecular-dynamics simulations. Several intermediate binding states were found, which have different positions and orientations of protein around DNA including major and minor groove orientations. The results show that the contact number and the hydrated interfacial area are measures that facilitate better understanding of sequence-independent protein-DNA binding landscapes and pathways. PMID:21889451

  2. DNA binding activities of the Caenorhabditis elegans Tc3 transposase.

    PubMed Central

    Colloms, S D; van Luenen, H G; Plasterk, R H

    1994-01-01

    Tc3 is a member of the Tc1/mariner family of transposable elements. All these elements have terminal inverted repeats, encode related transposases and insert exclusively into TA dinucleotides. We have studied the DNA binding properties of Tc3 transposase and found that an N-terminal domain of 65 amino acids binds specifically to two regions within the 462 bp Tc3 inverted repeat; one region is located at the end of the inverted repeat, the other is located approximately 180 bp from the end. Methylation interference experiments indicate that this N-terminal DNA binding domain of the Tc3 transposase interacts with nucleotides on one face of the DNA helix over adjacent major and minor grooves. Images PMID:7838706

  3. Functional interplay between SA1 and TRF1 in telomeric DNA binding and DNA-DNA pairing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiangguo; Countryman, Preston; Chen, Haijiang; Pan, Hai; Fan, Yanlin; Jiang, Yunyun; Kaur, Parminder; Miao, Wang; Gurgel, Gisele; You, Changjiang; Piehler, Jacob; Kad, Neil M; Riehn, Robert; Opresko, Patricia L; Smith, Susan; Tao, Yizhi Jane; Wang, Hong

    2016-07-27

    Proper chromosome alignment and segregation during mitosis depend on cohesion between sister chromatids. Cohesion is thought to occur through the entrapment of DNA within the tripartite ring (Smc1, Smc3 and Rad21) with enforcement from a fourth subunit (SA1/SA2). Surprisingly, cohesin rings do not play a major role in sister telomere cohesion. Instead, this role is replaced by SA1 and telomere binding proteins (TRF1 and TIN2). Neither the DNA binding property of SA1 nor this unique telomere cohesion mechanism is understood. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we discover that SA1 displays two-state binding on DNA: searching by one-dimensional (1D) free diffusion versus recognition through subdiffusive sliding at telomeric regions. The AT-hook motif in SA1 plays dual roles in modulating non-specific DNA binding and subdiffusive dynamics over telomeric regions. TRF1 tethers SA1 within telomeric regions that SA1 transiently interacts with. SA1 and TRF1 together form longer DNA-DNA pairing tracts than with TRF1 alone, as revealed by atomic force microscopy imaging. These results suggest that at telomeres cohesion relies on the molecular interplay between TRF1 and SA1 to promote DNA-DNA pairing, while along chromosomal arms the core cohesin assembly might also depend on SA1 1D diffusion on DNA and sequence-specific DNA binding. PMID:27298259

  4. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-01-01

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner. PMID:27225672

  5. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-01-01

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner. PMID:27225672

  6. Preparation and DNA-binding properties of substituted triostin antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, A; Fox, K R; Waring, M J

    1983-01-01

    Novel derivatives of the triostin group of antibiotics were prepared by supplementing cultures of the producing organism Streptomyces triostinicus with a variety of aromatic carboxylic acids. Five new antibiotics, each having both the natural quinoxaline chromophores replaced by a substituted ring system, were purified to homogeneity and characterized by high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Their antibacterial activities and DNA-binding properties were investigated. Addition of a halogen atom at position 6 of the quinoxaline ring or an amino group at position 3 had little effect on either the biological activity or the DNA-binding characteristics. The bis-3-amino derivative is fluorescent, and its fluorescence is strongly quenched by calf thymus DNA and polydeoxyguanylate-polydeoxycytidylate but not by polydeoxyadenylate-polydeoxythymidylate, suggesting that it binds preferentially to guanosine-cytosine-rich sequences in natural DNA. Binding constants for the bis-6-chloro and bis-3-amino derivatives do not differ greatly from those of unsubstituted triostin A. The analogs having two quinoline chromophores or a chlorine atom in position 7 of the quinoxaline ring display little or no detectable antibacterial activity, in marked contrast to the other congeners. Bis-7-chloro-triostin A binds conspicuously more tightly to polydeoxyadenylate-polydeoxythymidylate than to any other polynucleotide tested. PMID:6838186

  7. Sequence-selective binding of an ellipticine derivative to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, C; OhUigin, C; Rivalle, C; Bisagni, E; Hénichart, J P; Waring, M J

    1990-01-01

    The DNA sequence specificity of an ellipticine derivative bearing an aminoalkyl side chain has been determined by a variety of footprinting methods. The drug exhibits sequence selective binding and discriminates against runs of adenines or thymines. Binding is shown to occur at various sequences with a preference for GC rich regions of DNA. A large enhancement of DNAase I and of hydroxyl radical cleavage in regions rich in A's or T's is observed together with hyperreactivity of adenines towards diethylpyrocarbonate in the presence of drug. This indicates the occurrence of drug-induced changes in critical conformational features of DNA. The total absence of hyperreactivity of guanine residues towards diethylpyrocarbonate appears to be related to the sequence selectivity of drug binding. No alteration of the dimethyl sulphate and methylene blue-induced cleavage of DNA is observed. Irradiation of ellipticine derivative-DNA complexes with UV light followed by alkali treatment leads to selective photocleavage at guanine residues, consistent with the deduced degree of selectivity of the binding reaction. Images PMID:2173825

  8. Rhodopsin targeted transcriptional silencing by DNA-binding

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Salvatore; Marrocco, Elena; de Prisco, Nicola; Curion, Fabiola; Renda, Mario; Sofia, Martina; Lupo, Mariangela; Carissimo, Annamaria; Bacci, Maria Laura; Gesualdo, Carlo; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Surace, Enrico Maria

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) operate by the combined activity of their DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and effector domains (EDs) enabling the coordination of gene expression on a genomic scale. Here we show that in vivo delivery of an engineered DNA-binding protein uncoupled from the repressor domain can produce efficient and gene-specific transcriptional silencing. To interfere with RHODOPSIN (RHO) gain-of-function mutations we engineered the ZF6-DNA-binding protein (ZF6-DB) that targets 20 base pairs (bp) of a RHOcis-regulatory element (CRE) and demonstrate Rho specific transcriptional silencing upon adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated expression in photoreceptors. The data show that the 20 bp-long genomic DNA sequence is necessary for RHO expression and that photoreceptor delivery of the corresponding cognate synthetic trans-acting factor ZF6-DB without the intrinsic transcriptional repression properties of the canonical ED blocks Rho expression with negligible genome-wide transcript perturbations. The data support DNA-binding-mediated silencing as a novel mode to treat gain-of-function mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12242.001 PMID:26974343

  9. Mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR and induce CYP1A genes expression in human hepatocytes and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kubešová, Kateřina; Dořičáková, Aneta; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2016-07-25

    The effects of four copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes [Cu(qui1)(L)]NO3·H2O (1-3) and [Cu(qui2)(phen)]NO3 (4), where qui1=2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone, Hqui2=2-(4-amino-3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-propyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone-7-carboxamide, L=1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (1), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (mphen) (2), bathophenanthroline (bphen) (3), on transcriptional activities of steroid receptors, nuclear receptors and xenoreceptors have been studied. The complexes (1-4) did not influence basal or ligand-inducible activities of glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, thyroid receptor, pregnane X receptor and vitamin D receptor, as revealed by gene reporter assays. The complexes 1 and 2 dose-dependently induced luciferase activity in stable gene reporter AZ-AhR cell line, and this induction was reverted by resveratrol, indicating involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the process. The complexes 1, 2 and 3 induced CYP1A1 mRNA in LS180 cells and CYP1A1/CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes through AhR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay EMSA showed that the complexes 1 and 2 transformed AhR in its DNA-binding form. Collectively, we demonstrate that the complexes 1 and 2 activate AhR and induce AhR-dependent genes in human hepatocytes and cancer cell lines. In conclusion, the data presented here might be of toxicological importance, regarding the multiple roles of AhR in human physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27180721

  10. iDNA-Prot: identification of DNA binding proteins using random forest with grey model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2011-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Developing high throughput tools for rapidly and effectively identifying DNA-binding proteins is one of the major challenges in the field of genome annotation. Although many efforts have been made in this regard, further effort is needed to enhance the prediction power. By incorporating the features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition that were extracted from protein sequences via the "grey model" and by adopting the random forest operation engine, we proposed a new predictor, called iDNA-Prot, for identifying uncharacterized proteins as DNA-binding proteins or non-DNA binding proteins based on their amino acid sequences information alone. The overall success rate by iDNA-Prot was 83.96% that was obtained via jackknife tests on a newly constructed stringent benchmark dataset in which none of the proteins included has ≥25% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. In addition to achieving high success rate, the computational time for iDNA-Prot is remarkably shorter in comparison with the relevant existing predictors. Hence it is anticipated that iDNA-Prot may become a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of DNA-binding proteins. As a user-friendly web-server, iDNA-Prot is freely accessible to the public at the web-site on http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iDNA-Prot or http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iDNA-Prot. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results. PMID:21935457

  11. Protein Affinity Chromatography with Purified Yeast DNA Polymerase α Detects Proteins that Bind to DNA Polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jeff; Formosa, Tim

    1992-02-01

    We have overexpressed the POL1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified the resulting DNA polymerase α polypeptide in an apparently intact form. We attached the purified DNA polymerase covalently to an agarose matrix and used this matrix to chromatograph extracts prepared from yeast cells. At least six proteins bound to the yeast DNA polymerase α matrix that did not bind to a control matrix. We speculate that these proteins might be DNA polymerase α accessory proteins. Consistent with this interpretation, one of the binding proteins, which we have named POB1 (polymerase one binding), is required for normal chromosome transmission. Mutations in this gene cause increased chromosome loss and an abnormal cell morphology, phenotypes that also occur in the presence of mutations in the yeast α or δ polymerase genes. These results suggest that the interactions detected by polymerase affinity chromatography are biologically relevant and may help to illuminate the architecture of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery.

  12. Cooperation between catalytic and DNA binding domains enhances thermostability and supports DNA synthesis at higher temperatures by thermostable DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Andrey R; Pavlova, Nadejda V; Kozyavkin, Sergei A; Slesarev, Alexei I

    2012-03-13

    We have previously introduced a general kinetic approach for comparative study of processivity, thermostability, and resistance to inhibitors of DNA polymerases [Pavlov, A. R., et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99, 13510-13515]. The proposed method was successfully applied to characterize hybrid DNA polymerases created by fusing catalytic DNA polymerase domains with various sequence-nonspecific DNA binding domains. Here we use the developed kinetic analysis to assess basic parameters of DNA elongation by DNA polymerases and to further study the interdomain interactions in both previously constructed and new chimeric DNA polymerases. We show that connecting helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) domains to catalytic polymerase domains can increase thermostability, not only of DNA polymerases from extremely thermophilic species but also of the enzyme from a faculatative thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. We also demonstrate that addition of Topo V HhH domains extends efficient DNA synthesis by chimerical polymerases up to 105 °C by maintaining processivity of DNA synthesis at high temperatures. We found that reversible high-temperature structural transitions in DNA polymerases decrease the rates of binding of these enzymes to the templates. Furthermore, activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the Arrhenius equation suggest that the mechanism of electrostatic enhancement of diffusion-controlled association plays a minor role in binding of templates to DNA polymerases. PMID:22320201

  13. On the connection between inherent DNA flexure and preferred binding of hydroxymethyluracil-containing DNA by the type II DNA-binding protein TF1.

    PubMed

    Grove, A; Galeone, A; Mayol, L; Geiduschek, E P

    1996-07-12

    TF1 is a member of the family of type II DNA-binding proteins, which also includes the bacterial HU proteins and the Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF). Distinctive to TF1, which is encoded by the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1, is its preferential binding to DNA in which thymine is replaced by 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU), as it is in the phage genome. TF1 binds to preferred sites within the phage genome and generates pronounced DNA bending. The extent to which DNA flexibility contributes to the sequence-specific binding of TF1, and the connection between hmU preference and DNA flexibility has been examined. Model flexible sites, consisting of consecutive mismatches, increase the affinity of thymine-containing DNA for TF1. In particular, tandem mismatches separated by nine base-pairs generate an increase, by orders of magnitude, in the affinity of TF1 for T-containing DNA with the sequence of a preferred TF1 binding site, and fully match the affinity of TF1 for this cognate site in hmU-containing DNA (Kd approximately 3 nM). Other placements of loops generate suboptimal binding. This is consistent with a significant contribution of site-specific DNA flexibility to complex formation. Analysis of complexes with hmU-DNA of decreasing length shows that a major part of the binding affinity is generated within a central 19 bp segment (delta G0 = 41.7 kJ mol-1) with more-distal DNA contributing modestly to the affinity (delta delta G = -0.42 kJ mol-1 bp-1 on increasing duplex length to 37 bp). However, a previously characterised thermostable and more tightly binding mutant TF1, TF1(E15G/T32I), derives most of its extra affinity from interaction with flanking DNA. We propose that inherent but sequence-dependent deformability of hmU-containing DNA underlies the preferential binding of TF1 and that TF1-induced DNA bendings is a result of distortions at two distinct sites separated by 9 bp of duplex DNA. PMID:8764400

  14. Structural modeling for DNA binding to antioxidants resveratrol, genistein and curcumin.

    PubMed

    N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Bourassa, P; Mandeville, J S; Bekale, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-10-01

    Several models are presented here for the bindings of the antioxidant polyphenols resveratrol, genistein and curcumin with DNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions. Multiple spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were used to locate the binding sites of these polyphenols with DNA duplex. Structural models showed that intercalation is more stable for resveratrol and genistein than groove bindings, while curcumin interaction is via DNA grooves. Docking showed more stable complexes formed with resveratrol and genistein than curcumin with the free binding energies of -4.62 for resveratrol-DNA (intercalation), -4.28 for resveratrol-DNA (groove binding), -4.54 for genistein-DNA (intercalation), -4.38 for genistein-DNA (groove binding) and -3.84 kcal/mol for curcumin-DNA (groove binding). The free binding energies show polyphenol-DNA complexation is spontaneous at room temperature. At high polyphenol concentration a major DNA aggregation occurred, while biopolymer remained in B-family structure. PMID:26188387

  15. Modeling Spatial Correlation of DNA Deformation: DNA Allostery in Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinliang; Ge, Hao; Gu, Chan; Gao, Yi Qin; Wang, Siyuan S.; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Hynes, James T.; Xie, X. Sunney; Cao, Jianshu

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of DNA deformations using a coarse-grained mechanical model and quantitatively interpret the allosteric effects in protein-DNA binding affinity. A recent single molecule study (Kim et al. (2013) Science, 339, 816) showed that when a DNA molecule is deformed by specific binding of a protein, the binding affinity of a second protein separated from the first protein is altered. Experimental observations together with molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the origin of the DNA allostery is related to the observed deformation of DNA’s structure, in particular the major groove width. In order to unveil and quantify the underlying mechanism for the observed major groove deformation behavior related to the DNA allostery, here we provide a simple but effective analytical model where DNA deformations upon protein binding are analyzed and spatial correlations of local deformations along the DNA are examined. The deformation of the DNA base orientations, which directly affect the major groove width, is found in both an analytical derivation and coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations. This deformation oscillates with a period of 10 base pairs with an amplitude decaying exponentially from the binding site with a decay length lD~10 base pairs, as a result of the balance between two competing terms in DNA base stacking energy. This length scale is in agreement with that reported from the single molecule experiment. Our model can be reduced to the worm-like chain form at length scales larger than lP but is able to explain DNA’s mechanical properties on shorter length scales, in particular the DNA allostery of protein-DNA interactions. PMID:23795567

  16. Cloning of two sea urchin DNA-binding proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Megli, Fiammetta; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro; Roberti, Marina

    2002-03-01

    The cloning of the cDNA for two mitochondrial proteins involved in sea urchin mtDNA replication and transcription is reported here. The cDNA for the mitochondrial D-loop binding protein (mtDBP) from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus has been cloned by a polymerase chain reaction-based approach. The protein displays a very high similarity with the Paracentrotus lividus homologue as it contains also the two leucine zipper-like domains which are thought to be involved in intramolecular interactions needed to expose the two DNA binding domains in the correct position for contacting DNA. The cDNA for the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB) from P. lividus has been also cloned by a similar approach. The precursor protein is 146 amino acids long with a presequence of 16 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the highest homology with the Xenopus laevis protein and the lowest with the Drosophila mtSSB. The computer modeling of the tertiary structure of P. lividus mtSSB shows a structure very similar to that experimentally determined for human mtSSB, with the conservation of the main residues involved in protein tetramerization and in DNA binding. PMID:11943466

  17. Binding of DNA with Abf2p Increases Efficiency of DNA Uptake by Isolated Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, E O; Krasheninnikov, I A; Vinogradova, E N; Kamenski, P A; Levitskii, S A

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA often lead to severe hereditary diseases that are virtually resistant to symptomatic treatment. During the recent decades, many efforts were made to develop gene therapy approaches for treatment of such diseases using nucleic acid delivery into the organelles. The possibility of DNA import into mitochondria has been shown, but this process has low efficiency. In the present work, we demonstrate that the efficiency of DNA import can be significantly increased by preforming its complex with a mitochondria-targeted protein nonspecifically binding with DNA. As a model protein, we used the yeast protein Abf2p. In addition, we measured the length of the DNA site for binding this protein and the dissociation constant of the corresponding DNA-protein complex. Our data can serve as a basis for development of novel, highly efficient approaches for suppressing mutations in the mitochondrial genome. PMID:27449618

  18. Structure of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor DNA-binding complex

    PubMed Central

    Devarakonda, Srikripa; Harp, Joel M.; Kim, Youngchang; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2003-01-01

    Ecdysteroids initiate molting and metamorphosis in insects via a heterodimeric receptor consisting of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). The EcR–USP heterodimer preferentially mediates transcription through highly degenerate pseudo-palindromic response elements, resembling inverted repeats of 5′-AGGTCA-3′ separated by 1 bp (IR-1). The requirement for a heterodimeric arrangement of EcR–USP subunits to bind to a symmetric DNA is unusual within the nuclear receptor superfamily. We describe the 2.24 Å structure of the EcR–USP DNA-binding domain (DBD) heterodimer bound to an idealized IR-1 element. EcR and USP use similar surfaces, and rely on the deformed minor groove of the DNA to establish protein–protein contacts. As retinoid X receptor (RXR) is the mammalian homolog of USP, we also solved the 2.60 Å crystal structure of the EcR–RXR DBD heterodimer on IR-1 and found the dimerization and DNA-binding interfaces to be the same as in the EcR–USP complex. Sequence alignments indicate that the EcR–RXR heterodimer is an important model for understanding how the FXR–RXR heterodimer binds to IR-1 sites. PMID:14592980

  19. Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding.

    PubMed

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-05-01

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys(466) gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly(81) and GyrB-Glu(466) residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases. PMID:24497635

  20. DNA methylation presents distinct binding sites for human transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaohui; Wan, Jun; Su, Yijing; Song, Qifeng; Zeng, Yaxue; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Shin, Jaehoon; Cox, Eric; Rho, Hee Sool; Woodard, Crystal; Xia, Shuli; Liu, Shuang; Lyu, Huibin; Ming, Guo-Li; Wade, Herschel; Song, Hongjun; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation, especially CpG methylation at promoter regions, has been generally considered as a potent epigenetic modification that prohibits transcription factor (TF) recruitment, resulting in transcription suppression. Here, we used a protein microarray-based approach to systematically survey the entire human TF family and found numerous purified TFs with methylated CpG (mCpG)-dependent DNA-binding activities. Interestingly, some TFs exhibit specific binding activity to methylated and unmethylated DNA motifs of distinct sequences. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we focused on Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and decoupled its mCpG- and CpG-binding activities via site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, KLF4 binds specific methylated or unmethylated motifs in human embryonic stem cells in vivo. Our study suggests that mCpG-dependent TF binding activity is a widespread phenomenon and provides a new framework to understand the role and mechanism of TFs in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00726.001. PMID:24015356

  1. DNA methylation presents distinct binding sites for human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaohui; Wan, Jun; Su, Yijing; Song, Qifeng; Zeng, Yaxue; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Shin, Jaehoon; Cox, Eric; Rho, Hee Sool; Woodard, Crystal; Xia, Shuli; Liu, Shuang; Lyu, Huibin; Ming, Guo-Li; Wade, Herschel; Song, Hongjun; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation, especially CpG methylation at promoter regions, has been generally considered as a potent epigenetic modification that prohibits transcription factor (TF) recruitment, resulting in transcription suppression. Here, we used a protein microarray-based approach to systematically survey the entire human TF family and found numerous purified TFs with methylated CpG (mCpG)-dependent DNA-binding activities. Interestingly, some TFs exhibit specific binding activity to methylated and unmethylated DNA motifs of distinct sequences. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we focused on Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and decoupled its mCpG- and CpG-binding activities via site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, KLF4 binds specific methylated or unmethylated motifs in human embryonic stem cells in vivo. Our study suggests that mCpG-dependent TF binding activity is a widespread phenomenon and provides a new framework to understand the role and mechanism of TFs in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00726.001 PMID:24015356

  2. Binding of topotecan to chromatin: Insights into cooperative binding and comparison with DNA.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Masoome; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Ghadam, Parinaz

    2015-09-01

    Topotecan (TPT) is an anticancer drug widely used in cancer therapy. Although the interaction of TPT with DNA is a subject of few reports, no work has been reported on the binding affinity of TPT to DNA-histone complex in chromatin structure. In the present study we have focused on the effect of TPT on chromatin employing various types of spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis techniques. The results showed that TPT quenched with chromatin chromophores and decreased fluorescence emission intensity corresponding to aromatic residues of histone proteins. The UV absorbance at 260 and 210 nm in decreased in a dose dependent manner. Upon binding of the drug, ellipticity at 222 nm in the circular dichroism profile became more positive implying reduction of α-helix content of histones. The binding is positive cooperative with association constant (Ka) of 2.65×10(2) M(-1) and 1.11×10(2) M(-1) for chromatin and DNA respectively indicating higher affinity of TPT to chromatin compared to DNA. From the results it is concluded that in the cell nucleus, TPT, as a potent anticancer drug, exerts its biological action through binding to chromatin and in this process not only DNA but also histone proteins play a fundamental role. PMID:26092169

  3. Z-DNA binding protein from chicken blood nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A. G.; Spitzner, J. R.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    A protein (Z alpha) that appears to be highly specific for the left-handed Z-DNA conformer has been identified in chicken blood nuclear extracts. Z alpha activity is measured in a band-shift assay by using a radioactive probe consisting of a (dC-dG)35 oligomer that has 50% of the deoxycytosines replaced with 5-bromodeoxycytosine. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+, the probe converts to the Z-DNA conformation and is bound by Z alpha. The binding of Z alpha to the radioactive probe is specifically blocked by competition with linear poly(dC-dG) stabilized in the Z-DNA form by chemical bromination but not by B-form poly(dC-dG) or boiled salmon-sperm DNA. In addition, the binding activity of Z alpha is competitively blocked by supercoiled plasmids containing a Z-DNA insert but not by either the linearized plasmid or by an equivalent amount of the parental supercoiled plasmid without the Z-DNA-forming insert. Z alpha can be crosslinked to the 32P-labeled brominated probe with UV light, allowing us to estimate that the minimal molecular mass of Z alpha is 39 kDa.

  4. Determinants of Bacteriophage 933W Repressor DNA Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J.; Samorodnitsky, Daniel; Rosati, Rayna C.; Koudelka, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    We reported previously that 933W repressor apparently does not cooperatively bind to adjacent sites on DNA and that the relative affinities of 933W repressor for its operators differ significantly from that of any other lambdoid bacteriophage. These findings indicate that the operational details of the lysis-lysogeny switch of bacteriophage 933W are unique among lambdoid bacteriophages. Since the functioning of the lysis-lysogeny switch in 933W bacteriophage uniquely and solely depends on the order of preference of 933W repressor for its operators, we examined the details of how 933W repressor recognizes its DNA sites. To identify the specificity determinants, we first created a molecular model of the 933W repressor-DNA complex and tested the predicted protein-DNA interactions. These results of these studies provide a picture of how 933W repressor recognizes its DNA sites. We also show that, opposite of what is normally observed for lambdoid phages, 933W operator sequences have evolved in such a way that the presence of the most commonly found base sequences at particular operator positions serves to decrease, rather than increase, the affinity of the protein for the site. This finding cautions against assuming that a consensus sequence derived from sequence analysis defines the optimal, highest affinity DNA binding site for a protein. PMID:22509323

  5. Mechanism of RecO recruitment to DNA by single-stranded DNA binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Koroleva, Olga; Postnov, Dmitri; Tran, Andrew; Korolev, Sergey

    2011-08-25

    RecO is a recombination mediator protein (RMP) important for homologous recombination, replication repair and DNA annealing in bacteria. In all pathways, the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding protein, SSB, plays an inhibitory role by protecting ssDNA from annealing and recombinase binding. Conversely, SSB may stimulate each reaction through direct interaction with RecO. We present a crystal structure of Escherichia coli RecO bound to the conserved SSB C-terminus (SSB-Ct). SSB-Ct binds the hydrophobic pocket of RecO in a conformation similar to that observed in the ExoI/SSB-Ct complex. Hydrophobic interactions facilitate binding of SSB-Ct to RecO and RecO/RecR complex in both low and moderate ionic strength solutions. In contrast, RecO interaction with DNA is inhibited by an elevated salt concentration. The SSB mutant lacking SSB-Ct also inhibits RecO-mediated DNA annealing activity in a salt-dependent manner. Neither RecO nor RecOR dissociates SSB from ssDNA. Therefore, in E. coli, SSB recruits RMPs to ssDNA through SSB-Ct, and RMPs are likely to alter the conformation of SSB-bound ssDNA without SSB dissociation to initiate annealing or recombination. Intriguingly, Deinococcus radiodurans RecO does not bind SSB-Ct and weakly interacts with the peptide in the presence of RecR, suggesting the diverse mechanisms of DNA repair pathways mediated by RecO in different organisms.

  6. AHR-11797: a novel benzodiazepine antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.N.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Hannaman, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    AHR-11797(5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1-phenyl-/sup 3/H-pyrrolo(3,2,1-ij)quinazolin-3-one) displaced /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (IC/sub 50/ = 82 nM) and /sup 3/H-Ro 15-1877 (IC/sub 50/ = 104 nM) from rat brain synaptosomes. AHR-11797 did not protect mice from seizures induced by maximal electroshock or subcutaneous Metrazol (scMET), nor did it induce seizures in doses up to the lethal dose. However, at 31.6 mg/kg, IP, it significantly increased the anticonvulsant ED/sub 50/ of chlordiazepoxide (CDPX) from 1.9 to 31.6 mg/kg, IP. With 56.7 mg/kg, IP, of AHR-11797, CDPX was inactive in doses up to 100 mg/kg, IP. AHR-11797 did not significantly increase punished responding in the Geller and Seifter conflict procedure, but it did attenuate the effects of diazepam. Although the compound is without anticonvulsant or anxiolytic activity, it did have muscle relaxant properties. AHR-11797 blocked morphine-induced Straub tail in mice (ED/sub 50/ = 31 mg/kg, IP) and it selectively suppressed the polysnaptic linguomandibular reflex in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The apparent muscle relaxant activity of AHR-11797 suggests that different receptor sites are involved for muscle relaxant vs. anxiolytic/anticonvulsant activities of the benzodiazepines.

  7. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, “sensor” proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)’s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as

  8. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, "sensor" proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)'s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as "liquid-demixing"). Among the

  9. A New Bisintercalating Anthracycline with Picomolar DNA Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, José; Cashman, Derek J.; Trent, John O.; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Przewloka, Teresa; Fokt, Izabela; Priebe, Waldemar; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2008-01-01

    A new bisintercalating anthracycline (WP762) has been designed, in which monomeric units of daunorubicin have been linked through their amino groups on the daunosamine moieties using an m-xylenyl linker. Differential scanning calorimetry and UV melting experiments were used to measure the ultratight binding of WP762 to DNA. The binding constant for the interaction of WP762 with herring sperm DNA was determined to be 7.3 (±0.2) × 1012 M−1 at 20°C. The large favorable binding free energy of −17.3 kcal mol−1 was found to result from a large negative enthalpic contribution of −33.8 kcal mol−1 and an opposing entropic term (−TΔS = +16.5 kcal mol−1). A comparative molecular modeling study rationalized the increased binding by the m-xylenyl linker of WP762 positioning in the DNA minor groove compared to the p-xylenyl linker found in WP631, the first bis-anthracycline of this type. The cytotoxicity of WP762 was compared to that of other anthracyclines in Jurkat T lymphocytes. These studies, together with an analysis of the cell-cycle traverse in the presence of WP762, suggest that in these cells the new drug is more cytotoxic than the structurally related WP631. PMID:16366602

  10. DNA minor groove-binding ligands: a different class of mammalian DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, A Y; Yu, C; Gatto, B; Liu, L F

    1993-01-01

    A number of DNA minor groove-binding ligands (MGBLs) are known to exhibit antitumor and antimicrobial activities. We show that DNA topoisomerase (Topo) I may be a pharmacological target of MGBLs. In the presence of calf thymus Topo I, MGBLs induced limited but highly specific single-strand DNA breaks. The 3' ends of the broken DNA strands are covalently linked to Topo I polypeptides. Protein-linked DNA breaks are readily reversed by a brief heating to 65 degrees C or the addition of 0.5 M NaCl. These results suggest that MGBLs, like camptothecin, abort Topo I reactions by trapping reversible cleavable complexes. The sites of cleavage induced by MGBLs are distinctly different from those induced by camptothecin. Two of the major cleavage sites have been sequenced and shown to be highly A + T-rich, suggesting the possible involvement of a Topo I-drug-DNA ternary complex at the sites of cleavage. Different MGBLs also exhibit varying efficiency in inducing Topo I-cleavable complexes, and the order of efficiency is as follows: Hoechst 33342 and 33258 >> distamycin A > berenil > netropsin. The lack of correlation between DNA binding and cleavage efficiency suggest that, in addition to binding to the minor grooves of DNA, MGBLs must also interact with Topo I in trapping Topo I-cleavable complexes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7690143

  11. T antigen origin-binding domain of simian virus 40: determinants of specific DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Sanford, David G; Luo, Xuelian; Sudmeier, James L; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Bullock, Peter A; Bachovchin, William W

    2004-06-01

    To better understand origin recognition and initiation of DNA replication, we have examined by NMR complexes formed between the origin-binding domain of SV40 T antigen (T-ag-obd), the initiator protein of the SV40 virus, and cognate and noncognate DNA oligomers. The results reveal two structural effects associated with "origin-specific" binding that are absent in nonspecific DNA binding. The first is the formation of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) involving His 203, a residue that genetic studies have previously identified as crucial to both specific and nonspecific DNA binding in full-length T antigen. In free T-ag-obd, the side chain of His 203 has a pK(a) value of approximately 5, titrating to the N(epsilon)(1)H tautomer at neutral pH (Sudmeier, J. L., et al. (1996) J. Magn. Reson., Ser. B 113, 236-247). In complexes with origin DNA, His 203 N(delta)(1) becomes protonated and remains nontitrating as the imidazolium cation at all pH values from 4 to 8. The H-bonded N(delta1)H resonates at 15.9 ppm, an unusually large N-H proton chemical shift, of a magnitude previously observed only in the catalytic triad of serine proteases at low pH. The formation of this H-bond requires the middle G/C base pair of the recognition pentanucleotide, GAGGC. The second structural effect is a selective distortion of the A/T base pair characterized by a large (0.6 ppm) upfield chemical-shift change of its Watson-Crick proton, while nearby H-bonded protons remain relatively unaffected. The results indicate that T antigen, like many other DNA-binding proteins, may employ "catalytic" or "transition-state-like" interactions in binding its cognate DNA (Jen-Jacobson, L. (1997) Biopolymers 44, 153-180), which may be the solution to the well-known paradox between the relatively modest DNA-binding specificity exhibited by initiator proteins and the high specificity of initiation. PMID:15170330

  12. Mapping the interactions of the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4 (gp32) with DNA lattices at single nucleotide resolution: polynucleotide binding and cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Davis; Weitzel, Steven E.; Baase, Walter A.; Michael, Miya M.; von Hippel, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    We here use our site-specific base analog mapping approach to study the interactions and binding equilibria of cooperatively-bound clusters of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (gp32) of the T4 DNA replication complex with longer ssDNA (and dsDNA) lattices. We show that in cooperatively bound clusters the binding free energy appears to be equi-partitioned between the gp32 monomers of the cluster, so that all bind to the ssDNA lattice with comparable affinity, but also that the outer domains of the gp32 monomers at the ends of the cluster can fluctuate on and off the lattice and that the clusters of gp32 monomers can slide along the ssDNA. We also show that at very low binding densities gp32 monomers bind to the ssDNA lattice at random, but that cooperatively bound gp32 clusters bind preferentially at the 5′-end of the ssDNA lattice. We use these results and the gp32 monomer-binding results of the companion paper to propose a detailed model for how gp32 might bind to and interact with ssDNA lattices in its various binding modes, and also consider how these clusters might interact with other components of the T4 DNA replication complex. PMID:26275774

  13. Mapping the interactions of the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4 (gp32) with DNA lattices at single nucleotide resolution: polynucleotide binding and cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Jose, Davis; Weitzel, Steven E; Baase, Walter A; Michael, Miya M; von Hippel, Peter H

    2015-10-30

    We here use our site-specific base analog mapping approach to study the interactions and binding equilibria of cooperatively-bound clusters of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (gp32) of the T4 DNA replication complex with longer ssDNA (and dsDNA) lattices. We show that in cooperatively bound clusters the binding free energy appears to be equi-partitioned between the gp32 monomers of the cluster, so that all bind to the ssDNA lattice with comparable affinity, but also that the outer domains of the gp32 monomers at the ends of the cluster can fluctuate on and off the lattice and that the clusters of gp32 monomers can slide along the ssDNA. We also show that at very low binding densities gp32 monomers bind to the ssDNA lattice at random, but that cooperatively bound gp32 clusters bind preferentially at the 5'-end of the ssDNA lattice. We use these results and the gp32 monomer-binding results of the companion paper to propose a detailed model for how gp32 might bind to and interact with ssDNA lattices in its various binding modes, and also consider how these clusters might interact with other components of the T4 DNA replication complex. PMID:26275774

  14. Pitfalls of DNA Quantification Using DNA-Binding Fluorescent Dyes and Suggested Solutions.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Einaga, Naoki; Esumi, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The Qubit fluorometer is a DNA quantification device based on the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dye binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Qubit is generally considered useful for checking DNA quality before next-generation sequencing because it measures intact dsDNA. To examine the most accurate and suitable methods for quantifying DNA for quality assessment, we compared three quantification methods: NanoDrop, which measures UV absorbance; Qubit; and quantitative PCR (qPCR), which measures the abundance of a target gene. For the comparison, we used three types of DNA: 1) DNA extracted from fresh frozen liver tissues (Frozen-DNA); 2) DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues comparable to those used for Frozen-DNA (FFPE-DNA); and 3) DNA extracted from the remaining fractions after RNA extraction with Trizol reagent (Trizol-DNA). These DNAs were serially diluted with distilled water and measured using three quantification methods. For Frozen-DNA, the Qubit values were not proportional to the dilution ratio, in contrast with the NanoDrop and qPCR values. This non-proportional decrease in Qubit values was dependent on a lower salt concentration, and over 1 mM NaCl in the DNA solution was required for the Qubit measurement. For FFPE-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were lower than the NanoDrop values. However, electrophoresis revealed that qPCR reflected the degree of DNA fragmentation more accurately than Qubit. Thus, qPCR is superior to Qubit for checking the quality of FFPE-DNA. For Trizol-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were consistently lower than the NanoDrop values, similar to FFPE-DNA. However, the qPCR values were higher than the NanoDrop values. Electrophoresis with SYBR Green I and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) quantification demonstrated that Trizol-DNA consisted mostly of non-fragmented ssDNA. Therefore, Qubit is not always the most accurate method for

  15. Pitfalls of DNA Quantification Using DNA-Binding Fluorescent Dyes and Suggested Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Einaga, Naoki; Esumi, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The Qubit fluorometer is a DNA quantification device based on the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dye binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Qubit is generally considered useful for checking DNA quality before next-generation sequencing because it measures intact dsDNA. To examine the most accurate and suitable methods for quantifying DNA for quality assessment, we compared three quantification methods: NanoDrop, which measures UV absorbance; Qubit; and quantitative PCR (qPCR), which measures the abundance of a target gene. For the comparison, we used three types of DNA: 1) DNA extracted from fresh frozen liver tissues (Frozen-DNA); 2) DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues comparable to those used for Frozen-DNA (FFPE-DNA); and 3) DNA extracted from the remaining fractions after RNA extraction with Trizol reagent (Trizol-DNA). These DNAs were serially diluted with distilled water and measured using three quantification methods. For Frozen-DNA, the Qubit values were not proportional to the dilution ratio, in contrast with the NanoDrop and qPCR values. This non-proportional decrease in Qubit values was dependent on a lower salt concentration, and over 1 mM NaCl in the DNA solution was required for the Qubit measurement. For FFPE-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were lower than the NanoDrop values. However, electrophoresis revealed that qPCR reflected the degree of DNA fragmentation more accurately than Qubit. Thus, qPCR is superior to Qubit for checking the quality of FFPE-DNA. For Trizol-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were consistently lower than the NanoDrop values, similar to FFPE-DNA. However, the qPCR values were higher than the NanoDrop values. Electrophoresis with SYBR Green I and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) quantification demonstrated that Trizol-DNA consisted mostly of non-fragmented ssDNA. Therefore, Qubit is not always the most accurate method for

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of DNA Minor Groove Binding Alkylating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Prema; Srinivasan, Ajay; Singh, Sreelekha K.; Mascara, Gerard P.; Zayitova, Sevara; Sidone, Brian; Fouquerel, Elise; Svilar, David; Sobol, Robert W.; Bobola, Michael S.; Silber, John R.; Gold, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of methyl 3-(1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-5-(propylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylamino)-3-oxopropane-1-sulfonate (1), a peptide-based DNA minor groove binding methylating agent, were synthesized and characterized. In all cases the N-terminus was appended with a O-methyl sulfonate ester while the C-terminus group was varied with non-polar and polar sidechains. In addition, the number of pyrrole rings was varied from 2 (dipeptide) to 3 (tripeptide). The ability of the different analogues to efficiently generate N3-methyladenine was demonstrated as was their selectivity for minor groove (N3-methyladenine) vs. major groove (N7-methylguanine) methylation. Induced circular dichroism studies were used to measure the DNA equilibrium binding properties of the stable sulfone analogues; the tripeptide binds with affinity that is > 10-fold higher than the dipeptide. The toxicities of the compounds were evaluated in alkA/tag glycosylase mutant E. coli and in human WT glioma cells and in cells over-expressing and under-expressing N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase, which excises N3-methyladenine from DNA. The results show that equilibrium binding correlates with the levels of N3-methyladenine produced and cellular toxicity. The toxicity of 1 was inversely related to expression of MPG in both the bacterial and mammalian cell lines. The enhanced toxicity parallels the reduced activation of PARP and diminished rate of formation of aldehyde reactive sites observed in the MPG knockdown cells. It is proposed that unrepaired N3-methyladenine is toxic due to its ability to directly block DNA polymerization. PMID:23234400

  17. Synthesis and characterization of DNA minor groove binding alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Prema; Srinivasan, Ajay; Singh, Sreelekha K; Mascara, Gerard P; Zayitova, Sevara; Sidone, Brian; Fouquerel, Elise; Svilar, David; Sobol, Robert W; Bobola, Michael S; Silber, John R; Gold, Barry

    2013-01-18

    Derivatives of methyl 3-(1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-5-(propylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylamino)-3-oxopropane-1-sulfonate (1), a peptide-based DNA minor groove binding methylating agent, were synthesized and characterized. In all cases, the N-terminus was appended with an O-methyl sulfonate ester, while the C-terminus group was varied with nonpolar and polar side chains. In addition, the number of pyrrole rings was varied from 2 (dipeptide) to 3 (tripeptide). The ability of the different analogues to efficiently generate N3-methyladenine was demonstrated as was their selectivity for minor groove (N3-methyladenine) versus major groove (N7-methylguanine) methylation. Induced circular dichroism studies were used to measure the DNA equilibrium binding properties of the stable sulfone analogues; the tripeptide binds with affinity that is >10-fold higher than that of the dipeptide. The toxicities of the compounds were evaluated in alkA/tag glycosylase mutant E. coli and in human WT glioma cells and in cells overexpressing and under-expressing N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase, which excises N3-methyladenine from DNA. The results show that equilibrium binding correlates with the levels of N3-methyladenine produced and cellular toxicity. The toxicity of 1 was inversely related to the expression of MPG in both the bacterial and mammalian cell lines. The enhanced toxicity parallels the reduced activation of PARP and the diminished rate of formation of aldehyde reactive sites observed in the MPG knockdown cells. It is proposed that unrepaired N3-methyladenine is toxic due to its ability to directly block DNA polymerization. PMID:23234400

  18. Purification of a cellular, double-stranded DNA-binding protein required for initiation of adenovirus DNA replication by using a rapid filter-binding assay.

    PubMed Central

    Diffley, J F; Stillman, B

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative nitrocellulose filter-binding assay is described for the detection of nuclear factor I, a HeLa cell sequence-specific DNA-binding protein required for the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. In this assay, the abundant nonspecific DNA-binding activity present in unfractionated HeLa nuclear extracts was greatly reduced by preincubation of these extracts with a homopolymeric competitor DNA. Subsequently, specific DNA-binding activity was detected as the preferential retention of a labeled 48-base-pair DNA fragment containing a functional nuclear factor I binding site compared with a control DNA fragment to which nuclear factor I did not bind specifically. This specific DNA-binding activity was shown to be both quantitative and time dependent. Furthermore, the conditions of this assay allowed footprinting of nuclear factor I in unfractionated HeLa nuclear extracts and quantitative detection of the protein during purification. Using unfrozen HeLa cells and reagents known to limit endogenous proteolysis, nuclear factor I was purified to near homogeneity from HeLa nuclear extracts by a combination of standard chromatography and specific DNA affinity chromatography. Over a 400-fold purification of nuclear factor I, on the basis of the specific activity of both sequence-specific DNA binding and complementation of adenovirus DNA replication in vitro, was affected by this purification. The most highly purified fraction was greatly enriched for a polypeptide of 160 kilodaltons on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Furthermore, this protein cosedimented with specific DNA-binding activity on glycerol gradients. That this fraction indeed contained nuclear factor I was demonstrated by both DNase I footprinting and its function in the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. Finally, the stoichiometry of specific DNA binding by nuclear factor I is shown to be most consistent with 2 mol of the 160-kilodalton polypeptide

  19. Nuclear protein LEDGF/p75 recognizes supercoiled DNA by a novel DNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kimiko M.; Sano, Kuniaki; Hosoya, Osamu; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsutsui, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) or p75 is a co-activator of general transcription and also involved in insertion of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) cDNA into host cell genome, which occurs preferentially to active transcription units. These phenomena may share an underlying molecular mechanism in common. We report here that LEDGF/p75 binds negatively supercoiled DNA selectively over unconstrained DNA. We identified a novel DNA-binding domain in the protein and termed it ‘supercoiled DNA-recognition domain’ (SRD). Recombinant protein fragments containing SRD showed a preferential binding to supercoiled DNA in vitro. SRD harbors a characteristic cluster of lysine and glutamic/aspartic acid residues. A polypeptide mimicking the cluster (K9E9K9) also showed this specificity, suggesting that the cluster is an essential element for the supercoil recognition. eGFP-tagged LEDGF/p75 expressed in the nucleus distributed partially in transcriptionally active regions that were identified by immunostaining of methylated histone H3 (H3K4me3) or incorporation of Br-UTP. This pattern of localization was observed with SRD alone but abolished if the protein lacked SRD. Thus, these results imply that LEDGF/p75 guides its binding partners, including HIV-1 integrase, to the active transcription site through recognition of negative supercoils generated around it. PMID:21345933

  20. Genomic DNA binding to ZnO microrods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Embús, D. A.; Cardozo, M. Orrego; Vargas-Hernández, C.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, ZnO microrods were produced by hydrothermal synthesis. DNA was extracted from pork spleen cells by cellular lysis, deproteinization and precipitation. The analysis of the DNA binding to the ZnO was performed using Raman spectroscopy a technique that allowed for the evaluation of the effect that the presence of the ZnO in the complex has on the DNA structure. Vibrational spectral bands from the DNA molecule and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO were observed and classified as E2(M), A1(TO), E2(High), E1(LO) and 2LO. The Raman signals from the vibrational bands corresponding to the phosphodiester bond 5‧-C-O-P-O-C-3‧ and bond stretching of the PO2- group, as well as ring vibrations of the nitrogenous bases of the DNA, were enhanced by the presence of the ZnO microrods. The bands from the modes corresponding to the C-O and Odbnd Psbnd O- molecules of the DNA backbone were observed to exhibit larger spectral shifts due to the compression and tensile stresses generated at the ZnO/DNA interface, respectively. In addition, the relative vibrational mode intensities of the nitrogenous bases increased.

