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Sample records for ahr signaling pathway

  1. 4-Nitrophenol exposure alters the AhR signaling pathway and related gene expression in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruonan; Song, Meiyan; Li, Zhi; Li, Yansen; Watanabe, Gen; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, Chunmei

    2017-02-01

    4-Nitrophenol (PNP) is well known as an environmental endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of PNP-induced liver damage and determine the regulatory involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway and associated gene expression. Immature male Wistar-Imamichi rats (28 days old) were randomly divided into control and PNP groups, which consisted of 1- and 3-day exposure (1 DE and 3 DE, respectively) and 3-day exposure followed by 3-day recovery (3 DE + 3 DR), groups. Each group was administered the vehicle or PNP (200 mg kg(-1) body weight). The body and liver weight were significantly decreased in the 3 DE group. The mRNA expression levels of estrogen receptor-α (ERα), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and AhR exhibited a significant increase in the 1 DE group whereas, in contrast, that of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 decreased significantly in the 3 DE +3 DR group. AhR and CYP1A1 proteins were detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes of the 1 DE and 3 DE +3 DR groups whereas the ERα protein was found in the hepatocyte nuclei of the 1 DE and 3 DE groups. The present study demonstrates that PNP activated the AhR signaling pathway and regulated related CYP1A1 and GST gene expression in the liver. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects of 4-nitrophenol on expression of the ER-α and AhR signaling pathway-associated genes in the small intestine of rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Song, Meiyan; Watanabe, Gen; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Rui, Xiaoli; Li, ChunMei

    2016-09-01

    4-Nitrophenol (PNP) is a persistent organic pollutant that was proven to be an environmental endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway in regulating the damage response to PNP in the small intestine of rats. Wistar-Imamichi male rats (21 d) were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and PNP group. Each group had three processes that were gavaged with PNP or vehicle daily: single dose (1 d), repeated dose (3 consecutive days) (3 d), and repeated dose with recovery (3 consecutive days and 3 recovery days) (6 d). The weight of the body, the related viscera, and small intestine were examined. Histological parameters of the small intestine and the quantity of mucus proteins secreted by small goblet cells were determined using HE staining and PAS staining. The mRNA expression of AhR, ER-α, CYP1A1, and GST was measured by real-time qPCR. In addition, we also analyzed the AhR, ER-α, and CYP1A1 expression in the small intestine by immunohistochemical staining. The small intestines histologically changed in the PNP-treated rat and the expression of AhR, CYP1A1, and GST was increased. While ER-α was significantly decreased in the small intestine, simultaneously, when rats were exposed to a longer PNP treatment, the damages disappeared. Our results demonstrate that PNP has an effect on the expression of AhR signaling pathway genes, AhR, CYP1A1, and GST, and ER-α in the rat small intestine.

  3. Disruption of period gene expression alters the inductive effects of dioxin on the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Qu Xiaoyu; Metz, Richard P.; Porter, Weston W.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Earnest, David J.

    2009-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are transcription factors that express Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) DNA-binding motifs and mediate the metabolism of drugs and environmental toxins in the liver. Because these transcription factors interact with other PAS genes in molecular feedback loops forming the mammalian circadian clockworks, we determined whether targeted disruption or siRNA inhibition of Per1 and Per2 expression alters toxin-mediated regulation of the AhR signaling pathway in the mouse liver and Hepa1c1c7 hepatoma cells in vitro. Treatment with the prototypical Ahr ligand, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), had inductive effects on the primary targets of AhR signaling, Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1, in the liver of all animals, but genotype-based differences were evident such that the toxin-mediated induction of Cyp1A1 expression was significantly greater (2-fold) in mice with targeted disruption of Per1 (Per1{sup ldc} and Per1{sup ldc}/Per2{sup ldc}). In vitro experiments yielded similar results demonstrating that siRNA inhibition of Per1 significantly increases the TCDD-induced expression of Cyp1A1 and Cyp1B1 in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Per2 inhibition in siRNA-infected Hepa1c1c7 cells had the opposite effect and significantly decreased both the induction of these p450 genes as well as AhR and Arnt expression in response to TCDD treatment. These findings suggest that Per1 may play a distinctive role in modulating AhR-regulated responses to TCDD in the liver.

  4. Human primordial germ cell formation is diminished by exposure to environmental toxicants acting through the AHR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kee, Kehkooi; Flores, Martha; Cedars, Marcelle I; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2010-09-01

    Historically, effects of environmental toxicants on human development have been deduced via epidemiological studies because direct experimental analysis has not been possible. However, in recent years, the derivation of human pluripotent stem cells has provided a potential experimental system to directly probe human development. Here, we used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to study the effect of environmental toxicants on human germ cell development, with a focus on differentiation of the founding population of primordial germ cells (PGCs), which will go on to form the oocytes of the adult. We demonstrate that human PGC numbers are specifically reduced by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of toxicants common in air pollutants released from gasoline combustion or tobacco smoke. Further, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of PAH exposure are mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and BAX pathway. This study demonstrates the utility of hESCs as a model system for direct examination of the molecular and genetic pathways of environmental toxicants on human germ cell development.

  5. Intersection of AHR and Wnt signaling in development, health, and disease.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrew J; Branam, Amanda M; Peterson, Richard E

    2014-10-03

    The AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and Wnt (wingless-related MMTV integration site) signaling pathways have been conserved throughout evolution. Appropriately regulated signaling through each pathway is necessary for normal development and health, while dysregulation can lead to developmental defects and disease. Though both pathways have been vigorously studied, there is relatively little research exploring the possibility of crosstalk between these pathways. In this review, we provide a brief background on (1) the roles of both AHR and Wnt signaling in development and disease, and (2) the molecular mechanisms that characterize activation of each pathway. We also discuss the need for careful and complete experimental evaluation of each pathway and describe existing research that explores the intersection of AHR and Wnt signaling. Lastly, to illustrate in detail the intersection of AHR and Wnt signaling, we summarize our recent findings which show that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced disruption of Wnt signaling impairs fetal prostate development.

  6. MMP-12-mediated by SARM-TRIF signaling pathway contributes to IFN-γ-independent airway inflammation and AHR post RSV infection in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaoru; Li, Simin; Xie, Jun; Li, Wei; Zang, Na; Ren, Luo; Deng, Yu; Xie, Xiaohong; Wang, Lijia; Fu, Zhou; Liu, Enmei

    2015-02-05

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequently observed pathogens during infancy and childhood. However, the corresponding pathogenesis has not been determined to date. We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ plays an important role in RSV pathogenesis, and SARM-TRIF-signaling pathway could regulate the production of IFN-γ. This study is to investigate whether T cells or innate immune cells are the predominant producers of IFN-γ, and further to explore other culprits in addition to IFN-γ in the condition of RSV infection. Normal BALB/c mice and nude mice deficient in T cells were infected intranasally with RSV. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, lung histopathology was examined, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured by whole-body plethysmography. IFN-γ and MMP-12 were detected by ELISA. MMP408, a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, was given intragastrically. Resveratrol, IFN-γ neutralizing antibody and recombinant murine IFN-γ were administered intraperitoneally. SARM and TRIF protein were semi-quantified by Western blot. siRNA was used to knock-down SARM expression. RSV induced significant airway inflammation and AHR in both mice; IFN-γ was significantly increased in BALB/c mice but not in nude mice. MMP-12 was dramatically increased in both mice but earlier in nude mice. When MMP-12 was inhibited by MMP408, RSV-induced respiratory symptoms were alleviated. SARM was significantly suppressed while TRIF was significantly enhanced in both mice strains. Following resveratrol administration in nude mice, 1) SARM inhibition was prevented, 2) TRIF and MMP-12 were correspondingly down-regulated and 3) airway disorders were subsequently alleviated. Moreover, when SARM was efficiently knocked down using siRNA, TRIF and MMP-12 were markedly enhanced, and the anti-RSV effects of resveratrol were remarkably abrogated. MMP-12 was significantly increased in the IFN-γ neutralizing antibody-treated BALB/c mice but reduced in the

  7. Intersection of AHR and Wnt Signaling in Development, Health, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrew J.; Branam, Amanda M.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    The AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and Wnt (wingless-related MMTV integration site) signaling pathways have been conserved throughout evolution. Appropriately regulated signaling through each pathway is necessary for normal development and health, while dysregulation can lead to developmental defects and disease. Though both pathways have been vigorously studied, there is relatively little research exploring the possibility of crosstalk between these pathways. In this review, we provide a brief background on (1) the roles of both AHR and Wnt signaling in development and disease, and (2) the molecular mechanisms that characterize activation of each pathway. We also discuss the need for careful and complete experimental evaluation of each pathway and describe existing research that explores the intersection of AHR and Wnt signaling. Lastly, to illustrate in detail the intersection of AHR and Wnt signaling, we summarize our recent findings which show that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced disruption of Wnt signaling impairs fetal prostate development. PMID:25286307

  8. Inhibition of constitutive aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling attenuates androgen independent signaling and growth in (C4-2) prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cindy; Richmond, Oliver; Aaron, Latayia; Powell, Joann B

    2013-03-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. AhR mediates the biochemical and toxic effects of a number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8,-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). AhR is widely known for regulating the transcription of drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of carcinogens and therapeutic agents, such as cytochrome P450-1B1 (CYP1B1). Additionally, AhR has also been reported to interact with multiple signaling pathways during prostate development. Here we investigate the effect of sustained AhR signaling on androgen receptor function in prostate cancer cells. Immunoblot analysis shows that AhR expression is increased in androgen independent (C4-2) prostate cancer cells when compared to androgen sensitive (LNCaP) cells. RT-PCR studies revealed constitutive AhR signaling in C4-2 cells without the ligand induced activation required in LNCaP cells. A reduction of AhR activity by short RNA mediated silencing in C4-2 cells reduced expression of both AhR and androgen responsive genes. The decrease in androgen responsive genes correlates to a decrease in phosphorylated androgen receptor and androgen receptor expression in the nucleus. Furthermore, the forced decrease in AhR expression resulted in a 50% decline in the growth rate of C4-2 cells. These data indicates that AhR is required to maintain hormone independent signaling and growth by the androgen receptor in C4-2 cells. Collectively, these data provide evidence of a direct role for AhR in androgen independent signaling and provides insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for sustained androgen receptor signaling in hormone refractory prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. AIP mutations impair AhR signaling in pituitary adenoma patients fibroblasts and in GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Viengchareun, Say; Hage, Mirella; Bouligand, Jérôme; Young, Jacques; Boutron, Audrey; Zizzari, Philippe; Lombès, Marc; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas through unknown molecular mechanisms. The best-known interacting partner of AIP is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that mediates the effects of xenobiotics implicated in carcinogenesis. As 75% of AIP mutations disrupt the physical and/or functional interaction with AhR, we postulated that the tumorigenic potential of AIP mutations might result from altered AhR signaling. We evaluated the impact of AIP mutations on the AhR signaling pathway, first in fibroblasts from AIP-mutated patients with pituitary adenomas, by comparison with fibroblasts from healthy subjects, then in transfected pituitary GH3 cells. The AIP protein level in mutated fibroblasts was about half of that in cells from healthy subjects, but AhR expression was unaffected. Gene expression analyses showed significant modifications in the expression of the AhR target genes CYP1B1 and AHRR in AIP-mutated fibroblasts, both before and after stimulation with the endogenous AhR ligand kynurenine. Kynurenine increased Cyp1b1 expression to a greater extent in GH3 cells overexpressing wild type compared with cells expressing mutant AIP Knockdown of endogenous Aip in these cells attenuated Cyp1b1 induction by the AhR ligand. Both mutant AIP expression and knockdown of endogenous Aip affected the kynurenine-dependent GH secretion of GH3 cells. This study of human fibroblasts bearing endogenous heterozygous AIP mutations and transfected pituitary GH3 cells shows that AIP mutations affect the AIP protein level and alter AhR transcriptional activity in a gene- and tissue-dependent manner.

  10. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC

    PubMed Central

    Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice. PMID:26392334

  11. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC.

    PubMed

    Occhi, Gianluca; Barollo, Susi; Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-10-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice.

  12. Potential protective mechanisms of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vatsal; Vezina, Chad M.

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is an evolutionarily conserved ligand activated transcription factor best known for its role in mediating toxic responses to dioxin-like environmental contaminants. However, AHR signaling has also emerged as an active participant in processes of normal development and disease progression. Here, we review the role of AHR signaling in prostate development and disease processes, with a particular emphasis on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inappropriate AHR activation has recently been associated with a decreased risk of symptomatic BPH in humans and has been shown to impair prostate development and disrupt endocrine signaling in rodents. We highlight known physiological responses to AHR activation in prostate and other tissues and discuss potential mechanisms by which it may act in adult human prostate to protect against symptomatic BPH. PMID:21684673

  13. The Nuclear Receptor AhR Controls Bone Homeostasis by Regulating Osteoclast Differentiation via the RANK/c-Fos Signaling Axis

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Takashi; Arakaki, Rieko; Mori, Hiroki; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway plays a key role in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)–mediated osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of AhR expression in osteoclasts and the signaling pathway through which AhR controls osteoclastogenesis remain unclear. We found that the expression of AhR in bone marrow–derived osteoclasts was upregulated by RANKL at an earlier stage than was the expression of signature osteoclast genes such as those encoding cathepsin K and NFAT, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1. In response to RANKL, bone marrow macrophages isolated from AhR−/− mice exhibited impaired phosphorylation of Akt and MAPK as well as NF-κB, whereas their response to M-CSF remained unchanged. Osteoclast differentiation mediated by the AhR signaling pathway was also regulated in an RANKL/c-Fos–dependent manner. Furthermore, ligand activation of AhR by the smoke toxin benzo[a]pyrene accelerated osteoclast differentiation in a receptor-dependent manner, and AhR-dependent regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in osteoclasts was observed. Moreover, AhR−/− mice exhibited impaired bone healing with delayed endochondral ossification. Taken together, the present results suggest that the RANKL/AhR/c-Fos signaling axis plays a critical role in osteoclastogenesis, thereby identifying the potential of AhR in treating pathological, inflammatory, or metabolic disorders of the bone. PMID:27849171

  14. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway as a regulatory pathway for cell adhesion and matrix metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Tiffany; Murphy, K.A.; White, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an orphan receptor in the basic-helix-loop-helix PAS family of transcriptional regulators. Although the endogenous regulator of this pathway has not been identified, the AhR is known to bind and be activated by a variety of compounds ranging from environmental contaminants to flavanoids. The function of this receptor is still unclear; however, animal models indicate that the AhR is important for normal development. One hypothesis is that the AhR senses cellular stress and initiates the cellular response by altering gene expression and inhibiting cell cycle progression and that activation of the AhR by exogenous environmental chemicals results in the dysregulation of this normal function. In this review we will examine the role of the AhR in the regulation of genes and proteins involved in cell adhesion and matrix remodeling, and discuss the implications of these changes in development and disease. In addition, we will discuss evidence suggesting that the AhR pathway is responsive to changes in matrix composition as well as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:18940186

  15. Musashi-2 Attenuates AHR Signaling to Expand Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rentas, Stefan; Voisin, Veronique; Wilhelm, Brian T; Bader, Gary D; Yeo, Gene W; Hope, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential in many life saving regenerative therapies, but their low number in CB units has significantly restricted their clinical use despite the advantages they provide during transplantation1. Select small molecules that enhance hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in culture have been identified2,3, however, in many cases their mechanisms of action or the nature of the pathways they impinge on are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the molecular pathways that underpin the unique human HSC self-renewal program will facilitate the development of targeted strategies that expand these critical cell types for regenerative therapies. Whereas transcription factor networks have been shown to influence the self-renewal and lineage decisions of human HSCs4,5, the post-transcriptional mechanisms guiding HSC fate have not been closely investigated. Here we show that overexpression of the RNA-binding protein (RBP) Musashi-2 (MSI2) induces multiple pro-self-renewal phenotypes, including a 17-fold increase in short-term repopulating cells and a net 23-fold ex vivo expansion of long-term repopulating HSCs. By performing a global analysis of MSI2-RNA interactions, we determined that MSI2 directly attenuates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling through post-transcriptional downregulation of canonical AHR pathway components in CB HSPCs. Our study provides new mechanistic insight into RBP-controlled RNA networks that underlie the self-renewal process and give evidence that manipulating such networks ex vivo can provide a novel means to enhance the regenerative potential of human HSCs. PMID:27121842

  16. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Aldo; Lippolis, Catia; Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb.

  17. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb. PMID:27008165

  18. A TDO2-AhR Signaling Axis Facilitates Anoikis Resistance and Metastasis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Amato, Nicholas C.; Rogers, Thomas J.; Gordon, Michael A.; Greene, Lisa I.; Cochrane, Dawn R.; Spoelstra, Nicole S.; Nemkov, Travis G.; D’Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C.; Richer, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Anoikis is programmed death of epithelial cells triggered by detachment from a basement membrane or extracellular matrix, and anoikis resistance is a critical step in metastasis. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have a high rate of metastasis in the first 3 years following diagnosis, and although TNBC cell lines are more resistant to anoikis than estrogen receptor positive lines, little is known regarding pathways that support anoikis resistance. Gene expression and metabolomic profiling of TNBC cells in forced suspension culture revealed multiple genes in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism upregulated by TNBC cells in suspension, including tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2). Increased production of kynurenine, a key metabolite of this pathway, by TNBC in suspension activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcriptional activity. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of TDO2 decreased kynurenine production, increased anoikis sensitivity, and inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion. Likewise, AhR inhibition or knockdown also decreased proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. Mining publically available data, TDO2 was found to be higher with increasing grade, higher in estrogen receptor negative than positive breast cancer, and associated with shorter overall survival. This study reveals a TDO2-AhR signaling axis activated by TNBC cells in suspension in an NF-κB dependent manner, and suggests TDO2 inhibition as a targeted therapy for TNBC. Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of TDO2 activity decreased lung colonization in a preclinical model of TNBC. PMID:26363006

  19. Constitutive IDO expression in human cancer is sustained by an autocrine signaling loop involving IL-6, STAT3 and the AHR

    PubMed Central

    Sahm, Felix; Rauschenbach, Katharina J.; Trump, Saskia; Winter, Marcus; Ott, Martina; Ochs, Katharina; Lutz, Christian; Liu, Xiangdong; Anastasov, Natasa; Lehmann, Irina; Höfer, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their ability to restore anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies. However, the mechanisms leading to constitutive expression of IDO in human tumors are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the pathways mediating constitutive IDO expression in human cancer. IDO-positive tumor cells and tissues showed basal phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT3 as evidenced by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Inhibition of IL-6 or STAT3 using siRNA and/or pharmacological inhibitors reduced IDO mRNA and protein expression as well as kynurenine formation. In turn, IDO enzymatic activity activated the AHR as shown by the induction of AHR target genes. IDO-mediated AHR activation induced IL-6 expression, while inhibition or knockdown of the AHR reduced IL-6 expression. IDO activity thus sustains its own expression via an autocrine AHR–IL-6–STAT3 signaling loop. Inhibition of the AHR–IL-6–STAT3 signaling loop restored T-cell proliferation in mixed leukocyte reactions performed in the presence of IDO-expressing human cancer cells. Identification of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop maintaining IDO expression in human cancers reveals novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of this core pathway promoting immunosuppression of human cancers. The relevance of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 transcriptional circuit is underscored by the finding that high expression of its members IDO, STAT3 and the AHR target gene CYP1B1 is associated with reduced relapse-free survival in lung cancer patients. PMID:24657910

  20. A TDO2-AhR signaling axis facilitates anoikis resistance and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Nicholas C; Rogers, Thomas J; Gordon, Michael A; Greene, Lisa I; Cochrane, Dawn R; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Nemkov, Travis G; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Richer, Jennifer K

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a cancer cell to develop resistance to anoikis, a programmed cell death process triggered by substratum detachment, is a critical step in the metastatic cascade. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) exhibit higher rates of metastasis after diagnosis, relative to estrogen-positive breast cancers, but while TNBC cells are relatively more resistant to anoikis, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Through gene expression and metabolomic profiling of TNBC cells in forced suspension culture, we identified a molecular pathway critical for anchorage-independent cell survival. TNBC cells in suspension upregulated multiple genes in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, including the enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Kynurenine production mediated by TDO2 in TNBC cells was sufficient to activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), an endogenous kynurenine receptor. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition or genetic attenuation of TDO2 or AhR increased cellular sensitivity to anoikis, and also reduced proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells. In vivo, TDO2 inhibitor-treated TNBC cells inhibited colonization of the lung, suggesting that TDO2 enhanced metastatic capacity. In clinical specimens of TNBC, elevated expression of TDO2 was associated with increased disease grade, estrogen receptor-negative status, and shorter overall survival. Our results define an NF-κB-regulated signaling axis that promotes anoikis resistance, suggest functional connections with inflammatory modulation by the kynurenine pathway, and highlight TDO2 as an attractive target for treatment of this aggressive breast cancer subtype. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Benzo[ghi]perylene activates the AHR pathway to exert biological effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ojeda, Montserrat; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Perezpeña-Díazconti, Mario; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2016-08-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by incomplete combustion of organic material. In the Mexico City atmosphere, the most abundant PAH is benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), a gasoline combustion marker. At present, there are no reports of the effects of BghiP on human bronchial cells, so the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects in vitro of BghiP on the NL-20 cell line. Results showed that BghiP induced the formation of small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm, with absence of nuclear fragmentation. At 48h exposition, damage in cell membrane increased significantly at 1.24μg/mL of BghiP (p<0.05). Immunocytochemistry revealed that BghiP provokes nuclear translocation of AhR receptor, which indicates that this compound can induce transcription of genes via receptor binding (AhR pathway activation). BghiP induced a two-fold increase (p<0.05) in the expression of AhR and CYP4B1 (a lung-specific pathway effector). In the presence of the receptor antagonist CH-223191, the loss of viability, the nuclear translocation and the overexpression of genes decreased, though this did not prevent the formation of vesicles. BghiP induced oxidative stress and in presence of the receptor antagonist this increased significantly. In conclusion, BghiP can activate the overexpression of AhR and CYP4B1, and the effects are abated by the AhR receptor antagonist. This is the first report to prove that BghiP utilizes the AhR pathway to exert its toxic effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line .

  2. Human and rodent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR): from mediator of dioxin toxicity to physiologic AHR functions and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2017-04-01

    Metabolism of aryl hydrocarbons and toxicity of dioxins led to the discovery of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Tremendous advances have been made on multiplicity of AHR signaling and identification of endogenous ligands including the tryptophan metabolites FICZ and kynurenine. However, human AHR functions are still poorly understood due to marked species differences as well as cell-type- and cell context-dependent AHR functions. Observations in dioxin-poisoned individuals may provide hints to physiologic AHR functions in humans. Based on these observations three human AHR functions are discussed: (1) Chemical defence and homeostasis of endobiotics. The AHR variant Val381 in modern humans leads to reduced AHR affinity to aryl hydrocarbons in comparison with Neanderthals and primates expressing the Ala381 variant while affinity to indoles remains unimpaired. (2) Homeostasis of stem/progenitor cells. Dioxins dysregulate homeostasis in sebocyte stem cells. (3) Modulation of immunity. In addition to microbial defence, AHR may be involved in a 'disease tolerance defence pathway'. Further characterization of physiologic AHR functions may lead to therapeutic options.

  3. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor suppresses osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Haitao; Du, Yuxuan; Zhang, Xulong; Sun, Ying; Li, Shentao; Dou, Yunpeng; Li, Zhanguo; Yuan, Huihui; Zhao, Wenming

    2014-11-01

    Ahr activation is known to be associated with synovitis and exacerbated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its contributions to bone loss have not been completely elucidated. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation are abnormal at the erosion site in RA. Here, we reported that the expression of Ahr was increased in the hind paws' bone upon collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, and the levels of Ahr were negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD). In addition, immunofluorescent staining showed that the high expression of Ahr was mainly localized in osteoblasts from the CIA mice compared to normal controls. Moreover, the luciferase intensity of Ahr in the nucleus increased by 12.5% in CIA osteoblasts compared to that in normal controls. In addition, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) activation of the Ahr inhibited pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cellular proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA expression in the osteoblasts of CIA mice were reduced compared to normal controls. In contrast, decreased ALP expression by activated Ahr was completely reversed after pretreatment with an Ahr inhibitor (CH-223191) in MC3T3-E1 cell lines and primary osteoblasts on day 5. Our data further showed that activation of Ahr promoted the phosphorylation of ERK after 5 days. Moreover, Ahr-dependent activation of the ERK signaling pathway decreased the levels of proliferation cells and inhibited ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. These results demonstrated that the high expression of Ahr may suppress osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through activation of the ERK signaling pathway, further enabling bone erosion in CIA mice. - Highlights: • The upregulation of Ahr was localized in osteoblasts of CIA mice. • The overexpression of Ahr suppressed osteoblast development. • The Ahr activated ERK signaling pathway to exacerbate bone erosion.

  4. Hexachlorobenzene induces cell proliferation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression (AhR) in rat liver preneoplastic foci, and in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. AhR is a mediator of ERK1/2 signaling, and cell cycle regulation in HCB-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    de Tomaso Portaz, Ana Clara; Caimi, Giselle Romero; Sánchez, Marcela; Chiappini, Florencia; Randi, Andrea S; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana L; Alvarez, Laura

    2015-10-02

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant, and a liver tumor promoter in rodents. Depending on the particular cell lines studied, exposure to these compounds may lead to cell proliferation, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. AhR can also modulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes that can affect cell proliferation and cell fate determination. The mechanisms by which AhR ligands, both exogenous and endogenous, affect these processes involve multiple interactions between AhR and other signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined the effect of HCB on cell proliferation and AhR expression, using an initiation-promotion hepatocarcinogenesis protocol in rat liver and in the human-derived hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Female Wistar rats were initiated with a single dose of 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at the start of the experiment. Two weeks later, daily dosing of 100 mg/kg HCB was maintained for 10 weeks. Partial hepatectomy was performed 3 weeks after initiation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase-P (GST-P)-positive foci, in the rat liver were used as biomarkers of liver precancerous lesions. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, along with enhanced AhR protein expression in hepatocytes within GST-P-positive foci of (DEN HCB) group, when compared to DEN. In a similar manner, Western blot analysis demonstrated that HCB induced PCNA and AhR protein expression in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry assay indicated that the cells were accumulated at S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. HCB increased cyclin D1 protein levels and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with a selective MEK1 inhibitor, prevented HCB-stimulatory effect on PCNA and cyclinD1, indicating that these effects

  5. Role of DNA methylation of AHR1 and AHR2 promoters in differential sensitivity to PCBs in Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Karchner, Sibel I; Hahn, Mark E

    2011-01-17

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the PCB-contaminated Superfund site in New Bedford Harbor (MA, USA) have evolved genetic resistance to the toxic effects of these compounds. They also lack induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent responses after exposure to AHR agonists, suggesting an overall down-regulation of the AHR signaling pathway. In this study, we hypothesized that the genetic resistance is due to altered AHR expression resulting from hypermethylation of DNA in the promoter region of AHR genes in fish inhabiting New Bedford Harbor. To test this hypothesis, we cloned and sequenced AHR1 and AHR2 promoter regions and employed bisulfite conversion-polymerase chain reaction (BS-PCR) followed by clonal analysis to compare the methylation status of CpG islands of AHR1 and AHR2 in livers of adult killifish collected from New Bedford Harbor and a reference site (Scorton Creek, MA). No significant differences in methylation profiles were observed in either AHR1 or AHR2 promoter regions between NBH and SC fish. However, hypermethylation of the AHR1 promoter correlated with low expression of transcripts in the liver in both populations. In comparison to AHR1, hepatic mRNA expression of AHR2 is high and its promoter is hypomethylated. Taken together, our results suggest that genetic resistance to contaminants in NBH fish is not due to altered methylation of AHR promoter regions, but that promoter methylation may control tissue-specific expression of AHR genes in killifish.

  6. AhR signaling activation disrupts migration and dendritic growth of olfactory interneurons in the developing mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Eiki; Ding, Yunjie; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to a low level of dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has been shown to induce abnormalities in learning and memory, emotion, and sociality in laboratory animals later in adulthood. However, how aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling activation disrupts the higher brain function remains unclear. Therefore, we studied the possible effects of excessive activation of AhR signaling on neurodevelopmental processes, such as cellular migration and neurite growth, in mice. To this end, we transfected a constitutively active-AhR plasmid into stem cells in the lateral ventricle by in vivo electroporation on postnatal day 1. Transfection was found to induce tangential migration delay and morphological abnormalities in neuronal precursors in the rostral migratory stream at 6 days post-electroporation (dpe) as well as disrupt radial migration in the olfactory bulb and apical and basal dendritic growth of the olfactory interneurons in the granule cell layer at 13 and 20 dpe. These results suggest that the retarded development of interneurons by the excessive AhR signaling may at least in part explain the dioxin-induced abnormal behavioral alterations previously reported in laboratory animals. PMID:27197834

  7. High-resolution genome-wide mapping of AHR and ARNT binding sites by ChIP-Seq.

    PubMed

    Lo, Raymond; Matthews, Jason

    2012-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) activated complex regulates genes in response to the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). AHR has also emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human diseases and different cancers, including breast cancer. To better understand AHR and ARNT signaling in breast cancer cells, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation linked to high-throughput sequencing to identify AHR- and ARNT-binding sites across the genome in TCDD-treated MCF-7 cells. We identified 2594 AHR-bound, 1352 ARNT-bound, and 882 AHR/ARNT cobound regions. No significant differences in the genomic distribution of AHR and ARNT were observed. Approximately 60% of the cobound regions contained at least one core an aryl hydrocarbon response element (AHRE), 5'-GCGTG-3'. AHR/ARNT peak density was the highest within 1 kb of transcription start sites (TSS); however, a number of AHR/ARNT cobound regions were located as far as 100 kb from TSS. De novo motif discovery identified a symmetrical variation of the AHRE (5'-GTGCGTG-3'), as well as FOXA1 and SP1 binding motifs. Microarray analysis identified 104 TCDD-responsive genes where 98 genes were upregulated by TCDD. Of the 104 regulated genes, 69 (66.3%) were associated with an AHR- or ARNT-bound region within 100 kb of their TSS. Overall our study identified AHR/ARNT cobound regions across the genome, revealed the importance but not absolute requirement for an AHRE in AHR/ARNT interactions with DNA, and identified a modified AHRE motif, thereby increasing our understanding of AHR/ARNT signaling pathway.

  8. Estrogen receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Jason; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2006-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are ligand activated transcription factors and members of the nuclear receptor and bHLH-PAS superfamilies, respectively. AhR is involved in xenobiotic metabolism and in mediating the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds. Crosstalk has been observed among AhR and nuclear receptors, but has been most well studied with respect to ER signaling. Activated AhR inhibits ER activity through a number of different mechanisms, whereas ERα has been reported to have a positive role in AhR signaling. Here we will discuss recent data revealing that dioxin bound AhR recruits ERα to AhR regulated genes. We will also consider the implications of ER recruitment to AhR target genes on ER and AhR signaling. PMID:16862222

  9. [Growth hormone signaling pathways].

    PubMed

    Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.

  10. The Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Mosca, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Studies using cultured melanoma cells and patient tumor biopsies have demonstrated deregulated PI3 kinase-Akt3 pathway activity in ∼70% of melanomas. Furthermore, targeting Akt3 and downstream PRAS40 has been shown to inhibit melanoma tumor development in mice. Although these preclinical studies and several other reports using small interfering RNAs and pharmacological agents targeting key members of this pathway have been shown to retard melanoma development, analysis of early Phase I and Phase II clinical trials using pharmacological agents to target this pathway demonstrate the need for (1) selection of patients whose tumors have PI3 kinase-Akt pathway deregulation, (2) further optimization of therapeutic agents for increased potency and reduced toxicity, (3) the identification of additional targets in the same pathway or in other signaling cascades that synergistically inhibit the growth and progression of melanoma, and (4) better methods for targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents inhibiting this pathway. In this review we discuss key potential targets in PI3K-Akt3 signaling, the status of pharmacological agents targeting these proteins, drugs under clinical development, and strategies to improve the efficacy of therapeutic agents targeting this pathway. PMID:22157148

  11. Antioxidant Opuntia ficus-indica Extract Activates AHR-NRF2 Signaling and Upregulates Filaggrin and Loricrin Expression in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Takeshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Takahara, Masakazu; Tsuji, Gaku; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Xianghong; Hachisuka, Junichi; Chiba, Takahito; Esaki, Hitokazu; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a cactus species widely used as an anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, and hypoglycemic agent. It has been shown that OFI extract (OFIE) inhibits oxidative stress in animal models of diabetes and hepatic disease; however, its antioxidant mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that OFIE exhibited potent antioxidant activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the downstream antioxidant enzyme quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes challenged with tumor necrosis factor α or benzo[α]pyrene. The antioxidant capacity of OFIE was canceled in NRF2 knockdown keratinocytes. OFIE exerted this NRF2-NQO1 upregulation through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Moreover, the ligation of AHR by OFIE upregulated the expression of epidermal barrier proteins: filaggrin and loricrin. OFIE also prevented TH2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of filaggrin and loricrin expression in an AHR-dependent manner because it was canceled in AHR knockdown keratinocytes. Antioxidant OFIE is a potent activator of AHR-NRF2-NQO1 signaling and may be beneficial in treating barrier-disrupted skin disorders.

  12. Growth hormone signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Carter-Su, Christin; Schwartz, Jessica; Argetsinger, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Over 20years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recruits a variety of signaling proteins, thereby initiating multiple signaling pathways and cellular responses. These proteins and pathways include: 1) Stat transcription factors implicated in the expression of multiple genes, including the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1; 2) Shc adapter proteins that lead to activation of the grb2-SOS-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1,2 pathway; 3) insulin receptor substrate proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt pathway; 4) signal regulatory protein α, a transmembrane scaffold protein that recruits proteins including the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2; and 5) SH2B1, a scaffold protein that can activate JAK2 and enhance GH regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent work has focused on the function of SH2B1. We have shown that SH2B1β is recruited to and phosphorylated by JAK2 in response to GH. SH2B1 localizes to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and focal adhesions; it also cycles through the nucleus. SH2B1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and promotes GH-dependent motility of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mutations in SH2B1 have been found in humans exhibiting severe early-onset childhood obesity and insulin resistance. These mutations impair SH2B1 enhancement of GH-induced macrophage motility. As SH2B1 is expressed ubiquitously and is also recruited to a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, our results raise the possibility that effects of SH2B1 on the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, including neurons, may play a role in regulating body weight.

  13. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Wang, Xuelu; Chory, Joanne

    2006-12-05

    Plants control their size through the action of several phytohormones. One class of growth-promoting hormones is the brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants. Here, we present the Arabidopsis-specific proteins that are the founding members of key BR signaling pathway components found in all plants. The genetic studies that identified these components are unique to Arabidopsis owing to its rapid generation time, sophisticated genetics, and facile transformation protocols, thereby highlighting the importance of a reference plant for understanding fundamental processes in all land plants.

  14. Regulation of Ahr signaling by Nrf2 during development: Effects of Nrf2a deficiency on PCB126 embryotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Michelle E; Sant, Karilyn E; Borden, Linnea R; Franks, Diana G; Hahn, Mark E; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R

    2015-10-01

    The embryotoxicity of co-planar PCBs is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), and has been reported to involve oxidative stress. Ahr participates in crosstalk with another transcription factor, Nfe2l2, or Nrf2. Nrf2 binds to antioxidant response elements to regulate the adaptive response to oxidative stress. To explore aspects of the crosstalk between Nrf2 and Ahr and its impact on development, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) with a mutated DNA binding domain in Nrf2a (nrf2a(fh318/fh318)), rendering these embryos more sensitive to oxidative stress. Embryos were exposed to 2 nM or 5 nM PCB126 at 24 h post fertilization (prim-5 stage of pharyngula) and examined for gene expression and morphology at 4 days post fertilization (dpf; protruding - mouth stage). Nrf2a mutant eleutheroembryos were more sensitive to PCB126 toxicity at 4 dpf, and in the absence of treatment also displayed some subtle developmental differences from wildtype embryos, including delayed inflation of the swim bladder and smaller yolk sacs. We used qPCR to measure changes in expression of the nrf gene family, keap1a, keap1b, the ahr gene family, and known target genes. cyp1a induction by PCB126 was enhanced in the Nrf2a mutants (156-fold in wildtypes vs. 228-fold in mutants exposed to 5 nM). Decreased expression of heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (hmox1) in the Nrf2a mutants was accompanied by increased nrf2b expression. Target genes of Nrf2a and AhR2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase, alpha-like (gsta1), showed a 2-5-fold increase in expression in the Nrf2a mutants as compared to wildtype. This study elucidates the interaction between two important transcription factor pathways in the developmental toxicity of co-planar PCBs.

  15. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibits vanadate-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in TRAMP prostates

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Wayne A.; Lin, Tien-Min; Peterson, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) are basic helix-loop-helix/per-arnt-sim (PAS) family transcription factors. During angiogenesis and tumor growth, HIF-1α dimerizes with ARNT, inducing expression of many genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). ARNT also dimerizes with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR-null (Ahr−/−) transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice develop prostate tumors with greater frequency than AhR wild-type (Ahr+/+) TRAMP mice, even though prevalence of prostate epithelial hyperplasia is not inhibited. This suggests that Ahr inhibits prostate carcinogenesis. In TRAMP mice, prostatic epithelial hyperplasia results in stabilized HIF-1α, inducing expression of VEGF, a prerequisite for tumor growth and angiogenesis. Since ARNT is a common dimerization partner of AhR and HIF-1α, we hypothesized that the AhR inhibits prostate tumor formation by competing with HIF-1α for ARNT, thereby limiting VEGF production. Prostates from Ahr+/+, Ahr+/− and Ahr−/− C57BL/6J TRAMP mice were cultured in the presence of graded concentrations of vanadate, an inducer of VEGF through the HIF-1α–ARNT pathway. Vanadate induced VEGF protein in a dose-dependent fashion in Ahr+/− and Ahr−/− TRAMP cultures, but not in Ahr+/+ cultures. However, vanadate induced upstream proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-signaling cascade to a similar extent in TRAMPs of each Ahr genotype, evidenced by v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) phosphorylation. These findings suggest that AhR sequesters ARNT, decreasing interaction with HIF-1α reducing VEGF production. Since VEGF is required for tumor vascularization and growth, these studies further suggest that reduction in VEGF correlates with inhibited prostate carcinogenesis in Ahr+/+ TRAMP mice. PMID:18359762

  16. Alternative in vitro approach for assessing AHR-mediated CYP1A induction by dioxins in wild cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population.

    PubMed

    Thuruthippallil, Leena Mol; Kubota, Akira; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato

    2013-06-18

    Our line of papers revealed that the common (great) cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) possesses two isoforms of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ccAHR1 and ccAHR2). This paper addresses in vitro tests of the ccAHR signaling pathways to solve two questions: (1) whether there are functional differences in the two ccAHR isoforms, and (2) whether a molecular perturbation, cytochrome P450 1A (ccCYP1A) induction, in the population-level can be predicted from the in vitro tests. The transactivation potencies mediated by ccAHR1 and ccAHR2 were measured in COS-7 cells treated with 15 selected dioxins and related compounds (DRCs), where ccAHR1 or ccAHR2 expression plasmid and ccCYP1A5 promoter/enhancer-linked luciferase reporter plasmid were transfected. For congeners that exhibited dose-dependent luciferase activities, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) relative potencies (REPs) and induction equivalency factors (IEFs) were estimated. ccAHR1-IEF profile was similar to WHO avian TCDD toxic equivalency factor (TEF) profile except for dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls that showed lower IEFs in ccAHR1-driven reporter assay. ccAHR2-IEF profile was different from WHO TEFs and ccAHR1-IEFs. Notably, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was more potent than TCDD for ccAHR2-mediated response. Using ccAHR1- and ccAHR2-IEFs and hepatic DRC concentrations in the Lake Biwa cormorant population, total TCDD induction equivalents (IEQs) were calculated for each ccAHR-mediated response. Nonlinear regression analyses provided significant sigmoidal relationships of ccAHR1- and ccAHR2-derived IEQs with hepatic ccCYP1A5 mRNA levels, supporting the results of in vitro ccAHR-mediated TCDD dose-response curves. Collectively, our in vitro AHR reporter assay potentially could be an alternative to molecular epidemiology of the species of concern regarding CYP1A induction by AHR ligands.

  17. Signaling pathways affecting skeletal health.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierre J

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal health is dependent on the balance between bone resorption and formation during bone remodeling. Multiple signaling pathways play essential roles in the maintenance of skeletal integrity by positively or negatively regulating bone cells. During the last years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the essential signaling pathways that regulate bone cell commitment, differentiation and survival. New signaling anabolic pathways triggered by parathyroid hormone, local growth factors, Wnt signaling, and calcium sensing receptor have been identified. Novel signals induced by interactions between bone cells-matrix (integrins), osteoblasts/osteocytes (cadherins, connexins), and osteoblasts/osteoclast (ephrins, Wnt-RhoA, semaphorins) have been discovered. Recent studies revealed the key pathways (MAPK, PI3K/Akt) that critically control bone cells and skeletal mass. This review summarizes the most recent knowledge on the major signaling pathways that control bone cells, and their potential impact on the development of therapeutic strategies to improve human bone health.

  18. The Role of AhR in Autoimmune Regulation and Its Potential as a Therapeutic Target against CD4 T Cell Mediated Inflammatory Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Conghui; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and potential mechanisms of action causing immune system effects mediated by AhR signaling are also discussed. The current review will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AhR and its signaling pathway in CD4 helper T cell mediated inflammatory disorder. Considering the established importance of AhR in immune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target, we also think that both further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation that are mediated by the ligand-specific AhR signaling pathway, and integrated research and development of new therapeutic drug candidates targeting the AhR signaling pathway should be pursued urgently. PMID:24905409

  19. The role of AhR in autoimmune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target against CD4 T cell mediated inflammatory disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Conghui; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2014-06-05

    AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and potential mechanisms of action causing immune system effects mediated by AhR signaling are also discussed. The current review will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AhR and its signaling pathway in CD4 helper T cell mediated inflammatory disorder. Considering the established importance of AhR in immune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target, we also think that both further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation that are mediated by the ligand-specific AhR signaling pathway, and integrated research and development of new therapeutic drug candidates targeting the AhR signaling pathway should be pursued urgently.

  20. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NF{kappa}B and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Potapovich, Alla I.; Lulli, Daniela; Fidanza, Paolo; Kostyuk, Vladimir A.; De Luca, Chiara; Pastore, Saveria; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA + UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure, the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50 {mu}M resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights

  1. Regulatory crosstalk and interference between the xenobiotic and hypoxia sensing pathways at the AhR-ARNT-HIF1α signaling node

    PubMed Central

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Domann, Frederick E.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the responses to toxic environmental chemicals such as TCDD or dioxin-like PCBs. To regulate gene expression, the AhR requires its binding partner, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). ARNT is also required by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a crucial regulator of responses to conditions of reduced oxygen. The important role of ARNT in both the AhR and HIF-1α signaling pathways establishes a meaningful foundation for a possible crosstalk between these two vitally important signaling pathways. This crosstalk might lead to interference between the two signaling pathways and thus might play a role in the variety of cellular responses after exposure to AhR ligands and reduced oxygen availability. This review focuses on studies that have analyzed the effect of low oxygen environments and hypoxiamimetic agents on AhR signaling and conversely, the effect of AhR ligands, with a special emphasis on PCBs, on HIF-1α signaling. We highlight studies that assess the role of ARNT, elucidate the mechanism of the crosstalk, and discuss the physiological implications for exposure to AhR-inducing compounds in the context of hypoxia. PMID:24824450

  2. Regulation of Ahr signaling by Nrf2 during development: Effects of Nrf2a deficiency on PCB126 embryotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Michelle E.; Sant, Karilyn E.; Borden, Linnea R.; Franks, Diana G.; Hahn, Mark E.; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.

    2015-01-01

    The embryotoxicity of co-planar PCBs is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), and has been reported to involve oxidative stress. Ahr participates in crosstalk with another transcription factor, Nfe2l2, or Nrf2. Nrf2 binds to antioxidant response elements to regulate the adaptive response to oxidative stress. To explore aspects of the crosstalk between Nrf2 and Ahr and its impact on development, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) with a mutated DNA binding domain in Nrf2a (nrf2afh318/fh318), rendering these embryos more sensitive to oxidative stress. Embryos were exposed to 2 nM or 5 nM PCB126 at 24 hours post fertilization (prim-5 stage of pharyngula) and examined for gene expression and morphology at 4 days post fertilization (dpf; protruding –mouth stage). Nrf2a mutant eleutheroembryos were more sensitive to PCB126 toxicity at 4 dpf, and in the absence of treatment also displayed some subtle developmental differences from wildtype embryos, including delayed inflation of the swim bladder and smaller yolk sacs. We used qPCR to measure changes in expression of the nrf gene family, keap1a, keap1b, the ahr gene family, and known target genes. cyp1a induction by PCB126 was enhanced in the Nrf2a mutants (156-fold in wildtypes vs. 228-fold in mutants exposed to 5 nM). Decreased expression of heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (hmox1) in the Nrf2a mutants was accompanied by increased nrf2b expression. Target genes of Nrf2a and AhR2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase, alpha-like (gsta1), showed a 2-5-fold increase in expression in the Nrf2a mutants as compared to wildtype. This study elucidates the interaction between two important transcription factor pathways in the developmental toxicity of co-planar PCBs. PMID:26325326

  3. Retroactive Signaling in Short Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sepulchre, Jacques-Alexandre; Merajver, Sofía D.; Ventura, Alejandra C.

    2012-01-01

    In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles. PMID:22848403

  4. Genetic variation at aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) loci in populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting polluted and reference habitats.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Karchner, Sibel I; Franks, Diana G; Evans, Brad R; Nacci, Diane; Champlin, Denise; Vieira, Verónica M; Hahn, Mark E

    2014-01-14

    The non-migratory killifish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabits clean and polluted environments interspersed throughout its range along the Atlantic coast of North America. Several populations of this species have successfully adapted to environments contaminated with toxic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Previous studies suggest that the mechanism of resistance to these and other "dioxin-like compounds" (DLCs) may involve reduced signaling through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. Here we investigated gene diversity and evidence for positive selection at three AHR-related loci (AHR1, AHR2, AHRR) in F. heteroclitus by comparing alleles from seven locations ranging over 600 km along the northeastern US, including extremely polluted and reference estuaries, with a focus on New Bedford Harbor (MA, USA), a PCB Superfund site, and nearby reference sites. We identified 98 single nucleotide polymorphisms within three AHR-related loci among all populations, including synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Haplotype distributions were spatially segregated and F-statistics suggested strong population genetic structure at these loci, consistent with previous studies showing strong population genetic structure at other F. heteroclitus loci. Genetic diversity at these three loci was not significantly different in contaminated sites as compared to reference sites. However, for AHR2 the New Bedford Harbor population had significant FST values in comparison to the nearest reference populations. Tests for positive selection revealed ten nonsynonymous polymorphisms in AHR1 and four in AHR2. Four nonsynonymous SNPs in AHR1 and three in AHR2 showed large differences in base frequency between New Bedford Harbor and its reference site. Tests for isolation-by-distance revealed evidence for non-neutral change at the AHR2 locus. Together, these data suggest that F. heteroclitus populations in reference and polluted sites have similar

  5. Genetic variation at aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) loci in populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting polluted and reference habitats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-migratory killifish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabits clean and polluted environments interspersed throughout its range along the Atlantic coast of North America. Several populations of this species have successfully adapted to environments contaminated with toxic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Previous studies suggest that the mechanism of resistance to these and other “dioxin-like compounds” (DLCs) may involve reduced signaling through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. Here we investigated gene diversity and evidence for positive selection at three AHR-related loci (AHR1, AHR2, AHRR) in F. heteroclitus by comparing alleles from seven locations ranging over 600 km along the northeastern US, including extremely polluted and reference estuaries, with a focus on New Bedford Harbor (MA, USA), a PCB Superfund site, and nearby reference sites. Results We identified 98 single nucleotide polymorphisms within three AHR-related loci among all populations, including synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Haplotype distributions were spatially segregated and F-statistics suggested strong population genetic structure at these loci, consistent with previous studies showing strong population genetic structure at other F. heteroclitus loci. Genetic diversity at these three loci was not significantly different in contaminated sites as compared to reference sites. However, for AHR2 the New Bedford Harbor population had significant FST values in comparison to the nearest reference populations. Tests for positive selection revealed ten nonsynonymous polymorphisms in AHR1 and four in AHR2. Four nonsynonymous SNPs in AHR1 and three in AHR2 showed large differences in base frequency between New Bedford Harbor and its reference site. Tests for isolation-by-distance revealed evidence for non-neutral change at the AHR2 locus. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that F. heteroclitus populations in reference

  6. Signaling on the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    McPherson, P S; Kay, B K; Hussain, N K

    2001-06-01

    Ligand binding to receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors initiates signal transduction events and induces receptor endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. While receptor-mediated endocytosis has been traditionally considered an effective mechanism to attenuate ligand-activated responses, more recent studies demonstrate that signaling continues on the endocytic pathway. In fact, certain signaling events, such as the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases, appear to require endocytosis. Protein components of signal transduction cascades can assemble at clathrin coated pits and remain associated with endocytic vesicles following their dynamin-dependent release from the plasma membrane. Thus, endocytic vesicles can function as a signaling compartment distinct from the plasma membrane. These observations demonstrate that endocytosis plays an important role in the activation and propagation of signaling pathways.

  7. Progesterone, as well as 17β-estradiol, is important for regulating AHR battery homoeostasis in the rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Rataj, Felicitas; Möller, Frank Josef; Jähne, Maria; Hönscheid, Pia; Zierau, Oliver; Vollmer, Günter; Kretzschmar, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which plays an important role in mediating the toxicity of many industrial chemicals, plays an important role in the physiology of female reproductive tract organs. This makes it likely that the AHR and additional components of the AHR signalling pathway are under the control of female sex steroids. In a previous study, we could already demonstrate the regulation of many members of the AHR battery by 17β-estradiol (E2) in the uterus of rats. In this study, we addressed the potential role of progesterone (P4) in this context. In a comparative approach using ovariectomized rats which were treated for 3 days with either vehicle control, E2, progesterone (P4) or the combination of both hormones in addition to sham-operated animals, we could demonstrate that in addition to E2, P4 is also an important factor in regulating AHR signalling in the rat uterus. P4 has effects similar to E2 on uterine Ahr, Arnt and Arnt2 mRNA levels, resulting in a downregulation of these genes, while the E2-mediated downregulation of key AHR response genes Cyp1a1, Gsta2 and Ugt1 is completely antagonized by P4. As with E2, P4 leads to an increase in uterine AHR levels, especially in the endometrial epithelium despite the decrease in corresponding mRNA levels. This indicates a complex gene-specific regulatory network involving E2, P4 and possibly AHR itself to maintain all components of the AHR signalling cascade at the required levels during all stages of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy.

  8. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    D’Mello, Stacey A. N.; Finlay, Graeme J.; Baguley, Bruce C.; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E.

    2016-01-01

    Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis. PMID:27428965

  9. Loco signaling pathway in longevity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuh-Ru; Parikh, Hardik; Park, Yongkyu

    2011-05-01

    Despite the various roles of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein in the G protein signaling pathway that have been defined, the function of RGS has not been characterized in longevity signaling pathways. We found that reduced expression of Loco, a Drosophila RGS protein, resulted in a longer lifespan of flies with stronger resistance to stress, higher MnSOD activity and increased fat content. In contrast, overexpression of the loco gene shortened the fly lifespan significantly, lowered stress resistance and reduced fat content, also indicating that the RGS domain containing GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity is related to the regulation of longevity. Interestingly, expressional changes of yeast RGS2 and rat RGS14, homologs to the fly Loco, also affected oxidative stress resistance and longevity in the respective species. It is known that Loco inactivates inhibitory Gαi•GTP protein to reduce activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) and RGS14 interacts with activated H-Ras and Raf-1 kinases, which subsequently inhibits ERK phosphorylation. We propose that Loco/RGS14 protein may regulate stress resistance and longevity as an activator in AC-cAMP-PKA pathway and/or as a molecular scaffold that sequesters active Ras and Raf from Ras•GTP-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Consistently, our data showed that downregulation of Loco significantly diminishes cAMP amounts and increases p-ERK levels with higher resistance to the oxidative stress.

