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Sample records for ahs pesticide exposure

  1. RESULTS FROM THE AHS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study/Pesticide Exposure Study (AHS/PES) measured exposures resulting from agricultural use of 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos for a subset of applicators in the AHS cohort. Through on-farm measurements and observations, data collected in the exposure study will...

  2. PESTICIDE TRADE NAMES AND THEIR ACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN THE AHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detailed information on the use of specific pesticides is a major strength of exposure assessment conducted for the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). During the enrollment interviews, a check list was used to collect information on the frequency and duration of use for 28 p...

  3. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use. PMID:23184103

  4. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  5. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  6. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  7. Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

  8. INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  9. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  10. SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

  11. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

  12. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Santed, Fernando; Colomina, Maria Teresa; Herrero Hernández, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are used extensively throughout the world. The main sources of contamination for humans are dietary ingestion and occupational exposures. The major concerns related to OP exposure are delayed effects following high level exposures as well as the impact of low level exposures during the lifespan which are suggested to be a risk factor for nervous system chronic diseases. Both high and low level exposures may have a particularly high impact in population subgroups such as aged or genetically vulnerable populations. Apart from the principle action of OPs which involves inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, several molecular targets, such as hormones; neurotransmitters; neurotrophic factors; enzymes related to the metabolism of beta amyloid protein as well as inflammatory changes have been identified for OP compounds. Here we review the main neurological and/or cognitive deficits described and the experimental and epidemiological relationships found between pesticide exposure and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) diseases. This report also focuses on possible individual differences making groups resilient or vulnerable to these toxicants. A critical discussion of the evidence obtained from experimental models and possible sources of bias in epidemiological studies is included. In particular this review aims to discuss common targets and pathways identified which may underlie the functional deficits associated with both pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration. PMID:26687930

  13. Captan exposure and evaluation of a pesticide exposure algorithm among orchard pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Deddens, James A; Jaycox, Larry B; Andrews, Ronnee N; Striley, Cynthia A F; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2008-04-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) has relied upon two exposure metrics: lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days, the latter incorporating an intensity score computed from a questionnaire-based algorithm. We evaluated this algorithm using actual fungicide exposure measurements from AHS private orchard applicators. Captan was selected as a marker of fungicide exposure. Seventy-four applicators from North Carolina and Iowa growing apples and/or peaches were sampled on 2 days they applied captan in 2002 and 2003. Personal air, hand rinse, 10 dermal patches, a pre-application first-morning urine and a subsequent 24-h urine sample were collected from each applicator per day. Environmental samples were analyzed for captan, and urine samples were analyzed for cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Task and personal protective equipment information needed to compute an individual's algorithm score was also collected. Differences in analyte detection frequency were tested in a repeated logistic regression model. Mixed-effects models using maximum-likelihood estimation were employed to estimate geometric mean exposures and to evaluate the measured exposure data against the algorithm. In general, captan and THPI were detected significantly more frequently in environmental and urine samples collected from applicators who used air blast sprayers as compared to those who hand sprayed. The AHS pesticide exposure intensity algorithm, while significantly or marginally predictive of thigh and forearm captan exposure, respectively, did not predict air, hand rinse or urinary THPI exposures. The algorithm's lack of fit with some exposure measures among orchard fungicide applicators may be due in part to the assignment of equal exposure weights to air blast and hand spray application methods in the current algorithm. Some modification of the algorithm is suggested by these results.

  14. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here.

  15. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here. PMID:26479458

  16. DISTRIBUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTIAL AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multi-pathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynucl...