  1. Modeling spatial correlation of DNA deformations: Allosteric effects of DNA protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinliang; Cao, Jianshu; Hao Ge Collaboration; X. Sunney Xie Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    We report a study of DNA deformations by a coarse grained mechanical model. Recent single molecule experimental studies show that when DNA molecule is deformed by its binding to a protein, the binding affinity of a second protein at distance L away from the first binding site is altered. To explain this observation, the relaxation of deformation along the DNA chain is examined. Our method predicts a general exponentially decaying behavior for differenct deformation modes. As an example, inter-helical distance deformation is studied in details, and is found to decay at a previously unknown lengthscale of 10 base pairs as a result of the balance between inter and intra DNA strand energy. This lengthscale is in good agreement with the said single molecule experimental observation. This model of local deformation relaxation helps us better understand many important issues in DNA such as the enhanced flexibility of DNA at short lengthscales and DNA repair mechanism inside cells. Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University

  2. The shape of the DNA minor groove directs binding by the DNA-bending protein Fis

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, Stefano; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid C.

    2010-06-21

    The bacterial nucleoid-associated protein Fis regulates diverse reactions by bending DNA and through DNA-dependent interactions with other control proteins and enzymes. In addition to dynamic nonspecific binding to DNA, Fis forms stable complexes with DNA segments that share little sequence conservation. Here we report the first crystal structures of Fis bound to high- and low-affinity 27-base-pair DNA sites. These 11 structures reveal that Fis selects targets primarily through indirect recognition mechanisms involving the shape of the minor groove and sequence-dependent induced fits over adjacent major groove interfaces. The DNA shows an overall curvature of {approx}65{sup o}, and the unprecedented close spacing between helix-turn-helix motifs present in the apodimer is accommodated by severe compression of the central minor groove. In silico DNA structure models show that only the roll, twist, and slide parameters are sufficient to reproduce the changes in minor groove widths and recreate the curved Fis-bound DNA structure. Models based on naked DNA structures suggest that Fis initially selects DNA targets with intrinsically narrow minor grooves using the separation between helix-turn-helix motifs in the Fis dimer as a ruler. Then Fis further compresses the minor groove and bends the DNA to generate the bound structure.

  3. Binding of cationic surfactants to DNA, protein and DNA-protein mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gani, S A; Chattoraj, D K; Mukherjee, D C

    1999-06-01

    Extent of binding (gamma 2(1)) of cationic surfactants cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), myristyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (MTAB) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) to calf-thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and to their binary mixture respectively have been measured as function of bulk concentration of the surfactant by using equilibrium dialysis technique. Binding of CTAB has been studied at different pH, ionic strength (mu), temperature and biopolymer composition and with native and denatured states of the biopolymers. The chain-length of different long chain amines plays a significant role in the extent of binding under identical solution condition. The binding ratios for CTAB to collagen, gelatin, DNA-collagen and DNA-gelatin mixtures respectively have also been determined. The conformational structures of different biopolymers are observed to play significant role in macromolecular interactions between protein and DNA in the presence of CTAB. From the experimental values of the maximum binding ratio (gamma 2m) at the saturation level for each individual biopolymer, ideal values (gamma 2m)id have been theoretically calculated for binary mixtures of biopolymers using additivity rule. The protein-DNA-CTAB interaction in mixture has been explained in terms of the deviation (delta) of (gamma 2m) from (gamma 2m)id in the presence of a surfactant in bulk. The binding of surfactants to biopolymers and to their binary mixtures are compared more precisely in terms of the Gibbs' free energy decrease (-delta G degree) for the saturation of the binding sites in the biopolymers or biopolymer mixtures with the change of the bulk surfactant activity from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale. PMID:10650715

  4. Computational redesign of endonuclease DNA binding and cleavage specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Justin; Havranek, James J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sussman, Django; Monnat, Raymond J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2006-06-01

    The reprogramming of DNA-binding specificity is an important challenge for computational protein design that tests current understanding of protein-DNA recognition, and has considerable practical relevance for biotechnology and medicine. Here we describe the computational redesign of the cleavage specificity of the intron-encoded homing endonuclease I-MsoI using a physically realistic atomic-level forcefield. Using an in silico screen, we identified single base-pair substitutions predicted to disrupt binding by the wild-type enzyme, and then optimized the identities and conformations of clusters of amino acids around each of these unfavourable substitutions using Monte Carlo sampling. A redesigned enzyme that was predicted to display altered target site specificity, while maintaining wild-type binding affinity, was experimentally characterized. The redesigned enzyme binds and cleaves the redesigned recognition site ~10,000 times more effectively than does the wild-type enzyme, with a level of target discrimination comparable to the original endonuclease. Determination of the structure of the redesigned nuclease-recognition site complex by X-ray crystallography confirms the accuracy of the computationally predicted interface. These results suggest that computational protein design methods can have an important role in the creation of novel highly specific endonucleases for gene therapy and other applications.

  5. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maxwell W.; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M.; Huck, John D.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2–Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2–Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2–Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2–Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2–Msh3 and Msh2–Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2–Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  6. DNA binding properties of human Cdc45 suggest a function as molecular wedge for DNA unwinding

    PubMed Central

    Szambowska, Anna; Tessmer, Ingrid; Kursula, Petri; Usskilat, Christian; Prus, Piotr; Pospiech, Helmut; Grosse, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The cell division cycle protein 45 (Cdc45) represents an essential replication factor that, together with the Mcm2-7 complex and the four subunits of GINS, forms the replicative DNA helicase in eukaryotes. Recombinant human Cdc45 (hCdc45) was structurally characterized and its DNA-binding properties were determined. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy revealed that hCdc45 exists as an alpha-helical monomer and possesses a structure similar to its bacterial homolog RecJ. hCdc45 bound long (113-mer or 80-mer) single-stranded DNA fragments with a higher affinity than shorter ones (34-mer). hCdc45 displayed a preference for 3′ protruding strands and bound tightly to single-strand/double-strand DNA junctions, such as those presented by Y-shaped DNA, bubbles and displacement loops, all of which appear transiently during the initiation of DNA replication. Collectively, our findings suggest that hCdc45 not only binds to but also slides on DNA with a 3′–5′ polarity and, thereby acts as a molecular ‘wedge’ to initiate DNA strand displacement. PMID:24293646

  7. Dss1 Release Activates DNA Binding Potential in Brh2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qingwen; Kojic, Milorad; Holloman, William K.

    2013-01-01

    Dss1 is an intrinsically unstructured polypeptide that partners with the much larger Brh2 protein, the BRCA2 ortholog in Ustilago maydis, to form a tight complex. Mutants lacking Dss1 have essentially the same phenotype as mutants defective in Brh2, implying that through physical interaction Dss1 serves as a positive activator of Brh2. Dss1 associates with Brh2 through an interaction surface in the carboxy-terminal region. Certain derivatives of Brh2 lacking this interaction surface remain highly competent in DNA repair as long as a DNA-binding domain is present. However, the Dss1-independent activity raises the question of what function might be met in the native protein by having Brh2 under Dss1 control. Using a set of Brh2 fusions and truncated derivatives, we show here that Dss1 is capable of exerting control when there is a cognate Dss1-interacting surface present. We find that association of Dss1 attenuates the DNA binding potential of Brh2 and that the amino-terminal domain of Brh2 helps evict Dss1 from its carboxy-terminal interaction surface. The findings presented here add to the notion that Dss1 serves in a regulatory capacity to dictate order in association of Brh2’s amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains with DNA. PMID:23094644

  8. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Retention of Nuclear HuR Suppresses Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression Independent of DNA-Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A.; Nair, Parameswaran; Rico de Souza, Angela; Gallouzi, Imed-Eddine; Rousseau, Simon; Di Marco, Sergio; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H.; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to man-made environmental toxicants, has emerged as an endogenous regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) by a mechanism that is poorly understood. In this study, we first used AhR-deficient (AhR−/−) primary pulmonary cells, together with pharmacological tools to inhibit new RNA synthesis, to show that the AhR is a prominent factor in the destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA. The destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA and subsequent suppression of cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression by the AhR was independent of its ability to bind the dioxin response element (DRE), thereby differentiating the DRE-driven toxicological AhR pathway from its anti-inflammatory abilities. We further describe that the AhR destabilizes Cox-2 mRNA by sequestering HuR within the nucleus. The role of HuR in AhR stabilization of Cox-2 mRNA was confirmed by knockdown of HuR, which resulted in rapid Cox-2 mRNA degradation. Finally, in the lungs of AhR−/− mice exposed to cigarette smoke, there was little Cox-2 mRNA despite robust COX-2 protein expression, a finding that correlates with almost exclusive cytoplasmic HuR within the lungs of AhR−/− mice. Therefore, we propose that the AhR plays an important role in suppressing the expression of inflammatory proteins, a function that extends beyond the ability of the AhR to respond to man-made toxicants. These findings open the possibility that a DRE-independent AhR pathway may be exploited therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory target. PMID:24086407

  9. Fluorescence-determined preferential binding of quinacrine to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, G; Doglia, S; Dolci, S; Sassi, G

    1981-01-01

    Quinacrine complexes with native DNA (Calf thymus, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Colstridium perfringens) and synthetic polynucleotides (poly(dA) . poly(dT), poly[d(A-T)] . poly[d(A-T)], poly(dG) . poly(dC) and poly[d(G-C)] . poly[d(G-C)]) has been investigated in solution at 0.1 M NaCl, 0.05 M Tris HCl, 0.001 M EDTA, pH 7.5, at 20 degrees C. Fluorescence excitation spectra of complexes with dye concentration D = 5-30 microM and DNA phosphate concentration P = 400 microM have been examined from 300 to 500 nm, while collecting the emission above 520 nm. The amounts of free and bound quinacrine in the dye-DNA complexes have been determined by means of equilibrium dialysis experiments. Different affinities have been found for the various DNAs and their values have been examined with a model that assumes that the binding constants associated with alternating purine and pyrimidine sequences are larger than those relative to nonalternating ones. Among the alternating nearest neighbor base sequences, the Pyr(3'-5')Pur sequences, i.e., C-G, T-G, C-A and T-A seem to bind quinacrine stronger than the remaining sequences. In particular the three sites, where a G . C base pair is involved, are found to display higher affinities. Good agreement is found with recent calculations on the energetics of intercalation sites in DNA. The analysis of the equilibrium shows also that the strength of the excitation spectrum of bound dye depends strongly upon the ratio of bound quinacrine to DNA. This effect can be attributed to dye-dye energy transfer along DNA. PMID:7326321

  10. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange.

    PubMed

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H; Gittens, William H; Townsend, Philip D; Sharples, Gary J; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L W; Cann, Martin J

    2016-01-15

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. PMID:26601946

  11. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange*

    PubMed Central

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H.; Gittens, William H.; Townsend, Philip D.; Sharples, Gary J.; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L. W.; Cann, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. PMID:26601946

  12. Characterization of Dnmt1 Binding and DNA Methylation on Nucleosomes and Nucleosomal Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Thalhammer, Verena; Längst, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes and the organisation into higher order structures of chromatin limits the access of sequence specific DNA binding factors to DNA. In cells, DNA methylation is preferentially occuring in the linker region of nucleosomes, suggesting a structural impact of chromatin on DNA methylation. These observations raise the question whether DNA methyltransferases are capable to recognize the nucleosomal substrates and to modify the packaged DNA. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of nucleosome binding and nucleosomal DNA methylation by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Our binding studies show that Dnmt1 has a DNA length sensing activity, binding cooperatively to DNA, and requiring a minimal DNA length of 20 bp. Dnmt1 needs linker DNA to bind to nucleosomes and most efficiently recognizes nucleosomes with symmetric DNA linkers. Footprinting experiments reveal that Dnmt1 binds to both DNA linkers exiting the nucleosome core. The binding pattern correlates with the efficient methylation of DNA linkers. However, the enzyme lacks the ability to methylate nucleosomal CpG sites on mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, unless chromatin remodeling enzymes create a dynamic chromatin state. In addition, our results show that Dnmt1 functionally interacts with specific chromatin remodeling enzymes to enable complete methylation of hemi-methylated DNA in chromatin. PMID:26496704

  13. Identification of DNA-binding and protein-binding proteins using enhanced graph wavelet features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Zhou, Weiqiang; Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between biomolecules play an essential role in various biological processes. For predicting DNA-binding or protein-binding proteins, many machine-learning-based techniques have used various types of features to represent the interface of the complexes, but they only deal with the properties of a single atom in the interface and do not take into account the information of neighborhood atoms directly. This paper proposes a new feature representation method for biomolecular interfaces based on the theory of graph wavelet. The enhanced graph wavelet features (EGWF) provides an effective way to characterize interface feature through adding physicochemical features and exploiting a graph wavelet formulation. Particularly, graph wavelet condenses the information around the center atom, and thus enhances the discrimination of features of biomolecule binding proteins in the feature space. Experiment results show that EGWF performs effectively for predicting DNA-binding and protein-binding proteins in terms of Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) score and the area value under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). PMID:24334394

  14. Sequence-selective metal ion binding to DNA oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Frøystein, N A; Davis, J T; Reid, B R; Sletten, E

    1993-07-01

    Metal ion titrations of several DNA oligonucleotides, 10 dodecamers and one decamer have been monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy in order to elucidate metal ion binding patterns. Also, the effects of paramagnetic impurities on resonance linewidths and NOESY cross-peak intensities have been reversed by EDTA back-titration experiments. 1H 1D NMR spectra were recorded after successive additions of aliquots of different metal salts to oligonucleotide samples. Paramagnetic manganese(II) salts were used in most cases, but a few samples were also titrated with diamagnetic zinc(II). From this study, we conclude that there exists a sequence-selective metal ion binding pattern. The metal ions bind predominantly to 5'-G in the contexts 5'-GC and 5'-GA. The order of preference seems to be GG > or = GA > GT > > GC. No evidence of metal ion binding to 5'-G in 5'-GC steps or to non-G residues was found. The H6 or H8 resonances on preceding (5'-) bases were affected by the adjacent bound paramagnetic metal ion, but no effect was observed on the protons of the succeeding (3'-) base. The metal binding site in the duplexes is most likely at G-N7, as manifested by the pronounced paramagnetic line broadening or diamagnetic shift of the G-H8 signal. This sequence selectivity may be qualitatively explained by a sequence-dependent variation in the molecular electrostatic potentials of guanine residues (MEPs) along the oligonucleotide chain. PMID:8363924

  15. Dynamic binding of replication protein a is required for DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Elcock, Adrian H.; Spies, Maria; Wold, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA–DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions. PMID:27131385

  16. A robust assay to measure DNA topology-dependent protein binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Tamara R.; Solà, Maria; Holt, Ian J.; Neuman, Keir C.

    2015-01-01

    DNA structure and topology pervasively influence aspects of DNA metabolism including replication, transcription and segregation. However, the effects of DNA topology on DNA-protein interactions have not been systematically explored due to limitations of standard affinity assays. We developed a method to measure protein binding affinity dependence on the topology (topological linking number) of supercoiled DNA. A defined range of DNA topoisomers at equilibrium with a DNA binding protein is separated into free and protein-bound DNA populations using standard nitrocellulose filter binding techniques. Electrophoretic separation and quantification of bound and free topoisomers combined with a simple normalization procedure provide the relative affinity of the protein for the DNA as a function of linking number. Employing this assay we measured topology-dependent DNA binding of a helicase, a type IB topoisomerase, a type IIA topoisomerase, a non-specific mitochondrial DNA binding protein and a type II restriction endonuclease. Most of the proteins preferentially bind negatively supercoiled DNA but the details of the topology-dependent affinity differ among proteins in ways that expose differences in their interactions with DNA. The topology-dependent binding assay provides a robust and easily implemented method to probe topological influences on DNA-protein interactions for a wide range of DNA binding proteins. PMID:25552413

  17. Dynamic binding of replication protein a is required for DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ran; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Elcock, Adrian H; Spies, Maria; Wold, Marc S

    2016-07-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA-DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions. PMID:27131385

  18. Phase Behavior of DNA in the Presence of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Le Treut, Guillaume; Képès, François; Orland, Henri

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the thermodynamical equilibrium of DNA chains interacting with a solution of nonspecific binding proteins, we implemented a Flory-Huggins free energy model. We explored the dependence on DNA and protein concentrations of the DNA collapse. For physiologically relevant values of the DNA-protein affinity, this collapse gives rise to a biphasic regime with a dense and a dilute phase; the corresponding phase diagram was computed. Using an approach based on Hamiltonian paths, we show that the dense phase has either a molten globule or a crystalline structure, depending on the DNA bending rigidity, which is influenced by the ionic strength. These results are valid at the thermodynamical equilibrium and therefore should be consistent with many biological processes, whose characteristic timescales range typically from 1 ms to 10 s. Our model may thus be applied to biological phenomena that involve DNA-binding proteins, such as DNA condensation with crystalline order, which occurs in some bacteria to protect their chromosome from detrimental factors; or transcription initiation, which occurs in clusters called transcription factories that are reminiscent of the dense phase characterized in this study. PMID:26745409

  19. A Novel DNA Binding Mechanism for maf Basic Region-Leucine Zipper Factors Inferred from a MafA-DNA Complex Structure and Binding Specificities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xun; Guanga, Gerald P; Wan, Cheng; Rose, Robert B

    2012-11-13

    MafA is a proto-oncoprotein and is critical for insulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. Maf proteins belong to the AP1 superfamily of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Residues in the basic helix and an ancillary N-terminal domain, the Extended Homology Region (EHR), endow maf proteins with unique DNA binding properties: binding a 13 bp consensus site consisting of a core AP1 site (TGACTCA) flanked by TGC sequences and binding DNA stably as monomers. To further characterize maf DNA binding, we determined the structure of a MafA–DNA complex. MafA forms base-specific hydrogen bonds with the flanking G–5C–4 and central C0/G0 bases, but not with the core-TGA bases. However, in vitro binding studies utilizing a pulse–chase electrophoretic mobility shift assay protocol revealed that mutating either the core-TGA or flanking-TGC bases dramatically increases the binding off rate. Comparing the known maf structures, we propose that DNA binding specificity results from positioning the basic helix through unique phosphate contacts. The EHR does not contact DNA directly but stabilizes DNA binding by contacting the basic helix. Collectively, these results suggest a novel multistep DNA binding process involving a conformational change from contacting the core-TGA to contacting the flanking-TGC bases.

  20. N-ethylmaleimide inhibition of the DNA-binding activity of the herpes simplex virus type 1 major DNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyechan, W.T. )

    1988-03-01

    The major herpes simplex virus DNA-binding protein, designated ICP8, binds tightly to single-stranded DNA and is required for replication of viral DNA. The sensitivity of the DNA-binding activity of ICP8 to the action of the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide has been examined by using nitrocellulose filter-binding and agarose gel electrophoresis assays. Incubation of ICP8 with N-ethylmaleimide results in a rapid loss of DNA-binding activity. Preincubation of ICP8 with single-stranded DNA markedly inhibits this loss of binding activity. These results imply that a free sulfhydryl group is involved in the interaction of ICP8 with single-stranded DNA and that this sulfhydryl group becomes less accessible to the environment upon binding. Agarose gel electrophoretic analysis of the binding interaction in the presence and absence of N-ethylmaleimide indicates that the cooperative binding exhibited by ICP8 is lost upon treatment with this reagent but that some residual noncooperative binding may remain. This last result was confirmed by equilibrium dialysis experiments with the {sup 32}P-labeled oligonucleotide dT{sub 10} and native and N-ethylmaleimide-treated ICP8.

  1. Binding of transcription factor GabR to DNA requires recognition of DNA shape at a location distinct from its cognate binding site.

    PubMed

    Al-Zyoud, Walid A; Hynson, Robert M G; Ganuelas, Lorraine A; Coster, Adelle C F; Duff, Anthony P; Baker, Matthew A B; Stewart, Alastair G; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Ho, Joshua W K; Gaus, Katharina; Liu, Dali; Lee, Lawrence K; Böcking, Till

    2016-02-18

    Mechanisms for transcription factor recognition of specific DNA base sequences are well characterized and recent studies demonstrate that the shape of these cognate binding sites is also important. Here, we uncover a new mechanism where the transcription factor GabR simultaneously recognizes two cognate binding sites and the shape of a 29 bp DNA sequence that bridges these sites. Small-angle X-ray scattering and multi-angle laser light scattering are consistent with a model where the DNA undergoes a conformational change to bend around GabR during binding. In silico predictions suggest that the bridging DNA sequence is likely to be bendable in one direction and kinetic analysis of mutant DNA sequences with biolayer interferometry, allowed the independent quantification of the relative contribution of DNA base and shape recognition in the GabR-DNA interaction. These indicate that the two cognate binding sites as well as the bendability of the DNA sequence in between these sites are required to form a stable complex. The mechanism of GabR-DNA interaction provides an example where the correct shape of DNA, at a clearly distinct location from the cognate binding site, is required for transcription factor binding and has implications for bioinformatics searches for novel binding sites. PMID:26681693

  2. Binding of transcription factor GabR to DNA requires recognition of DNA shape at a location distinct from its cognate binding site

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zyoud, Walid A.; Hynson, Robert MG.; Ganuelas, Lorraine A.; Coster, Adelle CF.; Duff, Anthony P.; Baker, Matthew AB.; Stewart, Alastair G.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Ho, Joshua WK.; Gaus, Katharina; Liu, Dali; Lee, Lawrence K.; Böcking, Till

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms for transcription factor recognition of specific DNA base sequences are well characterized and recent studies demonstrate that the shape of these cognate binding sites is also important. Here, we uncover a new mechanism where the transcription factor GabR simultaneously recognizes two cognate binding sites and the shape of a 29 bp DNA sequence that bridges these sites. Small-angle X-ray scattering and multi-angle laser light scattering are consistent with a model where the DNA undergoes a conformational change to bend around GabR during binding. In silico predictions suggest that the bridging DNA sequence is likely to be bendable in one direction and kinetic analysis of mutant DNA sequences with biolayer interferometry, allowed the independent quantification of the relative contribution of DNA base and shape recognition in the GabR–DNA interaction. These indicate that the two cognate binding sites as well as the bendability of the DNA sequence in between these sites are required to form a stable complex. The mechanism of GabR–DNA interaction provides an example where the correct shape of DNA, at a clearly distinct location from the cognate binding site, is required for transcription factor binding and has implications for bioinformatics searches for novel binding sites. PMID:26681693

  3. Characterization of DNA recognition by the human UV-damaged DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Masutani, C; Mizukoshi, T; Kondo, J; Hanaoka, F; Iwai, S

    1999-07-01

    The UV-damaged DNA-binding (UV-DDB) protein is the major factor that binds DNA containing damage caused by UV radiation in mammalian cells. We have investigated the DNA recognition by this protein in vitro, using synthetic oligonucleotide duplexes and the protein purified from a HeLa cell extract. When a 32P-labeled 30-mer duplex containing the (6-4) photoproduct at a single site was used as a probe, only a single complex was detected in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. It was demonstrated by Western blotting that both of the subunits (p48 and p127) were present in this complex. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using various duplexes showed that the UV-DDB protein formed a specific, high affinity complex with the duplex containing an abasic site analog, in addition to the (6-4) photoproduct. By circular permutation analyses, these DNA duplexes were found to be bent at angles of 54 degrees and 57 degrees in the complexes with this protein. From the previously reported NMR studies and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments in the present study, it can be concluded that the UV-DDB protein binds DNA that can be bent easily at the above angle. PMID:10391953

  4. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-01

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner. PMID:27198220

  5. A designed DNA binding motif that recognizes extended sites and spans two adjacent major grooves†

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jéssica; Mosquera, Jesús; García-Fandiño, Rebeca; Vázquez, M. Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We report the rational design of a DNA-binding peptide construct composed of the DNA-contacting regions of two transcription factors (GCN4 and GAGA) linked through an AT-hook DNA anchor. The resulting chimera, which represents a new, non-natural DNA binding motif, binds with high affinity and selectivity to a long composite sequence of 13 base pairs (TCAT-AATT-GAGAG). PMID:27252825

  6. Multiple DNA Binding Proteins Contribute to Timing of Chromosome Replication in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. DnaA associated with either ATP or ADP binds to a set of strong DnaA binding sites in oriC, whereas only DnaA(ATP) is capable of binding additional and weaker sites to promote initiation. Additional DNA binding proteins act to ensure that initiation occurs timely by affecting either the cellular mass at which DNA replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on oriC for modulation of its activity but also at additional regulatory sites to control the nucleotide bound status of DnaA. Here we review the contribution of key DNA binding proteins to the tight regulation of chromosome replication in E. coli cells. PMID:27446932

  7. Multiple DNA Binding Proteins Contribute to Timing of Chromosome Replication in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. DnaA associated with either ATP or ADP binds to a set of strong DnaA binding sites in oriC, whereas only DnaAATP is capable of binding additional and weaker sites to promote initiation. Additional DNA binding proteins act to ensure that initiation occurs timely by affecting either the cellular mass at which DNA replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on oriC for modulation of its activity but also at additional regulatory sites to control the nucleotide bound status of DnaA. Here we review the contribution of key DNA binding proteins to the tight regulation of chromosome replication in E. coli cells. PMID:27446932

  8. Specific binding of the adenovirus terminal protein precursor-DNA polymerase complex to the origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Rijnders, A W; van Bergen, B G; van der Vliet, P C; Sussenbach, J S

    1983-01-01

    Initiation of adenovirus DNA replication is dependent on a complex of the precursor of the terminal protein and the adenovirus-coded DNA polymerase (pTP-pol complex). This complex catalyzes the formation of a covalent linkage between dCMP and pTP in the presence of a functional origin of DNA replication residing in the terminal nucleotide sequence of adenovirus DNA. We have purified the pTP-pol complex of adenovirus type 5 and studied its binding to double-stranded DNA. Using DNA-cellulose chromatography it could be shown that the pTP-pol complex has a higher affinity for adenovirus DNA than for calf thymus or pBR322 DNA. From the differential binding of the pTP-pol complex to plasmids containing adenovirus terminal sequences with different deletions, it has been concluded that a sequence of 14 nucleotide pairs at positions 9-22 plays a crucial role in the binding of pTP-pol to adenovirus DNA. This region is conserved in the DNA's of all human adenovirus serotypes and is obviously an important structural element of the adenovirus origin of DNA replication. Comparative binding studies with adenovirus DNA polymerase and pTP-pol indicated that pTP is responsible for the binding. The nature of the binding of pTP-pol to the conserved sequence will be discussed. Images PMID:6672772

  9. Single-stranded-DNA-binding protein-dependent DNA unwinding of the yeast ARS1 region.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, K; Ishimi, Y

    1994-01-01

    DNA unwinding of autonomously replicating sequence 1 (ARS1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. When a negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA containing ARS1 was digested with single-strand-specific mung bean nuclease, a discrete region in the vector DNA was preferentially digested. The regions containing the core consensus A domain and the 3'-flanking B domain of ARS1 were weakly digested. When the DNA was incubated with the multisubunit single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB, also called RPA [replication protein A]) from human and yeast cells prior to mung bean nuclease digestion, the cleavage in the A and B domains was greatly increased. Furthermore, a region corresponding to the 5'-flanking C domain of ARS1 was digested. These results indicate that three domains of ARS1, each of which is important for replication in yeast cells, closely correspond to the regions where the DNA duplex is easily unwound by torsional stress. SSB may stimulate the unwinding of the ARS1 region by its preferential binding to the destabilized three domains. Mung bean nuclease digestion of the substitution mutants with mutations of ARS1 (Y. Marahrens and B. Stillman, Science 255:817-823, 1992) revealed that the sequences in the B2 and A elements are responsible for the unwinding of the B domain and the region containing the A domain, respectively. Images PMID:8007967

  10. A Comparative Structure/Function Analysis of Two Type IV Pilin DNA Receptors Defines a Novel Mode of DNA Binding.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jamie-Lee; Xu, Yingqi; Ward, Philip N; Lea, Susan M; Matthews, Stephen J; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    DNA transformation is a widespread process allowing bacteria to capture free DNA by using filamentous nano-machines composed of type IV pilins. These proteins can act as DNA receptors as demonstrated by the finding that Neisseria meningitidis ComP minor pilin has intrinsic DNA-binding ability. ComP binds DNA better when it contains the DNA-uptake sequence (DUS) motif abundant in this species genome, playing a role in its trademark ability to selectively take up its own DNA. Here, we report high-resolution structures for meningococcal ComP and Neisseria subflava ComPsub, which recognize different DUS motifs. We show that they are structurally identical type IV pilins that pack readily into filament models and display a unique DD region delimited by two disulfide bonds. Functional analysis of ComPsub defines a new mode of DNA binding involving the DD region, adapted for exported DNA receptors. PMID:27161979

  11. High-throughput evaluation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-binding sites selected via chromatin immunoprecipitation-based screening in Hepa-1c1c7 cells stimulated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Kinehara, Masaki; Fukuda, Itsuko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2008-12-01

    Upon binding to ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is activated to form a heterodimer with an aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) and binds to DNA. It has been shown that the binding of AhR to DNA depends on the dioxin response element (DRE) and controls xenobiotic-response genes. AhR-binding DNA fragments from mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells stimulated with TCDD were once enriched in a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) DNA library and screened through a high-throughput southwestern chemistry-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SW-ELISA). After screening 1700 fragments, the ChIP-SW-ELISA screening strategy allowed us to isolate 77 fragments tightly interacting with AhR in the presence of TCDD. Only 39 of the 77 fragments appeared to contain a typical DRE, indicating that in some cases the DRE was dispensable for AhR-binding, while 75 fragments were located within promoter-distal regions. Genomic mapping of the 77 fragments enabled us to estimate 121 potential AhR targets including known targets such as Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1, but only a limited number exhibited an altered expression dependent on TCDD. This study revealed the fact that TCDD-activated AhR frequently binds to promoter-distal regions even without a DRE and is not always involved in transcriptional regulation, suggesting that within the genome DNA-binding of AhR could take place often in many regions without cis-regulatory elements and might not be a key determinant to establish its regulatory function. PMID:19282623

  12. Dynamical DNA accessibility induced by chromatin remodeling and protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montel, F.; Faivre-Moskalenko, C.; Castelnovo, M.

    2014-11-01

    Chromatin remodeling factors are enzymes being able to alter locally chromatin structure at the nucleosomal level and they actively participate in the regulation of gene expression. Using simple rules for individual nucleosome motion induced by a remodeling factor, we designed simulations of the remodeling of oligomeric chromatin, in order to address quantitatively collective effects in DNA accessibility upon nucleosome mobilization. Our results suggest that accessibility profiles are inhomogeneous thanks to borders effects like protein binding. Remarkably, we show that the accessibility lifetime of DNA sequence is roughly doubled in the vicinity of borders as compared to its value in bulk regions far from the borders. These results are quantitatively interpreted as resulting from the confined diffusion of a large nucleosome depleted region.

  13. Novel DNA-binding element within the C-terminal extension of the nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Jakób, Michał; Kołodziejczyk, Robert; Orłowski, Marek; Krzywda, Szymon; Kowalska, Agnieszka; Dutko-Gwóźdź, Joanna; Gwóźdź, Tomasz; Kochman, Marian; Jaskólski, Mariusz; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The heterodimer of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (Usp), members of the nuclear receptors superfamily, is considered as the functional receptor for ecdysteroids initiating molting and metamorphosis in insects. Here we report the 1.95 Å structure of the complex formed by the DNA-binding domains (DBDs) the EcR and the Usp, bound to the natural pseudopalindromic response element. Comparison of the structure with that obtained previously, using an idealized response element, shows how the EcRDBD, which has been previously reported to possess extraordinary flexibility, accommodates DNA-induced structural changes. Part of the C-terminal extension (CTE) of the EcRDBD folds into an α-helix whose location in the minor groove does not match any of the locations previously observed for nuclear receptors. Mutational analyses suggest that the α-helix is a component of EcR-box, a novel element indispensable for DNA-binding and located within the nuclear receptor CTE. This element seems to be a general feature of all known EcRs. PMID:17426125

  14. Unraveling multiple binding modes of acridine orange to DNA using a multispectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Krishnamurthy, Bhavana; Pal, Haridas

    2016-09-21

    The interaction of acridine orange (AOH(+)) with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) under different dye-DNA conditions has been investigated in detail using multispectroscopic techniques, unraveling a number of hitherto unexplored intricacies of dye-DNA binding. The observed results intriguingly show contrasting binding features when low (2.4 μM) and significantly high (23 μM) dye concentrations are used. It is conclusively inferred from absorption, steady-state fluorescence, circular dichroism, fluorescence decay and anisotropy decay studies that at low [DNA] to [dye] ratio, especially with higher dye concentration, dimeric AOH(+) predominantly binds externally to DNA surfaces through electrostatic interactions. At sufficiently high [DNA] to [dye] ratios, however, the interaction intriguingly changes to monomeric AOH(+) bound to DNA, predominantly in the intercalative mode between DNA base pairs, with partly an electrostatic binding on DNA surfaces. With very low initial dye concentration, monomeric (AOH(+)) mostly binds to DNA through intercalative and electrostatic modes for most DNA to dye ratios. The present study demonstrates a systematic correlation of the striking changes in the photophysical properties of the dye upon multimode binding with DNA. The observed results are of great significance in understanding the fundamental insights of dye/drug binding to DNA hosts, of use in the design of effective therapeutic agents. PMID:27545984

  15. Crystal structure of DnaT84–153-dT10 ssDNA complex reveals a novel single-stranded DNA binding mode

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Chen, Peng; Wang, Xuejuan; Cai, Gang; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    DnaT is a primosomal protein that is required for the stalled replication fork restart in Escherichia coli. As an adapter, DnaT mediates the PriA-PriB-ssDNA ternary complex and the DnaB/C complex. However, the fundamental function of DnaT during PriA-dependent primosome assembly is still a black box. Here, we report the 2.83 Å DnaT84–153-dT10 ssDNA complex structure, which reveals a novel three-helix bundle single-stranded DNA binding mode. Based on binding assays and negative-staining electron microscopy results, we found that DnaT can bind to phiX 174 ssDNA to form nucleoprotein filaments for the first time, which indicates that DnaT might function as a scaffold protein during the PriA-dependent primosome assembly. In combination with biochemical analysis, we propose a cooperative mechanism for the binding of DnaT to ssDNA and a possible model for the assembly of PriA-PriB-ssDNA-DnaT complex that sheds light on the function of DnaT during the primosome assembly and stalled replication fork restart. This report presents the first structure of the DnaT C-terminal complex with ssDNA and a novel model that explains the interactions between the three-helix bundle and ssDNA. PMID:25053836

  16. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide experiments in different eukaryotic genomes provide an unprecedented view of transcription factor (TF) binding locations and of nucleosome occupancy. These experiments revealed that a large fraction of TF binding events occur in regions where only a small number of specific TF binding sites (TFBSs) have been detected. Furthermore, in vitro protein-DNA binding measurements performed for hundreds of TFs indicate that TFs are bound with wide range of affinities to different DNA sequences that lack known consensus motifs. These observations have thus challenged the classical picture of specific protein-DNA binding and strongly suggest the existence of additional recognition mechanisms that affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We have previously demonstrated that repetitive DNA sequence elements characterized by certain symmetries statistically affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We call this binding mechanism nonconsensus protein-DNA binding in order to emphasize the point that specific consensus TFBSs do not contribute to this effect. In this paper, using the simple statistical mechanics model developed previously, we calculate the nonconsensus protein-DNA binding free energy for the entire C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes. Using the available chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) results on TF-DNA binding preferences for ~100 TFs, we show that DNA sequences characterized by low predicted free energy of nonconsensus binding have statistically higher experimental TF occupancy and lower nucleosome occupancy than sequences characterized by high free energy of nonconsensus binding. This is in agreement with our previous analysis performed for the yeast genome. We suggest therefore that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding assists the formation of nucleosome-free regions, as TFs outcompete nucleosomes at genomic locations with enhanced nonconsensus binding. In addition, here we perform a new, large-scale analysis using

  17. Structural identification of DnaK binding sites within bovine and sheep bactenecin Bac7.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Michael; Kieslich, Bjorn; Berthold, Nicole; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Strater, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial resistance against common antibiotics is an increasing health problem. New pharmaceuticals for the treatment of infections caused by resistant pathogens are needed. Small proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) from insects are known to bind intracellularly to the conventional substrate binding cleft of the E. coli Hsp70 chaperone DnaK. Furthermore, bactenecins from mammals, members of the cathelicidin family, also contain potential DnaK binding sites. Crystal structures of bovine and sheep Bac7 in complex with the DnaK substrate binding domain show that the peptides bind in the forward binding mode with a leucine positioned in the central hydrophobic pocket. In most structures, proline and arginine residues preceding leucine occupy the hydrophobic DnaK binding sites -1 and -2. Within bovine Bac7, four potential DnaK binding sites were identified. PMID:24164259

  18. Optical Tweezers Experiments Resolve Distinct Modes of DNA-Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Micah J.; Williams, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Optical tweezers are ideally suited to perform force microscopy experiments that isolate a single biomolecule, which then provides multiple binding sites for ligands. The captured complex may be subjected to a spectrum of forces, inhibiting or facilitating ligand activity. In the following experiments, we utilize optical tweezers to characterize and quantify DNA binding of various ligands. High Mobility Group Type B (HMGB) proteins, which bind to double-stranded DNA, are shown to serve the dual purpose of stabilizing and enhancing the flexibility of double stranded DNA. Unusual intercalating ligands are observed to thread into and lengthen the double-stranded structure. Proteins binding to both double- and single-stranded DNA, such as the alpha polymerase subunit of E. coli Pol III, are characterized and the subdomains containing the distinct sites responsible for binding are isolated. Finally, DNA binding of bacteriophage T4 and T7 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins are measured for a range of salt concentrations, illustrating a binding model for proteins that slide along double-stranded DNA, ultimately binding tightly to ssDNA. These recently developed methods quantify both the binding activity of the ligand as well as the mode of binding. PMID:19173290

  19. Methylated DNA-binding protein is present in various mammalian cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Supakar, P.C.; Weist, D.; Zhang, D.; Inamdar, N.; Zhang, Xianyang; Khan, R.; Ehrlich, M. ); Ehrlich, K.C. )

    1988-08-25

    A DNA-binding protein from human placenta, methylated DNA-binding protein (MDBP), binds to certain DNA sequences only when they contain 5-methylcytosine (m{sup 5}C) residues at specific positions. The authors found a very similar DNA-binding activity in nuclear extracts of rat tissues, calf thymus, human embryonal carcinoma cells, HeLa cells, and mouse LTK cells. Like human placental MDBP, the analogous DNA-binding proteins from the above mammalian cell lines formed a number of different low-electrophoretic-mobility complexes with a 14-bp MDBP-specific oligonucleotide duplex. All of these complexes exhibited the same DNA methylation specificity and DNA sequence specificity. Although MDBP activity was found in various mammalian cell types, it was not detected in extracts of cultured mosquito cells and so may be associated only with cells with vertebrate-type DNA methylation.

  20. The impact of DNA intercalators on DNA and DNA-processing enzymes elucidated through force-dependent binding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Biebricher, Andreas S.; Heller, Iddo; Roijmans, Roel F. H.; Hoekstra, Tjalle P.; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA intercalators are widely used as fluorescent probes to visualize DNA and DNA transactions in vivo and in vitro. It is well known that they perturb DNA structure and stability, which can in turn influence DNA-processing by proteins. Here we elucidate this perturbation by combining single-dye fluorescence microscopy with force spectroscopy and measuring the kinetics of DNA intercalation by the mono- and bis-intercalating cyanine dyes SYTOX Orange, SYTOX Green, SYBR Gold, YO-PRO-1, YOYO-1 and POPO-3. We show that their DNA-binding affinity is mainly governed by a strongly tension-dependent dissociation rate. These rates can be tuned over a range of seven orders of magnitude by changing DNA tension, intercalating species and ionic strength. We show that optimizing these rates minimizes the impact of intercalators on strand separation and enzymatic activity. These new insights provide handles for the improved use of intercalators as DNA probes with minimal perturbation and maximal efficacy. PMID:26084388

  1. Statistical analysis of structural determinants for protein-DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Corona, Rosario I; Guo, Jun-Tao

    2016-08-01

    DNA-binding proteins play critical roles in biological processes including gene expression, DNA packaging and DNA repair. They bind to DNA target sequences with different degrees of binding specificity, ranging from highly specific (HS) to nonspecific (NS). Alterations of DNA-binding specificity, due to either genetic variation or somatic mutations, can lead to various diseases. In this study, a comparative analysis of protein-DNA complex structures was carried out to investigate the structural features that contribute to binding specificity. Protein-DNA complexes were grouped into three general classes based on degrees of binding specificity: HS, multispecific (MS), and NS. Our results show a clear trend of structural features among the three classes, including amino acid binding propensities, simple and complex hydrogen bonds, major/minor groove and base contacts, and DNA shape. We found that aspartate is enriched in HS DNA binding proteins and predominately binds to a cytosine through a single hydrogen bond or two consecutive cytosines through bidentate hydrogen bonds. Aromatic residues, histidine and tyrosine, are highly enriched in the HS and MS groups and may contribute to specific binding through different mechanisms. To further investigate the role of protein flexibility in specific protein-DNA recognition, we analyzed the conformational changes between the bound and unbound states of DNA-binding proteins and structural variations. The results indicate that HS and MS DNA-binding domains have larger conformational changes upon DNA-binding and larger degree of flexibility in both bound and unbound states. Proteins 2016; 84:1147-1161. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27147539

  2. DNA binding properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAT1 gene product.

    PubMed

    Reardon, B J; Gordon, D; Ballard, M J; Winter, E

    1995-12-11

    The DAT1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA binding protein (Dat1p) that specifically recognizes the minor groove of non-alternating oligo(A).oligo(T) tracts. Sequence-specific recognition requires arginine residues found within three perfectly repeated pentads (G-R-K-P-G) of the Dat1p DNA binding domain [Reardon, B. J., Winters, R. S., Gordon, D., and Winter, E. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 11327-1131]. This report describes a rapid and simple method for purifying the Dat1p DNA binding domain and the biochemical characterization of its interaction with oligo(A).oligo(T) tracts. Oligonucleotide binding experiments and the characterization of yeast genomic Dat1p binding sites show that Dat1p specifically binds to any 11 base sequence in which 10 bases conform to an oligo(A).oligo(T) tract. Binding studies of different sized Dat1p derivatives show that the Dat1p DNA binding domain can function as a monomer. Competition DNA binding assays using poly(I).poly(C), demonstrate that the minor groove oligo(A).oligo(T) constituents are not sufficient for high specificity DNA binding. These data constrain the possible models for Dat1p/oligo(A).oligo(T) complexes, suggest that the DNA binding domain is in an extended structure when complexed to its cognate DNA, and show that Dat1p binding sites are more prevalent than previously thought. PMID:8532535

  3. Mapping the interactions of the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4 (gp32) with DNA lattices at single nucleotide resolution: gp32 monomer binding.