  10. Signaling Pathways in Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Luke Martin; Macara, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    A key function of signal transduction during cell polarization is the creation of spatially segregated regions of the cell cortex that possess different lipid and protein compositions and have distinct functions. Polarity can be initiated spontaneously or in response to signaling inputs from adjacent cells or soluble factors and is stabilized by positive-feedback loops. A conserved group of proteins, the Par proteins, plays a central role in polarity establishment and maintenance in many contexts. These proteins generate and maintain their distinct locations in cells by actively excluding one another from specific regions of the plasma membrane. The Par signaling pathway intersects with multiple other pathways that control cell growth, death, and organization. PMID:22553378

  11. Signaling Pathways Mediating Alcohol Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol’s effects on intracellular signaling pathways contribute to acute effects of ethanol as well as to neuroadaptive responses to repeated ethanol exposure. In this chapter we review recent discoveries that demonstrate how ethanol alters signaling pathways involving several receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine and serine-threonine kinases, with consequences for regulation of cell surface receptor function, gene expression, protein translation, neuronal excitability and animal behavior. We also describe recent work that demonstrates a key role for ethanol in regulating the function of scaffolding proteins that organize signaling complexes into functional units. Finally, we review recent exciting studies demonstrating ethanol modulation of DNA and histone modification and the expression of microRNAs, indicating epigenetic mechanisms by which ethanol regulates neuronal gene expression and addictive behaviors. PMID:21877259

  12. In Vivo Characterization of an AHR-Dependent Long Noncoding RNA Required for Proper Sox9b Expression

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gloria R.; Goodale, Britton C.; Wiley, Michelle W.; La Du, Jane K.; Hendrix, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Xenobiotic activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prevents the proper formation of craniofacial cartilage and the heart in developing zebrafish. Downstream molecular targets responsible for AHR-dependent adverse effects remain largely unknown; however, in zebrafish sox9b has been identified as one of the most-reduced transcripts in several target organs and is hypothesized to have a causal role in TCDD-induced toxicity. The reduction of sox9b expression in TCDD-exposed zebrafish embryos has been shown to contribute to heart and jaw malformation phenotypes. The mechanisms by which AHR2 (functional ortholog of mammalian AHR) activation leads to reduced sox9b expression levels and subsequent target organ toxicity are unknown. We have identified a novel long noncoding RNA (slincR) that is upregulated by strong AHR ligands and is located adjacent to the sox9b gene. We hypothesize that slincR is regulated by AHR2 and transcriptionally represses sox9b. The slincR transcript functions as an RNA macromolecule, and slincR expression is AHR2 dependent. Antisense knockdown of slincR results in an increase in sox9b expression during both normal development and AHR2 activation, which suggests relief in repression. During development, slincR was expressed in tissues with sox9 essential functions, including the jaw/snout region, otic vesicle, eye, and brain. Reducing the levels of slincR resulted in altered neurologic and/or locomotor behavioral responses. Our results place slincR as an intermediate between AHR2 activation and the reduction of sox9b mRNA in the AHR2 signaling pathway. PMID:28385905

  13. In vivo characterization of an AHR-dependent long non-coding RNA required for proper Sox9b expression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gloria R; Goodale, Britton C; Wiley, Michelle W; La Du, Jane K; Hendrix, David A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2017-04-06

    Xenobiotic activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prevents the proper formation of craniofacial cartilage and the heart in developing zebrafish. Downstream molecular targets responsible for AHR-dependent adverse effects remain largely unknown; however, in zebrafish sox9b has been identified as one of the most reduced transcripts in several target organs and is hypothesized to have a causal role in TCDD-induced toxicity. The reduction of sox9b expression in TCDD-exposed zebrafish embryos has been shown to contribute to heart and jaw malformation phenotypes. The mechanisms by which AHR2 (functional ortholog of mammalian AHR) activation leads to reduced sox9b expression levels and subsequent target organ toxicity are unknown. We have identified a novel long non-coding RNA (slincR) that is upregulated by strong AHR ligands and is located adjacent to the sox9b gene. We hypothesize that slincR is regulated by AHR2 and transcriptionally represses sox9b. The slincR transcript functions as an RNA macromolecule, and slincR expression is AHR2-dependent. Antisense knockdown of slincR results in an increase in sox9b expression during both normal development and AHR2 activation, which suggests a relief in repression. During development, slincR was expressed in tissues with sox9 essential functions, including the jaw/snout region, otic vesicle, eye, and brain. Reducing the levels of slincR resulted in altered neurological and/or locomotor behavioral responses. Our results place slincR as an intermediate between AHR2 activation and the reduction of sox9b mRNA in the AHR2 signaling pathway.

  14. Pharmacology of intracellular signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Stefan R

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief and somewhat personalized review of the dramatic developments that have occurred over the last 45 years in our understanding of intracellular signalling pathways associated with G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Signalling via cyclic AMP, the phosphoinositides and Ca2+ is emphasized and these systems have already been revealed as new pharmacological targets. The therapeutic benefits of most of such targets are, however, yet to be realized, but it is certain that the discipline of pharmacology needs to widen its boundaries to meet these challenges in the future. PMID:16402119

  15. Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Erminia; Pulsatelli, Lia; Facchini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In adult healthy cartilage, chondrocytes are in a quiescent phase characterized by a fine balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. In ageing, degenerative joint diseases and traumatic injuries of cartilage, a loss of homeostatic conditions and an up-regulation of catabolic pathways occur. Since cartilage differentiation and maintenance of homeostasis are finely tuned by a complex network of signaling molecules and biophysical factors, shedding light on these mechanisms appears to be extremely relevant for both the identification of pathogenic key factors, as specific therapeutic targets, and the development of biological approaches for cartilage regeneration. This review will focus on the main signaling pathways that can activate cellular and molecular processes, regulating the functional behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological conditions. These networks may be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and increased knowledge in this field may lead to the development of more effective strategies for inducing cartilage repair. PMID:24837833

  16. Hydrogen sulfide in signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata

    2015-01-15

    For a long time hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) was considered a toxic compound, but recently H₂S (at low concentrations) has been found to play an important function in physiological processes. Hydrogen sulfide, like other well-known compounds - nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous intracellular signal transducer. It regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis and the oxidative stress. Moreover, its functions include neuromodulation, regulation of cardiovascular system and inflammation. In this review, I focus on the metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (including enzymatic pathways of H₂S synthesis from l- and d-cysteine) and its signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system and the nervous system. I also describe how hydrogen sulfide may be used as therapeutic agent, i.e. in the cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M; Knotts, Trina A; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D; McCoin, Colin S; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Adams, Sean H; Hwang, Daniel H

    2014-06-15

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed D,L isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant L-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. L-C14 carnitine (5-25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, L-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, L-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified.

  18. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M.; Knotts, Trina A.; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D.; McCoin, Colin S.; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Hwang, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed d,l isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant l-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. l-C14 carnitine (5–25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, l-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, l-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified. PMID:24760988

  19. The genome-wide transcriptional response to neonatal hyperoxia identifies Ahr as a key regulator

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Zhou, Zhongyang; Yee, Min; Chu, Chin-Yi; Lopez, Ashley M.; Lunger, Valerie A.; Solleti, Siva Kumar; Resseguie, Emily; Buczynski, Bradley; O'Reilly, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Premature infants requiring supplemental oxygen are at increased risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Rodent models involving neonatal exposure to excessive oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) have helped to identify mechanisms of BPD-associated pathology. Genome-wide assessments of the effects of hyperoxia in neonatal mouse lungs could identify novel BPD-related genes and pathways. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 100% oxygen for 10 days, and whole lung tissue RNA was used for high-throughput, sequencing-based transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq). Significance Analysis of Microarrays and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were used to identify genes and pathways affected. Expression patterns for selected genes were validated by qPCR. Mechanistic relationships between genes were further tested in cultured mouse lung epithelial cells. We identified 300 genes significantly and substantially affected following acute neonatal hyperoxia. Canonical pathways dysregulated in hyperoxia lungs included nuclear fctor (erythryoid-derived-2)-like 2-mediated oxidative stress signaling, p53 signaling, eNOS signaling, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) pathways. Cluster analysis identified Ccnd1, Cdkn1a, and Ahr as critical regulatory nodes in the response to hyperoxia, with Ahr serving as the major effector node. A mechanistic role for Ahr was assessed in lung epithelial cells, and we confirmed its ability to regulate the expression of multiple hyperoxia markers, including Cdkn1a, Pdgfrb, and A2m. We conclude that a global assessment of gene regulation in the acute neonatal hyperoxia model of BPD-like pathology has identified Ahr as one driver of gene dysregulation. PMID:25150061

  20. Signalling pathways in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang; Ishii, Norito; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    Acantholysis in pemphigus vulgaris is induced by binding of autoantibodies to desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). The roles of signalling pathways on development of acantholysis have recently been extensively studied. In the study by Sayar et al., recently published in Exp Dermatol, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling was activated in both in vivo and in vitro pemphigus vulgaris experimental models. However, while EGFR inhibitors suppressed activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) linearly, they suppressed activity of c-Myc and acantholysis in a non-linear, V-shaped relationship. These findings indicated complicated interactions among EGFR, p38MAPK and c-Myc in pemphigus vulgaris pathology.

  1. Ablating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in CD11c+ cells perturbs intestinal epithelium development and intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Chng, Song Hui; Kundu, Parag; Dominguez-Brauer, Carmen; Teo, Wei Ling; Kawajiri, Kaname; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Mak, Tak Wah; Pettersson, Sven

    2016-04-12

    Diet and microbiome derived indole derivatives are known to activate the ligand induced transcription factor, the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). While the current understanding of AhR biology has confirmed its role in mucosal lymphocytes, its function in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) is poorly understood. Here, we report that Cre-mediated deletion of AhR in CD11c-expressing cells in C57/BL6 mice is associated with altered intestinal epithelial morphogenesis in vivo. Moreover, when co-cultured with AhR-deficient DCs ex vivo, intestinal organoids showed reduced SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 and increased Mucin 2 expression, which correlates with reduced Paneth cells and increased goblet cell differentiation, similar to the data obtained in vivo. Further, characterization of intestinal APC subsets, devoid of AhR, revealed an expression pattern associated with aberrant intrinsic Wnt pathway regulation. At a functional level, the loss of AhR in APCs resulted in a dysfunctional epithelial barrier, associated with a more aggressive chemically induced colitis compared to wild type animals. Our results are consistent with a model whereby the AhR signalling pathway may participate in the regulation of innate immunity through intestinal epithelium development and mucosal immunity.

  2. AHR2-Mediated Transcriptomic Responses Underlying the Synergistic Cardiac Developmental Toxicity of PAHs

    PubMed Central

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Van Tiem Garner, Lindsey; Meyer, Joel N.; Erwin, Kyle N.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce developmental defects including cardiac deformities in fish. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of some PAHs. Exposure to a simple PAH mixture during embryo development consisting of an AHR agonist (benzo(a)pyrene-BaP) with fluoranthene (FL), an inhibitor of cytochrome p450 1(CYP1)—a gene induced by AHR activation—results in cardiac deformities. Exposure to BaP or FL alone at similar concentrations alters heart rates, but does not induce morphological deformities. Furthermore, AHR2 knockdown prevents the toxicity of BaP + FL mixture. Here, we used a zebrafish microarray analysis to identify heart-specific transcriptomic changes during early development that might underlie cardiotoxicity of BaP + FL. We used AHR2 morphant embryos to determine the role of this receptor in mediating toxicity. Control and knockdown embryos at 36 h post-fertilization were exposed to DMSO, 100 μg/l BaP, 500 μg/l FL, or 100 μg/l BaP + 500 μg/l FL, and heart tissues for RNA were extracted at 2, 6, 12, and 18 h-post-exposure (hpe), prior to the appearance of cardiac deformities. Data show AHR2-dependent BaP + FL effects on expression of genes involved in protein biosynthesis and neuronal development in addition to signaling molecules and their associated molecular pathways. Ca2+-cycling and muscle contraction genes were the most significantly differentially expressed category of transcripts when comparing BaP + FL-treated AHR2 morphant and control embryos. These differences were most prominent at 2 and 6 hpe. Therefore, we postulate that BaP + FL may affect cellular Ca2+ levels and subsequently cardiac muscle function, potentially underlying BaP + FL cardiotoxicity. PMID:25412620

  3. Genetic dissection of endothelial transcriptional activity of zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs)

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Wade W.; Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C.; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning. Here we dissect the contribution of the 3 zebrafish AHRs, ahr1a, ahr1b and ahr2, to endothelial cyp1a1/b1 gene regulation under physiologic conditions and upon exposure to the AHR ligand Beta-naphthoflavone. We show that in fish multiple AHRs are functional in the vasculature, with vessel-specific differences in the ability of ahr1b to compensate for the loss of ahr2 to maintain AHR signaling. We further provide evidence that AHR can regulate the expression of the chemokine receptor cxcr4a in endothelial cells, a regulatory mechanism that may provide insight into AHR function in the endothelium. PMID:28817646

  4. Genetic dissection of endothelial transcriptional activity of zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs).

    PubMed

    Sugden, Wade W; Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Siekmann, Arndt F

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning. Here we dissect the contribution of the 3 zebrafish AHRs, ahr1a, ahr1b and ahr2, to endothelial cyp1a1/b1 gene regulation under physiologic conditions and upon exposure to the AHR ligand Beta-naphthoflavone. We show that in fish multiple AHRs are functional in the vasculature, with vessel-specific differences in the ability of ahr1b to compensate for the loss of ahr2 to maintain AHR signaling. We further provide evidence that AHR can regulate the expression of the chemokine receptor cxcr4a in endothelial cells, a regulatory mechanism that may provide insight into AHR function in the endothelium.

  5. Cross-talk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor signaling pathways. Demonstration of competition and compensation.

    PubMed

    Chan, W K; Yao, G; Gu, Y Z; Bradfield, C A

    1999-04-23

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the alpha-class hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1alpha, HIF2alpha, and HIF3alpha) are basic helix-loop-helix PAS (bHLH-PAS) proteins that heterodimerize with ARNT. In response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the AHR. ARNT complex binds to "dioxin responsive enhancers" (DREs) and activates genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, e.g. cytochrome P4501A1 (Cyp1a1). The HIF1alpha.ARNT complex binds to "hypoxia responsive enhancers" and activates the transcription of genes that regulate adaptation to low oxygen, e.g. erythropoietin (Epo). We postulated that activation of one pathway would inhibit the other due to competition for ARNT or other limiting cellular factors. Using pathway specific reporters in transient transfection assays, we observed that DRE driven transcription was markedly inhibited by hypoxia and that hypoxia responsive enhancer driven transcription was inhibited by AHR agonists. When we attempted to support this cross-talk model using endogenous loci, we observed that activation of the hypoxia pathway inhibited Cyp1a1 up-regulation, but that activation of the AHR actually enhanced the induction of Epo by hypoxia. To explain this unexpected additivity, we examined the Epo gene and found that its promoter harbors DREs immediately upstream of its transcriptional start site. These experiments outline conditions where inhibitory and additive cross-talk occur between the hypoxia and dioxin signal transduction pathways and identify Epo as an AHR-regulated gene.

  6. Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H.; Bergboer, Judith G.M.; Vonk-Bergers, Mieke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M.J.J.; Hato, Stanleyson V.; van der Valk, Pieter G.M.; Schröder, Jens Michael; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte–mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular mechanism of coal tar therapy is unknown. Using organotypic skin models with primary keratinocytes from AD patients and controls, we found that coal tar activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), resulting in induction of epidermal differentiation. AHR knockdown by siRNA completely abrogated this effect. Coal tar restored filaggrin expression in FLG-haploinsufficient keratinocytes to wild-type levels, and counteracted Th2 cytokine–mediated downregulation of skin barrier proteins. In AD patients, coal tar completely restored expression of major skin barrier proteins, including filaggrin. Using organotypic skin models stimulated with Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, we found coal tar to diminish spongiosis, apoptosis, and CCL26 expression, all AD hallmarks. Coal tar interfered with Th2 cytokine signaling via dephosphorylation of STAT6, most likely due to AHR-regulated activation of the NRF2 antioxidative stress pathway. The therapeutic effect of AHR activation herein described opens a new avenue to reconsider AHR as a pharmacological target and could lead to the development of mechanism-based drugs for AD. PMID:23348739

  7. Genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies a physiological role for the AHR in epidermal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, Ellen; Podolsky, Michael; Smits, Jos; Cui, Xiao; John, Christian; Gowda, Krishne; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Schalkwijk, Joost; Perdew, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by xenobiotics is known to affect epidermal differentiation and skin barrier formation. The physiological role of endogenous AHR signaling in keratinocyte differentiation is not known. We used murine and human skin models to address the hypothesis that AHR activation is required for normal keratinocyte differentiation. Using transcriptome analysis of Ahr-/- and Ahr+/+ murine keratinocytes, we found significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes linked to epidermal differentiation. Primary Ahr-/- keratinocytes showed a significant reduction in terminal differentiation gene and protein expression, similar to Ahr+/+ keratinocytes treated with AHR antagonists GNF351 and CH223191, or the selective AHR modulator (SAhRM), SGA360. In vitro keratinocyte differentiation led to increased AHR levels and subsequent nuclear translocation, followed by induced CYP1A1 gene expression. Monolayer cultured primary human keratinocytes treated with AHR antagonists also showed an impaired terminal differentiation program. Inactivation of AHR activity during human skin equivalent development severely impaired epidermal stratification, terminal differentiation protein expression and stratum corneum formation. As disturbed epidermal differentiation is a main feature of many skin diseases, pharmacological agents targeting AHR signaling or future identification of endogenous keratinocyte-derived AHR ligands should be considered as potential new drugs in dermatology. PMID:25602157

  8. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway in autism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Xiangshan; Wang, Zhongping; Li, Ruixi

    2014-01-01

    Mounting attention is being focused on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism in some our and other recent studies. The canonical Wnt pathway is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration, especially during nervous system development. Given its various functions, dysfunction of the canonical Wnt pathway may exert adverse effects on neurodevelopment and therefore leads to the pathogenesis of autism. Here, we review human and animal studies that implicate the canonical Wnt signal transduction pathway in the pathogenesis of autism. We also describe the crosstalk between the canonical Wnt pathway and the Notch signaling pathway in several types of autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger syndrome and Fragile X. Further research on the crosstalk between the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and other signaling cascades in autism may be an efficient avenue to understand the etiology of autism and ultimately lead to alternative medications for autism-like phenotypes.

  9. Mono-Substituted Isopropylated Triaryl Phosphate, a Major Component of Firemaster 550, is an AHR Agonist that Exhibits AHR-Independent Cardiotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Cory V.; Das, Siba R.; Volz, David C.; Bisson, William H.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Firemaster 550 (FM550) is an additive flame retardant mixture used within polyurethane foam and is increasingly found in house dust and the environment due to leaching. Despite the widespread use of FM550, very few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of its ingredients during early vertebrate development. In the current study, we sought to specifically investigate mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mITP), a component comprising approximately 32% of FM550, which has been shown to cause cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis. Previous research showed that developmental defects are rescued using an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist (CH223191), suggesting that mITP-induced toxicity was AHR-dependent. As zebrafish have three known AHR isoforms, we used a functional AHR2 knockout line along with AHR1A-and AHR1B-specific morpholinos to determine which AHR isoform, if any, mediates mITP-induced cardiotoxicity. As in silico structural homology modeling predicted that mITP may bind favorably to both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms, we evaluated AHR involvement in vivo by measuring CYP1A mRNA and protein expression following exposure to mITP in the presence or absence of CH223191 or AHR-specific morpholinos. Based on these studies, we found that mITP interacts with both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms to induce CYP1A expression. However, while CH223191 blocked mITP-induced CYP1A induction and cardiotoxicity, knockdown of all three AHR isoforms failed to block mITP-induced cardiotoxicity in the absence of detectable CYP1A induction. Overall, these results suggest that, while mITP is an AHR agonist, mITP causes AHR-independent cardiotoxicity through a pathway that is also antagonized by CH223191. PMID:24865613

  10. Mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate, a major component of Firemaster 550, is an AHR agonist that exhibits AHR-independent cardiotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Cory V; Das, Siba R; Volz, David C; Bisson, William H; Kolluri, Siva K; Tanguay, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Firemaster 550 (FM550) is an additive flame retardant mixture used within polyurethane foam and is increasingly found in house dust and the environment due to leaching. Despite the widespread use of FM550, very few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of its ingredients during early vertebrate development. In the current study, we sought to specifically investigate mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mITP), a component comprising approximately 32% of FM550, which has been shown to cause cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis. Previous research showed that developmental defects are rescued using an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist (CH223191), suggesting that mITP-induced toxicity was AHR-dependent. As zebrafish have three known AHR isoforms, we used a functional AHR2 knockout line along with AHR1A- and AHR1B-specific morpholinos to determine which AHR isoform, if any, mediates mITP-induced cardiotoxicity. As in silico structural homology modeling predicted that mITP may bind favorably to both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms, we evaluated AHR involvement in vivo by measuring CYP1A mRNA and protein expression following exposure to mITP in the presence or absence of CH223191 or AHR-specific morpholinos. Based on these studies, we found that mITP interacts with both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms to induce CYP1A expression. However, while CH223191 blocked mITP-induced CYP1A induction and cardiotoxicity, knockdown of all three AHR isoforms failed to block mITP-induced cardiotoxicity in the absence of detectable CYP1A induction. Overall, these results suggest that, while mITP is an AHR agonist, mITP causes AHR-independent cardiotoxicity through a pathway that is also antagonized by CH223191.

  11. Leptin signalling pathways in hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Obin; Kim, Ki Woo; Kim, Min-Seon

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is the most critical hormone in the homeostatic regulation of energy balance among those so far discovered. Leptin primarily acts on the neurons of the mediobasal part of hypothalamus to regulate food intake, thermogenesis, and the blood glucose level. In the hypothalamic neurons, leptin binding to the long form leptin receptors on the plasma membrane initiates multiple signaling cascades. The signaling pathways known to mediate the actions of leptin include JAK-STAT signaling, PI3K-Akt-FoxO1 signaling, SHP2-ERK signaling, AMPK signaling, and mTOR-S6K signaling. Recent evidence suggests that leptin signaling in hypothalamic neurons is also linked to primary cilia function. On the other hand, signaling molecules/pathways mitigating leptin actions in hypothalamic neurons have been extensively investigated in an effort to treat leptin resistance observed in obesity. These include SOCS3, tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B, and inflammatory signaling pathways such as IKK-NFκB and JNK signaling, and ER stress-mitochondrial signaling. In this review, we discuss leptin signaling pathways in the hypothalamus, with a particular focus on the most recently discovered pathways.

  12. Influenza virus and cell signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Pratibha; Munjal, Ashok; Lal, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Influenza viruses comprise a major class of human respiratory pathogens, responsible for causing morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza A virus, due to its segmented RNA genome, is highly subject to mutation, resulting in rapid formation of variants. During influenza infection, viral proteins interact with host proteins and exploit a variety of cellular pathways for their own benefit. Influenza virus inhibits the synthesis of these cellular proteins and facilitates expression of its own proteins for viral transcription and replication. Infected cell pathways are hijacked by an array of intracellular signaling cascades such as NF-κB signaling, PI3K/Akt pathway, MAPK pathway, PKC/PKR signaling and TLR/RIG-I signaling cascades. This review presents a research update on the subject and discusses the impact of influenza viral infection on these cell signaling pathways. PMID:21629204

  13. LXR signaling pathways and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Anna; Tontonoz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    First discovered as orphan receptors, liver X receptors (LXRs) were subsequently identified as the nuclear receptor target of the cholesterol metabolites, oxysterols.1 There are 2 LXR receptors encoded by distinct genes: LXRα is most highly expressed in the liver, adipose, kidney, adrenal tissues and macrophages, and LXRβ is ubiquitously expressed. Despite differential tissue distribution, these isoforms have 78% homology in their ligand-binding domain and appear to respond to the same endogenous ligands. Work over the past 10 years has shown that the LXR pathway regulates lipid metabolism and inflammation via both the induction and repression of target genes. Given the importance of cholesterol regulation and inflammation in the development of cardiovascular disease, it is not surprising that activation of the LXR pathway attenuates various mechanisms underlying atherosclerotic plaque development.2 In this minireview we will discuss the impact of the LXR pathway on both cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. PMID:20631351

  14. Calcium in plant defence-signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lecourieux, David; Ranjeva, Raoul; Pugin, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In plant cells, the calcium ion is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in numerous signalling pathways. Variations in the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) couple a large array of signals and responses. Here we concentrate on calcium signalling in plant defence responses, particularly on the generation of the calcium signal and downstream calcium-dependent events participating in the establishment of defence responses with special reference to calcium-binding proteins.

  15. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  16. Modularized TGFbeta-Smad Signaling Pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

  17. NcoA2-Dependent Inhibition of HIF-1α Activation Is Regulated via AhR.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hao; Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Po-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2015-12-01

    High endogenous levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contribute to hypoxia signaling pathway inhibition following exposure to the potent AhR ligand benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and could alter cellular homeostasis and disease condition. Increasing evidence indicates that AhR might compete with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) for complex formation with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for transactivation, which could alter several physiological variables. Nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NcoA2) is a transcription coactivator that regulates transcription factor activation and inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix Per (Period)-ARNT-SIM (single-minded) (bHLH-PAS) family proteins, such as HIF-1α, ARNT, and AhR, through protein-protein interactions. In this study, we demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia-mimic conditions decreased NcoA2 protein expression in HEK293T cells. Hypoxia response element (HRE) and xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) transactivation also were downregulated with NcoA2 knockdown under hypoxic conditions. In addition, B[a]P significantly decreased NcoA2 protein expression be accompanied with AhR degradation. We next evaluated whether the absence of AhR could affect NcoA2 protein function under hypoxia-mimetic conditions. NcoA2 and HIF-1α nuclear localization decreased in both B[a]P-pretreated and AhR-knockdown HepG2 cells under hypoxia-mimic conditions. Interestingly, NcoA2 overexpression downregulated HRE transactivation by competing with HIF-1α and AhR to form protein complexes with ARNT. Both NcoA2 knockdown and overexpression inhibited endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. We also demonstrated using the in vivo plug assay that NcoA2-regulated vascularization decreased in mice. Taken together, these results revealed a biphasic role of NcoA2 between AhR and hypoxic conditions, thus providing a novel mechanism underlying the cross talk between AhR and hypoxia that affects disease development and progression.

  18. Dioxin mediates downregulation of the reduced folate carrier transport activity via the arylhydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Halwachs, Sandra; Lakoma, Cathleen; Gebhardt, Rolf; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2010-07-15

    Dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are common environmental contaminants known to regulate several genes via activation of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) associated with the development of numerous adverse biological effects. However, comparatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which dioxins display their toxic effects in vertebrates. The 5' untranslated region of the hepatocellular Reduced folate carrier (Rfc1; Slc19a1) exhibits AhR binding sites termed dioxin responsive elements (DRE) that have as yet only been found in the promoter region of prototypical TCDD target genes. Rfc1 mediated transport of reduced folates and antifolate drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) plays an essential role in physiological folate homeostasis and MTX cancer chemotherapy. In order to determine whether this carrier represents a target gene of dioxins we have investigated the influence of TCDD on functional Rfc1 activity in rat liver. Pre-treatment of rats with TCDD significantly diminished hepatocellular Rfc1 uptake activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In further mechanistic studies we demonstrated that this reduction was due to TCDD-dependent activation of the AhR signalling pathway. We additionally showed that binding of the activated receptor to DRE motifs in the Rfc1 promoter resulted in downregulation of Rfc1 gene expression and reduced carrier protein levels. As downregulation of pivotal Rfc1 activity results in functional folate deficiency associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases or carcinogenesis, our results indicate that deregulation of this essential transport pathway represents a novel regulatory mechanism how dioxins display their toxic effects through the Ah receptor.

  19. Advances in Targeting Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    McCubrey, James A.; Steelman, Linda S.; Chappell, William H.; Sun, Lin; Davis, Nicole M.; Abrams, Stephen L.; Franklin, Richard A.; Cocco, Lucio; Evangelisti, Camilla; Chiarini, Francesca; Martelli, Alberto M.; Libra, Massimo; Candido, Saverio; Ligresti, Giovanni; Malaponte, Grazia; Mazzarino, Maria C.; Fagone, Paolo; Donia, Marco; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Polesel, Jerry; Talamini, Renato; Bäsecke, Jörg; Mijatovic, Sanja; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Milella, Michele; Tafuri, Agostino; Dulińska-Litewka, Joanna; Laidler, Piotr; D'Assoro, Antonio B.; Drobot, Lyudmyla; Umezawa, Kazuo; Montalto, Giuseppe; Cervello, Melchiorre; Demidenko, Zoya N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant advances have occurred in both our understanding of the complexity of signal transduction pathways as well as the isolation of specific inhibitors which target key components in those pathways. Furthermore critical information is being accrued regarding how genetic mutations can affect the sensitivity of various types of patients to targeted therapy. Finally, genetic mechanisms responsible for the development of resistance after targeted therapy are being discovered which may allow the creation of alternative therapies to overcome resistance. This review will discuss some of the highlights over the past few years on the roles of key signaling pathways in various diseases, the targeting of signal transduction pathways and the genetic mechanisms governing sensitivity and resistance to targeted therapies. PMID:23455493

  20. The Wnt signaling pathway in cancer.

    PubMed

    Duchartre, Yann; Kim, Yong-Mi; Kahn, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is critically involved in both the development and homeostasis of tissues via regulation of their endogenous stem cells. Aberrant Wnt signaling has been described as a key player in the initiation of and/or maintenance and development of many cancers, via affecting the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). CSCs are considered by most to be responsible for establishment of the tumor and also for disease relapse, as they possess inherent drug-resistance properties. The development of new therapeutic compounds targeting the Wnt signaling pathway promises new hope to eliminate CSCs and achieve cancer eradication. However, a major challenge resides in developing a strategy efficient enough to target the dysregulated Wnt pathway in CSCs, while being safe enough to not damage the normal somatic stem cell population required for tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we review recent therapeutic approaches to target the Wnt pathway and their clinical applications.

  1. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor prevents Western diet-induced obesity. Model for AHR activation by kynurenine via oxidized-LDL, TLR2/4, TGFβ, and IDO1.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Benjamin J; Rojas, Itzel Y; Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S; Hazlett, Haley F; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Trask, Heidi W; West, Rachel J; Lupien, Leslie E; Collins, Alan J; Ringelberg, Carol S; Gimi, Barjor; Kinlaw, William B; Tomlinson, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem, yet, little is known about its causes and less is known how obesity can be effectively treated. We showed previously that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in the regulation of body mass in mice fed Western diet. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in a number of biological pathways, including xenobiotic metabolism and T cell polarization. This study was an investigation into whether inhibition of the AHR prevents Western diet-based obesity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control and Western diets with and without the AHR antagonist α-naphthoflavone or CH-223191, and a mouse hepatocyte cell line was used to delineate relevant cellular pathways. Studies are presented showing that the AHR antagonists α-naphthoflavone and CH-223191 significantly reduce obesity and adiposity and ameliorates liver steatosis in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a Western diet. Mice deficient in the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were also resistant to obesity. Using an AHR-directed, luciferase-expressing mouse hepatocyte cell line, we show that the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signaling pathway via PI3K and NF-κB and the toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) signaling pathway stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoproteins via NF-κB, each induce luciferase expression; however, TLR2/4 signaling was significantly reduced by inhibition of IDO1. At physiological levels, kynurenine but not kynurenic acid (both tryptophan metabolites and known AHR agonists) activated AHR-directed luciferase expression. We propose a hepatocyte-based model, in which kynurenine production is increased by enhanced IDO1 activity stimulated by TGFβ1 and TLR2/4 signaling, via PI3K and NF-κB, to perpetuate a cycle of AHR activation to cause obesity; and inhibition of the AHR, in turn, blocks the cycle's output to prevent obesity. The AHR with its broad ligand binding specificity

  2. Signaling Pathways Controlling Microglia Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang; Xie, Lirui; Chung, Chang Y.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the first line of defense of the brain’s innate immune response against infection, injury, and diseases. Microglia respond to extracellular signals and engulf unwanted neuronal debris by phagocytosis, thereby maintaining normal cellular homeostasis in the CNS. Pathological stimuli such as neuronal injury induce transformation and activation of resting microglia with ramified morphology into a motile amoeboid form and activated microglia chemotax toward lesion site. This review outlines the current research on microglial activation and chemotaxis. PMID:28301917

  3. Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kate; Sweet, Matthew J; Hume, David A

    2006-01-01

    Macrophages are major effector cells of the innate immune system, and appropriate regulation of macrophage function requires the integration of multiple signalling inputs derived from the recognition of host factors (e.g. interferon-gamma/IFNgamma) and pathogen products (e.g. toll-like receptor/TLR agonists). The profound effects of IFNgamma pre-treatment ("priming") on TLR-induced macrophage activation have long been recognised, but many of the mechanisms underlying the priming phenotype have only recently been identified. This review summarises the known mechanisms of integration between the IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways. Synergy occurs at multiple levels, ranging from signal recognition to convergence of signals at the promoters of target genes. In particular, the cross-talk between the IFNgamma, and LPS and CpG DNA signalling pathways is discussed.

  4. Molecular signalling pathways in canine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, C E; York, D; Higgins, R J; LeCouteur, R A; Dickinson, P J

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we determined the expression of key signalling pathway proteins TP53, MDM2, P21, AKT, PTEN, RB1, P16, MTOR and MAPK in canine gliomas using western blotting. Protein expression was defined in three canine astrocytic glioma cell lines treated with CCNU, temozolamide or CPT-11 and was further evaluated in 22 spontaneous gliomas including high and low grade astrocytomas, high grade oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Response to chemotherapeutic agents and cell survival were similar to that reported in human glioma cell lines. Alterations in expression of key human gliomagenesis pathway proteins were common in canine glioma tumour samples and segregated between oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumour types for some pathways. Both similarities and differences in protein expression were defined for canine gliomas compared to those reported in human tumour counterparts. The findings may inform more defined assessment of specific signalling pathways for targeted therapy of canine gliomas.

  5. [Wnt signalling pathway and cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Álvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; García-Castro, Beatriz; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a pathology that arises in the cervical epithelium, whose major cause of risk is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Due to the fact that HPV infection per se is not enough to generate a carcinogenic process, it has been proposed that alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in cervical carcinogenesis. The Wnt family consists of 13 receptors and 19 ligands, and it is highly conserved phylogenetically due to its contribution in different biological processes, such as embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Additionally, this signaling pathway modulates various cellular functions, for instance: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell polarity. This paper describes the Wnt signaling pathways and alterations that have been found in members of this family in different cancer types and, especially, in CC.

  6. ROLE OF THE ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR (AHR) IN LUNG INFLAMMATION1

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Celine A.; Shepherd, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Millions of individuals worldwide are afflicted with acute and chronic respiratory diseases, causing temporary and permanent disabilities and even death. Oftentimes, these diseases occur as a result of altered immune responses. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, acts as a regulator of mucosal barrier function and may influence immune responsiveness in the lungs through changes in gene expression, cell-cell adhesion, mucin production, and cytokine expression. This review updates the basic immunobiology of the AhR signaling pathway with regards to inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and silicosis following data in rodent models and humans. Finally, we address the therapeutic potential of targeting the in regulating inflammation during acute and chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:23963493

  7. Deficiency in Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) Expression throughout Aging Alters Gene Expression Profiles in Murine Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, John A.; Singh, Kameshwar P.; Unnisa, Zeenath; Welle, Stephen L.; Gasiewicz, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) signaling can contribute to the development of diseases of the blood system. Lack of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been associated with alterations in gene expression related to HSC function and the subsequent development of a myeloproliferative disorder in aging female mice. We sorted the most primitive population of HSCs with the highest stem cell potential (Long-term, or LT-HSCs) from 18-month-old AhR-null-allele (AhR-KO) and WT mice and analyzed gene expression using microarray to determine alterations in gene expression and cell signaling networks in HSCs that could potentially contribute to the aging phenotype of AhR-KO mice. Comparisons with previous array data from 8-week old mice indicated that aging alone is sufficient to alter gene expression. In addition, a significant number of gene expression differences were observed in aged LT-HSCs that are dependent on both aging and lack of AhR. Pathway analysis of these genes revealed networks related to hematopoietic stem cell activity or function. qPCR was used to confirm the differential expression of a subset of these genes, focusing on genes that may represent novel AhR targets due to the presence of a putative AhR binding site in their upstream regulatory region. We verified differential expression of PDGF-D, Smo, Wdfy1, Zbtb37 and Zfp382. Pathway analysis of this subset of genes revealed overlap between cellular functions of the novel AhR targets and AhR itself. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of AhR in lineage-negative hematopoietic cells was sufficient to induce changes in all five of the candidate AhR targets identified. Taken together, these data suggest a role for AhR in HSC functional regulation, and identify novel HSC AhR target genes that may contribute to the phenotypes observed in AhR-KO mice. PMID:26208102

  8. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25772309

  9. Spatial aspects in the SMAD signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Claus, J; Friedmann, E; Klingmüller, U; Rannacher, R; Szekeres, T

    2013-11-01

    Among other approaches, differential equations are used for a deterministic quantitative description of time-dependent biological processes. For intracellular systems, such as signaling pathways, most existing models are based on ordinary differential equations. These models describe temporal processes, while they neglect spatial aspects. We present a model for the SMAD signaling pathway, which gives a temporal and spatial description on the basis of reaction diffusion equations to answer the question whether cell geometry plays a role in signaling. In this article we simulate the ordinary differential equations as well as partial differential equations of parabolic type with suile numerical methods, the latter on different cell geometries. In addition to manual construction of idealized cells, we also construct meshes from microscopy images of real cells. The main focus of the paper is to compare the results of the model without and with spatial aspects to answer the addressed question. The results show that diffusion in the model can lead to significant intracellular gradients of signaling molecules and changes the level of response to the signal transduced by the signaling pathway. In particular, the extent of these observations depends on the geometry of the cell.

  10. Resistance to teratogenesis by F1 and F2 embryos of PAH-adapted Fundulus heteroclitus is strongly inherited despite reduced recalcitrance of the AHR pathway.

    PubMed

    Clark, Bryan W; Bone, A J; Di Giulio, R T

    2014-12-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Atlantic Wood Superfund site on the Elizabeth River (Portsmouth, VA, USA) are exposed to a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from former creosote operations, but are resistant to the acute toxicity and cardiac teratogenesis caused by PAHs. The resistance is associated with a dramatic recalcitrance to induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP1) metabolism enzymes following exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, along with an elevated antioxidant response and increased expression of several other xenobiotic metabolism and excretion enzymes. However, the heritability of the resistance in the absence of chemical stressors has been inconsistently demonstrated. Understanding the heritability of this resistance will help clarify the nature of population-level responses to chronic exposure to PAH mixtures and aid in identifying the important mechanistic components of resistance to aryl hydrocarbons. We compared the response of Atlantic Wood F1 and F2 embryos to benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), and a mixture of BkF and fluoranthene (Fl) to that of F1 embryos of reference site killifish. Resistance to cardiac teratogenesis and induction of CYP mRNA expression and CYP activity was determined. We found that both Atlantic Wood F1 and F2 embryos were highly resistance to cardiac teratogenesis. However, the resistance by Atlantic Wood F2 embryos to induction of CYP mRNA expression and enzyme activity was intermediate between that of Atlantic Wood F1 embryos and reference embryos. These results suggest that resistance to cardiac teratogenesis in Atlantic Wood fish is conferred by multiple factors, not all of which appear to be fully genetically heritable.

  11. Resistance to teratogenesis by F1 and F2 embryos of PAH-adapted Fundulus heteroclitus is strongly inherited despite reduced recalcitrance of the AHR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Clark, B. W.; Bone, A. J.; Di Giulio, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Atlantic Wood Superfund site on the Elizabeth River (Portsmouth, VA, USA) are exposed to a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from former creosote operations, but are resistant to the acute toxicity and cardiac teratogenesis caused by PAHs. The resistance is associated with a dramatic recalcitrance to induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP1) metabolism enzymes following exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, along with an elevated antioxidant response and increased expression of several other xenobiotic metabolism and excretion enzymes. However, the heritability of the resistance in the absence of chemical stressors has been inconsistently demonstrated. Understanding the heritability of this resistance will help clarify the nature of population-level responses to chronic exposure to PAH mixtures and aid in identifying the important mechanistic components of resistance to aryl hydrocarbons. We compared the response of Atlantic Wood F1 and F2 embryos to benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), and a mixture of BkF and fluoranthene (Fl) to that of F1 embryos of reference site killifish. Resistance to cardiac teratogenesis and induction of CYP mRNA expression and CYP activity was determined. We found that both Atlantic Wood F1 and F2 embryos were highly resistance to cardiac teratogenesis. However, the resistance by Atlantic Wood F2 embryos to induction of CYP mRNA expression and enzyme activity was intermediate between that of Atlantic Wood F1 embryos and reference embryos. These results suggest that resistance to cardiac teratogenesis in Atlantic Wood fish is conferred by multiple factors, not all of which appear to be fully genetically heritable. PMID:24374617

  12. Interaction of a functionalized complex of the flavonoid hesperetin with the AhR pathway and CYP1A1 expression: involvement in its protective effects against benzo[a]pyrene-induced oxidative stress in human skin.

    PubMed

    Melchini, Antonietta; Catania, Stefania; Stancanelli, Rossana; Tommasini, Silvana; Costa, Chiara

    2011-10-01

    Skin cancer pathogenesis is partially associated to the oxidative stress conditions induced by environmentally carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The protective effects against BaP-induced oxidative stress of the flavonoid hesperetin as a complex with the 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE/HP-β-CyD) have been evaluated using an ex vivo human skin model. Human healthy skin has been pre-treated with the functionalized complex HE/HP-β-CyD (0.5-50 μM) before BaP (5 μM) application simulating occupational and environmental exposure. Oxidative stress was evaluated in terms of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction, protein peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Additionally, it has been investigated whether the potential protective effects of HE/HP-β-CyD may be correlated to the interaction with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. A significant protection by HE/HP-β-CyD against the BaP-induced increase in ROS and carbonyl compound production, as well as reduction in tissue viability, has been observed (p<0.001). Results obtained showed that HE/HP-β-CyD was also able to reduce BaP-induced AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression (p<0.001). Experimental evidences provided from this study suggest significant preventive properties of HE/HP-β-CyD in the toxicity caused by environmental carcinogens such as PAHs. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  13. Tissue specificity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated responses and relative sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to an AhR agonist.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Tendler, Brett J; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2012-06-15

    likely associated with tissue-specific regulation of the AhR signalling pathway. Liver and gill of white sturgeon had significantly greater AhR transcript abundance than did the intestine, however following exposure to βNF, significantly greater induction in AhR transcript abundance was detected in intestine (up to 35-fold) compared to liver (up to 5-fold) or gills (up to 11-fold). It was shown that white sturgeon are responsive to AhR agonists in the liver, gill, and intestine and could be among the more sensitive fish species with regard to inducibility of CYP1A.

  14. Research Resources for Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Neil J

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear receptor (NR) signaling pathways impact cellular function in a broad variety of tissues in both normal physiology and disease states. The complex tissue-specific biology of these pathways is an enduring impediment to the development of clinical NR small-molecule modulators that combine therapeutically desirable effects in specific target tissues with suppression of off-target effects in other tissues. Supporting the important primary research in this area is a variety of web-based resources that assist researchers in gaining an appreciation of the molecular determinants of the pharmacology of a NR pathway in a given tissue. In this study, selected representative examples of these tools are reviewed, along with discussions on how current and future generations of tools might optimally adapt to the future of NR signaling research. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Research Resources for Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptor (NR) signaling pathways impact cellular function in a broad variety of tissues in both normal physiology and disease states. The complex tissue-specific biology of these pathways is an enduring impediment to the development of clinical NR small-molecule modulators that combine therapeutically desirable effects in specific target tissues with suppression of off-target effects in other tissues. Supporting the important primary research in this area is a variety of web-based resources that assist researchers in gaining an appreciation of the molecular determinants of the pharmacology of a NR pathway in a given tissue. In this study, selected representative examples of these tools are reviewed, along with discussions on how current and future generations of tools might optimally adapt to the future of NR signaling research. PMID:27216565

  16. Signaling Pathways that Regulate Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, Nicholas; Russell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Cell division requires careful orchestration of three major events: entry into mitosis, chromosomal segregation, and cytokinesis. Signaling within and between the molecules that control these events allows for their coordination via checkpoints, a specific class of signaling pathways that ensure the dependency of cell-cycle events on the successful completion of preceding events. Multiple positive- and negative-feedback loops ensure that a cell is fully committed to division and that the events occur in the proper order. Unlike other signaling pathways, which integrate external inputs to decide whether to execute a given process, signaling at cell division is largely dedicated to completing a decision made in G1 phase—to initiate and complete a round of mitotic cell division. Instead of deciding if the events of cell division will take place, these signaling pathways entrain these events to the activation of the cell-cycle kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and provide the opportunity for checkpoint proteins to arrest cell division if things go wrong. PMID:23028116

  17. Signalling Pathways Controlling Cellular Actin Organization.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Anika; Stradal, Theresia E B; Rottner, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for morphogenesis and virtually all types of cell shape changes. Reorganization is per definition driven by continuous disassembly and re-assembly of actin filaments, controlled by major, ubiquitously operating machines. These are specifically employed by the cell to tune its activities in accordance with respective environmental conditions or to satisfy specific needs.Here we sketch some fundamental signalling pathways established to contribute to the reorganization of specific actin structures at the plasma membrane. Rho-family GTPases are at the core of these pathways, and dissection of their precise contributions to actin reorganization in different cell types and tissues will thus continue to improve our understanding of these important signalling nodes. Furthermore, we will draw your attention to the emerging theme of actin reorganization on intracellular membranes, its functional relation to Rho-GTPase signalling, and its relevance for the exciting phenomenon autophagy.

  18. Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Egerman, Marc A; Glass, David J

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed "atrophy", is a diagnostic feature of cachexia seen in settings of cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, and burns. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle.

  19. Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Egerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed “atrophy”, is a diagnostic feature of cachexia seen in settings of cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, and burns. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle. PMID:24237131

  20. Transcript variations, phylogenetic tree and chromosomal localization of porcine aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Agnieszka; Paukszto, Lukasz; Nynca, Anna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Orlowska, Karina; Swigonska, Sylwia; Ruszkowska, Monika; Molcan, Tomasz; Jastrzebski, Jan P; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2017-03-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for mediating xenobiotic-induced toxicity. AhR requires aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to form an active transcription complex and promote the activation of genes which have dioxin responsive element in their regulatory regions. The present study was performed to determine the complete cDNA sequences of porcine AhR and ARNT genes and their chromosomal localization. Total RNA from porcine livers were used to obtain the sequence of the entire porcine transcriptome by next-generation sequencing (NGS; lllumina HiSeq2500). In addition, both, in silico analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to determine chromosomal localization of porcine AhR and ARNT genes. In silico analysis of nucleotide sequences showed that there were two transcript variants of AhR and ARNT genes in the pig. In addition, computer analysis revealed that AhR gene in the pig is located on chromosome 9 and ARNT on chromosome 4. The results of FISH experiment confirmed the localization of porcine AhR and ARNT genes. In the present study, for the first time, the full cDNAs of AhR and ARNT were demonstrated in the pig. In future, it would be interesting to determine the tissue distribution of AhR and ARNT transcript variants in the pig and to test whether these variants are associated with different biological functions and/or different activation pathways.

  1. Targeting RTK Signaling Pathways in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Regad, Tarik

    2015-01-01

    The RAS/MAP kinase and the RAS/PI3K/AKT pathways play a key role in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival. The induction of these pathways depends on Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) that are activated upon ligand binding. In cancer, constitutive and aberrant activations of components of those pathways result in increased proliferation, survival and metastasis. For instance, mutations affecting RTKs, Ras, B-Raf, PI3K and AKT are common in perpetuating the malignancy of several types of cancers and from different tissue origins. Therefore, these signaling pathways became prime targets for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide an overview about the most frequently encountered mutations, the pathogenesis that results from such mutations and the known therapeutic strategies developed to counteract their aberrant functions. PMID:26404379

  2. Ahr function in lymphocytes: emerging concepts

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is an important regulator of the development and function of both innate and adaptive immune cells through roles associated with Ahr's ability to respond to cellular and dietary ligands. Recent findings have revealed tissue and context-specific functions for Ahr in both homeostasis and in during an immune response. I review these findings here, and integrate them into the current understanding of the mechanisms that regulate Ahr transcription and function. I propose a conceptual framework in which Ahr function is determined by three factors: the amount of Ahr in any given cell, the abundance and potency of Ahr ligands within certain tissues, and the tissue microenvironment wherein Ahr+ cells reside. This complexity emphasizes the necessity cell-type specific genetic approaches towards the study of Ahr function. PMID:26700314

  3. Signaling pathways involved in MDSC regulation.

    PubMed

    Trikha, Prashant; Carson, William E

    2014-08-01

    The immune system has evolved mechanisms to protect the host from the deleterious effects of inflammation. The generation of immune suppressive cells like myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that can counteract T cell responses represents one such strategy. There is an accumulation of immature myeloid cells or MDSCs in bone marrow (BM) and lymphoid organs under pathological conditions such as cancer. MDSCs represent a population of heterogeneous myeloid cells comprising of macrophages, granulocytes and dendritic cells that are at early stages of development. Although, the precise signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms that lead to MDSC generation and expansion in cancer remains to be elucidated. It is widely believed that perturbation of signaling pathways involved during normal hematopoietic and myeloid development under pathological conditions such as tumorogenesis contributes to the development of suppressive myeloid cells. In this review we discuss the role played by key signaling pathways such as PI3K, Ras, Jak/Stat and TGFb during myeloid development and how their deregulation under pathological conditions can lead to the generation of suppressive myeloid cells or MDSCs. Targeting these pathways should help in elucidating mechanisms that lead to the expansion of MDSCs in cancer and point to methods for eliminating these cells from the tumor microenvironment.

  4. Signaling Pathways in Cardiac Myocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Peng; Liu, Yuening

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, the number 1 cause of death worldwide, are frequently associated with apoptotic death of cardiac myocytes. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a highly regulated process, pharmacological intervention of apoptosis pathways may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders including myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, chemotherapy cardiotoxicity, and end-stage heart failure. Despite rapid growth of our knowledge in apoptosis signaling pathways, a clinically applicable treatment targeting this cellular process is currently unavailable. To help identify potential innovative directions for future research, it is necessary to have a full understanding of the apoptotic pathways currently known to be functional in cardiac myocytes. Here, we summarize recent progress in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by multiple signaling molecules and pathways, with a focus on the involvement of these pathways in the pathogenesis of heart disease. In addition, we provide an update regarding bench to bedside translation of this knowledge and discuss unanswered questions that need further investigation. PMID:28101515

  5. Regulatory interactions among three members of the vertebrate aryl hydrocarbon receptor family: AHR repressor, AHR1, and AHR2.

    PubMed

    Karchner, Sibel I; Franks, Diana G; Powell, Wade H; Hahn, Mark E

    2002-03-01

    The effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds occur via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-ARNT-Sim homology (bHLH-PAS) protein superfamily. A single AHR gene has been identified in mammals, whereas many fish species, including the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) possess two distinct AHR genes (AHR1 and a novel form, AHR2). A mouse bHLH-PAS protein closely related to AHR and designated AHR repressor (AHRR) is induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and represses the transcriptional activity of the AHR. To determine whether AHRR is the mammalian ortholog of fish AHR2 and to investigate the mechanisms by which AHRR regulates AHR function, we cloned an AHRR ortholog in F. heteroclitus with high sequence identity to the mouse and human AHRRs. Killifish AHRR encodes a 680-residue protein with a predicted molecular mass of 75.2 kDa. We show that in vitro expressed AHRR proteins from human, mouse, and killifish all fail to bind [(3)H]TCDD or [(3)H]beta-naphthoflavone. In transient transfection experiments using a luciferase reporter gene under control of AHR response elements, killifish AHRR inhibited the TCDD-dependent transactivation function of both AHR1 and AHR2. AHRR mRNA is widely expressed in killifish tissues and is inducible by TCDD or polychlorinated biphenyls, but its expression is not altered in a population of fish exhibiting genetic resistance to these compounds. The F. heteroclitus AHRR promoter contains three putative AHR response elements. Both AHR1 and AHR2 activated transcription of luciferase driven by the AHRR promoter, and AHRR could repress its own promoter. Thus, AHRR is an evolutionarily conserved, TCDD-inducible repressor of AHR1 and AHR2 function. Phylogenetic analysis shows that AHRR, AHR1, and AHR2 are distinct genes, members of an AHR gene family; these three vertebrate AHR-like genes descended from a single invertebrate AHR.

  6. Aminoflavone, a ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), inhibits HIF-1α expression in an AhR-independent fashion

    PubMed Central

    Terzuoli, Erika; Puppo, Maura; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cao, Liang; Burger, Angelika M.; Ziche, Marina; Melillo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF), the active component of a novel anticancer agent (AFP464) in phase I clinical trials, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR dimerizes with HIF-1β/ARNT, which is shared with HIF-1α, a transcription factor critical for the response of cells to oxygen deprivation. To address whether pharmacological activation of the AhR pathway might be a potential mechanism for inhibition of HIF-1, we tested the effects of AF on HIF-1 expression. AF inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and protein accumulation in MCF-7 cells. However, inhibition of HIF-1α by AF was independent from a functional AhR pathway. Indeed, AF inhibited HIF-1α expression in AhR100 cells, in which the AhR pathway is functionally impaired, yet did not induce cytotoxicity, providing evidence that these effects are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. Moreover, AF was inactive in MDA-MB-231 cells, yet inhibited HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the SULT1A1 gene. AF inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression by approximately 50%. Notably, actinomycin-D completely abrogated the ability of AF to down-regulate HIF-1α mRNA, indicating that active transcription was required for the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. Finally, AF inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation and the expression of HIF-1-target genes in MCF-7 xenografts. These results demonstrate that AF inhibits HIF-1α in an AhR-independent fashion and they unveil additional activities of AF that may be relevant for its further clinical development. PMID:20736373

  7. The ethylene signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Using a simple response of etiolated seedlings to ethylene as a genetic screen, genes involved in ethylene signal transduction have been identified in Arabidopsis. Analysis of two of these genes that have been cloned reveals that ethylene signalling involves a combination of a protein (ETR1) with similarity to bacterial histidine kinases and a protein (CTR1) with similarity to Raf-1, a protein kinase involved in multiple signalling cascades in eukaryotic cells. Several lines of investigation provide compelling evidence that ETR1 encodes an ethylene receptor. For the first time there is a glimpse of the molecular circuitry underlying the signal transduction pathway for a plant hormone.

  8. The ethylene signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Using a simple response of etiolated seedlings to ethylene as a genetic screen, genes involved in ethylene signal transduction have been identified in Arabidopsis. Analysis of two of these genes that have been cloned reveals that ethylene signalling involves a combination of a protein (ETR1) with similarity to bacterial histidine kinases and a protein (CTR1) with similarity to Raf-1, a protein kinase involved in multiple signalling cascades in eukaryotic cells. Several lines of investigation provide compelling evidence that ETR1 encodes an ethylene receptor. For the first time there is a glimpse of the molecular circuitry underlying the signal transduction pathway for a plant hormone.