  17. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  18. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and BayluscideTM into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. Objectives: To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. Methods: We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. Results: We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker’s skin contaminated with pesticides. Conclusion: We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25730600

  19. Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Sultana, Nargis

    2007-11-01

    This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other countries, it has started causing environmental problems in the area. In some areas of Punjab and Sindh groundwater has been found contaminated and is constantly being under the process of contamination due to pesticide use. There is considerable evidence that farmers have overused and misused pesticides especially in cotton-growing areas. It is evident from the biological monitoring studies that farmers are at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides due to occupational exposure. Furthermore, the intensive use of pesticides (higher sprays more than the recommended dose) in cotton areas involves a special risk for the field workers, pickers, and of an unacceptable residue concentration in cottonseed oil and cakes. The authors have also discussed the merits and demerits of different studies. The review will set the future course of action of different studies on pesticide exposure in Pakistan. Data limitations are still the major obstacle towards establishing clear environmental trends in Pakistan. The authors suggest that a reliable monitoring, assessment and reporting procedures shall be implemented in accordance with appropriate environmental policies, laws and regulations in order to minimize the pesticides exposure.

  20. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case–control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale genotyping to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene–environment interaction studies. PMID:18940823

  1. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  2. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  3. Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431

  4. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Saldana, Tina M.; Basso, Olga; Hoppin, Jane A.; Baird, Donna D.; Knott, Charles; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between pesticide use during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we estimated the association between self-reported pesticide-related activities during the first trimester of the most recent pregnancy and GDM among 11,273 women whose pregnancy occurred within 25 years of enrollment. RESULTS A total of 506 (4.5%) women reported having had GDM. Women who reported agricultural pesticide exposure (mixing or applying pesticides to crops or repairing pesticide application equipment) during pregnancy were more likely to report GDM (odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% CI 1.5–3.3]). We saw no association between residential pesticide exposure (applying pesticides in the home and garden during pregnancy) and GDM (1.0 [0.8–1.3]). Among women who reported agricultural exposure during pregnancy, risk of GDM was associated with ever-use of four herbicides (2,4,5-T; 2,4,5-TP; atrazine; or butylate) and three insecticides (diazinon, phorate, or carbofuran). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that activities involving exposure to agricultural pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM. PMID:17327316

  5. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  6. Parkinsonism and occupational exposure to pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Engel, L; Checkoway, H; Keifer, M; Seixas, N; Longstreth, W; Scott, K; Hudnell, K; Anger, W; Camicioli, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the risk of parkinsonism related to lifetime occupational exposure to pesticides among a cohort of men, mostly orchardists, in Washington State.
METHODS—All 310 subjects in this study had previously participated in a cohort study of men occupationally exposed to pesticides. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed a self administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on pesticide (insecticide, herbicide, and fungicide) use throughout their working careers. Demographic characteristics were also sought. Subjects had a mean age of 69.6 years (range 49-96, SD 8.1). There were 238 (76.8%) subjects who reported some occupational exposure to pesticides, whereas 72 (23.2%) reported none. Parkinsonism was defined by the presence of two or more of rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and impairment of postural reflexes in subjects not on antiparkinsonian medication, or the presence of at least one sign if they were on such medication. Parkinson's disease was not studied explicitly because of the difficulty in distinguishing it from other parkinsonian syndromes. A generalised linear model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for parkinsonism relative to history of farming, pesticide use, and use of well water.
RESULTS—A PR of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 4.2) was found for subjects in the highest tertile of years of exposure to pesticides; a similarly increased, non-significant, PR was found for the middle tertile (1.9 (95% CI 0.9 to 4.0)), although a trend test did not show a significant exposure-response relation. No increased risks were found associated with specific pesticides or pesticide classes, nor with a history of farming or use of well water.
CONCLUSION—Parkinsonism may be associated with long term occupational exposure to pesticides, although no associations with specific pesticides could be detected. This finding is consistent with most of the

  7. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1997-01-01

    For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic effect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental effects. Adducts to hemoglobin have been detected with several pesticides. Determination of chromosomal aberration rates in cultured lymphocytes is an established method of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. There are several studies on the cytogenetic effects of work with pesticide formulations. The majority of these studies report increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges among the exposed workers. Biomarkers will have a major impact on the study of environmental risk factors. The basic aim of scientists exploring these issues is to determine the nature and consequences of genetic change or variation, with the ultimate purpose of predicting or preventing disease. PMID:9255564

  8. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  9. Modeling and Predicting Pesticide Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models provide a means for representing a real system in an understandable way. They take many forms, beginning with conceptual models that explain the way a system works, such as delineation of all the factors and parameters of how a pesticide particle moves in the air after a s...