    PubMed

    Jose, Davis; Weitzel, Steven E; Baase, Walter A; von Hippel, Peter H

    2015-10-30

    Combining biophysical measurements on T4 bacteriophage replication complexes with detailed structural information can illuminate the molecular mechanisms of these 'macromolecular machines'. Here we use the low energy circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescent properties of site-specifically introduced base analogues to map and quantify the equilibrium binding interactions of short (8 nts) ssDNA oligomers with gp32 monomers at single nucleotide resolution. We show that single gp32 molecules interact most directly and specifically near the 3'-end of these ssDNA oligomers, thus defining the polarity of gp32 binding with respect to the ssDNA lattice, and that only 2-3 nts are directly involved in this tight binding interaction. The loss of exciton coupling in the CD spectra of dimer 2-AP (2-aminopurine) probes at various positions in the ssDNA constructs, together with increases in fluorescence intensity, suggest that gp32 binding directly extends the sugar-phosphate backbone of this ssDNA oligomer, particularly at the 3'-end and facilitates base unstacking along the entire 8-mer lattice. These results provide a model (and 'DNA map') for the isolated gp32 binding to ssDNA targets, which serves as the nucleation step for the cooperative binding that occurs at transiently exposed ssDNA sequences within the functioning T4 DNA replication complex. PMID:26275775

  4. Functional characterization of the Escherichia coli Fis-DNA binding sequence

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongping; Feldman-Cohen, Leah S.; Osuna, Robert

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The Escherichia coli protein Fis is remarkable for its ability to interact specifically with DNA sites of highly variable sequences. The mechanism of this sequence-flexible DNA recognition is not well understood. In a previous study, we examined the contributions of Fis residues to high-affinity binding at different DNA sequences using alanine-scanning mutagenesis and identified several key residues for Fis-DNA recognition. In this work, we investigated the contributions of the 15 bp core Fis binding sequence and its flanking regions to the Fis-DNA interactions. Systematic base pair replacements made in both half sites of a palindromic Fis binding sequence were examined for their effects on the relative Fis binding affinity. Missing contact assays were also used to examine the effects of base removal within the core binding site and its flanking regions on the Fis-DNA binding affinity. The results revealed that 1) the -7G and +3Y bases in both DNA strands (relative to the central position of the core binding site) are major determinants for high-affinity binding, 2) the C5 methyl group of thymine, when present at the +4 position, strongly hinders Fis binding, and 3) an AT-rich sequence in the central and flanking DNA regions facilitate Fis-DNA interactions by altering the DNA structure and increasing local DNA flexibility. We infer that the degeneracy of specific Fis binding sites results from the numerous base pair combinations that are possible at the non-critical DNA positions from -6 to -4, -2 to +2, and +4 to +6 with only moderate penalties on the binding affinity, the roughly similar contributions of -3A or G and +3T or C to the binding affinity, and the minimal requirement of three of the four critical base pairs to achieve considerably high binding affinities. PMID:18178221

  5. R248Q mutation--Beyond p53-DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jeremy W K; Lama, Dilraj; Lukman, Suryani; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra S; Sim, Adelene Y L

    2015-12-01

    R248 in the DNA binding domain (DBD) of p53 interacts directly with the minor groove of DNA. Earlier nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies indicated that the R248Q mutation resulted in conformation changes in parts of DBD far from the mutation site. However, how information propagates from the mutation site to the rest of the DBD is still not well understood. We performed a series of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to dissect sterics and charge effects of R248 on p53-DBD conformation: (i) wild-type p53 DBD; (ii) p53 DBD with an electrically neutral arginine side-chain; (iii) p53 DBD with R248A; (iv) p53 DBD with R248W; and (v) p53 DBD with R248Q. Our results agree well with experimental observations of global conformational changes induced by the R248Q mutation. Our simulations suggest that both charge- and sterics are important in the dynamics of the loop (L3) where the mutation resides. We show that helix 2 (H2) dynamics is altered as a result of a change in the hydrogen bonding partner of D281. In turn, neighboring L1 dynamics is altered: in mutants, L1 predominantly adopts the recessed conformation and is unable to interact with the major groove of DNA. We focused our attention the R248Q mutant that is commonly found in a wide range of cancer and observed changes at the zinc-binding pocket that might account for the dominant negative effects of R248Q. Furthermore, in our simulations, the S6/S7 turn was more frequently solvent exposed in R248Q, suggesting that there is a greater tendency of R248Q to partially unfold and possibly lead to an increased aggregation propensity. Finally, based on the observations made in our simulations, we propose strategies for the rescue of R248Q mutants. PMID:26442703

  6. Quinolone-DNA Interaction: Sequence-Dependent Binding to Single-Stranded DNA Reflects the Interaction within the Gyrase-DNA Complex

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Christian G.; Barnard, Faye M.; Maxwell, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction of quinolones with DNA by a number of methods to establish whether a particular binding mode correlates with quinolone potency. The specificities of the quinolone-mediated DNA cleavage reaction of DNA gyrase were compared for a number of quinolones. Two patterns that depended on the potency of the quinolone were identified. Binding to plasmid DNA was examined by measuring the unwinding of pBR322 by quinolones; no correlation with quinolone potency was observed. Quinolone binding to short DNA oligonucleotides was measured by surface plasmon resonance. The quinolones bound to both single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides in an Mg2+-dependent manner. Quinolones bound to single-stranded DNA with a higher affinity, and the binding exhibited sequence dependence; binding to double-stranded DNA was sequence independent. The variations in binding in the presence of metal ions showed that Mg2+ promoted tighter, more specific binding to single-stranded DNA than softer metal ions (Mn2+ and Cd2+). Single-stranded DNA binding by quinolones correlated with the in vitro quinolone potency, indicating that this mode of interaction may reflect the interaction of the quinolone with DNA in the context of the gyrase-DNA complex. PMID:12604512

  7. DNA Bending is Induced in an Enhancer by the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskaluk, Christopher; Bastia, Deepak

    1988-03-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 has been shown to encode a DNA-binding protein and to trans-activate the viral enhancer. We have localized the DNA-binding domain of the E2 protein to the carboxyl-terminal 126 amino acids of the E2 open reading frame. The DNA-binding domain has been expressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Gel retardation and DNase I ``footprinting'' on the bovine papillomavirus type 1 enhancer identify the sequence motif ACCN6GGT (in which N = any nucleotide) as the E2 binding site. Using electrophoretic methods we have shown that the DNA-binding domain changes conformation of the enhancer by inducing significant DNA bending.

  8. Structure-function analysis of the DNA binding domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ABF1.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, G; Kim, J; Rho, H M; Jung, G

    1995-01-01

    To localize the DNA binding domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ars binding factor 1 (ABF1), a multifunctional DNA binding protein, plasmid constructs carrying point mutations and internal deletions in the ABF1 gene were generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. Normal and mutant ABF1 proteins were purified by affinity chromatography and their DNA binding activities were analyzed. The substitution of His61, Cys66 and His67 respectively, located in the zinc finger motif in the N-terminal region (amino acids 40-91), eliminated the DNA binding activity of ABF1 protein. Point mutations in the middle region of ABF1, specifically at Leu353, Leu399, Tyr403, Gly404, Phe410 and Lys434, also eliminated or reduced DNA binding activity. However, the DNA binding activity of point mutants of Ser307, Ser496 and Glu649 was the same as that of wild-type ABF1 protein and deletion mutants of amino acids 200-265, between the zinc finger region and the middle region (residues 323-496) retained DNA binding activity. As a result, we confirmed that the DNA binding domain of ABF1 appears to be bipartite and another DNA binding motif, other than the zinc finger motif, is situated between amino acid residues 323 and 496. Images PMID:7659521

  9. A systematic survey of the Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA-binding landscape

    PubMed Central

    Persikov, Anton V.; Wetzel, Joshua L.; Rowland, Elizabeth F.; Oakes, Benjamin L.; Xu, Denise J.; Singh, Mona; Noyes, Marcus B.

    2015-01-01

    Cys2His2 zinc fingers (C2H2-ZFs) comprise the largest class of metazoan DNA-binding domains. Despite this domain's well-defined DNA-recognition interface, and its successful use in the design of chimeric proteins capable of targeting genomic regions of interest, much remains unknown about its DNA-binding landscape. To help bridge this gap in fundamental knowledge and to provide a resource for design-oriented applications, we screened large synthetic protein libraries to select binding C2H2-ZF domains for each possible three base pair target. The resulting data consist of >160 000 unique domain–DNA interactions and comprise the most comprehensive investigation of C2H2-ZF DNA-binding interactions to date. An integrated analysis of these independent screens yielded DNA-binding profiles for tens of thousands of domains and led to the successful design and prediction of C2H2-ZF DNA-binding specificities. Computational analyses uncovered important aspects of C2H2-ZF domain–DNA interactions, including the roles of within-finger context and domain position on base recognition. We observed the existence of numerous distinct binding strategies for each possible three base pair target and an apparent balance between affinity and specificity of binding. In sum, our comprehensive data help elucidate the complex binding landscape of C2H2-ZF domains and provide a foundation for efforts to determine, predict and engineer their DNA-binding specificities. PMID:25593323

  10. Locating the binding sites of antitumor drug tamoxifen and its metabolites with DNA.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Thomas, T J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2014-07-01

    We located the binding sites of antitumor drugs tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen with calf-thymus DNA. FTIR, CD, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to characterize the drug binding sites, binding constant and the effect of drug binding on DNA stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that tamoxifen and its metabolites bind DNA via hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with overall binding constants of K(tam-DNA)=3.5 (±0.2)×10⁴ M⁻¹, K(4-hydroxytam-DNA)=3.3 (±0.4) × 10⁴ M⁻¹ and K(endox)-DNA=2.8 (±0.8)×10⁴ M⁻¹. The number of binding sites occupied by drug is 1 (tamoxifen), 0.8 (4-hydroxitamoxifen) and 1.2 (endoxifen). Docking showed the participation of several nucleobases in drug-DNA complexes with the free binding energy of -3.85 (tamoxifen), -4.18 (4-hydroxtamoxifen) and -3.74 kcal/mol (endoxifen). The order of binding is 4-hydroxy-tamoxen>tamoxifen>endoxifen. Drug binding did not alter DNA conformation from B-family structure, while major biopolymer aggregation occurred at high drug concentrations. The drug binding mode is correlated with the mechanism of action of antitumor activity of tamoxifen and its metabolites. PMID:24682017

  11. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  12. Identification of DNA-binding proteins on human umbilical vein endothelial cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, T M; Frampton, G; Cameron, J S

    1993-01-01

    The binding of anti-DNA antibodies to the endothelial cell is mediated through DNA, which forms a bridge between the immunoglobulin and the plasma membrane. We have shown that 32P-labelled DNA bound to the plasma membrane of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by a saturable process, which could be competitively inhibited by non-radiolabelled DNA. In addition, DNA-binding was enhanced in HUVEC that had been treated with IL-1 alpha or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). DNA-binding proteins of mol. wt 46,000, 92,000, and 84,000 were identified by the binding of 32P-labelled DNA to plasma membrane proteins separated on SDS-PAGE. DNA-binding proteins of mol. wt 46,000 and 84,000 were also present in the cytosol and nucleus. Murine anti-DNA MoAb410 bound to a single band, at mol. wt 46,000, of plasma membrane protein, in the presence of DNA. Our results showed that DNA-binding proteins are present in different cellular fractions of endothelial cells. DNA-binding proteins on the cell membrane could participate in the in situ formation of immune deposits; and their presence in the cell nucleus suggests a potential role in the modulation of cell function. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8419070

  13. Characterization of How DNA Modifications Affect DNA Binding by C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Zhang, X.; Cheng, X.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about vertebrate DNA methylation and oxidation; however, much less is known about how modified cytosine residues within particular sequences are recognized. Among the known methylated DNA-binding domains, the Cys2-His2 zinc finger (ZnF) protein superfamily is the largest with hundreds of members, each containing tandem ZnFs ranging from 3 to >30 fingers. We have begun to biochemically and structurally characterize these ZnFs not only on their sequence specificity but also on their sensitivity to various DNA modifications. Rather than following published methods of refolding insoluble ZnF arrays, we have expressed and purified soluble forms of ZnFs, ranging in size from a tandem array of two to six ZnFs, from seven different proteins. We also describe a fluorescence polarization assay to measure ZnFs affinity with oligonucleotides containing various modifications and our approaches for cocrystallization of ZnFs with oligonucleotides. PMID:27372763

  14. BINDING OF CARCINOGENS TO DNA AND COVALENT ADDUCTS DNA DAMAGE - PAH, AROMATIC AMINES, NITRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS, AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA adducts are the covalent addition products resulting from binding of reactive chemical species to DNA bases. The cancer initiating role of DNA adducts is well-established, and is clearly reflected in the high cancer incidence observed in individuals with deficiencies in any o...

  15. Artificial zinc finger DNA binding domains: versatile tools for genome engineering and modulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mir A; Barrow, Joeva J; Shen, Yong; Haq, Md Imdadul; Bungert, Jörg

    2015-11-01

    Genome editing and alteration of gene expression by synthetic DNA binding activities gained a lot of momentum over the last decade. This is due to the development of new DNA binding molecules with enhanced binding specificity. The most commonly used DNA binding modules are zinc fingers (ZFs), TALE-domains, and the RNA component of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These binding modules are fused or linked to either nucleases that cut the DNA and induce DNA repair processes, or to protein domains that activate or repress transcription of genes close to the targeted site in the genome. This review focuses on the structure, design, and applications of ZF DNA binding domains (ZFDBDs). ZFDBDs are relatively small and have been shown to penetrate the cell membrane without additional tags suggesting that they could be delivered to cells without a DNA or RNA intermediate. Advanced algorithms that are based on extensive knowledge of the mode of ZF/DNA interactions are used to design the amino acid composition of ZFDBDs so that they bind to unique sites in the genome. Off-target binding has been a concern for all synthetic DNA binding molecules. Thus, increasing the specificity and affinity of ZFDBDs will have a significant impact on their use in analytical or therapeutic settings. PMID:25989233

  16. NonO enhances the association of many DNA-binding proteins to their targets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y S; Yang, M C; Tucker, P W; Capra, J D

    1997-06-15

    NonO is an unusual nucleic acid binding protein not only in that it binds both DNA and RNA but that it does so via functionally separable domains. Here we document that NonO enhances the binding of some (E47, OTF-1 and OTF-2) but not all (PEA3) conventional sequence-specific transcription factors to their recognition sites in artificial substrates as well as in an immunoglobulin VHpromoter. We also show that NonO induces the binding of the Ku complex to DNA ends. Ku has no known DNA sequence specificity. These enhancement of binding effects are NonO concentration dependent. Using the E box activity of E47 as a model, kinetic studies demonstrate that the association rate of the protein-DNA complex increases in the presence of NonO while the dissociation rate remains the same, thereby increasing the sum total of the interaction. Oligo competition experiments indicate that NonO does not contact the target DNA in order to enhance the binding activity of DNA binding proteins. Rather, methylation interference analysis reveals that the induced E47 binding-activity has the same DNA-binding sequence specificity as the normal binding. This result suggests that one of the effects of NonO is to induce a true protein-DNA interaction. In this way, it might be possible for NonO to play a crucial role in gene regulation. PMID:9171077

  17. DNA-binding and regulation mechanisms of the SIX family of retinal determination proteins.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengyong; Mamedova, Aygun; Hegde, Rashmi S

    2008-03-18

    The Six/sine oculis proteins are homeodomain transcription factors that are part of the Pax/Eya/Six/Dach retinal determination cascade involved in embryonic cell fate determination. There are six mammalian Six homologues, divided into three classes on the basis of sequence homology. In the present study we examined the DNA-binding specificity and mechanisms of Six2 and Six6 toward the Trex/MEF3 consensus sequence and the core tetranucleotide ATTA commonly recognized by homeodomain proteins. The results suggest that the Six homeodomain does not bind DNA owing to the absence of a key structural feature, the basic N-terminal arm, implicated in canonical homeodomain-DNA binding. Furthermore, the DNA-binding mechanisms and DNA sequence specificity differ among these Six proteins despite the complete conservation of predicted DNA-contacting residues in their homeodomains. Inclusion of 14 amino acid residues immediately C-terminal to the homeodomain of Six6 yields a protein construct able to bind both DNA sequences tested with nanomolar affinity. However, an analogous Six2 construct remains unable to bind DNA. Furthermore, we show that the DNA-binding affinity of Six2 is increased nearly 12-fold by complex formation with the Eyes Absent tyrosine phosphatase, while Six6-DNA binding is not similarly enhanced. This phenomenon could contribute to the synergy observed between Six2 and Eyes Absent in transcriptional activation and in eye development. PMID:18293925

  18. Identification of procollagen promoter DNA-binding proteins: effects of dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, C.; Cutroneo, K.R.

    1987-05-01

    Glucocorticoids selectively decrease procollagen synthesis by decreasing procollagen mRNA transcription. Dexamethasone coordinately decreased total cellular type I and type III procollagen mRNAs in mouse embryonic skin fibroblasts. Since sequence specific DNA-binding proteins are known to modulate eukaryotic gene expression the authors identified in mouse fibroblasts nuclear proteins which bind to types I and III procollagen promoter DNAs. Nuclear proteins were electrophoresed, blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed with /sup 32/P-end-labeled type I and type III procollagen promoter DNAs in the presence of equimolar amounts of /sup 32/P-end-labeled vector DNA. Differences in total DNA binding were noted by the densitometric scans of the nuclear proteins. Dexamethasone treatment enhanced total DNA binding. Increasing the NaCl concentration decreased the number of promoter DNA-binding proteins without altering the relative specificity for the promoter DNAs. Promoter DNA binding to nuclear proteins was also inhibited by increasing concentrations of E. coli DNA. The number of DNA-binding proteins was greater for type III procollagen promoter DNA. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on promoter DNA binding to nuclear proteins was determined.

  19. Quantification of transcription factor-DNA binding affinity in a living cell

    PubMed Central

    Belikov, Sergey; Berg, Otto G.; Wrange, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for specific binding of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and androgen receptor (AR) to DNA was determined in vivo in Xenopus oocytes. The total nuclear receptor concentration was quantified as specifically retained [3H]-hormone in manually isolated oocyte nuclei. DNA was introduced by nuclear microinjection of single stranded phagemid DNA, chromatin is then formed during second strand synthesis. The fraction of DNA sites occupied by the expressed receptor was determined by dimethylsulphate in vivo footprinting and used for calculation of the receptor-DNA binding affinity. The forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 enhanced the DNA binding by GR with an apparent Kd of ∼1 μM and dramatically stimulated DNA binding by AR with an apparent Kd of ∼0.13 μM at a composite androgen responsive DNA element containing one FoxA1 binding site and one palindromic hormone receptor binding site known to bind one receptor homodimer. FoxA1 exerted a weak constitutive- and strongly cooperative DNA binding together with AR but had a less prominent effect with GR, the difference reflecting the licensing function of FoxA1 at this androgen responsive DNA element. PMID:26657626

  20. DISPLAR: an accurate method for predicting DNA-binding sites on protein surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Structural and physical properties of DNA provide important constraints on the binding sites formed on surfaces of DNA-targeting proteins. Characteristics of such binding sites may form the basis for predicting DNA-binding sites from the structures of proteins alone. Such an approach has been successfully developed for predicting protein–protein interface. Here this approach is adapted for predicting DNA-binding sites. We used a representative set of 264 protein–DNA complexes from the Protein Data Bank to analyze characteristics and to train and test a neural network predictor of DNA-binding sites. The input to the predictor consisted of PSI-blast sequence profiles and solvent accessibilities of each surface residue and 14 of its closest neighboring residues. Predicted DNA-contacting residues cover 60% of actual DNA-contacting residues and have an accuracy of 76%. This method significantly outperforms previous attempts of DNA-binding site predictions. Its application to the prion protein yielded a DNA-binding site that is consistent with recent NMR chemical shift perturbation data, suggesting that it can complement experimental techniques in characterizing protein–DNA interfaces. PMID:17284455

  1. Light-activated DNA binding in a designed allosteric protein

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, Devin; Moffat, Keith; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2008-09-03

    An understanding of how allostery, the conformational coupling of distant functional sites, arises in highly evolvable systems is of considerable interest in areas ranging from cell biology to protein design and signaling networks. We reasoned that the rigidity and defined geometry of an {alpha}-helical domain linker would make it effective as a conduit for allosteric signals. To test this idea, we rationally designed 12 fusions between the naturally photoactive LOV2 domain from Avena sativa phototropin 1 and the Escherichia coli trp repressor. When illuminated, one of the fusions selectively binds operator DNA and protects it from nuclease digestion. The ready success of our rational design strategy suggests that the helical 'allosteric lever arm' is a general scheme for coupling the function of two proteins.

  2. Recognition of DNA sequencing through binding of nucleobases to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaffino, Valentina

    Graphene is one of the most promising materials in nanotechnology. Its large surface to volume ratio, high conductivity and electron mobility at room temperature are outstanding properties for use in DNA sensors. For this study, we used Density Functional Theory (DFT), ?with and without the inclusion of van der Waals (vdW) interactions, ?to investigate the adsorption of nucleobases (cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine, and uracil) on pristine graphene and graphene with defects (Divacancy and Stone-Wales). We investigated the performance of two types of vdW-DF functional (optB86b-vdW and rPW86-vdW), as well as the PBE functional, and their description of the adsorption geometry and electronic structure of the nucleobase-graphene systems.The inclusion of defects results in an increase in binding energy, closer adsorption of the molecule to graphene and greater buckling in both the graphene structure and nucleobase.

  3. DNA sequencing using polymerase substrate-binding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Previte, Michael John Robert; Zhou, Chunhong; Kellinger, Matthew; Pantoja, Rigo; Chen, Cheng-Yao; Shi, Jin; Wang, BeiBei; Kia, Amirali; Etchin, Sergey; Vieceli, John; Nikoomanzar, Ali; Bomati, Erin; Gloeckner, Christian; Ronaghi, Mostafa; He, Molly Min

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by decreasing the cost of sequencing. However, whole-genome sequencing is still costly and complex for diagnostics purposes. In the clinical space, targeted sequencing has the advantage of allowing researchers to focus on specific genes of interest. Routine clinical use of targeted NGS mandates inexpensive instruments, fast turnaround time and an integrated and robust workflow. Here we demonstrate a version of the Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) chemistry that potentially can become a preferred targeted sequencing method in the clinical space. This sequencing chemistry uses natural nucleotides and is based on real-time recording of the differential polymerase/DNA-binding kinetics in the presence of correct or mismatch nucleotides. This ensemble SBS chemistry has been implemented on an existing Illumina sequencing platform with integrated cluster amplification. We discuss the advantages of this sequencing chemistry for targeted sequencing as well as its limitations for other applications. PMID:25612848

  4. DNA sequencing using polymerase substrate-binding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Previte, Michael John Robert; Zhou, Chunhong; Kellinger, Matthew; Pantoja, Rigo; Chen, Cheng-Yao; Shi, Jin; Wang, BeiBei; Kia, Amirali; Etchin, Sergey; Vieceli, John; Nikoomanzar, Ali; Bomati, Erin; Gloeckner, Christian; Ronaghi, Mostafa; He, Molly Min

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by decreasing the cost of sequencing. However, whole-genome sequencing is still costly and complex for diagnostics purposes. In the clinical space, targeted sequencing has the advantage of allowing researchers to focus on specific genes of interest. Routine clinical use of targeted NGS mandates inexpensive instruments, fast turnaround time and an integrated and robust workflow. Here we demonstrate a version of the Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) chemistry that potentially can become a preferred targeted sequencing method in the clinical space. This sequencing chemistry uses natural nucleotides and is based on real-time recording of the differential polymerase/DNA-binding kinetics in the presence of correct or mismatch nucleotides. This ensemble SBS chemistry has been implemented on an existing Illumina sequencing platform with integrated cluster amplification. We discuss the advantages of this sequencing chemistry for targeted sequencing as well as its limitations for other applications. PMID:25612848

  5. Determinants of affinity and mode of DNA binding at the carboxy terminus of the bacteriophage SPO1-encoded type II DNA-binding protein, TF1.

    PubMed Central

    Andera, L; Geiduschek, E P

    1994-01-01

    The role of the carboxy-terminal amino acids of the bacteriophage SPO1-encoded type II DNA-binding protein, TF1, in DNA binding was analyzed. Chain-terminating mutations truncating the normally 99-amino-acid TF1 at amino acids 96, 97, and 98 were constructed, as were missense mutations substituting cysteine, arginine, and serine for phenylalanine at amino acid 97 and tryptophan for lysine at amino acid 99. The binding of the resulting proteins to a synthetic 44-bp binding site in 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil DNA, to binding sites in larger SPO1 [5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil-containing] DNA fragments, and to thymine-containing homologous DNA was analyzed by gel retardation and also by DNase I and hydroxy radical footprinting. We conclude that the C tail up to and including phenylalanine at amino acid 97 is essential for DNA binding and that the two C-terminal amino acids, 98 and 99, are involved in protein-protein interactions between TF1 dimers bound to DNA. Images PMID:8113176

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Primosomal DnaD Protein: Highly Conserved C-Terminal Region Is Crucial for ssDNA and PriA Helicase Binding but Not for DnaA Protein-Binding and Self-Tetramerization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-01-01

    The role of DnaD in the recruitment of replicative helicase has been identified. However, knowledge of the DNA, PriA, and DnaA binding mechanism of this protein for the DnaA- and PriA-directed replication primosome assemblies is limited. We characterized the DNA-binding properties of DnaD from Staphylococcus aureus (SaDnaD) and analyzed its interactions with SaPriA and SaDnaA. The gel filtration chromatography analysis of purified SaDnaD and its deletion mutant proteins (SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200 and SaDnaD1-204) showed a stable tetramer in solution. This finding indicates that the C-terminal region aa 196–228 is not crucial for SaDnaD oligomerization. SaDnaD forms distinct complexes with ssDNA of different lengths. In fluorescence titrations, SaDnaD bound to ssDNA with a binding-site size of approximately 32 nt. A stable complex of SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200, and SaDnaD1-204 with ssDNA dT40 was undetectable, indicating that the C-terminal region of SaDnaD (particularly aa 205–228) is crucial for ssDNA binding. The SPR results revealed that SaDnaD1-195 can interact with SaDnaA but not with SaPriA, which may indicate that DnaD has different binding sites for PriA and DnaA. Both SaDnaD and SaDnaDY176A mutant proteins, but not SaDnaD1-195, can significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of SaPriA. Hence, the stimulation effect mainly resulted from direct contact within the protein—protein interaction, not via the DNA—protein interaction. Kinetic studies revealed that the SaDnaD-SaPriA interaction increases the Vmax of the SaPriA ATPase fivefold without significantly affecting the Km. These results indicate that the conserved C-terminal region is crucial for ssDNA and PriA helicase binding, but not for DnaA protein-binding and self-tetramerization. PMID:27304067

  7. Conserved Cysteine Residue in the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Confers Redox Regulation of the DNA- Binding Activity in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Alison A.; Klausner, Richard D.; Howley, Peter M.

    1992-08-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 open reading frame encodes three proteins involved in viral DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. These polypeptides share a carboxyl-terminal domain with a specific DNA-binding activity; through this domain the E2 polypeptides form dimers. In this study, we demonstrate the inhibition of E2 DNA binding in vitro by reagents that oxidize or otherwise chemically modify the free sulfydryl groups of reactive cysteine residues. However, these reagents had no effect on DNA-binding activity when the E2 polypeptide was first bound to DNA, suggesting that the free sulfydryl group(s) may be protected by DNA binding. Sensitivity to sulfydryl modification was mapped to a cysteine residue at position 340 in the E2 DNA-binding domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. Replacement of this residue with other amino acids abrogated the sensitivity to oxidation-reduction changes but did not affect the DNA-binding property of the E2 protein. These results suggest that papillomavirus DNA replication and transcriptional regulation could be modulated through the E2 proteins by changes in the intracellular redox environment. Furthermore, a motif consisting of a reactive cysteine residue carboxyl-terminal to a lysine residue in a basic region of the DNA-binding domain is a feature common to a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins that, like E2, are subject to redox regulation. Thus, posttranslational regulation of the activity of these proteins by the intracellular redox environment may be a general phenomenon.

  8. Phenazine virulence factor binding to extracellular DNA is important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Theerthankar; Kutty, Samuel K.; Tavallaie, Roya; Ibugo, Amaye I.; Panchompoo, Janjira; Sehar, Shama; Aldous, Leigh; Yeung, Amanda W. S.; Thomas, Shane R.; Kumar, Naresh; Gooding, J. Justin; Manefield, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics necessitates the identification of novel leads for infection control. Interference with extracellular phenomena, such as quorum sensing, extracellular DNA integrity and redox active metabolite release, represents a new frontier to control human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and hence reduce mortality. Here we reveal that the extracellular redox active virulence factor pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa binds directly to the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone of DNA and intercalates with DNA nitrogenous base pair regions. Binding results in local perturbations of the DNA double helix structure and enhanced electron transfer along the nucleic acid polymer. Pyocyanin binding to DNA also increases DNA solution viscosity. In contrast, antioxidants interacting with DNA and pyocyanin decrease DNA solution viscosity. Biofilms deficient in pyocyanin production and biofilms lacking extracellular DNA show similar architecture indicating the interaction is important in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. PMID:25669133

  9. newDNA-Prot: Prediction of DNA-binding proteins by employing support vector machine and a comprehensive sequence representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Qiu, Xingye; Chen, Ke; Ruan, Jishou

    2014-10-01

    Identification of DNA-binding proteins is essential in studying cellular activities as the DNA-binding proteins play a pivotal role in gene regulation. In this study, we propose newDNA-Prot, a DNA-binding protein predictor that employs support vector machine classifier and a comprehensive feature representation. The sequence representation are categorized into 6 groups: primary sequence based, evolutionary profile based, predicted secondary structure based, predicted relative solvent accessibility based, physicochemical property based and biological function based features. The mRMR, wrapper and two-stage feature selection methods are employed for removing irrelevant features and reducing redundant features. Experiments demonstrate that the two-stage method performs better than the mRMR and wrapper methods. We also perform a statistical analysis on the selected features and results show that more than 95% of the selected features are statistically significant and they cover all 6 feature groups. The newDNA-Prot method is compared with several state of the art algorithms, including iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot. The results demonstrate that newDNA-Prot method outperforms the iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot methods. More specific, newDNA-Prot improves the runner-up method, DNA-Prot for around 10% on several evaluation measures. The proposed newDNA-Prot method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/newdnaprot/ PMID:25240115

  10. GST-Induced dimerization of DNA-binding domains alters characteristics of their interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Niedziela-Majka, A; Rymarczyk, G; Kochman, M; Ozyhar, A

    1998-11-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a key role in the induction and modulation of morphogenetic events throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. Two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, the product of the EcR (EcR) and of the ultraspiracle genes (Usp), heterodimerize to form its functional receptor. To study the receptor-DNA interaction, critical for regulating 20E-dependent gene expression, it is necessary to produce large quantities of EcR and Usp DNA-binding domains. Toward this end DNA-binding domains of EcR and Usp (EcRDBD and UspDBD, respectively) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST). However, the results of DNA-binding studies obtained with purified GST-DBDs were found to be questionable because the fused proteins oligomerized in solution due to the presence of GST. Therefore DBDs were released from GST-chimeric proteins by thrombin cleavage and then purified by glutathione-Sepharose 4B chromatography and by gel filtration on Superdex 75 HR. The gel mobility-shift experiments showed that UspDBD exhibited higher affinity than EcRDBD toward a 20-hydroxyecdysone response element from the Drosophila hsp 27 gene (hsp 27pal). Furthermore, formation of the heterodimeric EcRDBD-UspDBD complex was observed to be synergistic when equimolar mixture of both DBDs was incubated with hsp 27pal. Surprisingly, GST-EcRDBD bound hsp 27pal with higher affinity than GST-UspDBD. This difference was accompanied by the impaired ability of the GST-DBDs to interact synergistically with hsp 27pal. This is the first report on expression and purification of the soluble DBDs of the functional ecdysteroid receptor with satisfying yields. Furthermore, our results add to the recent findings which indicate the need for caution in interpreting the activities of GST fusion proteins. PMID:9790883

  11. Structural dynamics of E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein reveal DNA wrapping and unwrapping pathways

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Sukrit; Khafizov, Rustem; Kozlov, Alexander G; Lohman, Timothy M; Chemla, Yann R

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli single-stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) protein mediates genome maintenance processes by regulating access to ssDNA. This homotetrameric protein wraps ssDNA in multiple distinct binding modes that may be used selectively in different DNA processes, and whose detailed wrapping topologies remain speculative. Here, we used single-molecule force and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate E. coli SSB binding to ssDNA. Stretching a single ssDNA-SSB complex reveals discrete states that correlate with known binding modes, the likely ssDNA conformations and diffusion dynamics in each, and the kinetic pathways by which the protein wraps ssDNA and is dissociated. The data allow us to construct an energy landscape for the ssDNA-SSB complex, revealing that unwrapping energy costs increase the more ssDNA is unraveled. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism by which proteins gain access to ssDNA bound by SSB, as demonstrated by experiments in which SSB is displaced by the E. coli recombinase RecA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08193.001 PMID:26305498

  12. Heterogeneous dynamics in DNA site discrimination by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of ETS-family transcription factors.

    PubMed

    He, Gaofei; Tolic, Ana; Bashkin, James K; Poon, Gregory M K

    2015-04-30

    The ETS family of transcription factors exemplifies current uncertainty in how eukaryotic genetic regulators with overlapping DNA sequence preferences achieve target site specificity. PU.1 and Ets-1 represent archetypes for studying site discrimination by ETS proteins because their DNA-binding domains are the most divergent in sequence, yet they share remarkably superimposable DNA-bound structures. To gain insight into the contrasting thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA recognition by these two proteins, we investigated the structure and dynamics of site discrimination by their DNA-binding domains. Electrophoretic mobilities of complexes formed by the two homologs with circularly permuted binding sites showed significant dynamic differences only for DNA complexes of PU.1. Free solution measurements by dynamic light scattering showed PU.1 to be more dynamic than Ets-1; moreover, dynamic changes are strongly coupled to site discrimination by PU.1, but not Ets-1. Interrogation of the protein/DNA interface by DNA footprinting showed similar accessibility to dimethyl sulfate for PU.1/DNA and Ets-1/DNA complexes, indicating that the dynamics of PU.1/DNA complexes reside primarily outside that interface. An information-based analysis of the two homologs' binding motifs suggests a role for dynamic coupling in PU.1's ability to enforce a more stringent sequence preference than Ets-1 and its proximal sequence homologs. PMID:25824951

  13. Survey of variation in human transcription factors reveals prevalent DNA binding changes.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Luis A; Vedenko, Anastasia; Kurland, Jesse V; Rogers, Julia M; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Woodard, Jaie; Mariani, Luca; Kock, Kian Hong; Inukai, Sachi; Siggers, Trevor; Shokri, Leila; Gordân, Raluca; Sahni, Nidhi; Cotsapas, Chris; Hao, Tong; Yi, Song; Kellis, Manolis; Daly, Mark J; Vidal, Marc; Hill, David E; Bulyk, Martha L

    2016-03-25

    Sequencing of exomes and genomes has revealed abundant genetic variation affecting the coding sequences of human transcription factors (TFs), but the consequences of such variation remain largely unexplored. We developed a computational, structure-based approach to evaluate TF variants for their impact on DNA binding activity and used universal protein-binding microarrays to assay sequence-specific DNA binding activity across 41 reference and 117 variant alleles found in individuals of diverse ancestries and families with Mendelian diseases. We found 77 variants in 28 genes that affect DNA binding affinity or specificity and identified thousands of rare alleles likely to alter the DNA binding activity of human sequence-specific TFs. Our results suggest that most individuals have unique repertoires of TF DNA binding activities, which may contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:27013732

  14. Sequence-specific DNA binding by glucocorticoid receptor "zinc finger peptides".

    PubMed

    Archer, T K; Hager, G L; Omichinski, J G

    1990-10-01

    Steroid hormone receptors can activate or repress transcription from responsive loci by binding to DNA. We have examined the mechanism of DNA binding by individually synthesizing the putative "zinc finger peptides" from the rat glucocorticoid receptor. Atomic absorption studies show that the peptides will bind zinc on an equimolar basis, and circular dichroism experiments demonstrate a significant alteration in secondary structure in the presence of zinc. The results from a series of experiments establish that metal ion is required for binding to DNA and that the amino-terminal zinc finger shows a significantly greater affinity for glucocorticoid response element-containing DNA over control DNA. These observations indicate that a single synthetic "zinc finger peptide" is able to bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. PMID:2120703

  15. A unique uracil-DNA binding protein of the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Pau Biak; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan; Patil, Aravind Goud; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Varshney, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) are an important group of DNA repair enzymes, which pioneer the base excision repair pathway by recognizing and excising uracil from DNA. Based on two short conserved sequences (motifs A and B), UDGs have been classified into six families. Here we report a novel UDG, UdgX, from Mycobacterium smegmatis and other organisms. UdgX specifically recognizes uracil in DNA, forms a tight complex stable to sodium dodecyl sulphate, 2-mercaptoethanol, urea and heat treatment, and shows no detectable uracil excision. UdgX shares highest homology to family 4 UDGs possessing Fe-S cluster. UdgX possesses a conserved sequence, KRRIH, which forms a flexible loop playing an important role in its activity. Mutations of H in the KRRIH sequence to S, G, A or Q lead to gain of uracil excision activity in MsmUdgX, establishing it as a novel member of the UDG superfamily. Our observations suggest that UdgX marks the uracil-DNA for its repair by a RecA dependent process. Finally, we observed that the tight binding activity of UdgX is useful in detecting uracils in the genomes. PMID:26304551

  16. Cooperative DNA Binding and Sequence-Selective Recognition Conferred by the STAT Amino-Terminal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang; Sun, Ya-Lin; Hoey, Timothy

    1996-08-01

    STAT proteins (signal transducers and activators of transcription) activate distinct target genes despite having similar DNA binding preferences. The transcriptional specificity of STAT proteins was investigated on natural STAT binding sites near the interferon-gamma gene. These sites are arranged in multiple copies and required cooperative interactions for STAT binding. The conserved amino-terminal domain of STAT proteins was required for cooperative DNA binding, although this domain was not essential for dimerization or binding to a single site. Cooperative binding interactions enabled the STAT proteins to recognize variations of the consensus site. These sites can be specific for the different STAT proteins and may function to direct selective transcriptional activation.

  17. Flow cytometric fluorescence lifetime analysis of DNA binding fluorochromes

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, Harry A.; Cui, H. H.; Steinkamp, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Most flow cytometry (FCM) applications monitor fluorescence intensity to quantitate the various cellular parameters; however, the fluorescence emission also contains information relative to the fluorescence lifetime. Recent developments in FCM (Pinsky et al., 1993; Steinkamp & Crissman, 1993; Steinkamp et al., 1993), provide for the measurement of fluorescence lifetime which is also commonly referred to as fluorescence decay, or the time interval in which a fluorochrome remains in the excited state. Many unbound fluorochromes have characteristic lifetime values that are determined by their molecular structure; however, when the probe becomes bound, the lifetime value is influenced by a number of factors that affect the probe interaction with a target molecule. Monitoring the changes in the lifetime of the probe yields information relating to the molecular conformation, the functional state or activity of the molecular target. In addition, the lifetime values can be used as signatures to resolve the emissions of multiple fluorochrome labels with overlapping emission spectra that cannot be resolved by conventional FCM methodology. Such strategies can increase the number of fluorochrome combinations used in a flow cytometer with a single excitation source. Our studies demonstrate various applications of lifetime measurements for the analysis of the binding of different fluorochromes to DNA in single cells. Data presented in this session will show the utility of lifetime measurements for monitoring changes in chromatin structure associated with cell cycle progression, cellular differentiation, or DNA damage, such as induced during apoptosis. Several studies show that dyes with specificity for nucleic acids display different lifetime values when bound to DNA or to dsRNA. The Phase Sensitive Flow Cytometer is a multiparameter instrument, capable of performing lifetime measurements in conjunction with all the conventional FCM measurements. Future modifications of this

  18. DNA and Protein Footprinting Analysis of the Modulation of DNA Binding by the N-Terminal Domain of the Saccharomyces cervisiae TATA Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta,S.; Cheng, H.; Mollah, A.; Jamison, E.; Morris, S.; Chance, M.; Khrapunov, S.; Brenowitz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant full-length Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA binding protein (TBP) and its isolated C-terminal conserved core domain (TBPc) were prepared with measured high specific DNA-binding activities. Direct, quantitative comparison of TATA box binding by TBP and TBPc reveals greater affinity by TBPc for either of two high-affinity sequences at several different experimental conditions. TBPc associates more rapidly than TBP to TATA box bearing DNA and dissociates more slowly. The structural origins of the thermodynamic and kinetic effects of the N-terminal domain on DNA binding by TBP were explored in comparative studies of TBPc and TBP by 'protein footprinting' with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) side chain oxidation. Some residues within TBPc and the C-terminal domain of TBP are comparably protected by DNA, consistent with solvent accessibility changes calculated from core domain crystal structures. In contrast, the reactivity of some residues located on the top surface and the DNA-binding saddle of the C-terminal domain differs between TBP and TBPc in both the presence and absence of bound DNA; these results are not predicted from the crystal structures. A strikingly different pattern of side chain oxidation is observed for TBP when a nonionic detergent is present. Taken together, these results are consistent with the N-terminal domain actively modulating TATA box binding by TBP and nonionic detergent modulating the interdomain interaction.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of topotecan-DNA complexes: Binding to DNA induces topotecan dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalov, K. E.; Strel'Tsov, S. A.; Ermishov, M. A.; Grokhovskii, S. L.; Zhuze, A. L.; Ustinova, O. A.; Sukhanova, A. V.; Nabiev, I. R.; Oleinikov, V. A.

    2002-09-01

    The interaction of topotecan (TPT), antitumor inhibitor of human DNA topoisomerase I, with calf thymus DNA was studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The SERS spectra of TPT are found to depend on its concentration in solution, which is associated with the dimerization of TPT. The spectral signatures of dimerization are identified. It is shown that binding to DNA induces the formation of TPT dimers. The formation of DNA-TPT-TPT-DNA complexes is considered as one of the possible mechanisms of human DNA topoisomerase I inhibition.

  20. A general approach to visualize protein binding and DNA conformation without protein labelling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dan; Graham, Thomas G. W.; Loparo, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation methods, such as magnetic tweezers and flow stretching, generally use the measurement of changes in DNA extension as a proxy for examining interactions between a DNA-binding protein and its substrate. These approaches are unable to directly measure protein–DNA association without fluorescently labelling the protein, which can be challenging. Here we address this limitation by developing a new approach that visualizes unlabelled protein binding on DNA with changes in DNA conformation in a relatively high-throughput manner. Protein binding to DNA molecules sparsely labelled with Cy3 results in an increase in fluorescence intensity due to protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE), whereas DNA length is monitored under flow of buffer through a microfluidic flow cell. Given that our assay uses unlabelled protein, it is not limited to the low protein concentrations normally required for single-molecule fluorescence imaging and should be broadly applicable to studying protein–DNA interactions. PMID:26952553

  1. Characterization and DNA-Binding Specificities of Ralstonia TAL-Like Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. PMID:23300258

  2. Characterization and DNA-binding specificities of Ralstonia TAL-like effectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixin; Atef, Ahmed; Piatek, Agnieszka; Ali, Zahir; Piatek, Marek; Aouida, Mustapha; Sharakuu, Altanbadralt; Mahjoub, Ali; Wang, Guangchao; Khan, Suhail; Fedoroff, Nina V; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Mahfouz, Magdy M

    2013-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. PMID:23300258

  3. DNA Binding of Centromere Protein C (CENPC) Is Stabilized by Single-Stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yaqing; Topp, Christopher N.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Centromeres are the attachment points between the genome and the cytoskeleton: centromeres bind to kinetochores, which in turn bind to spindles and move chromosomes. Paradoxically, the DNA sequence of centromeres has little or no role in perpetuating kinetochores. As such they are striking examples of genetic information being transmitted in a manner that is independent of DNA sequence (epigenetically). It has been found that RNA transcribed from centromeres remains bound within the kinetochore region, and this local population of RNA is thought to be part of the epigenetic marking system. Here we carried out a genetic and biochemical study of maize CENPC, a key inner kinetochore protein. We show that DNA binding is conferred by a localized region 122 amino acids long, and that the DNA-binding reaction is exquisitely sensitive to single-stranded RNA. Long, single-stranded nucleic acids strongly promote the binding of CENPC to DNA, and the types of RNAs that stabilize DNA binding match in size and character the RNAs present on kinetochores in vivo. Removal or replacement of the binding module with HIV integrase binding domain causes a partial delocalization of CENPC in vivo. The data suggest that centromeric RNA helps to recruit CENPC to the inner kinetochore by altering its DNA binding characteristics. PMID:20140237

  4. PBX and MEIS as Non-DNA-Binding Partners in Trimeric Complexes with HOX Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Kandavel; Green, Nancy C.; Rambaldi, Isabel; Saragovi, H. Uri; Featherstone, Mark S.