  9. Epigenetics and Signaling Pathways in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. This neurodegenerative disease becomes more prevalent with aging, but predisposing genetic and environmental factors also contribute to increased risk. Emerging evidence now suggests that epigenetics may also be involved, which provides potential new therapeutic targets. These three factors work through several pathways, including TGF-β, MAP kinase, Rho kinase, BDNF, JNK, PI-3/Akt, PTEN, Bcl-2, Caspase, and Calcium-Calpain signaling. Together, these pathways result in the upregulation of proapoptotic gene expression, the downregulation of neuroprotective and prosurvival factors, and the generation of fibrosis at the trabecular meshwork, which may block aqueous humor drainage. Novel therapeutic agents targeting these pathway members have shown preliminary success in animal models and even human trials, demonstrating that they may eventually be used to preserve retinal neurons and vision. PMID:28210622

  10. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  11. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Dioxin-dependent and dioxin-independent gene batteries: comparison of liver and kidney in AHR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Paul C; Bielefeld, Kirsten A; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Harper, Patricia A

    2009-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a widely expressed ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates cellular responses to dioxins and other planar aromatic hydrocarbons. Ahr-null mice are refractory to the toxic effects of dioxin exposure. Although some mechanistic aspects of AHR activity are well understood, the tissue specificity of AHR effects remains unclear, both during development and following administration of exogenous ligands. To address the latter issue, we defined and compared transcriptional responses to dioxin exposure in the liver and kidney of wild-type and Ahr-null adult C57BL/6J mice treated with either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or corn-oil vehicle. In both tissues, essentially all effects of dioxin on hepatic mRNA levels were mediated by the AHR. Although 297 genes were altered by dioxin exposure in the liver, only 17 were changed in the kidney, including a number of well-established AHR target genes. Ahr genotype had a large effect in both tissues, profoundly remodeling both the renal and hepatic transcriptomes. Surprisingly, a large number of genes were affected by Ahr genotype in both tissues, suggesting the presence of a basal AHR gene battery. Alterations of the renal transcriptome in Ahr-null animals were associated with perturbation of specific functional pathways and enrichment of specific DNA motifs. Our results demonstrate the importance of intertissue comparisons, highlight the basal role of the AHR in liver and kidney, and support a role in development or normal physiology.

  13. Hormone signaling pathways under stress combinations.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies. Plant hormones might be a key regulator of the tailored responses of plants to different stress combinations. Co-ordination between different hormone signaling, or hormone signaling and other pathways such as ROS regulatory mechanisms could be flexible, being altered by timing and types of stresses, and could be different depending on plant species under the stress combinations. In this review, update on recent studies focusing on complex-mode of hormone signaling under stress combinations will be provided.

  14. Modulation of neurotrophic signaling pathways by polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Razieh; Saso, Luciano; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are an important class of phytochemicals, and several lines of evidence have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. In this report, we review the studies on the effects of polyphenols on neuronal survival, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and the signaling pathways involved in these neurotrophic actions. Several polyphenols including flavonoids such as baicalein, daidzein, luteolin, and nobiletin as well as nonflavonoid polyphenols such as auraptene, carnosic acid, curcuminoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including caffeic acid phentyl ester enhance neuronal survival and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, a hallmark of neuronal differentiation. Assessment of underlying mechanisms, especially in PC12 neuronal-like cells, reveals that direct agonistic effect on tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptors, the main receptors of neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) explains the action of few polyphenols such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. However, several other polyphenolic compounds activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. Increased expression of neurotrophic factors in vitro and in vivo is the mechanism of neurotrophic action of flavonoids such as scutellarin, daidzein, genistein, and fisetin, while compounds like apigenin and ferulic acid increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Finally, the antioxidant activity of polyphenols reflected in the activation of Nrf2 pathway and the consequent upregulation of detoxification enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 as well as the contribution of these effects to the neurotrophic activity have also been discussed. In conclusion, a better understanding of the neurotrophic effects of polyphenols and

  15. Modulation of neurotrophic signaling pathways by polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Razieh; Saso, Luciano; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are an important class of phytochemicals, and several lines of evidence have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In this report, we review the studies on the effects of polyphenols on neuronal survival, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and the signaling pathways involved in these neurotrophic actions. Several polyphenols including flavonoids such as baicalein, daidzein, luteolin, and nobiletin as well as nonflavonoid polyphenols such as auraptene, carnosic acid, curcuminoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including caffeic acid phentyl ester enhance neuronal survival and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, a hallmark of neuronal differentiation. Assessment of underlying mechanisms, especially in PC12 neuronal-like cells, reveals that direct agonistic effect on tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptors, the main receptors of neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) explains the action of few polyphenols such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. However, several other polyphenolic compounds activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. Increased expression of neurotrophic factors in vitro and in vivo is the mechanism of neurotrophic action of flavonoids such as scutellarin, daidzein, genistein, and fisetin, while compounds like apigenin and ferulic acid increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Finally, the antioxidant activity of polyphenols reflected in the activation of Nrf2 pathway and the consequent upregulation of detoxification enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 as well as the contribution of these effects to the neurotrophic activity have also been discussed. In conclusion, a better understanding of the neurotrophic effects of polyphenols and the

  16. Signaling pathway cross talk in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Juan A; Rios, Juvenal A; Zolezzi, Juan M; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-03-28

    Numerous studies suggest energy failure and accumulative intracellular waste play a causal role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. AD is characterized by extracellular amyloid deposits, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, cholinergic deficits, synaptic loss, inflammation and extensive oxidative stress. These pathobiological changes are accompanied by significant behavioral, motor, and cognitive impairment leading to accelerated mortality. Currently, the potential role of several metabolic pathways associated with AD, including Wnt signaling, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1, silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) have widened, with recent discoveries that they are able to modulate several pathological events in AD. These include reduction of amyloid-β aggregation and inflammation, regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, and increased availability of neuronal energy. This review aims to highlight the involvement of these new set of signaling pathways, which we have collectively termed "anti-ageing pathways", for their potentiality in multi-target therapies against AD where cellular metabolic processes are severely impaired.

  17. Molecular pathways: MERTK signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Christopher T; Deryckere, Deborah; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K

    2013-10-01

    MERTK is a receptor tyrosine kinase of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MERTK) family, with a defined spectrum of normal expression. However, MERTK is overexpressed or ectopically expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, non-small cell lung cancer, glioblastoma, melanoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, pituitary adenomas, and rhabdomyosarcomas, potentially resulting in the activation of several canonical oncogenic signaling pathways. These include the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways, as well as regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription family members, migration-associated proteins including the focal adhesion kinase and myosin light chain 2, and prosurvival proteins such as survivin and Bcl-2. Each has been implicated in MERTK physiologic and oncogenic functions. In neoplastic cells, these signaling events result in functional phenotypes such as decreased apoptosis, increased migration, chemoresistance, increased colony formation, and increased tumor formation in murine models. Conversely, MERTK inhibition by genetic or pharmacologic means can reverse these pro-oncogenic phenotypes. Multiple therapeutic approaches to MERTK inhibition are currently in development, including ligand "traps", a monoclonal antibody, and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ©2013 AACR.

  18. Interleukin 4 signals through two related pathways.

    PubMed

    Pernis, A; Witthuhn, B; Keegan, A D; Nelms, K; Garfein, E; Ihle, J N; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H; Rothman, P

    1995-08-15

    The interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling pathway involves activation, by tyrosine phosphorylation, of two distinct substrates, a signal-transducing factor (STF-IL4) and the IL-4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate (4PS). It is not known whether the IL-4-mediated activation of these substrates occurs via related or distinct signaling pathways. We report that 32D cells, an IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line in which no phosphorylated 4PS is found, activate high levels of STF-IL4 in response to IL-4. Consistent with the known requirement for 4PS or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in IL-4-mediated mitogenesis, activation of STF-IL4 in 32D cells is not sufficient for IL-4-inducible c-myc expression. In addition, we have examined the ability of 32D cells transfected with different truncation mutants of the human IL-4 receptor to activate Jak-3 kinase and STF-IL4 in response to human IL-4. As in the case of 4PS/IRS-1, we have found that activation of both Jak-3 and STF-IL4 requires the presence of the IL-4 receptor region comprising aa 437-557. The finding that the same region of the IL-4 receptor is required for the induction of both 4PS/IRS-1 and STF-IL4 suggests that the IL-4-stimulated activation of these two substrates might involve common factors.

  19. The immune signaling pathways of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yun-Ru; Bryant, Bart; Clem, Rollie J.; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Blissard, Gary; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways and their coordination are critically important for proper functioning of animal immune systems. Our knowledge of the constituents of the intracellular signaling network in insects mainly comes from genetic analyses in Drosophila melanogaster. To facilitate future studies of similar systems in the tobacco hornworm and other lepidopteran insects, we have identified and examined the homologous genes in the genome of Manduca sexta. Based on 1:1 orthologous relationships in most cases, we hypothesize that the Toll, Imd, MAPK-JNK-p38 and JAK-STAT pathways are intact and operative in this species, as are most of the regulatory mechanisms. Similarly, cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis and RNA interference probably function in similar ways, because their mediators and modulators are mostly conserved in this lepidopteran species. We have annotated a total of 186 genes encoding 199 proteins, studied their domain structures and evolution, and examined their mRNA levels in tissues at different life stages. Such information provides a genomic perspective of the intricate signaling system in a non-drosophiline insect. PMID:25858029

  20. HIV persistence: Chemokines and their signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Vanessa A.; Khoury, Gabriela; Saleh, Suha; Cameron, Paul U.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2014-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells are the major barrier to curing HIV. We have recently demonstrated that chemokines, which bind to the chemokine receptors CCR7, CXCR3 and CCR6, facilitate efficient HIV nuclear localisation and integration in resting CD4+ T cells, leading to latency. As latently infected cells are enriched in lymphoid tissues, where chemokines are highly concentrated, this may provide a mechanism for the generation of latently infected cells in vivo. Here we review the role of chemokines in HIV persistence; the main signalling pathways that are involved; and how these pathways may be exploited to develop novel strategies to reduce or eliminate latently infected cells. PMID:22749173

  1. The role of endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in cardiovascular physiology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a primary function of mediating xenobiotic metabolism through transcriptional activation of Phase I and Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. Although no high-affinity physiological activators of AHR have been discovered, the endogenous signaling of the AHR pathway is believed to play an important role in the development and function of the cardiovascular system, based on the observations on ahr gene-deficient mice. The AHR knockout mice develop cardiac hypertrophy, abnormal vascular structure in multiple organs and altered blood pressure depending on their host environment. In this review, the endogenous role of AHR in cardiovascular physiology, including heart function, vascular development and blood pressure regulation has been summarized and discussed. PMID:21814412

  2. Parameter estimate of signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Rosato, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Background The "inverse" problem is related to the determination of unknown causes on the bases of the observation of their effects. This is the opposite of the corresponding "direct" problem, which relates to the prediction of the effects generated by a complete description of some agencies. The solution of an inverse problem entails the construction of a mathematical model and takes the moves from a number of experimental data. In this respect, inverse problems are often ill-conditioned as the amount of experimental conditions available are often insufficient to unambiguously solve the mathematical model. Several approaches to solving inverse problems are possible, both computational and experimental, some of which are mentioned in this article. In this work, we will describe in details the attempt to solve an inverse problem which arose in the study of an intracellular signaling pathway. Results Using the Genetic Algorithm to find the sub-optimal solution to the optimization problem, we have estimated a set of unknown parameters describing a kinetic model of a signaling pathway in the neuronal cell. The model is composed of mass action ordinary differential equations, where the kinetic parameters describe protein-protein interactions, protein synthesis and degradation. The algorithm has been implemented on a parallel platform. Several potential solutions of the problem have been computed, each solution being a set of model parameters. A sub-set of parameters has been selected on the basis on their small coefficient of variation across the ensemble of solutions. Conclusion Despite the lack of sufficiently reliable and homogeneous experimental data, the genetic algorithm approach has allowed to estimate the approximate value of a number of model parameters in a kinetic model of a signaling pathway: these parameters have been assessed to be relevant for the reproduction of the available experimental data. PMID:17118160

  3. Cancer cachexia: mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Kenneth C H; Glass, David J; Guttridge, Denis C

    2012-08-08

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies.

  4. Targeting the TGFβ signalling pathway in disease

    PubMed Central

    Akhurst, Rosemary J.; Hata, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Many drugs that target transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling have disease applications. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate the utility of these agents in fibrosis and oncology, particularly in augmentation of existing cancer therapies, such as radiation and chemotherapy, as well as in tumour vaccines. There are also reports of specialized applications, such as the reduction of vascular symptoms of Marfan syndrome. Here, we consider why the TGFβ signalling pathway is a drug target, the potential clinical applications of TGFβ inhibition, the issues arising with anti-TGFβ therapy and how these might be tackled using personalized approaches to dosing, monitoring of biomarkers as well as brief and/or localized drug-dosing regimens. PMID:23000686

  5. Signaling Pathways that Control Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Duronio, Robert J.; Xiong, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Cells decide to proliferate or remain quiescent using signaling pathways that link information about the cellular environment to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Progression through G1 phase is controlled by pRB proteins, which function to repress the activity of E2F transcription factors in cells exiting mitosis and in quiescent cells. Phosphorylation of pRB proteins by the G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) releases E2F factors, promoting the transition to S phase. CDK activity is primarily regulated by the binding of CDK catalytic subunits to cyclin partners and CDK inhibitors. Consequently, both mitogenic and antiproliferative signals exert their effects on cell proliferation through the transcriptional regulation and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclins and CDK inhibitors. PMID:23457258

  6. A Transgenerational Endocrine Signaling Pathway in Crustacea

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Wang, Ying H.; Holmes, Charisse N.; Kwon, Gwijun; Medlock, Elizabeth K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental signals to maternal organisms can result in developmental alterations in progeny. One such example is environmental sex determination in Branchiopod crustaceans. We previously demonstrated that the hormone methyl farnesoate could orchestrate environmental sex determination in the early embryo to the male phenotype. Presently, we identify a transcription factor that is activated by methyl farnesoate and explore the extent and significance of this transgenerational signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Several candidate transcription factors were cloned from the water flea Daphnia pulex and evaluated for activation by methyl farnesoate. One of the factors evaluated, the complex of two bHLH-PAS proteins, dappuMet and SRC, activated a reporter gene in response to methyl farnesoate. Several juvenoid compounds were definitively evaluated for their ability to activate this receptor complex (methyl farnesoate receptor, MfR) in vitro and stimulate male sex determination in vivo. Potency to activate the MfR correlated to potency to stimulate male sex determination of offspring (pyriproxyfen>methyl farnesoate>methoprene, kinoprene). Daphnids were exposed to concentrations of pyriproxyfen and physiologic responses determined over multiple generations. Survivial, growth, and sex of maternal organisms were not affected by pyriproxyfen exposure. Sex ratio among offspring (generation 2) were increasingly skewed in favor of males with increasing pyriproxyfen concentration; while, the number of offspring per brood was progressively reduced. Female generation 2 daphnids were reared to reproductive maturity in the absence of pyriproxyfen. Sex ratios of offspring (generation 3) were not affected in this pyriproxyfen lineage, however, the number of offspring per brood, again, was significantly reduced. Conclusions Results reveal likely components to a hormone/receptor signaling pathway in a crustacean that orchestrates transgenerational modifications

  7. MAPKs in development: insights from Dictyostelium signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hadwiger, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Hoai-Nghia

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in the development of eukaryotic organisms through the regulation of signal transduction pathways stimulated by external signals. MAPK signaling pathways have been associated with the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and chemotaxis, indicating MAPKs contribute to a diverse set of developmental processes. In most eukaryotes, the diversity of external signals is likely to far exceed the diversity of MAPKs, suggesting that multiple signaling pathways might share MAPKs. Do different signaling pathways converge before MAPK function or can MAPKs maintain signaling specificity through interactions with specific proteins? The genetic and biochemical analysis of MAPK pathways in simple eukaryotes such as Dictyostelium offers opportunities to investigate functional specificity of MAPKs in G protein-mediated signal transduction pathways. This review considers the regulation and specificity of MAPK function in pathways that control Dictyostelium growth and development. PMID:21666837

  8. Agmatine modulates melanogenesis via MITF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Agmatine contained in soybean is also found in Manaca, an anti-aging plant, inhabited in Amazon and induces vasodilation by the promotion of NO synthesis in blood vessel. However, the research of agmatine on melanin synthesis related to hair greying is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the melanogenic effect of agmatine via regulation of MITF signaling pathway in B16F1 cells. It was determined whether agmatine regulates melanin synthesis at cellular level in addition to the effect of agmatine on mushroom tyrosinase in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of agmatine. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on the protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, C-KIT, p-p38, MITF and C-FOS were examined by western blot analysis. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was carried out to visualize the location of MITF expression in cell. Agmatine at 256μM or more increased melanin synthesis as well as tyrosinase activity. Moreover, whereas agmatine increased the expression levels of TRP-1, BMP-6, p-p38 and MITF, it reduced the expression level of BMP-4. It was also found that agmatine enhanced the expression level of MITF in nucleus. These results suggest that agmatine could induce melanin synthesis though the regulation of MITF transcription factor via BMP-6/p38 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Signaling pathway and molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Lau, Kin-Mang; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Although multimodality treatment regimens including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have greatly improved disease outcome, about one-third of MB patient remains incurable, and many long-term survivors are suffered from deleterious effects due to aggressive treatment. Understanding the signaling pathways and the genetic mechanisms contributed to MB development would be the key to develop novel therapeutic treatment strategies for improving survival and outcome of MB. In this review, we discuss the biological signaling pathways involved in MB pathogenesis. We also go through the current international consensus of four core MB subgroups namely, SHH, WNT, Group 3, and Group 4. This is adopted based on the knowledge of genomic complexity of MB as analyzed by recent high-throughput genomic technology. We talk about immunohistochemistry assays established to determine molecular subgroup affiliation. In the last part of review, we discuss how identification of molecular subgroups is going to change our routine disease diagnosis and clinical management. PMID:23826403

  10. Exercise for the heart: signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise, a potent functional intervention in protecting against cardiovascular diseases, is a hot topic in recent years. Exercise has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors, protect against myocardial damage, and increase cardiac function. This improves quality of life and decreases mortality and morbidity in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac aging, and pulmonary hypertension. The cellular adaptation to exercise can be associated with both endogenous and exogenous factors: 1) exercise induces cardiac growth via hypertrophy and renewal of cardiomyocytes, and 2) exercise induces endothelial progenitor cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into mature endothelial cells, giving rise to endothelial regeneration and angiogenesis. The cellular adaptations associated with exercise are due to the activation of several signaling pathways, in particular, the growth factor neuregulin1 (NRG1)-ErbB4-C/EBPβ and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-PI3k-Akt signaling pathways. Of interest, microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) such as miR-222 also play a major role in the beneficial effects of exercise. Thus, exploring the mechanisms mediating exercise-induced benefits will be instrumental for devising new effective therapies against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26318584

  11. Exercise for the heart: signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Bei, Yihua; Zhang, Haifeng; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-08-28

    Physical exercise, a potent functional intervention in protecting against cardiovascular diseases, is a hot topic in recent years. Exercise has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors, protect against myocardial damage, and increase cardiac function. This improves quality of life and decreases mortality and morbidity in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac aging, and pulmonary hypertension. The cellular adaptation to exercise can be associated with both endogenous and exogenous factors: (1) exercise induces cardiac growth via hypertrophy and renewal of cardiomyocytes, and (2) exercise induces endothelial progenitor cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into mature endothelial cells, giving rise to endothelial regeneration and angiogenesis. The cellular adaptations associated with exercise are due to the activation of several signaling pathways, in particular, the growth factor neuregulin1 (NRG1)-ErbB4-C/EBPβ and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-PI3k-Akt signaling pathways. Of interest, microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) such as miR-222 also play a major role in the beneficial effects of exercise. Thus, exploring the mechanisms mediating exercise-induced benefits will be instrumental for devising new effective therapies against cardiovascular diseases.

  12. PSFC: a Pathway Signal Flow Calculator App for Cytoscape

    PubMed Central

    Nersisyan, Lilit; Johnson, Graham; Riel-Mehan, Megan; Pico, Alexander; Arakelyan, Arsen

    2017-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways are sequences of biochemical reactions that propagate an input signal, such as a hormone binding to a cell-surface receptor, into the cell to trigger a reactive process. Assessment of pathway activities is crucial for determining which pathways play roles in disease versus normal conditions. To date various pathway flow/perturbation assessment tools are available, however they are constrained to specific algorithms and specific data types. There are no accepted standards for evaluation of pathway activities or simulation of flow propagation events in pathways, and the results of different software are difficult to compare. Here we present Pathway Signal Flow Calculator (PSFC), a Cytoscape app for calculation of a pathway signal flow based on the pathway topology and node input data. The app provides a rich framework for customization of different signal flow algorithms to allow users to apply various approaches within a single computational framework. PMID:26834984

  13. TGF-β1 signaling plays a dominant role in the crosstalk between TGF-β1 and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Staršíchová, Andrea; Hrubá, Eva; Slabáková, Eva; Pernicová, Zuzana; Procházková, Jiřina; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Seda, Václav; Kabátková, Markéta; Vondráček, Jan; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, Miroslav; Souček, Karel

    2012-08-01

    Crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling has been observed in various experimental models. However, both molecular mechanism underlying this crosstalk and tissue-specific context of this interaction are still only partially understood. In a model of human non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells BPH-1, derived from the benign prostatic hyperplasia, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) persistently activates the AhR signaling pathway and induces expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as CYP1A1 or CYP1B1. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β1 suppresses the AhR-mediated gene expression through multiple mechanisms, involving inhibition of AhR expression and down-regulation of nuclear AhR, via a SMAD4-dependent pathway. In contrast, TCDD-induced AhR signaling does not affect either TGF-β1-regulated gene expression or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These observations suggest that, in the context of prostate epithelium, TGF-β1 signaling plays a dominant role in the crosstalk with AhR signaling pathway. Given the importance of TGF-β1 signaling in regulation of prostate epithelial tissue homeostasis, as well as the recently revealed role of AhR in prostate development and tumorigenesis, the above findings contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between the two signaling pathways in the prostate-specific context.

  14. Dung biomass smoke activates inflammatory signaling pathways in human small airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Gelein, Robert; Thatcher, Thomas H; Elder, Alison; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4,000,000 deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections, especially in low and middle-income countries. Yet, few studies have examined the mechanisms of dung biomass smoke-induced inflammatory responses in human lung cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dung biomass smoke causes inflammatory responses in human lung cells through signaling pathways involved in acute and chronic lung inflammation. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were exposed to dung smoke at the air-liquid interface using a newly developed, automated, and reproducible dung biomass smoke generation system. The examination of inflammatory signaling showed that dung biomass smoke increased the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in SAECs through activation of the activator protein (AP)-1 and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. We propose that the inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed to dung biomass smoke contribute to the development of respiratory diseases.

  15. Hormonal signaling and signal pathway crosstalk in the control of myometrial calcium dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the basis for the control of myometrial contractant and relaxant signaling pathways is important to understanding how to manage myometrial contractions. Signaling pathways are influenced by the level of expression of the signals and signal pathway components, the location of these components in the appropriate subcellular environment, and covalent modification. Crosstalk between these pathways regulates the effectiveness of signal transduction and represents an important way by which hormones can regulate phenotype. This review deals primarily with signaling pathways that control Ca2+ entry and intracellular release, as well as the interplay between these pathways. PMID:17627855

  16. Cell cycle regulation of Rho signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    David, Muriel; Petit, Dominique; Bertoglio, Jacques

    2012-08-15

    The dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and its regulation by Rho GTPases are essential to maintain cell shape, to allow cell motility and are also critical during cell cycle progression and mitosis. Rho GTPases and their effectors are involved in cell rounding at mitosis onset, in chromosomes alignment and are required for contraction of the actomyosin ring that separates daughter cells at the end of mitosis. Recent studies have revealed how a number of nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases during these processes. This review will focus on how the cell cycle machinery, in turn, regulates expression of proteins in the Rho signaling pathways through transcriptional activation, ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation and modulates their activity through phosphorylation by mitotic kinases.

  17. SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN MELANOSOME BIOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over one hundred genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  18. WNK signalling pathways in blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Meena; Kurz, Thimo; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major public health problem affecting more than a billion people worldwide with complications, including stroke, heart failure and kidney failure. The regulation of blood pressure is multifactorial reflecting genetic susceptibility, in utero environment and external factors such as obesity and salt intake. In keeping with Arthur Guyton's hypothesis, the kidney plays a key role in blood pressure control and data from clinical studies; physiology and genetics have shown that hypertension is driven a failure of the kidney to excrete excess salt at normal levels of blood pressure. There is a number of rare Mendelian blood pressure syndromes, which have shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in dysregulated ion transport in the distal kidney. One in particular is Familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt), an autosomal dominant monogenic form of hypertension characterised by high blood pressure, hyperkalemia, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and hypercalciuria. The clinical signs of FHHt are treated by low doses of thiazide diuretic, and it mirrors Gitelman syndrome which features the inverse phenotype of hypotension, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalciuria. Gitelman syndrome is caused by loss of function mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na/Cl cotransporter (NCC); however, FHHt patients do not have mutations in the SCL12A3 locus encoding NCC. Instead, mutations have been identified in genes that have revealed a key signalling pathway that regulates NCC and several other key transporters and ion channels in the kidney that are critical for BP regulation. This is the WNK kinase signalling pathway that is the subject of this review.

  19. Potencies of red seabream AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation by dioxins: implication of both AHRs in dioxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bak, Su-Min; Iida, Midori; Hirano, Masashi; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2013-03-19

    To evaluate species- and isoform-specific responses to dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the red seabream ( Pagrus major ), we constructed a reporter gene assay system. Each expression plasmid of red seabream AHR1 (rsAHR1) and AHR2 (rsAHR2) together with a reporter plasmid containing red seabream CYP1A 5'-flanking region were transfected into COS-7 cells. The cells were treated with graded concentrations of seven DRC congeners including 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, and PCB126. Both rsAHR1 and rsAHR2 exhibited dose-dependent responses for all the tested congeners. The rsAHR isoform-specific TCDD induction equivalency factors (rsAHR1- and rsAHR2-IEFs) were calculated on the basis of 2,3,7,8-TCDD relative potency derived from the dose-response of each congener. The rsAHR1-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, and HxCDF were estimated as 0.17, 0.29, 2.5, 1.5, and 0.27, respectively. For PCB126, no rsAHR1-IEF was given because of less than 10% 2,3,7,8-TCDD maximum response. The rsAHR2-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, HxCDF, and PCB126 were estimated as 0.38, 0.13, 1.5, 0.93, 0.20, and 0.0085, respectively. The rsAHR1/2-IEF profiles were different from WHO toxic equivalency factors for fish. In silico docking simulations supported that both rsAHRs have potentials to bind to these congeners. These results suggest that dioxin toxicities may be mediated by both rsAHRs in red seabreams.

  20. Dihydromethysticin (DHM) Blocks Tobacco Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-Induced O(6)-Methylguanine in a Manner Independent of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Pathway in C57BL/6 Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Narayanapillai, Sreekanth C; Lin, Shang-Hsuan; Leitzman, Pablo; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Baglole, Carolyn J; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-11-21

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a key carcinogen responsible for tobacco smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis. Among the types of DNA damage caused by NNK and its metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-mG) is likely the most carcinogen in A/J mice. Results of our previous studies showed that levels of O(6)-mG and other types of NNAL-derived DNA damage were preferentially reduced in the lung of female A/J mice upon dietary treatment with dihydromethysticin (DHM), a promising lung cancer chemopreventive agent from kava. Such a differential blockage may be mediated via an increased level of NNAL glucuronidation, thereby leading to its detoxification. The potential of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as an upstream target of DHM mediating these events was evaluated herein using Ahr(+/-) and Ahr(-/-) C57BL/6 female mice because DHM was reported as an AhR agonist. DHM (0.05, 0.2, and 1.0 mg/g of diet) and dihydrokavain (DHK, an inactive analogue, 1.0 mg/g of diet) were given to mice for 7 days, followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of NNK at 100 mg/kg of body weight. The effects of DHM on the amount of O(6)-mG in the lung, on the urinary ratio of glucuronidated NNAL (NNAL-Gluc) and free NNAL, and on CYP1A1/2 activity in the liver microsomes were analyzed. As observed in A/J mice, DHM treatment significantly and dose-dependently reduced the level of O(6)-mG in the target lung tissue, but there were no significant differences in O(6)-mG reduction between mice from Ahr(+/-) and Ahr(-/-) backgrounds. Similarly, in both strains, DHM at 1 mg/g of diet significantly increased the urinary ratio of NNAL-Gluc to free NNAL and CYP1A1/2 enzymatic activity in liver with no changes detected at lower DHM dosages. Because none of these effects of DHM were dependent on Ahr status, AhR clearly is not the upstream target for DHM.

  1. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: A Key Bridging Molecule of External and Internal Chemical Signals

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jijing; Feng, Yu; Fu, Hualing; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Jiang, Joy Xiaosong; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly evolutionary conserved, ligand-activated transcription factor that is best known to mediate the toxicities of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Phenotype of AhR-null mice, together with the recent discovery of a variety of endogenous and plant-derived ligands, point to the integral roles of AhR in normal cell physiology, in addition to its roles in sensing the environmental chemicals. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about AhR signaling pathways, its ligands and AhR-mediated effects on cell specialization, host defense and detoxification. AhR-mediated health effects particularly in liver, immune, and nervous systems, as well as in tumorgenesis are discussed. Dioxin-initiated embryotoxicity and immunosuppressive effects in fish and birds are reviewed. Recent data demonstrate that AhR is a convergence point of multiple signaling pathways that inform the cell of its external and internal environments. As such, AhR pathway is a promising potential target for therapeutics targeting nervous, liver, and autoimmune diseases through AhR ligand-mediated interventions and other perturbations of AhR signaling. Additionally, using available laboratory data obtained on animal models, AhR-centered adverse outcome pathway analysis is useful in reexamining known and potential adverse outcomes of specific or mixed compounds on wildlife. PMID:26079192

  2. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    SciTech Connect

    Wincent, Emma; Stegeman, John J.; Jönsson, Maria E.

    2015-04-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate the AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examined phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in the presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholino-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes.

  3. Canonical RTK-Ras-ERK signaling and related alternative pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Meera V.

    2013-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK)-Ras-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways control many aspects of C. elegans development and behavior. Studies in C. elegans helped elucidate the basic framework of the RTK-Ras-ERK pathway and continue to provide insights into its complex regulation, its biological roles, how it elicits cell-type appropriate responses, and how it interacts with other signaling pathways to do so. C. elegans studies have also revealed biological contexts in which alternative RTK- or Ras-dependent pathways are used instead of the canonical pathway. PMID:23908058

  4. Canonical WNT signaling pathway and human AREG.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-06-01

    AREG (Amphiregulin), BTC (beta-cellulin), EGF, EPGN (Epigen), EREG (Epiregulin), HBEGF, NRG1, NRG2, NRG3, NRG4 and TGFA (TGFalpha) constitute EGF family ligands for ERBB family receptors. Cetuximab (Erbitux), Pertuzumab (Omnitarg) and Trastuzumab (Herceptin) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to EGF family ligands, while Gefitinib (Iressa), Erlotinib (Tarceva) and Lapatinib (GW572016) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to ERBB family receptors. AREG and TGFA are biomarkers for Gefitinib non-responders. The TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human EGF family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because three TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human AREG gene, comparative genomics analyses on AREG orthologs were further performed. The EPGN-EREG-AREG-BTC cluster at human chromosome 4q13.3 was linked to the PPBP-CXCL segmental duplicons. AREG was the paralog of HBEGF at human chromosome 5q31.2. Chimpanzee AREG gene, consisting of six exons, was located within NW_105918.1 genome sequence. Chimpanzee AREG was a type I transmembrane protein showing 98.0% and 71.4% total amino-acid identity with human AREG and mouse Areg, respectively. Three TCF/LEF-binding sites within human AREG promoter were conserved in chimpanzee AREG promoter, but not in rodent Areg promoters. Primate AREG promoters were significantly divergent from rodent Areg promoters. AREG mRNA was expressed in a variety of human tumors, such as colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, esophageal cancer and myeloma. Because human AREG was characterized as potent target gene of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway, WNT signaling activation could lead to Gefitinib resistance through AREG upregulation. AREG is a target of systems medicine in the field of oncology.

  5. Cell signaling pathways and HIV-1 therapeutics.

    PubMed

    He, Johnny J

    2011-06-01

    Host-virus interactions permeate every aspect of both virus life cycle and host response and involve host cell macromolecular machinery and viral elements. It is these intimate interactions that mandate the outcomes of the infection and pathogenesis. It is also these intimate interactions that lay the foundation for the development of pharmaceutical interventions. HIV-1 is no exception in these regards. In the first two decades, HIV/AIDS research has led to the successful development of a number of antiviral inhibitors and the landmark formulation of the suppressive therapy. It has become apparent that this therapy does not offer a complete solution to cure and eradicate the virus. Meanwhile, this therapy has changed the overall landscape of HIV-associated neurological disorders to a more common and prevalent form so-called minor cognitive motor disorder. Thus, there is an important and continued need for new anti-HIV therapeutics. We believe that this is an excellent opportunity to compile and present the latest works being done during the last few years in this exciting field of HIV-host interactions, particularly cell signaling pathways. We hope that this special issue composed of one brief report, eight thematic reviews, and two original articles will serve to foster the exchange of new scientific ideas on HIV-host interactions and anti-HIV therapy and eventually contribute to HIV/AIDS eradication.

  6. Mapping signaling pathway cross-talk in Drosophila cells

    PubMed Central

    Ammeux, Noemie; Housden, Benjamin E.; Georgiadis, Andrew; Hu, Yanhui; Perrimon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    During development and homeostasis, cells integrate multiple signals originating either from neighboring cells or systemically. In turn, responding cells can produce signals that act in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner. Although the nature of the signals and pathways used in cell–cell communication are well characterized, we lack, in most cases, an integrative view of signaling describing the spatial and temporal interactions between pathways (e.g., whether the signals are processed sequentially or concomitantly when two pathways are required for a specific outcome). To address the extent of cross-talk between the major metazoan signaling pathways, we characterized immediate transcriptional responses to either single- or multiple pathway stimulations in homogeneous Drosophila cell lines. Our study, focusing on seven core pathways, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Jun kinase (JNK), JAK/STAT, Notch, Insulin, and Wnt, revealed that many ligands and receptors are primary targets of signaling pathways, highlighting that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding pathway components is a major level of signaling cross-talk. In addition, we found that ligands and receptors can integrate multiple pathway activities and adjust their transcriptional responses accordingly. PMID:27528688

  7. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Relays Metabolic Signals to Promote Cellular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While sensing the cell environment, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacts with different pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that cellular regeneration in the context of aging and diseases can be modulated by AHR signaling on stem cells. New insights connect orphaned observations into AHR interactions with critical signaling pathways such as WNT to propose a role of this ligand-activated transcription factor in the modulation of cellular regeneration by altering pathways that nurture cellular expansion such as changes in the metabolic efficiency rather than by directly altering cell cycling, proliferation, or cell death. Targeting the AHR to promote regeneration might prove to be a useful strategy to avoid unbalanced disruptions of homeostasis that may promote disease and also provide biological rationale for potential regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:27563312

  8. Neuregulin signaling pathway in smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, R; Qaiser, B; He, L; Hiekkalinna, T S; Zheutlin, A B; Therman, S; Ollikainen, M; Ripatti, S; Perola, M; Salomaa, V; Milani, L; Cannon, T D; Madden, P A F; Korhonen, T; Kaprio, J; Loukola, A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding molecular processes that link comorbid traits such as addictions and mental disorders can provide novel therapeutic targets. Neuregulin signaling pathway (NSP) has previously been implicated in schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder with high comorbidity to smoking. Using a Finnish twin family sample, we have previously detected association between nicotine dependence and ERBB4 (a neuregulin receptor), and linkage for smoking initiation at the ERBB4 locus on 2q33. Further, Neuregulin3 has recently been shown to associate with nicotine withdrawal in a behavioral mouse model. In this study, we scrutinized association and linkage between 15 036 common, low frequency and rare genetic variants in 10 NSP genes and phenotypes encompassing smoking and alcohol use. Using the Finnish twin family sample (N=1998 from 740 families), we detected 66 variants (representing 23 LD blocks) significantly associated (false discovery rate P<0.05) with smoking initiation, nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal. We comprehensively annotated the associated variants using expression (eQTL) and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) analyses in a Finnish population sample. Among the 66 variants, we identified 25 eQTLs (in NRG1 and ERBB4), 22 meQTLs (in NRG3, ERBB4 and PSENEN), a missense variant in NRG1 (rs113317778) and a splicing disruption variant in ERBB4 (rs13385826). Majority of the QTLs in blood were replicated in silico using publicly available databases, with additional QTLs observed in brain. In conclusion, our results support the involvement of NSP in smoking behavior but not in alcohol use and abuse, and disclose functional potential for 56 of the 66 associated single-nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:28892072

  9. Neuregulin signaling pathway in smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Qaiser, B; He, L; Hiekkalinna, T S; Zheutlin, A B; Therman, S; Ollikainen, M; Ripatti, S; Perola, M; Salomaa, V; Milani, L; Cannon, T D; Madden, P A F; Korhonen, T; Kaprio, J; Loukola, A

    2017-08-22

    Understanding molecular processes that link comorbid traits such as addictions and mental disorders can provide novel therapeutic targets. Neuregulin signaling pathway (NSP) has previously been implicated in schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder with high comorbidity to smoking. Using a Finnish twin family sample, we have previously detected association between nicotine dependence and ERBB4 (a neuregulin receptor), and linkage for smoking initiation at the ERBB4 locus on 2q33. Further, Neuregulin3 has recently been shown to associate with nicotine withdrawal in a behavioral mouse model. In this study, we scrutinized association and linkage between 15 036 common, low frequency and rare genetic variants in 10 NSP genes and phenotypes encompassing smoking and alcohol use. Using the Finnish twin family sample (N=1998 from 740 families), we detected 66 variants (representing 23 LD blocks) significantly associated (false discovery rate P<0.05) with smoking initiation, nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal. We comprehensively annotated the associated variants using expression (eQTL) and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) analyses in a Finnish population sample. Among the 66 variants, we identified 25 eQTLs (in NRG1 and ERBB4), 22 meQTLs (in NRG3, ERBB4 and PSENEN), a missense variant in NRG1 (rs113317778) and a splicing disruption variant in ERBB4 (rs13385826). Majority of the QTLs in blood were replicated in silico using publicly available databases, with additional QTLs observed in brain. In conclusion, our results support the involvement of NSP in smoking behavior but not in alcohol use and abuse, and disclose functional potential for 56 of the 66 associated single-nucleotide polymorphism.

  10. Signaling Pathways Critical for Tooth Root Formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Feng, J Q

    2017-10-01

    Tooth is made of an enamel-covered crown and a cementum-covered root. Studies on crown dentin formation have been a major focus in tooth development for several decades. Interestingly, the population prevalence for genetic short root anomaly (SRA) with no apparent defects in crown is close to 1.3%. Furthermore, people with SRA itself are predisposed to root resorption during orthodontic treatment. The discovery of the unique role of Nfic (nuclear factor I C; a transcriptional factor) in controlling root but not crown dentin formation points to a new concept: tooth crown and root have different control mechanisms. Further genetic mechanism studies have identified more key molecules (including Osterix, β-catenin, and sonic hedgehog) that play a critical role in root formation. Extensive studies have also revealed the critical role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in tooth root formation. In addition, Wnt10a has recently been found to be linked to multirooted tooth furcation formation. These exciting findings not only fill the critical gaps in our understanding about tooth root formation but will aid future research regarding the identifying factors controlling tooth root size and the generation of a whole "bio-tooth" for therapeutic purposes. This review starts with human SRA and mainly focuses on recent progress on the roles of NFIC-dependent and NFIC-independent signaling pathways in tooth root formation. Finally, this review includes a list of the various Cre transgenic mouse lines used to achieve tooth root formation-related gene deletion or overexpression, as well as strengths and limitations of each line.

  11. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Hung, Chein-Hui; Chang, Nai Wen; Lin, Chingju

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  12. SIGNALING PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH VX EXPOSURE IN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    SIGNALING PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH VX EXPOSURE IN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS ECBC-TR-1452 Daniel Angelini Christopher Phillips Amber Prugh... Associated with VX Exposure in Mesenchymal Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Angelini...gain insights into the signaling pathways associated with VX exposure. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC

  13. Lessons from C. elegans: Signaling pathways for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Louis R.; Hansen, Malene

    2012-01-01

    Recent research using model organisms such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has highlighted a critical role for several conserved signaling pathways in longevity determination. Here, we review three major endocrine- and nutrient-sensing signaling pathways with influence on lifespan, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF), target of rapamycin (TOR), and germline signaling pathways. Although these pathways engage distinct sets of transcription factors, the three pathways appear to modulate aging in C. elegans through partially overlapping effector mechanisms, including lipid metabolism and autophagy. This review highlights the latest advances in our understanding of how the insulin/IGF-1, TOR, and germline signaling pathways utilize different transcription factors to modulate aging in C. elegans with special emphasis on the role of lipid metabolism and autophagy. PMID:22939742

  14. Targeting the WNT Signaling Pathway in Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tai, David; Wells, Keith; Arcaroli, John; Vanderbilt, Chad; Aisner, Dara L; Messersmith, Wells A; Lieu, Christopher H

    2015-10-01

    The WNT signaling cascade is integral in numerous biological processes including embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, and cancer. Hyperactivation of WNT signaling secondary to alterations to varying nodes of the pathway have been identified in multiple tumor types. These alterations converge into increased tumorigenicity, sustained proliferation, and enhanced metastatic potential. This review seeks to evaluate the evidence supporting the WNT pathway in cancer, the therapeutic strategies in modulating this pathway, and potential challenges in drug development.

  15. Signaling Pathways in Thyroid Cancer and Their Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Borkhuu, Oyungerel; Bao, Wuyuntu; Yang, Yun-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of endocrine system, and has now become the fastest increasing cancer among all the malignancies. The development, progression, invasion, and metastasis are closely associated with multiple signaling pathways and the functions of related molecules, such as Src, Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, NF-κB, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), Wnt-β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. Each of the signaling pathways could exert its function singly or through network with other pathways. These pathways could cooperate, promote, antagonize, or interact with each other to form a complex network for the regulation. Dysfunction of this network could increase the development, progression, invasion, and metastasis of thyroid cancer. Inoperable thyroid cancer still has a poor prognosis. However, signaling pathway-related targeted therapies offer the hope of longer quality of meaningful life for this small group of patients. Signaling pathway-related targets provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer. In the present work, the advances in these signaling pathways and targeted treatments of thyroid cancer were reviewed. PMID:26985248

  16. Systematic analysis of signaling pathways using an integrative environment.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Mahesh; Breit, Marc; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Baumgartner, Christian; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the biological processes of signaling pathways as a whole system requires an integrative software environment that has comprehensive capabilities. The environment should include tools for pathway design, visualization, simulation and a knowledge base concerning signaling pathways as one. In this paper we introduce a new integrative environment for the systematic analysis of signaling pathways. This system includes environments for pathway design, visualization, simulation and a knowledge base that combines biological and modeling information concerning signaling pathways that provides the basic understanding of the biological system, its structure and functioning. The system is designed with a client-server architecture. It contains a pathway designing environment and a simulation environment as upper layers with a relational knowledge base as the underlying layer. The TNFa-mediated NF-kB signal trans-duction pathway model was designed and tested using our integrative framework. It was also useful to define the structure of the knowledge base. Sensitivity analysis of this specific pathway was performed providing simulation data. Then the model was extended showing promising initial results. The proposed system offers a holistic view of pathways containing biological and modeling data. It will help us to perform biological interpretation of the simulation results and thus contribute to a better understanding of the biological system for drug identification.

  17. Phylogenetic evidence for the modular evolution of metazoan signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Babonis, Leslie S; Martindale, Mark Q

    2017-02-05

    Communication among cells was paramount to the evolutionary increase in cell type diversity and, ultimately, the origin of large body size. Across the diversity of Metazoa, there are only few conserved cell signalling pathways known to orchestrate the complex cell and tissue interactions regulating development; thus, modification to these few pathways has been responsible for generating diversity during the evolution of animals. Here, we summarize evidence for the origin and putative function of the intracellular, membrane-bound and secreted components of seven metazoan cell signalling pathways with a special focus on early branching metazoans (ctenophores, poriferans, placozoans and cnidarians) and basal unikonts (amoebozoans, fungi, filastereans and choanoflagellates). We highlight the modular incorporation of intra- and extracellular components in each signalling pathway and suggest that increases in the complexity of the extracellular matrix may have further promoted the modulation of cell signalling during metazoan evolution. Most importantly, this updated view of metazoan signalling pathways highlights the need for explicit study of canonical signalling pathway components in taxa that do not operate a complete signalling pathway. Studies like these are critical for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of cell signalling.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'.

  18. AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Emamian, Effat S.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent complex trait disorder manifested by severe neurocognitive dysfunctions and lifelong disability. During the past few years several studies have provided direct evidence for the involvement of different signaling pathways in schizophrenia. In this review, we mainly focus on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway in schizophrenia. The original study on the involvement of this pathway in schizophrenia was published by Emamian et al. in 2004. This study reported convergent evidence for a decrease in AKT1 protein levels and levels of phosphorylation of GSK-3β in the peripheral lymphocytes and brains of individuals with schizophrenia; a significant association between schizophrenia and an AKT1 haplotype; and a greater sensitivity to the sensorimotor gating-disruptive effect of amphetamine, conferred by AKT1 deficiency. It also showed that haloperidol can induce a stepwise increase in regulatory phosphorylation of AKT1 in the brains of treated mice that could compensate for the impaired function of this signaling pathway in schizophrenia. Following this study, several independent studies were published that not only confirmed the association of this signaling pathway with schizophrenia across different populations, but also shed light on the mechanisms by which AKT/GSK3 pathway may contribute to the development of this complex disorder. In this review, following an introduction on the role of AKT in human diseases and its functions in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, a review on the results of studies published on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway in schizophrenia after the original 2004 paper will be provided. A brief review on other signaling pathways involved in schizophrenia and the possible connections with AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway will be discussed. Moreover, some possible molecular mechanisms acting through this pathway will be discussed besides the mechanisms by which they may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Finally, different

  19. Targeting Signaling Pathways in Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Li

    2017-01-01

    The Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch pathways are inherent signaling pathways in normal embryogenesis, development, and hemostasis. However, dysfunctions of these pathways are evident in multiple tumor types and malignancies. Specifically, aberrant activation of these pathways is implicated in modulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subset of cancer cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into heterogeneous tumor cells. The CSCs are accountable for tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. In this review, we focus on roles of Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch pathways in CSCs' stemness and functions and summarize therapeutic studies targeting these pathways to eliminate CSCs and improve overall cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:28356914

  20. Dioxin-Dependent and Dioxin-Independent Gene Batteries: Comparison of Liver and Kidney in AHR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boutros, Paul C.; Bielefeld, Kirsten A.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Harper, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a widely expressed ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates cellular responses to dioxins and other planar aromatic hydrocarbons. Ahr-null mice are refractory to the toxic effects of dioxin exposure. Although some mechanistic aspects of AHR activity are well understood, the tissue specificity of AHR effects remains unclear, both during development and following administration of exogenous ligands. To address the latter issue, we defined and compared transcriptional responses to dioxin exposure in the liver and kidney of wild-type and Ahr-null adult C57BL/6J mice treated with either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or corn-oil vehicle. In both tissues, essentially all effects of dioxin on hepatic mRNA levels were mediated by the AHR. Although 297 genes were altered by dioxin exposure in the liver, only 17 were changed in the kidney, including a number of well-established AHR target genes. Ahr genotype had a large effect in both tissues, profoundly remodeling both the renal and hepatic transcriptomes. Surprisingly, a large number of genes were affected by Ahr genotype in both tissues, suggesting the presence of a basal AHR gene battery. Alterations of the renal transcriptome in Ahr-null animals were associated with perturbation of specific functional pathways and enrichment of specific DNA motifs. Our results demonstrate the importance of intertissue comparisons, highlight the basal role of the AHR in liver and kidney, and support a role in development or normal physiology. PMID:19759094

  1. Receptor kinase signaling pathways in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Ried, Martina K; Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.

  2. Information processing in multi-step signaling pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Ambhi; Hamidzadeh, Archer; Zhang, Jin; Levchenko, Andre

    Information processing in complex signaling networks is limited by a high degree of variability in the abundance and activity of biochemical reactions (biological noise) operating in living cells. In this context, it is particularly surprising that many signaling pathways found in eukaryotic cells are composed of long chains of biochemical reactions, which are expected to be subject to accumulating noise and delayed signal processing. Here, we challenge the notion that signaling pathways are insulated chains, and rather view them as parts of extensively branched networks, which can benefit from a low degree of interference between signaling components. We further establish conditions under which this pathway organization would limit noise accumulation, and provide evidence for this type of signal processing in an experimental model of a calcium-activated MAPK cascade. These results address the long-standing problem of diverse organization and structure of signaling networks in live cells.

  3. The hypoxia signaling pathway and hypoxic adaptation in fishes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-02-01

    The hypoxia signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathway present in animals ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals. The pathway is crucial for oxygen homeostasis maintenance. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) are master regulators in the hypoxia signaling pathway. Oxygen concentrations vary a lot in the aquatic environment. To deal with this, fishes have adapted and developed varying strategies for living in hypoxic conditions. Investigations into the strategies and mechanisms of hypoxia adaptation in fishes will allow us to understand fish speciation and breed hypoxia-tolerant fish species/strains. This review summarizes the process of the hypoxia signaling pathway and its regulation, as well as the mechanism of hypoxia adaptation in fishes.

  4. A comprehensive pathway map of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Kanae; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways that regulate growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation in mammalian cells. Reflecting this importance, it is one of the best-investigated signaling systems, both experimentally and computationally, and several computational models have been developed for dynamic analysis. A map of molecular interactions of the EGFR signaling system is a valuable resource for research in this area. In this paper, we present a comprehensive pathway map of EGFR signaling and other related pathways. The map reveals that the overall architecture of the pathway is a bow-tie (or hourglass) structure with several feedback loops. The map is created using CellDesigner software that enables us to graphically represent interactions using a well-defined and consistent graphical notation, and to store it in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). PMID:16729045

  5. Kynurenine signaling increases DNA polymerase kappa expression and promotes genomic instability in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bostian, April C.L.; Maddukuri, Leena; Reed, Megan R.; Savenka, Tatsiana; Hartman, Jessica H.; Davis, Lauren; Pouncey, Dakota L.; Miller, Grover P.; Eoff, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Over-expression of the translesion synthesis polymerase (TLS pol) hpol κ in glioblastomas has been linked to a poor patient prognosis; however, the mechanism promoting higher expression in these tumors remains unknown. We determined that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in glioblastoma cells leads to increased hpol κ mRNA and protein levels. We blocked nuclear translocation and DNA binding by the AhR in glioblastoma cells using a small-molecule and observed decreased hpol κ expression. Pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), the enzyme largely responsible for activating the AhR in glioblastomas, led to a decrease in the endogenous AhR agonist kynurenine (Kyn) and a corresponding decrease in hpol κ protein levels. Importantly, we discovered that inhibiting TDO activity, AhR signaling, or suppressing hpol κ expression with RNA interference led to decreased chromosomal damage in glioblastoma cells. Epistasis assays further supported the idea that TDO activity, activation of AhR signaling and the resulting over-expression of hpol κ function primarily in the same pathway to increase endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate that up-regulation of hpol κ through glioblastoma-specific TDO activity and activation of AhR signaling likely contributes to the high levels of replication stress and genomic instability observed in these tumors. PMID:26651356

  6. Small molecules from natural sources, targeting signaling pathways in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Chen, Lili; Hu, Lihong; Guo, Yuewei; Shen, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease caused by genetic or environmental factors. It has rendered a severe menace to the middle-aged and elderly, while there is still lack of efficient drugs against this disease. The pathogenic mechanism for DM is complex, and the complicated networks related to this disease involve distinct signaling pathways. Currently, discovery of potential modulators targeting these pathways has become a potent approach for anti-diabetic drug lead compound development. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products provide inherent larger-scale structural diversity and have been the major resource of bioactive agents for new drug discovery. To date, more and more active components from plants or marine organisms have been reported to regulate diabetic pathophysiological signaling pathways and exhibit anti-diabetic activity. This review will summarize the regulation of natural small molecules on some key signaling pathways involved in DM. These pathways include insulin signaling pathway, carbohydrate metabolism pathway, the pathways involving insulin secretion and PPAR regulation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation related pathways and chromatin modification pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Fierro, Ana C; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Reski, Ralf; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Background: Gibberellins (GA) are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth. PMID:18047669

  8. On the calculation of signal transduction ability of signaling transduction pathways in intracellular communication: systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2012-06-15

    The major function of signal transduction pathways in cells is to sense signals from the environment and process the information through signaling molecules in order to regulate the activity of transcription factors. On the molecular level, the information transmitted by a small number of signal molecules is amplified in the internal signaling pathway through enzyme catalysis, molecular modification and via the activation or inhibition of interactions. However, the dynamic system behavior of a signaling pathway can be complex and, despite knowledge of the pathway components and interactions, it is still a challenge to interpret the pathways behavior. Therefore, a systematic method is proposed in this study to quantify the signal transduction ability. Based on the non-linear signal transduction system, signal transduction ability can be investigated by solving a Hamilton-Jacobi inequality (HJI)-constrained optimization problem. To avoid difficulties associated with solving a complex HJI-constrained optimization problem for signal transduction ability, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model is introduced to approximate the non-linear signal transduction system by interpolating several local linear systems so that the HJI-constrained optimization problem can be replaced by a linear matrix inequality (LMI)-constrained optimization problem. The LMI problem can then be efficiently solved for measuring signal transduction ability. Finally, the signal transduction ability of two important signal transduction pathways was measured by the proposed method and confirmed using experimental data, which is useful for biotechnological and therapeutic application and drug design.