  10. A Review of Pesticide Exposure and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Weichenthal, Scott; Moase, Connie; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective We reviewed epidemiologic evidence related to occupational pesticide exposures and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort. Data sources Studies were identified from the AHS publication list available at http://aghealth.nci.nih.gov as well as through a Medline/PubMed database search in March 2009. We also examined citation lists. Findings related to lifetime-days and/or intensity-weighted lifetime-days of pesticide use are the primary focus of this review, because these measures allow for the evaluation of potential exposure–response relationships. Data synthesis We reviewed 28 studies; most of the 32 pesticides examined were not strongly associated with cancer incidence in pesticide applicators. Increased rate ratios (or odds ratios) and positive exposure–response patterns were reported for 12 pesticides currently registered in Canada and/or the United States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). However, estimates of association for specific cancers were often imprecise because of small numbers of exposed cases, and clear monotonic exposure–response patterns were not always apparent. Exposure misclassification is also a concern in the AHS and may limit the analysis of exposure–response patterns. Epidemiologic evidence outside the AHS remains limited with respect to most of the observed associations, but animal toxicity data support the biological plausibility of relationships observed for alachlor, carbaryl, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, and trifluralin. Conclusions Continued follow-up is needed to clarify associations reported to date. In particular, further evaluation of registered pesticides is warranted. PMID:20444670

  11. [Cumulative exposure to pesticide residues in food].

    PubMed

    Kostka, Grazyna; Urbanek-Olejnik, Katarzyna; Liszewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The results of food monitoring studies indicate that humans are constantly exposed to residues ofplant protection products (pesticides) in marketed food products. Hence, assessment of the risk to consumers associated with the consumption of products containing residues of the active substances of pesticides is a key stage in both the registration of pesticides and official control of foodstuffs. However there are frequent cases of exposure not only to individual active substances but also to mixtures of pesticide residues. These levels are usually low, below of effective action, and interaction such as synergism orpotentiation is not expected to occur At the same time, literature data indicate that for mixtures sharing a common MOA (Mode of Action/Mechanism of Action), the probability of additive effects is high, even after adjusting for the low levels of the mixed pesticide residues present. Accordingly, health risk assessment for consumers exposed to such mixtures (cumulative/aggregate risk) has become an issue of topical importance. EU-level initiatives regarding the development of appropriate methodology for the estimation of cumulative/aggregate risk have brought about considerable progress in this area. The article discusses various aspects of estimation of cumulative risk for consumers associated with exposure to mixtures of pesticide residues in food.

  12. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION AMONG TODDLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Response to vaccination may be a sensitive indicator of immunollogic health in young children. Toddlers residing in an intenseive agricultural area along the US/Mexican border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating immunologic function and pesticide exposure by multiple ...

  13. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  14. High pesticide exposure events and central nervous system function among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While acute pesticide poisoning can be associated with persistent adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects, little is known about the effect of episodic and unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs) that typically do not result in acute poisoning. The objective of this investigation was to examine the association between HPEEs and CNS function among licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods In 2006–2008, 693 male participants, with no history of a physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning, completed nine neurobehavioral tests to assess memory, motor speed, sustained attention, verbal learning, and visual scanning and processing. Information on HPEEs and pesticide poisonings was obtained from previous AHS interviews. Associations between HPEEs and neurobehavioral outcomes were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results A history of at least one HPEE was reported by 156 (23%) participants. Adverse associations were observed between HPEEs and two of the nine neurobehavioral tests. On a test of visual scanning and processing (Digit-Symbol), participants with HPEEs were 4.2 seconds slower (95% CI: −7.27, −1.11) than those without HPEEs, equivalent to the effect of 3.9 years of age in this population. On a test of visual scanning and motor speed (Sequences A), participants with HPEEs were 2.5 seconds slower (95% CI: −4.53, −0.41) than those without HPEEs, equivalent to the effect of 3.9 years of age. No significant associations were observed between HPEEs and the other neurobehavioral tests. Conclusions HPEEs may contribute to adverse CNS outcomes independent of diagnosed pesticide poisoning. PMID:21927986