    1999-01-01

    HOX, PBX, and MEIS transcription factors bind DNA through a homeodomain. PBX proteins bind DNA cooperatively as heterodimers with MEIS family members and also with HOX proteins from paralog groups 1 to 10. MEIS proteins cooperatively bind DNA with ABD-B class HOX proteins of groups 9 and 10. Here, we examine aspects of dimeric and higher-order interactions between these three homeodomain classes. The most significant results can be summarized as follows. (i) Most of PBX N terminal to the homeodomain is required for efficient cooperative binding with HOXD4 and HOXD9. (ii) MEIS and PBX proteins form higher-order complexes on a heterodimeric binding site. (iii) Although MEIS does not cooperatively bind DNA with ANTP class HOX proteins, it does form a trimer as a non-DNA-binding partner with DNA-bound PBX-HOXD4. (iv) The N terminus of HOXD4 negatively regulates trimer formation. (v) MEIS forms a similar trimer with DNA-bound PBX-HOXD9. (vi) A related trimer (where MEIS is a non-DNA-binding partner) is formed on a transcriptional promoter within the cell. (vii) We observe an additional trimer class involving non-DNA-bound PBX and DNA-bound MEIS-HOXD9 or MEIS-HOXD10 heterodimers that is enhanced by mutation of the PBX homeodomain. (viii) In this latter trimer, PBX is likely to contact both MEIS and HOXD9/D10. (ix) The stability of DNA binding by all trimers is enhanced relative to the heterodimers. These findings suggest novel functions for PBX and MEIS in modulating the function of DNA-bound MEIS-HOX and PBX-HOX heterodimers, respectively. PMID:10523646

  5. An Overview of the Prediction of Protein DNA-Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between proteins and DNA play an important role in many essential biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and repair. The identification of amino acid residues involved in DNA-binding sites is critical for understanding the mechanism of these biological activities. In the last decade, numerous computational approaches have been developed to predict protein DNA-binding sites based on protein sequence and/or structural information, which play an important role in complementing experimental strategies. At this time, approaches can be divided into three categories: sequence-based DNA-binding site prediction, structure-based DNA-binding site prediction, and homology modeling and threading. In this article, we review existing research on computational methods to predict protein DNA-binding sites, which includes data sets, various residue sequence/structural features, machine learning methods for comparison and selection, evaluation methods, performance comparison of different tools, and future directions in protein DNA-binding site prediction. In particular, we detail the meta-analysis of protein DNA-binding sites. We also propose specific implications that are likely to result in novel prediction methods, increased performance, or practical applications. PMID:25756377

  6. Binding interaction between sorafenib and calf thymus DNA: spectroscopic methodology, viscosity measurement and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ying-Yao

    2015-02-01

    The binding interaction of sorafenib with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), viscosity measurement and molecular docking methods. The experimental results revealed that there was obvious binding interaction between sorafenib and ct-DNA. The binding constant (Kb) of sorafenib with ct-DNA was 5.6×10(3) M(-1) at 298 K. The enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) in the binding process of sorafenib with ct-DNA were -27.66 KJ mol(-1) and -21.02 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively, indicating that the main binding interaction forces were van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding. The docking results suggested that sorafenib preferred to bind on the minor groove of A-T rich DNA and the binding site of sorafenib was 4 base pairs long. The conformation change of sorafenib in the sorafenib-DNA complex was obviously observed and the change was close relation with the structure of DNA, implying that the flexibility of sorafenib molecule played an important role in the formation of the stable sorafenib-ct-DNA complex. PMID:25311519

  7. Binding interaction between sorafenib and calf thymus DNA: Spectroscopic methodology, viscosity measurement and molecular docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ying-Yao

    2015-02-01

    The binding interaction of sorafenib with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), viscosity measurement and molecular docking methods. The experimental results revealed that there was obvious binding interaction between sorafenib and ct-DNA. The binding constant (Kb) of sorafenib with ct-DNA was 5.6 × 103 M-1 at 298 K. The enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH0 and ΔS0) in the binding process of sorafenib with ct-DNA were -27.66 KJ mol-1 and -21.02 J mol-1 K-1, respectively, indicating that the main binding interaction forces were van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding. The docking results suggested that sorafenib preferred to bind on the minor groove of A-T rich DNA and the binding site of sorafenib was 4 base pairs long. The conformation change of sorafenib in the sorafenib-DNA complex was obviously observed and the change was close relation with the structure of DNA, implying that the flexibility of sorafenib molecule played an important role in the formation of the stable sorafenib-ct-DNA complex.

  8. Cr(3+) Binding to DNA Backbone Phosphate and Bases: Slow Ligand Exchange Rates and Metal Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Yu, Tianmeng; Vazin, Mahsa; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-08-15

    The interaction between chromium ions and DNA is of great interest in inorganic chemistry, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. Most previous studies focused on in situ reduction of Cr(VI), producing Cr(3+) for DNA binding. Recently, Cr(3+) was reported to activate the Ce13d DNAzyme for RNA cleavage. Herein, the Ce13d is used to study two types of Cr(3+) and DNA interactions. First, Cr(3+) binds to the DNA phosphate backbone weakly through reversible electrostatic interactions, which is weakened by adding competing inorganic phosphate. However, Cr(3+) coordinates with DNA nucleobases forming stable cross-links that can survive denaturing gel electrophoresis condition. The binding of Cr(3+) to different nucleobases was further studied in terms of binding kinetics and affinity by exploiting carboxyfluorescein-labeled DNA homopolymers. Once binding takes place, the stable Cr(3+)/DNA complex cannot be dissociated by EDTA, attributable to the ultraslow ligand exchange rate of Cr(3+). The binding rate follows the order of G > C > T ≈ A. Finally, Cr(3+) gradually loses its DNA binding ability after being stored at neutral or high pH, attributable to hydrolysis. This hydrolysis can be reversed by lowering the pH. This work provides a deeper insight into the bioinorganic chemistry of Cr(3+) coordination with DNA, clarifies some inconsistency in the previous literature, and offers practically useful information for generating reproducible results. PMID:27478904

  9. NMR structure of a specific DNA complex of Zn-containing DNA binding domain of GATA-1.

    PubMed

    Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Schaad, O; Felsenfeld, G; Trainor, C; Appella, E; Stahl, S J; Gronenborn, A M

    1993-07-23

    The three-dimensional solution structure of a complex between the DNA binding domain of the chicken erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 and its cognate DNA site has been determined with multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DNA binding domain consists of a core which contains a zinc coordinated by four cysteines and a carboxyl-terminal tail. The core is composed of two irregular antiparallel beta sheets and an alpha helix, followed by a long loop that leads into the carboxyl-terminal tail. The amino-terminal part of the core, including the helix, is similar in structure, although not in sequence, to the amino-terminal zinc module of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain. In the other regions, the structures of these two DNA binding domains are entirely different. The DNA target site in contact with the protein spans eight base pairs. The helix and the loop connecting the two antiparallel beta sheets interact with the major groove of the DNA. The carboxyl-terminal tail, which is an essential determinant of specific binding, wraps around into the minor groove. The complex resembles a hand holding a rope with the palm and fingers representing the protein core and the thumb, the carboxyl-terminal tail. The specific interactions between GATA-1 and DNA in the major groove are mainly hydrophobic in nature, which accounts for the preponderance of thymines in the target site. A large number of interactions are observed with the phosphate backbone. PMID:8332909

  10. Continuous directed evolution of DNA-binding proteins to improve TALEN specificity.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Basil P; Badran, Ahmed H; Zuris, John A; Guilinger, John P; Davis, Kevin M; Chen, Liwei; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith; Liu, David R

    2015-10-01

    Nucleases containing programmable DNA-binding domains can alter the genomes of model organisms and have the potential to become human therapeutics. Here we present DNA-binding phage-assisted continuous evolution (DB-PACE) as a general approach for the laboratory evolution of DNA-binding activity and specificity. We used this system to generate transcription activator-like effectors nucleases (TALENs) with broadly improved DNA cleavage specificity, establishing DB-PACE as a versatile approach for improving the accuracy of genome-editing agents. PMID:26258293

  11. Continuous directed evolution of DNA-binding proteins to improve TALEN specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Basil P.; Badran, Ahmed H.; Zuris, John A.; Guilinger, John P.; Davis, Kevin M.; Chen, Liwei; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Sander, Jeffry D.; Joung, J. Keith; Liu, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleases containing programmable DNA-binding domains can alter the genomes of model organisms and have the potential to become human therapeutics. Here we present DNA-binding phage-assisted continuous evolution (DB-PACE) as a general approach for the laboratory evolution of DNA-binding activity and specificity. We used this system to generate TALE nucleases with broadly improved DNA cleavage specificity, establishing DB-PACE as a versatile approach for improving the accuracy of genome-editing agents. PMID:26258293

  12. Binding of disparate transcriptional activators to nucleosomal DNA is inherently cooperative.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C C; Workman, J L

    1995-01-01

    To investigate mechanisms by which multiple transcription factors access complex promoters and enhancers within cellular chromatin, we have analyzed the binding of disparate factors to nucleosome cores. We used a purified in vitro system to analyze binding of four activator proteins, two GAL4 derivatives, USF, and NF-kappa B (KBF1), to reconstituted nucleosome cores containing different combinations of binding sites. Here we show that binding of any two or all three of these factors to nucleosomal DNA is inherently cooperative. Thus, the binuclear Zn clusters of GAL4, the helix-loop-helix/basic domains of USF, and the rel domain of NF-kappa B all participated in cooperative nucleosome binding, illustrating that this effect is not restricted to a particular DNA-binding domain. Simultaneous binding by two factors increased the affinity of individual factors for nucleosomal DNA by up to 2 orders of magnitude. Importantly, cooperative binding resulted in efficient nucleosome binding by factors (USF and NF-kappa B) which independently possess little nucleosome-binding ability. The participation of GAL4 derivatives in cooperative nucleosome binding required only DNA-binding and dimerization domains, indicating that disruption of histone-DNA contacts by factor binding was responsible for the increased affinity of additional factors. Cooperative nucleosome binding required sequence-specific binding of all transcription factors, appeared to have spatial constraints, and was independent of the orientation of the binding sites on the nucleosome. These results indicate that cooperative nucleosome binding is a general mechanism that may play a significant role in loading complex enhancer and promoter elements with multiple diverse factors in chromatin and contribute to the generation of threshold responses and transcriptional synergy by multiple activator sites in vivo. PMID:7862134

  13. The histone-like protein HU binds specifically to DNA recombination and repair intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Kamashev, D.; Rouviere-Yaniv, J.

    2000-01-01

    The heterodimeric HU protein associated with the Escherichia coli nucleoid shares some properties with histones and HMG proteins. HU binds DNA junctions and DNA containing a nick much more avidly than double-stranded (ds-) DNA. Cells lacking HU are extremely sensitive to γ irradiation and we wondered how HU could play a role in maintaining the integrity of the bacterial chromosome. We show that HU binds with high affinity to DNA repair and recombination intermediates, including DNA invasions, DNA overhangs and DNA forks. The DNA structural motif that HU specifically recognizes in all these structures consists of a ds-DNA module joined to a second module containing either ds- or single-stranded (ss-) DNA. The two modules rotate freely relative to one another. Binding specificity results from the simultaneous interaction of HU with these two modules: HU arms bind the ds-DNA module whereas the HU body contacts the ‘variable’ module containing either ds- or ss-DNA. Both structural motifs are recognized by HU at least 1000-fold more avidly than duplex DNA. PMID:11101525

  14. DnaC traps DnaB as an open ring and remodels the domain that binds primase

    PubMed Central

    Chodavarapu, Sundari; Jones, A. Daniel; Feig, Michael; Kaguni, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Helicase loading at a DNA replication origin often requires the dynamic interactions between the DNA helicase and an accessory protein. In E. coli, the DNA helicase is DnaB and DnaC is its loading partner. We used the method of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to address the importance of DnaB–DnaC complex formation as a prerequisite for helicase loading. Our results show that the DnaB ring opens and closes, and that specific amino acids near the N-terminus of DnaC interact with a site in DnaB's C-terminal domain to trap it as an open ring. This event correlates with conformational changes of the RecA fold of DnaB that is involved in nucleotide binding, and of the AAA+ domain of DnaC. DnaC also causes an alteration of the helical hairpins in the N-terminal domain of DnaB, presumably occluding this region from interacting with primase. Hence, DnaC controls the access of DnaB by primase. PMID:26420830

  15. Luminescence and binding properties of two isoquinoline alkaloids chelerythrine and sanguinarine with ctDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junfen; Li, Baohong; Wu, Yanbo; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-09-01

    The binding mode and mechanism of the interactions between two planar cationic alkaloids chelerythrine (Che) and sanguinarine (San) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were systematically investigated at pH 5.40 using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Che and San show strong fluorescence at 570 and 589 nm, respectively. Che displays fluorescence enhancement with ctDNA whereas the fluorescence of San is quenched on interaction with ctDNA. In addition, UV-vis spectra of both alkaloids show apparent hypochromicity and are bathochromic shifted, indicating that they could intercalate into ctDNA bases. The fluorescence polarization of Che and San increases in the presence of ctDNA, again implying the intercalation of two alkaloids with ctDNA. This conclusion was also supported by the results obtained from anion quenching and cyclic voltammetry. The binding constants of both alkaloids with ctDNA were calculated in the order of 105 L/mol. San binds with ctDNA 3-fold stronger than Che. The stoichiometric bindings are five nucleotides per Che or San. Electrostatic binding also exists between the alkaloids and DNA helix. Finally, theoretical calculations show that only certain parts of Che and San molecules intercalate into the DNA helix.

  16. DNA binding by GATA transcription factor suggests mechanisms of DNA looping and long-range gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongheng; Bates, Darren L.; Dey, Raja; Chen, Po-Han; Machado, Ana Carolina Dantas; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Rohs, Remo; Chen, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Summary GATA transcription factors regulate transcription during development and differentiation by recognizing distinct GATA sites with a tandem of two conserved zinc fingers and by mediating long-range DNA looping. However, the molecular basis of these processes is not well understood yet. Here, we determined three crystal structures of the full DNA binding domain (DBD) of human GATA3 protein, which contains both zinc fingers, in complex with different DNA sites. In one structure, both zinc fingers wrap around a palindromic GATA site, cooperatively enhancing the binding affinity and kinetic stability. Strikingly, in the other two structures, the two fingers of GATA DBD bind GATA sites on different DNA molecules, thus bridging two separate DNA fragments, which is confirmed in solution by an in-gel FRET analysis. These findings not only provide new insights into the structure and function of GATA proteins, but also shed light on the molecular basis of long-range gene regulation. PMID:23142663

  17. Determination of the cationic amphiphilic drug-DNA binding mode and DNA-assisted fluorescence resonance energy transfer amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Zahid; Banday, Abdul Rouf; Hussain, Mohammed Aamir; Tabish, Mohammad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of drug-DNA binding is crucial for predicting the potential genotoxicity of drugs. Agarose gel electrophoresis, absorption, steady state fluorescence, and circular dichroism have been used in exploring the interaction of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) such as amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT), imipramine hydrochloride (IMP), and promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) with calf thymus or pUC19 DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay, along with absorption and steady state fluorescence studies, reveal interaction between the CADs and DNA. A comparative study of the drugs with respect to the effect of urea, iodide induced quenching, and ethidium bromide (EB) exclusion assay reflects binding of CADs to the DNA primarily in an intercalative fashion. Circular dichroism data also support the intercalative mode of binding. Besides quenching, there is fluorescence exchange energy transfer (FRET) in between CADs and EB using DNA as a template.

  18. Escherichia coli Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein: NanoESI-MS Studies of Salt-Modulated Subunit Exchange and DNA Binding Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Claire E.; Jergic, Slobodan; Lo, Allen T. Y.; Wang, Yao; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Beck, Jennifer L.

    2013-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are ubiquitous oligomeric proteins that bind with very high affinity to single-stranded DNA and have a variety of essential roles in DNA metabolism. Nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) was used to monitor subunit exchange in full-length and truncated forms of the homotetrameric SSB from Escherichia coli. Subunit exchange in the native protein was found to occur slowly over a period of hours, but was significantly more rapid in a truncated variant of SSB from which the eight C-terminal residues were deleted. This effect is proposed to result from C-terminus mediated stabilization of the SSB tetramer, in which the C-termini interact with the DNA-binding cores of adjacent subunits. NanoESI-MS was also used to examine DNA binding to the SSB tetramer. Binding of single-stranded oligonucleotides [one molecule of (dT)70, one molecule of (dT)35, or two molecules of (dT)35] was found to prevent SSB subunit exchange. Transfer of SSB tetramers between discrete oligonucleotides was also observed and is consistent with predictions from solution-phase studies, suggesting that SSB-DNA complexes can be reliably analyzed by ESI mass spectrometry.

  19. Immunological Relevance of the Coevolution of IDO1 and AHR

    PubMed Central

    Jaronen, Merja; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor initially identified because of its role in controlling the cellular response to environmental molecules. More recently, AHR has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling innate and adaptive immune responses through several mechanisms, one of which is the regulation of tryptophan metabolism. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are considered rate-limiting enzymes in the tryptophan catabolism and play important roles in the regulation of the immunity. Moreover, AHR and IDO/TDO are closely interconnected: AHR regulates IDO and TDO expression, and kynurenine produced by IDO/TDO is an AHR agonist. In this review, we propose to examine the relationship between AHR and IDO/TDO and its relevance for the regulation of the immune response in health and disease. PMID:25368620

  20. Competitive DNA-Binding Studies between Metal Complexes and GelRed as a New and Safe Fluorescent DNA Dye.

    PubMed

    Anjomshoa, Marzieh; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    The focus of this work is introduction of GelRed (GR) as a stable, sensitive and environmentally safe fluorescent DNA dye instead of the highly toxic ethidium bromide (EB). Competitive DNA-binding studies between metal complexes, [Cu(phen-dion)(phen)Cl]Cl (1), [Cu(phen-dione)(bpy)Cl]Cl (2), [Cu(dppt)2(H2O)]PF6 (3), [Ni(dppt)2Cl2] (4), [Zn(dppt)2Cl2] (5), and K3[Fe(CN)6] (6) (where phen-dione is 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione, phen is 1,10- phenanthroline, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and dppt is 5,6-diphenyl-3-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine), and GelRed have been investigated under physiological conditions by fluorescence spectroscopy. This simple method can reveal the binding affinity and mode of metal complexes with DNA. The method is based on the decrease of fluorescence derived from the displacement of GelRed from DNA by metal complexes. The % fluorescence decrease is directly related to the extent of DNA binding. Results indicate the DNA binding affinities of complexes follow the order 3 > 4 > 1 > 2 > 5 > 6. The significant quenching of the emission band of the GR-DNA with the addition of complexes 1, 3, and 4 suggests that complexes compete for DNA-binding sites with GR and displace GR from the GR-DNA, which is usually characteristic of the intercalative interaction of compounds with DNA. A small quenching of the emission band of the GR-DNA with the addition of the complex 2 was observed that show the complex weaker competes for DNA-binding sites with GR than complexes 1, 3, and 4. Results show complexes 5 and 6 cannot compete for DNA-binding sites with GR and their interaction with DNA is external binding (groove or electrostatic bindig). PMID:27324950

  1. DNA-binding activity of rat DNA topoisomerase II α C-terminal domain contributes to efficient DNA catenation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shinji; Kato, Yuri; Okada, Natsumi; Sano, Kuniaki; Tsutsui, Ken; Tsutsui, Kimiko M; Ikeda, Shogo

    2016-03-01

    DNA topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) is an essential enzyme for resolution of DNA topologies arising in DNA metabolic reactions. In proliferating cells, topo II activities of DNA catenation or decatenation are required for condensation of chromosomes and segregation of chromatids. Recent studies suggest that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of human topo IIα is required for localization to mitotic chromosomes. Here, we show that the CTD of topo IIα is also associated with efficient DNA catenation in vitro, based on comparison of wild-type (WT) rat topo IIα and its deletion mutants. Unlike WT, the CTD truncated mutant (ΔCTD) lacked linear DNA binding activity, but could bind to negatively supercoiled DNA similarly to WT. The CTD alone showed linear DNA-binding activity. ΔCTD mediated formation of a DNA catenane in the presence of polyethylene glycol, which enhances macromolecular association. These results indicate that DNA-binding activity in the CTD of topo IIα concentrates the enzyme in the vicinity of condensed DNA and allows topo IIα to efficiently form a DNA catenane. PMID:26527691

  2. Repression of DNA-binding dependent glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Muzikar, Katy A.; Nickols, Nicholas G.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) affects the transcription of genes involved in diverse processes, including energy metabolism and the immune response, through DNA-binding dependent and independent mechanisms. The DNA-binding dependent mechanism occurs by direct binding of GR to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) at regulatory regions of target genes. The DNA-binding independent mechanism involves binding of GR to transcription factors and coactivators that, in turn, contact DNA. A small molecule that competes with GR for binding to GREs could be expected to affect the DNA-dependent pathway selectively by interfering with the protein-DNA interface. We show that a DNA-binding polyamide that targets the consensus GRE sequence binds the glucocorticoid-induced zipper (GILZ) GRE, inhibits expression of GILZ and several other known GR target genes, and reduces GR occupancy at the GILZ promoter. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of this polyamide on a set of glucocorticoid-induced and -repressed genes could help to elucidate the mechanism of GR regulation for these genes. PMID:19805343

  3. Sequence requirement for specific interaction of an enhancer binding protein (EBP1) with DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, L; Hay, R T

    1989-01-01

    Short DNA sequence motifs have been identified in viral and cellular enhancers which represent the binding sites for a variety of trans- acting factors. One such HeLa cell factor, EBP1, has been purified and shown to bind to sequences in the SV40 enhancer. The PRDII element in the human beta-interferon gene regulatory element (IRE) shows strong sequence similarity to the EBP1 binding site in the SV40 enhancer. We demonstrate here that EBP1 binds to its sites in the SV40 enhancer and IRE in a similar manner, making base specific contacts over one complete turn of the DNA double helix. Mutational analysis of the EBP1 sites in the IRE and SV40 enhancer has identified the DNA sequence requirements necessary for specific EBP1/DNA complex formation. In addition, 34 DNA sequences related to the EBP1 binding site were analysed for their ability to bind EBP1. Sequences constituting high affinity binding sites possess the sequence 5'-GG(N)6CC-3'. Single base pair changes in the region between the conserved Gs and Cs can generally be tolerated although it is clear that these intervening bases contribute to binding affinity. Mutations in the recognition site which could lead to gross structural changes in the DNA abolish EBP1 binding. Images PMID:2536920

  4. Changes in dynamical behavior of the retinoid X receptor DNA-binding domain upon binding to a 14 base-pair DNA half site.

    PubMed

    van Tilborg, P J; Czisch, M; Mulder, F A; Folkers, G E; Bonvin, A M; Nair, M; Boelens, R; Kaptein, R

    2000-08-01

    The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a prominent member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Many proteins of this family exert their function as heterodimers with RXR as a common upstream partner. Studies of the DNA-binding domains of several nuclear receptors reveal differences in structure and dynamics, both between the different proteins and between the free- and DNA-bound receptor DBDs. We investigated the differences in dynamics between RXR free in solution and in complex with a 14 base-pair oligonucleotide, using (1)H and (15)N relaxation studies. Nano- to picosecond dynamics were probed on (15)N, employing Lipari-Szabo analysis with an axially symmetric tumbling model to estimate the exchange contributions to the transverse relaxation rates. Furthermore, milli- to microsecond dynamics were estimated qualitatively for (1)H and (15)N, using CPMG-HSQC and CPMG-T(2) measurements with differential pulse spacing. RXR shows hardly any nano- to picosecond time-scale internal motion. Upon DNA binding, the order parameters show a tiny increase. Dynamics in the milli- to microsecond time scale is more prevalent. It is localized in the first and second zinc fingers of the free RXR. Upon DNA-binding, exchange associated with specific/aspecific DNA-binding of RXR is observed throughout the sequence, whereas conformational flexibility of the D-box and the second zinc finger of RXR is greatly reduced. Since this DNA-binding induced folding transition occurs remote from the DNA in a region which is involved in protein-protein interactions, it may very well be related to the cooperativity of dimeric DNA binding. PMID:10913286

  5. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a-h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and quenching constants from -0.2 × 10(4) to 2.18 × 10(4) M(-1) indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N- (4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  6. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Gomes da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-(4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  7. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a highly conserved nuclear protein, was identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in the most common variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), FTLD-U, which is characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions that stain positive for ubiquitin but negative for tau and α-synuclein. Since then, rapid advances have been made in our understanding of the physiological function of TDP-43 and the role of this protein in neurodegeneration. These advances link ALS and FTLD-U (now designated FTLD-TDP) to a shared mechanism of disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the normal function of TDP-43 and the TDP-43 pathology observed in FTLD-TDP, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases wherein TDP-43 pathology co-occurs with other disease-specific lesions (for example, with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease). Moreover, we discuss the accumulating data that support our view that FTLD-TDP and ALS represent two ends of a spectrum of primary TDP-43 proteinopathies. Finally, we comment on the importance of recent advances in TDP-43-related research to neurological practice, including the new opportunities to develop better diagnostics and disease-modifying therapies for ALS, FTLD-TDP, and related disorders exhibiting TDP-43 pathology. PMID:20234357

  8. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  9. Molecular modeling and spectroscopic studies of semustine binding with DNA and its comparison with lomustine-DNA adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shweta; Chadha, Deepti; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Chloroethyl nitrosoureas constitute an important family of cancer chemotherapeutic agents, used in the treatment of various types of cancer. They exert antitumor activity by inducing DNA interstrand cross-links. Semustine, a chloroethyl nitrosourea, is a 4-methyl derivative of lomustine. There exist some interesting reports dealing with DNA-binding properties of chloroethyl nitrosoureas; however, underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by semustine has not been precisely and completely delineated. The present work focuses on understanding semustine-DNA interaction to comprehend its anti-proliferative action at molecular level using various spectroscopic techniques. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is used to determine the binding site of semustine on DNA. Conformational transition in DNA after semustine complexation is investigated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Stability of semustine-DNA complexes is determined using absorption spectroscopy. Results of the present study demonstrate that semustine performs major-groove-directed DNA alkylation at guanine residues in an incubation-time-drug-concentration-dependent manner. CD spectral outcomes suggest partial transition of DNA from native B-conformation to C-form. Calculated binding constants (Ka) for semustine and lomustine interactions with DNA are 1.53 × 10(3) M(-1) and 8.12 × 10(3) M(-1), respectively. Moreover, molecular modeling simulation is performed to predict preferential binding orientation of semustine with DNA that corroborates well with spectral outcomes. Results based on comparative study of DNA-binding properties of semustine and lomustine, presented here, may establish a correlation between molecular structure and cytotoxicity of chloroethyl nitrosoureas that may be instrumental in the designing and synthesis of new nitrosourea therapeutics possessing better efficacy and fewer side effects. PMID:25350567

  10. Distinct Z-DNA binding mode of a PKR-like protein kinase containing a Z-DNA binding domain (PKZ)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doyoun; Hur, Jeonghwan; Park, Kwangsoo; Bae, Sangsu; Shin, Donghyuk; Ha, Sung Chul; Hwang, Hye-Yeon; Hohng, Sungchul; Lee, Joon-Hwa; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Double-stranded ribonucleic acid-activated protein kinase (PKR) downregulates translation as a defense mechanism against viral infection. In fish species, PKZ, a PKR-like protein kinase containing left-handed deoxyribonucleic acid (Z-DNA) binding domains, performs a similar role in the antiviral response. To understand the role of PKZ in Z-DNA recognition and innate immune response, we performed structural and functional studies of the Z-DNA binding domain (Zα) of PKZ from Carassius auratus (caZαPKZ). The 1.7-Å resolution crystal structure of caZαPKZ:Z-DNA revealed that caZαPKZ shares the overall fold with other Zα, but has discrete structural features that differentiate its DNA binding mode from others. Functional analyses of caZαPKZ and its mutants revealed that caZαPKZ mediates the fastest B-to-Z transition of DNA among Zα, and the minimal interaction for Z-DNA recognition is mediated by three backbone phosphates and six residues of caZαPKZ. Structure-based mutagenesis and B-to-Z transition assays confirmed that Lys56 located in the β-wing contributes to its fast B-to-Z transition kinetics. Investigation of the DNA binding kinetics of caZαPKZ further revealed that the B-to-Z transition rate is positively correlated with the association rate constant. Taking these results together, we conclude that the positive charge in the β-wing largely affects fast B-to-Z transition activity by enhancing the DNA binding rate. PMID:24682817

  11. The role of monogamous bivalency and Fc interactions in the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA antigen.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Nancy A; Pisetsky, David S

    2016-05-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus. These antibodies can bind DNA avidly by monogamous bivalency, a mechanism which requires the interaction of both Fab combining regions with antigenic determinants on the same polynucleotide. To explore further this mechanism, we tested Fab and F(ab')2 fragments prepared from IgG from patient plasmas in an ELISA with native DNA antigen, detecting antibody with a peroxidase conjugated anti-Fab reagent. These studies showed that Fab fragments, which can only bind monovalently, had negligible activity. Although bivalent F(ab')2 fragments would be predicted to bind DNA, these fragments also showed poor anti-DNA activity. Control studies showed that the fragments retained antibody activity to tetanus toxoid and an EBV antigen preparation. Together, these findings suggest that anti-DNA avidity depends on monogamous bivalency, with the antibody Fc portion also influencing DNA binding, in a mechanism which can be termed Fc-dependent monogamous bivalency. PMID:27083935

  12. DNA binding, photo-induced DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity studies of lomefloxacin and its transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragheb, Mohamed A.; Eldesouki, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Mervat S.

    2015-03-01

    This work was focused on a study of the DNA binding and cleavage properties of lomefloxacin (LMF) and its ternary transition metal complexes with glycine. The nature of the binding interactions between compounds and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and thermal denaturation experiments. The obtained results revealed that LMF and its complexes could interact with CT-DNA via partial/moderate intercalative mode. Furthermore, the DNA cleavage activities of the compounds were investigated by gel electrophoresis. Mechanistic studies of DNA cleavage suggest that singlet oxygen (1O2) is likely to be the cleaving agent via an oxidative pathway, except for Cu(II) complex which proceeds via both oxidative and hydrolytic pathways. Antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the compounds were also studied against some kinds of bacteria, fungi and human cell lines.

  13. Thermodynamics of Damaged DNA Binding and Catalysis by Human AP Endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Miroshnikova, A D; Kuznetsova, A A; Kuznetsov, N A; Fedorova, O S

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play an important role in DNA repair and initiation of AP site elimination. One of the most topical problems in the field of DNA repair is to understand the mechanism of the enzymatic process involving the human enzyme APE1 that provides recognition of AP sites and efficient cleavage of the 5'-phosphodiester bond. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between APE1 and a DNA substrate containing a stable AP site analog lacking the C1' hydroxyl group (F site) was performed. Based on stopped-flow kinetic data at different temperatures, the steps of DNA binding, catalysis, and DNA product release were characterized. The changes in the standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential specific steps of the repair process were determined. The thermodynamic analysis of the data suggests that the initial step of the DNA substrate binding includes formation of non-specific contacts between the enzyme binding surface and DNA, as well as insertion of the amino acid residues Arg177 and Met270 into the duplex, which results in the removal of "crystalline" water molecules from DNA grooves. The second binding step involves the F site flipping-out process and formation of specific contacts between the enzyme active site and the everted 5'-phosphate-2'-deoxyribose residue. It was shown that non-specific interactions between the binding surfaces of the enzyme and DNA provide the main contribution into the thermodynamic parameters of the DNA product release step. PMID:27099790

  14. BclxL Changes Conformation upon Binding to Wild-type but Not Mutant p53 DNA Binding Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Hagn, Franz; Klein, Christian; Demmer, Oliver; Marchenko, Natasha; Vaseva, Angelina; Moll, Ute M.; Kessler, Horst

    2010-01-01

    p53 can induce apoptosis through mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by interaction of its DNA binding region with the anti-apoptotic proteins BclxL and Bcl2. However, little is known about the action of p53 at the mitochondria in molecular detail. By using NMR spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization we characterized the binding of wild-type and mutant p53 DNA binding domains to BclxL and show that the wild-type p53 DNA binding domain leads to structural changes in the BH3 binding region of BclxL, whereas mutants fail to induce such effects due to reduced affinity. This was probed by induced chemical shift and residual dipolar coupling data. These data imply that p53 partly achieves its pro-apoptotic function at the mitochondria by facilitating interaction between BclxL and BH3-only proteins in an allosteric mode of action. Furthermore, we characterize for the first time the binding behavior of Pifithrin-μ, a specific small molecule inhibitor of the p53-BclxL interaction, and present a structural model of the protein-ligand complex. A rather unusual behavior is revealed whereby Pifithrin-μ binds to both sides of the protein-protein complex. These data should facilitate the rational design of more potent specific BclxL-p53 inhibitors. PMID:19955567

  15. BclxL changes conformation upon binding to wild-type but not mutant p53 DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Hagn, Franz; Klein, Christian; Demmer, Oliver; Marchenko, Natasha; Vaseva, Angelina; Moll, Ute M; Kessler, Horst

    2010-01-29

    p53 can induce apoptosis through mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by interaction of its DNA binding region with the anti-apoptotic proteins BclxL and Bcl2. However, little is known about the action of p53 at the mitochondria in molecular detail. By using NMR spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization we characterized the binding of wild-type and mutant p53 DNA binding domains to BclxL and show that the wild-type p53 DNA binding domain leads to structural changes in the BH3 binding region of BclxL, whereas mutants fail to induce such effects due to reduced affinity. This was probed by induced chemical shift and residual dipolar coupling data. These data imply that p53 partly achieves its pro-apoptotic function at the mitochondria by facilitating interaction between BclxL and BH3-only proteins in an allosteric mode of action. Furthermore, we characterize for the first time the binding behavior of Pifithrin-mu, a specific small molecule inhibitor of the p53-BclxL interaction, and present a structural model of the protein-ligand complex. A rather unusual behavior is revealed whereby Pifithrin-mu binds to both sides of the protein-protein complex. These data should facilitate the rational design of more potent specific BclxL-p53 inhibitors. PMID:19955567

  16. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  17. DR_bind: a web server for predicting DNA-binding residues from the protein structure based on electrostatics, evolution and geometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao Chi; Wright, Jon D.; Lim, Carmay

    2012-01-01

    DR_bind is a web server that automatically predicts DNA-binding residues, given the respective protein structure based on (i) electrostatics, (ii) evolution and (iii) geometry. In contrast to machine-learning methods, DR_bind does not require a training data set or any parameters. It predicts DNA-binding residues by detecting a cluster of conserved, solvent-accessible residues that are electrostatically stabilized upon mutation to Asp−/Glu−. The server requires as input the DNA-binding protein structure in PDB format and outputs a downloadable text file of the predicted DNA-binding residues, a 3D visualization of the predicted residues highlighted in the given protein structure, and a downloadable PyMol script for visualization of the results. Calibration on 83 and 55 non-redundant DNA-bound and DNA-free protein structures yielded a DNA-binding residue prediction accuracy/precision of 90/47% and 88/42%, respectively. Since DR_bind does not require any training using protein–DNA complex structures, it may predict DNA-binding residues in novel structures of DNA-binding proteins resulting from structural genomics projects with no conservation data. The DR_bind server is freely available with no login requirement at http://dnasite.limlab.ibms.sinica.edu.tw. PMID:22661576

  18. Investigation of DNA binding, DNA photocleavage, topoisomerase I inhibition and antioxidant activities of water soluble titanium(IV) phthalocyanine compounds.

    PubMed

    Özel, Arzu; Barut, Burak; Demirbaş, Ümit; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya

    2016-04-01

    The binding mode of water soluble peripherally tetra-substituted titanium(IV) phthalocyanine (Pc) compounds Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 with calf thymus (CT) DNA was investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermal denaturation studies in this work. The results of DNA binding constants (Kb) and the changes in the thermal denaturation profile of DNA with the addition of Pc compounds indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 are able to bind to CT-DNA with different binding affinities. DNA photocleavage studies of Pc compounds were performed in the absence and presence of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (AA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) using the agarose gel electrophoresis method at irradiation 650nm. According to the results of electrophoresis studies, Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 cleaved of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway. The Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds were examined for topoisomerase I inhibition by measuring the relaxation of supercoiled pBR322 DNA. The all of Pc compounds inhibited topoisomerase I at 20μM concentration. A series of antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide radical scavenging (SOD) assay and metal chelating effect assay were performed for Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds. The results of antioxidant assays indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities, moderate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activities and metal chelating effect activities. All the experimental studies showed that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds bind to CT-DNA via minor groove binding, cleave of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway, inhibit topoisomerase I and have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities. Thanks to these properties the Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds are suitable agents for photo dynamic therapy. PMID:26882290

  19. Binding studies of terbutaline sulfate to calf thymus DNA using multispectroscopic and molecular docking techniques.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shuyun; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Huifeng; Pang, Bo; Gu, Tingting

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of terbutaline sulfate (TS) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence quenching, UV-vis absorption, viscosity measurements, ionic strength effect, DNA melting experiments and molecular docking. The binding constants (Ka) of TS to ctDNA were determined as 4.92×10(4), 1.26×10(4) and 1.16×10(4) L mol(-1) at 17, 27 and 37 °C, respectively. Stern-Volmer plots suggested that the quenching of fluorescence of TS by ctDNA was a static quenching. The absorption spectra of TS with ctDNA revealed a slight blue shift and hyperchromic effect. The relative viscosity ctDNA was hardly changed by TS, and melting temperature varied slightly. For the system of TS-ctDNA, the intensity of fluorescence decreased with the increase of ionic strength. Also, the Ka for TS-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) was clearly weaker than that for TS-single stranded DNA (ssDNA). All these results revealed that the binding mode of TS with ctDNA should be groove binding. The enthalpy change and entropy change suggested that van der Waals force or hydrogen bonds was a main binding force between TS and ctDNA. Furthermore, the quantum yield of TS was measured by comparing with the standard solution. Based on the Förster energy transference theory (FRET), the binding distance between the acceptor and donor was calculated. Molecular docking showed that TS was a minor groove binder of ctDNA and preferentially bound to A-T rich regions. PMID:26123508

  20. DNA binding specificities of the long zinc-finger recombination protein PRDM9

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meiotic recombination ensures proper segregation of homologous chromosomes and creates genetic variation. In many organisms, recombination occurs at limited sites, termed 'hotspots', whose positions in mammals are determined by PR domain member 9 (PRDM9), a long-array zinc-finger and chromatin-modifier protein. Determining the rules governing the DNA binding of PRDM9 is a major issue in understanding how it functions. Results Mouse PRDM9 protein variants bind to hotspot DNA sequences in a manner that is specific for both PRDM9 and DNA haplotypes, and that in vitro binding parallels its in vivo biological activity. Examining four hotspots, three activated by Prdm9Cst and one activated by Prdm9Dom2, we found that all binding sites required the full array of 11 or 12 contiguous fingers, depending on the allele, and that there was little sequence similarity between the binding sites of the three Prdm9Cst activated hotspots. The binding specificity of each position in the Hlx1 binding site, activated by Prdm9Cst, was tested by mutating each nucleotide to its three alternatives. The 31 positions along the binding site varied considerably in the ability of alternative bases to support binding, which also implicates a role for additional binding to the DNA phosphate backbone. Conclusions These results, which provide the first detailed mapping of PRDM9 binding to DNA and, to our knowledge, the most detailed analysis yet of DNA binding by a long zinc-finger array, make clear that the binding specificities of PRDM9, and possibly other long-array zinc-finger proteins, are unusually complex. PMID:23618393

  1. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  2. Cloning and characterisation of mtDBP, a DNA-binding protein which binds two distinct regions of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Loguercio Polosa, P; Roberti, M; Musicco, C; Gadaleta, M N; Quagliariello, E; Cantatore, P

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA for the sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop-binding protein (mtDBP), a 40 kDa protein which binds two homologous regions of mitochondrial DNA (the D-loop region and the boundary between the oppositely transcribed ND5 and ND6 genes), has been cloned. Four different 3'-untranslated regions have been detected that are related to each other in pairs and do not contain the canonical polyadenylation signal. The in vitro synthesised mature protein (348 amino acids), deprived of the putative signal sequence, binds specifically to its DNA target sequence and produces a DNase I footprint identical to that given by the natural protein. mtDBP contains two leucine zippers, one of which is bipartite, and two small N- and C-terminal basic domains. A deletion mutation analysis of the recombinant protein has shown that the N-terminal region and the two leucine zippers are necessary for the binding. Furthermore, evidence was provided that mtDBP binds DNA as a monomer. This rules out a dimerization role for the leucine zippers and rather suggests that intramolecular interactions between leucine zippers take place. A database search has revealed as the most significative homology a match with the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF), a protein that also binds DNA as a monomer and contains three leucine zippers forming intramolecular interactions. These similarities, and the observation that mtDBP-binding sites contain the 3'-ends of mtRNAs coded by opposite strands and the 3'-end of the D-loop structure, point to a dual function of the protein in modulating sea urchin mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. PMID:10101198

  3. Cloning and characterisation of mtDBP, a DNA-binding protein which binds two distinct regions of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Loguercio Polosa, P; Roberti, M; Musicco, C; Gadaleta, M N; Quagliariello, E; Cantatore, P

    1999-04-15

    The cDNA for the sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop-binding protein (mtDBP), a 40 kDa protein which binds two homologous regions of mitochondrial DNA (the D-loop region and the boundary between the oppositely transcribed ND5 and ND6 genes), has been cloned. Four different 3'-untranslated regions have been detected that are related to each other in pairs and do not contain the canonical polyadenylation signal. The in vitro synthesised mature protein (348 amino acids), deprived of the putative signal sequence, binds specifically to its DNA target sequence and produces a DNase I footprint identical to that given by the natural protein. mtDBP contains two leucine zippers, one of which is bipartite, and two small N- and C-terminal basic domains. A deletion mutation analysis of the recombinant protein has shown that the N-terminal region and the two leucine zippers are necessary for the binding. Furthermore, evidence was provided that mtDBP binds DNA as a monomer. This rules out a dimerization role for the leucine zippers and rather suggests that intramolecular interactions between leucine zippers take place. A database search has revealed as the most significative homology a match with the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF), a protein that also binds DNA as a monomer and contains three leucine zippers forming intramolecular interactions. These similarities, and the observation that mtDBP-binding sites contain the 3'-ends of mtRNAs coded by opposite strands and the 3'-end of the D-loop structure, point to a dual function of the protein in modulating sea urchin mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. PMID:10101198

  4. Context influences on TALE–DNA binding revealed by quantitative profiling

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Julia M.; Barrera, Luis A.; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D.; Kellis, Manolis; Joung, J Keith; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins recognize DNA using a seemingly simple DNA-binding code, which makes them attractive for use in genome engineering technologies that require precise targeting. Although this code is used successfully to design TALEs to target specific sequences, off-target binding has been observed and is difficult to predict. Here we explore TALE–DNA interactions comprehensively by quantitatively assaying the DNA-binding specificities of 21 representative TALEs to ∼5,000–20,000 unique DNA sequences per protein using custom-designed protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). We find that protein context features exert significant influences on binding. Thus, the canonical recognition code does not fully capture the complexity of TALE–DNA binding. We used the PBM data to develop a computational model, Specificity Inference For TAL-Effector Design (SIFTED), to predict the DNA-binding specificity of any TALE. We provide SIFTED as a publicly available web tool that predicts potential genomic off-target sites for improved TALE design. PMID:26067805

  5. DNA-binding specificity changes in the evolution of forkhead transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, So; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S.; Rogers, Julia M.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks entails the expansion and diversification of transcription factor (TF) families. The forkhead family of TFs, defined by a highly conserved winged helix DNA-binding domain (DBD), has diverged into dozens of subfamilies in animals, fungi, and related protists. We have used a combination of maximum-likelihood phylogenetic inference and independent, comprehensive functional assays of DNA-binding capacity to explore the evolution of DNA-binding specificity within the forkhead family. We present converging evidence that similar alternative sequence preferences have arisen repeatedly and independently in the course of forkhead evolution. The vast majority of DNA-binding specificity changes we observed are not explained by alterations in the known DNA-contacting amino acid residues conferring specificity for canonical forkhead binding sites. Intriguingly, we have found forkhead DBDs that retain the ability to bind very specifically to two completely distinct DNA sequence motifs. We propose an alternate specificity-determining mechanism whereby conformational rearrangements of the DBD broaden the spectrum of sequence motifs that a TF can recognize. DNA-binding bispecificity suggests a previously undescribed source of modularity and flexibility in gene regulation and may play an important role in the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:23836653

  6. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, P A

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I{center_dot}C base pairs are functional analogs of A{center_dot}T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1 ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.