  9. Targeting the Notch signaling pathway in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huajiao; Lu, Yi; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Xia; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Despite advances in surgery, imaging, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the poor overall cancer-related death rate remains unacceptable. Novel therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. Nowadays, targeted therapy has become the most promising therapy and a welcome asset to the cancer therapeutic arena. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that the Notch signaling pathway is critically involved in the pathobiology of a variety of malignancies. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging data, highlight the mechanism of the Notch signaling pathway in the development of a wide range of cancers, and summarize recent progress in therapeutic targeting of the Notch signaling pathway.

  10. Neurotrophin signalling pathways regulating neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, F D; Kaplan, D R

    2001-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring neuronal death in mammals is regulated by the interplay between receptor-mediated prosurvival and proapoptotic signals. The neurotrophins, a family of growth factors best known for their positive effects on neuronal biology, have now been shown to mediate both positive and negative survival signals, by signalling through the Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptors, respectively. The mechanisms whereby these two neurotrophin receptors interact to determine neuronal survival have been difficult to decipher, largely because both can signal independently or coincidentally, depending upon the cell or developmental context. Nonetheless, the past several years have seen significant advances in our understanding of this receptor signalling system. In this review, we focus on the proapoptotic actions of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and on the interplay between Trk and p75NTR that determines neuronal survival.

  11. Pathway illuminated: visualizing protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Newton, Alexandra C

    2003-12-01

    Protein kinase C has been at the center of cell signaling since the discovery 25 years ago that it transduces signals that promote phospholipid hydrolysis. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters has enabled studies of the regulation of protein kinase C signaling in living cells. Advances in imaging techniques have unveiled unprecedented detail of the signal processing mechanics of protein kinase C, from the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol that regulate protein kinase C activity, to the locations and kinetics of different protein kinase C isozymes, to the spatial and temporal dynamics of substrate phosphorylation by this key enzyme. This review discusses how fluorescence imaging studies have illuminated the fidelity with which protein kinase C transduces rapidly changing extracellular information into intracellular phosphorylation signals.

  12. Predictive mathematical models of cancer signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, J; Raue, A; Schilling, M; Becker, V; Timmer, J; Klingmüller, U

    2012-02-01

    Complex intracellular signalling networks integrate extracellular signals and convert them into cellular responses. In cancer cells, the tightly regulated and fine-tuned dynamics of information processing in signalling networks is altered, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation, survival and migration. Systems biology combines mathematical modelling with comprehensive, quantitative, time-resolved data and is most advanced in addressing dynamic properties of intracellular signalling networks. Here, we introduce different modelling approaches and their application to medical systems biology, focusing on the identifiability of parameters in ordinary differential equation models and their importance in network modelling to predict cellular decisions. Two related examples are given, which include processing of ligand-encoded information and dual feedback regulation in erythropoietin (Epo) receptor signalling. Finally, we review the current understanding of how systems biology could foster the development of new treatment strategies in the context of lung cancer and anaemia.

  13. Intricacies of hedgehog signaling pathways: A perspective in tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Deb, Moonmoon; Sengupta, Dipta; Shilpi, Arunima; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar; Patra, Samir Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a crucial negotiator of developmental proceedings in the embryo governing a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning. The overall activity of the pathway is significantly curtailed after embryogenesis as well as in adults, yet it retains many of its functional capacities. However, aberration in HH signaling mediates the initiation, proliferation and continued sustenance of malignancy in different tissues to varying degrees through different mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of constitutively active aberrant HH signaling pathway in different types of human cancer and the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis in that particular tissue. An insight into the various modes of anomalous HH signaling in different organs will provide a comprehensive knowledge of the pathway in these tissues and open a window for individually tailored, tissue-specific therapeutic interventions. The synergistic cross talking of HH pathway with many other regulatory molecules and developmentally inclined signaling pathways may offer many avenues for pharmacological advances. Understanding the molecular basis of abnormal HH signaling in cancer will provide an opportunity to inhibit the deregulated pathway in many aggressive and therapeutically challenging cancers where promising options are not available.

  14. Roles of RUNX in Hippo Pathway Signaling.

    PubMed

    Passaniti, Antonino; Brusgard, Jessica L; Qiao, Yiting; Sudol, Marius; Finch-Edmondson, Megan

    2017-01-01

    The Runt-domain (RD) transcription factors (RUNX genes) are an important family of transcriptional mediators that interact with a variety of proteins including the Hippo pathway effector proteins, YAP and TAZ. In this chapter we focus on two examples of RUNX-TAZ/YAP interactions that have particular significance in human cancer. Specifically, recent evidence has found that RUNX2 cooperates with TAZ to promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition mediated by the soluble N-terminal ectodomain of E-Cadherin, sE-Cad. Contrastingly, in gastric cancer, RUNX3 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibition of the YAP-TEAD complex and disruption of downstream YAP-mediated gene transcription and the oncogenic phenotype. The reports highlighted in this chapter add to the growing repertoire of instances of Hippo pathway crosstalk that have been identified in cancer. Elucidation of these increasingly complex interactions may help to identify novel strategies to target Hippo pathway dysregulation in human cancer.

  15. SPIKE: a database of highly curated human signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Paz, Arnon; Brownstein, Zippora; Ber, Yaara; Bialik, Shani; David, Eyal; Sagir, Dorit; Ulitsky, Igor; Elkon, Ran; Kimchi, Adi; Avraham, Karen B; Shiloh, Yosef; Shamir, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The rapid accumulation of knowledge on biological signaling pathways and their regulatory mechanisms has highlighted the need for specific repositories that can store, organize and allow retrieval of pathway information in a way that will be useful for the research community. SPIKE (Signaling Pathways Integrated Knowledge Engine; http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/&~spike/) is a database for achieving this goal, containing highly curated interactions for particular human pathways, along with literature-referenced information on the nature of each interaction. To make database population and pathway comprehension straightforward, a simple yet informative data model is used, and pathways are laid out as maps that reflect the curator’s understanding and make the utilization of the pathways easy. The database currently focuses primarily on pathways describing DNA damage response, cell cycle, programmed cell death and hearing related pathways. Pathways are regularly updated, and additional pathways are gradually added. The complete database and the individual maps are freely exportable in several formats. The database is accompanied by a stand-alone software tool for analysis and dynamic visualization of pathways.

  16. Focal adhesion kinase: targeting adhesion signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J Thomas; Slack-Davis, Jill; Tilghman, Robert; Roberts, W Gregory

    2008-02-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a central role in cancer progression and metastasis. Within this environment, cancer cells respond to a host of signals including growth factors and chemotactic factors, as well as signals from adjacent cells, cells in the surrounding stroma, and signals from the extracellular matrix. Targeting the pathways that mediate many of these signals has been a major goal in the effort to develop therapeutics.

  17. AHR-11797: a novel benzodiazepine antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.N.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Hannaman, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    AHR-11797(5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1-phenyl-/sup 3/H-pyrrolo(3,2,1-ij)quinazolin-3-one) displaced /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (IC/sub 50/ = 82 nM) and /sup 3/H-Ro 15-1877 (IC/sub 50/ = 104 nM) from rat brain synaptosomes. AHR-11797 did not protect mice from seizures induced by maximal electroshock or subcutaneous Metrazol (scMET), nor did it induce seizures in doses up to the lethal dose. However, at 31.6 mg/kg, IP, it significantly increased the anticonvulsant ED/sub 50/ of chlordiazepoxide (CDPX) from 1.9 to 31.6 mg/kg, IP. With 56.7 mg/kg, IP, of AHR-11797, CDPX was inactive in doses up to 100 mg/kg, IP. AHR-11797 did not significantly increase punished responding in the Geller and Seifter conflict procedure, but it did attenuate the effects of diazepam. Although the compound is without anticonvulsant or anxiolytic activity, it did have muscle relaxant properties. AHR-11797 blocked morphine-induced Straub tail in mice (ED/sub 50/ = 31 mg/kg, IP) and it selectively suppressed the polysnaptic linguomandibular reflex in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The apparent muscle relaxant activity of AHR-11797 suggests that different receptor sites are involved for muscle relaxant vs. anxiolytic/anticonvulsant activities of the benzodiazepines.

  18. Mechanical Regulation of Signaling Pathways in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William R.; Rubin, Clinton T.; Rubin, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cell types depend on mechanically induced signals to enable appropriate physiological responses. The skeleton is particularly dependent on mechanical information to guide the resident cell population towards adaptation, maintenance and repair. Research at the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels has improved our understanding of how the skeleton can recognize the functional environment, and how these challenges are translated into cellular information that can site-specifically alter phenotype. This review first considers those cells within the skeleton that are responsive to mechanical signals, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and osteoprogenitors. This is discussed in light of a range of experimental approaches that can vary parameters such as strain, fluid shear stress, and pressure. The identity of mechanoreceptor candidates is approached, with consideration of integrins, pericellular tethers, focal adhesions, ion channels, cadherins, connexins, and the plasma membrane including caveolar and non-caveolar lipid rafts and their influence on integral signaling protein interactions. Several mechanically regulated intracellular signaling cascades are detailed including activation of kinases (Akt, MAPK, FAK), β-catenin, GTPases, and calcium signaling events. While the interaction of bone cells with their mechanical environment is complex, an understanding of mechanical regulation of bone signaling is crucial to understanding bone physiology, the etiology of diseases such as osteoporosis, and to the development of interventions to improve bone strength. PMID:22575727

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling involves in the human intestinal ILC3/ILC1 conversion in the inflamed terminal ileum of Crohn’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Doty, Andria; Glover, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as important components of our immune system that have critical effector and regulatory functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are enriched at mucosal surfaces, such as lung and intestine. Our previous work has shown that Lineage−CRTH2−CD45+NKp44−CD117−CD127+ILC1s accumulated in the inflamed terminal ileum of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) at the expense of NKp44+ILC3s. This phenotype conversion impairs the intestinal barrier integrity and contributes to the dysregulated immune responses of CD patients. Our next step was to search for pathways to modulate this phenotype switch. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Initial studies of AHR concentrated on its role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. However, recent research has focused on the immune system. Especially, AHR pathway is proven to be essential for the maintenance of intestinal ILC3s in mouse models. We examined whether AHR pathway participated in the human intestinal ILC phenotype change in the inflamed terminal ileum of CD patients. As anticipated, NKp44+ILC3s, NKp44−ILC3s and ILC1s had differential AHR expression. This AHR signaling mediated CD117 expression on the surface of ILC3s. The conversion from ILC3 to ILC1 was accompanied by the downregulation of AHR expression. We further observed that there was a disparity between AHR protein expression and mRNA expression in the inflamed terminal ileum tissues of CD patients compared to unaffected areas. These findings suggest that AHR pathway is also important for human intestinal ILC phenotype regulation and impaired AHR signaling in the inflamed gut of CD patients possibly contributes to the ILC3/ILC1 conversion.

  20. UNDERSTANDING PATHWAYS OF TOXICITY: MAKING SENSE OF CHANGING SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title:
    Understanding Pathways of Toxicity: Making sense of changing signals
    Authors & affiliations:
    Sid Hunter, Maria Blanton, Edward Karoly, Ellen Rogers, Leonard Mole, Phillip Hartig, James Andrews. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Ef...

  1. Coordinated events: FGF signaling and other related pathways in palatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Warwick, Alison K; Perlyn, Chad A

    2012-03-01

    Cleft palate is a common craniofacial anomaly that is costly to both patients and the health care system. Investigation of each stage of palate development enhances understanding of this anomaly. Although the exact molecular signaling mechanisms that contribute to palatogenesis remain elusive, multiple pathways, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, have been recognized as important contributors. Alterations in FGF signaling have previously been implicated in palatal clefting. The current review discusses FGF signaling and the major signaling mediators affecting FGF signaling during each stage of palatogenesis.

  2. Evidence for the plasticity of arthropod signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Pace, Ryan M; Eskridge, P Cole; Grbić, Miodrag; Nagy, Lisa M

    2014-12-01

    Metazoans are known to contain a limited, yet highly conserved, set of signal transduction pathways that instruct early developmental patterning mechanisms. Genomic surveys that have compared gene conservation in signal transduction pathways between various insects and Drosophila support the conclusion that these pathways are conserved in evolution. However, the degree to which individual components of signal transduction pathways vary among more divergent arthropods is not known. Here, we report our results of a survey of the genome of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, using a set of 294 Drosophila orthologs of genes that function in signal transduction. We find a third of all genes surveyed absent from the spider mite genome. We also identify several novel duplications that have not been previously reported for a chelicerate. In comparison with previous insect surveys, Tetranychus contains a decrease in overall gene conservation, as well as an unusual ratio of ligands to receptors and other modifiers. These findings suggest that gene loss and duplication among components of signal transduction pathways are common among arthropods and suggest that signal transduction pathways in arthropods are more evolutionarily labile than previously hypothesized.

  3. Temporal and Evolutionary Dynamics of Two-Component Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Michael E.; Laub, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to numerous environmental signals through two-component signaling pathways. Typically, a given stimulus will activate a sensor histidine kinase to autophosphorylate and then phosphotransfer to a cognate response regulator, which can mount an appropriate response. Although these signaling pathways often appear to be simple switches, they can also orchestrate surprisingly sophisticated and complex responses. These temporal dynamics arise from several key regulatory features, including the bifunctionality of histidine kinases as well as positive and negative feedback loops. Two-component signaling pathways are also dynamic on evolutionary time-scales, expanding dramatically in many species through gene duplication and divergence. Here, we review recent work probing the temporal and evolutionary dynamics of two-component signaling systems. PMID:25589045

  4. Role of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in NASH

    PubMed Central

    Verdelho Machado, Mariana; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the number one cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Although only a minority of patients will ultimately develop end-stage liver disease, it is not yet possible to efficiently predict who will progress and, most importantly, effective treatments are still unavailable. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease is necessary to improve the clinical management of NAFLD patients. Epidemiological data indicate that NAFLD prognosis is determined by an individual’s response to lipotoxic injury, rather than either the severity of exposure to lipotoxins, or the intensity of liver injury. The liver responds to injury with a synchronized wound-healing response. When this response is abnormal, it leads to pathological scarring, resulting in progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis, rather than repair. The hedgehog pathway is a crucial player in the wound-healing response. In this review, we summarize the pre-clinical and clinical evidence, which demonstrate the role of hedgehog pathway dysregulation in NAFLD pathogenesis, and the preliminary data that place the hedgehog pathway as a potential target for the treatment of this disease. PMID:27258259

  5. Modeling Protein Expression and Protein Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Müller, Peter; Kornblau, Steven M.; Suchard, Marc A.; Ji, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput functional proteomic technologies provide a way to quantify the expression of proteins of interest. Statistical inference centers on identifying the activation state of proteins and their patterns of molecular interaction formalized as dependence structure. Inference on dependence structure is particularly important when proteins are selected because they are part of a common molecular pathway. In that case, inference on dependence structure reveals properties of the underlying pathway. We propose a probability model that represents molecular interactions at the level of hidden binary latent variables that can be interpreted as indicators for active versus inactive states of the proteins. The proposed approach exploits available expert knowledge about the target pathway to define an informative prior on the hidden conditional dependence structure. An important feature of this prior is that it provides an instrument to explicitly anchor the model space to a set of interactions of interest, favoring a local search approach to model determination. We apply our model to reverse-phase protein array data from a study on acute myeloid leukemia. Our inference identifies relevant subpathways in relation to the unfolding of the biological process under study. PMID:26246646

  6. Induction of murine NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin requires the CNC (cap 'n' collar) basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2): cross-interaction between AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and Nrf2 signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiang; Kinneer, Krista; Bi, Yongyi; Chan, Jefferson Y; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2004-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dixoin) induces phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme NQO1 [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.2; DT-diaphorase] in a wide range of mammalian tissues and cells. Here, we analysed the molecular pathway mediating NQO1 induction by TCDD in mouse hepatoma cells. Inhibition of protein synthesis with CHX (cycloheximide) completely blocks induction of NQO1 by TCDD as well as the basal expression and induction by phenolic antioxidant tBHQ (2-t-butylbenzene-1,4-diol), implicating a labile factor in NQO1 mRNA expression. The inhibition is both time- and concentration-dependent, requires inhibition of protein synthesis, and occurs at a transcriptional level. Inhibition of NQO1 transcription by CHX correlates with a rapid reduction of the CNC bZip (cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper) transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) through the 26 S proteasome pathway. Moreover, blocking Nrf2 degradation with proteasome inhibitor MG132 increases the amount of Nrf2 and superinduces NQO1 in the presence of TCDD or tBHQ. Finally, genetic experiments using AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor)-, Arnt (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator)- or Nrf2-deficient cells reveal that, while induction of NQO1 by TCDD depends on the presence of AhR and Arnt, the basal and inducible expression of NQO1 by either TCDD or tBHQ requires functional Nrf2. The findings demonstrate a novel role of Nrf2 in the induction of NQO1 by TCDD and provide new insights into the mechanism by which Nrf2 regulates the induction of phase II enzymes by both phenolic antioxidants and AhR ligands. PMID:14510636

  7. Sonic Hedgehog Signalling Pathway and Ameloblastoma – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pallavi; Bandyopadhyay, Alokenath; Kumar, Harish; Mohiddin, Gouse

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign but aggressive odontogenic neoplasm arising from odontogenic epithelium. Many theories have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of ameloblatoma. Numerous signalling pathways have been implicated to be associated in the development and progression of this neoplasm. Studies have found association of various signalling molecules of Sonic Hedgehog Pathway, namely SHH, PTCH1, SMO, Gli 1, Gli 2, Gli 3, with ameloblastoma. Knowledge about this pathway will help us to understand the nature and behaviour of this neoplasm. This will open the door towards new treatment modalities. PMID:26674664

  8. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  9. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  10. [ALPHA-ACTININS AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS].

    PubMed

    Panyushev, N V; Tentler, D G

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of actin cytoskeleton proteins in signal transduction from cell surface to the nucleus, including regulation of transcription factors activity, has now been supported by a lot of experimental data. Here-with, cytoskeletal proteins may have different functions than ones they execute in the cytoplasm. Particularly, alpha-actinin 4 stabilizing actin microfilaments in the cytoplasm can translocate to the nucleus and change the activity of several transcription factors. Despite the lack of nuclear import signal and DNA binding domain, alpha-actinin 4 can bind to promoter sequences, and co-activate NF-κB-dependent transcription. Selective regulation of NF-κB gene targets may indicate involvement of alpha-actinin 4 in determining the specificity of cell response to NF-κB activation in cells of different types.

  11. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    molecular mechanisms and uncovered new possible insights for therapeutics with a drug combination that we had been developing for breast cancer treatment ...interventions into the epileptogenic period. Practically, a patient would seek treatment after the first seizure to prevent a second seizure, thus... treatment at day 0 and then the early epileptogenic period from day 1 to 7 was analyzed. In Figure 2, we found that Wnt signaling occurred in the

  12. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    therapeutic drug combination that we had been developing for breast cancer treatment aimed at Wnt signaling. Surprisingly, the combination attenuates...treating some forms of drug -intractable epilepsy already suggest a role for glucose metabolism in the etiology of certain epilepsies. The basis of the...Furthermore, the HBP1-/- mouse has exciting potential for future anti-epileptogenic drug development, based on the human genetics. In principle

  13. AlzPathway: a comprehensive map of signaling pathways of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. To clarify pathogenesis of AD, thousands of reports have been accumulating. However, knowledge of signaling pathways in the field of AD has not been compiled as a database before. Description Here, we have constructed a publicly available pathway map called “AlzPathway” that comprehensively catalogs signaling pathways in the field of AD. We have collected and manually curated over 100 review articles related to AD, and have built an AD pathway map using CellDesigner. AlzPathway is currently composed of 1347 molecules and 1070 reactions in neuron, brain blood barrier, presynaptic, postsynaptic, astrocyte, and microglial cells and their cellular localizations. AlzPathway is available as both the SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) map for CellDesigner and the high resolution image map. AlzPathway is also available as a web service (online map) based on Payao system, a community-based, collaborative web service platform for pathway model curation, enabling continuous updates by AD researchers. Conclusions AlzPathway is the first comprehensive map of intra, inter and extra cellular AD signaling pathways which can enable mechanistic deciphering of AD pathogenesis. The AlzPathway map is accessible at http://alzpathway.org/. PMID:22647208

  14. Regulation of cross-talk in yeast MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Saito, Haruo

    2010-12-01

    MAP kinase (MAPK) modules are conserved three-kinase cascades that serve central roles in intracellular signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. MAPK pathways of different inputs and outputs use overlapping sets of signaling components. In yeast, for example, three MAPK pathways (pheromone response, filamentous growth response, and osmostress adaptation) all use the same Ste11 MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK). How undesirable leakage of signal, or cross-talk, is prevented between these pathways has been a subject of intensive study. This review discusses recent findings from yeast that indicate that there is no single mechanism, but that a combination of four general strategies (docking interactions, scaffold proteins, cross-pathway inhibition, and kinetic insulation) are utilized for the prevention of cross-talk between any two MAPK modules.

  15. Frontier of Epilepsy Research - mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studies of epilepsy have mainly focused on the membrane proteins that control neuronal excitability. Recently, attention has been shifting to intracellular proteins and their interactions, signaling cascades and feedback regulation as they relate to epilepsy. The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway, especially, has been suggested to play an important role in this regard. These pathways are involved in major physiological processes as well as in numerous pathological conditions. Here, involvement of the mTOR pathway in epilepsy will be reviewed by presenting; an overview of the pathway, a brief description of key signaling molecules, a summary of independent reports and possible implications of abnormalities of those molecules in epilepsy, a discussion of the lack of experimental data, and questions raised for the understanding its epileptogenic mechanism. PMID:21467839

  16. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  17. AHR2 mediates cardiac teratogenesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PCB-126 in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Clark, Bryan W; Matson, Cole W; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2010-08-15

    Exposure of developing fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) results in a suite of defects including cardiac malformation, pericardial and yolk sac edema, craniofacial defects, and hemorrhaging. Several populations of Atlantic killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) on the Atlantic coast of the United States are resistant to the developmental and acute toxicity caused by PAHs and HAHs; this has made Fundulus a valuable model for studying aryl hydrocarbon sensitivity and adaptation. In order to further increase the utility of Fundulus, better understanding of the components of the molecular pathways governing aryl hydrocarbon response in Fundulus is required. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is known to mediate many of the toxic responses to PAHs and HAHs. A single AHR has been identified in mammals, but Fundulus has two AHRs and their relative roles are not clear. In the current study, translation-blocking and splice-junction morpholino gene knockdown was used to determine the roles of AHR1 and AHR2 in mediating cardiac teratogenesis induced by beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126). Here we report that AHR2 and not AHR1 knockdown resulted in rescue of teratogenicity induced by BNF, BkF, and PCB-126. These data demonstrate that AHR2 is the primary mediator of cardiac teratogenesis caused by multiple aryl hydrocarbons in Fundulus and suggest that suppression of the AHR pathway through modulation of AHR2 is a plausible mechanism for PAH resistance in adapted fish. Additionally, this is the first reported use of splice-junction morpholinos in Fundulus.

  18. Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael R; Slater, Louise; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2007-09-01

    Type I interferon-alpha/beta play an essential role in immunity to viruses. While interferon-beta has been used as a model of a complex promoter, many of the signalling pathways leading to interferon-beta gene expression remain controversial. Recent milestones include the discovery of Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases that signal via a novel kinase complex composed of I kappa B kinase-iota/epsilon or TANK binding kinase-1. This review provides a timely summary of this rapidly expanding field, focusing specifically on the various viral RNA binding molecules and their associated signalling pathways.

  19. Modulation of signaling pathways by RNA virus capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Urbanowski, Matthew D; Ilkow, Carolina S; Hobman, Tom C

    2008-07-01

    Capsid proteins are structural components of virus particles. They are nucleic acid-binding proteins whose main recognized function is to package viral genomes into protective structures called nucleocapsids. Research over the last 10 years indicates that in addition to their role as genome guardians, viral capsid proteins modulate host cell signaling networks. Disruption or alteration of intracellular signaling pathways by viral capsids may benefit replication of the virus by affecting innate immunity and in some cases, may underlie disease progression. In this review, we describe how the capsid proteins from medically relevant RNA viruses interact with host cell signaling pathways.

  20. Re-wired ERK-JNK signaling pathways in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Huang, Conway; Goydos, James S.; Yip, Dana; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Herlyn, Meenhard; Smalley, Keiran S. M.; Mahale, Alka; Eroshkin, Alexey; Aaronson, Stuart; Ronai, Ze’ev

    2007-01-01

    Summary Constitutive activation of MEK-ERK signaling is often found in melanomas. Here, we identify a mechanism that links ERK with JNK signaling in human melanoma. Constitutively active ERK increases c-Jun transcription and stability, which are mediated by CREB and GSK3, respectively. Subsequently, c-Jun increases transcription of target genes, including RACK1, an adaptor protein that enables PKC to phosphorylate and enhance JNK activity, enforcing a feed-forward mechanism of the JNK-Jun pathway. Activated c-Jun is also responsible for elevated cyclin D1 expression, which is frequently overexpressed in human melanoma. Our data reveal that in human melanoma the rewired ERK signaling pathway upregulates JNK and activates the c-Jun oncogene and its downstream targets including RACK1 and cyclin D1. Significance Although constitutively active ERK-MAPK signaling has been found in a large fraction of human melanoma tumors, how this pathway contributes to melanoma development remains largely elusive. Here we reveal the blueprint for rewiring of key signal transduction pathways in melanoma. In this re-wiring program, constitutively active ERK affects the c-Jun oncogene, its upstream kinase JNK, and its downstream targets RACK1 and cyclin D1. Understanding how key signaling pathways are re-wired in melanoma offers new targets for therapy of this tumor type. PMID:17482134

  1. Dissecting Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways Involved in Cuticle Formation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fuqiang; Brosché, Mikael; Lehtonen, Mikko T; Amiryousefi, Ali; Xu, Enjun; Punkkinen, Matleena; Valkonen, Jari P T; Fujii, Hiroaki; Overmyer, Kirk

    2016-06-06

    The cuticle is the outer physical barrier of aerial plant surfaces and an important interaction point between plants and the environment. Many environmental stresses affect cuticle formation, yet the regulatory pathways involved remain undefined. We used a genetics and gene expression analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana to define an abscisic acid (ABA) signaling loop that positively regulates cuticle formation via the core ABA signaling pathway, including the PYR/PYL receptors, PP2C phosphatase, and SNF1-Related Protein Kinase (SnRK) 2.2/SnRK2.3/SnRK2.6. Downstream of the SnRK2 kinases, cuticle formation was not regulated by the ABA-responsive element-binding transcription factors but rather by DEWAX, MYB16, MYB94, and MYB96. Additionally, low air humidity increased cuticle formation independent of the core ABA pathway and cell death/reactive oxygen species signaling attenuated expression of cuticle-biosynthesis genes. In Physcomitrella patens, exogenous ABA suppressed expression of cuticle-related genes, whose Arabidopsis orthologs were ABA-induced. Hence, the mechanisms regulating cuticle formation are conserved but sophisticated in land plants. Signaling specifically related to cuticle deficiency was identified to play a major role in the adaptation of ABA signaling pathway mutants to increased humidity and in modulating their immunity to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis. These results define a cuticle-specific downstream branch in the ABA signaling pathway that regulates responses to the external environment.

  2. The Hippo signaling pathway in stem cell biology and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Jung-Soon; Park, Hyun Woo; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway, consisting of a highly conserved kinase cascade (MST and Lats) and downstream transcription coactivators (YAP and TAZ), plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and organ size control by regulating tissue-specific stem cells. Moreover, this pathway plays a prominent role in tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is associated with cancer development. Recent studies have revealed a complex network of upstream inputs, including cell density, mechanical sensation, and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, that modulate Hippo pathway activity. This review focuses on the role of the Hippo pathway in stem cell biology and its potential implications in tissue homeostasis and cancer. PMID:24825474

  3. XTalkDB: a database of signaling pathway crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Sarah A.; Teel, Joelle; Tegge, Allison N.; Bharadwaj, Aditya; Murali, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of signaling pathways and their crosstalk is a cornerstone of systems biology. Thousands of papers have been published on these topics. Surprisingly, there is no database that carefully and explicitly documents crosstalk between specific pairs of signaling pathways. We have developed XTalkDB (http://www.xtalkdb.org) to fill this very important gap. XTalkDB contains curated information for 650 pairs of pathways from over 1600 publications. In addition, the database reports the molecular components (e.g. proteins, hormones, microRNAs) that mediate crosstalk between a pair of pathways and the species and tissue in which the crosstalk was observed. The XTalkDB website provides an easy-to-use interface for scientists to browse crosstalk information by querying one or more pathways or molecules of interest. PMID:27899583

  4. Ontology based standardization of petri net modeling for signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Takai-Igarashi, Takako

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the great availability of Petri nets in modeling and analyzing large complicated signaling networks, semantics of Petri nets is in need of systematization for the purpose of consistency and reusability of the models. This paper reports on standardization of units of Petri nets on the basis of an ontology that gives an intrinsic definition to the process of signaling in signaling pathways.

  5. Hedgehog signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Li, Jinghua; Feng, Limin

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal cause of death among gynecological malignancies. Despite advancements in surgery and chemotherapy treatment strategies, the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients remains poor; a majority of patients relapse and eventually succumb to this disease. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcome are urgently needed. The hedgehog signaling pathway is vital for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and its deregulation is implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, differentiation, and metastasis. The critical role of hedgehog signaling in multiple biologic processes raises concerns about its potential therapeutic use in cancer. Consequently, many studies are focusing on hedgehog signaling as an attractive target in cancer treatment. In this review, we present an overview of the hedgehog pathway and its pathological aberrations in ovarian cancer. We also discuss inhibitors of the hedgehog signaling pathway that are currently being investigated in the laboratory and in early clinical trials; as well as the clinical challenges these inhibitors face.

  6. Colored Petri net modeling and simulation of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Zimmer, Ralf; Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Sunwon

    2006-03-01

    Presented herein is a methodology for quantitatively analyzing the complex signaling network by resorting to colored Petri nets (CPN). The mathematical as well as Petri net models for two basic reaction types were established, followed by the extension to a large signal transduction system stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in an application study. The CPN models based on the Petri net representation and the conservation and kinetic equations were used to examine the dynamic behavior of the EGF signaling pathway. The usefulness of Petri nets is demonstrated for the quantitative analysis of the signal transduction pathway. Moreover, the trade-offs between modeling capability and simulation efficiency of this pathway are explored, suggesting that the Petri net model can be invaluable in the initial stage of building a dynamic model.

  7. Sensing the Insulin Signaling Pathway with an Antibody Array

    PubMed Central

    He, Hua-Jun; Zong, Yaping; Bernier, Michel; Wang, Lili

    2012-01-01

    The development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is determined by various factors, including defects within the insulin signaling pathway. Mediators of insulin resistance operate through activation of various protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and/or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and subsequent inhibition of the proximal insulin signaling pathway via the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt. These mechanisms are still largely unresolved because of the complexity of the molecular events. In this study, an expression and activation state profiling of multiple known key signaling biomolecules involved in insulin metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways was evaluated using a phosphospecific antibody array platform. The results of the arrayed antibodies were verified by the multiplexed bead array assay and conventional western blot analysis, and confirmed the well-known inhibitory effects of phorbol esters on insulin signaling pathway activation. Of interest, the increase in PKC signaling responses with phorbol esters was associated with activation of the lipid phosphatase PTEN and a 27 kDa heat shock protein. Thus, this insulin signaling antibody array provides a powerful and effective way to investigate the mechanism of insulin resistance and likely assist the development of innovative therapeutic drugs for type 2 diabetes. PMID:21136963

  8. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-07-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.

  9. Computational modeling of apoptotic signaling pathways induced by cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is an essential property of all higher organisms that involves extremely complex signaling pathways. Mathematical modeling provides a rigorous integrative approach for analyzing and understanding such intricate biological systems. Results Here, we constructed a large-scale, literature-based model of apoptosis pathways responding to an external stimulus, cisplatin. Our model includes the key elements of three apoptotic pathways induced by cisplatin: death receptor-mediated, mitochondrial, and endoplasmic reticulum-stress pathways. We showed that cisplatin-induced apoptosis had dose- and time-dependent characteristics, and the level of apoptosis was saturated at higher concentrations of cisplatin. Simulated results demonstrated that the effect of the mitochondrial pathway on apoptosis was the strongest of the three pathways. The cross-talk effect among pathways accounted for approximately 25% of the total apoptosis level. Conclusions Using this model, we revealed a novel mechanism by which cisplatin induces dose-dependent cell death. Our finding that the level of apoptosis was affected by not only cisplatin concentration, but also by cross talk among pathways provides in silico evidence for a functional impact of system-level characteristics of signaling pathways on apoptosis. PMID:22967854

  10. Hedgehog signaling pathway is inactive in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chatel, Guillaume; Ganeff, Corine; Boussif, Naima; Delacroix, Laurence; Briquet, Alexandra; Nolens, Gregory; Winkler, Rosita

    2007-12-15

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in human development. Abnormal activation of this pathway has been observed in several types of human cancers, such as the upper gastro-intestinal tract cancers. However, activation of the Hh pathway in colorectal cancers is controversial. We analyzed the expression of the main key members of the Hh pathway in 7 colon cancer cell lines in order to discover whether the pathway is constitutively active in these cells. We estimated the expression of SHH, IHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, GLI2, GLI3, SUFU and HHIP genes by RT-PCR. Moreover, Hh ligand, Gli3 and Sufu protein levels were quantified by western blotting. None of the cell lines expressed the complete set of Hh pathway members. The ligands were absent from Colo320 and HCT116 cells, Smo from Colo205, HT29 and WiDr. GLI1 gene was not expressed in SW480 cells nor were GLI2/GLI3 in Colo205 or Caco-2 cells. Furthermore the repressive form of Gli3, characteristic of an inactive pathway, was detected in SW480 and Colo320 cells. Finally treatment of colon cancer cells with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of the Hh pathway, did not downregulate PTCH and GLI1 genes expression in the colorectal cells, whereas it did so in PANC1 control cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway is not common in colorectal cancer cell lines.

  11. Notch-regulated miR-223 targets the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway and increases cytokine production in macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ogando, Jesús; Tardáguila, Manuel; Díaz-Alderete, Andrea; Usategui, Alicia; Miranda-Ramos, Vanessa; Martínez-Herrera, Dannys Jorge; de la Fuente, Lorena; García-León, María J.; Moreno, María C.; Escudero, Sara; Cañete, Juan D.; Toribio, María L.; Cases, Ildefonso; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Pablos, José Luis; Mañes, Santos

    2016-01-01

    Evidence links aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis, although results are inconsistent. AHR agonists inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, pivotal cells in RA aetiopathogenesis, which hints at specific circuits that regulate the AHR pathway in RA macrophages. We compared microRNA (miR) expression in CD14+ cells from patients with active RA or with osteoarthritis (OA). Seven miR were downregulated and one (miR-223) upregulated in RA compared to OA cells. miR-223 upregulation correlated with reduced Notch3 and Notch effector expression in RA patients. Overexpression of the Notch-induced repressor HEY-1 and co-culture of healthy donor monocytes with Notch ligand-expressing cells showed direct Notch-mediated downregulation of miR-223. Bioinformatics predicted the AHR regulator ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator) as a miR-223 target. Pre-miR-223 overexpression silenced ARNT 3’UTR-driven reporter expression, reduced ARNT (but not AHR) protein levels and prevented AHR/ARNT-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. miR-223 counteracted AHR/ARNT-induced Notch3 upregulation in monocytes. Levels of ARNT and of CYP1B1, an AHR/ARNT signalling effector, were reduced in RA compared to OA synovial tissue, which correlated with miR-223 levels. Our results associate Notch signalling to miR-223 downregulation in RA macrophages, and identify miR-223 as a negative regulator of the AHR/ARNT pathway through ARNT targeting. PMID:26838552

  12. Notch-regulated miR-223 targets the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway and increases cytokine production in macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Ogando, Jesús; Tardáguila, Manuel; Díaz-Alderete, Andrea; Usategui, Alicia; Miranda-Ramos, Vanessa; Martínez-Herrera, Dannys Jorge; de la Fuente, Lorena; García-León, María J; Moreno, María C; Escudero, Sara; Cañete, Juan D; Toribio, María L; Cases, Ildefonso; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Pablos, José Luis; Mañes, Santos

    2016-02-03

    Evidence links aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis, although results are inconsistent. AHR agonists inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, pivotal cells in RA aetiopathogenesis, which hints at specific circuits that regulate the AHR pathway in RA macrophages. We compared microRNA (miR) expression in CD14(+) cells from patients with active RA or with osteoarthritis (OA). Seven miR were downregulated and one (miR-223) upregulated in RA compared to OA cells. miR-223 upregulation correlated with reduced Notch3 and Notch effector expression in RA patients. Overexpression of the Notch-induced repressor HEY-1 and co-culture of healthy donor monocytes with Notch ligand-expressing cells showed direct Notch-mediated downregulation of miR-223. Bioinformatics predicted the AHR regulator ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator) as a miR-223 target. Pre-miR-223 overexpression silenced ARNT 3'UTR-driven reporter expression, reduced ARNT (but not AHR) protein levels and prevented AHR/ARNT-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. miR-223 counteracted AHR/ARNT-induced Notch3 upregulation in monocytes. Levels of ARNT and of CYP1B1, an AHR/ARNT signalling effector, were reduced in RA compared to OA synovial tissue, which correlated with miR-223 levels. Our results associate Notch signalling to miR-223 downregulation in RA macrophages, and identify miR-223 as a negative regulator of the AHR/ARNT pathway through ARNT targeting.

  13. Engineering key components in a synthetic eukaryotic signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Mauricio S; Morey, Kevin J; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Bowen, Tessa A; Smith, J Jeff; Webb, Colleen T; Hellinga, Homme W; Medford, June I

    2009-01-01

    Signal transduction underlies how living organisms detect and respond to stimuli. A goal of synthetic biology is to rewire natural signal transduction systems. Bacteria, yeast, and plants sense environmental aspects through conserved histidine kinase (HK) signal transduction systems. HK protein components are typically comprised of multiple, relatively modular, and conserved domains. Phosphate transfer between these components may exhibit considerable cross talk between the otherwise apparently linear pathways, thereby establishing networks that integrate multiple signals. We show that sequence conservation and cross talk can extend across kingdoms and can be exploited to produce a synthetic plant signal transduction system. In response to HK cross talk, heterologously expressed bacterial response regulators, PhoB and OmpR, translocate to the nucleus on HK activation. Using this discovery, combined with modification of PhoB (PhoB-VP64), we produced a key component of a eukaryotic synthetic signal transduction pathway. In response to exogenous cytokinin, PhoB-VP64 translocates to the nucleus, binds a synthetic PlantPho promoter, and activates gene expression. These results show that conserved-signaling components can be used across kingdoms and adapted to produce synthetic eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. PMID:19455134

  14. A multi-pathway hypothesis for human visual fear signaling

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, David N.; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed for five visual fear signaling pathways in humans, based on an analysis of anatomical connectivity from primate studies and human functional connectvity and tractography from brain imaging studies. Earlier work has identified possible subcortical and cortical fear pathways known as the “low road” and “high road,” which arrive at the amygdala independently. In addition to a subcortical pathway, we propose four cortical signaling pathways in humans along the visual ventral stream. All four of these traverse through the LGN to the visual cortex (VC) and branching off at the inferior temporal area, with one projection directly to the amygdala; another traversing the orbitofrontal cortex; and two others passing through the parietal and then prefrontal cortex, one excitatory pathway via the ventral-medial area and one regulatory pathway via the ventral-lateral area. These pathways have progressively longer propagation latencies and may have progressively evolved with brain development to take advantage of higher-level processing. Using the anatomical path lengths and latency estimates for each of these five pathways, predictions are made for the relative processing times at selective ROIs and arrival at the amygdala, based on the presentation of a fear-relevant visual stimulus. Partial verification of the temporal dynamics of this hypothesis might be accomplished using experimental MEG analysis. Possible experimental protocols are suggested. PMID:26379513

  15. Signaling Pathways in Schizophrenia: emerging targets and therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Caline S; Ballon, Jacob S; Bivens, Nancy M; Freyberg, Zachary; Girgis, Ragy R; Lizardi-Ortiz, Jose E; Markx, Sander; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor antagonism is a unifying property of all antipsychotic drugs in clinical use for schizophrenia. While often effective at ameliorating psychosis, these drugs are largely ineffective at treating negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing attention is being focused on the complex genetics of the illness and the signaling pathways implicated in its pathophysiology. We review targeted approaches for pharmacotherapy involving the glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic pathways. We also describe a number of the major genetic findings that identify signaling pathways representing potential targets for novel pharmacological intervention. These include genes in the 22q11 locus, DISC1, neuregulin/ERB4, and components of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway. PMID:20579747

  16. Role of Notch signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jiankun; Long, Bo; Wang, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the highly aggressive malignancies in the United States. It has been shown that multiple signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of PC, such as JNK, PI3K/AKT, Rho GTPase, Hedgehog (Hh) and Skp2. In recent years, accumulated evidence has demonstrated that Notch signaling pathway plays critical roles in the development and progression of PC. Therefore, in this review we discuss the recent literature regarding the function and regulation of Notch in the pathogenesis of PC. Moreover, we describe that Notch signaling pathway could be down-regulated by its inhibitors or natural compounds, which could be a novel approach for the treatment of PC patients. PMID:28337369

  17. NOTCH, a new signaling pathway implicated in holoprosencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Dupé, Valérie; Rochard, Lucie; Mercier, Sandra; Le Pétillon, Yann; Gicquel, Isabelle; Bendavid, Claude; Bourrouillou, Georges; Kini, Usha; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Bohan, Timothy P.; Odent, Sylvie; Dubourg, Christèle; David, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Genetics of Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a congenital malformation of the developing human forebrain, is due to multiple genetic defects. Most genes that have been implicated in HPE belong to the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway. Here we describe a new candidate gene isolated from array CGH redundant 6qter deletions, DELTA Like 1 (DLL1), which is a ligand of NOTCH. We show that DLL1 is co-expressed in the developing chick forebrain with Fgf8. By treating chick embryos with a pharmacological inhibitor, we demonstrate that DLL1 interacts with FGF signaling pathway. Moreover, a mutation analysis of DLL1 in HPE patients, revealed a three-nucleotide deletion. These various findings implicate DLL1 in early patterning of the forebrain and identify NOTCH as a new signaling pathway involved in HPE. PMID:21196490

  18. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Severson, Paul L.; Kulak, Mikhail V.; Futscher, Bernard W.; Domann, Frederick E.

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced AhR function and

  19. Multiple signal pathways in obesity-associated cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, J

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide and reaches to a large proportion of the population in developed countries. Thus, obesity-associated cancer has become a major health problem. Multiple cancer risk factors in obesity have been identified including insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis, adipokines and cytokines; and multiple intracellular signal pathways have been studied. However, the role of each signal pathway in obesity-associated cancer is controversial. In this review, the recent studies on signal pathways in obesity-associated cancer are summarized and a unified explanation is provided. Multiple risk factors could initially activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways. With increased severity of obesity, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is down-stream of both PI3K/Akt and MAPK, is highly activated. Activated mTOR in turn inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway and further activates the STAT3 pathway. This may explain the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway at the early stage of obesity and its inhibition at the later stage. mTOR inhibition may be used for cancer therapy, but it may be necessary to be combined with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor as decreased mTOR activity will release its feedback inhibition on the PI3K/Akt pathway, which is under the influence of multiple cancer risk factors in obesity. Thus, dual inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR may provide a novel approach. © 2011 The Author. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Triggering signaling pathways using F-actin self-organization.

    PubMed

    Colin, A; Bonnemay, L; Gayrard, C; Gautier, J; Gueroui, Z

    2016-10-04

    The spatiotemporal organization of proteins within cells is essential for cell fate behavior. Although it is known that the cytoskeleton is vital for numerous cellular functions, it remains unclear how cytoskeletal activity can shape and control signaling pathways in space and time throughout the cell cytoplasm. Here we show that F-actin self-organization can trigger signaling pathways by engineering two novel properties of the microfilament self-organization: (1) the confinement of signaling proteins and (2) their scaffolding along actin polymers. Using in vitro reconstitutions of cellular functions, we found that both the confinement of nanoparticle-based signaling platforms powered by F-actin contractility and the scaffolding of engineered signaling proteins along actin microfilaments can drive a signaling switch. Using Ran-dependent microtubule nucleation, we found that F-actin dynamics promotes the robust assembly of microtubules. Our in vitro assay is a first step towards the development of novel bottom-up strategies to decipher the interplay between cytoskeleton spatial organization and signaling pathway activity.

  1. Triggering signaling pathways using F-actin self-organization

    PubMed Central

    Colin, A.; Bonnemay, L.; Gayrard, C.; Gautier, J.; Gueroui, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of proteins within cells is essential for cell fate behavior. Although it is known that the cytoskeleton is vital for numerous cellular functions, it remains unclear how cytoskeletal activity can shape and control signaling pathways in space and time throughout the cell cytoplasm. Here we show that F-actin self-organization can trigger signaling pathways by engineering two novel properties of the microfilament self-organization: (1) the confinement of signaling proteins and (2) their scaffolding along actin polymers. Using in vitro reconstitutions of cellular functions, we found that both the confinement of nanoparticle-based signaling platforms powered by F-actin contractility and the scaffolding of engineered signaling proteins along actin microfilaments can drive a signaling switch. Using Ran-dependent microtubule nucleation, we found that F-actin dynamics promotes the robust assembly of microtubules. Our in vitro assay is a first step towards the development of novel bottom-up strategies to decipher the interplay between cytoskeleton spatial organization and signaling pathway activity. PMID:27698406

  2. Signaling within Allosteric Machines: Signal Transmission Pathways Inside G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bartuzi, Damian; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, our understanding of function of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has changed from a picture of simple signal relays, transmitting only a particular signal to a particular G protein heterotrimer, to versatile machines, capable of various responses to different stimuli and being modulated by various factors. Some recent reports provide not only the data on ligands/modulators and resultant signals induced by them, but also deeper insights into exact pathways of signal migration and mechanisms of signal transmission through receptor structure. Combination of these computational and experimental data sheds more light on underlying mechanisms of signal transmission and signaling bias in GPCRs. In this review we focus on available clues on allosteric pathways responsible for complex signal processing within GPCRs structures, with particular emphasis on linking compatible in silico- and in vitro-derived data on the most probable allosteric connections.

  3. New cell-signaling pathways for controlling cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Arav-Boger, R

    2014-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is increasingly recognized as an accomplished modulator of cell-signaling pathways, both directly via interaction between viral and cellular proteins, and indirectly by activating metabolic/energy states of infected cells. Viral genes, as well as captured cellular genes, enable CMV to modify these pathways upon binding to cellular receptors, up until generation of virus progeny. Deregulation of cell-signaling pathways appears to be a well-developed tightly balanced virus strategy to achieve the desired consequences in each infected cell type. Importantly and perhaps surprisingly, identification of new signaling pathways in cancer cells positioned CMV as a sophisticated user and abuser of many such pathways, creating opportunities to develop novel therapeutic strategies for inhibiting CMV replication (in addition to standard of care CMV DNA polymerase inhibitors). Advances in genomics and proteomics allow the identification of CMV products interacting with the cellular machinery. Ultimately, clinical implementation of candidate drugs capable of disrupting the delicate balance between CMV and cell-signaling will depend on the specificity and selectivity index of newly identified targets.

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Ping; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation. These EGFR aberrations over-activate downstream pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK and AKT-PI3K-mTOR pathways. These pathways then activate many biological outputs that are beneficial to cancer cell proliferation, including their chronic initiation and progression through the cell cycle. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that regulate EGFR signal transduction, including the EGFR structure and its mutations, ligand binding and EGFR dimerization, as well as the signaling pathways that lead to G1 cell cycle progression. We focus on the induction of CYCLIN D expression, CDK4/6 activation, and the repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins (CDKi) by EGFR signaling pathways. We also discuss the successes and challenges of EGFR-targeted therapies, and the potential for their use in combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors. PMID:28513565

  5. The Notch signaling pathway as a mediator of tumor survival.

    PubMed

    Capaccione, Kathleen M; Pine, Sharon R

    2013-07-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and responsible for cell fate determination in the developing embryo and mature tissue. At the molecular level, ligand binding activates Notch signaling by liberating the Notch intracellular domain, which then translocates into the nucleus and activates gene transcription. Despite the elegant simplicity of this pathway, which lacks secondary messengers or a signaling cascade, Notch regulates gene expression in a highly context- and cell-type-dependent manner. Notch signaling is frequently dysregulated, most commonly by overactivation, across many cancers and confers a survival advantage on tumors, leading to poorer outcomes for patients. Recent studies demonstrate how Notch signaling increases tumor cell proliferation and provide evidence that active Notch signaling maintains the cancer stem-cell pool, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes chemoresistance. These studies imply that pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling may refine control of cancer therapy and improve patient survival. Gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) are drugs that inhibit Notch signaling and may be successful in controlling cancer cell growth in conjunction with standard chemotherapy, but substantial side effects have hampered their widespread use. Recent efforts have been aimed at the development of antibodies against specific Notch receptors and ligands with the hope of limiting side effects while providing the same therapeutic benefit as GSIs. Together, studies characterizing Notch signaling and modulation have offered hope that refined methods targeting Notch may become powerful tools in anticancer therapeutics.

  6. POSTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF P53: UPSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2003-10-23

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.

  7. Uniform curation protocol of metazoan signaling pathways to predict novel signaling components.

    PubMed

    Pálfy, Máté; Farkas, Illés J; Vellai, Tibor; Korcsmáros, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    A relatively large number of signaling databases available today have strongly contributed to our understanding of signaling pathway properties. However, pathway comparisons both within and across databases are currently severely hampered by the large variety of data sources and the different levels of detail of their information content (on proteins and interactions). In this chapter, we present a protocol for a uniform curation method of signaling pathways, which intends to overcome this insufficiency. This uniformly curated database called SignaLink ( http://signalink.org ) allows us to systematically transfer pathway annotations between different species, based on orthology, and thereby to predict novel signaling pathway components. Thus, this method enables the compilation of a comprehensive signaling map of a given species and identification of new potential drug targets in humans. We strongly believe that the strict curation protocol we have established to compile a signaling pathway database can also be applied for the compilation of other (e.g., metabolic) databases. Similarly, the detailed guide to the orthology-based prediction of novel signaling components across species may also be utilized for predicting components of other biological processes.

  8. A lateral signalling pathway coordinates shape volatility during cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Luga, Valbona; Armitage, Sarah K.; Musiol, Martin; Won, Amy; Yip, Christopher M.; Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Wrana, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental for both physiological and pathological processes. Migrating cells usually display high dynamics in morphology, which is orchestrated by an integrative array of signalling pathways. Here we identify a novel pathway, we term lateral signalling, comprised of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Pk1 and the RhoGAPs, Arhgap21/23. We show that the Pk1–Arhgap21/23 complex inhibits RhoA, is localized on the non-protrusive lateral membrane cortex and its disruption leads to the disorganization of the actomyosin network and altered focal adhesion dynamics. Pk1-mediated lateral signalling confines protrusive activity and is regulated by Smurf2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the PCP pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that dynamic interplay between lateral and protrusive signalling generates cyclical fluctuations in cell shape that we quantify here as shape volatility, which strongly correlates with migration speed. These studies uncover a previously unrecognized lateral signalling pathway that coordinates shape volatility during productive cell migration. PMID:27226243

  9. Activation of multiple angiogenic signaling pathways in hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Pierscianek, Daniela; Michel, Anna; Hindy, Nicolai El; Keyvani, Kathy; Dammann, Philipp; Oezkan, Neriman; Mueller, Oliver; Sure, Ulrich; Zhu, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a highly vascularized mesenchymal tumor. Local recurrence and distant metastasis are common features of HPC. Considering the remarkable hyper-vasculature phenotype of HPC, we assumed that dysregulated angiogenic signaling pathways were involved in HPC. The key components of angiogenic signaling pathways including VEGF-VEGF-R2, EphrinB2-EphB4 and DLL4-Notch were examined by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining in 17 surgical specimens of HPC patients and in 6 controls. A significant upregulation of VEGF and VEGF-R2 associated with elevated levels of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was detected in HPC. Moreover, a dramatic increase in the mRNA and protein expression of EphB4 and its downstream factor p-Erk1/2 was found in HPC. A massive activation of core-components of DLL4-Notch signaling was detected in HPC. Double-immunofluorescent staining confirmed the expression of these upregulated key factors in the endothelial cells of tumor vessels. The present study identified the activation of multiple and crucial angiogenic signaling pathways, which could function individually and/or synergistically to stimulate angiogenesis in HPC and eventually contribute to tumor growth and progression. Our findings emphasize the importance to target multiple angiogenic signaling pathways when an anti-angiogenic therapy is considered for this highly vascularized tumor.

  10. Dissecting Nck/Dock signaling pathways in Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of neuronal connections during embryonic development requires the precise guidance and targeting of the neuronal growth cone, an expanded cellular structure at the leading tip of a growing axon. The growth cone contains sophisticated signaling systems that allow the rapid communication between guidance receptors and the actin cytoskeleton in generating directed motility. Previous studies demonstrated a specific role for the Nck/Dock SH2/SH3 adapter protein in photoreceptor (R cell) axon guidance and target recognition in the Drosophila visual system, suggesting strongly that Nck/Dock is one of the long-sought missing links between cell surface receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, I discuss the recent progress on dissecting the Nck/Dock signaling pathways in R-cell growth cones. These studies have identified additional key components of the Nck/Dock signaling pathways for linking the receptor signaling to the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling growth-cone motility.