  15. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  16. MODELING OF MACROSCALE AGRICULTURAL ELEMENTS IN PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yuma County, Arizona, is the site of year around agriculture. To understand the role of agricultural pesticide exposures experienced by children, urinary metabolite concentrations were compared with agricultural use of pesticides. The urinary metabolite and household data wer...

  17. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America

  18. Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, D L; Spengler, J D; Ozkaynak, H; Tsai, L; Ryan, P B

    1996-02-01

    Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The contaminants included in the analysis were four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion), and four organochlorine pesticides (dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, lindane, heptachlor epoxide). Dietary exposures to these contaminants were highly variable among individuals, spanning two to three orders of magnitude. Intraindividual exposures to the metals, organophosphates, and organochlorines were estimated to be strongly correlated; Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.28 for lindane:dieldrin to 0.84 for lead:mercury. For some of the compounds (e.g., arsenic and dieldrin), a substantial fraction of the population was estimated to have dietary intakes in excess of health-based standards established by the EPA. Before use for risk assessment or epidemiologic purposes, however, the validity of the exposure estimates must be evaluated by comparison with biological indicators of chronic exposure. Because of their low detection rate in table-ready foods, the estimated distributions of exposures for dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos were found to be sensitive to assumed values for nondetect samples. Reliable estimates of the population distribution of dietary exposures to most other contaminants cannot be made currently, due to their low rate of detection in table-ready foods. Monitoring programs that use more sensitive study designs and population-based assessments for other subpopulations should be a priority for future research.

  19. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or peripheral nerve conduction, but fewer studies have considered these outcomes. It is possible that the most sensitive manifestation of pesticide neurotoxicity is a general malaise lacking in specificity and related to mild cognitive dysfunction, similar to that described for Gulf War syndrome. Most studies have focused on organophosphate insecticides, but some found neuro-toxic effects from other pesticides, including fungicides, fumigants, and organochlorine and carbamate insecticides. Pesticide exposure may also be associated with increased risk of Parkinson disease; several classes of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, have been implicated. Studies of other neurodegenerative diseases are limited and inconclusive. Future studies will need to improve assessment of pesticide exposure in individuals and consider the role of genetic susceptibility. More studies of pesticides other than organophosphates are needed. Major unresolved issues include the relative importance of acute and chronic exposure, the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning, and the relationship of pesticide-related neurotoxicity to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:15198914

  20. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  1. Workplace, Household, and Personal Predictors of Pesticide Exposure for Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Hernández-Valero, María A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Hovey, Joseph D.; Gonzales, Melissa; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we identify factors potentially associated with pesticide exposure among farmworkers, grade the evidence in the peer-reviewed literature for such associations, and propose a minimum set of measures necessary to understand farmworker risk for pesticide exposure. Data sources we reviewed included Medline, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, and AGRI-COLA databases. Data extraction was restricted to those articles that reported primary data collection and analysis published in 1990 or later. We read and summarized evidence for pesticide exposure associations. For data synthesis, articles were graded by type of evidence for association of risk factor with pesticide exposure as follows: 1 = association demonstrated in farmworkers; 2 = association demonstrated in nonfarmworker sample; 3 = plausible association proposed for farmworkers; or 4 = association plausible but not published for farmworkers. Of more than 80 studies we identified, only a third used environmental or biomarker evidence to document farmworker exposure to pesticides. Summaries of articles were compiled by level of evidence and presented in tabular form. A minimum list of data to be collected in farmworker pesticide studies was derived from these evidence tables. Despite ongoing concern about pesticide exposure of farmworkers and their families, relatively few studies have tried to test directly the association of behavioral and environmental factors with pesticide exposure in this population. Future studies should attempt to use similar behavioral, environmental, and psychosocial measures to build a body of evidence with which to better understand the risk factors for pesticide exposure among farmworkers. PMID:16759999

  2. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to ... effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures ...