  7. The protein that binds to DNA base J in trypanosomatids has features of a thymidine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong; Genest, Paul-André; ter Riet, Bas; Sweeney, Kate; DiPaolo, Courtney; Kieft, Rudo; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Perrakis, Anastassis; Simmons, Jana M; Hausinger, Robert P; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Rigden, Daniel J; Sabatini, Robert; Borst, Piet

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosomatids contain an unusual DNA base J (beta-d-glucosylhydroxymethyluracil), which replaces a fraction of thymine in telomeric and other DNA repeats. To determine the function of base J, we have searched for enzymes that catalyze J biosynthesis. We present evidence that a protein that binds to J in DNA, the J-binding protein 1 (JBP1), may also catalyze the first step in J biosynthesis, the conversion of thymine in DNA into hydroxymethyluracil. We show that JBP1 belongs to the family of Fe(2+) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and that replacement of conserved residues putatively involved in Fe(2+) and 2-oxoglutarate-binding inactivates the ability of JBP1 to contribute to J synthesis without affecting its ability to bind to J-DNA. We propose that JBP1 is a thymidine hydroxylase responsible for the local amplification of J inserted by JBP2, another putative thymidine hydroxylase. PMID:17389644

  8. Crystal structures of Staphylococcal SaeR reveal possible DNA-binding modes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Cheng-Yang; Hsieh, Tung-Ju; Chen, Sheng-Chia; Chen, Yu-Ren; Yang, Chia-Shin; Kuo, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Lung; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Yeh

    2016-06-10

    Two-component system SaeRS of Staphylococcus regulates virulence factor expression through phosphorylation of the DNA-binding regulator SaeR by the sensor histidine kinase SaeS. Here crystal structures of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of SaeR from two Staphylococcal species Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were determined and showed similar folds. Analyzing the DNA binding activity of three mutants of SeSaeR, we observed that Thr217 is important in binding to the phosphate group of DNA and Trp219 may interact with the base pairs. Additionally, the tandem arrangement of DBD may represent a possible way for SaeR oligomerization on DNA. PMID:27150628

  9. Crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of the replication initiation protein E1 from papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Enemark, E J; Chen, G; Vaughn, D E; Stenlund, A; Joshua-Tor, L

    2000-07-01

    Papillomaviral infection causes both benign and malignant lesions and is a necessary cause of cervical carcinoma. Replication of this virus requires the replication initiation proteins E1 and E2, which bind cooperatively at the origin of replication (ori) as an (E1)2-(E2)2-DNA complex. This is a precursor to larger E1 complexes that distort and unwind the ori. We present the crystal structure of the E1 DNA binding domain refined to 1.9 A resolution. Residues critical for DNA binding are located on an extended loop and an alpha helix. We identify the E1 dimerization surface by selective mutations at an E1/E1 interface observed in the crystal and propose a model for the (E1)2-DNA complex. These and other observations suggest how the E1 DNA binding domain orchestrates assembly of the hexameric helicase on the ori. PMID:10949036

  10. DNA binding characteristics of mithramycin and chromomycin analogues obtained by combinatorial biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Francisca; Ortiz-Lombardía, Miguel; Martorell, Miquel; Oliver, Miquel; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A; Portugal, José

    2010-12-14

    The antitumor antibiotics mithramycin A and chromomycin A(3) bind reversibly to the minor groove of G/C-rich regions in DNA in the presence of dications such as Mg(2+), and their antiproliferative activity has been associated with their ability to block the binding of certain transcription factors to gene promoters. Despite their biological activity, their use as anticancer agents is limited by severe side effects. Therefore, in our pursuit of new structurally related molecules showing both lower toxicity and higher biological activity, we have examined the binding to DNA of six analogues that we have obtained by combinatorial biosynthetic procedures in the producing organisms. All these molecules bear a variety of changes in the side chain attached to C-3 of the chromophore. The spectroscopic characterization of their binding to DNA followed by the evaluation of binding parameters and associated thermodynamics revealed differences in their binding affinity. DNA binding was entropically driven, dominated by the hydrophobic transfer of every compound from solution into the minor groove of DNA. Among the analogues, mithramycin SDK and chromomycin SDK possessed the higher DNA binding affinities. PMID:21067184

  11. Conformation of nanoconfined DNA as a function of ATP, AMP, CTP, Mg2+, and dye binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Riehn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    DNA molecules stretch in nanochannels with a channel cross-section of 100x100 nm2, thereby allowing analysis by observation of a fluorescent dye. The length and configuration of DNA can be directly observed, and the effect of different DNA-binding proteins on DNA configuration can be studied. Recently, we reported on the ability of T4 ligase to transiently manipulate DNA as a function of ATP and magnesium exposure. In this process we have extensively probed the interactions of dyes and enzyme co-factors with DNA under nanoconfinement. We find negligible effects if DNA is visualized using groove-binding dyes such as DAPI. However, if an intercalating dye (YOYO-1) is used, we find a significant shortening of the DNA in the presence of ATP that we attribute to an interaction of dye and ATP (as well as AMP and CTP). We did not record a noticeable effect due to Mg2+.

  12. Twist- and tension-mediated elastic coupling between DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Koslover, Elena F; Spakowitz, Andrew J

    2009-05-01

    We study the effective interaction between DNA-binding proteins that arises from elastic stresses in the DNA when tension is applied. Using the wormlike chain model, we calculate the free energy cost of introducing multiple nearby bends in the DNA. We find that the bend deformation energy promotes aggregation to straighten the linker DNA, while twist resistance of the linker leads to damped oscillations in the coupling free energy between two proteins. We calculate the mean first encounter time for proteins sliding along DNA, indicating, in some cases, an optimal applied tension for protein assembly. Our results highlight the need to consider DNA twist even when no torsion is applied and the DNA ends are free to rotate. The variable-range oscillatory coupling between DNA-binding proteins may provide a versatile mechanism for tension-mediated gene regulation. PMID:19518837

  13. Twist- and Tension-Mediated Elastic Coupling between DNA-Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslover, Elena F.; Spakowitz, Andrew J.

    2009-05-01

    We study the effective interaction between DNA-binding proteins that arises from elastic stresses in the DNA when tension is applied. Using the wormlike chain model, we calculate the free energy cost of introducing multiple nearby bends in the DNA. We find that the bend deformation energy promotes aggregation to straighten the linker DNA, while twist resistance of the linker leads to damped oscillations in the coupling free energy between two proteins. We calculate the mean first encounter time for proteins sliding along DNA, indicating, in some cases, an optimal applied tension for protein assembly. Our results highlight the need to consider DNA twist even when no torsion is applied and the DNA ends are free to rotate. The variable-range oscillatory coupling between DNA-binding proteins may provide a versatile mechanism for tension-mediated gene regulation.

  14. Structure of a Thyroid Hormone Receptor DNA-Binding Domain Homodimer Bound to an Inverted Palindrome DNA Response Element

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Young, Matthew A.

    2010-10-22

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), as a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, can recognize and bind different classes of DNA response element targets as either a monomer, a homooligomer, or a heterooligomer. We report here the first crystal structure of a homodimer TR DNA-binding domain (DBD) in complex with an inverted repeat class of thyroid response element (TRE). The structure shows a nearly symmetric structure of the TR DBD assembled on the F2 TRE where the base recognition contacts in the homodimer DNA complex are conserved relative to the previously published structure of a TR-9-cis-retinoic acid receptor heterodimer DNA complex. The new structure also reveals that the T-box region of the DBD can function as a structural hinge that enables a large degree of flexibility in the position of the C-terminal extension helix that connects the DBD to the ligand-binding domain. Although the isolated TR DBDs exist as monomers in solution, we have measured highly cooperative binding of the two TR DBD subunits onto the inverted repeat DNA sequence. This suggests that elements of the DBD can influence the specific TR oligomerization at target genes, and it is not just interactions between the ligand-binding domains that are responsible for TR oligomerization at target genes. Mutational analysis shows that intersubunit contacts at the DBD C terminus account for some, but not all, of the cooperative homodimer TR binding to the inverted repeat class TRE.

  15. Screening of Threading Bis-Intercalators Binding to Duplex DNA by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mazzitelli, Carolyn L.; Chu, Yongjun; Reczek, Joseph J.; Iverson, Brent L.

    2007-01-01

    The DNA binding of novel threading bis-intercalators V1, trans-D1, and cis-C1, which contain two naphthalene diimide (NDI) intercalation units connected by a scaffold, was evaluated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and DNAse footprinting techniques. ESI-MS experiments confirmed that V1, the ligand containing the –Gly3-Lys-peptide scaffold, binds to a DNA duplex containing the 5'-GGTACC-3' specific binding site identified in previous NMR-based studies. The ligand formed complexes with a ligand/DNA binding stoichiometry of 1:1, even when there was excess ligand in solution. Trans-D1 and cis-C1 are new ligands containing a rigid spiro-tricyclic scaffold in the trans- and cis- orientations, respectively. Preliminary DNAse footprinting experiments identified possible specific binding sites of 5'-CAGTGA-5' for trans-D1 and 5'-GGTACC-3' for cis-C1. ESI-MS experiments revealed that both ligands bound to DNA duplexes containing the respective specific binding sequences, with cis-C1 exhibiting the most extensive binding based on a higher fraction of bound DNA value. Cis-C1 formed complexes with a dominant 1:1 binding stoichiometry, whereas trans-D1 was able to form 2:1 complexes at ligand/DNA molar ratios ≥ 1 which is suggestive of non-specific binding. Collisional activated dissociation (CAD) experiments indicate that DNA complexes containing V1, trans-D1, and cis-C1 have a unique fragmentation pathway, which was also observed for complexes containing the commercially available bisintercalator echinomycin, as a result of similar binding interactions, marked by intercalation in addition to hydrogen bonding by the scaffold with the DNA major or minor groove. PMID:17098442

  16. Structural Determinants of DNA Binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 Transcriptional Regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.; Llinás, Manuel

    2010-11-05

    Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan Apetala2 (AP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical Apicomplexan AP2 protein, PF14{_}0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a {beta}-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent {alpha}-helix supports the {beta}-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened or eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the {alpha}-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the {beta}-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14{_}0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multisite binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14{_}0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation.

  17. Structural determinants of DNA binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.; Llinás, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical ApiAP2 protein, PF14_0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14_0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a β-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent α-helix supports the β-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened or eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14_0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the α-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the β-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14_0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multi-site binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14_0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation. PMID:19913037

  18. Dynamic Coupling among Protein Binding, Sliding, and DNA Bending Revealed by Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Terakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Shoji

    2016-07-13

    Protein binding to DNA changes the DNA's structure, and altered DNA structure can, in turn, modulate the dynamics of protein binding. This mutual dependency is poorly understood. Here we investigated dynamic couplings among protein binding to DNA, protein sliding on DNA, and DNA bending by applying a coarse-grained simulation method to the bacterial architectural protein HU and 14 other DNA-binding proteins. First, we verified our method by showing that the simulated HU exhibits a weak preference for A/T-rich regions of DNA and a much higher affinity for gapped and nicked DNA, consistent with biochemical experiments. The high affinity was attributed to a local DNA bend, but not the specific chemical moiety of the gap/nick. The long-time dynamic analysis revealed that HU sliding is associated with the movement of the local DNA bending site. Deciphering single sliding steps, we found the coupling between HU sliding and DNA bending is akin to neither induced-fit nor population-shift; instead they moved concomitantly. This is reminiscent of a cation transfer on DNA and can be viewed as a protein version of polaron-like sliding. Interestingly, on shorter time scales, HU paused when the DNA was highly bent at the bound position and escaped from pauses once the DNA spontaneously returned to a less bent structure. The HU sliding is largely regulated by DNA bending dynamics. With 14 other proteins, we explored the generality and versatility of the dynamic coupling and found that 6 of the 15 assayed proteins exhibit the polaron-like sliding. PMID:27309278

  19. Binding properties of pendimethalin herbicide to DNA: multispectroscopic and molecular docking approaches.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-03-01

    Pendimethalin (PND) is a systemic herbicide widely used on rice, cotton, peas, wheat, potatoes, fruits, nuts and other residential and non-residential crops; however, it concurrently exerts toxic effects on beneficial organisms like earthworms, aquatic invertebrates and other non-targeted animals including humans. Most likely, the genotoxicity of agrochemicals/drugs is modulated through cellular distribution of bound DNA. Therefore, the in vitro interaction of PND with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) has been investigated using various sensitive biophysical techniques to ascertain its binding mechanism. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectra suggested the formation of a complex between PND and ctDNA. The binding constant of the PND-ctDNA complex was found to be around 10(4) M(-1) using steady state fluorescence titration. The calculated positive values of enthalpy and entropy changes suggested that the binding reaction was predominantly driven by hydrophobic interactions. Competitive displacement studies using acridine orange (AO), ethidium bromide (EB) and Hoechst dye suggested intercalation of PND molecules into the double helix of ctDNA by replacing the bound AO and EB probes. An increase in the viscosity and melting temperature of ctDNA and a decrease in iodine-quenching also support the intercalative binding of PND with ctDNA. Molecular docking analysis further confirmed the specific binding mode of PND between adjacent 'G-C' base pairs of ctDNA. PMID:26862600

  20. In vitro DNA binding studies of antiretroviral drug nelfinavir using ethidium bromide as fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Ramana, M M V; Betkar, Rahul; Nimkar, Amey; Ranade, Prasanna; Mundhe, Balaji; Pardeshi, Sachin

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the interaction of small molecules with DNA has become an active research area at the interface between biology and chemistry. In the present work, we investigated the mode of interaction of nelfinavir (NFV) with herring sperm DNA (hs DNA) under physiological conditions using various biophysical techniques. Analysis of UV-absorption and fluorescence spectra indicates the formation of complex between NFV and hs DNA. According to the fluorescence results, the binding constant (K) between NFV and hs DNA was found to be 3.30 × 10(4)LM(-1). The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔH° and ΔS°) suggested that hydrogen bonding plays a major role in binding between them. Phosphate group binding studies revealed that there was no electrostatic interactions occurred between NFV and hs DNA. Circular dichroism (CD) and DNA melting curve were employed to measure the conformational change of hs DNA in the presence of NFV, which verified the minor groove binding mode. These results were further supported by viscosity measurements and competitive displacement assay study using Hoechst 33258. According to the sequence specificity experiments, NFV binds to A-T rich region of hs DNA. PMID:26310356

  1. Structure of the RAG1 Nonamer Binding Domain with DNA Reveals a Dimer that Mediates DNA Synapsis

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, F.; Bailey, S; Innis, C; Ciubotaru, M; Kamtekar, S; Steitz, T; Schatz, D

    2009-01-01

    The products of recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes during lymphocyte development in a process known as V(D)J recombination. Lack of structural information for the RAG proteins has hindered mechanistic studies of this reaction. We report here the crystal structure of an essential DNA binding domain of the RAG1 catalytic core bound to its nonamer DNA recognition motif. The RAG1 nonamer binding domain (NBD) forms a tightly interwoven dimer that binds and synapses two nonamer elements, with each NBD making contact with both DNA molecules. Biochemical and biophysical experiments confirm that the two nonamers are in close proximity in the RAG1/2-DNA synaptic complex and demonstrate the functional importance of the protein-DNA contacts revealed in the structure. These findings reveal a previously unsuspected function for the NBD in DNA synapsis and have implications for the regulation of DNA binding and cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2.

  2. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-15

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π(∗) transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid. PMID:24830628

  3. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π∗ transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.

  4. Deciphering the groove binding modes of tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin with calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Mo; Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui; Xiong, Chunhong

    2016-02-01

    Tau-fluvalinate (TFL) and flumethrin (FL), widely used in agriculture and a class of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides with a similar structure, may cause a potential security risk. Herein, the modes of binding in vitro of TFL and FL with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the aid of viscosity measurements, melting analyses and molecular docking studies. The fluorescence titration indicated that both TFL and FL bound to ctDNA forming complexes through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. The binding constants of TFL and FL with ctDNA were in the range of 104 L mol- 1, and FL exhibited a higher binding propensity than TFL. The iodide quenching effect, single/double-stranded DNA effects, and ctDNA melting and viscosity measurements demonstrated that the binding of both TFL and FL to ctDNA was groove mode. The FT-IR analyses suggested the A-T region of the minor groove of ctDNA as the preferential binding for TFL and FL, which was confirmed by the displacement assays with Hoechst 33258 probe, and the molecular docking visualized the specific binding. The changes in CD spectra indicated that both FL and TFL induced the perturbation on the base stacking and helicity of B-DNA, but the disturbance caused by FL was more obvious. Gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that both TFL and FL did not cause significant DNA cleavage. This study provides novel insights into the binding properties of TFL/FL with ctDNA and its toxic mechanisms.

  5. Nbs1-dependent binding of Mre11 to adenovirus E4 mutant viral DNA is important for inhibiting DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2008-04-25

    Adenovirus (Ad) infections stimulate the activation of cellular DNA damage response and repair pathways. Ad early regulatory proteins prevent activation of DNA damage responses by targeting the MRN complex, composed of the Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 proteins, for relocalization and degradation. In the absence of these viral proteins, Mre11 colocalizes with viral DNA replication foci. Mre11 foci formation at DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation depends on the Nbs1 component of the MRN complex and is stabilized by the mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (Mdc1). We find that Nbs1 is required for Mre11 localization at DNA replication foci in Ad E4 mutant infections. Mre11 is important for Mdc1 foci formation in infected cells, consistent with its role as a sensor of DNA damage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that both Mre11 and Mdc1 are physically bound to viral DNA, which could account for their localization in viral DNA containing foci. Efficient binding of Mre11 to E4 mutant DNA depends on the presence of Nbs1, and is correlated with a significant E4 mutant DNA replication defect. Our results are consistent with a model in which physical interaction of Mre11 with viral DNA is mediated by Nbs1, and interferes with viral DNA replication.

  6. CK2 Phosphorylation Inactivates DNA Binding by the Papillomavirus E1 and E2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Stephen; Ruse, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses have complex life cycles that are understood only superficially. Although it is well established that the viral E1 and E2 proteins play key roles in controlling viral transcription and DNA replication, how these factors are regulated is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation by the protein kinase CK2 controls the biochemical activities of the bovine papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins by modifying their DNA binding activity. Phosphorylation at multiple sites in the N-terminal domain in E1 results in the loss of sequence-specific DNA binding activity, a feature that is also conserved in human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 proteins. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E2 protein, when phosphorylated by CK2 on two specific sites in the hinge, also loses its site-specific DNA binding activity. Mutation of these sites in E2 results in greatly increased levels of latent viral DNA replication, indicating that CK2 phosphorylation of E2 is a negative regulator of viral DNA replication during latent viral replication. In contrast, mutation of the N-terminal phosphorylation sites in E1 has no effect on latent viral DNA replication. We propose that the phosphorylation of the N terminus of E1 plays a role only in vegetative viral DNA replication, and consistent with such a role, caspase 3 cleavage of E1, which has been shown to be necessary for vegetative viral DNA replication, restores the DNA binding activity to phosphorylated E1. PMID:23637413

  7. Surface area of lipid membranes regulates the DNA-binding capacity of cationic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Pozzi, Daniela; Caminiti, Ruggero; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    We have applied electrophoresis on agarose gels to investigate the DNA-binding capacity of cationic liposomes made of cationic DC-cholesterol and neutral dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine as a function of membrane charge density and cationic lipid/DNA charge ratio. While each cationic liposome formulation exhibits a distinctive DNA-protection ability, here we show that such a capacity is universally regulated by surface area of lipid membranes available for binding in an aspecific manner. The relevance of DNA protection for gene transfection is also discussed.

  8. Novel DNA Motif Binding Activity Observed In Vivo With an Estrogen Receptor α Mutant Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leping; Grimm, Sara A.; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Hamilton, Katherine J.; Pockette, Brianna; Rubel, Cory A.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Fargo, David; Lanz, Rainer B.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Schütz, Günther; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) interacts with DNA directly or indirectly via other transcription factors, referred to as “tethering.” Evidence for tethering is based on in vitro studies and a widely used “KIKO” mouse model containing mutations that prevent direct estrogen response element DNA- binding. KIKO mice are infertile, due in part to the inability of estradiol (E2) to induce uterine epithelial proliferation. To elucidate the molecular events that prevent KIKO uterine growth, regulation of the pro-proliferative E2 target gene Klf4 and of Klf15, a progesterone (P4) target gene that opposes the pro-proliferative activity of KLF4, was evaluated. Klf4 induction was impaired in KIKO uteri; however, Klf15 was induced by E2 rather than by P4. Whole uterine chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed enrichment of KIKO ERα binding to hormone response elements (HREs) motifs. KIKO binding to HRE motifs was verified using reporter gene and DNA-binding assays. Because the KIKO ERα has HRE DNA-binding activity, we evaluated the “EAAE” ERα, which has more severe DNA-binding domain mutations, and demonstrated a lack of estrogen response element or HRE reporter gene induction or DNA-binding. The EAAE mouse has an ERα null–like phenotype, with impaired uterine growth and transcriptional activity. Our findings demonstrate that the KIKO mouse model, which has been used by numerous investigators, cannot be used to establish biological functions for ERα tethering, because KIKO ERα effectively stimulates transcription using HRE motifs. The EAAE-ERα DNA-binding domain mutant mouse demonstrates that ERα DNA-binding is crucial for biological and transcriptional processes in reproductive tissues and that ERα tethering may not contribute to estrogen responsiveness in vivo. PMID:24713037

  9. Novel DNA motif binding activity observed in vivo with an estrogen receptor α mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sylvia C; Li, Leping; Grimm, Sara A; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Hamilton, Katherine J; Pockette, Brianna; Rubel, Cory A; Pedersen, Lars C; Fargo, David; Lanz, Rainer B; DeMayo, Francesco J; Schütz, Günther; Korach, Kenneth S

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) interacts with DNA directly or indirectly via other transcription factors, referred to as "tethering." Evidence for tethering is based on in vitro studies and a widely used "KIKO" mouse model containing mutations that prevent direct estrogen response element DNA- binding. KIKO mice are infertile, due in part to the inability of estradiol (E2) to induce uterine epithelial proliferation. To elucidate the molecular events that prevent KIKO uterine growth, regulation of the pro-proliferative E2 target gene Klf4 and of Klf15, a progesterone (P4) target gene that opposes the pro-proliferative activity of KLF4, was evaluated. Klf4 induction was impaired in KIKO uteri; however, Klf15 was induced by E2 rather than by P4. Whole uterine chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed enrichment of KIKO ERα binding to hormone response elements (HREs) motifs. KIKO binding to HRE motifs was verified using reporter gene and DNA-binding assays. Because the KIKO ERα has HRE DNA-binding activity, we evaluated the "EAAE" ERα, which has more severe DNA-binding domain mutations, and demonstrated a lack of estrogen response element or HRE reporter gene induction or DNA-binding. The EAAE mouse has an ERα null-like phenotype, with impaired uterine growth and transcriptional activity. Our findings demonstrate that the KIKO mouse model, which has been used by numerous investigators, cannot be used to establish biological functions for ERα tethering, because KIKO ERα effectively stimulates transcription using HRE motifs. The EAAE-ERα DNA-binding domain mutant mouse demonstrates that ERα DNA-binding is crucial for biological and transcriptional processes in reproductive tissues and that ERα tethering may not contribute to estrogen responsiveness in vivo. PMID:24713037

  10. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  11. AHR signaling in prostate growth, morphogenesis, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Vezina, Chad M.; Lin, Tien-Min; Peterson, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Most evidence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling in prostate growth, morphogenesis, and disease stems from research using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pharmacologically activate the AHR at various stages of development. This review discusses effects of TCDD on prostate morphogenesis and highlights interactions between AHR and other signaling pathways during normal and aberrant prostate growth. Although AHR signaling modulates estrogen and androgen signaling in other tissues, crosstalk between these steroid hormone receptors and AHR signaling cannot account for actions of TCDD on prostate morphogenesis. Instead, the AHR appears to act within a cooperative framework of developmental signals to regulate timing and patterning of prostate growth. Inappropriate activation of AHR signaling as a result of early life TCDD exposure disrupts the balance of these signals, impairs prostate morphogenesis, and has an imprinting effect on the developing prostate that predisposes to prostate disease in adulthood. Mechanisms of AHR signaling in prostate growth and disease are only beginning to be unraveled and recent studies have revealed its interactions with WNT5A, retinoic acid, fibroblast growth factor 10, and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathways. PMID:18977204

  12. A novel assay for drug-DNA binding mode, affinity, and exclusion number: scanning force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Coury, J E; McFail-Isom, L; Williams, L D; Bottomley, L A

    1996-01-01

    Determining the mode-of-binding of a DNA ligand is not always straightforward. Here, we establish a scanning force microscopic assay for mode-of-binding that is (i) direct: lengths of individual DNA-ligand complexes are directly measured; (ii) rapid: there are no requirements for staining or elaborate sample preparation; and (iii) unambiguous: an observed increase in DNA length upon addition of a ligand is definitive evidence for an intercalative mode-of-binding. Mode-of-binding, binding affinity, and site-exclusion number are readily determined from scanning force microscopy measurements of the changes in length of individual drug-DNA complexes as a function of drug concentration. With this assay, we resolve the ambiguity surrounding the mode of binding of 2,5-bis(4-amidinophenyl) furan (APF) to DNA and show that it binds to DNA by nonintercalative modes. APF is a member of an important class of aromatic dicationic drugs that show significant activity in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, an opportunistic infection that is the leading cause of death in AIDS patients. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8901572

  13. Direct zonal liquid chromatographic method for the kinetic study of actinomycin-DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Madjar, Claire; Florentina, Cañada-Cañada; Gherghi, Ioanna; Jaulmes, Alain; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Taverna, Myriam

    2004-07-01

    The binding of an anticancer drug (actinomycin D or ACTD) to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ACTD is an antitumor antibiotic containing one chromophore group and two pentapeptidic lactone cycles that binds dsDNA. Incubations of ACTD with DNA were performed at physiological pH. The complexed and free ligand concentrations of the mixture were quantified at 440 nm from their separation on a size-exclusion chromatographic (SEC) column using the same buffer for the elution and the sample incubation. The DNA and the ACTD-DNA complexes were eluted at the column exclusion volume while the ligand was retained on the support. An apparent binding curve was obtained by plotting the amount emerging at the exclusion column volume against that eluted at free ACTD retention volume. A dissociating effect was evidenced and the binding parameters were significantly different from those obtained at equilibrium by visible absorbance titration. The equilibrium binding parameters determined by absorption spectroscopy were used as starting data in the numerical simulations of the chromatographic process. The results showed a strong dependency of the apparent binding parameters on the reaction kinetics. Finally the comparison of the apparent binding curve obtained from the HPLC experiments and from the numerical simulations permitted an evaluation of the dissociation rate constant (kd = 0.004 s(-1)). PMID:15296384

  14. A structural approach reveals how neighbouring C2H2 zinc fingers influence DNA binding specificity

    PubMed Central

    Garton, Michael; Najafabadi, Hamed S.; Schmitges, Frank W.; Radovani, Ernest; Hughes, Timothy R.; Kim, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of an accurate protein–DNA recognition code that can predict DNA specificity from protein sequence is a central problem in biology. C2H2 zinc fingers constitute by far the largest family of DNA binding domains and their binding specificity has been studied intensively. However, despite decades of research, accurate prediction of DNA specificity remains elusive. A major obstacle is thought to be the inability of current methods to account for the influence of neighbouring domains. Here we show that this problem can be addressed using a structural approach: we build structural models for all C2H2-ZF–DNA complexes with known binding motifs and find six distinct binding modes. Each mode changes the orientation of specificity residues with respect to the DNA, thereby modulating base preference. Most importantly, the structural analysis shows that residues at the domain interface strongly and predictably influence the binding mode, and hence specificity. Accounting for predicted binding mode significantly improves prediction accuracy of predicted motifs. This new insight into the fundamental behaviour of C2H2-ZFs has implications for both improving the prediction of natural zinc finger-binding sites, and for prioritizing further experiments to complete the code. It also provides a new design feature for zinc finger engineering. PMID:26384429

  15. FacB, the Aspergillus nidulans activator of acetate utilization genes, binds dissimilar DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Todd, R B; Andrianopoulos, A; Davis, M A; Hynes, M J

    1998-04-01

    The facB gene is required for acetate induction of acetamidase (amdS) and the acetate utilization enzymes acetyl-CoA synthase (facA), isocitrate lyase (acuD) and malate synthase (acuE) in Aspergillus nidulans. The facB gene encodes a transcriptional activator with a GAL4-type Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc binuclear cluster DNA-binding domain which is shown to be required for DNA binding. In vitro DNA-binding sites for FacB in the 5' regions of the amdS, facA, acuD and acuE genes have been identified. Mutations in amdS FacB DNA-binding sites affected expression of an amdS-lacZ reporter in vivo and altered the affinity of in vitro DNA binding. This study shows that the FacB Zn(II)2Cys6 cluster binds to dissimilar sites which show similarity in form but not sequence with DNA-binding sites of other Zn(II)2Cys6 proteins. Sequences with homology to FacB sites are found in the 5' regions of genes regulated by the closely related yeast Zn(II)2Cys6 protein CAT8. PMID:9524126

  16. Competition between DNA methylation and transcription factors determines binding of NRF1.

    PubMed

    Domcke, Silvia; Bardet, Anaïs Flore; Adrian Ginno, Paul; Hartl, Dominik; Burger, Lukas; Schübeler, Dirk

    2015-12-24

    Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) are key determinants of gene activity, yet they bind only a fraction of their corresponding DNA sequence motifs in any given cell type. Chromatin has the potential to restrict accessibility of binding sites; however, in which context chromatin states are instructive for TF binding remains mainly unknown. To explore the contribution of DNA methylation to constrained TF binding, we mapped DNase-I-hypersensitive sites in murine stem cells in the presence and absence of DNA methylation. Methylation-restricted sites are enriched for TF motifs containing CpGs, especially for those of NRF1. In fact, the TF NRF1 occupies several thousand additional sites in the unmethylated genome, resulting in increased transcription. Restoring de novo methyltransferase activity initiates remethylation at these sites and outcompetes NRF1 binding. This suggests that binding of DNA-methylation-sensitive TFs relies on additional determinants to induce local hypomethylation. In support of this model, removal of neighbouring motifs in cis or of a TF in trans causes local hypermethylation and subsequent loss of NRF1 binding. This competition between DNA methylation and TFs in vivo reveals a case of cooperativity between TFs that acts indirectly via DNA methylation. Methylation removal by methylation-insensitive factors enables occupancy of methylation-sensitive factors, a principle that rationalizes hypomethylation of regulatory regions. PMID:26675734

  17. Early stage intercalation of doxorubicin to DNA fragments observed in molecular dynamics binding simulations.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongxing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Chun

    2012-09-01

    The intercalation mode between doxorubicin (an anticancer drug) and two 6-base-pair DNA model fragments (d(CGATCG)₂ and d(CGTACG)₂) has been well studied by X-ray crystallography and NMR experimental methods. Yet, the detailed intercalation pathway at molecular level remains elusive. In this study, we conducted molecular dynamics binding simulations of these two systems using AMBER DNA (parmbsc0) and drug (GAFF) force fields starting from the unbound state. We observed outside binding (minor groove binding or end-binding) in all six independent binding simulations (three for each DNA fragment), followed by the complete intercalation of a drug molecule in two simulations (one for each DNA fragment). First, our data directly supported that the minor groove binding is the dominant pre-intercalation step. Second, we observed that the opening and flipping of a local base pair (A3-T10 for d(CGATCG)₂ and C1-G12 for d(CGTACG)₂) in the two intercalation trajectories. This locally cooperative flipping-intercalation mechanism was different from the previously proposed rise-insertion mechanism by which the distance between two neighboring intact base pairs increases to create a space for the drug insertion. Third, our simulations provided the first set of data to support the applicability of the AMBER DNA and drug force fields in drug-DNA atomistic binding simulations. Implications on the kinetics pathway and drug action are also discussed. PMID:23079648

  18. Binding Polymorphism in the DNA Bound State of the Pdx1 Homeodomain

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Volodymyr; Wang, Dongli; Rose, Robert B.; Sagui, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    The subtle effects of DNA-protein recognition are illustrated in the homeodomain fold. This is one of several small DNA binding motifs that, in spite of limited DNA binding specificity, adopts crucial, specific roles when incorporated in a transcription factor. The homeodomain is composed of a 3-helix domain and a mobile N-terminal arm. Helix 3 (the recognition helix) interacts with the DNA bases through the major groove, while the N-terminal arm becomes ordered upon binding a specific sequence through the minor groove. Although many structural studies have characterized the DNA binding properties of homeodomains, the factors behind the binding specificity are still difficult to elucidate. A crystal structure of the Pdx1 homeodomain bound to DNA (PDB 2H1K) obtained previously in our lab shows two complexes with differences in the conformation of the N-terminal arm, major groove contacts, and backbone contacts, raising new questions about the DNA recognition process by homeodomains. Here, we carry out fully atomistic Molecular Dynamics simulations both in crystal and aqueous environments in order to elucidate the nature of the difference in binding contacts. The crystal simulations reproduce the X-ray experimental structures well. In the absence of crystal packing constraints, the differences between the two complexes increase during the solution simulations. Thus, the conformational differences are not an artifact of crystal packing. In solution, the homeodomain with a disordered N-terminal arm repositions to a partially specific orientation. Both the crystal and aqueous simulations support the existence of different stable binding conformers identified in the original crystallographic data with different degrees of specificity. We propose that protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions favor a subset of the possible conformations. This flexibility in DNA binding may facilitate multiple functions for the same transcription factor. PMID:23950697

  19. Analytical methods to determine the comparative DNA binding studies of curcumin-Cu(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban; Rajasekaran, Marichamy; Rajagopal, Gurusamy; Athappan, Periakaruppan

    2012-11-01

    DNA interaction studies of two mononuclear [1:1(1); 1:2(2)] copper(II) complexes of curcumin have been studied. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA has been explored by physical methods to propose modes of DNA binding of the complexes. Absorption spectral titrations of complex 1 with CT-DNA shows a red-shift of 3 nm with the DNA binding affinity of Kb, 5.21 × 104 M-1 that are higher than that obtained for 2 (red-shift, 2 nm; Kb, 1.73 × 104 M-1) reveal that the binding occurs in grooves as a result of the interaction is via exterior phosphates. The CD spectra of these Cu(II) complexes show a red shift of 3-10 nm in the positive band with increase in intensities. This spectral change of induced CD due to the hydrophobic interaction of copper complexes with DNA is the characteristic of B to A conformational change. The EB displacement assay also reveals the same trend as observed in UV-Vis spectral titration. The addition of complexes 1 and 2 to the DNA bound ethidium bromide (EB) solutions causes an obvious reduction in emission intensities indicating that these complexes competitively bind to DNA with EB. The positive shift of both the Epc and E0' accompanied by reduction of peak currents in differential pulse voltammogram (DPV), upon adding different concentrations of DNA to the metal complexes, are obviously in favor of strong binding to DNA. The super coiled plasmid pUC18 DNA cleavage ability of Cu(II) complexes in the presence of reducing agent reveals the single strand DNA cleavage (ssDNA) is observed. The hydroxyl radical (HOrad ) and the singlet oxygen are believed to be the reactive species responsible for the cleavage.

  20. SiteOut: An Online Tool to Design Binding Site-Free DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Clarissa; Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins control many fundamental biological processes such as transcription, recombination and replication. A major goal is to decipher the role that DNA sequence plays in orchestrating the binding and activity of such regulatory proteins. To address this goal, it is useful to rationally design DNA sequences with desired numbers, affinities and arrangements of protein binding sites. However, removing binding sites from DNA is computationally non-trivial since one risks creating new sites in the process of deleting or moving others. Here we present an online binding site removal tool, SiteOut, that enables users to design arbitrary DNA sequences that entirely lack binding sites for factors of interest. SiteOut can also be used to delete sites from a specific sequence, or to introduce site-free spacers between functional sequences without creating new sites at the junctions. In combination with commercial DNA synthesis services, SiteOut provides a powerful and flexible platform for synthetic projects that interrogate regulatory DNA. Here we describe the algorithm and illustrate the ways in which SiteOut can be used; it is publicly available at https://depace.med.harvard.edu/siteout/. PMID:26987123

  1. Purification and characterization of a mitochondrial, single-stranded-DNA-binding protein from Paracentrotus lividus eggs.

    PubMed

    Roberti, M; Musicco, C; Loguercio Polosa, P; Gadaleta, M N; Quagliariello, E; Cantatore, P

    1997-07-01

    A binding protein for single-stranded DNA was purified from Paracentrotus lividus egg mitochondria to near homogeneity by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and single-stranded-DNA-cellulose. The protein consists of a single polypeptide of about 15 kDa. Glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis suggested that P. lividus mitochondrial single-stranded-DNA-binding protein exists as a homo-oligomer, possibly a tetramer, in solution. The protein shows a stronger preference for poly(dT) with respect to single-stranded M13, poly(dI) and poly(dC). Binding to poly(dA) takes place with much lower affinity. The binding-site size, determined by gel mobility-shift experiments with oligonucleotides of different length, is approximately 45 nucleotides. The binding to single-stranded DNA occurs with low or no cooperativity and is not influenced by ionic strength. The protein has a very high affinity for the DNA: its apparent macroscopic association constant is 2x10(9) M(-1), a value which is the highest among the mitochondrial single-stranded-DNA-binding proteins characterized to date. The lack of cooperativity and the high association constant represent distinctive features of this protein and might be related to the peculiar mechanism of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA replication. PMID:9249008

  2. Noncanonical DNA-binding mode of repressor and its disassembly by antirepressor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsik; Kim, Hee Jung; Son, Sang Hyeon; Yoon, Hye Jin; Lim, Youngbin; Lee, Jong Woo; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Kim, Seong Keun; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding repressors are involved in transcriptional repression in many organisms. Disabling a repressor is a crucial step in activating expression of desired genes. Thus, several mechanisms have been identified for the removal of a stably bound repressor (Rep) from the operator. Here, we describe an uncharacterized mechanism of noncanonical DNA binding and induction by a Rep from the temperate Salmonella phage SPC32H; this mechanism was revealed using the crystal structures of homotetrameric Rep (92–198) and a hetero-octameric complex between the Rep and its antirepressor (Ant). The canonical method of inactivating a repressor is through the competitive binding of the antirepressor to the operator-binding site of the repressor; however, these studies revealed several noncanonical features. First, Ant does not compete for the DNA-binding region of Rep. Instead, the tetrameric Ant binds to the C-terminal domains of two asymmetric Rep dimers. Simultaneously, Ant facilitates the binding of the Rep N-terminal domains to Ant, resulting in the release of two Rep dimers from the bound DNA. Second, the dimer pairs of the N-terminal DNA-binding domains originate from different dimers of a Rep tetramer (trans model). This situation is different from that of other canonical Reps, in which two N-terminal DNA-binding domains from the same dimeric unit form a dimer upon DNA binding (cis model). On the basis of these observations, we propose a noncanonical model for the reversible inactivation of a Rep by an Ant. PMID:27099293

  3. Noncanonical DNA-binding mode of repressor and its disassembly by antirepressor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsik; Kim, Hee Jung; Son, Sang Hyeon; Yoon, Hye Jin; Lim, Youngbin; Lee, Jong Woo; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Kim, Seong Keun; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2016-05-01

    DNA-binding repressors are involved in transcriptional repression in many organisms. Disabling a repressor is a crucial step in activating expression of desired genes. Thus, several mechanisms have been identified for the removal of a stably bound repressor (Rep) from the operator. Here, we describe an uncharacterized mechanism of noncanonical DNA binding and induction by a Rep from the temperate Salmonella phage SPC32H; this mechanism was revealed using the crystal structures of homotetrameric Rep (92-198) and a hetero-octameric complex between the Rep and its antirepressor (Ant). The canonical method of inactivating a repressor is through the competitive binding of the antirepressor to the operator-binding site of the repressor; however, these studies revealed several noncanonical features. First, Ant does not compete for the DNA-binding region of Rep. Instead, the tetrameric Ant binds to the C-terminal domains of two asymmetric Rep dimers. Simultaneously, Ant facilitates the binding of the Rep N-terminal domains to Ant, resulting in the release of two Rep dimers from the bound DNA. Second, the dimer pairs of the N-terminal DNA-binding domains originate from different dimers of a Rep tetramer (trans model). This situation is different from that of other canonical Reps, in which two N-terminal DNA-binding domains from the same dimeric unit form a dimer upon DNA binding (cis model). On the basis of these observations, we propose a noncanonical model for the reversible inactivation of a Rep by an Ant. PMID:27099293

  4. POT1-TPP1 Binding and Unfolding of Telomere DNA Discriminates against Structural Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Michael R; Rajavel, Malligarjunan; Hernandez-Sanchez, Wilnelly; de la Fuente, Maria; Biendarra, Sherri M; Harris, Michael E; Taylor, Derek J

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that reside at the ends of linear chromosomes and help maintain genomic integrity. Protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) and TPP1 are telomere-specific proteins that bind as a heterodimer to single-stranded telomere DNA to prevent illicit DNA damage responses and to enhance telomerase-mediated telomere extension. Telomere DNA is guanosine rich and, as such, can form highly stable secondary structures including G-quadruplexes. G-quadruplex DNA folds into different topologies that are determined by several factors including monovalent ion composition and the precise sequence and length of the DNA. Here, we explore the influence of DNA secondary structure on POT1-TPP1 binding. Equilibrium binding assays reveal that the POT1-TPP1 complex binds G-quadruplex structures formed in buffers containing Na(+) with an affinity that is fivefold higher than for G-quadruplex structures formed in the presence of K(+). However, the binding of the second heterodimer is insensitive to DNA secondary structure, presumably due to unfolding resulting from binding of the first POT1-TPP1. We further show that the rate constant for POT1-TPP1-induced unfolding of DNA secondary structure is substantially faster for G-quadruplex topologies formed in the presence of Na(+) ions. When bound to DNA, POT1-TPP1 forms complexes with similar CD spectra and enhances telomerase activity for all DNA substrates tested, regardless of the substrate secondary structure or solution monovalent ion composition. Together, these data indicate that binding of POT1-TPP1 unfolds telomere secondary structure to assist loading of additional heterodimers and to ensure efficient promotion of telomerase-mediated extension. PMID:27173378

  5. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  6. Threading polyintercalators with extremely slow dissociation rates and extended DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amy Rhoden; Iverson, Brent L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of small molecules that bind DNA sequence specifically has the potential to modulate gene expression in a general way. One mode of DNA binding is intercalation, or the insertion of molecules between DNA base pairs. We have developed a modular polyintercalation system in which intercalating naphthalene diimide (NDI) units are connected by flexible linkers that alternate between the minor and major grooves of DNA when bound. We recently reported a threading tetraintercalator with a dissociation half-life of 16 days, the longest reported to date, from its preferred 14 bp binding site. Herein, three new tetraintercalator derivatives were synthesized with one, two, and three additional methylene units in the central major groove-binding linker. These molecules displayed dissociation half-lives of 57, 27, and 18 days, respectively, from the 14 bp site. The optimal major groove-binding linker was used in the design of an NDI hexaintercalator that was analyzed by gel-shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The hexaintercalator bound its entire 22 bp binding site, the longest reported specific binding site for a synthetic, non-nucleic acid based DNA binding molecule, but with a significantly faster dissociation rate compared to the tetraintercalators. PMID:23919778

  7. Threading polyintercalators with extremely slow dissociation rates and extended DNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Rhoden Smith, Amy; Iverson, Brent L

    2013-08-28

    The development of small molecules that bind DNA sequence specifically has the potential to modulate gene expression in a general way. One mode of DNA binding is intercalation, or the insertion of molecules between DNA base pairs. We have developed a modular polyintercalation system in which intercalating naphthalene diimide (NDI) units are connected by flexible linkers that alternate between the minor and major grooves of DNA when bound. We recently reported a threading tetraintercalator with a dissociation half-life of 16 days, the longest reported to date, from its preferred 14 bp binding site. Herein, three new tetraintercalator derivatives were synthesized with one, two, and three additional methylene units in the central major groove-binding linker. These molecules displayed dissociation half-lives of 57, 27, and 18 days, respectively, from the 14 bp site. The optimal major groove-binding linker was used in the design of an NDI hexaintercalator that was analyzed by gel-shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The hexaintercalator bound its entire 22 bp binding site, the longest reported specific binding site for a synthetic, non-nucleic acid-based DNA binding molecule, but with a significantly faster dissociation rate compared to the tetraintercalators. PMID:23919778

  8. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-09-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  9. DNA Binding Mode Transitions of Escherichia coli HUαβ: Evidence for Formation of a Bent DNA – Protein Complex on Intact, Linear Duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Junseock; Saecker, Ruth M.; Record, M. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli HUαβ, a major nucleoid associated protein (NAP), organizes the DNA chromosome and facilitates numerous DNA transactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and a series of DNA lengths (8, 15, 34, 38 and 160 base pairs) we establish that HUαβ interacts with duplex DNA using three different nonspecific binding modes. Both the HU to DNA mole ratio ([HU]/[DNA]) and DNA length dictate the dominant HU binding mode. On sufficiently long DNA (≥ 34 base pairs), at low [HU]/[DNA], HU populates a noncooperative 34 bp binding mode with a binding constant of 2.1 (± 0.4) × 106 M−1, and a binding enthalpy of +7.7 (± 0.6) kcal/mol at 15 °C and 0.15 M Na+. With increasing [HU]/[DNA], HU bound in the noncooperative 34 bp mode progressively converts to two cooperative (ω ~ 20) modes with site sizes of 10 bp and 6 bp. These latter modes exhibit smaller binding constants (1.1 (± 0.2) × 105 M−1 for the 10 bp mode, 3.5 (± 1.4) × 104 M−1 for the 6 bp mode) and binding enthalpies (4.2 (± 0.3) kcal/mol for the 10 bp mode, −1.6 (±0.3) kcal/mol for the 6 bp mode). As DNA length increases to 34 bp or more at low [HU]/[DNA], the small modes are replaced by the 34 bp binding mode. FRET data demonstrate that the 34 bp mode bends DNA by 143 ± 6° whereas the 6 and 10 bp modes do not. The model proposed in this study provides a novel quantitative and comprehensive framework for reconciling previous structural and solution studies of HU, including single molecule (force extension measurement, AFM), fluorescence, and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays. In particular, it explains how HU condenses or extends DNA depending on the relative concentrations of HU and DNA. PMID:18657548

  10. The amplification effect of functionalized gold nanoparticles on the binding of anticancer drug dacarbazine to DNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qin; Wang, Xuemei; Fu, Degang

    2008-11-01

    The promising application of functionalized gold nanoparticles to amplify the performance of biosensors and relevant biomolecular recognition processes has been explored in this paper. Our observations illustrate the apparent enhancement effect of the gold nanoparticles on the electrochemical response of the anticancer drug dacarbazine (DTIC) binding to DNA and DNA bases, indicating that these functionalized gold nanoparticles could readily facilitate the specific interactions between DTIC and DNA/DNA bases. This raises the potential valuable applications of these biocompatible nanoparticles in the promising biosensors and biomedical engineering.