  11. Complex regulation of HSC emergence by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Butko, Emerald; Pouget, Claire; Traver, David

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are formed during embryonic development, and serve as the foundation of the definitive blood program for life. Notch signaling has been well established as an essential direct contributor to HSC specification. However, several recent studies have indicated that the contribution of Notch signaling is complex. HSC specification requires multiple Notch signaling inputs, some received directly by hematopoietic precursors, and others that occur indirectly within neighboring somites. Of note, proinflammatory signals provided by primitive myeloid cells are needed for HSC specification via upregulation of the Notch pathway in hemogenic endothelium. In addition to multiple requirements for Notch activation, recent studies indicate that Notch signaling must subsequently be repressed to permit HSC emergence. Finally, Notch must then be reactivated to maintain HSC fate. In this review, we discuss the growing understanding of the dynamic contributions of Notch signaling to the establishment of hematopoiesis during development. PMID:26586199

  12. Molecular signaling pathways regulating muscle proteolysis during atrophy.

    PubMed

    Franch, Harold A; Price, S Russ

    2005-05-01

    Although a variety of diverse stimuli induce muscle atrophy, there is a surprising number of similarities in the intracellular responses. One prominent response is an increase in muscle proteolysis resulting from stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Understanding the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate muscle mass should offer insights into the coordination of cellular responses. This review will discuss recent findings on the molecular signaling pathways regulating proteolysis during muscle atrophy. The expression of several muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases is consistently increased in conditions causing muscle atrophy. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 act through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway to suppress the expression of two of these enzymes, MuRF1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1. Efforts to identify targets of the muscle-specific E3 ligases are yielding interesting information. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 also attenuate wasting by inhibiting caspase-3, which cleaves actin to facilitate its destruction by the ubiqutin-proteasome system. Other signaling systems involved in the regulation of muscle mass include the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. The maintenance of muscle mass requires a delicate balance between catabolic factors and anabolic factors. These signals inversely modulate the activity of several key regulatory pathways including the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT and nuclear factor kappa B systems, which control the transcription of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway activity, the activity of caspase-3, and perhaps other proteolytic functions. When levels of insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 are insufficient or inflammatory cytokine production is increased, muscle atrophy ensues.

  13. Wnt pathway in Dupuytren disease: connecting profibrotic signals.

    PubMed

    van Beuge, Marike M; Ten Dam, Evert-Jan P M; Werker, Paul M N; Bank, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    A role of Wnt signaling in Dupuytren disease, a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, has not been fully elucidated. We examined a large set of Wnt pathway components and signaling targets and found significant dysregulation of 41 Wnt-related genes in tissue from the Dupuytren nodules compared with patient-matched control tissue. A large proportion of genes coding for Wnt proteins themselves was downregulated. However, both canonical Wnt targets and components of the noncanonical signaling pathway were upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that protein expression of Wnt1-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), a known Wnt target, was increased in nodules compared with control tissue, but knockdown of WISP1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the Dupuytren myofibroblasts did not confirm a functional role. The protein expression of noncanonical pathway components Wnt5A and VANGL2 as well as noncanonical coreceptors Ror2 and Ryk was increased in nodules. On the contrary, the strongest downregulated genes in this study were 4 antagonists of Wnt signaling (DKK1, FRZB, SFRP1, and WIF1). Downregulation of these genes in the Dupuytren tissue was mimicked in vitro by treating normal fibroblasts with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting cross talk between different profibrotic pathways. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these antagonists in normal fibroblasts led to increased nuclear translocation of Wnt target β-catenin in response to TGF-β1 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown extensive dysregulation of Wnt signaling in affected tissue from Dupuytren disease patients. Components of both the canonical and the noncanonical pathways are upregulated, whereas endogenous antagonists are downregulated, possibly via interaction with other profibrotic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative Biology of Exercise-Induced Signal Transduction Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Liu, Gang; Hu, Shao-Juan; Zhu, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Bo; Zhang, Quan-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is essential in regulating energy metabolism. Exercise activates cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways with regulatory roles in training response adaptation. Among them, endurance/strength training of an individual has been shown to activate its respective signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle. This was further studied from the viewpoint of quantitative difference (QD). For the mean values, [Formula: see text], of two sets of data, their QD is defined as [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The function-specific homeostasis (FSH) of a function of a biosystem is a negative-feedback response of the biosystem to maintain the function-specific conditions inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A function in/far from its FSH is called a normal/dysfunctional function. A cellular normal function can resist the activation of other signal transduction pathways so that there are normal function-specific signal transduction pathways which full activation maintains the normal function. An acute endurance/strength training may be dysfunctional, but its regular training may be normal. The normal endurance/strength training of an individual may resist the activation of other signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle so that there may be normal endurance/strength training-specific signal transduction pathways (NEPs/NSPs) in skeletal muscle. The endurance/strength training may activate NSPs/NEPs, but the QD from the control is smaller than 0.80. The simultaneous activation of both NSPs and NEPs may enhance their respective activation, and the QD from the control is larger than 0.80. The low level laser irradiation pretreatment of rats may promote the activation of NSPs in endurance training skeletal muscle. There may be NEPs/NSPs in skeletal muscle trained by normal endurance/strength training.

  15. Copper as a key regulator of cell signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Grubman, Alexandra; White, Anthony R

    2014-05-22

    Copper is an essential element in many biological processes. The critical functions associated with copper have resulted from evolutionary harnessing of its potent redox activity. This same property also places copper in a unique role as a key modulator of cell signal transduction pathways. These pathways are the complex sequence of molecular interactions that drive all cellular mechanisms and are often associated with the interplay of key enzymes including kinases and phosphatases but also including intracellular changes in pools of smaller molecules. A growing body of evidence is beginning to delineate the how, when and where of copper-mediated control over cell signal transduction. This has been driven by research demonstrating critical changes to copper homeostasis in many disorders including cancer and neurodegeneration and therapeutic potential through control of disease-associated cell signalling changes by modulation of copper-protein interactions. This timely review brings together for the first time the diverse actions of copper as a key regulator of cell signalling pathways and discusses the potential strategies for controlling disease-associated signalling processes using copper modulators. It is hoped that this review will provide a valuable insight into copper as a key signal regulator and stimulate further research to promote our understanding of copper in disease and therapy.

  16. Targeting the Hedgehog signaling pathway for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwei; Maitah, Ma'in Y; Ahmad, Aamir; Kong, Dejuan; Bao, Bin; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2012-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays key roles in embryonic development, formation and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and acquisition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Since CSCs and EMT are important biological factors responsible for cancer cell invasion, metastasis, drug resistance and tumor recurrence, the Hh signaling pathway is believed to be an important target for cancer therapy. In recent years, small-molecule inhibitors of Hh signaling have been synthesized for cancer treatment. Clinical trials using these inhibitors are being conducted to determine their toxicity profiles and efficacies. In addition, nutraceuticals (such as isoflavones, curcumin, vitamin D, etc) have been shown to inhibit cancer growth through downregulation of Hh signaling. Inhibition of Hh signaling is important for suppression of cancer growth, invasion, metastasis and recurrence in cancer therapy. However, targeting only one molecule in Hh signaling may not be sufficient to kill cancer cells because cancers show deregulation of multiple signals. Therefore, utilizing new technologies to determine alterations in Hh and other signals for individuals and designing combination strategies with small-molecule Hh inhibitors, nutraceuticals and other chemotherapeutics in targeted personalized therapy could have a significant effect on improving the overall survival of patients with cancers.

  17. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya; Li, Ming-Yang; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2012-09-10

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  18. FGF and Notch signaling in sensory neuron formation: a multifactorial approach to understanding signaling pathway hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Jacob E; Harvey, Jamison A; Adams, Jason S; Lassiter, Rhonda N; Stark, Michael R

    2014-11-01

    The ophthalmic trigeminal (opV) placode exclusively gives rise to sensory neurons, making it a good model to study the molecular regulation of sensory neurogenesis. A number of signaling pathways including Wnt, PDGF, FGF, and Notch have been shown to be involved in the process of opV placode cell development. However, the regulatory relationships between these signaling pathways in placode cells are still unknown and have been difficult to study experimentally. Using a novel multifactorial approach in chick embryos that allows for inhibition of FGF throughout the tissue or in individual cells, with simultaneous inactivation of Notch signaling, we investigated the potential interaction between the FGF and Notch signaling pathways in trigeminal sensory neurogenesis. This study builds on prior research describing the individual role of FGF signaling or Notch signaling in opV placode development, where blocking FGF signaling resulted in neurogenesis failure, while blocking Notch signaling resulted in enhanced neurogenesis. Reported here, blocking both pathways simultaneously resulted in a reduction in the number of cells delaminating from the opV placode and undergoing sensory neuron differentiation. Further, Notch inhibition alone did not lead to an increase in the number of cells expressing FGFR4 or in the FGFR4 expression domain, but did result in a highly fragmented basal lamina, which was reversed when blocking FGF signaling. Cumulatively, the results presented here do not support a model of Notch/FGF interdependence, rather that FGF and Notch act in parallel to promote sensory neurogenesis.

  19. Signaling Pathways in Leiomyoma: Understanding Pathobiology and Implications for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borahay, Mostafa A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Kilic, Gokhan S; Boehning, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors of the female genital tract, affecting 50% to 70% of females by the age of 50. Despite their prevalence and enormous medical and economic impact, no effective medical treatment is currently available. This is, in part, due to the poor understanding of their underlying pathobiology. Although they are thought to start as a clonal proliferation of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell, these early cytogenetic alterations are considered insufficient for tumor development and additional complex signaling pathway alterations are crucial. These include steroids, growth factors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/Smad; wingless-type (Wnt)/β-catenin, retinoic acid, vitamin D, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). An important finding is that several of these pathways converge in a summative way. For example, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways seem to act as signal integrators, incorporating input from several signaling pathways, including growth factors, estrogen and vitamin D. This underlines the multifactorial origin and complex nature of these tumors. In this review, we aim to dissect these pathways and discuss their interconnections, aberrations and role in leiomyoma pathobiology. We also aim to identify potential targets for development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25879625

  20. Hedgehog signaling pathway in small bovine ovarian follicles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in a variety of mammalian embryonic and adult tissues including bovine ovarian granulosa and theca cells. Binding of hedgehog to the patch receptor derepresses smoothened resulting in t...

  1. A graphic editor for analyzing signal-transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Koike, T; Rzhetsky, A

    2000-12-23

    We describe a graphical editor designed specifically to facilitate analysis and visualization of complex signal-transduction pathways. The editor provides automatic layout of complex regulatory graphs and enables users easily to maintain, edit, and exchange publication-quality images of regulatory networks.

  2. Cellular metabolic and autophagic pathways: traffic control by redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-10-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Controversies in cancer stem cells: targeting embryonic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Naoko; Ivy, S Percy

    2010-06-15

    Selectively targeting cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; from this point onward referred to as CSCs) with novel agents is a rapidly emerging field of oncology. Our knowledge of CSCs and their niche microenvironments remains a nascent field. CSC's critical dependence upon self-renewal makes these regulatory signaling pathways ripe for the development of experimental therapeutic agents. Investigational agents targeting the Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt pathways are currently in late preclinical development stages, with some early phase 1-2 testing in human subjects. This series of articles will provide an overview and summary of the current state of knowledge of CSCs, their interactive microenvironment, and how they may serve as important targets for antitumor therapies. We also examine the scope and stage of development of early experimental agents that specifically target these highly conserved embryonic signaling pathways.

  4. Cellular Metabolic and Autophagic Pathways: Traffic Control by Redox Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality, and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function. PMID:23702245

  5. The Role of AhR in Breast Cancer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    other cell types, galangin is a potent inhibitor of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), an environmental carcinogen-responsive transcription factor...constitutively active AhR. Constitutive and environmental chemical-inducible AhR activity was profoundly suppressed by galangin as was cell growth...However, the failure of a-naphthoflavone or FhAhRR transfection to block growth indicated that galangin -mediated AhR inhibition was either insufficient

  6. Targeting stem cell signaling pathways for drug discovery: advances in the Notch and Wnt pathways.

    PubMed

    An, Songzhu Michael; Ding, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Xie, JingYi; Li, LingSong

    2014-06-01

    Signaling pathways transduce extracellular stimuli into cells through molecular cascades to regulate cellular functions. In stem cells, a small number of pathways, notably those of TGF-β/BMP, Hedgehog, Notch, and Wnt, are responsible for the regulation of pluripotency and differentiation. During embryonic development, these pathways govern cell fate specifications as well as the formation of tissues and organs. In adulthood, their normal functions are important for tissue homeostasis and regeneration, whereas aberrations result in diseases, such as cancer and degenerative disorders. In complex biological systems, stem cell signaling pathways work in concert as a network and exhibit crosstalk, such as the negative crosstalk between Wnt and Notch. Over the past decade, genetic and genomic studies have identified a number of potential drug targets that are involved in stem cell signaling pathways. Indeed, discovery of new targets and drugs for these pathways has become one of the most active areas in both the research community and pharmaceutical industry. Remarkable progress has been made and several promising drug candidates have entered into clinical trials. This review focuses on recent advances in the discovery of novel drugs which target the Notch and Wnt pathways.

  7. Distinct Wnt signaling pathways have opposing roles in appendage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L; Weidinger, Gilbert; Riehle, Kimberly J; Hubbert, Charlotte; Major, Michael B; Fausto, Nelson; Moon, Randall T

    2007-02-01

    In contrast to mammals, lower vertebrates have a remarkable capacity to regenerate complex structures damaged by injury or disease. This process, termed epimorphic regeneration, involves progenitor cells created through the reprogramming of differentiated cells or through the activation of resident stem cells. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates progenitor cell fate and proliferation during embryonic development and stem cell function in adults, but its functional involvement in epimorphic regeneration has not been addressed. Using transgenic fish lines, we show that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in the regenerating zebrafish tail fin and is required for formation and subsequent proliferation of the progenitor cells of the blastema. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling appears to act upstream of FGF signaling, which has recently been found to be essential for fin regeneration. Intriguingly, increased Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient to augment regeneration, as tail fins regenerate faster in fish heterozygous for a loss-of-function mutation in axin1, a negative regulator of the pathway. Likewise, activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by overexpression of wnt8 increases proliferation of progenitor cells in the regenerating fin. By contrast, overexpression of wnt5b (pipetail) reduces expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, impairs proliferation of progenitors and inhibits fin regeneration. Importantly, fin regeneration is accelerated in wnt5b mutant fish. These data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes regeneration, whereas a distinct pathway activated by wnt5b acts in a negative-feedback loop to limit regeneration.

  8. Insulin signal transduction pathways and insulin-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Adam B; Amsler, Maggie O; Venable, Derwei Y; Messina, Joseph L

    2002-12-13

    Insulin regulates metabolic activity, gene transcription, and cell growth by modulating the activity of several intracellular signaling pathways. Insulin activation of one mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, the MEK/ERK kinase cascade, is well described. However, the effect of insulin on the parallel p38 pathway is less well understood. The present work examines the effect of inhibiting the p38 signaling pathway by use of specific inhibitors, either alone or in combination with insulin, on the activation of ERK1/2 and on the regulation of gene transcription in rat hepatoma cells. Activation of ERK1/2 was induced by insulin and was dependent on the activation of MEK1, the kinase upstream of ERK in this pathway. Treatment of cells with p38 inhibitors also induced ERK1/2 activation/phosphorylation. The addition of p38 inhibitors followed by insulin addition resulted in a greater than additive activation of ERK1/2. The two genes studied, c-Fos and Pip92, are immediate-early genes that are dependent on the ERK1/2 pathway for insulin-regulated induction because the insulin effect was inhibited by pretreatment with a MEK1 inhibitor. The addition of p38 inhibitors induced transcription of both genes in a dose-dependent manner, and insulin stimulation of both genes was enhanced by prior treatment with p38 inhibitors. The ability of the p38 inhibitors to induce ERK1/2 and gene transcription, both alone and in combination with insulin, was abolished by prior inhibition of MEK1. These data suggest possible cross-talk between the p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and a potential role of p38 in insulin signaling.

  9. Key cancer cell signal transduction pathways as therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Roberto; Melisi, Davide; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    Growth factor signals are propagated from the cell surface, through the action of transmembrane receptors, to intracellular effectors that control critical functions in human cancer cells, such as differentiation, growth, angiogenesis, and inhibition of cell death and apoptosis. Several kinases are involved in transduction pathways via sequential signalling activation. These kinases include transmembrane receptor kinases (e.g., epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR); or cytoplasmic kinases (e.g., PI3 kinase). In cancer cells, these signalling pathways are often altered and results in a phenotype characterized by uncontrolled growth and increased capability to invade surrounding tissue. Therefore, these crucial transduction molecules represent attractive targets for cancer therapy. This review will summarize current knowledge of key signal transduction pathways, that are altered in cancer cells, as therapeutic targets for novel selective inhibitors. The most advanced targeted agents currently under development interfere with function and expression of several signalling molecules, including the EGFR family; the vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors; and cytoplasmic kinases such as Ras, PI3K and mTOR.

  10. Power-law models of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Vera, Julio; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Wellstead, Peter; Banga, Julio R; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2007-07-01

    The mathematical modelling of signal transduction pathways has become a valuable aid to understanding the complex interactions involved in intracellular signalling mechanisms. An important aspect of the mathematical modelling process is the selection of the model type and structure. Until recently, the convention has been to use a standard kinetic model, often with the Michaelis-Menten steady state assumption. However this model form, although valuable, is only one of a number of choices, and the aim of this article is to consider the mathematical structure and essential features of an alternative model form--the power-law model. Specifically, we analyse how power-law models can be applied to increase our understanding of signal transduction pathways when there may be limited prior information. We distinguish between two kinds of power law models: a) Detailed power-law models, as a tool for investigating pathways when the structure of protein-protein interactions is completely known, and; b) Simplified power-law models, for the analysis of systems with incomplete structural information or insufficient quantitative data for generating detailed models. If sufficient data of high quality are available, the advantage of detailed power-law models is that they are more realistic representations of non-homogenous or crowded cellular environments. The advantages of the simplified power-law model formulation are illustrated using some case studies in cell signalling. In particular, the investigation on the effects of signal inhibition and feedback loops and the validation of structural hypotheses are discussed.

  11. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is Activated by Glucose and Regulates the Thrombospondin-1 Gene Promoter in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dabir, Pankaj; Marinic, Tina E.; Krukovets, Irene; Stenina, Olga I.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is an independent risk-factor for development of diabetic vascular complications. The molecular mechanisms that are activated by glucose in vascular cells and could explain the development of vascular complications are still poorly understood. A putative binding site for the transcription factor Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) was identified in the glucose-responsive fragment of the promoter of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent anti-angiogenic and pro-atherogenic protein involved in development of diabetic vascular complications. AhR was expressed in aortic endothelial cells (EC), activated and bound to the promoter in response to high glucose stimulation of EC. The constitutively active form of AhR induced activation of the TSP-1 gene promoter. In response to high glucose stimulation, AhR was found in complex with Egr-1 and AP-2, two other nuclear transcription factors activated by glucose in EC that have not been previously detected in complex with AhR. The activity of the DNA-binding complex was regulated by glucose through the activation of hexosamine pathway and intracellular glycosylation. This is the first report of activation of AhR (a receptor for xenobiotic compounds) by a physiological stimulus. This report links the activation of AhR to the pathological effects of hyperglycemia in the vasculature. PMID:18515748

  12. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova-St. Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  13. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs.

    PubMed

    Vlasova-St Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R

    2016-01-25

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP.

  14. Signaling Pathways That Control mRNA Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Denmon, Andria P.

    2013-01-01

    Cells regulate their genomes mainly at the level of transcription and at the level of mRNA decay. While regulation at the level of transcription is clearly important, the regulation of mRNA turnover by signaling networks is essential for a rapid response to external stimuli. Signaling pathways result in posttranslational modification of RNA binding proteins by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation, acetylation etc. These modifications are important for rapid remodeling of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes and triggering mRNA decay. Understanding how these posttranslational modifications alter gene expression is therefore a fundamental question in biology. In this review we highlight recent findings on how signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints involving phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and arginine methylation affect mRNA turnover. PMID:23602935

  15. Stress signaling pathways for the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Yong-Sun; Jung, Kwang-Woo

    2013-12-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. This ability is also essential for Cryptococcus neoformans and its sibling species Cryptococcus gattii, as these pathogens have saprobic and parasitic life cycles in natural and animal host environments. The ability of Cryptococcus to cause fatal meningoencephalitis is highly related to its capability to remodel and optimize its metabolic and physiological status according to external cues. These cues act through multiple stress signaling pathways through a panoply of signaling components, including receptors/sensors, small GTPases, secondary messengers, kinases, transcription factors, and other miscellaneous adaptors or regulators. In this minireview, we summarize and highlight the importance of several stress signaling pathways that influence the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus and discuss future challenges in these areas.

  16. [Signaling pathway of meiosis induced by retinoic acid during spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Ying-Ji

    2013-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an oxidative metabolite of vitamin A (retinol, ROH) and plays an important role in the spermatogenesis (as in meiosis) of mammals. In mammalian testes, RA, in combination with its retinoic acid receptor (RAR), regulates the expressions of related target genes in various types of cells at different times. It activates meiosis by up-regulating the expressions of the genes that promote meiosis and down-regulate those that inhibit it during spermatogenesis in a specific stage. The results of researches on mammalian spermatogenesis have a great application value in reproductive biology, developmental biology, and reproductive engineering. Therefore, it is of considerable significance to study the signaling pathway of RA-induced meiosis during mammalian spermatogenesis. This article presents an introduction of the RA signal transduction system and its action mechanisms, as well as an overview on the signaling pathway of RA-activated meiosis during spermatogenesis.

  17. Rewired ERK-JNK signaling pathways in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Huang, Conway; Goydos, James S; Yip, Dana; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Herlyn, Meenhard; Smalley, Keiran S M; Mahale, Alka; Eroshkin, Alexey; Aaronson, Stuart; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2007-05-01

    Constitutive activation of MEK-ERK signaling is often found in melanomas. Here, we identify a mechanism that links ERK with JNK signaling in human melanoma. Constitutively active ERK increases c-Jun transcription and stability, which are mediated by CREB and GSK3, respectively. Subsequently, c-Jun increases transcription of target genes, including RACK1, an adaptor protein that enables PKC to phosphorylate and enhance JNK activity, enforcing a feed-forward mechanism of the JNK-Jun pathway. Activated c-Jun is also responsible for elevated cyclin D1 expression, which is frequently overexpressed in human melanoma. Our data reveal that, in human melanoma, the rewired ERK signaling pathway upregulates JNK and activates the c-Jun oncogene and its downstream targets, including RACK1 and cyclin D1.

  18. Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: dietary polyphenols and signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sonia

    2008-05-01

    Prevention of cancer through dietary intervention recently has received an increasing interest, and dietary polyphenols have become not only important potential chemopreventive, but also therapeutic, natural agents. Polyphenols have been reported to interfere at the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer. They might lead to the modulation of proteins in diverse pathways and require the integration of different signals for the final chemopreventive or therapeutic effect. Polyphenols have been demonstrated to act on multiple key elements in signal transduction pathways related to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis; however, these molecular mechanisms of action are not completely characterized and many features remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the molecular basis of potential chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of dietary polyphenols with emphasis in their ability to control intracellular signalling cascades considered as relevant targets in a cancer preventive approach.

  19. Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago, glycerolipids captured the attention of biochemical researchers as novel cellular signaling entities. We now recognize that these biomolecules occupy signaling nodes critical to a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, glycerolipid-metabolizing enzymes present attractive targets for new therapies. A number of fields—ranging from neuroscience and cancer to diabetes and obesity—have elucidated the signaling properties of glycerolipids. The biochemical literature teems with newly emerging small molecule inhibitors capable of manipulating glycerolipid metabolism and signaling. This ever-expanding pool of chemical modulators appears daunting to those interested in exploiting glycerolipid-signaling pathways in their model system of choice. This review distills the current body of literature surrounding glycerolipid metabolism into a more approachable format, facilitating the application of small molecule inhibitors to novel systems. PMID:24440821

  20. Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah A; Mathews, Thomas P; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2014-08-01

    Thirty years ago, glycerolipids captured the attention of biochemical researchers as novel cellular signaling entities. We now recognize that these biomolecules occupy signaling nodes critical to a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, glycerolipid-metabolizing enzymes present attractive targets for new therapies. A number of fields-ranging from neuroscience and cancer to diabetes and obesity-have elucidated the signaling properties of glycerolipids. The biochemical literature teems with newly emerging small molecule inhibitors capable of manipulating glycerolipid metabolism and signaling. This ever-expanding pool of chemical modulators appears daunting to those interested in exploiting glycerolipid-signaling pathways in their model system of choice. This review distills the current body of literature surrounding glycerolipid metabolism into a more approachable format, facilitating the application of small molecule inhibitors to novel systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xingguo; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression.

  2. Molecular pathways: translational and therapeutic implications of the Notch signaling pathway in cancer.

    PubMed

    Previs, Rebecca A; Coleman, Robert L; Harris, Adrian L; Sood, Anil K

    2015-03-01

    Over 100 years have passed since the first observation of the notched wing phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster, and significant progress has been made to characterize the role of the Notch receptor, its ligands, downstream targets, and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. The canonical Notch pathway with four Notch receptors (Notch1-4) and five ligands (DLL1, 3-4, Jagged 1-2) is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway that plays critical roles in cell-fate determination, differentiation, development, tissue patterning, cell proliferation, and death. In cancer, these roles have a critical impact on tumor behavior and response to therapy. Because the role of Notch remains tissue and context dependent, alterations within this pathway may lead to tumor suppressive or oncogenic phenotypes. Although no FDA-approved therapies currently exist for the Notch pathway, multiple therapeutics (e.g., demcizumab, tarextumab, GSI MK-0752, R04929097, and PF63084014) have been developed to target different aspects of this pathway for both hematologic and solid malignancies. Understanding the context-specific effects of the Notch pathway will be important for individualized therapies targeting this pathway.

  3. Signaling pathways regulating cartilage growth plate formation and activity.

    PubMed

    Samsa, William E; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Guang

    2017-02-01

    The growth plate is a highly specialized and dynamic cartilage structure that serves many essential functions in skeleton patterning, growth and endochondral ossification in developing vertebrates. Major signaling pathways initiated by classical morphogens and by other systemic and tissue-specific factors are intimately involved in key aspects of growth plate development. As a corollary of these essential functions, disturbances in these pathways due to mutations or environmental factors lead to severe skeleton disorders. Here, we review these pathways and the most recent progress made in understanding their roles in chondrocyte differentiation in growth plate development and activity. Furthermore, we discuss newly uncovered pathways involved in growth plate formation, including mTOR, the circadian clock, and the COP9 signalosome.

  4. Asymptotic Analysis of the Wnt/β Signaling Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, D. T.; Goussis, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a signal transduction pathway made of proteins, which plays an important role in oncogenesis. Ethan Lee and and co-workers introduced in 2003 a detailed mathematical model of this pathway, incorporating the kinetics of protein-protein interactions, protein synthesis/degradation and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The fast/slow dynamics of Lee's system are examined here, by employing the Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) algorithm. CSP reproduces the results of the classical singular perturbation analysis in an algorithmic fashion, producing an approximation of (i) the low dimensional Slow Invariant Manifold (SIM), where the solution evolves and (ii) the reduced model that governs the flow there. The temporal variation of the dimensions of the SIM will be presented and the components of the pathway that are responsible (i) for the generation of the SIM and (ii) for driving the system on it will be identified.

  5. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paul D; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2004-01-01

    The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. PMID:15219238

  6. Estrogen receptors regulate innate immune cells and signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kovats, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Humans show strong sex differences in immunity to infection and autoimmunity, suggesting sex hormones modulate immune responses. Indeed, receptors for estrogens (ERs) regulate cells and pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, as well as immune cell development. ERs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that mediate long-range chromatin interactions and form complexes at gene regulatory elements, thus promoting epigenetic changes and transcription. ERs also participate in membrane-initiated steroid signaling to generate rapid responses. Estradiol and ER activity show profound dose- and context-dependent effects on innate immune signaling pathways and myeloid cell development. While estradiol most often promotes the production of type I interferon, innate pathways leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be enhanced or dampened by ER activity. Regulation of innate immune cells and signaling by ERs may contribute to the reported sex differences in innate immune pathways. Here we review the recent literature and highlight several molecular mechanisms by which ERs regulate the development or functional responses of innate immune cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coordinated Regulation of Signaling Pathways during Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Toby

    2016-10-01

    The functional and phenotypic diversity of macrophages has long been appreciated, and it is now clear that it reflects a complex interplay between hard-wired differentiation pathways and instructive signals in specific tissues (Lawrence T, Natoli G. 2011, Nat Rev Immunol11:750-761). Recent studies have begun to unravel the molecular basis for the integration of these intrinsic developmental pathways with extracellular signals from the tissue microenvironment that confer the distinct phenotypes of tissue-resident macrophages (Lavin Y et al. 2014. Cell159:1312-1326; Gosselin D et al. 2014. Cell159:1327-1340). Macrophage phenotype and function is particularly dynamic during inflammation or infection, as blood monocytes are recruited into tissues and differentiate into macrophages, and depending on the nature of the inflammatory stimulus, they may acquire distinct functional phenotypes (Xue J et al. 2014. Immunity40:274-288; Murray PJ et al. 2014. Immunity41:14-20). Furthermore, these functional activation states can be rapidly modified in response to a changing microenvironment. Here we will discuss several key signaling pathways that drive macrophage activation during the inflammatory response and discuss how these pathways are integrated to "fine-tune" macrophage phenotype and function.

  8. Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway mediates development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Heng; Li, Hongxing; Li, Jingmin; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Yana; Shi, Yan; Wang, Dong

    2016-10-15

    Although abnormal activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and in most HCC cell lines, the mechanism by which the Shh pathway promotes the development of HCC remains uncertain. Using a liver cancer model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) which mimics the process from liver injury, abnormal hepatocyte proliferation, and hepatocirrhosis to hepatocyte canceration, we investigated the abnormal activation of the Shh pathway by examining the expression of Shh, patched-1 (Ptch), smoothened (SMO), and glioma-associated oncogene-1 (Gli1) genes. During this process, the expression of CDK1 and cyclin B1 protein, which are two components of the M-phase promoting factor (MPF) controlling G2/M transition, was also examined to explore the potential relationship between Shh activation and cell cycle progression. We observed that the cells with Shh, Ptch, and Gli1 protein expression were mainly distributed in hyperplastic nodule, cancerous node, the epithelia of interlobular bile duct, and precancerous tissues. A gradually increasing tendency of the positive expression rate of Shh, Ptch, and Gli1 proteins in the process from the beginning normal tissue to the final cancer formation was revealed. The cyclin B1 and CDK1 expression level was higher in the DEN-induced rats as compared with normal rats, and their expression was mainly distributed in the portal area of the liver, hyperplastic nodule, cancerous node, and precancerous tissues. Our results suggested that the Shh signaling pathway is activated during liver carcinogenesis, and activated Shh signaling promotes the cell proliferation by facilitating the G2/M transition through increasing the expression of cyclin B1 and CDK1 protein, which eventually results in the development of liver cancer. Better understanding of the Shh signaling pathway in HCC may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies in inhibiting cell

  9. AHR2 morpholino knockdown reduces the toxicity of total particulate matter to zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Massarsky, Andrey; Bone, Audrey J; Dong, Wu; Hinton, David E; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2016-10-15

    The zebrafish embryo has been proposed as a 'bridge model' to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. Previous studies showed that exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) led to adverse effects in developing zebrafish, and suggested that the antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways play important roles. This study investigated the roles of these two pathways in mediating TPM toxicity. The study consisted of four experiments. In experiment I, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6h post fertilization (hpf) until 96hpf to TPM0.5 and TPM1.0 (corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0μg/mL equi-nicotine units) in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine/NAC) or a pro-oxidant (buthionine sulfoximine/BSO). In experiment II, TPM exposures were performed in embryos that were microinjected with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), AHR2, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), or CYP1B1 morpholinos, and deformities were assessed. In experiment III, embryos were exposed to TPM, and embryos/larvae were collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96hpf to assess several genes associated with the antioxidant and AHR pathways. Lastly, experiment IV assessed the activity and protein levels of CYP1A and CYP1B1 after exposure to TPM. We demonstrate that the incidence of TPM-induced deformities was generally not affected by NAC/BSO treatments or Nrf2 knockdown. In contrast, AHR2 knockdown reduced, while CYP1A or CYP1B1 knockdowns elevated the incidence of some deformities. Moreover, as shown by gene expression the AHR pathway, but not the antioxidant pathway, was induced in response to TPM exposure, providing further evidence for its importance in mediating TPM toxicity.

  10. Optogenetic control of the Dab1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Cooper, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    The Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway regulates development of the mammalian brain, including neuron migrations in various brain regions, as well as learning and memory in adults. Extracellular Reelin binds to cell surface receptors and activates phosphorylation of the intracellular Dab1 protein. Dab1 is required for most effects of Reelin, but Dab1-independent pathways may contribute. Here we developed a single-component, photoactivatable Dab1 (opto-Dab1) by using the blue light-sensitive dimerization/oligomerization property of A. thaliana Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2). Opto-Dab1 can activate downstream signals rapidly, locally, and reversibly upon blue light illumination. The high spatiotemporal resolution of the opto-Dab1 probe also allows us to control membrane protrusion, retraction and ruffling by local illumination in both COS7 cells and in primary neurons. This shows that Dab1 activation is sufficient to orient cell movement in the absence of other signals. Opto-Dab1 may be useful to study the biological functions of the Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28272509

  11. Targeting TRAF3 Downstream Signaling Pathways in B cell Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carissa R; Edwards, Shanique KE; Xie, Ping

    2015-01-01

    B cell neoplasms comprise >50% of blood cancers. However, many types of B cell malignancies remain incurable. Identification and validation of novel genetic risk factors and oncogenic signaling pathways are imperative for the development of new therapeutic strategies. We and others recently identified TRAF3, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, as a novel tumor suppressor in B lymphocytes. We found that TRAF3 inactivation results in prolonged survival of mature B cells, which eventually leads to spontaneous development of B lymphomas in mice. Corroborating our findings, TRAF3 deletions and inactivating mutations frequently occur in human B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma. In this context, we have been investigating TRAF3 signaling mechanisms in B cells, and are developing new therapeutic strategies to target TRAF3 downstream signaling pathways in B cell neoplasms. Here we discuss our new translational data that demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting TRAF3 downstream signaling pathways in B lymphoma and multiple myeloma. PMID:25960828

  12. Pathway logic modeling of protein functional domains in signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Talcott, C; Eker, S; Knapp, M; Lincoln, P; Laderoute, K

    2004-01-01

    Protein functional domains (PFDs) are consensus sequences within signaling molecules that recognize and assemble other signaling components into complexes. Here we describe the application of an approach called Pathway Logic to the symbolic modeling signal transduction networks at the level of PFDs. These models are developed using Maude, a symbolic language founded on rewriting logic. Models can be queried (analyzed) using the execution, search and model-checking tools of Maude. We show how signal transduction processes can be modeled using Maude at very different levels of abstraction involving either an overall state of a protein or its PFDs and their interactions. The key insight for the latter is our algebraic representation of binding interactions as a graph.

  13. The Ectodysplasin and NFkappaB signalling pathways in odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Jo-Maree; Blackburn, James; Sharpe, Paul T

    2005-02-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a congenital disorder affecting organs of ectodermal origin including teeth, hair and sweat glands. Defects in Ectodysplasin (tabby), Edar (downless) and Edar associated death domain (Edaradd) (crinkled) cause HED in both humans and mice. Ectodysplasin is a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member whose downstream signalling is transduced by the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex and inhibitors of kappaB (IkappaB) to activate the transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkappaB signalling is involved in a wide range of cellular processes and at each stage the different family members must be tightly regulated for each function. Recent data have demonstrated the importance of this signalling pathway in odontogenesis, particularly in the formation of cusps. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of Ectodysplasin/NFkappaB signalling in tooth development and in particular the central role of the IKK complex.

  14. Hedgehog signaling pathway: a novel model and molecular mechanisms of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Gorojankina, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has numerous roles in the control of cell proliferation, tissue patterning and stem cell maintenance. In spite of intensive study, the mechanisms of Hh signal transduction are not completely understood. Here I review published data and present a novel model of vertebrate Hh signaling suggesting that Smoothened (Smo) functions as a G-protein-coupled receptor in cilia. This is the first model to propose molecular mechanisms for the major steps of Hh signaling, including inhibition of Smo by Patched, Smo activation, and signal transduction from active Smo to Gli transcription factors. It also suggests a novel role for the negative pathway regulators Sufu and PKA in these processes.

  15. Neuregulin-1 signalling and antipsychotic treatment: potential therapeutic targets in a schizophrenia candidate signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Pan, Bo; Engel, Martin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2013-03-01

    Identifying the signalling pathways underlying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is an essential step in the rational development of new antipsychotic drugs for this devastating disease. Evidence from genetic, transgenic and post-mortem studies have strongly supported neuregulin-1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signalling as a schizophrenia susceptibility pathway. NRG1-ErbB4 signalling plays crucial roles in regulating neurodevelopment and neurotransmission, with implications for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Post-mortem studies have demonstrated altered NRG1-ErbB4 signalling in the brain of schizophrenia patients. Antipsychotic drugs have different effects on NRG1-ErbB4 signalling depending on treatment duration. Abnormal behaviours relevant to certain features of schizophrenia are displayed in NRG1/ErbB4 knockout mice or those with NRG1/ErbB4 over-expression, some of these abnormalities can be improved by antipsychotic treatment. NRG1-ErbB4 signalling has extensive interactions with the GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission systems that are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These interactions provide a number of targets for the development of new antipsychotic drugs. Furthermore, the key interaction points between NRG1-ErbB4 signalling and other schizophrenia susceptibility genes may also potentially provide specific targets for new antipsychotic drugs. In general, identification of these targets in NRG1-ErbB4 signalling and interacting pathways will provide unique opportunities for the development of new generation antipsychotics with specific efficacy and fewer side effects.

  16. Gene profiling of the red light signalling pathways in roots.

    PubMed

    Molas, Maria Lia; Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J

    2006-01-01

    Red light, acting through the phytochromes, controls numerous aspects of plant development. Many of the signal transduction elements downstream of the phytochromes have been identified in the aerial portions of the plant; however, very few elements in red-light signalling have been identified specifically for roots. Gene profiling studies using microarrays and quantitative Real-Time PCR were performed to characterize gene expression changes in roots of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. Several factors acting downstream of phytochromes in red-light signalling in roots were identified. Some of the genes found to be differentially expressed in this study have already been characterized in the red-light-signalling pathway for whole plants. For example, PHYTOCHROME KINASE 1 (PKS1), LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), and GIGANTEA (GI) were all significantly up-regulated in roots of seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. The up-regulation of SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A RESPONSES 1 (SPA1) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1-like (COP1-like) genes suggests that the PHYA-mediated pathway was attenuated by red light. In addition, genes involved in lateral root and root hair formation, root plastid development, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and hormone signalling were also regulated by exposure to red light. Interestingly, members of the RPT2/NPH3 (ROOT PHOTOTROPIC 2/NON PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3) family, which have been shown to mediate blue-light-induced phototropism, were also differentially regulated in roots in red light. Therefore, these results suggest that red and blue light pathways interact in roots of seedlings and that many elements involved in red-light-signalling found in the aerial portions of the plant are differentially expressed in roots within 1 h of red light exposure.

  17. Signaling pathways in the development of infantile hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), which is the most common tumor in infants, is a benign vascular neoplasm resulting from the abnormal proliferation of endothelial cells and pericytes. For nearly a century, researchers have noted that IH exhibits diverse and often dramatic clinical behaviors. On the one hand, most lesions pose no threat or potential for complication and resolve spontaneously without concern in most children with IH. On the other hand, approximately 10% of IHs are destructive, disfiguring and even vision- or life-threatening. Recent studies have provided some insight into the pathogenesis of these vascular tumors, leading to a better understanding of the biological features of IH and, in particular, indicating that during hemangioma neovascularization, two main pathogenic mechanisms prevail, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Both mechanisms have been linked to alterations in several important cellular signaling pathways. These pathways are of interest from a therapeutic perspective because targeting them may help to reverse, delay or prevent hemangioma neovascularization. In this review, we explore some of the major pathways implicated in IH, including the VEGF/VEGFR, Notch, β-adrenergic, Tie2/angiopoietins, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, HIF-α-mediated and PDGF/PDGF-R-β pathways. We focus on the role of these pathways in the pathogenesis of IH, how they are altered and the consequences of these abnormalities. In addition, we review the latest preclinical and clinical data on the rationally designed targeted agents that are now being directed against some of these pathways. PMID:24479731

  18. A maternal Ahr null genotype sensitizes embryos to chemical teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thomae, Tami L; Glover, Edward; Bradfield, Christopher A

    2004-07-16

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (encoded by the Ahr locus) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicology and teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin). In an effort to understand the role of the maternal compartment in dioxin teratology, we designed a breeding strategy that allowed us to compare the teratogenic response in embryos from Ahr(-/-) (null) and Ahr(+/+) (wild-type) dams. Using this strategy, we demonstrate that embryos from the Ahr(-/-) dams are 5-fold more sensitive to dioxin-induced cleft palate and hydronephrosis as compared with embryos from an Ahr(+/+) dam. Moreover, this increased teratogenic sensitivity extends beyond dioxin, because embryos from Ahr(-/-) dams exhibited a 9-fold increase in their sensitivity to the fetotoxic effects of the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. In searching for an explanation for this increased sensitivity, we found that more dioxin and dexamethasone reached the embryos from Ahr(-/-) dams as compared with embryos from Ahr(+/+) dams. We propose that increased deposition of teratogens/fetotoxicants to the embryonic compartment is the result of porto-systemic shunting and/or blocked P4501A induction in Ahr(-/-) dams. In addition to demonstrating the importance of maternal AHR in teratogenesis, these data may have implications that reach beyond the mechanism of action of dioxin. In this regard, the Ahr(-/-) mouse may provide a system that allows pharmacological agents and toxicants to be more easily studied in a model where first pass clearance is a significant obstacle.

  19. Preface: cardiac control pathways: signaling and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Sideman, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular functions and coordinates cellular activity. Transfer of ions and signaling molecules and their interactions with appropriate receptors, transmembrane transport, and the consequent intracellular interactions and functional cellular response represent a complex system of interwoven phenomena of transport, signaling, conformational changes, chemical activation, and/or genetic expression. The well-being of the cell thus depends on a harmonic orchestration of all these events and the existence of control mechanisms that assure the normal behavior of the various parameters involved and their orderly expression. The ability of cells to sustain life by perceiving and responding correctly to their microenvironment is the basis for development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Natural deviations, or human-induced interference in the signaling pathways and/or inter- and intracellular transport and information transfer, are responsible for the generation, modulation, and control of diseases. The present overview aims to highlight some major topics of the highly complex cellular information transfer processes and their control mechanisms. Our goal is to contribute to the understanding of the normal and pathophysiological phenomena associated with cardiac functions so that more efficient therapeutic modalities can be developed. Our objective in this volume is to identify and enhance the study of some basic passive and active physical and chemical transport phenomena, physiological signaling pathways, and their biological consequences.

  20. Molecular Pathways of Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Joshua; Gridley, Thomas; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC. PMID:22509166

  1. Signal transduction pathways involved in mechanotransduction in bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liedert, Astrid . E-mail: astrid.liedert@uni-ulm.de; Kaspar, Daniela; Blakytny, Robert; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2006-10-13

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies with different loading regimens showed that mechanical stimuli have an influence on proliferation and differentiation of bone cells. Prerequisite for this influence is the transduction of mechanical signals into the cell, a phenomenon that is termed mechanotransduction, which is essential for the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis in adults. Mechanoreceptors, such as the integrins, cadherins, and stretch-activated Ca{sup 2+} channels, together with various signal transduction pathways, are involved in the mechanotransduction process that ultimately regulates gene expression in the nucleus. Mechanotransduction itself is considered to be regulated by hormones, the extracellular matrix of the osteoblastic cells and the mode of the mechanical stimulus.

  2. Endosomal Signaling of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Stimulates Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2002-01-01

    In spite of intensified efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways and no evidence to demonstrate that endosomal signaling is able to produce a biological outcome. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the lack of means to generate endosomal signals without plasma membrane signaling. In this paper, we report the establishment of a system to specifically activate epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) when it endocytoses into endosomes. We treated cells with EGF in the presence of AG-1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and monensin, which blocks the recycling of EGFR. This treatment led to the internalization of nonactivated EGF-EGFR complexes into endosomes. The endosome-associated EGFR was then activated by removing AG-1478 and monensin. During this procedure we did not observe any surface EGFR phosphorylation. We also achieved specific activation of endosome-associated EGFR without using monensin. By using this system, we provided original evidence demonstrating that (i) the endosome can serve as a nucleation site for the formation of signaling complexes, (ii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to activate the major signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and survival, and (iii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to suppress apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. PMID:12242303

  3. AKAP-Lbc mobilizes a cardiac hypertrophy signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Graeme K; Soughayer, Joseph; Smith, F Donelson; Pedroja, Benjamin S; Zhang, Fang; Diviani, Dario; Bristow, Michael R; Kunkel, Maya T; Newton, Alexandra C; Langeberg, Lorene K; Scott, John D

    2008-10-24

    Elevated catecholamines in the heart evoke transcriptional activation of the Myocyte Enhancer Factor (MEF) pathway to induce a cellular response known as pathological myocardial hypertrophy. We have discovered that the A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP)-Lbc is upregulated in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. It coordinates activation and movement of signaling proteins that initiate MEF2-mediated transcriptional reprogramming events. Live-cell imaging, fluorescent kinase activity reporters, and RNA interference techniques show that AKAP-Lbc couples activation of protein kinase D (PKD) with the phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of the class II histone deacetylase HDAC5. These studies uncover a role for AKAP-Lbc in which increased expression of the anchoring protein selectively amplifies a signaling pathway that drives cardiac myocytes toward a pathophysiological outcome.

  4. Probing the canonicity of the Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Erich; Stark, Alexander; Basler, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin) and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF) in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg)-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system. PMID:28369070

  5. Probing the canonicity of the Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexandra; Shlyueva, Daria; Brunner, Erich; Stark, Alexander; Basler, Konrad

    2017-04-01

    The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin) and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF) in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg)-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system.

  6. Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC)—the most evolved brain region—subserves our highest-order cognitive abilities. However, it is also the brain region that is most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress exposure. Even quite mild acute uncontrollable stress can cause a rapid and dramatic loss of prefrontal cognitive abilities, and more prolonged stress exposure causes architectural changes in prefrontal dendrites. Recent research has begun to reveal the intracellular signalling pathways that mediate the effects of stress on the PFC. This research has provided clues as to why genetic or environmental insults that disinhibit stress signalling pathways can lead to symptoms of profound prefrontal cortical dysfunction in mental illness. PMID:19455173

  7. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Deborah; Saccomani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature progenitors primed towards T-cell development. Clinically, T-ALL patients present with diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by immature T-cell blasts high blood cell counts, mediastinal involvement, and diffusion to the central nervous system. In the past decade, the genomic landscape of T-ALL has been the target of intense research. The identification of specific genomic alterations has contributed to identify strong oncogenic drivers and signaling pathways regulating leukemia growth. Notwithstanding, T-ALL patients are still treated with high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, potentially exposing these patients to considerable acute and long-term side effects. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the signaling pathways relevant for the pathogenesis of T-ALL and the opportunities offered for targeted therapy. PMID:28872614

  8. Signaling Pathways in Pathogenesis of Diamond Blackfan Anemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    differentiation. These experiments are ongoing. This milestone is 50% completed. f. Study molecules involved in apoptotic pathways (Caspases-3, -7...Small- molecule antagonists of p53-MDM2 binding: research tools and potential therapeutics. Cell Cycle. 2004;3(4):419-421. 20. Ludwig LS, Gazda HT, Eng...Nucleotides are not only the building blocks for RNA and DNA but are also important signaling molecules ; moreover, ATP is the major source of energy in cells

  9. RNAi Induces Innate Immunity through Multiple Cellular Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Pei, Rongjuan; Xu, Yang; Yang, Dongliang; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Our previous results showed that the knockdown of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) by RNA interference (RNAi) led to upregulation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) in primary hepatocytes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the cellular signaling pathways recognizing RNA molecules may be involved the ISG stimulation by RNAi. Methods Primary murine hepatocytes (PMHs) from wild type mice and WHV transgenic (Tg) mice were prepared and treated with defined siRNAs. The mRNA levels of target genes and ISGs were detected by real-time RT-PCR. The involvement of the signaling pathways including RIG-I/MDA5, PKR, and TLR3/7/8/9 was examined by specific inhibition and the analysis of their activation by Western blotting. Results In PMHs from WHV Tg mice, specific siRNAs targeting WHV, mouse β-actin, and GAPDH reduced the levels of targeted mRNAs and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-β, MxA, and IP-10. The enhanced ISG expression by siRNA transfection were abolished by siRNA-specific 2′-O-methyl antisense RNA and the inhibitors 2-AP and chloroquine blocking PKR and other TLR-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, Western blotting revealed that RNAi results in an increase in PKR phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 and NF-êB, indicating the possible role of IRF3 in the RNAi-directed induction of ISGs. In contrast, silencing of RIG-I and MDA5 failed to block RNAi-mediated MxA induction. Conclusions RNAi is capable of enhancing innate immune responses through the PKR- and TLR-dependent signaling pathways in primary hepatocytes. The immune stimulation by RNAi may contribute to the antiviral activity of siRNAs in vivo. PMID:23700487

  10. Targeting the Hedgehog signaling pathway in cancer: beyond Smoothened.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Annelies; Isebaert, Sofie; Haustermans, Karin

    2015-06-10

    An essential role for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in human cancer has been established beyond doubt. At present, targeting Hh signaling has mainly been investigated with SMO inhibitors. Unfortunately, resistance against currently used SMO inhibitors has already been observed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients. Therefore, the use of Hh inhibitors targeting the signaling cascade more downstream of SMO could represent a more promising strategy. Furthermore, besides the classical canonical way of Hh signaling activation, non-canonical activation of the GLI transcription factors by multiple important signaling pathways (e.g. MAPK, PI3K, TGFβ) has also been described, pinpointing the importance of targeting the transcription factors GLI1/2. The most promising agent in this context is probably the GLI1/2 inhibitor GANT61 which has been investigated preclinically in numerous tumor types in the last few years. In this review, the emerging role of Hh signaling in cancer is critically evaluated focusing on the potential of targeting Hh signaling more downstream of SMO, i.e. at the level of the GLI transcription factors. Furthermore, the working mechanism and therapeutic potential of the most extensively studied GLI inhibitor in human cancer, i.e. GANT61, is discussed in detail. In conclusion, GANT61 appears to be highly effective against human cancer cells and in xenograft mouse models, targeting almost all of the classical hallmarks of cancer and could hence represent a promising treatment option for human cancer.

  11. Color signals through dorsal and ventral visual pathways

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Explanations for color phenomena are often sought in the retina, LGN and V1, yet it is becoming increasingly clear that a complete account will take us further along the visual-processing pathway. Working out which areas are involved is not trivial. Responses to S-cone activation are often assumed to indicate that an area or neuron is involved in color perception. However, work tracing S-cone signals into extrastriate cortex has challenged this assumption: S-cone responses have been found in brain regions, such as MT, not thought to play a major role in color perception. Here we review the processing of S-cone signals across cortex and present original data on S-cone responses measured with fMRI in alert macaque, focusing on one area in which S-cone signals seem likely to contribute to color (V4/posterior inferior temporal cortex), and on one area in which S signals are unlikely to play a role in color (MT). We advance a hypothesis that the S-cone signals in color-computing areas are required to achieve a balanced neural representation of perceptual color space, while the S-cone signals in non-color-areas provide a cue to illumination (not luminance) and confer sensitivity to the chromatic contrast generated by natural daylight (shadows, illuminated by ambient sky, surrounded by direct sunlight). This sensitivity would facilitate the extraction of shape-from-shadow signals to benefit global scene analysis and motion perception. PMID:24103417

  12. Regression of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y. James

    2012-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. PMID:22750195

  13. Crosstalk of Oncogenic Signaling Pathways during Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephan; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell transformation have been well-documented in multiple cancer cell models and are believed to be one of the earliest events in tumor progression. Genetic and epigenetic modifications shift cells toward either end of the EMT spectrum, and can be influenced by the microenvironment surrounding a tumor. EMT and mesenchymal–epithelial transition are critical to normal function and development and an intricate network of transcription factors and transcriptional regulators tightly regulates these processes. As evidenced in normal and transformed cell lines, many signaling pathways trigger EMT during development and differentiation. The signaling pathways include those triggered by different members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor, Wnt, Notch, and many others. Functional redundancies allow cells to undergo EMT even if these key transcriptional regulators are lacking, but these same redundancies also make these pathways particularly susceptible to gain-of-function mutations or constitutive signal activation; the “forced” transition toward either a mesenchymal or epithelial phenotype. PMID:25566498

  14. Regulation of Hh/Gli signaling by dual ubiquitin pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin

    2006-11-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs cell growth and patterning in animal development. Malfunction of several pathway components, including the key transcriptional effector Ci/Gli proteins, leads to a variety of human disorders including several malignancies. Ci/Gli activity is controlled by multi-layered regulatory mechanisms, the most prominent of which is the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In the absence of Hh, Ci/Gli is proteolytically processed into a truncated form that functions as a transcriptional repressor of the Hh pathway. Ci processing is mediated by an SCF (Skip1/Cul1/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase in which the F-box protein Slimb/beta-TRCP bridges Ci to the ubiquitin ligase. Recent studies in Drosophila and mammalian cultured cells have demonstrated that sequential phosphorylation of Ci/Gli by PKA, GSK3, and CKI creates multiple docking sites that can recruit SCF(Slimb/beta-TRCP), which then promotes Ci/Gli ubiquitination followed by proteasome-mediated processing. Recently, an E3 ubiquitin ligase consisting of the BTB (Broad Complex, Tramtrack, and Bric a Brac) protein HIB (Hh induced MATH and BTB protein) and Cullin 3 (Cul3) has been identified that acts in a negative feedback loop to fine-tune Hh signaling responses by degrading full length Ci. In eye imaginal discs where Hh signals coordinate cell proliferation and differentiation, HIB is highly expressed in the differentiating cells to prevent aberrant Hh signaling activity and ensure normal eye development. Tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of HIB and its homologs in vertebrates may provide a conserved mechanism for ensuring precision in spatial and temporal control of Hh signaling.