  3. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  4. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  5. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  6. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... of the Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force (NDETF). This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-2) was issued by the... initial notice in 2000, the membership of the task force has changed and the specific data needs have been... AGENCY Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure...

  7. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is...

  8. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  9. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis, can limit the comparability of results from farm-worker studies. This mini-monograph discusses the strategies used to assess pesticide exposures, presents limitations in the available data for farmworkers, and suggests research needs for future studies of pesticide exposure among farmworker families. PMID:16759997

  10. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides.

  11. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides. PMID:26867293

  12. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive

  13. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  14. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies. PMID:25649374

  15. Importance of respiratory exposure to pesticides among agricultural populations.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Kathryn C; Seiber, James N

    2002-01-01

    In the majority of cases, respiratory exposure accounts for a small fraction of total body exposure to pesticides; however, higher volatility pesticides pose a greater risk for exposure, particularly in enclosed spaces and near application sites. In 2000, nearly 22 million pounds of active ingredients designated as toxic air contaminants (TACs) were applied as pesticides in California (combined agricultural and reportable non-agricultural uses; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 2001a, Summary of Pesticide Use Report Data, 2000, Sacramento, CA: author). Agricultural workers and agricultural community residents are at particular risk for exposure to these compounds. The TAC program in California, and more recently the federal Clean Air Act amendments, have begun to address the exposures of these groups and have promulgated exposure guidelines that are, in general, much more stringent than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) worker exposure guidelines. Choosing lower volatility pesticides, lower concentrations of active ingredients, and handling equipment designed to minimize exposure can often reduce worker respiratory exposures significantly. The use of personal protective equipment, which would be facilitated by the development of more ergonomic alternatives, is important in these higher respiratory exposure situations. Finally, in the case of community residents, measures taken to protect workers often translate to lower ambient air concentrations, but further study and development of buffer zones and application controls in a given area are necessary to assure community protection.

  16. MODELING EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES APPROACHES AND MODELING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children to pesticides requires careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pesticides that may be present in different environmental media and in foods and beverages consumed by children, as well as the different routes and pathways of exp...

  17. Advances in pesticide environmental fate and exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Rice, Patricia J; Arthur, Ellen L; Barefoot, Aldos C

    2007-07-11

    Globalization of markets and the growing world population increase threats of invasive and exotic species and place greater demands on food and fiber production. Pest management in both agricultural and nonagricultural settings employs established practices and new biological, chemical, and management technologies. Pesticides are an essential tool in integrated pest management. Without pesticides a significant percentage of food and fiber crops would be lost, infectious diseases would increase, and valuable native habitats would be devastated. Therefore, it is important to understand the environmental fate of pesticides and assess their potential exposure and associated risks to human health and the environment. This paper summarizes the Advances in Pesticide Environmental Fate and Exposure Assessment symposium held at the 231st National Meeting of the American Chemical Society (Atlanta, GA, 2006). The focus of the symposium was to provide current information on advances in pesticide environmental fate and exposure assessments. Thirty papers were presented on advances ranging from subcellular processes to watershed-scale studies on topics including chemical degradation, sorption, and transport; improved methodologies; use of modeling and predictive tools; exposure assessment; and treatment and remediation. This information is necessary to develop more effective pesticide use and management practices, to better understand pesticide fate and associated exposures and risks, to develop mitigation and remediation strategies, and to establish sound science-based regulations.