  11. Quantitative modeling of gene expression using DNA shape features of binding sites.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Chen; Sinha, Saurabh

    2016-07-27

    Prediction of gene expression levels driven by regulatory sequences is pivotal in genomic biology. A major focus in transcriptional regulation is sequence-to-expression modeling, which interprets the enhancer sequence based on transcription factor concentrations and DNA binding specificities and predicts precise gene expression levels in varying cellular contexts. Such models largely rely on the position weight matrix (PWM) model for DNA binding, and the effect of alternative models based on DNA shape remains unexplored. Here, we propose a statistical thermodynamics model of gene expression using DNA shape features of binding sites. We used rigorous methods to evaluate the fits of expression readouts of 37 enhancers regulating spatial gene expression patterns in Drosophila embryo, and show that DNA shape-based models perform arguably better than PWM-based models. We also observed DNA shape captures information complimentary to the PWM, in a way that is useful for expression modeling. Furthermore, we tested if combining shape and PWM-based features provides better predictions than using either binding model alone. Our work demonstrates that the increasingly popular DNA-binding models based on local DNA shape can be useful in sequence-to-expression modeling. It also provides a framework for future studies to predict gene expression better than with PWM models alone. PMID:27257066

  12. High-resolution DNA-binding specificity analysis of yeast transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cong; Byers, Kelsey J.R.P.; McCord, Rachel Patton; Shi, Zhenwei; Berger, Michael F.; Newburger, Daniel E.; Saulrieta, Katrina; Smith, Zachary; Shah, Mita V.; Radhakrishnan, Mathangi; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Hu, Yanhui; De Masi, Federico; Pacek, Marcin; Rolfs, Andreas; Murthy, Tal; LaBaer, Joshua; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of genes through sequence-specific interactions with DNA-binding sites. However, despite recent progress in identifying in vivo TF binding sites by microarray readout of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip), nearly half of all known yeast TFs are of unknown DNA-binding specificities, and many additional predicted TFs remain uncharacterized. To address these gaps in our knowledge of yeast TFs and their cis regulatory sequences, we have determined high-resolution binding profiles for 89 known and predicted yeast TFs, over more than 2.3 million gapped and ungapped 8-bp sequences (“k-mers”). We report 50 new or significantly different direct DNA-binding site motifs for yeast DNA-binding proteins and motifs for eight proteins for which only a consensus sequence was previously known; in total, this corresponds to over a 50% increase in the number of yeast DNA-binding proteins with experimentally determined DNA-binding specificities. Among other novel regulators, we discovered proteins that bind the PAC (Polymerase A and C) motif (GATGAG) and regulate ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription and processing, core cellular processes that are constituent to ribosome biogenesis. In contrast to earlier data types, these comprehensive k-mer binding data permit us to consider the regulatory potential of genomic sequence at the individual word level. These k-mer data allowed us to reannotate in vivo TF binding targets as direct or indirect and to examine TFs' potential effects on gene expression in ∼1700 environmental and cellular conditions. These approaches could be adapted to identify TFs and cis regulatory elements in higher eukaryotes. PMID:19158363

  13. Dithiocarbamate/piperazine bridged pyrrolobenzodiazepines as DNA-minor groove binders: synthesis, DNA-binding affinity and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Sreekanth, Kokkonda; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Sathish, Manda; Nekkanti, Shalini; Srinivasulu, Vunnam

    2015-04-01

    A new series of C8-linked dithiocarbamate/piperazine bridged pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine conjugates (5a-c, 6a,b) have been synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential and DNA-binding ability. The representative conjugates 5a and 5b have been screened for their cytotoxicity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. Compound 5a has shown promising cytotoxic activity on selected cancer cell lines that display melanoma, leukemia, CNS, ovarian, breast and renal cancer phenotypes. The consequence of further replacement of the 3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl 1-piperazinecarbodithioate in 5b and 5c with 4-methylpiperazine-1-carbodithioate yielded new conjugates 6a and 6b respectively. In addition, the compounds 5c and 6a,b have been evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on some of the selected human cancer cell lines and these conjugates have exhibited significant cytotoxic activity. Further, the DNA-binding ability of these new conjugates has been evaluated by using thermal denaturation (ΔTm) studies. The correlation between structure and DNA-binding ability has been investigated by molecular modeling studies which predicted that 6b exhibits superior DNA-binding ability and these are in agreement with the experimental DNA-binding studies. PMID:25665519

  14. DNA binding by Corynebacterium glutamicum TetR-type transcription regulator AmtR

    PubMed Central

    Muhl, Daniela; Jeßberger, Nadja; Hasselt, Kristin; Jardin, Christophe; Sticht, Heinrich; Burkovski, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Background The TetR family member AmtR is the central regulator of nitrogen starvation response in Corynebacterium glutamicum. While the AmtR regulon was physiologically characterized in great detail up to now, mechanistic questions of AmtR binding were not addressed. This study presents a characterization of functionally important amino acids in the DNA binding domain of AmtR and of crucial nucleotides in the AmtR recognition motif. Results Site-directed mutagenesis, the characterization of corresponding mutant proteins by gel retardation assays and surface plasmon resonance and molecular modelling revealed several amino acids, which are directly involved in DNA binding, while others have more structural function. Furthermore, we could show that the spacing of the binding motif half sites is crucial for repression of transcription by AmtR. Conclusion Although the DNA binding domain of TetR-type repressors is highly conserved and a core binding motif was identified for AmtR and TetR(D), the AmtR binding domain shows individual properties compared to other TetR proteins. Besides by distinct amino acids of AmtR, DNA binding is influenced by nucleotides not only of the conserved binding motif but also by spacing nucleotides in C. glutamicum. PMID:19627583

  15. RecA-ssDNA filaments supercoil in the presence of single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Weixian; Larson, Ronald G. . E-mail: rlarson@umich.edu

    2007-06-08

    Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we find that RecA-single-stranded DNA (RecA-ssDNA) filaments, in the presence of single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) protein, organize into left-handed bundles, which differ from the previously reported disordered aggregates formed when SSB is excluded from the reaction. In addition, we see both left- and right-handedness on bundles of two filaments. These two-filament supercoils, individual filaments, and other smaller bundles further organize into more complicated bundles, showing overall left-handedness which cannot be explained by earlier arguments that presumed supercoiling is absent in RecA-ssDNA filaments. This novel finding and our previous results regarding supercoiling of RecA-double-stranded DNA (RecA-dsDNA) filaments are, however, consistent with each other and can possibly be explained by the intrinsic tendency of RecA-DNA filaments, in their fully coated form, to order themselves into helical bundles, independent of the DNA inside the filaments (ssDNA or dsDNA). RecA-RecA interactions may dominate the bundling process, while the original conformation of DNA inside filaments and other factors (mechanical properties of filaments, concentration of filaments, and Mg{sup 2+} concentration) could contribute to the variation in the appearance and pitch of supercoils. The tendency of RecA-DNA filaments to form ordered supercoils and their presence during strand exchange suggest a possible biological importance of supercoiled filaments.

  16. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  17. A nuclear protein associated with human cancer cells binds preferentially to a human repetitive DNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J. ); Law, M.L.; Puck, T.T. Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver )

    1989-11-01

    A protein (Rp66) of 66 kDa was shown by DNA-binding protein blot assay to bind to a human repetitive DNA sequence (low-repeat sequences; LRS) in each of 10 transformed human cell lines examined. This protein-DNA interaction was not observed in 11 normal human cell cultures or in the Chinese hamster cell line CHO-K1. Gel retardation assay confirmed the specificity of the protein-DNA binding between Rp66 and LRS. In a histiocytic lymphoma human cell line, U937, that can be induced to differentiate in the presence of phorbol ester, this binding disappeared after cell differentiation. These together with other results cited suggest a regulatory role for these repetitive sequences in the human genome, with particular application to cancer.

  18. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ghotbaddini, Maryam; Powell, Joann B

    2015-07-01

    The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to induce degradation of hormone receptors. The studies reported here, evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Our results show that TCDD exposure does not induce AhR or AR degradation in C4-2 cells. However, both AhR and AR are degraded in LNCaP cells following TCDD exposure. In addition, TCDD enhances AR phosphorylation and induces expression of AR responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Our data reveals that TCDD effect on AR expression and activity differs in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell models. PMID:26154658

  19. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghotbaddini, Maryam; Powell, Joann B.

    2015-01-01

    The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to induce degradation of hormone receptors. The studies reported here, evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Our results show that TCDD exposure does not induce AhR or AR degradation in C4-2 cells. However, both AhR and AR are degraded in LNCaP cells following TCDD exposure. In addition, TCDD enhances AR phosphorylation and induces expression of AR responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Our data reveals that TCDD effect on AR expression and activity differs in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell models. PMID:26154658

  20. A method to identify and characterize Z-DNA binding proteins using a linear oligodeoxynucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A. G.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oligodeoxynucleotide that readily flips to the Z-DNA conformation in 10mM MgCl2 was produced by using Klenow enzyme to incorporate 5-bromodeoxycytosine and deoxyguanosine into a (dC-dG)22 template. During synthesis the oligomer can be labeled with 32P to high specific activity. The labeled oligodeoxynucleotide can be used in bandshift experiment to detect proteins that bind Z-DNA. This allows the binding specificity of such proteins to be determined with high reliability using unlabeled linear and supercoiled DNA competitors. In addition, because the radioactive oligodeoxynucleotide contains bromine atoms, DNA-protein complexes can be readily crosslinked using UV light. This allows an estimate to be made of the molecular weight of the proteins that bind to the radioactive probe. Both techniques are demonstrated using a goat polyclonal anti-Z-DNA antiserum.

  1. Transcriptional Regulation in Mammalian Cells by Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Pamela J.; Tjian, Robert

    1989-07-01

    The cloning of genes encoding mammalian DNA binding transcription factors for RNA polymerase II has provided the opportunity to analyze the structure and function of these proteins. This review summarizes recent studies that define structural domains for DNA binding and transcriptional activation functions in sequence-specific transcription factors. The mechanisms by which these factors may activate transcriptional initiation and by which they may be regulated to achieve differential gene expression are also discussed.

  2. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  3. Spermine Attenuates the Action of the DNA Intercalator, Actinomycin D, on DNA Binding and the Inhibition of Transcription and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P.; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion. PMID:23144800

  4. Simulation of the type of coralin alkaloid-DNA binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, K. G.; Koshlan, T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Interaction between a synthesized coralin protoberberine alkaloid and the DNA double helix of the calf's thymus in a salt solution is studied by optical absorption spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry. The dependence of the spectral characteristics of the alkaloid on a ratio between the DNA base pair concentration and the alkaloid molecule concentration is considered. The parameters of bonds between the coralin alkaloid and the DNA double helix are determined using modified McGhee-von Hippel equations.

  5. A Potential Structural Switch for Regulating DNA-Binding by TEAD Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sun; Vonrhein, Clemens; Albarado, Diana; Raman, C S; Veeraraghavan, Sudha

    2016-06-19

    TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors are essential for the normal development of eukaryotes and are the downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Whereas our earlier work established the three-dimensional structure of the highly conserved DNA-binding domain using solution NMR spectroscopy, the structural basis for regulating the DNA-binding activity remains unknown. Here, we present the X-ray crystallographic structure and activity of a TEAD mutant containing a truncated L1 loop, ΔL1 TEAD DBD. Unexpectedly, the three-dimensional structure of the ΔL1 TEAD DBD reveals a helix-swapped homodimer wherein helix 1 is swapped between monomers. Furthermore, each three-helix bundle in the domain-swapped dimer is a structural homolog of MYB-like domains. Our investigations of the DNA-binding activity reveal that although the formation of the three-helix bundle by the ΔL1 TEAD DBD is sufficient for binding to an isolated M-CAT-like DNA element, multimeric forms are deficient for cooperative binding to tandemly duplicated elements, indicating that the L1 loop contributes to the DNA-binding activity of TEAD. These results suggest that switching between monomeric and domain-swapped forms may regulate DNA selectivity of TEAD proteins. PMID:27016204

  6. Specific binding of eukaryotic ORC to DNA replication origins depends on highly conserved basic residues.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hironori; Ohashi, Eiji; Kanamoto, Shota; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) heterohexamer preferentially binds replication origins to trigger initiation of DNA replication. Crystallographic studies using eubacterial and archaeal ORC orthologs suggested that eukaryotic ORC may bind to origin DNA via putative winged-helix DNA-binding domains and AAA+ ATPase domains. However, the mechanisms how eukaryotic ORC recognizes origin DNA remain elusive. Here, we show in budding yeast that Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of the largest subunit (Orc1), both outside the aforementioned domains, are crucial for specific binding of ORC to origin DNA. These basic residues, which reside in a putative disordered domain, were dispensable for interaction with ATP and non-specific DNA sequences, suggesting a specific role in recognition. Consistent with this, both residues were required for origin binding of Orc1 in vivo. A truncated Orc1 polypeptide containing these residues solely recognizes ARS sequence with low affinity and Arg-367 residue stimulates sequence specific binding mode of the polypeptide. Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of Orc1 are highly conserved among eukaryotic ORCs, but not in eubacterial and archaeal orthologs, suggesting a eukaryote-specific mechanism underlying recognition of replication origins by ORC. PMID:26456755

  7. Specific binding of eukaryotic ORC to DNA replication origins depends on highly conserved basic residues

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Hironori; Ohashi, Eiji; Kanamoto, Shota; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) heterohexamer preferentially binds replication origins to trigger initiation of DNA replication. Crystallographic studies using eubacterial and archaeal ORC orthologs suggested that eukaryotic ORC may bind to origin DNA via putative winged-helix DNA-binding domains and AAA+ ATPase domains. However, the mechanisms how eukaryotic ORC recognizes origin DNA remain elusive. Here, we show in budding yeast that Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of the largest subunit (Orc1), both outside the aforementioned domains, are crucial for specific binding of ORC to origin DNA. These basic residues, which reside in a putative disordered domain, were dispensable for interaction with ATP and non-specific DNA sequences, suggesting a specific role in recognition. Consistent with this, both residues were required for origin binding of Orc1 in vivo. A truncated Orc1 polypeptide containing these residues solely recognizes ARS sequence with low affinity and Arg-367 residue stimulates sequence specific binding mode of the polypeptide. Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of Orc1 are highly conserved among eukaryotic ORCs, but not in eubacterial and archaeal orthologs, suggesting a eukaryote-specific mechanism underlying recognition of replication origins by ORC. PMID:26456755

  8. Properties of the DNA-binding domain of the simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    McVey, D; Strauss, M; Gluzman, Y

    1989-01-01

    T antigen (Tag) from simian virus 40 binds specifically to two distinct sites in the viral origin of replication and to single-stranded DNA. Analysis of the protein domain responsible for these activities revealed the following. (i) The C-terminal boundary of the origin-specific and single-strand-specific DNA-binding domain is at or near amino acid 246; furthermore, the maximum of these DNA-binding activities coincides with a narrow C-terminal boundary, spanning 4 amino acids (246 to 249) and declines sharply in proteins with C termini which differ by a few (4 to 10) amino acids; (ii) a polypeptide spanning residues 132 to 246 of Tag is an independent domain responsible for origin-specific DNA binding and presumably for single-stranded DNA binding; and (iii) a comparison of identical N-terminal fragments of Tag purified from mammalian and bacterial cells revealed differential specificity and levels of activity between the two sources of protein. A role for posttranslational modification (phosphorylation) in controlling the DNA-binding activity of Tag is discussed. Images PMID:2555700

  9. Compact, universal DNA microarrays to comprehensively determine transcription-factor binding site specificities

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael F.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Qureshi, Aaron M.; He, Fangxue S.; Estep, Preston W.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of genes involved in myriad cellular processes through sequence-specific interactions with DNA. In order to predict DNA regulatory elements and the TFs targeting them with greater accuracy, detailed knowledge of the binding preferences of TFs is needed. Protein binding microarray (PBM) technology permits rapid, high-throughput characterization of the in vitro DNA binding specificities of proteins1. Here, we present a novel, maximally compact, synthetic DNA sequence design that represents all possible DNA sequence variants of a given length k (i.e., all “k-mers”) on a single, universal microarray. We constructed such all k-mer microarrays covering all 10 base pair (bp) binding sites by converting high-density single-stranded oligonucleotide arrays to double-stranded DNA arrays. Using these microarrays, we comprehensively determined the binding specificities over a full range of affinities for five TFs of diverse structural classes from yeast, worm, mouse, and human. Importantly, the unbiased coverage of all k-mers permits an interrogation of binding site preferences, including nucleotide interdependencies, at unprecedented resolution. PMID:16998473

  10. Putative binding modes of Ku70-SAP domain with double strand DNA: a molecular modeling study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-05-01

    The channel structure of the Ku protein elegantly reveals the mechanistic basis of sequence-independent DNA-end binding, which is essential to genome integrity after exposure to ionizing radiation or in V(D)J recombination. However, contradicting evidence indicates that this protein is also involved in the regulation of gene expression and in other regulatory processes with intact chromosomes. This computational study predicts that a putative DNA binding domain of this protein, the SAP domain, can form DNA-bound complexes with relatively high affinities (ΔG ≈ -20 kcal mol(-1)). The binding modes are searched by low frequency vibration modes driven by the fully flexible docking method while binding affinities are calculated by the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. We find this well defined 5 kDa domain with a helix-extended loop-helix structure is suitable to form favorable electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with either the major groove or the minor groove of DNA. The calculation also reveals the sequence specified binding preference which may relate to the observed pause sites when Ku translocates along DNA and the perplex binding of Ku with circular DNA. PMID:21947447

  11. DYNAMIC STRUCTURAL REARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN DNA BINDING MODES of E. coli SSB PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rahul; Kozlov, Alexander G.; Lohman, Timothy M.; Ha, Taekjip

    2007-01-01

    Summary Escherichia coli (E. coli) single stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) protein binds ssDNA in multiple binding modes and regulates many DNA processes via protein-protein interactions. Here, we present direct evidence for fluctuations between the two major modes of SSB binding, (SSB)35 and (SSB)65 formed on (dT)70, with rates of interconversion on time scales that vary as much as 200-fold for a mere 4-fold change in NaCl concentration. Such remarkable electrostatic effects allow only one of the two modes to be significantly populated outside a narrow range of salt concentration, providing a context for precise control of SSB function in cellular processes via SSB expression levels and interactions with other proteins. Deletion of the acidic C-terminus of SSB, the site of binding of several proteins involved in DNA metabolism, does not affect the strong salt dependence, but shifts the equilibrium towards the highly cooperative (SSB)35 mode, suggesting that interactions of proteins with the C-terminus may regulate the binding mode transition and vice versa. Single molecule analysis further revealed a novel low abundance binding configuration and provides a direct demonstration that the SSB-ssDNA complex is a finely tuned assembly in dynamic equilibrium among several well-defined structural and functional states. PMID:17490681

  12. The yeast telomere length regulator TEL2 encodes a protein that binds to telomeric DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kota, R S; Runge, K W

    1998-01-01

    TEL2 is required for telomere length regulation and viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate the mechanism by which Tel2p regulates telomere length, the majority (65%) of the TEL2 ORF was fused to the 3'-end of the gene for maltose binding protein, expressed in bacteria and the purified protein used in DNA binding studies. Rap1p, the major yeast telomere binding protein, recognizes a 13 bp duplex site 5'-GGTGTGTGGGTGT-3' in yeast telomeric DNA with high affinity. Gel shift experiments revealed that the MBP-Tel2p fusion binds the double-stranded yeast telomeric Rap1p site in a sequence-specific manner. Analysis of mutated sites showed that MBP-Tel2p could bind 5'-GTGTGTGG-3' within this 13 bp site. Methylation interference analysis revealed that Tel2p contacts the 5'-terminal guanine in the major groove. MBP-Tel2p did not bind duplex telomeric DNA repeats from vertebrates, Tetrahymena or Oxytricha. These results suggest that Tel2p is a DNA binding protein that recognizes yeast telomeric DNA. PMID:9490802

  13. Two-step mechanism involving active-site conformational changes regulates human telomerase DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Christopher G; Moye, Aaron L; Holien, Jessica K; Parker, Michael W; Cohen, Scott B; Bryan, Tracy M

    2015-01-15

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase maintains telomeres and is essential for cellular immortality in most cancers. Insight into the telomerase mechanism can be gained from syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenita, in which mutation of telomerase components manifests in telomere dysfunction. We carried out detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of wild-type telomerase and two disease-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase domain. Differences in dissociation rates between primers with different 3' ends were independent of DNA affinities, revealing that initial binding of telomerase to telomeric DNA occurs through a previously undescribed two-step mechanism involving enzyme conformational changes. Both mutations affected DNA binding, but through different mechanisms: P704S specifically affected protein conformational changes during DNA binding, whereas R865H showed defects in binding to the 3' region of the DNA. To gain further insight at the structural level, we generated the first homology model of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase domain; the positions of P704S and R865H corroborate their observed mechanistic defects, providing validation for the structural model. Our data reveal the importance of protein interactions with the 3' end of telomeric DNA and the role of protein conformational change in telomerase DNA binding, and highlight naturally occurring disease mutations as a rich source of mechanistic insight. PMID:25365545

  14. The Smc5-Smc6 heterodimer associates with DNA through several independent binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Marc-André; Dhanaraman, Thillaivillalan; D’Amours, Damien

    2015-01-01

    The Smc5-6 complex is required for the maintenance of genome integrity through its functions in DNA repair and chromosome biogenesis. However, the specific mode of action of Smc5 and Smc6 in these processes remains largely unknown. We previously showed that individual components of the Smc5-Smc6 complex bind strongly to DNA as monomers, despite the absence of a canonical DNA-binding domain (DBD) in these proteins. How heterodimerization of Smc5-6 affects its binding to DNA, and which parts of the SMC molecules confer DNA-binding activity is not known at present. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the functional domains of the Smc5-6 heterodimer and identify two DBDs in each SMC molecule. The first DBD is located within the SMC hinge region and its adjacent coiled-coil arms, while the second is found in the conserved ATPase head domain. These DBDs can independently recapitulate the substrate preference of the full-length Smc5 and Smc6 proteins. We also show that heterodimerization of full-length proteins specifically increases the affinity of the resulting complex for double-stranded DNA substrates. Collectively, our findings provide critical insights into the structural requirements for effective binding of the Smc5-6 complex to DNA repair substrates in vitro and in live cells. PMID:25984708

  15. Super-Resolution Microscopy and Tracking of DNA-Binding Proteins in Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Uphoff, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to detect individual fluorescent molecules inside living cells has enabled a range of powerful microscopy techniques that resolve biological processes on the molecular scale. These methods have also transformed the study of bacterial cell biology, which was previously obstructed by the limited spatial resolution of conventional microscopy. In the case of DNA-binding proteins, super-resolution microscopy can visualize the detailed spatial organization of DNA replication, transcription, and repair processes by reconstructing a map of single-molecule localizations. Furthermore, DNA binding activities can be observed directly by tracking protein movement in real time. This allows identifying subpopulations of DNA-bound and diffusing proteins, and can be used to measure DNA-binding times in vivo. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for super-resolution microscopy and tracking of DNA-binding proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The protocol covers the construction of cell strains and describes data acquisition and analysis procedures, such as super-resolution image reconstruction, mapping single-molecule tracks, computing diffusion coefficients to identify molecular subpopulations with different mobility, and analysis of DNA-binding kinetics. While the focus is on the study of bacterial chromosome biology, these approaches are generally applicable to other molecular processes and cell types. PMID:27283312

  16. Acridizinium salts as a novel class of DNA-binding and site-selective DNA-photodamaging chromophores.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, H; Faulhaber, K; Sturm, C; Bringmann, G; Messer, K; Gabellini, N; Vedaldi, D; Viola, G

    2001-10-01

    It was demonstrated that the interaction of the aminoacridizinium salts 2a-2d with DNA depends on the substitution pattern of the chromophore. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric titrations of the acridizinium salts 2a-2d with natural and synthetic polynucleotides reveal that the degree of interaction of the acridizinium salts 2a-2d with the nucleic acid differs significantly. The binding mode of the dyes with DNA was evaluated by circular dichroism and linear dichroism spectroscopy and compared with the parent system 2c. Whereas the 9-aminoacridizinium (2a) mainly intercalates into DNA, the salts 2b-c show a higher degree of association to the DNA backbone. The intercalated aminoacridizinium 2a caused few strand breaks upon UVA exposure, whereas the salts 2b-2d exhibit relatively efficient DNA-damaging properties. All acridizinium salts showed a sequence-selective strand cleavage for guanine-rich DNA regions. PMID:11683029

  17. In vivo occupancy of mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein supports the strand displacement mode of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Miralles Fusté, Javier; Shi, Yonghong; Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Zhu, Xuefeng; Jemt, Elisabeth; Persson, Örjan; Sabouri, Nasim; Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for proteins required for oxidative phosphorylation, and mutations affecting the genome have been linked to a number of diseases as well as the natural ageing process in mammals. Human mtDNA is replicated by a molecular machinery that is distinct from the nuclear replisome, but there is still no consensus on the exact mode of mtDNA replication. We here demonstrate that the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) directs origin specific initiation of mtDNA replication. MtSSB covers the parental heavy strand, which is displaced during mtDNA replication. MtSSB blocks primer synthesis on the displaced strand and restricts initiation of light-strand mtDNA synthesis to the specific origin of light-strand DNA synthesis (OriL). The in vivo occupancy profile of mtSSB displays a distinct pattern, with the highest levels of mtSSB close to the mitochondrial control region and with a gradual decline towards OriL. The pattern correlates with the replication products expected for the strand displacement mode of mtDNA synthesis, lending strong in vivo support for this debated model for mitochondrial DNA replication. PMID:25474639

  18. Solution-state NMR Investigation of DNA Binding Interactions in Escherichia coli Formamidopyrimidine-DNA Glycosylase (Fpg): A Dynamic Description of the DNA/Protein Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; McAteer, Kathleen; Wallace, Susan S.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2005-03-02

    Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) is a base excision repair protein that removes oxidative DNA lesions. Recent crystal structures of Fpg bound to DNA revealed residues involved in damage recognition and enzyme catalysis, but failed to shed light on the dynamic nature of the processes. To examine the structural and dynamic changes that occur in solution when Fpg binds DNA, NMR spectroscopy was used to study Escherichia coli Fpg free and bound to a double-stranded DNA oligomer (13-PD) containing propanediol, a non-hydrolyzable abasic-site analogue. Only 209 out of a possible 252 (83%) free-precession HSQC cross peaks were observed and 180 of these were assignable, indicating that ~30% of the residues undergo intermediate timescale motion that makes them intractable in backbone assignment experiments. DNA titration experiments revealed line broadening and chemical shift perturbations for backbone amides nearby and distant from the DNA binding surface, but failed to quench the intermediate time-scale motion observed for free Fpg. CPMG-HSQC experiments revealed millisecond to microsecond motion for the backbone amides of D91 and H92 that was quenched upon binding 13-PD. Collectively, these observations reveal that, in solution, Fpg contains highly flexible regions. The dynamic nature of Fpg, especially at the DNA binding surface, may be key to its processive search mechanism.

  19. DNA binding, DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity studies of a new water soluble copper(II) complex: The effect of ligand shape on the mode of binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Shahabadi, Nahid; Mansouri, Ghobad

    2012-02-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with [Cu(ph 2phen)(phen-dione)Cl]Cl was studied at physiological pH by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, circular dichroism, and viscometric techniques. Considerable hypochromicity and red shift are observed in the UV absorption band of the Cu complex. Binding constants ( Kb) of DNA with the complex were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. All these results indicate that Cu(II) complex interacts with CT-DNA via intercalative mode. Also, this new complex induced cleavage in pUC18 plasmid DNA as indicated in gel electrophoresis and showed excellent antitumor activity against K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) and human T lymphocyte carcinoma-Jurkat cell lines.

  20. Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan ; Lee, Yuarn-Jang; Wang, Wei-Ting; Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; Hsu, Chien-Ting; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; Tsai, Jing-Shin; Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; Wu, Chien-Ming; Ou, Keng-Liang; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; and others

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. {yields} The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. {yields} Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M). {yields} The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol{sup -1} at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (K{sub A}) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining K{sub A} for PD153035, where K{sub A} is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that K{sub A} = 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M) at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

  1. A novel DNA-binding protein from Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophage NCTC12673.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Denis; Szymanski, Christine M

    2015-11-01

    We previously suggested that the double-stranded genomic DNA of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophage NCTC12673 was complexed with proteins. Mass spectrometry of peptides obtained from tryptic digests of purified phage DNA indicated that phage protein Gp001 co-purified with the DNA. Gp001 is an acidic protein that lacks any obvious homology or conserved domains found in known DNA-binding proteins. The DNA-binding ability of recombinant Gp001 was examined using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Slow DNA-Gp001 complex formation was observed at pH 5.5, but not at neutral or basic pH. This nucleoprotein complex had difficulty entering agarose gels used in the assay while proteinase K pretreatment released the DNA from the complex. No mobility shift was observed when the DNA was immediately subjected to electrophoresis after mixing with Gp001, even if both components were separately pre-incubated at pH 5.5. The complexed DNA was unable to transform chemically competent Escherichia coli cells and was less susceptible to degradation by nucleases. The formation of Gp001-DNA complexes at low pH may provide a mechanism for maintaining DNA integrity while the phage pursues its host through the gastrointestinal tract. Also, this feature can potentially be used to improve DNA delivery protocols applied in gene therapy. PMID:26363017

  2. Nonspecific bridging-induced attraction drives clustering of DNA-binding proteins and genome organization

    PubMed Central

    Brackley, Chris A.; Taylor, Stephen; Papantonis, Argyris; Cook, Peter R.; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to model proteins that diffuse to DNA, bind, and dissociate; in the absence of any explicit interaction between proteins, or between templates, binding spontaneously induces local DNA compaction and protein aggregation. Small bivalent proteins form into rows [as on binding of the bacterial histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS)], large proteins into quasi-spherical aggregates (as on nanoparticle binding), and cylinders with eight binding sites (representing octameric nucleosomal cores) into irregularly folded clusters (like those seen in nucleosomal strings). Binding of RNA polymerase II and a transcription factor (NFκB) to the appropriate sites on four human chromosomes generates protein clusters analogous to transcription factories, multiscale loops, and intrachromosomal contacts that mimic those found in vivo. We suggest that this emergent behavior of clustering is driven by an entropic bridging-induced attraction that minimizes bending and looping penalties in the template. PMID:24003126

  3. Discovery of selective inhibitors of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 by targeting the enzyme DNA-binding cleft.

    PubMed

    Kossmann, Bradley R; Abdelmalak, Monica; Lopez, Sophia; Tender, Gabrielle; Yan, Chunli; Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe; Ivanov, Ivaylo

    2016-07-15

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) processes protein/DNA adducts resulting from abortive DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) activity. TDP2 inhibition could provide synergism with the Top2 poison class of chemotherapeutics. By virtual screening of the NCI diversity small molecule database, we identified selective TDP2 inhibitors and experimentally verified their selective inhibitory activity. Three inhibitors exhibited low-micromolar IC50 values. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a common binding mode for these inhibitors, involving association to the TDP2 DNA-binding cleft. MM-PBSA per-residue energy decomposition identified important interactions of the compounds with specific TDP2 residues. These interactions could provide new avenues for synthetic optimization of these scaffolds. PMID:27262595

  4. Metal-based netropsin mimics showing AT-selective DNA binding and DNA cleavage activity at red light.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ashis K; Bhowmick, Tuhin; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2007-10-29

    Copper(II) bis-arginate [Cu(l-arg)2](NO3)2 (1) and [Cu(l-arg)(phen)Cl]Cl (2) as mimics of the minor-groove-binding natural antibiotic netropsin show preferential binding to the AT-rich region of double-stranded DNA. The complexes with a d-d band near 600 nm display oxidative DNA cleavage activity on photoirradiation at UV-A light of 365 nm and at red light of 647.1 nm (Ar-Kr laser) in a metal-assisted photoexcitation process forming singlet oxygen (1O2) species in a type-2 pathway. PMID:17880211

  5. Measuring p53 Binding to Single DNA Molecules in a Nanofluidic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelsky, Amber; Gonzalez, Nicholas, Jr.; Gal, Susannah; Levy, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Protein-DNA binding is central to several important cellular processes, for instance, the transfer of genetic information into proteins. The p53 protein plays a central role in regulating several major cell cycle pathways, in part by binding to well-characterized DNA sequences in the promoters of specific genes. Recent studies show that the most common mutation to the protein occurs in the region responsible for its binding to DNA. We have fabricated slit-like nanofluidic devices that allow us to trap and stretch single molecules of DNA containing a known recognition sequence of p53. We use fluorescent microscopy to observe the diffusion of a single p53 protein as it searches for its DNA recognition site. We measure the reaction rates of binding to selected DNA sequences as well as the one-dimensional, non-sequence specific diffusion of p53 along a stretched DNA molecule as a function of salt concentration. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion attempts to explain how proteins seem able to find their DNA target sequences much more quickly than would be expected from three-dimensional diffusion alone. We compare the observed search mechanism used by normal and mutated p53 from cancer cells to predictions based on this theory.

  6. Highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence displacement method for the study of DNA/small molecule binding interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Li-Rong; Guo, Liang-Hong

    2010-08-31

    Non-covalent binding interactions of small molecules with DNA play important roles in regulating gene expression and gene function. In this work, a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) displacement method has been developed to investigate such interactions, particularly for weak DNA binders. This ECL method relies on a double-stranded DNA film deposited on an indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) surface by layer-by-layer self-assembly. A DNA intercalator, [Ru(bpy)(2)(dppz)](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2'3'-c]phenazine), is employed as the ECL signal indicator. If a test compound competes with the indicator for the same binding sites in DNA, it would displace the indicator from the film and reduce ECL signal. The new method was validated by measuring five well-known DNA-binding organic molecules including quinacrine, H33258, thiazole orange, ethidium bromide and 4,6-diamidine-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride. Due to high ECL sensitivity, only 0.4 micromol L(-1) [Ru(bpy)(2)(dppz)](2+) was needed in the ECL displacement measurement, which is about 75-fold less than the concentration in the voltammetric measurement. The lowered concentration permitted direct measurement of IC(50) values of eight hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in their ECL displacement curves and subsequent calculation of their binding constants with DNA. The ECL displacement method is particularly useful for investigating weak DNA binders with limited aqueous solubility. PMID:20800740

  7. Sequence-specific interactions between a cellular DNA-binding protein and the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Traut, W.; Fanning, E.

    1988-02-01

    The core origin of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication is composed of a 64-base-pair sequence encompassing T-antigen-binding site II and adjacent sequences on either side. A 7-base-pair sequence to the early side of T-antigen-binding site II which is conserved among the papovavirus genomes SV40, BK, JC and SA12 was recently shown to be part of a 10-base-pair sequence required for origin activity, but its functional role was not defined. In the present report, the authors used gel retention assays to identify a monkey cell factor that interacts specifically with double-stranded DNA carrying this sequence and also binds to single-stranded DNA. DNA-protein complexes formed with extracts from primate cells are more abundant and display electrophoretic mobilities distinct from those formed with rodent cell extracts. The binding activity of the factor on mutant templates is correlate with the replication activity of the origin. The results suggest that the monkey cell factor may be involved in SV40 DNA replication.

  8. Applying DNA affinity chromatography to specifically screen for sucrose-related DNA-binding transcriptional regulators of Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Leßmeier, Lennart; Alkhateeb, Rabeaa S; Schulte, Fabian; Steffens, Tim; Loka, Tobias Pascal; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg

    2016-08-20

    At a molecular level, the regulation of many important cellular processes is still obscure in xanthomonads, a bacterial group of outstanding relevance as world-wide plant pathogens and important for biotechnology as producers of the polysaccharide xanthan. Transcriptome analysis indicated a sucrose-dependent regulation of 18 genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) B100. The expression of 12 of these genes was clearly increased in the presence of sucrose. Only part of these genes was obviously involved in sucrose utilization. To identify regulatory proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, a DNA fragment-specific pull-down approach was established for Xcc. Putative promoter regions were identified and used to isolate DNA-binding proteins, which were separated by SDS PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This led to the identification of four transcriptional regulators, among them the global transcriptional regulator Clp and a previously identified regulator of sucrose utilization, SuxR, plus a third DNA-binding transcriptional regulator encoded by xcc-b100_2861 and recently shown to interact with a cyclic di-GMP-binding protein. The fourth regulatory protein was encoded by xcc-b100_2791. These results indicate DNA fragment-specific pull-down experiments as promising approaches to screen for specific DNA-binding regulatory proteins in Xcc. PMID:27060555

  9. Structural Basis for Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT Binding to RNA Template and Telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.; Gillis, A; Futahashi, M; Fujiwara, H; Skordalakes, E

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized DNA polymerase that extends the 3{prime} ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, a process required for genomic stability and cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of the active Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit, TERT, bound to an RNA-DNA hairpin designed to resemble the putative RNA-templating region and telomeric DNA. The RNA-DNA hybrid adopts a helical structure, docked in the interior cavity of the TERT ring. Contacts between the RNA template and motifs 2 and B{prime} position the solvent-accessible RNA bases close to the enzyme active site for nucleotide binding and selectivity. Nucleic acid binding induces rigid TERT conformational changes to form a tight catalytic complex. Overall, TERT-RNA template and TERT-telomeric DNA associations are remarkably similar to those observed for retroviral reverse transcriptases, suggesting common mechanistic aspects of DNA replication between the two families of enzymes.