  15. Dissecting Nck/Dock Signaling Pathways in Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of neuronal connections during embryonic development requires the precise guidance and targeting of the neuronal growth cone, an expanded cellular structure at the leading tip of a growing axon. The growth cone contains sophisticated signaling systems that allow the rapid communication between guidance receptors and the actin cytoskeleton in generating directed motility. Previous studies demonstrated a specific role for the Nck/Dock SH2/SH3 adapter protein in photoreceptor (R cell) axon guidance and target recognition in the Drosophila visual system, suggesting strongly that Nck/Dock is one of the long-sought missing links between cell surface receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, I discuss the recent progress on dissecting the Nck/Dock signaling pathways in R-cell growth cones. These studies have identified additional key components of the Nck/Dock signaling pathways for linking the receptor signaling to the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling growth-cone motility. PMID:15951852

  16. JAK/STAT Pathways in Cytokine Signaling and Myeloproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jatiani, Shashidhar S.; Baker, Stacey J.; Silverman, Lewis R.; Reddy, E. Premkumar

    2010-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative result of intricately regulated signaling pathways that are mediated by cytokines and their receptors. Studies conducted over the past 10 to 15 years have revealed that hematopoietic cytokine receptor signaling is largely mediated by a family of tyrosine kinases termed Janus kinases (JAKs) and their downstream transcription factors, termed STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription). Aberrations in these pathways, such as those caused by the recently identified JAK2V617F mutation and translocations of the JAK2 gene, are underlying causes of leukemias and other myeloproliferative disorders. This review discusses the role of JAK/STAT signaling in normal hematopoiesis as well as genetic abnormalities associated with myeloproliferative and myelodisplastic syndromes. This review also summarizes the status of several small molecule JAK2 inhibitors that are currently at various stages of clinical development. Several of these compounds appear to improve the quality of life of patients with myeloproliferative disorders by palliation of disease-related symptoms. However, to date, these agents do not seem to significantly affect bone marrow fibrosis, alter marrow histopathology, reverse cytopenias, reduce red cell transfusion requirements, or significantly reduce allele burden. These results suggest the possibility that additional mutational events might be associated with the development of these neoplasms, and indicate the need for combination therapies as the nature and significance of these additional molecular events is better understood. PMID:21442038

  17. Pentagone internalises glypicans to fine-tune multiple signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Mark; Vuilleumier, Robin; Springhorn, Alexander; Gawlik, Jennifer; Pyrowolakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Tight regulation of signalling activity is crucial for proper tissue patterning and growth. Here we investigate the function of Pentagone (Pent), a secreted protein that acts in a regulatory feedback during establishment and maintenance of BMP/Dpp morphogen signalling during Drosophila wing development. We show that Pent internalises the Dpp co-receptors, the glypicans Dally and Dally-like protein (Dlp), and propose that this internalisation is important in the establishment of a long range Dpp gradient. Pent-induced endocytosis and degradation of glypicans requires dynamin- and Rab5, but not clathrin or active BMP signalling. Thus, Pent modifies the ability of cells to trap and transduce BMP by fine-tuning the levels of the BMP reception system at the plasma membrane. In addition, and in accordance with the role of glypicans in multiple signalling pathways, we establish a requirement of Pent for Wg signalling. Our data propose a novel mechanism by which morphogen signalling is regulated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13301.001 PMID:27269283

  18. Signal Transduction Pathways of TNAP: Molecular Network Analyses.

    PubMed

    Négyessy, László; Györffy, Balázs; Hanics, János; Bányai, Mihály; Fonta, Caroline; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence pointing on the involvement of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in brain function and diseases like epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, our understanding about the role of TNAP in the regulation of neurotransmission is severely limited. The aim of our study was to integrate the fragmented knowledge into a comprehensive view regarding neuronal functions of TNAP using objective tools. As a model we used the signal transduction molecular network of a pyramidal neuron after complementing with TNAP related data and performed the analysis using graph theoretic tools. The analyses show that TNAP is in the crossroad of numerous pathways and therefore is one of the key players of the neuronal signal transduction network. Through many of its connections, most notably with molecules of the purinergic system, TNAP serves as a controller by funnelling signal flow towards a subset of molecules. TNAP also appears as the source of signal to be spread via interactions with molecules involved among others in neurodegeneration. Cluster analyses identified TNAP as part of the second messenger signalling cascade. However, TNAP also forms connections with other functional groups involved in neuronal signal transduction. The results indicate the distinct ways of involvement of TNAP in multiple neuronal functions and diseases.

  19. ERK and Akt signaling pathways function through parallel mechanisms to promote mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Jeremiah N.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that, when present in a complex referred to as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), acts as an important regulator of growth and metabolism. The activity of the complex is regulated through multiple upstream signaling pathways, including those involving Akt and the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK). Previous studies have shown that, in part, Akt and ERK promote mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylation of a GTPase activator protein (GAP), referred to as tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), that acts as an upstream inhibitor of mTORC1. In the present study we extend the earlier studies to show that activation of the Akt and ERK pathways acts in a synergistic manner to promote mTORC1 signaling. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Akt and ERK signaling pathways converge on TSC2, and that Akt phosphorylates residues on TSC2 distinct from those phosphorylated by ERK. The results also suggest that leucine-induced stimulation of mTORC1 signaling occurs through a mechanism distinct from TSC2 and the Akt and ERK signaling pathways. Overall, the results are consistent with a model in which Akt and ERK phosphorylate distinct sites on TSC2, leading to greater repression of its GAP activity, and consequently a magnified stimulation of mTORC1 signaling, when compared with either input alone. The results further suggest that leucine acts through a mechanism distinct from TSC2 to stimulate mTORC1 signaling. PMID:21289294

  20. Bidirectional signaling in the competence regulatory pathway of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Son, Minjun; Shields, Robert C; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A; Hagen, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans expresses comX (also known as sigX), which encodes a sigma factor that is required for development of genetic competence, in response to the peptide signals XIP and CSP and environmental factors. XIP (sigX inducing peptide) is derived from ComS and activates comX unimodally in chemically defined media via the ComRS system. CSP (competence stimulating peptide) activates comX bimodally in peptide-rich media through the ComDE two-component system. However, CSP-ComDE activation of comX is indirect and involves ComRS. Therefore, the bimodality of CSP-dependent activation of comX may arise from either ComRS or ComDE. Here we study, at the single-cell level, how genes in the CSP signaling pathway respond to CSP, XIP and media. Our data indicate that activation of comX stimulates expression of comE. In addition, activation of comE requires intact comR and comS genes. Therefore, not only does CSP-ComDE stimulate the ComRS pathway to activate comX expression, but ComRS activation of comX also stimulates expression of the CSP-ComDE pathway and its regulon. The results demonstrate the mutual interconnection of the signaling pathways that control bacteriocin expression (ComDE) and genetic competence (ComRS), both of which are linked to lytic and virulence behaviors.

  1. Sensing relative signal in the Tgf-β/Smad pathway

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Christopher L.; Yarka, Clare; Nunns, Harry; Goentoro, Lea

    2017-01-01

    How signaling pathways function reliably despite cellular variation remains a question in many systems. In the transforming growth factor-β (Tgf-β) pathway, exposure to ligand stimulates nuclear localization of Smad proteins, which then regulate target gene expression. Examining Smad3 dynamics in live reporter cells, we found evidence for fold-change detection. Although the level of nuclear Smad3 varied across cells, the fold change in the level of nuclear Smad3 was a more precise outcome of ligand stimulation. The precision of the fold-change response was observed throughout the signaling duration and across Tgf-β doses, and significantly increased the information transduction capacity of the pathway. Using single-molecule FISH, we further observed that expression of Smad3 target genes (ctgf, snai1, and wnt9a) correlated more strongly with the fold change, rather than the level, of nuclear Smad3. These findings suggest that some target genes sense Smad3 level relative to background, as a strategy for coping with cellular noise. PMID:28320972

  2. Astaxanthin induces angiogenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yangyang; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether astaxanthin contributes to induce angiogenesis and its mechanisms. To this end, we examined the role of astaxanthin on human brain microvascular endothelial cell line (HBMEC) and rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC) proliferation, invasion and tube formation in vitro. For study of mechanism, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor IWR-1-endo was used. HMBECs and RASMCs proliferation were tested by cell counting. Scratch adhesion test was used to assess the ability of invasion. A matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation in HMBECs and RASMCs were tested by Western blot. Our data suggested that astaxanthin induces angiogenesis by increasing proliferation, invasion and tube formation in vitro. Wnt and β-catenin expression were increased by astaxanthin and counteracted by IWR-1-endo in HMBECs and RASMCs. Tube formation was increased by astaxanthin and counteracted by IWR-1-endo. It may be suggested that astaxanthin induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programmed Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Signaling Pathways Involved in Lunar Dust Induced Cytotoxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Zalesak, Selina; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (< 3 micron), that is respirable. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the toxicity of Apollo moon dust in rodents to assess the health risk of dust exposures to humans. One of the particular interests in the study is to evaluate dust-induced changes of the expression of fibrosis-related genes, and to identify specific signaling pathways involved in lunar dust-induced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.1, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from the blood or lung tissue after being lavaged, using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The Rat Fibrosis RT2 Profile PCR Array was used to profile the expression of 84 genes relevant to fibrosis. The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool to determine the signaling pathways with significant changes.

  4. Connecting proline metabolism and signaling pathways in plant senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Becker, Donald F.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid proline has a unique biological role in stress adaptation. Proline metabolism is manipulated under stress by multiple and complex regulatory pathways and can profoundly influence cell death and survival in microorganisms, plants, and animals. Though the effects of proline are mediated by diverse signaling pathways, a common theme appears to be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to proline oxidation being coupled to the respiratory electron transport chain. Considerable research has been devoted to understand how plants exploit proline metabolism in response to abiotic and biotic stress. Here, we review potential mechanisms by which proline metabolism influences plant senescence, namely in the petal and leaf. Recent studies of petal senescence suggest proline content is manipulated to meet energy demands of senescing cells. In the flower and leaf, proline metabolism may influence ROS signaling pathways that delay senescence progression. Future studies focusing on the mechanisms by which proline metabolic shifts occur during senescence may lead to novel methods to rescue crops under stress and to preserve post-harvest agricultural products. PMID:26347750

  5. Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Pathway Activation in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    ENGLER, CHRISTOPH; CHAKRAVARTI, SHUKTI; DOYLE, JEFFERSON; EBERHART, CHARLES G.; MENG, HUAN; STARK, WALTER J.; KELLIHER, CLARE; JUN, ALBERT S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway markers in the epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas. DESIGN Retrospective, comparative case series of laboratory specimens. METHODS Immunohistochemistry results for TGFβ2, total TGFβ, mothers against decacentaplegic homolog (Smad) 2, and phosphorylated Smad2 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of keratoconus patient corneas and normal corneas from human autopsy eyes. Keratoconus patient corneas were divided in two groups, depending on their severity based on keratometer readings and pachymetry. Autopsy controls were age-matched with the keratoconus cases. Immunohistochemistry signal quantification was performed using automated software. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed on total ribonucleic acid of epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas and autopsy control corneas. RESULTS Immunohistochemistry quantification showed a significant increase in mean signal in the group of severe keratoconus cases compared with normal corneas for TGFβ2 and phosphorylated Smad2 (P < .05). Immunohistochemistry analysis using antibodies against total TGFβ and Smad2 did not show any significant increase in the keratoconus cases versus the autopsy controls. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction exhibited elevated messenger ribonucleic acid levels of Smad2 and TGFβ2 in severe keratoconus corneal epithelium. CONCLUSIONS This work shows increased TGFβ pathway markers in severe keratoconus cases and provides the rationale for investigating TGFβ signaling further in the pathophysiology of keratoconus. PMID:21310385

  6. The interactions of flavonoids within neuronal signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary phytochemicals, in particular flavonoids, may exert beneficial effects in the central nervous system by protecting neurons against stress-induced injury, by suppressing neuroinflammation and by promoting neurocognitive performance, through changes in synaptic plasticity. It is likely that flavonoids exert such effects in neurons, through selective actions on different components within a number of protein kinase and lipid kinase signalling cascades, such as phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase. This review details the potential inhibitory or stimulatory actions of flavonoids within these pathways, and describes how such interactions are likely to affect cellular function through changes in the activation state of target molecules and/or by modulating gene expression. Although, precise sites of action are presently unknown, their abilities to: (1) bind to ATP binding sites on enzymes and receptors; (2) modulate the activity of kinases directly; (3) affect the function of important phosphatases; (4) preserve neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis; and (5) modulate signalling cascades lying downstream of kinases, are explored. Future research directions are outlined in relation to their precise site(s) of action within the signalling pathways and the sequence of events that allow them to regulate neuronal function in the central nervous system. PMID:18850181

  7. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  8. ROS signaling pathways and biological rhythms: perspectives in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Fanjul-Moles, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews concepts regarding the endogenous circadian clock and the relationship between oxidative stress (OS), light and entrainment in different organisms including crustaceans, particularly crayfish. In the first section, the molecular control of circadian rhythms in invertebrates, particularly in Drosophila, is reviewed, and this model is contrasted with recent reports on the circadian genes and proteins in crayfish. Second, the redox mechanisms and signaling pathways that participate in the entrainment of the circadian clock in different organisms are reviewed. Finally, the light signals and transduction pathways involved in the entrainment of the circadian clock, specifically in relation to cryptochromes (CRYs) and their dual role in the circadian clock of different animal groups and their possible relationship to the circadian clock and redox mechanisms in crustaceans is discussed. The relationship between metabolism, ROS signals and transcription factors, such as HIF-1 alpha in crayfish, as well as the possibility that HIF-1 alpha participates in the regulation of circadian control genes (ccgs) in crustaceans is discussed.

  9. Hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Racz, Boglarka; Reglodi, Dora; Fodor, Barnabas; Gasz, Balazs; Lubics, Andrea; Gallyas, Ferenc; Roth, Erzsebet; Borsiczky, Balazs

    2007-06-01

    Articular chondrocytes have a well-developed osmoregulatory system that enables cells to survive in a constantly changing osmotic environment. However, osmotic loading exceeding that occurring under physiological conditions severely compromises chondrocyte function and leads to degenerative changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the form of cell death and changes in apoptotic signaling pathways under hyperosmotic stress using a primary chondrocyte culture. Cell viability and apoptosis assays performed with annexin V and propidium iodide staining showed that a highly hyperosmotic medium (600 mOsm) severely reduced chondrocyte viability and led mainly to apoptotic cell death, while elevating osmotic pressure within the physiological range caused no changes compared to isosmotic conditions. Western blot analysis revealed that a 600 mOsm hyperosmotic environment induced the activation of proapoptotic members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, and led to an increased level of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Hyperosmotic stress also induced the activation of caspase-3. In summary, our results show that hyperosmotic stress leads to mainly apoptotic cell death via the involvement of proapoptotic signaling pathways in a primary chondrocyte culture.

  10. The Gq signalling pathway inhibits brown and beige adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Klepac, Katarina; Kilić, Ana; Gnad, Thorsten; Brown, Loren M.; Herrmann, Beate; Wilderman, Andrea; Balkow, Aileen; Glöde, Anja; Simon, Katharina; Lidell, Martin E.; Betz, Matthias J.; Enerbäck, Sven; Wess, Jürgen; Freichel, Marc; Blüher, Matthias; König, Gabi; Kostenis, Evi; Insel, Paul A.; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates nutritional energy as heat via the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and BAT activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Here we profile G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in brown adipocytes to identify druggable regulators of BAT. Twenty-one per cent of the GPCRs link to the Gq family, and inhibition of Gq signalling enhances differentiation of human and murine brown adipocytes. In contrast, activation of Gq signalling abrogates brown adipogenesis. We further identify the endothelin/Ednra pathway as an autocrine activator of Gq signalling in brown adipocytes. Expression of a constitutively active Gq protein in mice reduces UCP1 expression in BAT, whole-body energy expenditure and the number of brown-like/beige cells in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, expression of Gq in human WAT inversely correlates with UCP1 expression. Thus, our data indicate that Gq signalling regulates brown/beige adipocytes and inhibition of Gq signalling may be a novel therapeutic approach to combat obesity. PMID:26955961

  11. The Gq signalling pathway inhibits brown and beige adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Klepac, Katarina; Kilić, Ana; Gnad, Thorsten; Brown, Loren M; Herrmann, Beate; Wilderman, Andrea; Balkow, Aileen; Glöde, Anja; Simon, Katharina; Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven; Wess, Jürgen; Freichel, Marc; Blüher, Matthias; König, Gabi; Kostenis, Evi; Insel, Paul A; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2016-03-09

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates nutritional energy as heat via the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and BAT activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Here we profile G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in brown adipocytes to identify druggable regulators of BAT. Twenty-one per cent of the GPCRs link to the Gq family, and inhibition of Gq signalling enhances differentiation of human and murine brown adipocytes. In contrast, activation of Gq signalling abrogates brown adipogenesis. We further identify the endothelin/Ednra pathway as an autocrine activator of Gq signalling in brown adipocytes. Expression of a constitutively active Gq protein in mice reduces UCP1 expression in BAT, whole-body energy expenditure and the number of brown-like/beige cells in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, expression of Gq in human WAT inversely correlates with UCP1 expression. Thus, our data indicate that Gq signalling regulates brown/beige adipocytes and inhibition of Gq signalling may be a novel therapeutic approach to combat obesity.

  12. Notch Signaling Pathway Regulates Progesterone Secretion in Murine Luteal Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Dong, Qiming; Bao, Riqiang; Lv, Qiulan; Tang, Min; Hu, Chuan; Li, Gang; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Chunping

    2015-10-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which involves in various cell life activities. Other studies and our report showed that the Notch signaling plays very important role in follicle development in mammalian ovaries. In luteal cells, Notch ligand, delta-like ligand 4, is involved in normal luteal vasculature. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with Notch signaling inhibitors, L-658,458 and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester (DAPT). We found that L-658,458 and DAPT treatment decrease basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone secretion. On the contrary, overexpression of intracellular domain of Notch3 increased basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone secretion. Further studies demonstrated that Notch signaling regulated the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11A, 2 key enzymes for progesterone synthesis. In conclusion, Notch signaling plays important role in regulating progesterone secretion in murine luteal cells.

  13. Distinct purinergic signaling pathways in prepubescent mouse spermatogonia

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Nadine; Bruentgens, Felicitas; Geilenkirchen, Petra; Machado, Patricia A.; Veitinger, Thomas; Veitinger, Sophie; Lipartowski, Susanne M.; Engelhardt, Corinna H.; Oldiges, Marco; Spehr, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis ranks among the most complex, yet least understood, developmental processes. The physiological principles that control male germ cell development in mammals are notoriously difficult to unravel, given the intricate anatomy and complex endo- and paracrinology of the testis. Accordingly, we lack a conceptual understanding of the basic signaling mechanisms within the testis, which control the seminiferous epithelial cycle and thus govern spermatogenesis. Here, we address paracrine signal transduction in undifferentiated male germ cells from an electrophysiological perspective. We identify distinct purinergic signaling pathways in prepubescent mouse spermatogonia, both in vitro and in situ. ATP—a dynamic, widespread, and evolutionary conserved mediator of cell to cell communication in various developmental contexts—activates at least two different spermatogonial purinoceptor isoforms. Both receptors operate within nonoverlapping stimulus concentration ranges, display distinct response kinetics and, in the juvenile seminiferous cord, are uniquely expressed in spermatogonia. We further find that spermatogonia express Ca2+-activated large-conductance K+ channels that appear to function as a safeguard against prolonged ATP-dependent depolarization. Quantitative purine measurements additionally suggest testicular ATP-induced ATP release, a mechanism that could increase the paracrine radius of initially localized signaling events. Moreover, we establish a novel seminiferous tubule slice preparation that allows targeted electrophysiological recordings from identified testicular cell types in an intact epithelial environment. This unique approach not only confirms our in vitro findings, but also supports the notion of purinergic signaling during the early stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:27574293

  14. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Severson, Paul L.; Kulak, Mikhail V.; Futscher, Bernard W.; Domann, Frederick E.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O2 prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. PMID:24355420

  15. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Severson, Paul L; Kulak, Mikhail V; Futscher, Bernard W; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O2 prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of signaling pathways by tanshinones in different cancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Qureshi, M Z; Romero, M A; Khalid, S; Aras, A; Ozbey, U; Farooqi, A A

    2017-09-30

    Past several years have witnessed dramatic leaps in our understanding of rewiring of gene expression at the translation level during cancer developmentthat provides linchpin support to the transformed phenotype. Most recent and ground-breaking developments in the field of molecular oncology aredriven by an explosion in technological advancements and have started to reveal previously unimagined regulatory mechanisms and how they intricately co-ordinate to modulate cancer progression, loss of apoptosis and development of resistance against different therapeutics. However, the insights gained from work in this natural product research have far-reaching impact because of rapidly increasing repertoire of medicinally and biologically efficient phytochemicals. How Tanshinones mediate targeting of JAK-STAT, ER stress associated signaling cascade,PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway,autophagy, TRAIL pathway and microRNAs are being discovered and will prove to be helpful in getting a step closer to personalized medicine.

  17. G protein diversity and the regulation of signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Reed, R R

    1990-11-01

    The subunits of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins mediate the transfer of information from receptor to effector molecules. Biochemical studies and recent molecular cloning efforts have revealed a rich but largely unexpected diversity in G protein subunit structure and function. Extreme specificity in signaling pathways could be accommodated by the combinatorial association of individual subunits. Alternatively, this wealth of diversity may allow for the simultaneous activation of related G alpha subunits and the modulation of several effector systems. In tissues where the subunits are expressed at different levels, activation of receptors could stimulate distinct effector pathways. Mutations in individual subunits as well as alterations in their level of expression can lead to profound physiological changes. The mechanisms that underlie these changes are being elucidated and will provide insight into the complex regulatory processes associated with the large G protein subunit family.

  18. Regulation of Piezo Channels by Cellular Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, I; Rohacs, T

    2017-01-01

    The recently identified mechanically activated Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels play major roles in various aspects of mechanosensation in mammals, and their mutations are associated with human diseases. Recent reports show that activation of cell surface receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gq proteins increase the sensitivity of Piezo2 channels to mechanical stimuli. Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway was also shown to potentiate Piezo2 channel activity. This phenomenon may play a role in mechanical allodynia or hyperalgesia during inflammation. Both Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels are inhibited upon depletion of plasma membrane phosphoinositides, in response to phospholipase C activation by Ca(2+) influx via the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels. This review will discuss current knowledge on regulation of Piezo channels by these intracellular signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunological Relevance of the Coevolution of IDO1 and AHR

    PubMed Central

    Jaronen, Merja; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor initially identified because of its role in controlling the cellular response to environmental molecules. More recently, AHR has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling innate and adaptive immune responses through several mechanisms, one of which is the regulation of tryptophan metabolism. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are considered rate-limiting enzymes in the tryptophan catabolism and play important roles in the regulation of the immunity. Moreover, AHR and IDO/TDO are closely interconnected: AHR regulates IDO and TDO expression, and kynurenine produced by IDO/TDO is an AHR agonist. In this review, we propose to examine the relationship between AHR and IDO/TDO and its relevance for the regulation of the immune response in health and disease. PMID:25368620

  20. General secretion signal for the mycobacterial type VII secretion pathway

    PubMed Central

    Daleke, Maria H.; Ummels, Roy; Bawono, Punto; Heringa, Jaap; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Luirink, Joen; Bitter, Wilbert

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterial pathogens use specialized type VII secretion (T7S) systems to transport crucial virulence factors across their unusual cell envelope into infected host cells. These virulence factors lack classical secretion signals and the mechanism of substrate recognition is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the model T7S substrates PE25/PPE41, which form a heterodimer, are targeted to the T7S pathway ESX-5 by a signal located in the C terminus of PE25. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues within this C terminus resulted in the identification of a highly conserved motif, i.e., YxxxD/E, which is required for secretion. This motif was also essential for the secretion of LipY, another ESX-5 substrate. Pathogenic mycobacteria have several different T7S systems and we identified a PE protein that is secreted by the ESX-1 system, which allowed us to compare substrate recognition of these two T7S systems. Surprisingly, this ESX-1 substrate contained a C-terminal signal functionally equivalent to that of PE25. Exchange of these C-terminal secretion signals between the PE proteins restored secretion, but each PE protein remained secreted via its own ESX secretion system, indicating that an additional signal(s) provides system specificity. Remarkably, the YxxxD/E motif was also present in and required for efficient secretion of the ESX-1 substrates CFP-10 and EspB. Therefore, our data show that the YxxxD/E motif is a general secretion signal that is present in all known mycobacterial T7S substrates or substrate complexes. PMID:22733768

  1. Biphasic Role of Calcium in Mouse Sperm Capacitation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Alvau, Antonio; Escoffier, Jessica; Krapf, Dario; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Salicioni, Ana M.; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing ability in the female tract in a process known as capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation is associated with up-regulation of a cAMP-dependent pathway, changes in intracellular pH, intracellular Ca2+ and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. How these signaling systems interact during capacitation is not well understood. Results presented in this study indicate that Ca2+ ions have a biphasic role in the regulation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Media without added Ca2+ salts (nominal zero Ca2+) still contain micromolar concentrations of this ion. Sperm incubated in this medium did not undergo PKA activation or the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that these phosphorylation pathways require Ca2+. However, chelation of the extracellular Ca2+ traces by EGTA induced both cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The EGTA effect in nominal zero Ca2+ media was mimicked by two calmodulin antagonists, W7 and calmidazolium, and by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A. These results suggest that Ca2+ ions regulate sperm cAMP and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in a biphasic manner and that some of its effects are mediated by calmodulin. Interestingly, contrary to wild type mouse sperm, sperm from CatSper1 KO mice underwent PKA activation and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation upon incubation in nominal zero Ca2+ media. Therefore, sperm lacking Catsper Ca2+ channels behave as wild-type sperm incubated in the presence of EGTA. This latter result suggests that Catsper transports the Ca2+ involved in the regulation of cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways required for sperm capacitation. PMID:25597298

  2. Miltefosine Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis by Activating AMPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yaqin; Tong, Xing; Li, Kexue; Bai, Hui; Li, Xiaoyu; Ben, Jingjing; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Qing; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been accepted that AMPK (Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase) activation exhibits many beneficial effects on glucolipid metabolism. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an important lysophospholipid which can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic mice and attenuate inflammation by activating AMPK signal pathway in macrophages. Synthetic alkylphospholipids (ALPs), such as miltefosine, is used as an alternate of LPC for the clinical application. Here, we investigated whether miltefosine could have an impact on hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders. Experimental Approach Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to generate an obese model. Next, the obese mice were randomly divided into three groups: saline-treated and miltefosine-treated (2.5 or 5 mg/kg/d) groups. Miltefosine was intraperitoneally administrated into mice for additional 4 weeks plus HFD treatment. Key Results It was shown that miltefosine treatment could substantially improve glucose metabolism, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation, and inhibited liver inflammation in HFD-fed mice by activating AMPK signal pathway. In vitro, miltefosine stimulated AMPKα phosphorylation both in time and dose dependent manner and decreased lipid accumulation in liver cells. When a specific AMPK inhibitor compound C was used to treat mice, the antagonistic effects of miltefosine on HFD-induced mouse hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis were abolished. Treatment with miltefosine also dramatically inhibited the HFD-induced liver inflammation in mice. Conclusions and Implications Here we demonstrated that miltefosine might be a new activator of AMPK signal pathway in vivo and in vitro and be useful for treatment of hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27681040

  3. Multiparticle collision dynamics for diffusion-influenced signaling pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehl, R.; Rohlf, K.

    2016-08-01

    An efficient yet accurate simulation method for modeling diffusion-influenced reaction networks is presented. The method extends existing reactive multiparticle collision dynamics by incorporating species-dependent diffusion coefficients, and developing theoretical expressions for the reactant-dependent diffusion control. This off-lattice particle-based mesoscopic simulation tool is particularly suited for problems in which detailed descriptions of particle trajectories and local reactions are required. Numerical simulations of an intracellular signaling pathway for bacterial chemotaxis are carried out to validate our approach, and to demonstrate its efficiency.

  4. To build a synapse: signaling pathways in neuromuscular junction assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haitao; Xiong, Wen C.; Mei, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Synapses, as fundamental units of the neural circuitry, enable complex behaviors. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse type that forms between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers and that exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization. Aided by genetic techniques and suitable animal models, studies in the past decade have brought significant progress in identifying NMJ components and assembly mechanisms. This review highlights recent advances in the study of NMJ development, focusing on signaling pathways that are activated by diffusible cues, which shed light on synaptogenesis in the brain and contribute to a better understanding of muscular dystrophy. PMID:20215342

  5. TrkB signalling pathways in LTP and learning.

    PubMed

    Minichiello, Liliana

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie learning is one of the most fascinating and central aims of neurobiological research. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely regarded as a prime candidate for the cellular mechanism of learning. The receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB (also known as NTRK2), known primarily for its function during PNS and CNS development, has emerged in recent years as a potent regulator of hippocampal LTP. Here I describe efforts to understand the signalling pathways and molecular mechanisms that underlie the involvement of TrkB in LTP and learning.

  6. New regulatory, signaling pathways, and sources of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Ryszard M

    2011-01-01

    Discovered in 1980 by the late Robert F. Furchgott, endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), has been in the forefront of vascular research for several decades. What was originally a narrow approach, has been significantly widened due to major advances in understanding the chemical and biological properties of NO as well as its signaling pathways and discovering new sources of this notorious free radical gas. In this review, recent discoveries regarding NO and their implications on therapy for delayed cerebral vasospasm are presented.

  7. Simian varicella virus inhibits the interferon gamma signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ouwendijk, Werner J D; van Veen, Suzanne; Mahalingam, Ravi; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2017-09-13

    The alphaherpesvirus simian varicella virus (SVV) causes varicella and zoster in nonhuman primates. Herpesviruses evolved elaborate mechanisms to escape host immunity, but the immune evasion strategies employed by SVV remain ill-defined. We analysed whether SVV impairs the cellular response to key antiviral cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ). SVV infection inhibited the expression of IFNγ-induced genes like C-X-C motif chemokine 10 and interferon regulatory factor 1. Phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) was blocked in SVV-infected cells, which did not involve cellular and viral phosphatases. SVV infection did not downregulate IFNγ receptor α and β chain expression on the cell surface. Instead, STAT1, Janus tyrosine kinases 1 (JAK1) and JAK2 protein levels were significantly decreased in SVV-infected cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SVV targets three proteins in the IFNγ signal transduction pathway to escape the antiviral effects of IFNγ.

  8. Phototropism: at the crossroads of light-signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Anupama; Szarzynska, Bogna; Fankhauser, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Phototropism enables plants to orient growth towards the direction of light and thereby maximizes photosynthesis in low-light environments. In angiosperms, blue-light photoreceptors called phototropins are primarily involved in sensing the direction of light. Phytochromes and cryptochromes (sensing red/far-red and blue light, respectively) also modulate asymmetric hypocotyl growth, leading to phototropism. Interactions between different light-signaling pathways regulating phototropism occur in cryptogams and angiosperms. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the co-action between photosensory systems in the regulation of hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent studies have shown that phytochromes and cryptochromes enhance phototropism by controlling the expression of important regulators of phototropin signaling. In addition, phytochromes may also regulate growth towards light via direct interaction with the phototropins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Signaling pathways and tissue interactions in neural plate border formation.

    PubMed

    Schille, Carolin; Schambony, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient cell population that gives rise to various cell types of multiple tissues and organs in the vertebrate embryo. Neural crest cells arise from the neural plate border, a region localized at the lateral borders of the prospective neural plate. Temporally and spatially coordinated interaction with the adjacent tissues, the non-neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the prospective dorsolateral mesoderm, is required for neural plate border specification. Signaling molecules, namely BMP, Wnt and FGF ligands and corresponding antagonists are derived from these tissues and interact to induce the expression of neural plate border specific genes. The present mini-review focuses on the current understanding of how the NPB territory is formed and accentuates the need for coordinated interaction of BMP and Wnt signaling pathways and precise tissue communication that are required for the definition of the prospective NC in the competent ectoderm.

  10. Metabolic control of signalling pathways and metabolic auto-regulation.

    PubMed

    Lorendeau, Doriane; Christen, Stefan; Rinaldi, Gianmarco; Fendt, Sarah-Maria

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic alterations have emerged as an important hallmark in the development of various diseases. Thus, understanding the complex interplay of metabolism with other cellular processes such as cell signalling is critical to rationally control and modulate cellular physiology. Here, we review in the context of mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase and p53, the orchestrated interplay between metabolism and cellular signalling as well as transcriptional regulation. Moreover, we discuss recent discoveries in auto-regulation of metabolism (i.e. how metabolic parameters such as metabolite levels activate or inhibit enzymes and thus metabolic pathways). Finally, we review functional consequences of post-translational modification on metabolic enzyme abundance and/or activities.

  11. Ah Receptor Signaling Controls the Expression of Cardiac Development and Homeostasis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Vinicius S.; Fan, Yunxia; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Xiang; Kurita, Hisaka; Ko, Chia-I.; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital abnormality and one of the leading causes of newborn death throughout the world. Despite much emerging scientific information, the precise etiology of this disease remains elusive. Here, we show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates the expression of crucial cardiogenesis genes and that interference with endogenous AHR functions, either by gene ablation or by agonist exposure during early development, causes overlapping structural and functional cardiac abnormalities that lead to altered fetal heart physiology, including higher heart rates, right and left ventricle dilation, higher stroke volume, and reduced ejection fraction. With striking similarity between AHR knockout (Ahr−/−) and agonist-exposed wild type (Ahr+/+) embryos, in utero disruption of endogenous AHR functions converge into dysregulation of molecular mechanisms needed for attainment and maintenance of cardiac differentiation, including the pivotal signals regulated by the cardiogenic transcription factor NKH2.5, energy balance via oxidative phosphorylation and TCA cycle and global mitochondrial function and homeostasis. Our findings suggest that AHR signaling in the developing mammalian heart is central to the regulation of pathways crucial for cellular metabolism, cardiogenesis, and cardiac function, which are potential targets of environmental factors associated with CHD. PMID:26139165

  12. Hypergravity Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive characterizations of the physiologic consequences of microgravity and gravity indicate that lack of weight-bearing may cause tissue atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in mechanosensitive tissues. Recent work from our laboratory and from others shows that an increase of gravity increases bone cell growth and survival. We found that 50-g hypergravity stimulation increased osteoblast proliferation for cells grown on Collagen Type I and Fibronectin, but not on Laminin or uncoated plastic. This may be a tissue-specific response, because 50-g hypergravity stimulation caused no increase in proliferation for primary rat fibroblasts. These results combined with RT-PCR for all possible integrins indicate that beta1 integrin subunit may be involved. The osteoblast proliferation response on Collagen Type I was greater at 25-g than at 10-g or 50-g; 24-h duration of hypergravity was necessary to see an increase in proliferation. Survival was enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of matrix. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle may be altered; BrdU incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. To further investigate the molecular components involved, we applied fluorescence labeling of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules to cells after 2 to 30 minutes of hypergravity stimulation. While structural components did not appear to be altered, phosphorylation increased, indicating that signaling pathways may be activated. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signaling pathways which are sensitive to duration and g-level.

  13. Hypergravity Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive characterizations of the physiologic consequences of microgravity and gravity indicate that lack of weight-bearing may cause tissue atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in mechanosensitive tissues. Recent work from our laboratory and from others shows that an increase of gravity increases bone cell growth and survival. We found that 50-g hypergravity stimulation increased osteoblast proliferation for cells grown on Collagen Type I and Fibronectin, but not on Laminin or uncoated plastic. This may be a tissue-specific response, because 50-g hypergravity stimulation caused no increase in proliferation for primary rat fibroblasts. These results combined with RT-PCR for all possible integrins indicate that beta1 integrin subunit may be involved. The osteoblast proliferation response on Collagen Type I was greater at 25-g than at 10-g or 50-g; 24-h duration of hypergravity was necessary to see an increase in proliferation. Survival was enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of matrix. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle may be altered; BrdU incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. To further investigate the molecular components involved, we applied fluorescence labeling of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules to cells after 2 to 30 minutes of hypergravity stimulation. While structural components did not appear to be altered, phosphorylation increased, indicating that signaling pathways may be activated. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signaling pathways which are sensitive to duration and g-level.

  14. Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)-Induced Apoptosis and Neurotoxicity are Mediated via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) but not by Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα), Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ), or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Mouse Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Anna K; Szychowski, Konrad A; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Kajta, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is one of the most commonly used phthalate esters. DBP is widely used as a plasticizer in a variety of household industries and consumer products. Because phthalates are not chemically bound to products, they can easily leak out to enter the environment. DBP can pass through the placental and blood-brain barriers due to its chemical structure, but little is known about its mechanism of action in neuronal cells. This study demonstrated the toxic and apoptotic effects of DBP in mouse neocortical neurons in primary cultures. DBP stimulated caspase-3 and LDH activities as well as ROS formation in a concentration (10 nM-100 µM) and time-dependent (3-48 h) manner. DBP induced ROS formation at nanomolar concentrations, while it activated caspase-3 and LDH activities at micromolar concentrations. The biochemical effects of DBP were accompanied by decreased cell viability and induction of apoptotic bodies. Exposure to DBP reduced Erα and Pparγ mRNA expression levels, which were inversely correlated with protein expression of the receptors. Treatment with DBP enhanced Ahr mRNA expression, which was reflected by the increased AhR protein level observed at 3 h after exposure. ERα, ERβ, and PPARγ antagonists stimulated DBP-induced caspase-3 and LDH activities. AhR silencing demonstrated that DBP-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity are mediated by AhR, which is consistent with the results from DBP-induced enhancement of AhR mRNA and protein expression. Our study showed that AhR is involved in DBP-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity, while the ERs and PPARγ signaling pathways are impaired by the phthalate.

  15. Unraveling retrograde signaling pathways: finding candidate signaling molecules via metabolomics and systems biology driven approaches.

    PubMed

    Caldana, Camila; Fernie, Alisdair R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Steinhauser, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    A tight coordination of biological processes between cellular compartments and organelles is crucial for the survival of any eukaryotic organism. According to cellular requirements, signals can be generated within organelles, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, modulating the nuclear gene expression in a process called retrograde signaling. Whilst many research efforts have been focused on dissecting retrograde signaling pathways using biochemical and genetics approaches, metabolomics and systems biology driven studies have illustrated their great potential for hypotheses generation and for dissecting signaling networks in a rather unbiased or untargeted fashion. Recently, integrative genomics approaches, in which correlation analysis has been applied on transcript and metabolite profiling data of Arabidopsis thaliana, revealed the identification of metabolites which are putatively acting as mediators of nuclear gene expression. Complimentary, the continuous technological developments in the field of metabolomics per se has further demonstrated its potential as a very suitable readout to unravel metabolite-mediated signaling processes. As foundation for these studies here we outline and discuss recent advances in elucidating retrograde signaling molecules and pathways with an emphasis on metabolomics and systems biology driven approaches.

  16. Strigolactone regulates shoot development through a core signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Dörte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strigolactones are a recently identified class of hormone that regulate multiple aspects of plant development. The DWARF14 (D14) α/β fold protein has been identified as a strigolactone receptor, which can act through the SCFMAX2 ubiquitin ligase, but the universality of this mechanism is not clear. Multiple proteins have been suggested as targets for strigolactone signalling, including both direct proteolytic targets of SCFMAX2, and downstream targets. However, the relevance and importance of these proteins to strigolactone signalling in many cases has not been fully established. Here we assess the contribution of these targets to strigolactone signalling in adult shoot developmental responses. We find that all examined strigolactone responses are regulated by SCFMAX2 and D14, and not by other D14-like proteins. We further show that all examined strigolactone responses likely depend on degradation of SMXL proteins in the SMXL6 clade, and not on the other proposed proteolytic targets BES1 or DELLAs. Taken together, our results suggest that in the adult shoot, the dominant mode of strigolactone signalling is D14-initiated, MAX2-mediated degradation of SMXL6-related proteins. We confirm that the BRANCHED1 transcription factor and the PIN-FORMED1 auxin efflux carrier are plausible downstream targets of this pathway in the regulation of shoot branching, and show that BRC1 likely acts in parallel to PIN1. PMID:27793831

  17. Dynamic Hedgehog signalling pathway activity in germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Z; Szczepny, A; McLaughlin, E A; Meistrich, M L; Zhou, W; Ustunel, I; Loveland, K L

    2014-03-01

    Although the contribution of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling to stem cell development and oncogenesis is well recognised, its importance for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has not been established. Here we interrogate adult rat SSCs using an established model in which only undifferentiated spermatogonial cells remain in the testis at 15 weeks following irradiation, and spermatogonial differentiation is induced within 4 weeks by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-ant) administration. Synthesis of Hh pathway components in untreated adult rat testes was compared with that in irradiated testes prior to and after GnRH-ant exposure using in situ hybridization. In adult testes with complete spermatogenesis, the Desert Hedgehog ligand transcript, Dhh, was detected in Sertoli cells, some spermatogonia and in spermatocytes by in situ hybridization. Spermatogenic cells were identified as sites of Hh signalling through detection of transcripts encoding the Hh receptor, Ptc2 transcripts and proteins for the key downstream target of Hh signalling, Gli1 and the Hh transcriptional activator, Gli2. Remarkably, the undifferentiated spermatogonia present in irradiated adult rat testes contained Dhh in addition to Ptc2, Gli1 and Gli2, revealing the potential for an autocrine Hh signalling loop to sustain undifferentiated spermatogonial cells. These transcripts became undetectable by in situ hybridization following GnRH-ant induction of spermatogonial differentiation, however, detection of Gli1 protein in spermatogonia in all groups indicates that Hh signalling is sustained. This is the first evidence of active Hh signalling in mammalian male germline stem cells, as has been documented for some cancer stem cells.

  18. Validation of signalling pathways: Case study of the p16-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Nimet İlke; Bashirov, Rza; Tüzmen, Şükrü

    2015-04-01

    p16 is recognized as a tumor suppressor gene due to the prevalence of its genetic inactivation in all types of human cancers. Additionally, p16 gene plays a critical role in controlling aging, regulating cellular senescence, detection and maintenance of DNA damage. The molecular mechanism behind these events involves p16-mediated signaling pathway (or p16- Rb pathway), the focus of our study. Understanding functional dependence between dynamic behavior of biological components involved in the p16-mediated pathway and aforesaid molecular-level events might suggest possible implications in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of human cancer. In the present work, we employ reverse-engineering approach to construct the most detailed computational model of p16-mediated pathway in higher eukaryotes. We implement experimental data from the literature to validate the model, and under various assumptions predict the dynamic behavior of p16 and other biological components by interpreting the simulation results. The quantitative model of p16-mediated pathway is created in a systematic manner in terms of Petri net technologies.

  19. Signaling pathway cross talk in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest energy failure and accumulative intracellular waste play a causal role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in particular. AD is characterized by extracellular amyloid deposits, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, cholinergic deficits, synaptic loss, inflammation and extensive oxidative stress. These pathobiological changes are accompanied by significant behavioral, motor, and cognitive impairment leading to accelerated mortality. Currently, the potential role of several metabolic pathways associated with AD, including Wnt signaling, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1, silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) have widened, with recent discoveries that they are able to modulate several pathological events in AD. These include reduction of amyloid-β aggregation and inflammation, regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, and increased availability of neuronal energy. This review aims to highlight the involvement of these new set of signaling pathways, which we have collectively termed “anti-ageing pathways”, for their potentiality in multi-target therapies against AD where cellular metabolic processes are severely impaired. PMID:24679124

  20. HID-1, a New Component of the Peptidergic Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Rosana; Luo, Shuo; Hoover, Christopher M.; Miller, Kenneth; Minniti, Alicia; Inestrosa, Nibaldo; Nonet, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    hid-1 was originally identified as a Caenorhabditis elegans gene encoding a novel conserved protein that regulates the decision to enter into the enduring dauer larval stage. We isolated a novel allele of hid-1 in a forward genetic screen for mutants mislocalizing RBF-1 rabphilin, a RAB-27 effector. Here we demonstrate that HID-1 functions in the nervous system to regulate neuromuscular signaling and in the intestine to regulate the defecation motor program. We further show that a conserved N-terminal myristoylated motif of both invertebrate and vertebrate HID-1 is essential for its association with intracellular membranes in nematodes and PC12 cells. C. elegans neuronal HID-1 resides on intracellular membranes in neuronal cell somas; however, the kinesin UNC-104 also transports HID-1 to synaptic regions. HID-1 accumulates in the axons of unc-13 and unc-31 mutants, suggesting it is associated with neurosecretory vesicles. Consistent with this, genetic studies place HID-1 in a peptidergic signaling pathway. Finally, a hid-1 null mutation reduces the levels of endogenous neuropeptides and alters the secretion of fluorescent-tagged cargos derived from neuronal and intestinal dense core vesicles (DCVs). Taken together, our findings indicate that HID-1 is a novel component of a DCV-based neurosecretory pathway and that it regulates one or more aspects of the biogenesis, maturation, or trafficking of DCVs. PMID:21115972

  1. Adrenomedullin Signaling Pathway Polymorphisms and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Patricia M.; Wise, Alison; Herring, Amy H.; Nguyen, Thutrang; Caron, Kathleen M.; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reduced maternal plasma levels of the peptide vasodilator adrenomedullin have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We measured the extent to which genetic polymorphisms in the adrenomedullin signaling pathway are associated with birth weight, glycemic regulation, and preeclampsia risk. Study Design We genotyped 1353 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study for 37 ancestry-informative markers and for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adrenomedullin (ADM), complement factor H variant (CFH), and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL). We used linear and logistic regression to model the association between genotype and birth weight, glucose loading test (GLT) results, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes (GDM). All models were adjusted for pregravid BMI, maternal age, and probability of Yoruban ancestry. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Among Caucasian women, ADM rs57153895, a proxy for rs11042725, was associated with reduced birth weight z-score. Among African-American women, ADM rs57153895 was associated with increased birth weight z-score. Two CALCRL variants were associated with GDM risk. CFH rs1061170 was associated with higher GLT results and increased preeclampsia risk. Conclusion Consistent with studies of plasma adrenomedullin and adverse pregnancy outcomes, we found associations between variants in the adrenomedullin signaling pathway and birth weight, glycemic regulation, and preeclampsia. PMID:23797962

  2. Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide and the underlying signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Lin; Niu, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Wei-Zheng; Tang, Hui-Lan; Zhang, Chong; Xia, Qi-Ming; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gas that represents a novel third gaseous signaling molecule, neurotransmitter and cytoprotectant. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase with cysteine aminotransferase (3-MST/CAT) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase with d-amino acid oxidase (3-MST/DAO) pathways are involved in the generation of endogenous H2S despite the ubiquitous or restricted distribution of those enzymes. CBS, 3-MST/CAT and 3-MST/DAO can be found in the brain, while CSE is widely located in other organs. There also exist up-taking or recycling and scavenging mechanisms in H2S metabolism to maintain its persistence for physiological function. In recent years, investigating the role that H2S plays in the central nervous system and cardiovascular system has always been a hotspot. To date, effects of H2S are at least partially verified in multiple animal models or neuron cell lines of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia, major depression disorders and febrile seizure, although subsequent studies are still badly needed. This article presents an overview of current knowledge of H2S focusing on its neuroprotective effects and corresponding signaling pathways, together with connections to potential therapeutic strategies in the clinic.

  3. Profiling of UV-induced ATM/ATR signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Matthew P.; Rush, John; MacNeill, Joan; Ren, Jian Min; Sprott, Kam; Nardone, Julie; Yang, Vicky; Beausoleil, Sean A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Livingstone, Mark; Zhang, Hui; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Comb, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    To ensure survival in the face of genomic insult, cells have evolved complex mechanisms to respond to DNA damage, termed the DNA damage checkpoint. The serine/threonine kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) activate checkpoint signaling by phosphorylating substrate proteins at SQ/TQ motifs. Although some ATM/ATR substrates (Chk1, p53) have been identified, the lack of a more complete list of substrates limits current understanding of checkpoint pathways. Here, we use immunoaffinity phosphopeptide isolation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify 570 sites phosphorylated in UV-damaged cells, 498 of which are previously undescribed. Semiquantitative analysis yielded 24 known and 192 previously uncharacterized sites differentially phosphorylated upon UV damage, some of which were confirmed by SILAC, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting. ATR-specific phosphorylation was investigated by using a Seckel syndrome (ATR mutant) cell line. Together, these results provide a rich resource for further deciphering ATM/ATR signaling and the pathways mediating the DNA damage response. PMID:18077418

  4. Signaling pathway for phagocyte priming upon encounter with apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Saori; Ando, Yuki; Kanetani, Takuto; Hoshi, Chiharu; Nakai, Yuji; Nainu, Firzan; Nagaosa, Kaz; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-12

    The phagocytic elimination of cells undergoing apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells. Previous studies showed an increase in the level of engulfment receptors in phagocytes after the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which leads to the enhancement of their phagocytic activity. However, precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon require further clarification. We found that the pre-incubation of a Drosophila phagocyte cell line with the fragments of apoptotic cells enhanced the subsequent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, accompanied by an augmented expression of the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin αPS3. The DNA-binding activity of the transcription repressor Tailless was transiently raised in those phagocytes, depending on two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for the induction of phagocytosis as well as the occurrence of engulfment. The RNAi knockdown of tailless in phagocytes abrogated the enhancement of both phagocytosis and engulfment receptor expression. Furthermore, the hemocyte-specific RNAi of tailless reduced apoptotic cell clearance in Drosophila embryos. Taken together, we propose the following mechanism for the activation of Drosophila phagocytes after an encounter with apoptotic cells: two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for phagocytosis are initiated; transcription repressor Tailless is activated; expression of engulfment receptors is stimulated; and phagocytic activity is enhanced. This phenomenon most likely ensures the phagocytic elimination of apoptotic cells by stimulated phagocytes and is thus considered as a mechanism to prime phagocytes in innate immunity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Interaction of vitamin D with membrane-based signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Larriba, María Jesús; González-Sancho, José Manuel; Bonilla, Félix; Muñoz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many studies in different biological systems have revealed that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) modulates signaling pathways triggered at the plasma membrane by agents such as Wnt, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and others. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 may affect gene expression by paracrine mechanisms that involve the regulation of cytokine or growth factor secretion by neighboring cells. Moreover, post-transcriptional and post-translational effects of 1α,25(OH)2D3 add to or overlap with its classical modulation of gene transcription rate. Together, these findings show that vitamin D receptor (VDR) cannot be considered only as a nuclear-acting, ligand-modulated transcription factor that binds to and controls the transcription of target genes. Instead, available data support the view that much of the complex biological activity of 1α,25(OH)2D3 resides in its capacity to interact with membrane-based signaling pathways and to modulate the expression and secretion of paracrine factors. Therefore, we propose that future research in the vitamin D field should focus on the interplay between 1α,25(OH)2D3 and agents that act at the plasma membrane, and on the analysis of intercellular communication. Global analyses such as RNA-Seq, transcriptomic arrays, and genome-wide ChIP are expected to dissect the interactions at the gene and molecular levels. PMID:24600406

  6. Text mining for metabolic pathways, signaling cascades, and protein networks.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Robert; Krallinger, Martin; Andres, Eduardo; Tamames, Javier; Blaschke, Christian; Valencia, Alfonso

    2005-05-10

    The complexity of the information stored in databases and publications on metabolic and signaling pathways, the high throughput of experimental data, and the growing number of publications make it imperative to provide systems to help the researcher navigate through these interrelated information resources. Text-mining methods have started to play a key role in the creation and maintenance of links between the information stored in biological databases and its original sources in the literature. These links will be extremely useful for database updating and curation, especially if a number of technical problems can be solved satisfactorily, including the identification of protein and gene names (entities in general) and the characterization of their types of interactions. The first generation of openly accessible text-mining systems, such as iHOP (Information Hyperlinked over Proteins), provides additional functions to facilitate the reconstruction of protein interaction networks, combine database and text information, and support the scientist in the formulation of novel hypotheses. The next challenge is the generation of comprehensive information regarding the general function of signaling pathways and protein interaction networks.

  7. Curcumin mediates anticancer effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin, a component of a spice native to India, was first isolated in 1815 by Vogel and Pelletier from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and, subsequently, the chemical structure of curcumin as diferuloylmethane was reported by Milobedzka et al. [(1910) 43., 2163-2170]. Since then, this polyphenol has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current review primarily focuses on the anticancer potential of curcumin through the modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Curcumin modulates diverse transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, kinases, growth factors, receptors, and various other proteins with an affinity ranging from the pM to the mM range. Furthermore, curcumin effectively regulates tumor cell growth via modulation of numerous cell signaling pathways and potentiates the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation against cancer. Curcumin can interact with most of the targets that are modulated by FDA-approved drugs for cancer therapy. The focus of this review is to discuss the molecular basis for the anticancer activities of curcumin based on preclinical and clinical findings. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Integrative analysis of cancer-related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Thomas; Hache, Hendrik; Wierling, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Identification and classification of cancer types and subtypes is a major issue in current cancer research. Whole genome expression profiling of cancer tissues is often the basis for such subtype classifications of tumors and different signatures for individual cancer types have been described. However, the search for best performing discriminatory gene-expression signatures covering more than one cancer type remains a relevant topic in cancer research as such a signature would help understanding the common changes in signaling networks in these disease types. In this work, we explore the idea of a top down approach for sample stratification based on a module-based network of cancer relevant signaling pathways. For assembly of this network, we consider several of the most established cancer pathways. We evaluate our sample stratification approach using expression data of human breast and ovarian cancer signatures. We show that our approach performs equally well to previously reported methods besides providing the advantage to classify different cancer types. Furthermore, it allows to identify common changes in network module activity of those cancer samples.

  9. Association Study of Wnt Signaling Pathway Genes in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Peter P.; Belmonte, Pamela L.; Willour, Virginia L.; Goes, Fernando S.; Badner, Judith A.; Simpson, Sylvia G.; Gershon, Elliot S.; McMahon, Francis J.; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Context The Wnt signaling pathways promote cell growth and are best known for their role in embryogenesis and cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest these pathways might also be involved in bipolar disorder (BP). Objective We tested for the association of candidate genes in the Wnt signaling pathways with disease susceptibility in a family-based BP study Design 227 tagSNPs from 34 genes were successfully genotyped. Initial results led us to focus on the gene PPARD, in which we genotyped an additional 13 SNPs for follow-up. Setting Nine academic medical centers in the United States. Participants 554 BP offspring and their parents from 317 families. Main Outcome Measures We tested for family-based association using FBAT and HBAT. Exploratory analyses testing for interactions of PPARD SNPs with clinical covariates and with other Wnt genes were conducted with GENASSOC. Results In the initial analysis, the most significantly associated SNP was rs2267665 in PPARD (nominal p=0.0003). This remained significant at p=0.05 by permutation after accounting for all SNPs tested. Additional genotyping in PPARD yielded four SNPs in one haplotype block that were significantly associated with BP at p<0.01, the most significant being rs9462082 (p=0.0001). Exploratory analyses revealed significant evidence (p<0.01) for interactions of rs9462082 with poor functioning on the Global Assessment Scale (OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.85–6.08), and with SNPs in WNT2B (rs3790606, OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.67–4.00) and WNT7A (rs4685048, OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.23–2.63). Conclusions We found evidence for association of BP with PPARD, a gene in the Wnt signaling pathway. The consistency of this result with one from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium encourages further study. If the finding can be confirmed in additional samples, it may illuminate a new avenue for understanding the pathogenesis of severe BP and developing more effective treatments. PMID:18606951

  10. PSExplorer: whole parameter space exploration for molecular signaling pathway dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Thai Quang; Lee, Doheon

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Mathematical models of biological systems often have a large number of parameters whose combinational variations can yield distinct qualitative behaviors. Since it is intractable to examine all possible combinations of parameters for non-trivial biological pathways, it is required to have a systematic strategy to explore the parameter space in a computational way so that dynamic behaviors of a given pathway are estimated. Results: We present PSExplorer, a computational tool for exploring qualitative behaviors and key parameters of molecular signaling pathways. Utilizing the Latin hypercube sampling and a clustering technique in a recursive paradigm, the software enables users to explore the whole parameter space of the models to search for robust qualitative behaviors. The parameter space is partitioned into sub-regions according to behavioral differences. Sub-regions showing robust behaviors can be identified for further analyses. The partitioning result presents a tree structure from which individual and combinational effects of parameters on model behaviors can be assessed and key factors of the models are readily identified. Availability: The software, tutorial manual and test models are available for download at the following address: http://gto.kaist.ac.kr/∼psexplorer Contact: tqtung@kaist.ac.kr; tqtung@gmail.com PMID:20679335

  11. Host Factors and Cancer Progression: Biobehavioral Signaling Pathways and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Sood, Anil K.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas evidence for the role of psychosocial factors in cancer initiation has been equivocal, support continues to grow for links between psychological factors such as stress, depression, and social isolation and progression of cancer. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies show that stress- related processes can impact pathways implicated in cancer progression, including immuno-regulation, angiogenesis, and invasion. Contributions of systemic factors, such as stress hormones to the crosstalk between tumor and stromal cells, appear to be critical in modulating downstream signaling pathways with important implications for disease progression. Inflammatory pathways may also be implicated in fatigue and other factors related to quality of life. Although substantial evidence supports a positive effect of psychosocial interventions on quality of life in cancer, the clinical evidence for efficacy of stress-modulating psychosocial interventions in slowing cancer progression remains inconclusive, and the biobehavioral mechanisms that might explain such effects are still being established. This article reviews research findings to date and outlines future avenues of research in this area. PMID:20644093

  12. A divergent canonical WNT-signaling pathway regulates microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Lorenza; Krylova, Olga; Smalley, Matthew J.; Dale, Trevor C.; Salinas, Patricia C.

    2004-01-01

    Dishevelled (DVL) is associated with axonal microtubules and regulates microtubule stability through the inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). In the canonical WNT pathway, the negative regulator Axin forms a complex with β-catenin and GSK-3β, resulting in β-catenin degradation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by DVL increases β-catenin stability and TCF transcriptional activation. Here, we show that Axin associates with microtubules and unexpectedly stabilizes microtubules through DVL. In turn, DVL stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting GSK-3β through a transcription- and β-catenin–independent pathway. More importantly, axonal microtubules are stabilized after DVL localizes to axons. Increased microtubule stability is correlated with a decrease in GSK-3β–mediated phosphorylation of MAP-1B. We propose a model in which Axin, through DVL, stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting a pool of GSK-3β, resulting in local changes in the phosphorylation of cellular targets. Our data indicate a bifurcation in the so-called canonical WNT-signaling pathway to regulate microtubule stability. PMID:14734535

  13. DAPK1 Signaling Pathways in Stroke: from Mechanisms to Therapies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Shi, Xiangde; Li, Hao; Pang, Pei; Pei, Lei; Shen, Huiyong; Lu, Youming

    2017-08-01

    Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, plays important roles in diverse apoptosis pathways not only in tumor suppression but also in neuronal cell death. The requirement of DAPK1 catalytic activity for its proposed cell functions and the elevation of catalytic activity of DAPK1 in injured neurons in models of neurological diseases, such as ischemia and epilepsy, validate that DAPK1 can be taken as a potential therapeutic target in these diseases. Recent studies show that DAPK1-NR2B, DAPK1-DANGER, DAPK1-p53, and DAPK1-Tau are currently known pathways in stroke-induced cell death, and blocking these cascades in an acute treatment effectively reduces neuronal loss. In this review, we focus on the role of DAPK1 in neuronal cell death after stroke. We hope to provide exhaustive summaries of relevant studies on DAPK1 signals involved in stroke damage. Therefore, disrupting DAPK1-relevant cell death pathway could be considered as a promising therapeutic approach in stroke.

  14. Hyperoxia-induced signal transduction pathways in pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Tahereh E.; Miller, Edmund J.; Morrow, Dympna M. P.; Javdan, Mohammad; Mantell, Lin L.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with hyperoxia is necessary to treat critically ill patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause acute inflammatory lung injury. One of the major effects of hyperoxia is the injury and death of pulmonary epithelium, which is accompanied by increased levels of pulmonary proinflammatory cytokines and excessive leukocyte infiltration. A thorough understanding of the signaling pathways leading to pulmonary epithelial cell injury/death may provide some insights into the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute inflammatory lung injury. This review focuses on epithelial responses to hyperoxia and some of the major factors regulating pathways to epithelial cell injury/death, and proinflammatory responses upon exposure to hyperoxia. We discuss in detail some of the most interesting players, such as, NF-κB, that can modulate both proinflammatory responses and cell injury/death of lung epithelial cells. A better appreciation for the functions of these factors will no doubt help us to delineate the pathways to hyperoxic cell death and proinflammatory responses. PMID:17349918

  15. PSExplorer: whole parameter space exploration for molecular signaling pathway dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tung, Thai Quang; Lee, Doheon

    2010-10-01

    Mathematical models of biological systems often have a large number of parameters whose combinational variations can yield distinct qualitative behaviors. Since it is intractable to examine all possible combinations of parameters for non-trivial biological pathways, it is required to have a systematic strategy to explore the parameter space in a computational way so that dynamic behaviors of a given pathway are estimated. We present PSExplorer, a computational tool for exploring qualitative behaviors and key parameters of molecular signaling pathways. Utilizing the Latin hypercube sampling and a clustering technique in a recursive paradigm, the software enables users to explore the whole parameter space of the models to search for robust qualitative behaviors. The parameter space is partitioned into sub-regions according to behavioral differences. Sub-regions showing robust behaviors can be identified for further analyses. The partitioning result presents a tree structure from which individual and combinational effects of parameters on model behaviors can be assessed and key factors of the models are readily identified. The software, tutorial manual and test models are available for download at the following address: http://gto.kaist.ac.kr/∼psexplorer.

  16. HMGB1-RAGE signaling pathway in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linlin; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Linlin; Shi, Ying; Qi, Jiahui; Chang, Aimin; Gao, Junjun; Feng, Yang; Yang, Xiaoqian

    2015-10-01

    Placental dysfunction and increased inflammation are believed to underlie the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia (PE). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a recently identified inflammatory cytokine, has been known to contribute to the development of inflammatory responses in PE. This study intends to elucidate the mechanisms of HMGB1-RAGE signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of PE. The mRNA levels of relative gene of HMGB1 pathway, HMGB1, RAGE and NF-κB p65, were analyzed by real-time PCR in placentas collected from 61 normotensive pregnant women and 64 women with severe PE. Additionally, levels of HMGB1 and RAGE protein were detected in frozen placental specimens by western blot, and the locations of them were evaluated in the well-characterized tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. ELISA was further used to detect HMGB1 level in maternal serum. Compared with matched control placentas, the mRNA levels of HMGB1, RAGE and NF-κB p65 were increased in severe preeclamptic placentas. In severe preeclamptic placentas, HMGB1 and RAGE immunoreactivity were increased in the cytoplasm of trophoblast cells. Western blot was employed to further confirm that RAGE protein level was elevated significantly in severe PE group. In addition, there was an increased level of HMGB1 in the maternal serum of severe PE group. HMGB1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation may induce the binding of HMGB1 to its receptors, consequently, intrigue NF-κB activity in severe PE. HMGB1-RAGE signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of PE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of Sost in Wnt signal pathway in osteoporosis rats and regulating effect of soybean isoflavones on Wnt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai Dong; Yu, Fang; Lv, Ping; Zhao, Zheng Nan; Tong, Zhi Hong

    2014-07-01

    To explore the mechanism of soybean isoflavones (SI) on OVX-induced osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of SI on Wnt signaling that emerged as a novel key pathway for promoting bone formation. Results showed that SI decreased bone mineral elements loss, improved biomechanics parameters in OVX rats. Wnt3a activation can promote the dissociation of β-catenin complexes, release of β-catenin monomer and inhibition of β-catenin monomer degradation. SI decreased sost mRNA and sclerosteosis protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, and increased β-catenin proteins expression in femur of OVX rats. These data suggest that SI suppresses the canonical Wnt signal in OVX rats, partially through the enhancement of the dickkopf-1 production. OVX results in decreased estrogen level in rats. SI act as inhibitors of Wnt-mediated activation of by competitively binding to LRP5, and subsequently downregulating β-catenin gene.

  18. [Novel signal transduction pathways: the molecular basis for targeted cancer therapies in Hedgehog/Notch/Wnt pathway].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshio; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways via mutations or ligand overexpression has been implicated in a large number of cancer types where they are involved in functions ranging from tumor initiation to cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and angiogenesis. Agents targeting each one of these three pathways have now reached clinical trials, and the first one of these, Vismodegib, a hedgehog pathway inhibitor, was approved in 2012 by US FDA for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Development of agents that target critical steps in these pathways as novel signal transduction pathways will be complicated by signaling cross-talk. The role that embryonic signaling pathways play in the function of CSCs, the development of new anti-CSC therapeutic agents, and the complexity of potential CSC signaling cross-talk are being explored coupled with early phase I clinical studies.

  19. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways coverage to antogonistically regulate a light-induced transcription network

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde and photosensory-receptor signaling has remained undefined. Here, we show that the phytochrome (phy) and retrograde signaling pathways converge a...

  20. A combination assay for simultaneous assessment of multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Goetz, A S; Liacos, J; Yingling, J; Ignar, D M

    1999-12-01

    We have developed an assay in which modulation of two or more signaling pathways can be assessed concurrently by combining reporter gene systems with fluorescent probe technology. The validation of this method was achieved by indirect analysis of adenylyl cyclase activation with the use of a cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-luciferase reporter system in combination with the measurement of calcium mobilization by Calcium Green-1 AM fluorescence on a fluorescent imaging plate reader. To demonstrate the utility of the method in studying the pharmacology of receptors that couple to more than one G protein, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which stably expressed both the CRE-luciferase reporter gene and the human pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) receptor, were treated with PACAP 1-27 and 1-38. Calcium mobilization and the induction of adenylyl cyclase activity in response to each concentration of peptide were assessed in individuals wells. This assay may also be used to screen for ligands of two or more unrelated receptors simultaneously without compromising the assessment of either signaling pathway. To illustrate this point, Rat-1 fibroblasts, which expressed human alpha1A receptors, were cocultured with CRE-luciferase CHO cells, which expressed human GLP-1 receptors. Calcium mobilization elicited by phenylephrine agonism of the alpha1A receptor was assessed in the same assay as GLP-1-induced activation of adenylyl cyclase. The pEC(50) for each agonist was similar to that observed when the cell lines were not cocultured. The number of different receptors that can be screened per well is limited only by the ability to distinguish different reporter gene signals and fluorescent indicators.

  1. Estrogen Signaling Multiple Pathways to Impact Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Maria; Galluzzo, Paola; Ascenzi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Steroid hormones exert profound effects on cell growth, development, differentiation, and homeostasis. Their effects are mediated through specific intracellular steroid receptors that act via multiple mechanisms. Among others, the action mechanism starting upon 17β-estradiol (E2) binds to its receptors (ER) is considered a paradigmatic example of how steroid hormones function. Ligand-activated ER dimerizes and translocates in the nucleus where it recognizes specific hormone response elements located in or near promoter DNA regions of target genes. Behind the classical genomic mechanism shared with other steroid hormones, E2 also modulates gene expression by a second indirect mechanism that involves the interaction of ER with other transcription factors which, in turn, bind their cognate DNA elements. In this case, ER modulates the activities of transcription factors such as the activator protein (AP)-1, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and stimulating protein-1 (Sp-1), by stabilizing DNA-protein complexes and/or recruiting co-activators. In addition, E2 binding to ER may also exert rapid actions that start with the activation of a variety of signal transduction pathways (e.g. ERK/MAPK, p38/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC/PKC). The debate about the contribution of different ER-mediated signaling pathways to coordinate the expression of specific sets of genes is still open. This review will focus on the recent knowledge about the mechanism by which ERs regulate the expression of target genes and the emerging field of integration of membrane and nuclear receptor signaling, giving examples of the ways by which the genomic and non-genomic actions of ERs on target genes converge. PMID:18369406

  2. Identification of a neurovascular signaling pathway regulating seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Linda; Stevenson, Tamara K; Su, Enming J; Ragsdale, Margaret; Moore, Shannon; Craciun, Stefan; Schielke, Gerald P; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability can contribute to the development of seizures. The protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been shown to promote BBB permeability and susceptibility to seizures. In this study, we examined the pathway regulated by tPA in seizures. Methods An experimental model of kainate-induced seizures was used in genetically modified mice, including mice deficient in tPA (tPA−/−), its inhibitor neuroserpin (Nsp−/−), or both (Nsp:tPA−/−), and in mice conditionally deficient in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Results Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, Nsp−/− mice have significantly reduced latency to seizure onset and generalization; whereas tPA−/− mice have the opposite phenotype, as do Nsp:tPA−/− mice. Furthermore, interventions that maintain BBB integrity delay seizure propagation, whereas osmotic disruption of the BBB in seizure-resistant tPA−/− mice dramatically reduces the time to seizure onset and accelerates seizure progression. The phenotypic differences in seizure progression between WT, tPA−/−, and Nsp−/− mice are also observed in electroencephalogram recordings in vivo, but absent in ex vivo electrophysiological recordings where regulation of the BBB is no longer necessary to maintain the extracellular environment. Finally, we demonstrate that these effects on seizure progression are mediated through signaling by PDGFRα on perivascular astrocytes. Interpretation Together, these data identify a specific molecular pathway involving tPA-mediated PDGFRα signaling in perivascular astrocytes that regulates seizure progression through control of the BBB. Inhibition of PDGFRα signaling and maintenance of BBB integrity might therefore offer a novel clinical approach for managing seizures. PMID:26273685

  3. Leucine Facilitates Insulin Signaling through a Gαi Protein-dependent Signaling Pathway in Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Xiang; Liu, Rui; Ma, Yan; Hao, Liping; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang; Sun, Xiufa; Gu, Haihua; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we addressed the direct effect of leucine on insulin signaling. In investigating the associated mechanisms, we found that leucine itself does not activate the classical Akt- or ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent signaling pathways but can facilitate the insulin-induced phosphorylations of Akt473 and ERK1/2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured hepatocytes. The leucine-facilitated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt at residue 473 was not affected by knocking down the key component of mTORC1 or -2 complexes but was blocked by inhibition of c-Src (PP2), PI3K (LY294002), Gαi protein (pertussis toxin or siRNA against Gαi1 gene, or β-arrestin 2 (siRNA)). Similarly, the leucine-facilitated insulin activation of ERK1/2 was also blunted by pertussis toxin. We further show that leucine facilitated the insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production and expression of key gluconeogenic genes in a Gαi1 protein-dependent manner in cultured primary hepatocytes. Together, these results show that leucine can directly facilitate insulin signaling through a Gαi protein-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. This is the first evidence showing that macronutrients like amino acid leucine can facilitate insulin signaling through G proteins directly. PMID:23404499

  4. Targeting Multiple Key Signaling Pathways in Melanoma using Leelamine

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Raghavendra; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Kuzu, Omer F.; Sharma, Arati; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly drug resistant cancer with resistance developing to agents targeting single proteins. To circumvent this problem, a new class of agent inhibiting multiple key pathways important in this disease is being developed to reduce the likelihood of developing resistant disease. The PI3 kinase (PI3K), MAP kinase (MAPK) and STAT3 pathways are constitutively activated in 50–70% of melanomas promoting disease development. To identify a drug simultaneously targeting the PI3K, MAPK and STAT3 cascades, a natural product library was screened to identifying leelamine as a potential inhibitor. Leelamine was 4.5-fold more effective at inhibiting cultured melanoma cell survival than normal cells, with average IC50 values of 2 and 9.3 µmol/L, respectively. It inhibited cellular proliferation at a concentration of 2.5 µmol/L by 40–80% and longer exposure increased apoptosis 600% through a mechanism detailed in the article in the current issue of this journal by Kuzu OF et al. Leelamine inhibited the growth of preexisting xenografted melanoma tumors by an average of 60% by targeting the PI3K, MAPK and STAT3 pathways without affecting animal body weight or blood markers of major organ function. The mechanism of action of leelamine is mediated by disruption of cholesterol transport, causing decreased cellular proliferation and, consequently leading to increased tumor cell apoptosis as well as decreased tumor vascularization. Thus, a unique agent and novel mechanism of action has been identified for the treatment of melanoma that acts by inhibiting the activity of three major signaling pathways regulating the development of this disease. PMID:24688050

  5. G protein-coupled receptor 30 ligand G-1 increases aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling by inhibition of tubulin assembly and cell cycle arrest in human MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Patrick; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is well established. Apart from the nuclear receptors ERα and ERβ, oestrogen signalling further involves an unrelated G protein-coupled receptor termed GPR30. In order to investigate potential regulatory crosstalk, this study investigated the influence of G-1 as one of the few GPR30-specific ligands on the AHR regulon in MCF-7 cells. As a well-characterised model system, these human mammary carcinoma cells co-express all three receptors (AHR, ERα and GPR30) and are thus ideally suited to study corresponding regulatory pathway interactions on transcript level. Indeed, treatment with micromolar concentrations of the GPR30-specific agonist G-1 resulted in up-regulation of AHR as well as the transcripts for cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1, two well-known targets of the AHR regulon. While this was partly attributable to G-1-mediated inhibition of tubulin assembly and subsequent cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, the effects nevertheless required functional AHR. However, G-1-induced up-regulation of CYP 1A1 was not mediated by GPR30, as G15 antagonist treatment as well as a knockdown of GPR30 and AHR failed to inhibit this effect.

  6. Mitochondrial function in ageing: coordination with signalling and transcriptional pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Sancheti, Harsh; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction entailing decreased energy‐transducing capacity and perturbed redox homeostasis is an early and sometimes initiating event in ageing and age‐related disorders involving tissues with high metabolic rate such as brain, liver and heart. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent findings from our and other groups suggest that the mitochondrion‐centred hypometabolism is a key feature of ageing brains and Alzheimer's disease. This hypometabolic state is manifested by lowered neuronal glucose uptake, metabolic shift in the astrocytes, and alternations in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle function. Similarly, in liver and adipose tissue, mitochondrial capacity around glucose and fatty acid metabolism and thermogenesis is found to decline with age and is implicated in age‐related metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These mitochondrion‐related disorders in peripheral tissues can impact on brain functions through metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory signals. At the cellular level, studies in CNS and non‐CNS tissues support the notion that instead of being viewed as autonomous organelles, mitochondria are part of a dynamic network with close interactions with other cellular components through energy‐ or redox‐sensitive cytosolic kinase signalling and transcriptional pathways. Hence, it would be critical to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the communication between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. Therapeutic strategies that effectively preserves or improve mitochondrial function by targeting key component of these signalling cascades could represent a novel direction for numerous mitochondrion‐implicated, age‐related disorders. PMID:26293414

  7. Positive Crosstalk of MAMP Signaling Pathways in Rice Cells

    PubMed Central

    Desaki, Yoshitake; Otomo, Ippei; Kobayashi, Daijiro; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Venkatesh, Balakrishnan; Tsuyumu, Shinji; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved efficient defense mechanisms known as priming and synergy, both of which can mobilize defense responses more extensively against successive pathogen invasion or simultaneous stimulation by different signal molecules. However, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena were largely unknown. In the present study, we used cultured rice cells and combination of purified MAMP molecules as a model system to study the mechanisms of these phenomena. We found that the pretreatment of rice cells with a low concentration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) apparently primed the defense responses induced by successive N-acetylchitooctaose (GN8) treatment. On the other hand, simultaneous treatment with GN8 and LPS also resulted in the similar enhancement of defense responses observed for the LPS-induced priming, indicating that the synergistic effects of these MAMPs are basically responsible for such enhancement of defense responses, though the effect could be interpreted as “priming” under some experimental conditions. These results also indicate that such a positive crosstalk of signaling cascade downstream of MAMP receptors seems to occur very rapidly, probably at early step(s) of signaling pathway. Comprehensive analysis of phytohormones revealed a specific enhancement of the synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA), both in the LPS pretreatment and also simultaneous treatment, indicating a role of JA in the enhancement of downstream responses. PMID:23251660

  8. Interplay between sugar and hormone signaling pathways modulate floral signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Matsoukas, Ianis G

    2014-01-01

    NOMENCLATURE The following nomenclature will be used in this article: Names of genes are written in italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of proteins are written in non-italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of mutants are written in italicized lower-case letters, e.g., abi4. The juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions are major determinants of plant reproductive success and adaptation to the local environment. Understanding the intricate molecular genetic and physiological machinery by which environment regulates juvenility and floral signal transduction has significant scientific and economic implications. Sugars are recognized as important regulatory molecules that regulate cellular activity at multiple levels, from transcription and translation to protein stability and activity. Molecular genetic and physiological approaches have demonstrated different aspects of carbohydrate involvement and its interactions with other signal transduction pathways in regulation of the juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions. Sugars regulate juvenility and floral signal transduction through their function as energy sources, osmotic regulators and signaling molecules. Interestingly, sugar signaling has been shown to involve extensive connections with phytohormone signaling. This includes interactions with phytohormones that are also important for the orchestration of developmental phase transitions, including gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids. This article highlights the potential roles of sugar-hormone interactions in regulation of floral signal transduction, with particular emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutant phenotypes, and suggests possible directions for future research.

  9. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  10. Teratogenic impact of dioxin-activated AHR in laboratory animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    AHR and ARNT are expressed in mouse and human palatal shelves and in the urinary tract of the mouse fetus. AHR expression, translocation to the nucleus, binding to DRE, and activation are required for mediation of TCDD-induction of CP and HN. Although the human palate requires a ...

  11. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  12. Teratogenic impact of dioxin-activated AHR in laboratory animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    AHR and ARNT are expressed in mouse and human palatal shelves and in the urinary tract of the mouse fetus. AHR expression, translocation to the nucleus, binding to DRE, and activation are required for mediation of TCDD-induction of CP and HN. Although the human palate requires a ...

  13. Oct4 was a novel target of Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Li, Jingyi; Chen, Bingbo

    2012-03-01

    The specific expression of Oct4 during early mouse development is required for the correct maintenance of pluripotent cells, and the regulatory control of the Oct4 expression is important. Wnt signaling could have multiple and/or complex effects on embryonic stem (ES) cells characteristics. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms affecting Wnt signaling in ES cells could provide a better understanding of how these effects occur. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Oct4 was regulated by Wnt signaling in undifferentiated ES cells. Here, we report Oct4 as a novel target of β-catenin-mediated transcription. First, we observe that Wnt signaling pathway is activated in undifferentiated mouse ES cells. In 239T cells, Oct4 promoter was regulated by β-catenin. Through promoter mapping and chromatin immuno-precipitation assays, we found that Oct4 is a direct target of β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription and the binding site at -875/-881 of Oct4 promoter is critical for b-catenin/TCF-dependent expression regulation. We further detect the expression of Oct4 in treatment with glycogen syntheses kinase (GSK)-3-specific inhibitor in mouse ES cells and HepG2 cells. We found that GSK-3-specific inhibitor can maintain the expression of Oct4 in ES cells and can enhance the expression of Oct4 in HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that Oct4 might be a novel target of β-catenin/TCF-mediated downstream gene in Wnt-activated cells.

  14. Kinetic insulation as an effective mechanism for achieving pathway specificity in intracellular signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Marcelo; Dohlman, Henrik G.; Elston, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways that share common components often elicit distinct physiological responses. In most cases, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this signal specificity remain poorly understood. Protein scaffolds and cross-inhibition have been proposed as strategies to prevent unwanted cross-talk. Here, we report a mechanism for signal specificity termed “kinetic insulation.” In this approach signals are selectively transmitted through the appropriate pathway based on their temporal profile. In particular, we demonstrate how pathway architectures downstream of a common component can be designed to efficiently separate transient signals from signals that increase slowly over time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that upstream signaling proteins can generate the appropriate input to the common pathway component regardless of the temporal profile of the external stimulus. Our results suggest that multilevel signaling cascades may have evolved to modulate the temporal profile of pathway activity so that stimulus information can be efficiently encoded and transmitted while ensuring signal specificity. PMID:17913886

  15. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: cellular origin, signaling pathways and stroma contribution.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Skoudy, Anouchka; Real, Francisco X; Navarro, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis, in part due to its diagnosis at late stages of the disease and to limited response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The vast majority of pancreatic cancers are classified as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Despite advances in knowledge on the cellular origin of PDAC or the involvement of signal transduction pathways therein, many questions remain unanswered. In this review, we summarize recent findings and current hypotheses regarding these two questions. Since pancreatitis is a risk factor for human PDAC, and the latter proceeds with an intense fibrotic reaction, we also analyze the role of the stroma in PDAC progression. An improved understanding of these key aspects for PDAC ontogeny will open new avenues for tumor prevention, early detection, and improved therapy. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Targeting the BLyS-APRIL signaling pathway in SLE.

    PubMed

    La Cava, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS)-A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL) signaling pathway has an important role in the selection, maturation and survival of B cells and plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The inhibition of BLyS, a survival factor for transitional and mature B cells, has recently proven to be successful in large phase III clinical trials that led to the approval of an anti-BLyS monoclonal antibody (belimumab) for the treatment of SLE. Yet, there is currently a need to both understand better the mechanisms of action of belimumab in SLE and better define the subsets of patients that are more likely to respond to the drug.

  17. Arrestins as regulatory hubs in cancer signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Enslen, Hervé; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Scott, Mark G H

    2014-01-01

    Non-visual arrestins were initially appreciated for the roles they play in the negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptors through the processes of desensitisation and endocytosis. The arrestins are also now known as protein scaffolding platforms that act downstream of multiple types of receptors, ensuring relevant transmission of information for an appropriate cellular response. They function as regulatory hubs in several important signalling pathways that are often dysregulated in human cancers. Interestingly, several recent studies have documented changes in expression and localisation of arrestins that occur during cancer progression and that correlate with clinical outcome. Here, we discuss these advances and how changes in expression/localisation may affect functional outputs of arrestins in cancer biology.

  18. Interferons, Signal Transduction Pathways, and the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Nallar, Shreeram C.

    2014-01-01

    The interferon (IFN) family of cytokines participates in the development of innate and acquired immune defenses against various pathogens and pathogenic stimuli. Discovered originally as a proteinaceous substance secreted from virus-infected cells that afforded immunity to neighboring cells from virus infection, these cytokines are now implicated in various human pathologies, including control of tumor development, cell differentiation, and autoimmunity. It is now believed that the IFN system (IFN genes and the genes induced by them, and the factors that regulate these processes) is a generalized alarm of cellular stress, including DNA damage. IFNs exert both beneficial and deleterious effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Our knowledge of the IFN-regulated processes in the CNS is far from being clear. In this article, we reviewed the current understanding of IFN signal transduction pathways and gene products that might have potential relevance to diseases of the CNS. PMID:25084173

  19. Use of glycolytic pathways for inhibiting or measuring oncogenic signaling

    DOEpatents

    Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina

    2017-06-27

    Disclosed are methods in which glucose metabolism is correlated to oncogenesis through certain specific pathways; inhibition of certain enzymes is shown to interfere with oncogenic signaling, and measurement of certain enzyme levels is correlated with patient survival. The present methods comprise measuring level of expression of at least one of the enzymes involved in glucose uptake or metabolism, wherein increased expression of the at least one of the enzymes relative to expression in a normal cell correlates with poor prognosis of disease in a patient. Preferably the genes whose expression level is measured include GLUT3, PFKP, GAPDH, ALDOC, LDHA and GFPT2. Also disclosed are embodiments directed towards downregulating the expression of some genes in glucose uptake and metabolism.

  20. Glycosidated phospholipids: uncoupling of signalling pathways at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Danker, Kerstin; Reutter, Werner; Semini, Geo

    2010-05-01

    Cell expansion and metastasis are considered hallmarks of tumour progression. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop novel anti-cancer drugs that inhibit both the proliferation and the motility of tumour cells. Synthetic alkylphospholipids, compounds with aliphatic side chains that are ether linked to a glycerol backbone, are structurally derived from platelet-activating factor and represent a new class of drugs with anti-proliferative properties in tumour cells. These compounds do not interfere with the DNA or mitotic spindle apparatus of the cell. Instead, they are incorporated into cell membranes, where they accumulate and interfere with lipid metabolism and lipid-dependent signalling pathways. Recently, it has been shown that the most commonly studied alkylphospholipids inhibit proliferation by inducing apoptosis in malignant cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. This review focuses on a novel group of synthetic alkylphospholipids, the glycosidated phospholipids, which contain carbohydrates or carbohydrate-related molecules at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. Members of this subfamily also exhibit anti-proliferative capacity and modulate the cell adhesion, differentiation, and migration of tumour cells. Among this group, Ino-C2-PAF shows the highest efficacy and low cytotoxicity. Apart from its anti-proliferative effect, Ino-C2-PAF strongly reduces cell motility via its inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of the cytosolic tyrosine kinases FAK and Src. Signalling pathways under the control of the FAK/Src complex are normally required for both migration and proliferation and play a prominent role in tumour progression. We intend to highlight the potential of glycosidated phospholipids, especially Ino-C2-PAF, as a promising new group of drugs for the treatment of hyperproliferative and migration-based skin diseases.

  1. Actionable pathways: interactive discovery of therapeutic targets using signaling pathway models

    PubMed Central

    Salavert, Francisco; Hidago, Marta R.; Amadoz, Alicia; Çubuk, Cankut; Medina, Ignacio; Crespo, Daniel; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of actionable targets is crucial for targeted therapies and is also a constituent part of the drug discovery process. The success of an intervention over a target depends critically on its contribution, within the complex network of gene interactions, to the cellular processes responsible for disease progression or therapeutic response. Here we present PathAct, a web server that predicts the effect that interventions over genes (inhibitions or activations that simulate knock-outs, drug treatments or over-expressions) can have over signal transmission within signaling pathways and, ultimately, over the cell functionalities triggered by them. PathAct implements an advanced graphical interface that provides a unique interactive working environment in which the suitability of potentially actionable genes, that could eventually become drug targets for personalized or individualized therapies, can be easily tested. The PathAct tool can be found at: http://pathact.babelomics.org. PMID:27137885

  2. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Cancer Stem Cell Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Abetov, Danysh; Mustapova, Zhanar; Saliev, Timur; Bulanin, Denis; Batyrbekov, Kanat; Gilman, Charles P

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of oncologists worldwide is to understand and then intervene in the primary tumor initiation and propagation mechanisms. This is essential to allow targeted elimination of cancer cells without altering normal mitotic cells. Currently, there are two main rival theories describing the process of tumorigenesis. According to the Stochastic Model, potentially any cell, once defunct, is capable of initiating carcinogenesis. Alternatively the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) Model posits that only a small fraction of undifferentiated tumor cells are capable of triggering carcinogenesis. Like healthy stem cells, CSCs are also characterized by a capacity for self-renewal and the ability to generate differentiated progeny, possibly mediating treatment resistance, thus leading to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Moreover, molecular signaling profiles are similar between CSCs and normal stem cells, including Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways. Therefore, development of novel chemotherapeutic agents and proteins (e.g., enzymes and antibodies) specifically targeting CSCs are attractive pharmaceutical candidates. This article describes small molecule inhibitors of stem cell pathways Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog, and their recent chemotherapy clinical trials.

  3. Signals of apoptotic pathways in several types of meningioma.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Comi, Cristoforo; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Piffanelli, Valentina; Car, Pier Giorgio; Dianzani, Umberto; Monaco, Francesco; Cannas, Mario

    2011-03-01

    Meningiomas are intracranial tumour derived from meningothelial cells, which aggressive behaviour has been frequently associated to cell apoptosis. In this paper activation of several factors involved in apoptosis has been investigated on biopsies of primary, non recurrent meningiomas. Benign (meningotheliomatous, transitional, fibrous, angiomatous), atypical and anaplastic meningiomas were analysed by immunohistochemistry and western blot, to visualize the occurring of different apoptotic pathways and their association with clinical grading. Apoptotic cell have been detected by a double colorimetric staining for TUNEL and caspase-3 active form. Apoptotic signal positive cells have been detected in all type of meningiomas analysed, with exception of meningotheliomatous meningiomas. Differences have been found in the activation of apoptotic pathways between several types of grade I meningiomas and among benign, anaplastic and atypical meningiomas. An intense expression of several apoptotic inhibitor occurred in grade I meningiomas. The correlation among expression of apoptotic and inhibitory factors and cell proliferation index may suggest that in grade I meningiomas apoptosis may be related to mechanisms involved into tumor cells surviving. Instead in grade II and III meningiomas the same correlation seems indicate an high turnover of tumor cells that might be useful as index of cell proliferation and tumor mass growth.

  4. Caytaxin Deficiency Disrupts Signaling Pathways in Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Gong, Suzhen; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The genetically dystonic (dt) rat, an autosomal recessive model of generalized dystonia, harbors an insertional mutation in Atcay. As a result, dt rats are deficient in Atcay transcript and the neuronally-restricted protein caytaxin. Previous electrophysiological and biochemical studies have defined olivocerebellar pathways, particularly the climbing fiber projection to Purkinje cells, as a site of significant functional abnormality in dt rats. In normal rats, Atcay transcript is abundantly expressed in the granular and Purkinje cell layers of cerebellar cortex. To better understand the consequences of caytaxin deficiency in cerebellar cortex, differential gene expression was examined in dt rats and their normal littermates. Data from oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) identified phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, and extracellular matrix interactions as domains of cellular dysfunction in dt rats. In dt rats, genes encoding the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRH-R1, Crhr1) and calcium-transporting plasma membrane ATPase 4 (PMCA4, Atp2b4) showed the greatest up-regulation with QRT-PCR. Immunocytochemical experiments demonstrated that CRH-R1, CRH, and PMCA4 were up-regulated in cerebellar cortex of mutant rats. Along with previous electrophysiological and pharmacological studies, our data indicate that caytaxin plays a critical role in the molecular response of Purkinje cells to climbing fiber input. Caytaxin may also contribute to maturational events in cerebellar cortex. PMID:17092653

  5. Caytaxin deficiency disrupts signaling pathways in cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Gong, S; Ledoux, M S

    2007-01-19

    The genetically dystonic (dt) rat, an autosomal recessive model of generalized dystonia, harbors an insertional mutation in Atcay. As a result, dt rats are deficient in Atcay transcript and the neuronally-restricted protein caytaxin. Previous electrophysiological and biochemical studies have defined olivocerebellar pathways, particularly the climbing fiber projection to Purkinje cells, as sites of significant functional abnormality in dt rats. In normal rats, Atcay transcript is abundantly expressed in the granular and Purkinje cell layers of cerebellar cortex. To better understand the consequences of caytaxin deficiency in cerebellar cortex, differential gene expression was examined in dt rats and their normal littermates. Data from oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (QRT-PCR) identified phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, and extracellular matrix interactions as domains of cellular dysfunction in dt rats. In dt rats, genes encoding the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRH-R1, Crhr1) and plasma membrane calcium-dependent ATPase 4 (PMCA4, Atp2b4) showed the greatest up-regulation with QRT-PCR. Immunocytochemical experiments demonstrated that CRH-R1, CRH, and PMCA4 were up-regulated in cerebellar cortex of mutant rats. Along with previous electrophysiological and pharmacological studies, our data indicate that caytaxin plays a critical role in the molecular response of Purkinje cells to climbing fiber input. Caytaxin may also contribute to maturational events in cerebellar cortex.

  6. Osteocytic signalling pathways as therapeutic targets for bone fragility.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Lilian I; Bellido, Teresita

    2016-10-01

    Osteocytes are differentiated osteoblasts that become surrounded by matrix during the process of bone formation. Acquisition of the osteocyte phenotype is achieved by profound changes in gene expression that facilitate adaptation to the changing cellular environment and constitute the molecular signature of osteocytes. During osteocytogenesis, the expression of genes that are characteristic of the osteoblast are altered and the expression of genes and/or proteins that impart dendritic cellular morphology, regulate matrix mineralization and control the function of cells at the bone surface are ordely modulated. The discovery of mutations in human osteocytic genes has contributed, in a large part, to our understanding of the role of osteocytes in bone homeostasis. Osteocytes are targets of the mechanical force imposed on the skeleton and have a critical role in integrating mechanosensory pathways with the action of hormones, which thereby leads to the orchestrated response of bone to environmental cues. Current, therapeutic approaches harness this accumulating knowledge by targeting osteocytic signalling pathways and messengers to improve skeletal health.

  7. Targeting cancer by binding iron: Dissecting cellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Goldie Y.L.; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Vera; Merlot, Angelica M.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.

    2015-01-01

    Newer and more potent therapies are urgently needed to effectively treat advanced cancers that have developed resistance and metastasized. One such strategy is to target cancer cell iron metabolism, which is altered compared to normal cells and may facilitate their rapid proliferation. This is supported by studies reporting the anti-neoplastic activities of the clinically available iron chelators, desferrioxamine and deferasirox. More recently, ligands of the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone (DpT) class have demonstrated potent and selective anti-proliferative activity across multiple cancer-types in vivo, fueling studies aimed at dissecting their molecular mechanisms of action. In the past five years alone, significant advances have been made in understanding how chelators not only modulate cellular iron metabolism, but also multiple signaling pathways implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. Herein, we discuss recent research on the targeting of iron in cancer cells, with a focus on the novel and potent DpT ligands. Several key studies have revealed that iron chelation can target the AKT, ERK, JNK, p38, STAT3, TGF-β, Wnt and autophagic pathways to subsequently inhibit cellular proliferation, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. These developments emphasize that these novel therapies could be utilized clinically to effectively target cancer. PMID:26125440

  8. TMEFF2 modulates the AKT and ERK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaofei; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and two follistatin (FS) motifs 2 (TMEFF2) has a limited tissue distribution with strong expression only in brain and prostate. While TMEFF2 is overexpressed in prostate cancer indicating an oncogenic role, several studies indicate a tumor suppressor role for this protein. This dual mode of action is, at least in part, the result of metalloproteinase-dependent shedding that generates a soluble TMEFF2 ectodomain with a growth promoting function. While recent studies have shed some light on the biology of different forms of TMEFF2, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that influence its oncogenic/tumor suppressive function. In several non-prostate cell lines, it has been shown that a recombinant form of the TMEFF2 ectodomain can interact with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA to suppress PDGF receptor signaling and can promote ErbB4 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, the role of the full length TMEFF2 in these pathways has not been examined. Using prostate cell lines, here we examine the role of TMEFF2 in ERK and Akt activation, two pathways implicated in prostate cancer progression and that have been shown to cross talk in several cancers. Our results show that different forms of TMEFF2 distinctly affect Akt and ERK activation and this may contribute to a different cellular response of either proliferation or tumor suppression. PMID:23936739

  9. Kavain Involvement in LPS-Induced Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoren; Amar, Salomon

    2016-10-01

    Kavain, a compound extracted from the Kava plant, Piper methysticum, is found to be involved in TNF-α expression in human and mouse cells via regulation of transcriptional factors such as NF-kB and LITAF. LITAF is known to activate the transcription of more than 20 cytokines that are involved in a variety of cellular processes and is associated with many inflammatory diseases, including angiogenesis, cancer, arthritis, and more. The modulation of LITAF is expected to positively affect cytokine-mediated diseases. Thus, intensive efforts have been deployed in search of LITAF inhibitors. In this work, we found that, in vitro, Kavain reduced LPS- induced TNF-α secretion in mouse macrophages, mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMM), and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (HPBMC). We also found that Kavain treatment in RAW264.7 cells deactivated MyD88 and Akt, inhibited LITAF, and reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-27, and MIG in response to LPS. Similarly, it had a significant in vivo anti-inflammatory effect on wild-type (WT) mice that developed Collagen Antibody Induced Arthritis (CAIA). Overall, MyD88 was found to be an important mediator of the LPS-induced inflammatory response that can be distinguished from the NF-κB pathway. We also found that MyD88 is involved in the pathway linking LPS/LITAF to TNF-α. Therefore, given that Kavain modulates LPS-induced signaling pathways leading to cytokine expression, therapeutic interventions involving Kavain in inflammatory diseases are warranted. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2272-2280, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MicroRNAs: new regulators of Toll-like receptor signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobing; Jing, Zhizhong; Cheng, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a critical family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are responsible for the innate immune responses via signalling pathways to provide effective host defence against pathogen infections. However, TLR-signalling pathways are also likely to stringently regulate tissue maintenance and homeostasis by elaborate modulatory mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators and as an essential part of the networks involved in regulating TLR-signalling pathways. In this review, we highlight our understanding of the regulation of miRNA expression profiles by TLR-signalling pathways and the regulation of TLR-signalling pathways by miRNAs. We focus on the roles of miRNAs in regulating TLR-signalling pathways by targeting multiple molecules, including TLRs themselves, their associated signalling proteins and regulatory molecules, and transcription factors and functional cytokines induced by them, at multiple levels.

  11. MicroRNAs: New Regulators of Toll-Like Receptor Signalling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaobing; Jing, Zhizhong; Cheng, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a critical family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are responsible for the innate immune responses via signalling pathways to provide effective host defence against pathogen infections. However, TLR-signalling pathways are also likely to stringently regulate tissue maintenance and homeostasis by elaborate modulatory mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators and as an essential part of the networks involved in regulating TLR-signalling pathways. In this review, we highlight our understanding of the regulation of miRNA expression profiles by TLR-signalling pathways and the regulation of TLR-signalling pathways by miRNAs. We focus on the roles of miRNAs in regulating TLR-signalling pathways by targeting multiple molecules, including TLRs themselves, their associated signalling proteins and regulatory molecules, and transcription factors and functional cytokines induced by them, at multiple levels. PMID:24772440

  12. Advances in mechanisms and signaling pathways of carbon nanotube toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed into new materials with a variety of industrial and commercial applications. In contrast, the physicochemical properties of CNT at the nanoscale render them the potency to generate toxic effects. Indeed, the potential health impacts of CNT have drawn a great deal of attention in recent years, owing to their identified toxicological and pathological consequences including cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrosis, genotoxicity, tumorigenesis, and immunotoxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which CNT induce toxicity and pathology is thus urgently needed for accurate risk assessment of CNT exposure in humans, and for safe and responsible development and commercialization of nanotechnology. Here, we summarize and discuss recent advances in this area with a focus on the molecular interactions between CNT and mammalian systems, and the signaling pathways important for the development of CNT toxicity such as the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, TGF-β1, MAPK, and p53 signaling cascades. With the current mechanistic evidence summarized in this review, we expect to provide new insights into CNT toxicology at the molecular level and offer new clues to the prevention of health effects resulting from CNT exposure. Moreover, we disclose questions and issues that remain in this rapidly advancing field of nanotoxicology, which would facilitate ascertaining future research directions. PMID:25676622

  13. ATMIN defines an NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kanu, Nnennaya; Behrens, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The checkpoint kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) transduces genomic stress signals to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Here, we report the characterisation of an essential cofactor for ATM, ATMIN (ATM INteracting protein). ATMIN interacts with ATM through a C-terminal motif, which is also present in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)1. ATMIN and ATM colocalised in response to ATM activation by chloroquine and hypotonic stress, but not after induction of double-strand breaks by ionising radiation (IR). ATM/ATMIN complex disruption by IR was attenuated in cells with impaired NBS1 function, suggesting competition of NBS1 and ATMIN for ATM binding. ATMIN protein levels were reduced in ataxia telangiectasia cells and ATM protein levels were low in primary murine fibroblasts lacking ATMIN, indicating reciprocal stabilisation. Whereas phosphorylation of Smc1, Chk2 and p53 was normal after IR in ATMIN-deficient cells, basal ATM activity and ATM activation by hypotonic stress and inhibition of DNA replication was impaired. Thus, ATMIN defines a novel NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling. PMID:17525732

  14. Advances in mechanisms and signaling pathways of carbon nanotube toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed into new materials with a variety of industrial and commercial applications. In contrast, the physicochemical properties of CNT at the nanoscale render them the potency to generate toxic effects. Indeed, the potential health impacts of CNT have drawn a great deal of attention in recent years, owing to their identified toxicological and pathological consequences including cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrosis, genotoxicity, tumorigenesis, and immunotoxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which CNT induce toxicity and pathology is thus urgently needed for accurate risk assessment of CNT exposure in humans, and for safe and responsible development and commercialization of nanotechnology. Here, we summarize and discuss recent advances in this area with a focus on the molecular interactions between CNT and mammalian systems, and the signaling pathways important for the development of CNT toxicity such as the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, TGF-β1, MAPK, and p53 signaling cascades. With the current mechanistic evidence summarized in this review, we expect to provide new insights into CNT toxicology at the molecular level and offer new clues to the prevention of health effects resulting from CNT exposure. Moreover, we disclose questions and issues that remain in this rapidly advancing field of nanotoxicology, which would facilitate ascertaining future research directions.

  15. The Spectrin cytoskeleton regulates the Hippo signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Georgina C; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Khanal, Ichha; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity. Interestingly, in both the ovarian follicular epithelium and intestinal epithelium of Drosophila, apical Spectrins and Crb are dispensable for repression of Yki, while basolateral Spectrins (alpha/beta dimers) are essential. Finally, the Spectrin cytoskeleton is required to regulate the localisation of the Hippo pathway effector YAP in response to cell density human epithelial cells. Our findings identify both apical and basolateral Spectrins as regulators of Hippo signalling and suggest Spectrins as potential mechanosensors. PMID:25712476

  16. Targeting kinase signaling pathways with constrained peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hanold, Laura E; Fulton, Melody D; Kennedy, Eileen J

    2017-02-07

    Kinases are amongst the largest families in the human proteome and serve as critical mediators of a myriad of cell signaling pathways. Since altered kinase activity is implicated in a variety of pathological diseases, kinases have become a prominent class of proteins for targeted inhibition. Although numerous small molecule and antibody-based inhibitors have already received clinical approval, several challenges may still exist with these strategies including resistance, target selection, inhibitor potency and in vivo activity profiles. Constrained peptide inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy for kinase inhibition. Distinct from small molecule inhibitors, peptides can provide a large binding surface area that allows them to bind shallow protein surfaces rather than defined pockets within the target protein structure. By including chemical constraints within the peptide sequence, additional benefits can be bestowed onto the peptide scaffold such as improved target affinity and target selectivity, cell permeability and proteolytic resistance. In this review, we highlight examples of diverse chemistries that are being employed to constrain kinase-targeting peptide scaffolds and highlight their application to modulate kinase signaling as well as their potential clinical implications.

  17. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612

  18. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  19. FGF signaling inhibitor, SPRY4, is evolutionarily conserved target of WNT signaling pathway in progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-03-01

    WNT, FGF and Hedgehog signaling pathways network together during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. FGF16, FGF18, and FGF20 genes are targets of WNT-mediated TCF/LEF-beta-catenin-BCL9/BCL9L-PYGO transcriptional complex. SPROUTY (SPRY) and SPRED family genes encode inhibitors for receptor tyrosine kinase signaling cascades, such as those of FGF receptor family members and EGF receptor family members. Here, transcriptional regulation of SPRY1, SPRY2, SPRY3, SPRY4, SPRED1, SPRED2, and SPRED3 genes by WNT/beta-catenin signaling cascade was investigated by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (humint). Because double TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human SPRY4 gene, comparative genomics analyses on SPRY4 orthologs were further performed. SPRY4-FGF1 locus at human chromosome 5q31.3 and FGF2-NUDT6-SPATA5-SPRY1 locus at human chromosome 4q27-q28.1 were paralogous regions within the human genome. Chimpanzee SPRY4 gene was identified within NW_107083.1 genome sequence. Human, chimpanzee, rat and mouse SPRY4 orthologs, consisting of three exons, were well conserved. SPRY4 gene was identified as the evolutionarily conserved target of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway based on the conservation of double TCF/LEF-binding sites within 5'-promoter region of mammalian SPRY4 orthologs. Human SPRY4 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, brain, pancreatic islet, colon cancer, head and neck tumor, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer. WNT signaling activation in progenitor cells leads to the growth regulation of progenitor cells themselves through SPRY4 induction, and also to the growth stimulation of proliferating cells through FGF secretion. Epigenetic silencing and loss-of-function mutations of SPRY4 gene in progenitor cells could lead to carcinogenesis. SPRY4 is the pharmacogenomics target in the fields of oncology and regenerative medicine.

  20. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks. PMID:27708647

  1. [Advances in the research of signaling pathway in pathologic scar formation].

    PubMed

    Jin, J; Ma, B; Xia, Z F

    2017-03-20

    Scar is the natural end of wound healing, but pathologic scar will form with the excessive hyperplasia. The problems which thus come not only include the physiological and psychological disorders caused by the change of appearance or dysfunction, but also include the economic burden for both families of the patients and society induced by the requirement of plastic or functional reconstruction. The formation of pathologic scars is affected by many factors involved in the process of wound healing, such as excessive inflammation, abnormal tissue repair, and lingering repair termination, which involve a lot of signaling pathways. Current studies show that these signaling pathways are potential sites for the prevention and treatment of pathologic scar. These signaling pathways are reviewed from the aspects of inflammation-related signaling pathways, tissue repair-related signaling pathways, and repair-termination-related signaling pathways.

  2. Signalling pathways involved in the control of sperm cell volume.

    PubMed

    Petrunkina, A M; Harrison, R A P; Tsolova, M; Jebe, E; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    2007-01-01

    The ability to maintain cellular volume is an important general physiological function, which is achieved by specific molecular mechanisms. Hypotonically induced swelling results in the opening of K+ and Cl- ion channels, through which these ions exit with accompanying water loss. This process is known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The molecular mechanisms that control the opening of the ion channels in spermatozoa are as yet poorly understood. The present study investigated pathways of osmo-signalling using boar spermatozoa as a model. Spermatozoa were diluted into isotonic and hypotonic Hepes-buffered saline in the presence or absence of effector drugs, and at predetermined intervals volume measurements were performed electronically. Treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors staurosporine, bismaleimide I and bismaleimide X led to dose-dependent increases of both isotonic and hypotonic volumes (P<0.05). However, as the isotonic volume was affected more than the hypotonic volume, the kinase inhibitors appeared to improve RVD, whereas activation of PKC with phorbol dibutyrate blocked RVD. The increase in isotonic cell volume induced by bismaleimide X was observed in chloride-containing medium but not in the medium in which chloride was replaced by sulphate, implying that PKC was involved in the control of chloride channel activity, e.g. by closing the channel after volume adjustment. The protein phosphatase PP1/PP2 inhibitors calyculin and okadaic acid increased the isotonic volume only slightly but they greatly increased the relative cell volume and blocked RVD. The activation of RVD processes was found to be cAMP-dependent; incubation with forskolin and papaverine improved volume regulation. Moreover, papaverine was able to overcome the negative effect of protein phosphatase inhibitors. The mechanism of sperm RVD appears to involve (a) alterations in protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation balance brought about by PKC and PP1 and (b) a c

  3. Pattern recognition receptors in zebrafish provide functional and evolutionary insight into innate immune signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yajuan; Li, Yuelong; Cao, Xiaocong; Jin, Xiangyu; Jin, Tengchuan

    2017-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signaling pathways have essential roles in recognizing various components of pathogens as well as damaged cells and triggering inflammatory responses that eliminate invading microorganisms and damaged cells. The zebrafish relies heavily on these primary defense mechanisms against pathogens. Here, we review the major PRR signaling pathways in the zebrafish innate immune system and compare these signaling pathways in zebrafish and humans to reveal their evolutionary relationship and better understand their innate immune defense mechanisms. PMID:27721456

  4. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Becnel, Lauren B.; Darlington, Yolanda F.; Ochsner, Scott A.; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R.; Watkins, Christopher M.; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H.; Wise, Michael W.; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N.; McKenna, Neil J.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse ‘omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy “Web 2.0” technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA’s Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:26325041

  5. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Becnel, Lauren B; Darlington, Yolanda F; Ochsner, Scott A; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Watkins, Christopher M; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Wise, Michael W; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N; McKenna, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  6. Genome Editing of the CYP1A1 Locus in iPSCs as a Platform to Map AHR Expression throughout Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brenden W.; Stanford, Elizabeth A.; Sherr, David H.; Murphy, George J.