  10. Calf thymus DNA-binding ability study of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Xirui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-13

    A total of 10 anthocyanin compounds were identified from five purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties, Qunzi, Zishu038, Ji18, Jingshu6, and Ziluolan, by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess their calf thymus DNA-binding ability in vitro. The interaction between anthocyanins and calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.9) was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was seen in the DNA-EB system when anthocyanins were added, indicating that the anthocyanins bound with DNA. The acylated groups influenced the ability of the interaction with DNA. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato with more acylated groups in sorphorose have a stronger binding ability with DNA. PMID:21678894

  11. Length-dependent binding of human XLF to DNA and stimulation of XRCC4.DNA ligase IV activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haihui; Pannicke, Ulrich; Schwarz, Klaus; Lieber, Michael R

    2007-04-13

    An XRCC4-like factor, called XLF or Cernunnos, was recently identified as another important factor in the non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) process. NHEJ is the major pathway for the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. The similarity in the putative secondary structures of XLF and XRCC4 as well as the association of XLF with XRCC4.DNA ligase IV in vivo suggested a role in the final ligation step of NHEJ. Here, we find that purified XLF directly interacts with purified XRCC4.DNA ligase IV complex and stimulates the ligase complex in a direct assay for ligation activity. Purified XLF has DNA binding activity, but this binding is dependent on DNA length in a manner most consistent with orientation of the C-terminal alpha helices parallel to the DNA helix. To better understand the function of XLF, we purified an XLF mutant (R57G), which was identified in patients with NHEJ deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency. Surprisingly, the mutant protein retained its ability to stimulate XRCC4.DNA ligase IV but failed to translocate to the nucleus, and this appears to be the basis for the NHEJ defect in this patient. PMID:17317666

  12. Binding of 2,7-diaminomitosene to DNA: model for the precovalent recognition of DNA by activated mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G S; He, Q Y; Behr-Ventura, D; Tomasz, M

    1995-02-28

    Mitomycin C (MC), mitomycin A, porfiromycin, BMY-25067, and BMY-25287, antitumor antibiotics collectively termed "mitosanes", were found to have no appreciable binding affinity to various natural and synthetic DNAs, as tested by UV spectrophotometry and equilibrium dialysis. Further tests of DNA binding applied to MC including thermal melting measurements, displacement of ethidium fluorescence, and unwinding of closed circular DNA were similarly negative. In contrast, 2,7-diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM), a major end product of the reductive activation of MC, binds to the same series of DNAs by all of these criteria. In the presence of DNA its UV absorbance at the 313 nm maximum decreased and underwent a slight red shift. This effect was used for determining DNA binding constants (Kb) by the spectrophotometric titration method. At pH 6.0 the Kbs of three natural DNAs with varying GC content, as well as poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT), and poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), were all in the range of (1.2-5.3) x 10(4) (M nucleotide)-1, with no apparent specificity of binding. Poly(dG-m5dC).poly(dG-m5dC) displayed a slightly higher Kb ((7.5-8.4) x 10(4)). Binding of other, closely related mitosenes was tested to calf thymus DNA by equilibrium dialysis. Neither the presence of a 1-OH substituent, removal of the 10-carbamoyl group, nor methylation of the 2-amino group modifies the binding affinity of the mitosenes significantly. The 1-phosphate substituent abolishes binding. The binding of 2,7-DAM to DNA increased with decreasing pH and decreasing ionic strength. It was determined that 2,7-DAM is protonated at the 2-amino group with a pKa = 7.55, and this correlated well with the observed pH dependence of the binding, indicating that the binding affinity has a strong electrostatic component. This was confirmed by the finding that the extrapolated Kb to 1 M Na+ concentration diminishes to only 10% of the value of Kb at 0.01 M Na+ concentration. Viscosity tests showed conclusively that 2,7-DAM

  13. DNA binding of Jun and Fos bZip domains: homodimers and heterodimers induce a DNA conformational change in solution.

    PubMed Central

    John, M; Leppik, R; Busch, S J; Granger-Schnarr, M; Schnarr, M

    1996-01-01

    We constructed plasmids encoding the sequences for the bZip modules of c-Jun and c-Fos which could then be expressed as soluble proteins in Escherichia coli. The purified bZip modules were tested for their binding capacities of synthetic oligonucleotides containing either TRE or CRE recognition sites in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and circular dichroism (CD). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that bZip Jun homodimers and bZip Jun/Fos heterodimers bind a collagenase-like TRE (CTGACTCAT) with dissociation constants of respectively 1.4 x 10(-7) M and 5 x 10(-8) M. As reported earlier [Patel et al. (1990) Nature 347, 572-575], DNA binding induces a marked change of the protein structure. However, we found that the DNA also undergoes a conformational change. This is most clearly seen with small oligonucleotides of 13 or 14 bp harboring respectively a TRE (TGACTCA) or a CRE (TGACGTCA) sequence. In this case, the positive DNA CD signal at 280 nm increases almost two-fold with a concomitant blue-shift of 3-4 nm. Within experimental error the same spectral changes are observed for TRE and CRE containing DNA fragments. The spectral changes observed with a non-specific DNA fragment are weaker and the signal of free DNA is recovered upon addition of much smaller salt concentrations than required for a specific DNA fragment. Surprisingly the spectral changes induced by Jun/Jun homodimers are not identical to those induced by Jun/Fos heterodimers. However, in both cases the increase of the positive CD band and the concomitant blue shift would be compatible with a B to A-transition of part of the binding site or a DNA conformation intermediate between the canonical A and B structures. PMID:8948639

  14. Evaluation of Metal-Mediated DNA Binding of Benzoazole Ligands by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mazzitelli, Carolyn L.; Rodriguez, Mireya; Kerwin, Sean; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    The binding of a series of benzoxazole analogs with different amide- and ester-linked side chains to duplex DNA in the absence and presence of divalent metal cations is examined. All ligands were found to form complexes with Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+, with 2:1 ligand/metal cation binding stoichiometries dominating for ligands containing shorter side chains (2, 6, 7, and 8), while 1:1 complexes were the most abundant for ligands with long side chains (9, 10 and 11). Ligand binding with duplex DNA in the absence of metal cations was assessed, and the long side-chain ligands were found to form low abundance complexes with 1:1 ligand/DNA binding stoichiometries. The ligands with the shorter side chains only formed DNA complexes in the presence of metal cations, most notably for 7 and 8 binding to DNA in the presence of Cu2+. The binding of long side-chain ligands was enhanced by Cu2+ and to a lesser degree by Ni2+ and Zn2+. The cytotoxicities of all of the ligands against the A549 lung cancer and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines were also examined. The ligands exhibiting the most dramatic metal-enhanced DNA binding also demonstrated the greatest cytotoxic activity. Both 7 and 8 were found to be the most cytotoxic against the A549 lung cancer cell line and 8 demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity against MCF7 breast cancer cells. Metal ions also enhanced the DNA binding of the ligands with the long side-chains, especially for 9, which also exhibited the highest level of cytotoxicity of the long side-chain compounds. PMID:17583529

  15. Insights into the DNA-binding mechanism of a LytTR-type transcription regulator.

    PubMed

    Behr, Stefan; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial response regulators (RRs) make contact with DNA through a recognition α-helix in their DNA-binding domains. An emerging class of RRs interacts with DNA via a relatively novel type of binding domain, called the LytTR domain, which is mainly composed of β-strands. YpdB belongs to this latter class, is part of a nutrient-sensing network in Escherichia coli and triggers expression of its only target gene, yhjX, in response to extracellular pyruvate. Expression of yhjX mainly occurs in the late exponential growth phase, and in a pulsed manner. Although the DNA-binding sites for YpdB are well defined, exactly how YpdB initiates pulsed gene expression has remained elusive. To address this question, we measured the binding kinetics of wild-type YpdB and the phosphomimetic variant YpdB-D53E to the yhjX promoter region (PyhjX) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy combined with interaction map® (IM) analysis. Both YpdB and YpdB-D53E bound as monomers to the tandem-repeat sequences in the promoter, with YpdB-D53E displaying a higher maximal binding rate than YpdB. Furthermore, we identified a high-affinity (A-site) and a low-affinity binding site (B-site) within the yhjX promoter. Only YpdB-D53E utilizes an 'AB-BA' DNA-binding mechanism, involving sequential and cooperative promoter binding, and rapid, successive promoter clearance. We propose that response regulator phosphorylation, in combination with the cycle of cooperative DNA binding and rapid promoter clearance just described, can account for pulsed gene expression. PMID:27013338

  16. Insights into the DNA-binding mechanism of a LytTR-type transcription regulator

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Stefan; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial response regulators (RRs) make contact with DNA through a recognition α-helix in their DNA-binding domains. An emerging class of RRs interacts with DNA via a relatively novel type of binding domain, called the LytTR domain, which is mainly composed of β-strands. YpdB belongs to this latter class, is part of a nutrient-sensing network in Escherichia coli and triggers expression of its only target gene, yhjX, in response to extracellular pyruvate. Expression of yhjX mainly occurs in the late exponential growth phase, and in a pulsed manner. Although the DNA-binding sites for YpdB are well defined, exactly how YpdB initiates pulsed gene expression has remained elusive. To address this question, we measured the binding kinetics of wild-type YpdB and the phosphomimetic variant YpdB-D53E to the yhjX promoter region (PyhjX) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy combined with interaction map® (IM) analysis. Both YpdB and YpdB-D53E bound as monomers to the tandem-repeat sequences in the promoter, with YpdB-D53E displaying a higher maximal binding rate than YpdB. Furthermore, we identified a high-affinity (A-site) and a low-affinity binding site (B-site) within the yhjX promoter. Only YpdB-D53E utilizes an ‘AB-BA’ DNA-binding mechanism, involving sequential and cooperative promoter binding, and rapid, successive promoter clearance. We propose that response regulator phosphorylation, in combination with the cycle of cooperative DNA binding and rapid promoter clearance just described, can account for pulsed gene expression. PMID:27013338

  17. Characterization of the binding of paylean and DNA by fluorescence, UV spectroscopy and molecular docking techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huifeng; Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of paylean (PL) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption, melting studies, ionic strength, viscosity experiments and molecular docking under simulated physiological conditions. Values for the binding constant Ka between PL and DNA were 5.11 × 10(3) , 2.74 × 10(3) and 1.74 × 10(3)  L mol(-1) at 19, 29 and 39°C respectively. DNA quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of PL via a static quenching procedure as shown from Stern-Volmer plots. The relative viscosity and the melting temperature of DNA were basically unchanged in the presence of PL. The fluorescence intensity of PL-DNA decreased with increasing ionic strength. The value of Ka for PL with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was larger than that for PL with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). All the results revealed that the binding mode was groove binding, and molecular docking further indicated that PL was preferentially bonded to A-T-rich regions of DNA. The values for ΔH, ΔS and ΔG suggested that van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding might be the main acting forces between PL and DNA. The binding distance was determined to be 3.37 nm based on the theory of Förster energy transference, which indicated that a non-radiation energy transfer process occurred. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26597997

  18. New hopes from old drugs: revisiting DNA-binding small molecules as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Gurova, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    Most of the anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs that are broadly and successfully used today are DNA-damaging agents. Targeting of DNA has been proven to cause relatively potent and selective destruction of tumor cells. However, the clinical potential of DNA-damaging agents is limited by the adverse side effects and increased risk of secondary cancers that are consequences of the agents' genotoxicity. In this review, we present evidence that those agents capable of targeting DNA without inducing DNA damage would not be limited in these ways, and may be as potent as DNA-damaging agents in the killing of tumor cells. We use as an example literature data and our own research of the well-known antimalarial drug quinacrine, which binds to DNA without inducing DNA damage, yet modulates a number of cellular pathways that impact tumor cell survival. PMID:20001804

  19. Studies of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA: D-loop mapping and characterization of DNA-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    In X. laevis oocytes, mitochondrial DNA accumulates to 10/sup 5/ times the somatic cell complement, and is characterized by a high frequency of a triple-stranded displacement hoop structure at the origin of replication. To map the termini of the single strands, it was necessary to correct the nucleotide sequence of the D-loop region. The revised sequence of 2458 nucleotides contains 54 discrepancies in comparison to a previously published sequence. Radiolabeling of the nascent strands of the D-loop structure either at the 5' end or at the 3' end identifies a major species with a length of 1670 nucleotides. Cleavage of the 5' labeled strands reveals two families of ends located near several matches to an element, designated CSB-1, that is conserved in this location in several vertebrate genomes. Cleavage of 3' labeled strands produced one fragment. The unique 3' end maps to about 15 nucleotides preceding the tRNA/sup Pro/ gene. A search for proteins which may bind to mtDNA in this region to regulate nucleic acid synthesis has identified three activities in lysates of X. laevis mitochondria. The DNA-binding proteins were assayed by monitoring their ability to retard the migration of labeled double- or single-stranded DNA fragments in polyacrylamide gels. The DNA binding preference was determined by competition with an excess of either ds- or ssDNA.

  20. Protein p56 from the Bacillus subtilis phage ϕ29 inhibits DNA-binding ability of uracil-DNA glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Heras, Gemma; Ruiz-Masó, José A.; del Solar, Gloria; Espinosa, Manuel; Bravo, Alicia; Salas, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Protein p56 (56 amino acids) from the Bacillus subtilis phage ϕ29 inactivates the host uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), an enzyme involved in the base excision repair pathway. At present, p56 is the only known example of a UDG inhibitor encoded by a non-uracil containing viral DNA. Using analytical ultracentrifugation methods, we found that protein p56 formed dimers at physiological concentrations. In addition, circular dichroism spectroscopic analyses revealed that protein p56 had a high content of β-strands (around 40%). To understand the mechanism underlying UDG inhibition by p56, we carried out in vitro experiments using the Escherichia coli UDG enzyme. The highly acidic protein p56 was able to compete with DNA for binding to UDG. Moreover, the interaction between p56 and UDG blocked DNA binding by UDG. We also demonstrated that Ugi, a protein that interacts with the DNA-binding domain of UDG, was able to replace protein p56 previously bound to the UDG enzyme. These results suggest that protein p56 could be a novel naturally occurring DNA mimicry. PMID:17698500

  1. Simulations of DNA topoisomerase 1B bound to supercoiled DNA reveal changes in the flexibility pattern of the enzyme and a secondary protein–DNA binding site

    PubMed Central

    D'Annessa, Ilda; Coletta, Andrea; Sutthibutpong, Thana; Mitchell, Jonathan; Chillemi, Giovanni; Harris, Sarah; Desideri, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Human topoisomerase 1B has been simulated covalently bound to a negatively supercoiled DNA minicircle, and its behavior compared to the enzyme bound to a simple linear DNA duplex. The presence of the more realistic supercoiled substrate facilitates the formation of larger number of protein–DNA interactions when compared to a simple linear duplex fragment. The number of protein–DNA hydrogen bonds doubles in proximity to the active site, affecting all of the residues in the catalytic pentad. The clamp over the DNA, characterized by the salt bridge between Lys369 and Glu497, undergoes reduced fluctuations when bound to the supercoiled minicircle. The linker domain of the enzyme, which is implicated in the controlled relaxation of superhelical stress, also displays an increased number of contacts with the minicircle compared to linear DNA. Finally, the more complex topology of the supercoiled DNA minicircle gives rise to a secondary DNA binding site involving four residues located on subdomain III. The simulation trajectories reveal significant changes in the interactions between the enzyme and the DNA for the more complex DNA topology, which are consistent with the experimental observation that the protein has a preference for binding to supercoiled DNA. PMID:25056319

  2. Structure and DNA binding of alkylation response protein AidB

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Timothy; Metz, Audrey H.; O'Quin, Jami; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2009-01-12

    Exposure of Escherichia coli to alkylating agents activates expression of AidB in addition to DNA repair proteins Ada, AlkA, and AlkB. AidB was recently shown to possess a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor and to bind to dsDNA, implicating it as a flavin-dependent DNA repair enzyme. However, the molecular mechanism by which AidB acts to reduce the mutagenic effects of specific DNA alkylators is unknown. We present a 1.7-{angstrom} crystal structure of AidB, which bears superficial resemblance to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily of flavoproteins. The structure reveals a unique quaternary organization and a distinctive FAD active site that provides a rationale for AidB's limited dehydrogenase activity. A highly electropositive C-terminal domain not present in structural homologs was identified by mutational analysis as the DNA binding site. Structural analysis of the DNA and FAD binding sites provides evidence against AidB-catalyzed DNA repair and supports a model in which AidB acts to prevent alkylation damage by protecting DNA and destroying alkylating agents that have yet to reach their DNA target.

  3. Binding Potency of Heparin Immobilized on Activated Charcoal for DNA Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Snezhkova, E A; Tridon, A; Evrard, B; Nikolaev, V G; Uvarov, V Yu; Tsimbalyuk, R S; Ivanuk, A A; Komov, V V; Sakhno, L A

    2016-02-01

    In vitro experiments showed that heparin adsorbed on activated charcoal can bind antibodies raised against native and single-stranded DNA in a diluted sera pool with a high level of these DNA. Thus, heparin used as anticoagulant during hemosorption procedure can demonstrate supplementary therapeutic activity resulting from its interaction with various agents involved in acute and chronic inflammatory reactions such as DNA- and RNA-binding substances, proinflammatory cytokines, complement components, growth factors, etc. Research and development of heparin-containing carbonic adsorbents for the therapy of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems to be a promising avenue in hematology. PMID:26902353

  4. Phosphorus(V) corrole: DNA binding, photonuclease activity and cytotoxicity toward tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-08-01

    A new phosphorus(V) corrole, 10-(4-hydroxylphenyl)-5,15-bis(pentafluorophenyl)corrolato (trans-dihydroxo)phosphorus(V) 1-P, was synthesized and characterized. The interaction of 1-P with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied by multi-spectroscopic methods. The photonuclease activity of this complex was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. 1-P may bind to CT-DNA via an outside binding mode and display good photonuclease activity. 1-P displayed low dark toxicity but high photocytotoxic activity against H460 and A549 tumor cell lines. PMID:27281437

  5. Thermodynamics of Damaged DNA Binding and Catalysis by Human AP Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Miroshnikova, A. D.; Kuznetsova, A. A.; Kuznetsov, N. A.; Fedorova, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play an important role in DNA repair and initiation of AP site elimination. One of the most topical problems in the field of DNA repair is to understand the mechanism of the enzymatic process involving the human enzyme APE1 that provides recognition of AP sites and efficient cleavage of the 5’-phosphodiester bond. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between APE1 and a DNA substrate containing a stable AP site analog lacking the C1’ hydroxyl group (F site) was performed. Based on stopped-flow kinetic data at different temperatures, the steps of DNA binding, catalysis, and DNA product release were characterized. The changes in the standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential specific steps of the repair process were determined. The thermodynamic analysis of the data suggests that the initial step of the DNA substrate binding includes formation of non-specific contacts between the enzyme binding surface and DNA, as well as insertion of the amino acid residues Arg177 and Met270 into the duplex, which results in the removal of “crystalline” water molecules from DNA grooves. The second binding step involves the F site flipping-out process and formation of specific contacts between the enzyme active site and the everted 5’-phosphate-2’-deoxyribose residue. It was shown that non-specific interactions between the binding surfaces of the enzyme and DNA provide the main contribution into the thermodynamic parameters of the DNA product release step. PMID:27099790

  6. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Pot1 Binding to Telomeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, Sarah E.; Croy, Johnny E.; Wuttke, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome ends are complex structures, consisting of repetitive DNA sequence terminating in an ssDNA overhang with many associated proteins. Because alteration of these ends is a hallmark of cancer, telomeres and telomere maintenance have been prime drug targets. The universally conserved ssDNA overhang is sequence-specifically bound and regulated by Pot1 (protection of telomeres), and perturbation of Pot1 function has deleterious effects for proliferating cells. The specificity of the Pot1/ssDNA interaction and the key involvement of this protein in telomere maintenance have suggested directed inhibition of Pot1/ssDNA binding as an efficient means of disrupting telomere function. To explore this idea, we developed a high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) screen for inhibitors of Pot1/ssDNA interaction. We conducted this screen with the DNA-binding subdomain of S. pombe Pot1 (Pot1pN), which confers the vast majority of Pot1 sequence-specificity and is highly similar to the first domain of human Pot1 (hPOT1). Screening a library of ~20,000 compounds yielded a single inhibitor, which we found interacted tightly with submicromolar affinity. Furthermore, this compound, subsequently identified as the bis-azo dye Congo red, was able to competitively inhibit hPOT1 binding to telomeric DNA. ITC and NMR chemical shift analysis suggest that CR interacts specifically with the ssDNA-binding cleft of Pot1, and that alteration of this surface disrupts CR binding. The identification of a specific inhibitor of ssDNA interaction establishes a new pathway for targeted telomere disruption. PMID:22978652

  7. DAMP and DIC: The role of extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins in the pathogenesis of DIC.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Patricia C; Ito, Takashi; Iba, Toshiaki; Thachil, Jecko; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2016-07-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, which manifest as a spectrum of haemorrhage and thrombosis complicating many primary conditions including sepsis, trauma and malignancies. The pathophysiology of this condition is complex. In the recent years there is growing evidence that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DIC. Upon cell-death and/or cell activation of hematopoietic and parenchymal cells extracellular cell-free DNA as well as DNA binding proteins (e.g. histones and high mobility group box 1 protein [HMGB1]) are released into circulation. This release is a highly regulated process mediated among others by serine proteases, such as factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) and DNase1. Circulating cell-free DNA has been demonstrated to influence primary and secondary hemostasis by inducing platelet aggregation, promoting coagulation activation, inhibition of fibrinolysis and directly interfering with clot stability. In this respect cell-free DNA in tissue as well as released into the circulation after neutrophil activation in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been shown to be cytotoxic and highly procoagulant. DNA-binding proteins such as histones and HMGB1 are also strongly procoagulant and are involved in the pathogenesis of DIC. The present review gives an overview on how extracellular DNA is released into circulation and the structure of circulating DNA. In addition it summarizes the effect of extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins on platelet activation, plasmatic coagulation as well as fibrinolysis. PMID:26776504

  8. Spectroscopic studies on the binding of holmium-1,10-phenanthroline complex with DNA.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Sona; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Moodi, Asieh

    2012-12-01

    Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) as well as viscosity experiment have been used to characterize the DNA binding of [Ho(Phen)(2)Cl(3)]·H(2)O, where phen stand for 1,10-phanathroline. This complex exhibits the marked decrease in the emission intensity and some hypochromism in UV-Vis spectrum in the presence of DNA. For characterization of the binding mode between the Ho(III) complex and DNA various procedures such as: absorption and emission titration and EB quenching experiments, viscosity measurements, CD study, iodide quenching assay, salt effect and thermodynamical investigation are used. The intrinsic binding constant of [Ho(Phen)(2)Cl(3)]·H(2)O with DNA is calculated by UV-Vis and florescence spectroscopy. The value of binding constants in 296, 299 and 303 are 1.99 ± 0.07 × 10(4), 1.07 ± 0.09 × 10(4) and 0.84 ± 0.06 × 10(4), respectively. The thermodynamic studies show that the reaction is entropically driven. The above-mentioned physical measurements indicate that the Ho(III) complex binds to fish salmon DNA, presumably via groove binding mode. PMID:23123592

  9. Protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation modulates DNA-binding activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4.

    PubMed

    Viollet, B; Kahn, A; Raymondjean, M

    1997-08-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4), a liver-enriched transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is critical for development and liver-specific gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that its DNA-binding activity is modulated posttranslationally by phosphorylation in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. In vivo, HNF4 DNA-binding activity is reduced by fasting and by inducers of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation. A consensus protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site located within the A box of its DNA-binding domain has been identified, and its role in phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of HNF4 DNA-binding activity has been investigated. Mutants of HNF4 in which two potentially phosphorylatable serines have been replaced by either neutral or charged amino acids were able to bind DNA in vitro with affinity similar to that of the wild-type protein. However, phosphorylation by PKA strongly repressed the binding affinity of the wild-type factor but not that of HNF4 mutants. Accordingly, in transfection assays, expression vectors for the mutated HNF4 proteins activated transcription more efficiently than that for the wild-type protein-when cotransfected with the PKA catalytic subunit expression vector. Therefore, HNF4 is a direct target of PKA which might be involved in the transcriptional inhibition of liver genes by cAMP inducers. PMID:9234678

  10. Protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation modulates DNA-binding activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4.

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, B; Kahn, A; Raymondjean, M

    1997-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4), a liver-enriched transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is critical for development and liver-specific gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that its DNA-binding activity is modulated posttranslationally by phosphorylation in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. In vivo, HNF4 DNA-binding activity is reduced by fasting and by inducers of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation. A consensus protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site located within the A box of its DNA-binding domain has been identified, and its role in phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of HNF4 DNA-binding activity has been investigated. Mutants of HNF4 in which two potentially phosphorylatable serines have been replaced by either neutral or charged amino acids were able to bind DNA in vitro with affinity similar to that of the wild-type protein. However, phosphorylation by PKA strongly repressed the binding affinity of the wild-type factor but not that of HNF4 mutants. Accordingly, in transfection assays, expression vectors for the mutated HNF4 proteins activated transcription more efficiently than that for the wild-type protein-when cotransfected with the PKA catalytic subunit expression vector. Therefore, HNF4 is a direct target of PKA which might be involved in the transcriptional inhibition of liver genes by cAMP inducers. PMID:9234678

  11. Crystal Structure and DNA Binding of the Homeodomain of the Stem Cell Transcription Factor Nanog

    SciTech Connect

    Jauch, Ralf; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Saikatendu, Kumar Singh; Stevens, Raymond C.; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2010-02-08

    The transcription factor Nanog is an upstream regulator in early mammalian development and a key determinant of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Nanog binds to promoter elements of hundreds of target genes and regulates their expression by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure of the murine Nanog homeodomain (HD) and analysis of its interaction with a DNA element derived from the Tcf3 promoter. Two Nanog amino acid pairs, unique among HD sequences, appear to affect the mechanism of nonspecific DNA recognition as well as maintain the integrity of the structural scaffold. To assess selective DNA recognition by Nanog, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using a panel of modified DNA binding sites and found that Nanog HD preferentially binds the TAAT(G/T)(G/T) motif. A series of rational mutagenesis experiments probing the role of six variant residues of Nanog on its DNA binding function establish their role in affecting binding affinity but not binding specificity. Together, the structural and functional evidence establish Nanog as a distant member of a Q50-type HD despite having considerable variation at the sequence level.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis of DNA minor groove complexes of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Koonammackal, Mathew Varghese; Nellipparambil, Unnikrishnan Viswambharan Nair; Sudarsanakumar, Chellappanpillai

    2011-11-01

    Curcumin is a natural phytochemical that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antitumor and anticancer activities. The similarity in the shape of curcumin to DNA minor groove binding drugs is the motivation for exploring its binding affinity in the minor grooves of DNA sequences. Interactions of curcumin with DNA have not been extensively examined, while its pharmacological activities have been studied and documented in depth. Curcumin was docked with two DNA duplexes, d(GTATATAC)(2) and d(CGCGATATCGCG)(2), and molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes were performed in explicit solvent to determine the stability of the binding. In all systems, the curcumin is positioned in the minor groove in the A·T region, and was stably bound throughout the simulation, causing only minor modifications to the structural parameters of DNA. Water molecules were found to contribute to the stability of the binding of the ligand. Free energy analyses of the complexes were performed with MM-PBSA, and the binding affinities that were calculated are comparable to the values reported for other similar nucleic acid-ligand systems, indicating that curcumin is a suitable natural molecule for the development of minor groove binding drugs. PMID:21287216

  13. Ultrafast Water Dynamics at the Interface of the Polymerase–DNA Binding Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerases slide on DNA during replication, and the interface must be mobile for various conformational changes. The role of lubricant interfacial water is not understood. In this report, we systematically characterize the water dynamics at the interface and in the active site of a tight binding polymerase (pol β) in its binary complex and ternary state using tryptophan as a local optical probe. Using femtosecond spectroscopy, we observed that upon DNA recognition the surface hydration water is significantly confined and becomes bound water at the interface, but the dynamics are still ultrafast and occur on the picosecond time scale. These interfacial water molecules are not trapped but are mobile in the heterogeneous binding nanospace. Combining our findings with our previous observation of ultrafast water motions at the interface of a loose binding polymerase (Dpo4), we conclude that the binding interface is dynamic and the water molecules in various binding clefts, channels, and caves are mobile and even fluid with different levels of mobility for loose or tight binding polymerases. Such a dynamic interface should be general to all DNA polymerase complexes to ensure the biological function of DNA synthesis. PMID:25105470

  14. DNA Binding Proteins and Drug Delivery Vehicles: Tales of Elephants and Snakes.

    PubMed

    Karpel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    We compare the DNA-interactive properties of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) with those of crotamine, a component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake. Gene 32 protein is a classical single-stranded DNA binding protein that has served as a model for this class of proteins. We discuss its biological functions, structure, binding specificities, and how it controls its own expression. In addition, we delineate the roles of the structural domains of gp32 and how they regulate the protein's various activities. Crotamine, a component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake, is probably not a DNA binding protein in nature, but clearly shows significant DNA binding in vitro. Crotamine has been shown to selectively disrupt rapidly dividing cells and this specificity has been demonstrated for crotamine-facilitated delivery of plasmid DNA Thus, crotamine, or a variant of the protein, could have important clinical and/or diagnostic roles. Understanding its DNA binding properties may therefore lead to more effective drug delivery vehicles. PMID:25961400

  15. Mutually Exclusive Binding of Telomerase RNA and DNA by Ku Alters Telomerase Recruitment Model

    PubMed Central

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Goodrich, Karen J.; Taabazuing, Cornelius; Ouenzar, Faissal; Chartrand, Pascal; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ku heterodimer contributes to telomere maintenance as a component of telomeric chromatin and as an accessory subunit of telomerase. How Ku binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and to telomerase RNA (TLC1) promotes its telomeric functions is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that deletions designed to constrict the DNA-binding ring of Ku80 disrupt non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), telomeric gene silencing and telomere length maintenance, suggesting that these functions require Ku's DNA end-binding activity. Contrary to the current model, a mutant Ku with low affinity for dsDNA also loses affinity for TLC1 both in vitro and in vivo. Competition experiments reveal that wild-type Ku binds dsDNA and TLC1 mutually exclusively. Cells expressing the mutant Ku are deficient in nuclear accumulation of TLC1, as expected from the RNA-binding defect. These findings force reconsideration of the mechanisms by which Ku assists in recruiting telomerase to natural telomeres and broken chromosome ends. PMID:22365814

  16. Spectral investigations on binding of DNA-CTMA complex with tetrameric copper phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat, Narayanan; Haley, Joy E.; Swiger, Rachel; Zhu, Lei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Ouchen, Fahima; Grote, James G.

    2013-10-01

    The binding of DNA-CTMA (Deoxyribonucleic acid-cetyltrimethylammonium) complex with two tetrameric Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) systems, substituted with carboxylic acid (CuPc-COOH) and derivatized further as an imidazolium salt (CuPc-COOR), was investigated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions using UV/Visible Spectroscopy. Absorbance changes at 685 nm (Q band of the CuPc) were monitored as a function of DNA-CTMA added to the dye solution and stock concentrations of DNA-CTMA in DMSO were varied to facilitate observation of the full binding process. Our findings indicated that while binding with DNA-CTMA was more well-defined in the case of CuPc-COOH, the binding profile of the CuPc-COOR showed initial growth followed by decay in its Q-band absorbance which was indicative of a more complex binding mechanism involving the dye and DNA-CTMA. Preliminary findings from photophysical studies involving the CuPc tetramers and DNA-CTMA are also discussed in this paper.

  17. AbdB-like Hox proteins stabilize DNA binding by the Meis1 homeodomain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, W F; Montgomery, J C; Rozenfeld, S; Moskow, J J; Lawrence, H J; Buchberg, A M; Largman, C

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies show that Hox homeodomain proteins from paralog groups 1 to 10 gain DNA binding specificity and affinity through cooperative binding with the divergent homeodomain protein Pbx1. However, the AbdB-like Hox proteins from paralogs 11, 12, and 13 do not interact with Pbx1a, raising the possibility of different protein partners. The Meis1 homeobox gene has 44% identity to Pbx within the homeodomain and was identified as a common site of viral integration in myeloid leukemias arising in BXH-2 mice. These integrations result in constitutive activation of Meis1. Furthermore, the Hoxa-9 gene is frequently activated by viral integration in the same BXH-2 leukemias, suggesting a biological synergy between these two distinct classes of homeodomain proteins in causing malignant transformation. We now show that the Hoxa-9 protein physically interacts with Meis1 proteins by forming heterodimeric binding complexes on a DNA target containing a Meis1 site (TGACAG) and an AbdB-like Hox site (TTTTACGAC). Hox proteins from the other AbdB-like paralogs, Hoxa-10, Hoxa-11, Hoxd-12, and Hoxb-13, also form DNA binding complexes with Meis1b, while Hox proteins from other paralogs do not appear to interact with Meis1 proteins. DNA binding complexes formed by Meis1 with Hox proteins dissociate much more slowly than DNA complexes with Meis1 alone, suggesting that Hox proteins stabilize the interactions of Meis1 proteins with their DNA targets. PMID:9343407

  18. AbdB-like Hox proteins stabilize DNA binding by the Meis1 homeodomain proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, W F; Montgomery, J C; Rozenfeld, S; Moskow, J J; Lawrence, H J; Buchberg, A M; Largman, C

    1997-11-01

    Recent studies show that Hox homeodomain proteins from paralog groups 1 to 10 gain DNA binding specificity and affinity through cooperative binding with the divergent homeodomain protein Pbx1. However, the AbdB-like Hox proteins from paralogs 11, 12, and 13 do not interact with Pbx1a, raising the possibility of different protein partners. The Meis1 homeobox gene has 44% identity to Pbx within the homeodomain and was identified as a common site of viral integration in myeloid leukemias arising in BXH-2 mice. These integrations result in constitutive activation of Meis1. Furthermore, the Hoxa-9 gene is frequently activated by viral integration in the same BXH-2 leukemias, suggesting a biological synergy between these two distinct classes of homeodomain proteins in causing malignant transformation. We now show that the Hoxa-9 protein physically interacts with Meis1 proteins by forming heterodimeric binding complexes on a DNA target containing a Meis1 site (TGACAG) and an AbdB-like Hox site (TTTTACGAC). Hox proteins from the other AbdB-like paralogs, Hoxa-10, Hoxa-11, Hoxd-12, and Hoxb-13, also form DNA binding complexes with Meis1b, while Hox proteins from other paralogs do not appear to interact with Meis1 proteins. DNA binding complexes formed by Meis1 with Hox proteins dissociate much more slowly than DNA complexes with Meis1 alone, suggesting that Hox proteins stabilize the interactions of Meis1 proteins with their DNA targets. PMID:9343407

  19. Stepwise Bending of DNA by a Single TATA-Box Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolicnorrelykke, S.; Rasmussen, M.; Pavone, F.; Bergsorensen, K.; Oddershede, L.

    2006-05-01

    The TATA-box Binding Protein (TBP) is required by all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases for the initiation of transcription from most promoters. TBP recognizes, binds to, and bends promoter sequences called ``TATA-boxes'' in the DNA. We present results from the study of individual Saccharomyces cerevisia TBPs interacting with single DNA molecules containing a TATA-box. Using video microscopy, we observed the Brownian motion of beads tethered by short surface-bound DNA. When TBP binds to and bends the DNA, the conformation of the DNA changes and the amplitude of Brownian motion of the tethered bead is reduced compared to that of unbent DNA. We detected individual binding and dissociation events and derived kinetic parameters for the process. Dissociation was induced by increasing the salt concentration or by directly pulling on the tethered bead using optical tweezers. In addition to the well-defined free and bound classes of Brownian motion, we observed another two classes of motion. These extra classes were identified with intermediate states on a three-step, linear binding pathway. Biological implications of the intermediate states are discussed.

  20. Postranslational modifications significantly alter the binding-folding pathways of proteins associating with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoian, Garegin

    2012-02-01

    Many important regulators of gene activity are natively disordered, but fully or partially order when they bind to their targets on DNA. Interestingly, the ensembles of disordered states for such free proteins are not structurally featureless, but can qualitatively differ from protein to protein. In particular, in random coil like states the chains are swollen, making relatively few contacts, while in molten globule like states a significant collapse occurs, with ensuing high density of intra-protein interactions. Furthermore, since many DNA binding proteins are positively charged polyelectrolytes, the electrostatic self-repulsion also influences the degree of collapse of the chain and its conformational preferences in the free state and upon binding to DNA. In our work, we have found that the nature of the natively disordered ensemble significantly affects the way the protein folds upon binding to DNA. In particular, we showed that posttranslational modifications of amino acid residues, such as lysine acetylation, can alter the degree of collapse and conformational preferences for a free protein, and also profoundly impact the binding affinity and pathways for the protein DNA association. These trends will be discussed in the context of DNA interacting with various histone tails and the p53 protein.

  1. Quantifying the DNA binding characteristics of ruthenium based threading intercalator Λ Λ -P with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, Nicholas; McCauley, Micah; Westerlund, Fredrik; Lincoln, Per; Rouzina, Ioulia; Williams, Mark; Paramanathan, Thayaparan

    Utilizing optical tweezers, biophysics researchers have been able to study drug-DNA interactions on the single molecule level. Binuclear ruthenium complexes are a particular type of drug molecule that have been found to have potential cancer-fighting qualities, due to their high binding affinity and low dissociation rates. These complexes are threading intercalators, meaning that they must thread their bulky side chains through DNA base pairs to allow the central planar moiety to intercalate between the bases. In this study, we explored the binding properties of the binuclear ruthenium complex, ΛΛ -P (ΛΛ -[µ-bidppz(phen)4Ru2]4+) . A single DNA molecule is held at a constant force and the ΛΛ -P solution introduced to the system in varying concentrations until equilibrium is reached. DNA extension data at various concentrations of ΛΛ -P recorded as a function of time provide the DNA binding kinetics and equilibrium binding affinity. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ΛΛ -P exhibits fast binding kinetics compared to the very similar ΔΔ -P. These complexes have the same chemical structure and only differ in their chirality, which suggests that the left handed (ΛΛ) threading moieties require less DNA structural distortion for threading compared with the right handed (ΔΔ) threading moieties.

  2. Inhibition of DNA binding of Sox2 by the SUMO conjugation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruzoe, Shu |; Ishihara, Ko; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Sugiko; Sekita, Yoko; Aoto, Takahiro; Saitoh, Hisato; Yuasa, Yasuhito; Niwa, Hitoshi; Kawasuji, Michio; Baba, Hideo; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi . E-mail: mnakao@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-29

    Sox2 is a member of the high mobility group (HMG) domain DNA-binding proteins for transcriptional control and chromatin architecture. The HMG domain of Sox2 binds the DNA to facilitate transactivation by the cooperative transcription factors such as Oct3/4. We report that mouse Sox2 is modified by SUMO at lysine 247. Substitution of the target lysine to arginine lost the sumoylation but little affected transcriptional potential or nuclear localization of Sox2. By contrast with the unmodified form, Sox2 fused to SUMO-1 did not augment transcription via the Fgf4 enhancer in the presence of Oct3/4. Further, SUMO-1-conjugated Sox2 at the lysine 247 or at the carboxyl terminus reduced the binding to the Fgf4 enhancer. These indicate that Sox2 sumoylation negatively regulates its transcriptional role through impairing the DNA binding.

  3. Human kidney amiloride-binding protein: cDNA structure and functional expression

    SciTech Connect

    Barbry, P.; Chassande, O.; Champigny, G.; Lingueglia, E.; Frelin, C.; Lazdunski, M. ); Champe, M.; Munemitsu, S.; Ullrich, A. ); Maes, P.; Tartar, A. Institut Pasteur de Lille )

    1990-10-01

    Phenamil, an analog of amiloride, is a potent blocker of the epithelial Na{sup plus} channel. It has been used to purify the porcine kidney amiloride-binding protein. Synthetic oligonucleotides derived from partial sequences have been used to screen a human kidney cDNA library and to isolate the cDNA encoding the human amiloride-binding protein. The primary structure was deduced from the DNA sequence analysis. The protein is 713 residues long, with a 19-amino acid signal peptide. The mRNA was expressed in 293-S and NIH 3T3 cells, yielding a glycoprotein (i) that binds amiloride and amiloride analogs with affinities similar to the amiloride receptor associated with the apical Na{sup plus} channel in pig kidney membranes and (ii) that is immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies raised against pig kidney amiloride-binding protein.

  4. Predictive binding geometry of ligands to DNA minor groove: isohelicity and hydrogen-bonding pattern.

    PubMed

    Stockert, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of drugs and dyes with nucleic acids, particularly when binding to DNA minor groove occurs, has increasing importance in biomedical sciences. This is due to the resulting biological activity and to the possibility of recognizing AT and GC base pairs. In such cases, DNA binding can be predicted if appropriate helical and hydrogen-bonding parameters are deduced from DNA models, and a simplified geometrical rule in the form of a stencil is then applied on computer-drawn molecules of interest. Relevant structure parameter values for minor groove binders are the length (4.6 < L < 5.4 Å) and angle (152 < σ < 156.5°) between three consecutive units, measured at the level of hydrogen donor or acceptor groups. Application of the stencil shows that predictive methods can aid in the design of new compounds, by checking the possible binding of isohelical sequence-specific ligands along the DNA minor groove. PMID:24162975

  5. The extended arms of DNA-binding domains: a tale of tails.

    PubMed

    Crane-Robinson, Colyn; Dragan, Anatoly I; Privalov, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    DNA-binding domains (DBDs) frequently have N- or C-terminal tails, rich in lysine and/or arginine and disordered in free solution, that bind the DNA separately from and in the opposite groove to the folded domain. Is their role simply to increase affinity for DNA or do they have a role in specificity, that is, sequence recognition? One approach to answering this question is to analyze the contribution of such tails to the overall energetics of binding. It turns out that, despite similarities of amino acid sequence, three distinct categories of DBD extension exist: (i) those that are purely electrostatic and lack specificity, (ii) those that are largely non-electrostatic with a high contribution to specificity and (iii) those of mixed character that show sequence preference. Because in all cases the tails also increase the affinity for target DNA, they represent a crucial component of the machinery for selective gene activation or repression. PMID:16920361

  6. Discovering protein–DNA binding sequence patterns using association rule mining

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Tak-Ming; Wong, Man-Hon; Lee, Kin-Hong; Lau, Chi-Kong; Tsui, Stephen K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Protein–DNA bindings between transcription factors (TFs) and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) play an essential role in transcriptional regulation. Over the past decades, significant efforts have been made to study the principles for protein–DNA bindings. However, it is considered that there are no simple one-to-one rules between amino acids and nucleotides. Many methods impose complicated features beyond sequence patterns. Protein-DNA bindings are formed from associated amino acid and nucleotide sequence pairs, which determine many functional characteristics. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate associated sequence patterns between TFs and TFBSs. With increasing computational power, availability of massive experimental databases on DNA and proteins, and mature data mining techniques, we propose a framework to discover associated TF–TFBS binding sequence patterns in the most explicit and interpretable form from TRANSFAC. The framework is based on association rule mining with Apriori algorithm. The patterns found are evaluated by quantitative measurements at several levels on TRANSFAC. With further independent verifications from literatures, Protein Data Bank and homology modeling, there are strong evidences that the patterns discovered reveal real TF–TFBS bindings across different TFs and TFBSs, which can drive for further knowledge to better understand TF–TFBS bindings. PMID:20529874

  7. An RNA aptamer that interferes with the DNA binding of the HSF transcription activator

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoching; Shi, Hua; Sevilimedu, Aarti; Liachko, Nicole; Nelson, Hillary C. M.; Lis, John T.

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock factor (HSF) is a conserved and highly potent transcription activator. It is involved in a wide variety of important biological processes including the stress response and specific steps in normal development. Reagents that interfere with HSF function would be useful for both basic studies and practical applications. We selected an RNA aptamer that binds to HSF with high specificity. Deletion analysis defined the minimal binding motif of this aptamer to be two stems and one stem–loop joined by a three-way junction. This RNA aptamer interferes with normal interaction of HSF with its DNA element, which is a key regulatory step for HSF function. The DNA-binding domain plus a flanking linker region on the HSF (DL) is essential for the RNA binding. Additionally, this aptamer inhibits HSF-induced transcription in vitro in the complex milieu of a whole cell extract. In contrast to the previously characterized NF-κB aptamer, the HSF aptamer does not simply mimic DNA binding, but rather binds to HSF in a manner distinct from DNA binding to HSF. PMID:16893958

  8. Truncated forms of DNA-binding estrogen receptors in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, G K; Kushner, P; Vigne, J L; Benz, C C

    1991-01-01

    The likelihood a breast cancer will respond to antiestrogen therapy depends on the tumor content of immunoreactive or ligand-binding estrogen receptor (ER). To investigate the failure of many ER-positive breast cancers to respond to antiestrogen therapy, we examined by gel-shift assay the ability of tumor ER to bind its cognate estrogen response element (ERE). Analysis of 38 primary breast cancers showed that some tumors containing abundant immunoreactive ER failed to demonstrate DNA binding ER. In many other ER-positive tumors, the fraction of DNA binding ER was low and consisted primarily of truncated receptor forms, which on Western analysis were revealed to be 50 kD homodimers and 67-50 kD ER heterodimers. The use of protease inhibitors during tumor extraction and the demonstration of nuclear-localizing ER and ERE-binding COUP (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter) protein in these tumors indicated that the truncated forms of ER were likely present in vivo. The presence of intact DNA binding ER correlated with higher tumor content of immunoreactive sex steroid receptors (ER and/or PR), standard predictors of tumor responsiveness to antiestrogen, suggesting that loss or truncation of DNA binding ER may be an important prognostic parameter accounting for some forms of clinical resistance to antiestrogen therapy. Images PMID:1864980

  9. In vitro DNA binding studies of anticancer drug idarubicin using spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozluer, Can; Kara, Hayriye Eda Satana

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between idarubicin and double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ds-DNA) was investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometry, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The absorption spectra of idarubicin with ds-DNA showed a slight red shift and hypochromic effect. In the fluorescence experiments, emission peaks were decreased by adding ds-DNA. Using ethidium bromide (ETB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was observed in the ETB-DNA system when idarubicin was added. Moreover, similar results were obtained in Raman spectroscopy. Binding constants of idarubicin with ds-DNA were determined as 5.14×10(5) M(-1) and 5.8×10(5) M(-1) for UV-VIS spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The large binding constant indicated that idarubicin has a high affinity with ds-DNA. All the evidences indicated that the binding mode of idarubicin with DNA was an intercalative binding. Furthermore, quantitative determination of idarubicin in pharmaceutical formulation was done. PMID:24911270

  10. Nonspecific DNA Binding and Coordination of the First Two Steps of Base Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Michael R.; O'Brien, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway repairs a wide variety of damaged nucleobases in DNA. This pathway is initiated by a DNA repair glycosylase, which locates the site of damage and catalyzes the excision of the damaged nucleobase. The resulting abasic site is further processed by apurinic/apyrimidinic site endonuclease 1 (APE1) to create a single strand nick with the 3'-hydroxyl that serves as a primer for DNA repair synthesis. Since an abasic site is highly mutagenic it is critical that the steps of the BER pathway be coordinated. Most human glycosylases bind tightly to their abasic product. APE1 displaces the bound glycosylase, thereby stimulating multiple turnover base excision. It has been proposed that direct protein-protein interactions are involved in the stimulation by APE1, but no common interaction motifs have been identified among the glycosylases that are stimulated by APE1. We characterized the APE1 stimulation of alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) using a variety of symmetric and asymmetric lesion-containing oligonucleotides. Efficient stimulation on a wide variety of substrates favors a model whereby both AAG and APE1 can simultaneously bind to DNA, but may not interact directly. Rather, nonspecific DNA binding by both AAG and APE1 enables APE1 to replace AAG at the abasic site. AAG is not displaced into solution, but remains bound to an adjacent undamaged site. We propose that nonspecific DNA binding interactions allow transient exposure of the abasic site so that it can be captured by APE1. PMID:20701268

  11. DNA binding induces active site conformational change in the human TREX2 3'-exonuclease.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Udesh; Perrino, Fred W; Hollis, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    The TREX enzymes process DNA as the major 3'-->5' exonuclease activity in mammalian cells. TREX2 and TREX1 are members of the DnaQ family of exonucleases and utilize a two metal ion catalytic mechanism of hydrolysis. The structure of the dimeric TREX2 enzyme in complex with single-stranded DNA has revealed binding properties that are distinct from the TREX1 protein. The TREX2 protein undergoes a conformational change in the active site upon DNA binding including ordering of active site residues and a shift of an active site helix. Surprisingly, even when a single monomer binds DNA, both monomers in the dimer undergo the structural rearrangement. From this we have proposed a model for DNA binding and 3' hydrolysis for the TREX2 dimer. The structure also shows how TREX proteins potentially interact with double-stranded DNA and suggest features that might be involved in strand denaturation to provide a single-stranded substrate for the active site. PMID:19321497

  12. The intrinsically disordered amino-terminal region of human RecQL4: multiple DNA-binding domains confer annealing, strand exchange and G4 DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Heidi; Kiosze, Kristin; Sachsenweger, Juliane; Haumann, Sebastian; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Nuutinen, Tarmo; Syväoja, Juhani E.; Görlach, Matthias; Grosse, Frank; Pospiech, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Human RecQL4 belongs to the ubiquitous RecQ helicase family. Its N-terminal region represents the only homologue of the essential DNA replication initiation factor Sld2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also participates in the vertebrate initiation of DNA replication. Here, we utilized a random screen to identify N-terminal fragments of human RecQL4 that could be stably expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of these fragments revealed that the Sld2 homologous RecQL4 N-terminal domain carries large intrinsically disordered regions. The N-terminal fragments were sufficient for the strong annealing activity of RecQL4. Moreover, this activity appeared to be the basis for an ATP-independent strand exchange activity. Both activities relied on multiple DNA-binding sites with affinities to single-stranded, double-stranded and Y-structured DNA. Finally, we found a remarkable affinity of the N-terminus for guanine quadruplex (G4) DNA, exceeding the affinities for other DNA structures by at least 60-fold. Together, these findings suggest that the DNA interactions mediated by the N-terminal region of human RecQL4 represent a central function at the replication fork. The presented data may also provide a mechanistic explanation for the role of elements with a G4-forming propensity identified in the vicinity of vertebrate origins of DNA replication. PMID:25336622

  13. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Volkert, Michael R.

    2004-02-01

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair is suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.

  14. Kinetics of carboplatin-DNA binding in genomic DNA and bladder cancer cells as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hah, S S; Stivers, K M; Vere White, R; Henderson, P T

    2005-12-29

    Cisplatin and carboplatin are platinum-based drugs that are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The cytotoxicity of these drugs is mediated by platinum-DNA monoadducts and intra- and interstrand diadducts, which are formed following uptake of the drug into the nucleus of cells. The pharmacodynamics of carboplatin display fewer side effects than for cisplatin, albeit with less potency, which may be due to differences in rates of DNA adduct formation. We report the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a sensitive detection method often used for radiocarbon quantitation, to measure both the kinetics of [{sup 14}C]carboplatin-DNA adduct formation with genomic DNA and drug uptake and DNA binding in T24 human bladder cancer cells. Only carboplatin-DNA monoadducts contain radiocarbon in the platinated DNA, which allowed for calculation of kinetic rates and concentrations within the system. The percent of radiocarbon bound to salmon sperm DNA in the form of monoadducts was measured by AMS over 24 h. Knowledge of both the starting concentration of the parent carboplatin and the concentration of radiocarbon in the DNA at a variety of time points allowed calculation of the rates of Pt-DNA monoadduct formation and conversion to toxic cross-links. Importantly, the rate of carboplatin-DNA monoadduct formation was approximately 100-fold slower than that reported for the more potent cisplatin analogue, which may explain the lower toxicity of carboplatin. T24 human bladder cancer cells were incubated with a subpharmacological dose of [{sup 14}C]carboplatin, and the rate of accumulation of radiocarbon in the cells and nuclear DNA was measured by AMS. The lowest concentration of radiocarbon measured was approximately 1 amol/10 {micro}g of DNA. This sensitivity may allow the method to be used for clinical applications.

  15. Both HMG boxes in Hmo1 are essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Ayako; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Kasahara, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hmo1, a member of the high mobility group B family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, associates with the promoters of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Here, to identify factors involved in the binding of Hmo1 to its targets and the mechanism of Hmo1-dependent transcriptional initiation, we developed a novel reporter system using the promoter of the RPG RPS5. A genetic screen did not identify any factors that influence Hmo1 binding, but did identify a number of mutations in Hmo1 that impair its DNA binding activity in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Hmo1 binds to its target promoters autonomously without any aid of additional factors. Furthermore, characterization of Hmo1 mutants showed that the box A domain plays a pivotal role in DNA binding and may be required for the recognition of structural properties of target promoters that occur in native chromatin. PMID:25410521

  16. Structure solution of DNA-binding proteins and complexes with ARCIMBOLDO libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Pröpper, Kevin; Meindl, Kathrin; Sammito, Massimo; Dittrich, Birger; Sheldrick, George M.; Pohl, Ehmke; Usón, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    The structure solution of DNA-binding protein structures and complexes based on the combination of location of DNA-binding protein motif fragments with density modification in a multi-solution frame is described. Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all aspects of genetic activity within an organism, such as transcription, packaging, rearrangement, replication and repair. The molecular detail of protein–DNA interactions can be best visualized through crystallography, and structures emphasizing insight into the principles of binding and base-sequence recognition are essential to understanding the subtleties of the underlying mechanisms. An increasing number of high-quality DNA-binding protein structure determinations have been witnessed despite the fact that the crystallographic particularities of nucleic acids tend to pose specific challenges to methods primarily developed for proteins. Crystallographic structure solution of protein–DNA complexes therefore remains a challenging area that is in need of optimized experimental and computational methods. The potential of the structure-solution program ARCIMBOLDO for the solution of protein–DNA complexes has therefore been assessed. The method is based on the combination of locating small, very accurate fragments using the program Phaser and density modification with the program SHELXE. Whereas for typical proteins main-chain α-helices provide the ideal, almost ubiquitous, small fragments to start searches, in the case of DNA complexes the binding motifs and DNA double helix constitute suitable search fragments. The aim of this work is to provide an effective library of search fragments as well as to determine the optimal ARCIMBOLDO strategy for the solution of this class of structures.

  17. Widespread evidence of cooperative DNA binding by transcription factors in Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Kazemian, Majid; Pham, Hannah; Wolfe, Scot A.; Brodsky, Michael H.; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene transcription is often combinatorial in nature, with multiple transcription factors (TFs) regulating common target genes, often through direct or indirect mutual interactions. Many individual examples of cooperative binding by directly interacting TFs have been identified, but it remains unclear how pervasive this mechanism is during animal development. Cooperative TF binding should be manifest in genomic sequences as biased arrangements of TF-binding sites. Here, we explore the extent and diversity of such arrangements related to gene regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. We used the DNA-binding specificities of 322 TFs along with chromatin accessibility information to identify enriched spacing and orientation patterns of TF-binding site pairs. We developed a new statistical approach for this task, specifically designed to accurately assess inter-site spacing biases while accounting for the phenomenon of homotypic site clustering commonly observed in developmental regulatory regions. We observed a large number of short-range distance preferences between TF-binding site pairs, including examples where the preference depends on the relative orientation of the binding sites. To test whether these binding site patterns reflect physical interactions between the corresponding TFs, we analyzed 27 TF pairs whose binding sites exhibited short distance preferences. In vitro protein–protein binding experiments revealed that >65% of these TF pairs can directly interact with each other. For five pairs, we further demonstrate that they bind cooperatively to DNA if both sites are present with the preferred spacing. This study demonstrates how DNA-binding motifs can be used to produce a comprehensive map of sequence signatures for different mechanisms of combinatorial TF action. PMID:23847101

  18. Ultrafast electron transfer in the recognition of different DNA sequences by a DNA-binding protein with different dynamical conformations.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Tanumoy; Batabyal, Subrata; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast electron transfer (ET) phenomenon in protein and protein-DNA complex is very much crucial and often leads to the regulation of various kinds of redox reactions in biological system. Although, the conformation of the protein in protein-DNA complex is concluded to play the key role in the ET process, till date very little evidences exist in the literature. λ-repressor-operator DNA interaction, particularly O(R)1 and O(R)2, is a key component of the λ-genetic switch and is a model system for understanding the chemical principles of the conformation-dependent ET reaction, governed by differential protein dynamics upon binding with different DNA target sequences. Here, we have explored the photoinduced electron transfer from the tryptophan moieties of the protein λ-repressor to two operators DNA of different sequences (O(R)1 and O(R)2) using picosecond-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The enhanced flexibility and different conformation of the C-terminal domain of the repressor upon complexation with O(R)1 DNA compared to O(R)2 DNA are found to have pronounced effect on the rate of ET. We have also observed the ET phenomenon from a dansyl chromophore, bound to the lysine residue, distal from the DNA-binding domain of the protein to the operator DNA with a specific excitation at 299 nm wavelength. The altered ET dynamics as a consequence of differential protein conformation upon specific DNA sequence recognition may have tremendous biological implications. PMID:22686485

  19. Surface shapes and surrounding environment analysis of single- and double-stranded DNA-binding proteins in protein-DNA interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Juan; Sun, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Protein-DNA bindings are critical to many biological processes. However, the structural mechanisms underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the residues shape (peak, flat, or valley) and the surrounding environment of double-stranded DNA-binding proteins (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) in protein-DNA interfaces. In the results, we found that the interface shapes, hydrogen bonds, and the surrounding environment present significant differences between the two kinds of proteins. Built on the investigation results, we constructed a random forest (RF) classifier to distinguish DSBs and SSBs with satisfying performance. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein interfaces, which will deepen our understanding of the specificity of proteins binding to ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) or dsDNA (double-stranded DNA). Proteins 2016; 84:979-989. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038080

  20. Pyridine and p-Nitrophenyl Oxime Esters with Possible Photochemotherapeutic Activity: Synthesis, DNA Photocleavage and DNA Binding Studies.

    PubMed

    Pasolli, Milena; Dafnopoulos, Konstantinos; Andreou, Nicolaos-Panagiotis; Gritzapis, Panagiotis S; Koffa, Maria; Koumbis, Alexandros E; Psomas, George; Fylaktakidou, Konstantina C

    2016-01-01

    Compared to standard treatments for various diseases, photochemotherapy and photo-dynamic therapy are less invasive approaches, in which DNA photocleavers represent promising tools for novel "on demand" chemotherapeutics. A series of p-nitrobenzoyl and p-pyridoyl ester conjugated aldoximes, amidoximes and ethanone oximes were subjected to UV irradiation at 312 nm with supercoiled circular plasmid DNA. The compounds which possessed appropriate properties were additionally subjected to UVA irradiation at 365 nm. The ability of most of the compounds to photocleave DNA was high at 312 nm, whereas higher concentrations were required at 365 nm as a result of their lower UV absorption. The affinity of selected compounds to calf-thymus (CT) DNA was studied by UV spectroscopy, viscosity experiments and competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) revealing that all compounds interacted with CT DNA. The fluorescence emission spectra of the pre-treated EB-DNA exhibited a moderate to significant quenching in the presence of the compounds indicating the binding of the compounds to CT DNA via intercalation as concluded also by DNA-viscosity experiments. For the oxime esters the DNA photocleavage and affinity studies aimed to clarify the role of the oxime nature (aldoxime, ketoxime, amidoxime) and the role of the pyridine and p-nitrophenyl moieties both as oxime substituents and ester conjugates. PMID:27376258

  1. C-terminal low-complexity sequence repeats of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku modulate DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Ambuj K.; Grove, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ku protein is an integral component of the NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) pathway of DSB (double-strand break) repair. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ku homologues have been characterized and shown to bind DNA ends. A unique feature of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku is its basic C-terminal tail that contains several lysine-rich low-complexity PAKKA repeats that are absent from homologues encoded by obligate parasitic mycobacteria. Such PAKKA repeats are also characteristic of mycobacterial Hlp (histone-like protein) for which they have been shown to confer the ability to appose DNA ends. Unexpectedly, removal of the lysine-rich extension enhances DNA-binding affinity, but an interaction between DNA and the PAKKA repeats is indicated by the observation that only full-length Ku forms multiple complexes with a short stem-loop-containing DNA previously designed to accommodate only one Ku dimer. The C-terminal extension promotes DNA end-joining by T4 DNA ligase, suggesting that the PAKKA repeats also contribute to efficient end-joining. We suggest that low-complexity lysine-rich sequences have evolved repeatedly to modulate the function of unrelated DNA-binding proteins. PMID:23167261

  2. New metal based drugs: Spectral, electrochemical, DNA-binding, surface morphology and anticancer activity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çeşme, Mustafa; Gölcü, Aysegul; Demirtaş, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The NSAID piroxicam (PRX) drug was used for complex formation reactions with Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) metal salts have been synthesized. Then, these complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Thermal behavior of the complexes were also investigated. The electrochemical properties of all complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to fish sperm double strand DNA (FSFSdsDNA) with UV spectroscopy. UV studies of the interaction of the PRX and its complexes with FSdsDNA have shown that these compounds can bind to FSdsDNA. The binding constants of the compounds with FSdsDNA have also been calculated. The morphology of the FSdsDNA, PRX, metal ions and metal complexes has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To get the SEM images, the interaction of compounds with FSdsDNA has been studied by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at FSdsDNA modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The decrease in intensity of the guanine oxidation signals has been used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism. The effect of proliferation PRX and complexes were examined on the HeLA and C6 cells using real-time cell analyzer with four different concentrations.

  3. Kinetics and binding of the thymine-DNA mismatch glycosylase, Mig-Mth, with mismatch-containing DNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Begley, Thomas J; Haas, Brian J; Morales, Juan C; Kool, Eric T; Cunningham, Richard P

    2003-01-01

    We have examined the removal of thymine residues from T-G mismatches in DNA by the thymine-DNA mismatch glycosylase from Methanobacterium thermoautrophicum (Mig-Mth), within the context of the base excision repair (BER) pathway, to investigate why this glycosylase has such low activity in vitro. Using single-turnover kinetics and steady-state kinetics, we calculated the catalytic and product dissociation rate constants for Mig-Mth, and determined that Mig-Mth is inhibited by product apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) provide evidence that the specificity of product binding is dependent upon the base opposite the AP site. The binding of Mig-Mth to DNA containing the non-cleavable substrate analogue difluorotoluene (F) was also analyzed to determine the effect of the opposite base on Mig-Mth binding specificity for substrate-like duplex DNA. The results of these experiments support the idea that opposite strand interactions play roles in determining substrate specificity. Endonuclease IV, which cleaves AP sites in the next step of the BER pathway, was used to analyze the effect of product removal on the overall rate of thymine hydrolysis by Mig-Mth. Our results support the hypothesis that endonuclease IV increases the apparent activity of Mig-Mth significantly under steady-state conditions by preventing reassociation of enzyme to product. PMID:12509271

  4. Accurate Prediction of Binding Thermodynamics for DNA on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Vainrub, Arnold; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    For DNA mounted on surfaces for microarrays, microbeads and nanoparticles, the nature of the random attachment of oligonucleotide probes to an amorphous surface gives rise to a locally inhomogeneous probe density. These fluctuations of the probe surface density are inherent to all common surface or bead platforms, regardless if they exploit either an attachment of pre-synthesized probes or probes synthesized in situ on the surface. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the crucial role of the probe surface density fluctuations in performance of DNA arrays. We account for the density fluctuations with a disordered two-dimensional surface model and derive the corresponding array hybridization isotherm that includes a counter-ion screened electrostatic repulsion between the assayed DNA and probe array. The calculated melting curves are in excellent agreement with published experimental results for arrays with both pre-synthesized and in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide probes. The approach developed allows one to accurately predict the melting curves of DNA arrays using only the known sequence dependent hybridization enthalpy and entropy in solution and the experimental macroscopic surface density of probes. This opens the way to high precision theoretical design and optimization of probes and primers in widely used DNA array-based high-throughput technologies for gene expression, genotyping, next-generation sequencing, and surface polymerase extension. PMID:21972932

  5. Role of zinc in the structure and function of ssDNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.E.; Giedroc, D.P.; Keating, K.M.; Williams, K.R.

    1987-05-01

    Gene 32 protein (g32P), the ssDNA binding protein required for replication, recombination and translational control in the phage T4 life cycle contains 1 g at Zn per mol bound in a tetrahedral complex to -S/sup -/ ligands. Chemical modification and spectroscopic evidence suggest binding to Cys 77, His 81, Cys 87 and Cys 90. The Zn-binding domain is at the N-terminal end of AA residues 72 to 116 which contains 6 of the 8 Tyr residues in g32P, shown by /sup 1/H-NMR to be involved in deoxynucleotide binding. Limited proteolysis of g32P with trypsin removes residues 1-21 and 254-301 leaving a trypsin-resistant core, g32P. The latter retains high affinity for a single site nucleotide lattice, but has lost cooperative binding to DNA. Removal of Zn from native g32P renders the molecule susceptible to proteolysis and the core is hydrolyzed to small peptides. Rebinding of Zn restores the core stability. Apo g32P binds 3 orders of magnitude less tightly to ssDNA and cannot melt polyd(AT) at 150 mM NaCl. Loss of binding affinity is primarily due to loss of cooperative protein-protein interactions accompanying Zn removal. Thus, both the N-terminal domain and the Zn-binding domain are required for cooperative binding to DNA. G5P from fd and ssB from E. coli do not contain Zn, but small basic proteins, products of the gag gene of retroviruses, e.g., p10 from MuLV, p15 from HTLVI and p15 from HTLV-III contain tandem repeats of a -C-X/sub 2/-C-X/sub 4/-H-X/sub 4/-C- sequence similar to the Zn-binding sequence found in g32P.

  6. Pbx-1 Hox heterodimers bind DNA on inseparable half-sites that permit intrinsic DNA binding specificity of the Hox partner at nucleotides 3' to a TAAT motif.

    PubMed

    Knoepfler, P S; Lu, Q; Kamps, M P

    1996-06-15

    Heterodimers between the Pbx/Exd and Hox/HOM-C classes of homeodomain proteins bind regulatory elements in tissue-specific and developmentally regulated genes. In this work, we characterize the half-site bound by both Pbx1 and Hox proteins on a prototypic element (TGATTAAT) and determine how the orientation of the Hox protein contributes to the DNA binding specificity of Pbx-Hox heterodimers. We demonstrate that the Hox protein binds the 3' TAAT sequence as its recognition core and exhibits sequence-specific binding at positions 3' to the TAAT core. Unfavored sequences at this position, such as two cytosines, abrogate binding to the element. The upstream Pbx1 core sequence, TGAT, must immediately juxtapose the Hox core. This geometry maintains the preference of Hox/HOM-C proteins for a T base at position -1, as T represents the fourth position of the Pbx1 core, and suggests that this T base is bound by both Pbx1 and Hox proteins, Pbx1 binding in the major grove and the Hox protein binding in the minor grove. Pbx1 also exhibits base selectivity 5' to its TGAT recognition sequence. PMID:8710498

  7. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExsA DNA-Binding Activity by N-Hydroxybenzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Anne E; King, Jessica M; Spies, M Ashley; Kim, Oak K; Yahr, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS) is a primary virulence determinant and a potential target for antivirulence drugs. One candidate target is ExsA, a member of the AraC family of DNA-binding proteins required for expression of the T3SS. A previous study identified small molecules based on an N-hydroxybenzimidazole scaffold that inhibit the DNA-binding activity of several AraC proteins, including ExsA. In this study, we further characterized a panel of N-hydroxybenzimidazoles. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the tested N-hydroxybenzimidazoles ranged from 8 to 45 μM in DNA-binding assays. Each of the N-hydroxybenzimidazoles protected mammalian cells from T3SS-dependent cytotoxicity, and protection correlated with reduced T3SS gene expression in a coculture infection model. Binding studies with the purified ExsA DNA-binding domain (i.e., lacking the amino-terminal self-association domain) confirmed that the activity of N-hydroxybenzimidazoles results from interactions with the DNA-binding domain. The interaction is specific, as an unrelated DNA-binding protein (Vfr) was unaffected by N-hydroxybenzimidazoles. ExsA homologs that control T3SS gene expression in Yersinia pestis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were also sensitive to N-hydroxybenzimidazoles. Although ExsA and Y. pestis LcrF share 79% sequence identity in the DNA-binding domain, differential sensitivities to several of the N-hydroxybenzimidazoles were observed. Site-directed mutagenesis based on in silico docking of inhibitors to the DNA-binding domain, and on amino acid differences between ExsA and LcrF, resulted in the identification of several substitutions that altered the sensitivity of ExsA to N-hydroxybenzimidazoles. Development of second-generation compounds targeted to the same binding pocket could lead to drugs with improved pharmacological properties. PMID:26574012

  8. gDNA-Prot: Predict DNA-binding proteins by employing support vector machine and a novel numerical characterization of protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wuyunqiqige; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Shuyi; Zhao, Chunguang

    2016-10-01

    DNA-binding proteins are the functional proteins in cells, which play an important role in various essential biological activities. An effective and fast computational method gDNA-Prot is proposed to predict DNA-binding proteins in this paper, which is a DNA-binding predictor that combines the support vector machine classifier and a novel kind of feature called graphical representation. The DNA-binding protein sequence information was described with the 20 probabilities of amino acids and the 23 new numerical graphical representation features of a protein sequence, based on 23 physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was employed as feature selection method for removing the irrelevant features and reducing redundant features. The Sigmod function and Min-max normalization methods for PCA were applied to accelerate the training speed and obtain higher accuracy. Experiments demonstrated that the Principal Components Analysis with Sigmod function generated the best performance. The gDNA-Prot method was also compared with the DNAbinder, iDNA-Prot and DNA-Prot. The results suggested that gDNA-Prot outperformed the DNAbinder and iDNA-Prot. Although the DNA-Prot outperformed gDNA-Prot, gDNA-Prot was faster and convenient to predict the DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, the proposed gNDA-Prot method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gdnaprot. PMID:27378005

  9. The Q motif of Fanconi anemia group J protein (FANCJ) DNA helicase regulates its dimerization, DNA binding, and DNA repair function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuliang; Sommers, Joshua A; Loiland, Jason A; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Kuper, Jochen; Kisker, Caroline; Brosh, Robert M

    2012-06-22

    The Q motif, conserved in a number of RNA and DNA helicases, is proposed to be important for ATP binding based on structural data, but its precise biochemical functions are less certain. FANCJ encodes a Q motif DEAH box DNA helicase implicated in Fanconi anemia and breast cancer. A Q25A mutation of the invariant glutamine in the Q motif abolished its ability to complement cisplatin or telomestatin sensitivity of a fancj null cell line and exerted a dominant negative effect. Biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant FANCJ-Q25A protein showed that the mutation disabled FANCJ helicase activity and the ability to disrupt protein-DNA interactions. FANCJ-Q25A showed impaired DNA binding and ATPase activity but displayed ATP binding and temperature-induced unfolding transition similar to FANCJ-WT. Size exclusion chromatography and sedimentation velocity analyses revealed that FANCJ-WT existed as molecular weight species corresponding to a monomer and a dimer, and the dimeric form displayed a higher specific activity for ATPase and helicase, as well as greater DNA binding. In contrast, FANCJ-Q25A existed only as a monomer, devoid of helicase activity. Thus, the Q motif is essential for FANCJ enzymatic activity in vitro and DNA repair function in vivo. PMID:22582397

  10. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Spink, Barbara C.; Bloom, Michael S.; Wu, Susan; Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus; Ding, Xinxin; Spink, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  11. Evaluation of DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding, radical scavenging and in vitro cytotoxic activities of ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,4-dihydroxy benzylidene ligands.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2016-12-01

    The new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, 4-Methyl-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), 4-Methoxy-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)), 4-Bromo-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)), were synthesized and characterized by various spectro analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligands were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The DNA binding studies of the ligands and complexes were examined by absorption, fluorescence, viscosity and cyclic voltammetry methods. The results indicated that the ligands and complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. The DNA cleavage activity of the complexes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis assay, which revealed that the complexes are good DNA cleaving agents. The binding interaction of the ligands and complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic method. Antioxidant studies showed that the complexes have a strong radical scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibit significant anticancer activity. PMID:27612830

  12. Metabolites and DNA-binding of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in vitro by rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Castrén, K; Pienimäki, P; Arvela, P; Vähäkangas, K

    1996-07-01

    DNA-binding of carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OCBZ) catalysed by non-induced, phenobarbital-induced or methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver microsomes in vitro was studied. 14C-CBZ 200 nmol incubated with DNA, liver microsomes and cofactors led to the formation of a significant amount of CBZ-epoxide, which has been suspected as the cause of teratogenesis and other side-effects of CBZ, 1,2 but has not been reactive in any test systems for genotoxicity, including the Ames test.3 No enzyme-dependent DNA-binding of CBZ was found. Using the same conditions, however, OCBZ was bound to DNA. This binding was dependent on the presence of NADPH. 10-hydroxy-10, 11-dihydro-carbamazepine, which is known to be the major metabolite of OCBZ, and an unknown peak were demonstrated by HPLC. These results are the first indication of a higher level of covalent DNA binding of OCBZ than of CBZ. The nature of the unknown metabolite and the pathway leading to covalent binding remain to be studied. PMID:8818711

  13. DNA binding protein identification by combining pseudo amino acid composition and profile-based protein representation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Shanyi; Wang, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins play an important role in most cellular processes. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient predictor for identifying DNA-binding proteins only based on the sequence information of proteins. The bottleneck for constructing a useful predictor is to find suitable features capturing the characteristics of DNA binding proteins. We applied PseAAC to DNA binding protein identification, and PseAAC was further improved by incorporating the evolutionary information by using profile-based protein representation. Finally, Combined with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), a predictor called iDNAPro-PseAAC was proposed. Experimental results on an updated benchmark dataset showed that iDNAPro-PseAAC outperformed some state-of-the-art approaches, and it can achieve stable performance on an independent dataset. By using an ensemble learning approach to incorporate more negative samples (non-DNA binding proteins) in the training process, the performance of iDNAPro-PseAAC was further improved. The web server of iDNAPro-PseAAC is available at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iDNAPro-PseAAC/. PMID:26482832

  14. Domains of ERRgamma that mediate homodimerization and interaction with factors stimulating DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Hentschke, Moritz; Süsens, Ute; Borgmeyer, Uwe

    2002-08-01

    The estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma/ERR3/NR3B3) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily closely related to the estrogen receptors. To explore the DNA binding characteristics, the protein-DNA interaction was studied in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). In vitro translated ERRgamma binds as a homodimer to direct repeats (DR) without spacing of the nuclear receptor half-site 5'-AGGTCA-3' (DR-0), to extended half-sites, and to the inverted estrogen response element. Using ERRgamma deletion constructs, binding was found to be dependent on the presence of sequences in the ligand binding domain (LBD). A far-Western analysis revealed that ERRgamma forms dimers even in the absence of DNA. Two elements, located in the hinge region and in the LBD, respectively, are necessary for DNA-independent dimerization. DNA binding of bacterial expressed ERRgamma requires additional factors present in the serum and in cellular extracts. Fusion proteins of the germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF/NR6A1) with ERRgamma showed that the characteristic feature to be stimulated by additional factors can be transferred to a heterologous protein. The stimulating activity was further characterized and its target sequence narrowed down to a small element in the hinge region. PMID:12180985

  15. Role of DNA binding sites and slow unbinding kinetics in titration-based oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetyan, Sargis; Buchler, Nicolas E.

    2015-12-01

    Genetic oscillators, such as circadian clocks, are constantly perturbed by molecular noise arising from the small number of molecules involved in gene regulation. One of the strongest sources of stochasticity is the binary noise that arises from the binding of a regulatory protein to a promoter in the chromosomal DNA. In this study, we focus on two minimal oscillators based on activator titration and repressor titration to understand the key parameters that are important for oscillations and for overcoming binary noise. We show that the rate of unbinding from the DNA, despite traditionally being considered a fast parameter, needs to be slow to broaden the space of oscillatory solutions. The addition of multiple, independent DNA binding sites further expands the oscillatory parameter space for the repressor-titration oscillator and lengthens the period of both oscillators. This effect is a combination of increased effective delay of the unbinding kinetics due to multiple binding sites and increased promoter ultrasensitivity that is specific for repression. We then use stochastic simulation to show that multiple binding sites increase the coherence of oscillations by mitigating the binary noise. Slow values of DNA unbinding rate are also effective in alleviating molecular noise due to the increased distance from the bifurcation point. Our work demonstrates how the number of DNA binding sites and slow unbinding kinetics, which are often omitted in biophysical models of gene circuits, can have a significant impact on the temporal and stochastic dynamics of genetic oscillators.

  16. DNA binding protein identification by combining pseudo amino acid composition and profile-based protein representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Shanyi; Wang, Xiaolong

    2015-10-01

    DNA-binding proteins play an important role in most cellular processes. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient predictor for identifying DNA-binding proteins only based on the sequence information of proteins. The bottleneck for constructing a useful predictor is to find suitable features capturing the characteristics of DNA binding proteins. We applied PseAAC to DNA binding protein identification, and PseAAC was further improved by incorporating the evolutionary information by using profile-based protein representation. Finally, Combined with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), a predictor called iDNAPro-PseAAC was proposed. Experimental results on an updated benchmark dataset showed that iDNAPro-PseAAC outperformed some state-of-the-art approaches, and it can achieve stable performance on an independent dataset. By using an ensemble learning approach to incorporate more negative samples (non-DNA binding proteins) in the training process, the performance of iDNAPro-PseAAC was further improved. The web server of iDNAPro-PseAAC is available at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iDNAPro-PseAAC/.

  17. Dimerization of FIR Upon FUSE DNA Binding Suggests Mechanism of c-myc Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Crichlow,G.; Zhou, H.; Hsiao, H.; Frederick, K.; Debrosse, M.; Yang, Y.; Folta-Stogniew, E.; Chung, H.; Fan, C.; et al

    2008-01-01

    c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control.

  18. Simulator for SUPO, a Benchmark Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-10-14

    A simulator has been developed for SUPO (Super Power) an aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) that operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1951 to 1974. During that period SUPO accumulated approximately 600,000 kWh of operation. It is considered the benchmark for steady-state operation of an AHR. The SUPO simulator was developed using the process that resulted in a simulator for an accelerator-driven subcritical system, which has been previously reported.

  19. 14-3-3sigma is a cruciform DNA binding protein and associates in vivo with origins of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Novac, Olivia; Callejo, Mario; Ruiz, Marcia T; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A human cruciform binding protein (CBP) was previously shown to bind to cruciform DNA in a structure-specific manner and be a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. CBP had been found to contain the 14-3-3 isoforms beta, gamma, epsilon, and zeta. Here, we show by Western blot analysis that the CBP-cruciform DNA complex eluted from band-shift polyacrylamide gels also contains the 14-3-3sigma isoform, which is present in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. An antibody specific for the 14-3-3sigma isoform was able to interfere with the formation of the CBP-cruciform DNA complex. The effect of the same anti-14-3-3sigma antibody in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of the monkey origin ors8, was also analyzed. Pre-incubation of total HeLa cell extracts with this antibody decreased p186 in vitro replication to approximately 30% of control levels, while non-specific antibodies had no effect. 14-3-3sigma was found to associate in vivo with the monkey origins of DNA replication ors8 and ors12 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay that involved formaldehyde cross-linking, followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-14-3-3sigma antibody and quantitative PCR. The association of 14-3-3sigma with the replication origins was maximal at the G(1)/S phase. The results indicate that 14-3-3sigma is an origin binding protein involved in the regulation of DNA replication via cruciform DNA binding. PMID:12244572

  20. Embryonic Neural Inducing Factor Churchill is not a DNA-Binding Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Brian M.; Buck-Koehntop, Bethany A.; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A.; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

    2007-01-01

    Churchill is a zinc-containing protein that is involved in neural induction during embryogenesis. At the time of its discovery, it was thought on the basis of sequence alignment to contain two zinc fingers of the C4 type. Further, binding of an N-terminal GST-Churchill fusion protein to a particular DNA sequence was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation selection assay, suggesting that Churchill may function as a transcriptional regulator by sequence-specific DNA binding. We show by NMR solution structure determination that, far from containing canonical C4 zinc fingers, the protein contains three bound zinc ions in novel coordination sites, including an unusual binuclear zinc cluster. The secondary structure of Churchill is also unusual, consisting of a highly solvent exposed single-layer β-sheet. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and backbone relaxation measurements reveals that Churchill is unusually dynamic on a number of time scales, with the exception of regions surrounding the zinc coordinating sites, which serve to stabilize the otherwise unstructured N-terminus and the single-layer β-sheet. No binding of Churchill to the previously-identified DNA sequence could be detected, and extensive searches using DNA sequence selection techniques could find no other DNA sequence that was bound by Churchill. Since the N-terminal amino acids of Churchill form part of the zinc-binding motif, the addition of a fusion protein at the N-terminus causes loss of zinc and unfolding of Churchill. This observation most likely explains the published DNA-binding results, which would arise due to non-specific interaction of the unfolded protein in the immunoprecipitation selection assay. Since Churchill does not appear to bind DNA, we suggest that it may function in embryogenesis as a protein-interaction factor. PMID:17610897

  1. Autoinhibition of ETV6 DNA Binding Is Established by the Stability of Its Inhibitory Helix.

    PubMed

    De, Soumya; Okon, Mark; Graves, Barbara J; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2016-04-24

    The ETS transcriptional repressor ETV6 (or TEL) is autoinhibited by an α-helix that sterically blocks its DNA-binding ETS domain. The inhibitory helix is marginally stable and unfolds when ETV6 binds to either specific or non-specific DNA. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that folding of the inhibitory helix requires a buried charge-dipole interaction with helix H1 of the ETS domain. This interaction also contributes directly to autoinhibition by precluding a highly conserved dipole-enhanced hydrogen bond between the phosphodiester backbone of bound DNA and the N terminus of helix H1. To probe further the thermodynamic basis of autoinhibition, ETV6 variants were generated with amino acid substitutions introduced along the solvent exposed surface of the inhibitory helix. These changes were designed to increase the intrinsic helical propensity of the inhibitory helix without perturbing its packing interactions with the ETS domain. NMR-monitored amide hydrogen exchange measurements confirmed that the stability of the folded inhibitory helix increases progressively with added helix-promoting substitutions. This also results in progressively reinforced autoinhibition and decreased DNA-binding affinity. Surprisingly, locking the inhibitory helix onto the ETS domain by a disulfide bridge severely impairs, but does not abolish DNA binding. Weak interactions still occur via an interface displaced from the canonical ETS domain DNA-binding surface. Collectively, these studies establish a direct thermodynamic linkage between inhibitory helix stability and ETV6 autoinhibition, and demonstrate that helix unfolding does not strictly precede DNA binding. Modulating inhibitory helix stability provides a potential route for the in vivo regulation of ETV6 activity. PMID:26920109

  2. Effect of oxidative DNA damage in promoter elements on transcription factor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, R; Mitchell, D L

    1999-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species produced by endogenous metabolic activity and exposure to a multitude of exogenous agents impact cells in a variety of ways. The DNA base damage 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is a prominent indicator of oxidative stress and has been well-characterized as a premutagenic lesion in mammalian cells and putative initiator of the carcinogenic process. Commensurate with the recent interest in epigenetic pathways of cancer causation we investigated how 8-oxodG alters the interaction between cis elements located on gene promoters and sequence-specific DNA binding proteins associated with these promoters. Consensus binding sequences for the transcription factors AP-1, NF-kappaB and Sp1 were modified site-specifically at guanine residues and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to assess DNA-protein interactions. Our results indicate that whereas a single 8-oxodG was sufficient to inhibit transcription factor binding to AP-1 and Sp1 sequences it had no effect on binding to NF-kappaB, regardless of its position. We conclude from these data that minor alterations in base composition at a crucial position within some, but not all, promoter elements have the ability to disrupt transcription factor binding. The lack of inhibition by damaged NF-kappaB sequences suggests that DNA-protein contact sites may not be as determinative for stable p50 binding to this promoter as other, as yet undefined, structural parameters. PMID:10454620

  3. DNA-binding properties of the Drosophila melanogaster zeste gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Mansukhani, A.; Crickmore, A.; Sherwood, P.W.; Goldberg, M.L.

    1988-02-01

    The ability of the zeste moiety of ..beta..-galactosidase-zeste fusion proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli to bind specific DNA sequences was examined. Such fusion proteins recognize a region of the white locus upstream of the start of transcription; this region has previously been shown to be required for genetic interaction between the zeste and white loci. Another strong biding site was localized to a region between 50 and 205 nucleotides before the start of the Ubx transcriptional unit; expression of the bithorax complex is also known to be influenced by the zeste locus. Weaker binding sites were also seen in the vicinity of the bxd and Sgs-4 genes, but it is currently unclear whether these binding sites play a role in transvection effects. The DNA-binding activity of the zeste protein is restricted to a domain of approximately 90 amino acids near the N terminus. This domain does not appear to contain homebox or zinc finger motifs found in other DNA-binding proteins. The DNA-binding domain is not disrupted by any currently characterized zeste mutations.

  4. Dynamic strategies for target-site search by DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Mario A Díaz; Koslover, Elena F; Mulligan, Peter J; Spakowitz, Andrew J

    2010-06-16

    Gene regulatory proteins find their target sites on DNA remarkably quickly; the experimental binding rate for lac repressor is orders-of-magnitude higher than predicted by free diffusion alone. It has been proposed that nonspecific binding aids the search by allowing proteins to slide and hop along DNA. We develop a reaction-diffusion theory of protein translocation that accounts for transport both on and off the strand and incorporates the physical conformation of DNA. For linear DNA modeled as a wormlike chain, the distribution of hops available to a protein exhibits long, power-law tails that make the long-time displacement along the strand superdiffusive. Our analysis predicts effective superdiffusion coefficients for given nonspecific binding and unbinding rate parameters. Translocation rate exhibits a maximum at intermediate values of the binding rate constant, while search efficiency is optimized at larger binding rate constant values. Thus, our theory predicts a region of values of the nonspecific binding and unbinding rate parameters that balance the protein translocation rate and the efficiency of the search. Published data for several proteins falls within this predicted region of parameter values. PMID:20550907

  5. Benzo[ghi]perylene activates the AHR pathway to exert biological effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ojeda, Montserrat; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Perezpeña-Díazconti, Mario; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2016-08-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by incomplete combustion of organic material. In the Mexico City atmosphere, the most abundant PAH is benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), a gasoline combustion marker. At present, there are no reports of the effects of BghiP on human bronchial cells, so the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects in vitro of BghiP on the NL-20 cell line. Results showed that BghiP induced the formation of small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm, with absence of nuclear fragmentation. At 48h exposition, damage in cell membrane increased significantly at 1.24μg/mL of BghiP (p<0.05). Immunocytochemistry revealed that BghiP provokes nuclear translocation of AhR receptor, which indicates that this compound can induce transcription of genes via receptor binding (AhR pathway activation). BghiP induced a two-fold increase (p<0.05) in the expression of AhR and CYP4B1 (a lung-specific pathway effector). In the presence of the receptor antagonist CH-223191, the loss of viability, the nuclear translocation and the overexpression of genes decreased, though this did not prevent the formation of vesicles. BghiP induced oxidative stress and in presence of the receptor antagonist this increased significantly. In conclusion, BghiP can activate the overexpression of AhR and CYP4B1, and the effects are abated by the AhR receptor antagonist. This is the first report to prove that BghiP utilizes the AhR pathway to exert its toxic effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line . PMID:27234499

  6. Binding-Induced DNA Nanomachines Triggered by Proteins and Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongquan; Lai, Maode; Zuehlke, Albert; Peng, Hanyong; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris

    2015-11-23

    We introduce the concept and operation of a binding-induced DNA nanomachine that can be activated by proteins and nucleic acids. This new type of nanomachine harnesses specific target binding to trigger assembly of separate DNA components that are otherwise unable to spontaneously assemble. Three-dimensional DNA tracks of high density are constructed on gold nanoparticles functionalized with hundreds of single-stranded oligonucleotides and tens of an affinity ligand. A DNA swing arm, free in solution, is linked to a second affinity ligand. Binding of a target molecule to the two ligands brings the swing arm to AuNP and initiates autonomous, stepwise movement of the swing arm around the AuNP surface. The movement of the swing arm, powered by enzymatic cleavage of conjugated oligonucleotides, cleaves hundreds of oligonucleotides in response to a single binding event. We demonstrate three nanomachines that are specifically activated by streptavidin, platelet-derived growth factor, and the Smallpox gene. Substituting the ligands enables the nanomachine to respond to other molecules. The new nanomachines have several unique and advantageous features over DNA nanomachines that rely on DNA self-assembly. PMID:26457803

  7. A Novel Approach to Predict Core Residues on Cancer-Related DNA-Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Protein–DNA interactions are involved in different cancer pathways. In particular, the DNA-binding domains of proteins can determine where and how gene regulatory regions are bound in different cell lines at different stages. Therefore, it is essential to develop a method to predict and locate the core residues on cancer-related DNA-binding domains. In this study, we propose a computational method to predict and locate core residues on DNA-binding domains. In particular, we have selected the cancer-related DNA-binding domains for in-depth studies, namely, winged Helix Turn Helix family, homeodomain family, and basic Helix-Loop-Helix family. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict the core residues involved in protein–DNA interactions, as verified by the existing structural data. Given its good performance, various aspects of the method are discussed and explored: for instance, different uses of prediction algorithm, different protein domains, and hotspot threshold setting. PMID:27279732

  8. Identification of a telomeric DNA-binding protein in Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Zhipeng; Cheng, Baiqi; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Guocai; Zhang, Xichen

    2014-09-01

    Coccidiosis is considered to be a major problem for the poultry industry, and coccidiosis control is yet urgent. Due to the roles in telomere length regulation and end protection, telomere-binding proteins have been considered as a good target for drug design. In this work, a putative Gbp1p that is similar to telomeric DNA-binding protein Gbp (G-strand binding protein) of Cryptosporidium parvum, was searched in the database of Eimeria tenella. Sequence analysis indicated E.tenella Gbp1p (EtGbp1p) has significant sequence similarity to other eukaryotic Gbps in their RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated recombinant EtGbp1p bound G-rich telomeric DNA, but not C-rich or double-stranded telomeric DNA sequences. Competition and antibody supershift assays confirmed the interaction of DNA-protein complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that EtGbp1p interacted with telomeric DNA in vivo. Collectively, these evidences suggest that EtGbp1p represents a G-rich single-stranded telomeric DNA-binding protein in E.tenella. PMID:25128826

  9. A Novel Approach to Predict Core Residues on Cancer-Related DNA-Binding Domains.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions are involved in different cancer pathways. In particular, the DNA-binding domains of proteins can determine where and how gene regulatory regions are bound in different cell lines at different stages. Therefore, it is essential to develop a method to predict and locate the core residues on cancer-related DNA-binding domains. In this study, we propose a computational method to predict and locate core residues on DNA-binding domains. In particular, we have selected the cancer-related DNA-binding domains for in-depth studies, namely, winged Helix Turn Helix family, homeodomain family, and basic Helix-Loop-Helix family. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict the core residues involved in protein-DNA interactions, as verified by the existing structural data. Given its good performance, various aspects of the method are discussed and explored: for instance, different uses of prediction algorithm, different protein dom