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand activated transcription factor that increases the expression of detoxifying enzymes upon ligand stimulation. Recent studies now suggest that novel endogenous roles of the AHR exist throughout development. In an effort to create an optimized model system for the study of AHR signaling in several cellular lineages, we have employed a CRISPR/CAS9 genome editing strategy in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to incorporate a reporter cassette at the transcription start site of one of its canonical targets, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). This cell line faithfully reports on CYP1A1 expression, with luciferase levels as its functional readout, when treated with an endogenous AHR ligand (FICZ) at escalating doses. iPSC-derived fibroblast-like cells respond to acute exposure to environmental and endogenous AHR ligands, and iPSC-derived hepatocytes increase CYP1A1 in a similar manner to primary hepatocytes. This cell line is an important innovation that can be used to map AHR activity in discrete cellular subsets throughout developmental ontogeny. As further endogenous ligands are proposed, this line can be used to screen for safety and efficacy and can report on the ability of small molecules to regulate critical cellular processes by modulating the activity of the AHR. PMID:27148368

  7. Modelling and simulation of signal transductions in an apoptosis pathway by using timed Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Ge, Qi-Wei; Nakata, Mitsuru; Matsuno, Hiroshi; Miyano, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    This paper first presents basic Petri net components representing molecular interactions and mechanisms of signalling pathways, and introduces a method to construct a Petri net model of a signalling pathway with these components. Then a simulation method of determining the delay time of transitions, by using timed Petri nets - i.e. the time taken in fi ring of each transition - is proposed based on some simple principles that the number of tokens flowed into a place is equivalent to the number of tokens fl owed out. Finally, the availability of proposed method is confirmed by observing signalling transductions in biological pathways through simulation experiments of the apoptosis signalling pathways as an example.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor knock-out exacerbates choroidal neovascularization via multiple pathogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Mayur; Kazmin, Dmitri; Hu, Peng; Thomas, Russell S; McDonnell, Donald P; Malek, Goldis

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a heterodimeric transcriptional regulator with pleiotropic functions in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, vascular development and cancer. Herein, we report a previously undescribed role for the AhR signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of the wet, neovascular subtype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly in the Western world. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of aged AhR(-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice, using high-throughput RNA sequencing, revealed differential modulation of genes belonging to several AMD-related pathogenic pathways, including inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix regulation. To investigate AhR regulation of these pathways in wet AMD, we experimentally induced choroidal neovascular lesions in AhR(-/-) mice and found that they measured significantly larger in area and volume compared to age-matched wt mice. Furthermore, these lesions displayed a higher number of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-positive (Iba1(+) ) microglial cells and a greater amount of collagen type IV deposition, events also seen in human wet AMD pathology specimens. Consistent with our in vivo observations, AhR knock-down was sufficient to increase choroidal endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, AhR knock-down caused an increase in collagen type IV production and secretion in both retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and choroidal endothelial cell cultures, increased expression of angiogenic and inflammatory molecules, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in RPE cells, and increased expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) in choroidal endothelial cells. Collectively, our findings identify AhR as a regulator of multiple pathogenic pathways in experimentally induced choroidal neovascularization, findings that

  9. Interplay between Dioxin-mediated signaling and circadian clock: a possible determinant in metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Xu, Can-Xin; Tischkau, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    The rotation of the earth on its axis creates the environment of a 24 h solar day, which organisms on earth have used to their evolutionary advantage by integrating this timing information into their genetic make-up in the form of a circadian clock. This intrinsic molecular clock is pivotal for maintenance of synchronized homeostasis between the individual organism and the external environment to allow coordinated rhythmic physiological and behavioral function. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a master regulator of dioxin-mediated toxic effects, and is, therefore, critical in maintaining adaptive responses through regulating the expression of phase I/II drug metabolism enzymes. AhR expression is robustly rhythmic, and physiological cross-talk between AhR signaling and circadian rhythms has been established. Increasing evidence raises a compelling argument that disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms contributes to the development of disease, including sleep disorders, metabolic disorders and cancers. Similarly, exposure to environmental pollutants through air, water and food, is increasingly cited as contributory to these same problems. Thus, a better understanding of interactions between AhR signaling and the circadian clock regulatory network can provide critical new insights into environmentally regulated disease processes. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the reciprocal interactions between dioxin-mediated AhR signaling and the circadian clock including how these pathways relate to health and disease, with emphasis on the control of metabolic function.

  10. Deletion of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor AHR in Mice Leads to Subretinal Accumulation of Microglia and RPE Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Young; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Chang, Yi-Sheng; Kim, Jung-Woong; Brooks, Matthew; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.; Fariss, Robert N.; Rachel, Rivka A.; Cogliati, Tiziana; Qian, Haohua; Swaroop, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates cellular response to environmental signals, including UV and blue wavelength light. This study was undertaken to elucidate AHR function in retinal homeostasis. Methods. RNA-seq data sets were examined for Ahr expression in the mouse retina and rod photoreceptors. The Ahr−/− mice were evaluated by fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, histology, immunohistochemistry, and ERG. For light damage experiments, adult mice were exposed to 14,000 to 15,000 lux of diffuse white light for 2 hours. Results. In mouse retina, Ahr transcripts were upregulated during development, with continued increase in aging rod photoreceptors. Fundus examination of 3-month-old Ahr−/− mice revealed subretinal autofluorescent spots, which increased in number with age and following acute light exposure. Ahr−/− retina also showed subretinal microglia accumulation that correlated with autofluorescence changes, RPE abnormalities, and reactivity against immunoglobulin, complement factor H, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Functionally, Ahr−/− mice displayed reduced ERG c-wave amplitudes. Conclusions. The Ahr−/− mice exhibited subretinal accumulation of microglia and focal RPE atrophy, phenotypes observed in AMD. Together with a recently published report on another Ahr−/− mouse model, our study suggests that AHR has a protective role in the retina as an environmental stress sensor. As such, its altered function may contribute to human AMD progression and provide a target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:25159211

  11. Ebola Virus Does Not Block Apoptotic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Olejnik, Judith; Alonso, Jesus; Schmidt, Kristina M.; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Yang, Jinghua; Patterson, Jean L.; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Since viruses rely on functional cellular machinery for efficient propagation, apoptosis is an important mechanism to fight viral infections. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of cell death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV) infection by assaying for multiple stages of apoptosis and hallmarks of necrosis. Our data indicate that EBOV does not induce apoptosis in infected cells but rather leads to a nonapoptotic form of cell death. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed necrotic cell death of EBOV-infected cells. To investigate if EBOV blocks the induction of apoptosis, infected cells were treated with different apoptosis-inducing agents. Surprisingly, EBOV-infected cells remained sensitive to apoptosis induced by external stimuli. Neither receptor- nor mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis signaling was inhibited in EBOV infection. Although double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced activation of protein kinase R (PKR) was blocked in EBOV-infected cells, induction of apoptosis mediated by dsRNA was not suppressed. When EBOV-infected cells were treated with dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiter (dsCARE), an antiviral protein that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing dsRNA, virus titers were strongly reduced. These data show that the inability of EBOV to block apoptotic pathways may open up new strategies toward the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23468487

  12. ent-Steroids: novel tools for studies of signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Covey, Douglas F

    2009-07-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

  13. Spatial signalling mediated by the transforming growth factor-β signalling pathway during tooth formation

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin-Yu; Sun, Ke; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Tan, Jia-Li; Pi, Cai-Xia; Wan, Mian; Peng, Yi-Ran; Ye, Ling; Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Tooth development relies on sequential and reciprocal interactions between the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, and it is continuously regulated by a variety of conserved and specific temporal-spatial signalling pathways. It is well known that suspensions of tooth germ cells can form tooth-like structures after losing the positional information provided by the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. However, the particular stage in which the tooth germ cells start to form tooth-like structures after losing their positional information remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the reassociation of tooth germ cells suspension from different morphological stages during tooth development and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in this process. Four tooth morphological stages were designed in this study. The results showed that tooth germ cells formed odontogenic tissue at embryonic day (E) 14.5, which is referred to as the cap stage, and they formed tooth-like structures at E16.5, which is referred to as the early bell stage, and E18.5, which is referred to as the late bell stage. Moreover, the transforming growth factor-β signalling pathway might play a role in this process. PMID:27982023

  14. Spatial signalling mediated by the transforming growth factor-β signalling pathway during tooth formation.

    PubMed

    He, Xin-Yu; Sun, Ke; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Tan, Jia-Li; Pi, Cai-Xia; Wan, Mian; Peng, Yi-Ran; Ye, Ling; Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2016-12-16

    Tooth development relies on sequential and reciprocal interactions between the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, and it is continuously regulated by a variety of conserved and specific temporal-spatial signalling pathways. It is well known that suspensions of tooth germ cells can form tooth-like structures after losing the positional information provided by the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. However, the particular stage in which the tooth germ cells start to form tooth-like structures after losing their positional information remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the reassociation of tooth germ cells suspension from different morphological stages during tooth development and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in this process. Four tooth morphological stages were designed in this study. The results showed that tooth germ cells formed odontogenic tissue at embryonic day (E) 14.5, which is referred to as the cap stage, and they formed tooth-like structures at E16.5, which is referred to as the early bell stage, and E18.5, which is referred to as the late bell stage. Moreover, the transforming growth factor-β signalling pathway might play a role in this process.

  15. Urotensin II Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport Signaling Pathways via the NADPH Oxidase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Xin-Rui; Yang, Hui; Yin, Chun-Lin; Shi, Li-Jin; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that the urotensin (UII) and its receptor are up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of mice with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the significance of UII in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UII on NADPH oxidase and glucose transport signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of mice with T2DM and in C2C12 mouse myotube cells. KK/upj-AY/J mice (KK) mice were divided into the following groups: KK group, with saline treatment for 2 weeks; KK+ urantide group, with daily 30 µg/kg body weight injections over the same time period of urantide, a potent urotensin II antagonist peptide; Non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice were used as normal controls. After urantide treatment, mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, in addition to measurements of the levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase and the phosphorylated AKT, PKC and ERK. C2C12 cells were incubated with serum-free DMEM for 24 hours before conducting the experiments, and then administrated with 100 nM UII for 2 hours or 24 hours. Urantide treatment improved glucose tolerance, decreased the translocation of the NADPH subunits p40-phox and p47-phox, and increased levels of the phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK. In contrast, UII treatment increased ROS production and p47-phox and p67-phox translocation, and decreased the phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK; Apocynin abrogated this effect. In conclusion, UII increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase, leading to the inhibition of signaling pathways involving glucose transport, such as AKT/PKC/ERK. Our data imply a role for UII at the molecular level in glucose homeostasis, and possibly in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2DM. PMID:24116164

  16. Wnt signaling pathways in urological cancers: past decades and still growing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in a wide range of embryonic patterning events and maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues. The pathological role of the Wnt pathway has emerged from studies showing a high frequency of specific human cancers associated with mutations that constitutively activate the transcriptional response of these pathways. Constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a common feature of solid tumors and contributes to tumor development, progression and metastasis in various cancers. In this review, the Wnt pathway will be covered from the perspective of urological cancers with emphasis placed on the recent published literature. Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNA), small RNA sequences that modify gene expression profiles will also be discussed. An improved understanding of the basic genetics and biology of Wnt signaling pathway will provide insights into the development of novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies for urological cancers. PMID:22325146

  17. Wnt signaling pathways in urological cancers: past decades and still growing.

    PubMed

    Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2012-02-10

    The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in a wide range of embryonic patterning events and maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues. The pathological role of the Wnt pathway has emerged from studies showing a high frequency of specific human cancers associated with mutations that constitutively activate the transcriptional response of these pathways. Constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a common feature of solid tumors and contributes to tumor development, progression and metastasis in various cancers. In this review, the Wnt pathway will be covered from the perspective of urological cancers with emphasis placed on the recent published literature. Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNA), small RNA sequences that modify gene expression profiles will also be discussed. An improved understanding of the basic genetics and biology of Wnt signaling pathway will provide insights into the development of novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies for urological cancers.

  18. Signal Transduction Pathways of EMT Induced by TGF-β, SHH, and WNT and Their Crosstalks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Tian, Xiao-Jun; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step in development, wound healing, and cancer development. It involves cooperation of signaling pathways, such as transformation growth factor-β (TGF-β), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), and WNT pathways. These signaling pathways crosstalk to each other and converge to key transcription factors (e.g., SNAIL1) to initialize and maintain the process of EMT. The functional roles of multi-signaling pathway crosstalks in EMT are sophisticated and, thus, remain to be explored. In this review, we focused on three major signal transduction pathways that promote or regulate EMT in carcinoma. We discussed the network structures, and provided a brief overview of the current therapy strategies and drug development targeted to these three signal transduction pathways. Finally, we highlighted systems biology approaches that can accelerate the process of deconstructing complex networks and drug discovery. PMID:27043642

  19. Signal Transduction Pathways of EMT Induced by TGF-β, SHH, and WNT and Their Crosstalks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Tian, Xiao-Jun; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-03-28

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step in development, wound healing, and cancer development. It involves cooperation of signaling pathways, such as transformation growth factor-β (TGF-β), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), and WNT pathways. These signaling pathways crosstalk to each other and converge to key transcription factors (e.g., SNAIL1) to initialize and maintain the process of EMT. The functional roles of multi-signaling pathway crosstalks in EMT are sophisticated and, thus, remain to be explored. In this review, we focused on three major signal transduction pathways that promote or regulate EMT in carcinoma. We discussed the network structures, and provided a brief overview of the current therapy strategies and drug development targeted to these three signal transduction pathways. Finally, we highlighted systems biology approaches that can accelerate the process of deconstructing complex networks and drug discovery.

  20. Testosterone Induces Molecular Changes in Dopamine Signaling Pathway Molecules in the Adolescent Male Rat Nigrostriatal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D.; Owens, Samantha J.; Double, Kay L.; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase), transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), dopamine transporter (DAT)] and receptors (DRD1-D5)] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen receptor

  1. Simulator for SUPO, a Benchmark Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-10-14

    A simulator has been developed for SUPO (Super Power) an aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) that operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1951 to 1974. During that period SUPO accumulated approximately 600,000 kWh of operation. It is considered the benchmark for steady-state operation of an AHR. The SUPO simulator was developed using the process that resulted in a simulator for an accelerator-driven subcritical system, which has been previously reported.

  2. Pathway connectivity and signaling coordination in the yeast stress-activated signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Chasman, Deborah; Ho, Yi-Hsuan; Berry, David B; Nemec, Corey M; MacGilvray, Matthew E; Hose, James; Merrill, Anna E; Lee, M Violet; Will, Jessica L; Coon, Joshua J; Ansari, Aseem Z; Craven, Mark; Gasch, Audrey P

    2014-01-01

    Stressed cells coordinate a multi-faceted response spanning many levels of physiology. Yet knowledge of the complete stress-activated regulatory network as well as design principles for signal integration remains incomplete. We developed an experimental and computational approach to integrate available protein interaction data with gene fitness contributions, mutant transcriptome profiles, and phospho-proteome changes in cells responding to salt stress, to infer the salt-responsive signaling network in yeast. The inferred subnetwork presented many novel predictions by implicating new regulators, uncovering unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways, and pointing to previously unknown ‘hubs’ of signal integration. We exploited these predictions to show that Cdc14 phosphatase is a central hub in the network and that modification of RNA polymerase II coordinates induction of stress-defense genes with reduction of growth-related transcripts. We find that the orthologous human network is enriched for cancer-causing genes, underscoring the importance of the subnetwork's predictions in understanding stress biology. PMID:25411400

  3. AHR and CYP1A expression link historical contamination events to modern day developmental effects in the American alligator.

    PubMed

    Hale, Matthew D; Galligan, Thomas M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Moore, Brandon C; Wilkinson, Philip M; Guillette, Louis J; Parrott, Benjamin B

    2017-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today. Little is known regarding the effects that long-term chronic exposures to dioxin or dioxin-like compounds might have on the development and subsequent health of offspring from exposed individuals, nor is much known regarding AHR expression in reptilians. Here, we characterize AHR and CYP1A gene expression in embryonic and juvenile specimen of a long-lived, apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and investigate variation in gene expression profiles in offspring collected from sites conveying differential exposures to environmental contaminants. Both age- and tissue-dependent patterning of AHR isoform expression are detected. We characterize two downstream transcriptional targets of the AHR, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, and describe conserved elements of their genomic architecture. When comparisons across different sites are made, hepatic expression of CYP1A2, a direct target of the AHR, appears elevated in embryos from a site associated with a dioxin point source and previously characterized PCB contamination. Elevated CYP1A2 expression is not persistent, as site-specific variation was absent in juveniles originating from field-collected eggs but reared under lab conditions. Our results illustrate the patterning of AHR gene expression in a long-lived environmental model species, and indicate a potential contemporary influence of historical contamination. This research presents a novel opportunity to link

  4. [Abnormal Notch-Hes Signaling Pathways and Acute Leukemia -Review].

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhen-Yang; Wang, Li; Gao, Chun-Ji

    2017-02-01

    The abnormal activation of Notch signaling is closely related to the development of acute leukemia (AL). The core elements of the Notch signaling system include Notch receptors, Notch ligands, CSL DNA-binding proteins, and effectors like target genes. Any factors, which affect ligands, receptors, signal transducers and effectors, can influence the signal transduction of Notch signaling greatly. Based on the role of Notch signaling in AL, several targeted drugs against Notch upstream signaling have been developed. However, due to the complexity and pleiotropic effects of Notch upstream signaling, these targeted drugs display strong side effects. Thus, Hes (Hairy Enhancer of Split) factors as a primary Notch effector, also play an important role in the pathogenesis of AL. This review summarizes recent progresses on Notch-Hes signaling in AL, hopping to provide references for further excavation of the Notch-Hes signaling, and lay foundations for developing the next generation of targeted drugs.

  5. Cytosolic [Ca2+] signaling pathway in macula densa cells.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, J; Bell, P D

    1999-09-01

    Previous micropuncture studies suggested that macula densa (MD) cells might detect variations in luminal sodium chloride concentration ([NaCl]l) through changes in cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]c). To test this hypothesis, MD [Ca2+]c was measured with fluorescence microscopy using fura 2 in the isolated perfused thick ascending limb with attached glomerulus preparation dissected from rabbit kidney. Tubules were bathed and perfused with a Ringer solution, [NaCl]l was varied and isosmotically replaced with N-methyl-D-glucamine cyclamate. Control [Ca2+]c, during perfusion with 25 mM NaCl and 150 mM NaCl in the bath, averaged 101. 6 +/- 8.2 nM (n = 21). Increasing [NaCl]l to 150 mM elevated [Ca2+]c by 39.1 +/- 5.2 nM (n = 21, P < 0.01). This effect was concentration dependent between zero and 60 mM [NaCl]l. The presence of either luminal furosemide or basolateral nifedipine or 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), a potent Cl- channel blocker, significantly reduced resting [Ca2+]c and abolished the increase in [Ca2+]c in response to increased [NaCl]l. Nifedipine failed to produce a similar inhibitory effect when added exclusively to the luminal perfusate. Also, 100 nM BAY K 8644, a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel agonist, added to the bathing solution increased [Ca2+]c by 33.2 +/- 8.1 nM (n = 5, P < 0.05). These observations suggest that MD cells may detect variations in [NaCl]l through a signaling pathway that includes Na+-2Cl--K+ cotransport, basolateral membrane depolarization via Cl- channels, and Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

  6. High fructose causes cardiac hypertrophy via mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Bo; Meng, Yan-Hai; Chang, Shuo; Zhang, Rong-Yuan; Shi, Chen

    2016-01-01

    High fructose diet can cause cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress is a key mediator for myocardial hypertrophy. Disruption of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to oxidative stress. This study aims to reveal mitochondrial oxidative stress-related signaling pathway in high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were fed high fructose to develop cardiac hypertrophy. Fructose and H2O2 were used to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 was applied to investigate the possible role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CFTR silence was performed to detect the role of CFTR in high fructose-induced myocardial hypertrophy. ROS, glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial function and hypertrophic markers were measured. We confirmed that long-term high fructose diet caused cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and elevated mitochondrial ROS. However, SkQ1 administration prevented heart hypertrophy and mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cadiomyocytes incubated with fructose or H2O2 exhibited significantly increased cell areas but SkQ1 treatment ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high fructose or H2O2 in vitro. Those results revealed that the underlying mechanism for high fructose-induced heart hypertrophy was attributed to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Moreover, CFTR expression was decreased by high fructose intervention and CFTR silence resulted in an increase in mitochondrial ROS, which suggested high fructose diet affected mitochondrial oxidative stress by regulating CFTR expression. Electron transport chain impairment might be related to mitochondrial oxidative damage. In conclusion, our findings indicated that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a central role in pathogenesis of high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. High fructose decreases CFTR expression to regulate mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:27904687

  7. The Cbln family of proteins interact with multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Pattarini, Roberto; Rong, Yongqi; Guo, Hong; Bansal, Parmil K; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Deutch, Ariel Y; Parris, Jennifer; Morgan, James I

    2012-06-01

    Cerebellin precursor protein (Cbln1) is essential for synapse integrity in cerebellum through assembly into complexes that bridge pre-synaptic β-neurexins (Nrxn) to post-synaptic GluRδ2. However, GluRδ2 is largely cerebellum-specific, yet Cbln1 and its little studied family members, Cbln2 and Cbln4, are expressed throughout brain. Therefore, we investigated whether additional proteins mediate Cbln family actions. Whereas Cbln1 and Cbln2 bound to GluRδ2 and Nrxns1-3, Cbln4 bound weakly or not at all, suggesting it has distinct binding partners. In a candidate receptor-screening assay, Cbln4 (but not Cbln1 or Cbln2) bound selectively to the netrin receptor, (deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) in a netrin-displaceable fashion. To determine whether Cbln4 had a netrin-like function, Cbln4-null mice were generated. Cbln4-null mice did not phenocopy netrin-null mice. Cbln1 and Cbln4 were likely co-localized in neurons thought to be responsible for synaptic changes in striatum of Cbln1-null mice. Furthermore, complexes containing Cbln1 and Cbln4 had greatly reduced affinity to DCC but increased affinity to Nrxns, suggesting a functional interaction. However, Cbln4-null mice lacked the striatal synaptic changes seen in Cbln null mice. Thus, Cbln family members interact with multiple receptors/signaling pathways in a subunit composition-dependent manner and have independent functions with Cbln4 potentially involved in the less well-characterized role of netrin/DCC in adult brain.

  8. Hedgehog signaling pathway function conserved in Tribolium segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Farzana, Laila

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila, maintenance of parasegmental boundaries and formation of segmental grooves depend on interactions between segment polarity genes. Wingless and Engrailed appear to have similar roles in both short and long germ segmentation, but relatively little is known about the extent to which Hedgehog signaling is conserved. In a companion study to the Tribolium genome project, we analyzed the expression and function of hedgehog, smoothened, patched, and cubitus interruptus orthologs during segmentation in Tribolium. Their expression was largely conserved between Drosophila and Tribolium. Parental RNAi analysis of positive regulators of the pathway (Tc-hh, Tc-smo, or Tc-ci) resulted in small spherical cuticles with little or no evidence of segmental grooves. Segmental Engrailed expression in these embryos was initiated but not maintained. Wingless-independent Engrailed expression in the CNS was maintained and became highly compacted during germ band retraction, providing evidence that derivatives from every segment were present in these small spherical embryos. On the other hand, RNAi analysis of a negative regulator (Tc-ptc) resulted in embryos with ectopic segmental grooves visible during germband elongation but not discernible in the first instar larval cuticles. These transient grooves formed adjacent to Engrailed expressing cells that encircled wider than normal wg domains in the Tc-ptc RNAi embryos. These results suggest that the en–wg–hh gene circuit is functionally conserved in the maintenance of segmental boundaries during germ band retraction and groove formation in Tribolium and that the segment polarity genes form a robust genetic regulatory module in the segmentation of this short germ insect. PMID:18392879

  9. Wrangling Phosphoproteomic Data to Elucidate Cancer Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Mark L.; Lee, Wan-Jui; van der Maaten, Laurens; Shannon, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of biological data sets is essential for generating hypotheses that guide research, yet modern methods of global analysis challenge our ability to discern meaningful patterns and then convey results in a way that can be easily appreciated. Proteomic data is especially challenging because mass spectrometry detectors often miss peptides in complex samples, resulting in sparsely populated data sets. Using the R programming language and techniques from the field of pattern recognition, we have devised methods to resolve and evaluate clusters of proteins related by their pattern of expression in different samples in proteomic data sets. We examined tyrosine phosphoproteomic data from lung cancer samples. We calculated dissimilarities between the proteins based on Pearson or Spearman correlations and on Euclidean distances, whilst dealing with large amounts of missing data. The dissimilarities were then used as feature vectors in clustering and visualization algorithms. The quality of the clusterings and visualizations were evaluated internally based on the primary data and externally based on gene ontology and protein interaction networks. The results show that t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) followed by minimum spanning tree methods groups sparse proteomic data into meaningful clusters more effectively than other methods such as k-means and classical multidimensional scaling. Furthermore, our results show that using a combination of Spearman correlation and Euclidean distance as a dissimilarity representation increases the resolution of clusters. Our analyses show that many clusters contain one or more tyrosine kinases and include known effectors as well as proteins with no known interactions. Visualizing these clusters as networks elucidated previously unknown tyrosine kinase signal transduction pathways that drive cancer. Our approach can be applied to other data types, and can be easily adopted because open source software

  10. Enzalutamide: targeting the androgen signalling pathway in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schalken, Jack; Fitzpatrick, John M

    2016-02-01

    Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the underlying cancer biology of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with the androgen receptor (AR) signalling pathway remaining implicated throughout the prostate cancer disease continuum. Reactivation of the AR signalling pathway is considered to be a key driver of CRPC progression and, as such, the AR is a logical target for therapy in CRPC. The objective of this review was to understand the importance of AR signalling in the treatment of patients with metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) and to discuss the clinical benefits associated with inhibition of the AR signalling pathway. A search was conducted to identify articles relating to the role of AR signalling in CRPC and therapies that inhibit the AR signalling pathway. Current understanding of prostate cancer has identified the AR signalling pathway as a logical target for the treatment of CRPC. Available therapies that inhibit the AR signalling pathway include AR blockers, androgen biosynthesis inhibitors, and AR signalling inhibitors. Enzalutamide, the first approved AR signalling inhibitor, has a novel mode of action targeting AR signalling at three key stages. The direct mode of action of enzalutamide has been shown to translate into clinical responses in patients with mCRPC. In conclusion, the targeting of the AR signalling pathway in patients with mCRPC results in numerous clinical benefits. As the number of treatment options increase, more trials evaluating the sequencing and combination of treatments are required. This review highlights the continued importance of targeting a key driver in the progression of CRPC, AR signalling, and the clinical benefits associated with inhibition of the AR signalling pathway in the treatment of patients with CRPC.

  11. Murine Polyomavirus Cell Surface Receptors Activate Distinct Signaling Pathways Required for Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Samantha D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virus binding to the cell surface triggers an array of host responses, including activation of specific signaling pathways that facilitate steps in virus entry. Using mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV), we identified host signaling pathways activated upon virus binding to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Pathways activated by MuPyV included the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), FAK/SRC, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Gangliosides and α4-integrin are required receptors for MuPyV infection. MuPyV binding to both gangliosides and the α4-integrin receptors was required for activation of the PI3K pathway; however, either receptor interaction alone was sufficient for activation of the MAPK pathway. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we confirmed that the PI3K and FAK/SRC pathways were required for MuPyV infection, while the MAPK pathway was dispensable. Mechanistically, the PI3K pathway was required for MuPyV endocytosis, while the FAK/SRC pathway enabled trafficking of MuPyV along microtubules. Thus, MuPyV interactions with specific cell surface receptors facilitate activation of signaling pathways required for virus entry and trafficking. Understanding how different viruses manipulate cell signaling pathways through interactions with host receptors could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for viral infection. PMID:27803182

  12. The Role of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    coexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch1 in immortalized breast epithelial HMLE cells expressing low levels of oncogenic Ras rendered them...the Notch-Ras pathway interaction revealed that nuclear localization of Notch1 is essential for this cooperation. Dissection of Ras-pathways using the...activates Raf/MAPK pathway, formed efficient colonies with activated Notch1 . Interestingly, I found that expression of activated Notch1 rendered the

  13. The hepatitis B virus X protein downregulates NF-κB signaling pathways through decreasing the Notch signaling pathway in HBx-transformed L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Zhou, Haiyan; Wang, Fan; Xia, Xiumei; Sun, Qian; Wang, Ronghua; Cheng, Bin

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma, which has been found to be associated with Notch and NF-κB signaling. This study aimed to investigate the crosstalk between Notch and NF-κB pathways in HBx-related hepatocellular carcinoma. An HBx-transformed non-tumor hepatic cell line L02 (L02/HBx) was previously established. Immunofluorescence assays were performed to visualize HBx and the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in cell nuclei. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to investigate physical interactions between HBx and components of the Notch signaling pathway (NICD and JAG1), NF-κB signaling pathway (p65 and p50) or IκBα. L02/HBx cells were treated with the Notch signal inhibitor DAPT or Notch1 siRNA to inhibit the Notch1 pathway. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the expression of the p65, p50 and IκBα genes. Protein expression changes in cytoplasm and nuclei after treatment with DAPT or Notch1 siRNA were analyzed by western blotting and EMSA assays. We found that HBx directly regulated Notch1 signaling, which cross-talked with the NF-κB pathway. Downregulation of Notch1 decreased the binding of NF-κB p65 to its target gene promoter, reduced NF-κB expression and enhanced IκBα expression. The results suggest that HBx functions through the Notch signaling pathway; Notch contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis partially by regulating the NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new insights into the role of Notch and NF-κB signaling in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma related to HBx.

  14. Role of SDF-1 and Wnt signaling pathway in the myocardial fibrosis of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shuai; Cai, Wenwei; Sheng, Jing; Yin, Lingni

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and Wnt signaling pathway on the bioactivities of myofibroblasts (MFs) and the expressions of SDF-1 and components of Wnt signaling pathway in the myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). BMSCs were induced to differentiate into MFs in vitro, and SDF-1 and Wnt signaling pathway were independently or simultaneously blocked. Then, the migration of MFs and the secretion of Col I and α-SMA were determined in MFs. Heart function, progression of myocardial fibrosis and structure of the heart were evaluated. The expression of SDF-1 and components of Wnt signaling pathway in SHR was detected. TGF-β could induce the differentiation of BMSCs into B-MFs; Blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and/or Wnt signaling pathway was able to inhibit the MFs migration and Col I secretion; Blocking Wnt signaling pathway inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs into MFs; Serum SDF-1 increased with the increase in blood pressure, and serum β-catenin elevated with the fluctuation of blood pressure; Protein and mRNA expressions of SDF-1 in the myocardium increased, and those of DKK-1 (an inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway) and GSK-3 reduced in SHR. SDF-1 and Wnt signaling pathway are involved in the differentiation of BMSCs into MFs, as well as the migration and collagen secretion of MFs; Hypertension affects the expressions of SDF-1 and components of Wnt signaling pathway. In the myocardium of SHR, SDF-1 expression increases, but the expression of inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway reduces.

  15. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Beildeck, Marcy E.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Byers, Stephen W.

    2010-07-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  16. Modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by bioactive food components

    PubMed Central

    Tarapore, Rohinton S.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, one of the most conserved intercellular signaling cascade, is a known regulator of cellular functions related to tumor initiation and progression, cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and adhesion. Because aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been observed in a variety of human cancers including a majority of colorectal cancers, about half of prostate cancers and a third of melanomas, inhibitors of its complex signaling pathways are being investigated for therapy as well as chemoprevention of these cancers. During the last decade, several naturally occurring dietary agents have been shown to target intermediates in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and present an analysis of the key findings from laboratory studies on the effects of a panel of dietary agents against a variety of cancers. Promise of these agents for treating and preventing human cancer is then discussed. PMID:22198211

  17. Lgd regulates the activity of the BMP/Dpp signalling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morawa, Kim Sara; Schneider, Markus; Klein, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The tumour suppressor gene lethal (2) giant discs (lgd) is involved in endosomal trafficking of transmembrane proteins in Drosophila. Loss of function results in the ligand-independent activation of the Notch pathway in all imaginal disc cells and follicle cells. Analysis of lgd loss of function has largely been restricted to imaginal discs and suggests that no other signalling pathway is affected. The devotion of Lgd to the Notch pathway was puzzling given that lgd loss of function also affects trafficking of components of other signalling pathways, such as the Dpp (a Drosophila BMP) pathway. Moreover, Lgd physically interacts with Shrub, a fundamental component of the ESCRT trafficking machinery, whose loss of function results in the activation of several signalling pathways. Here, we show that during oogenesis lgd loss of function causes ectopic activation of the Drosophila BMP signalling pathway. This activation occurs in somatic follicle cells as well as in germline cells. The activation in germline cells causes an extra round of division, producing egg chambers with 32 instead of 16 cells. Moreover, more germline stem cells were formed. The lgd mutant cells are defective in endosomal trafficking, causing an accumulation of the type I Dpp receptor Thickveins in maturing endosomes, which probably causes activation of the pathway. Taken together, these results show that lgd loss of function causes various effects among tissues and can lead to the activation of signalling pathways other than Notch. They further show that there is a role for the endosomal pathway during oogenesis.

  18. In vitro transactivation potencies of black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) AHR1 and AHR2 by dioxins to predict CYP1A expression in the wild population.

    PubMed

    Mol, Thuruthippallil Leena; Kim, Eun-Young; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Iwata, Hisato

    2012-01-03

    Our previous studies have detected high levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs) in the black-footed albatross (BFA), Phoebastria nigripes, from the North Pacific region. We have also cloned two aryl hydrocarbon receptors, AHR1 and AHR2, of the BFA. To evaluate the sensitivity to DRCs in the BFA and to assess the status of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction in the wild population, this study investigated the mRNA expression levels of BFA AHR1 and AHR2 and also the transactivation potencies of each AHR by 15 selected DRC congeners. Quantitative real-time PCR of BFA AHR mRNAs showed that hepatic AHR1 is more highly expressed than AHR2. Transactivation by graded concentrations of individual DRCs was measured in COS-7 cells, where BFA AHR1 or AHR2 was transiently transfected. For congeners that exhibited AHR-mediated dose-dependent activities, 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) relative potencies (REPs) were estimated. Based on the estimates of the REPs, TCDD induction equivalency factors (IEFs) were determined. For BFA AHR1, PeCDF was equipotent to TCDD, but other congeners exhibited lower IEFs. For BFA AHR2, PCDD/F congeners except OCDD/F showed IEFs ≥ 1.0. Using BFA AHR1- or AHR2-IEFs and hepatic concentrations of DRCs in North Pacific BFAs, TCDD induction equivalents (IEQs) were calculated. We further constructed nonlinear regression models on the relationships between BFA AHR1- or AHR2-IEF derived total IEQ or WHO-TEF derived total TEQ and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in the liver of wild BFAs. The results indicated that the relationships of BFA AHR1- and AHR2-based IEQs and EROD were predictable from BFA AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation by TCDD, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that the in vitro assay incorporating the AHR of species of concern would be a useful tool to

  19. Identification of a Novel Gnao-Mediated Alternate Olfactory Signaling Pathway in Murine OSNs.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Paul; Mohrhardt, Julia; Jansen, Fabian; Kalbe, Benjamin; Haering, Claudia; Klasen, Katharina; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the binding of odorant molecules to their specific olfactory receptor (OR) triggers a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, activating cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG) channels. However, considerable controversy dating back more than 20 years has surrounded the question of whether alternate signaling plays a role in mammalian olfactory transduction. In this study, we demonstrate a specific alternate signaling pathway in Olfr73-expressing OSNs. Methylisoeugenol (MIEG) and at least one other known weak Olfr73 agonist (Raspberry Ketone) trigger a signaling cascade independent from the canonical pathway, leading to the depolarization of the cell. Interestingly, this pathway is mediated by Gnao activation, leading to Cl(-) efflux; however, the activation of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII), the recruitment of Ca(2+) from extra-or intracellular stores, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling (PI signaling) are not involved. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our newly identified pathway coexists with the canonical olfactory cAMP pathway in the same OSN and can be triggered by the same OR in a ligand-selective manner. We suggest that this pathway might reflect a mechanism for odor recognition predominantly used in early developmental stages before olfactory cAMP signaling is fully developed. Taken together, our findings support the existence of at least one odor-induced alternate signal transduction pathway in native OSNs mediated by Olfr73 in a ligand-selective manner.

  20. Evaluation of Signaling Pathways Involved in γ-Globin Gene Induction Using Fetal Hemoglobin Inducer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Fakher; Allahmoradi, Hossein; Salari, Fatemeh; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Fard, Ali Dehghani; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Mousakhani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Potent induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production results in alleviating the complications of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD). HbF inducer agents can trigger several molecular signaling pathways critical for erythropoiesis. Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), mitogen activated protein kinas (MAPK) and Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are considered as main signaling pathways, which may play a significant role in HbF induction. All these signaling pathways are triggered by erythropoietin (EPO) as the main growth factor inducing erythroid differentiation, when it binds to its cell surface receptor, erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) HbF inducer agents have been shown to upregulate HbF production level by triggering certain signaling pathways. As a result, understanding the pivotal signaling pathways influencing HbF induction leads to effective upregulation of HbF. In this mini review article, we try to consider the correlation between HbF inducer agents and their molecular mechanisms of γ-globin upregulation. Several studies suggest that activating P38 MAPK, RAS and STAT5 signaling pathways result in efficient HbF induction. Nevertheless, the role of other erythroid signaling pathways in HbF induction seems to be indispensible and should be emphasized.

  1. Stress and radiation-induced activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Dent, Paul; Yacoub, Adly; Contessa, Joseph; Caron, Ruben; Amorino, George; Valerie, Kristoffer; Hagan, Michael P; Grant, Steven; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of cells to a variety of stresses induces compensatory activations of multiple intracellular signaling pathways. These activations can play critical roles in controlling cell survival and repopulation effects in a stress-specific and cell type-dependent manner. Some stress-induced signaling pathways are those normally activated by mitogens such as the EGFR/RAS/PI3K-MAPK pathway. Other pathways activated by stresses such as ionizing radiation include those downstream of death receptors, including pro-caspases and the transcription factor NFKB. This review will attempt to describe some of the complex network of signals induced by ionizing radiation and other cellular stresses in animal cells, with particular attention to signaling by growth factor and death receptors. This includes radiation-induced signaling via the EGFR and IGFI-R to the PI3K, MAPK, JNK, and p38 pathways as well as FAS-R and TNF-R signaling to pro-caspases and NFKB. The roles of autocrine ligands in the responses of cells and bystander cells to radiation and cellular stresses will also be discussed. Based on the data currently available, it appears that radiation can simultaneously activate multiple signaling pathways in cells. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may play an important role in this process by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. The ability of radiation to activate signaling pathways may depend on the expression of growth factor receptors, autocrine factors, RAS mutation, and PTEN expression. In other words, just because pathway X is activated by radiation in one cell type does not mean that pathway X will be activated in a different cell type. Radiation-induced signaling through growth factor receptors such as the EGFR may provide radioprotective signals through multiple downstream pathways. In some cell types, enhanced basal signaling by proto-oncogenes such as RAS may provide a radioprotective signal. In many cell types, this may be through PI3K, in others

  2. Interferon Receptor Signaling in Malignancy: a Network of Cellular Pathways Defining Biological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Eleanor N.; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines with important anti-proliferative activity and exhibit key roles in immune surveillance against malignancies. Early work initiated over 3 decades ago led to the discovery of IFN receptor activated Jak-Stat pathways and provided important insights into mechanisms for transcriptional activation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) that mediate IFN-biological responses. Since then, additional evidence has established critical roles for other receptor activated signaling pathways in the induction of IFN-activities. These include MAPK pathways, mTOR cascades and PKC pathways. In addition, specific microRNAs (miRNAs) appear to play a significant role in the regulation of IFN-signaling responses. This review focuses on the emerging evidence for a model in which IFNs share signaling elements and pathways with growth factors and tumorigenic signals, but engage them in a distinctive manner to mediate anti-proliferative and antiviral responses. PMID:25217450

  3. Targeting tissue-specific metabolic signaling pathways in aging: the promise and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fang; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    It has been well established that most of the age-related diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and atherosclerosis are all closely related to metabolic dysfunction. On the other hand, interventions on metabolism such as calorie restriction or genetic manipulations of key metabolic signaling pathways such as the insulin and mTOR signaling pathways slow down the aging process and improve healthy aging. These findings raise an important question as to whether improving energy homeostasis by targeting certain metabolic signaling pathways in specific tissues could be an effective anti-aging strategy. With a more comprehensive understanding of the tissue-specific roles of distinct metabolic signaling pathways controlling energy homeostasis and the cross-talks between these pathways during aging may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions not only for metabolic dysfunction but also for aging.

  4. Discovering relationships between nuclear receptor signaling pathways, genes, and tissues in Transcriptomine.

    PubMed

    Becnel, Lauren B; Ochsner, Scott A; Darlington, Yolanda F; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Dehart, Michael; Naumov, Alexey; McKenna, Neil J

    2017-04-25

    We previously developed a web tool, Transcriptomine, to explore expression profiling data sets involving small-molecule or genetic manipulations of nuclear receptor signaling pathways. We describe advances in biocuration, query interface design, and data visualization that enhance the discovery of uncharacterized biology in these pathways using this tool. Transcriptomine currently contains about 45 million data points encompassing more than 2000 experiments in a reference library of nearly 550 data sets retrieved from public archives and systematically curated. To make the underlying data points more accessible to bench biologists, we classified experimental small molecules and gene manipulations into signaling pathways and experimental tissues and cell lines into physiological systems and organs. Incorporation of these mappings into Transcriptomine enables the user to readily evaluate tissue-specific regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptor signaling pathways. Data points from animal and cell model experiments and from clinical data sets elucidate the roles of nuclear receptor pathways in gene expression events accompanying various normal and pathological cellular processes. In addition, data sets targeting non-nuclear receptor signaling pathways highlight transcriptional cross-talk between nuclear receptors and other signaling pathways. We demonstrate with specific examples how data points that exist in isolation in individual data sets validate each other when connected and made accessible to the user in a single interface. In summary, Transcriptomine allows bench biologists to routinely develop research hypotheses, validate experimental data, or model relationships between signaling pathways, genes, and tissues. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Andreas Hartkopf, Florin-Andrei Taran, Tanja Fehm, Gunter Meister, Christoph A. Klein. “Her2 and progesterone signaling cooperate for early dissemination... progesterone receptor-B (PgR) favored side branching (Brisken et al., 2000). With Hosseini et al., we also found that PgR signaling is enriched in the pre...signaling in early stages of breast cancer progression may awaken programs of motility, invasion and stem cell-like behavior observed during pregnancy

  6. Dissecting Cell-Fate Determination Through Integrated Mathematical Modeling of the ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung-Young; Nguyen, Lan K

    2017-01-01

    The past three decades have witnessed an enormous progress in the elucidation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway and its involvement in various cellular processes. Because of its importance and complex wiring, the ERK pathway has been an intensive subject for mathematical modeling, which facilitates the unraveling of key dynamic properties and behaviors of the pathway. Recently, however, it became evident that the pathway does not act in isolation but closely interacts with many other pathways to coordinate various cellular outcomes under different pathophysiological contexts. This has led to an increasing number of integrated, large-scale models that link the ERK pathway to other functionally important pathways. In this chapter, we first discuss the essential steps in model development and notable models of the ERK pathway. We then use three examples of integrated, multipathway models to investigate how crosstalk of ERK signaling with other pathways regulates cell-fate decision-making in various physiological and disease contexts. Specifically, we focus on ERK interactions with the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling pathways. We conclude that integrated modeling in combination with wet-lab experimentation have been and will be instrumental in gaining an in-depth understanding of ERK signaling in multiple biological contexts.

  7. The Notch intracellular domain integrates signals from Wnt, Hedgehog, TGFβ/BMP and hypoxia pathways.

    PubMed

    Borggrefe, Tilman; Lauth, Matthias; Zwijsen, An; Huylebroeck, Danny; Oswald, Franz; Giaimo, Benedetto Daniele

    2016-02-01

    Notch signaling is a highly conserved signal transduction pathway that regulates stem cell maintenance and differentiation in several organ systems. Upon activation, the Notch receptor is proteolytically processed, its intracellular domain (NICD) translocates into the nucleus and activates expression of target genes. Output, strength and duration of the signal are tightly regulated by post-translational modifications. Here we review the intracellular post-translational regulation of Notch that fine-tunes the outcome of the Notch response. We also describe how crosstalk with other conserved signaling pathways like the Wnt, Hedgehog, hypoxia and TGFβ/BMP pathways can affect Notch signaling output. This regulation can happen by regulation of ligand, receptor or transcription factor expression, regulation of protein stability of intracellular key components, usage of the same cofactors or coregulation of the same key target genes. Since carcinogenesis is often dependent on at least two of these pathways, a better understanding of their molecular crosstalk is pivotal.

  8. Vital elements of the Wnt-Frizzled signaling pathway in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Li, Faqi; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Maiese, Kenneth

    2005-10-01

    Wnt proteins are cysteine-rich glycosylated proteins named after the Drosophilia Wingless (Wg) and the mouse Int-1 genes that play a role in embryonic cell patterning, proliferation, differentiation, orientation, adhesion, survival, and programmed cell death (PCD). Wnt proteins involve at least two intracellular signaling pathways. One pathway controls target gene transcription through beta-catenin, generally referred to as the canonical pathway and a second pathway pertains to intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) release which is termed the non-canonical or Wnt/ Ca(2+) pathway. The majority of Wnt proteins activate gene transcription through the canonical signaling pathway regulated by pathways that include the Frizzled transmembrane receptor and the co-receptor LRP-5/6, Dishevelled, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and beta-catenin. In contrast, the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway has two intracellular signaling cascades that consist of the Wnt/ Ca(2+) pathway with protein kinase C (PKC) and the Wnt/PCP pathway involving Rho/Rac small GTPase and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Through a series of signaling pathways, Wnt proteins modulate cell development, proliferation, and cell fate. In regards to cell survival and fate through PCD, Wnt may be critical for the prevention of tissue pathology that involves cytokine and growth factor control during disorders such as neuropsychiatric disease, retinal disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Elucidation of the vital elements that shape and control the Wnt-Frizzled signaling pathway may provide significant prospects for the treatment of disorders of the nervous system.

  9. microRNA regulation of Wnt signaling pathways in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia L.; Nigam, Priya; Tektas, Senel S.; Selva, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of development. Aberrant Wnt signaling pathways and miRNA levels lead to developmental defects and diverse human pathologies including but not limited to cancer. Wnt signaling pathways regulate a plethora of cellular processes during embryonic development and maintain homeostasis of adult tissues. A majority of Wnt signaling components are regulated by miRNAs which are small noncoding RNAs that are expressed in both animals and plants. In animal cells, miRNAs fine tune gene expression by pairing primarily to the 3′untranslated region of protein coding mRNAs to repress target mRNA translation and/or induce target degradation. miRNA-mediated regulation of signaling transduction pathways is important in modulating dose-sensitive response of cells to signaling molecules. This review discusses components of the Wnt signaling pathways that are regulated by miRNAs in the context of development and diseases. A fundamental understanding of miRNA functions in Wnt signaling transduction pathways may yield new insight into crosstalks of regulatory mechanisms essential for development and disease pathophysiology leading to novel therapeutics. PMID:25843779

  10. In Vitro Antitumor Effects of AHR Ligands Aminoflavone (AFP 464) and Benzothiazole (5F 203) in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Luzzani, Gabriela A; Callero, Mariana A; Kuruppu, Anchala I; Trapani, Valentina; Flumian, Carolina; Todaro, Laura; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Loaiza Perez, Andrea I

    2017-05-04

    We investigated activity and mechanism of action of two AhR ligand antitumor agents, AFP 464 and 5F 203 on human renal cancer cells, specifically examining their effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and migration. TK-10, SN12C, Caki-1, and ACHN human renal cancer cell lines were treated with AFP 464 and 5F 203. We evaluated cytotoxicity by MTS assays, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis by flow cytometry and corroborated a mechanism of action involving AhR signal transduction activation. Changes in migration properties by wound healing assays were investigated: 5F 203-sensitive cells show decreased migration after treatment, therefore, we measured c-Met phosphorylation by Western blot in these cells. A 5F 203 induced a decrease in cell viability which was more marked than AFP 464. This cytotoxicity was reduced after treatment with the AhR inhibitor α-NF for both compounds indicating AhR signaling activation plays a role in the mechanism of action. A 5F 203 is sequestered by TK-10 cells and induces CYP1A1 expression; 5F 203 potently inhibited migration of TK-10, Caki-1, and SN12C cells, and inhibited c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. AhR ligand antitumor agents AFP 464 and 5F 203 represent potential new candidates for the treatment of renal cancer. A 5F 203 only inhibited migration of sensitive cells and c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. c-Met receptor signal transduction is important in migration and metastasis. Therefore, we consider that 5F 203 offers potential for the treatment of metastatic renal carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-10, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Crosstalk between Wnt/β-Catenin and NF-κB Signaling Pathway during Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bin; Hottiger, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Besides its important role in embryonic development and homeostatic self-renewal in adult tissues, Wnt/β-catenin signaling exerts both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory functions. This is, at least partially, due to either repressing or enhancing the NF-κB pathway. Similarly, the NF-κB pathway either positively or negatively regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Different components of the two pathways are involved in this crosstalk, forming a complex regulatory network. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the cross-regulation between the two pathways and discusses their involvement in inflammation and inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer. PMID:27713747

  12. Quercitrin attenuates osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats by regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Zhi; Ni, Huai-Jun; Wang, Yu-Ling

    2017-03-13

    MAPK signaling pathways are crucial in regulating osteogenesis, a genetic disorder affecting the bones. Quercitrin, a type of flavonoid, is widely distributed in nature and involved in many pharmacological activities. But its osteoprotective functions and mechanism in osteoporosis are far from being understood clearly. In this paper, the MAPK upregulation was observed in the ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Quercitrin was found to downregulate MAPK signaling pathways and prevent the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microstructure, and bone mechanical characteristics. In this study, quercitrin was seen to prevent the progression of the postmenopausal osteoporosis among the rats, which may be mediated by the downregulated MAPK signaling pathways.

  13. NetPath: a public resource of curated signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have developed NetPath as a resource of curated human signaling pathways. As an initial step, NetPath provides detailed maps of a number of immune signaling pathways, which include approximately 1,600 reactions annotated from the literature and more than 2,800 instances of transcriptionally regulated genes - all linked to over 5,500 published articles. We anticipate NetPath to become a consolidated resource for human signaling pathways that should enable systems biology approaches. PMID:20067622

  14. Study of orexins signal transduction pathways in rat olfactory mucosa and in olfactory sensory neurons-derived cell line Odora: multiple orexin signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Gorojankina, Tatiana; Grébert, Denise; Salesse, Roland; Tanfin, Zahra; Caillol, Monique

    2007-06-07

    Orexins A and B (OxA and OxB) are multifunctional neuropeptides implicated in the regulation of energy metabolism, wakefulness but also in a broad range of motivated behaviours. They signal through two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 and 2 (Ox1R and Ox2R). The orexins and their receptors are present at all levels of the rat olfactory system: epithelium, bulb, piriform cortex but their signalling mechanisms remain unknown. We have studied orexins signal transduction pathways in the rat olfactory mucosa (OM) and in the Odora cell line derived from olfactory sensory neurons and heterologously expressing Ox1R or Ox2R. We have demonstrated by western blot and RT-PCR that multiple components of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathways were identical in OM and Odora cells. OxA and OxB induced a weak increase in IP3 in OM; they induced a significant rise in cAMP and IP3 in Odora transfected cells, suggesting the activation of AC and PLC pathways. Both OxA and OxB induced intracellular calcium elevation and transient activation of MAP kinases (ERK42/44) in Odora/Ox1R and Odora/Ox2R cells. These results suggest the existence of multiple orexins signalling pathways in Odora cells and probably in OM, corresponding to different possible roles of these peptides.

  15. The Role of Coinhibitory Signaling Pathways in Transplantation and Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Martina M.; Najafian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Negative costimulatory molecules, acting through so-called inhibitory pathways, play a crucial role in the control of T cell responses. This negative “second signal” opposes T cell receptor activation and leads to downregulation of T cell proliferation and promotes antigen specific tolerance. Much interest has focused upon these pathways in recent years as a method to control detrimental alloresponses and promote allograft tolerance. However, recent experimental data highlights the complexity of negative costimulatory pathways in alloimmunity. Varying effects are observed from molecules expressed on donor and recipient tissues and also depending upon the activation status of immune cells involved. There appears to be significant overlap and redundancy within these systems, rendering