  18. Human exposures to pesticides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Mort, Sandra Amiss

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in most homes, businesses, and farms to control a variety of pests, including insects, weeds, fungi, rodents, and even microbial organisms. Inappropriate use of pesticides can lead to adverse effects to humans and the environment. This study provides updated information on the magnitude of adverse pesticide exposures in the United States. Data on pesticide exposure were obtained from calls to poison control centers (PCCs) reported by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Estimates of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and health care costs were reported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and deaths from pesticide poisonings reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research). An average of 23 deaths occur each year with pesticides as the underlying cause of death, most due to suicidal ingestions. An average of 130,136 calls to poison control centers were reported from 2006 to 2010, with an average of 20,116 cases (17.8%) treated in health care facilities annually. AHQR reported an annual average of 7385 emergency room visits during 2006 to 2008, and 1419 annual hospitalizations during 2005 to 2009. Excluding cost from lost work time, hospital physician fees, and pesticide-induced cancers, the annual national cost associated with pesticide exposures was estimated as nearly $200 million USD based on data from emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and for deaths. Pesticide exposures remain a significant public health issue. Health care providers, cooperative extension agents, and pesticide manufactures can help prevent exposures by increasing education of parents and workers, encourage use of less toxic agents, and encourage the practice of integrated pest management.

  19. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  20. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Garratt, Michael P D; Wickens, Jennifer B; Wickens, Victoria J; Potts, Simon G; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-12-24

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  1. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P.D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees1-5. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sub-lethal effects on bees affecting their foraging behaviour1,6,7, homing ability8,9 and reproductive success2,5. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants10-12, but until now research on pesticide impacts has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly these pesticide exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also suggest reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour but most likely due to impacts at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the function of natural ecosystems. PMID:26580009

  2. Modeling flight attendants' exposures to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

    2013-12-17

    Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means ± standard devitions) of daily total exposure intakes were 0.24 (3.8 ± 10.0), 1.4 (4.2 ± 5.7), and 0.15 (2.1 ± 3.2) μg day(-1) kg(-1) of body weight for scenarios of residual application, preflight, and top-of-descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than top-of-descent spray and residual application, respectively.

  3. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.

  4. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  5. [Risk assessment of human exposure to pesticides in food].

    PubMed

    Knežević, Zorka; Serdar, Maja

    2011-09-01

    This review presents methods for the assessment of acute and chronic risk from pesticide residues in food. Multiple pesticide residues can often be found in food. Currently, there is no internationally accepted procedure for the assessment of cumulative exposure to multiple pesticide residues in food. Therefore, risk assessment is based on toxicological evaluation of single compounds in a food matrix. The international estimation of short-term intake model (IESTI) has been used to calculate acute intake. IESTI is based on "the worst-case scenario" and addresses the possibility that consumers sometimes eat large amounts of a food item, and such a large amount might contain residues at highest levels. However, it should take into account uneven distribution of pesticide residues in food. Chronic exposure is based on a deterministic approach, analogous to the calculation of the theoretical maximum daily intake.

  6. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  7. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURES - WHERE ARE THE HIGH RISK CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to identify children at high-risk for organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure are difficult to develop because biological markers reflect only recent "snapshots" of exposure due to the short half-life of OP compounds (generally about 24 hours). We conducted a series of p...

  8. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  9. DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several multimedia, multipathway exposure monitoring studies are currently being planned within EPA/NERL. The overall objectives of these studies are (1) to develop the data and models that can be used to estimate exposure and dose for young children to pesticides and (2) to i...

  10. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may have greater exposures than do older children or adults to some persistent organic pesticides, because of differences in their diet and activities. The physical impact of those exposures may also be increased by their small body size, immature body systems, ...

  11. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. PMID:25455887

  12. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Hong, Tao; Cyterski, Mike; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active ingredients through contact with contaminated soil: imidacloprid (logKow = 0.57), atrazine (logKow = 2.5), triadimefon (logKow = 3.0), fipronil (logKow = 4.11) or pendimethalin (logKow = 5.18). All amphibians had measurable body burdens at the end of the exposure in concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 14.562 μg/g across the pesticides tested. Atrazine produced the greatest body burdens and bioconcentration factors, but fipronil was more permeable to amphibian skin when application rate was considered. Soil partition coefficient and water solubility were much better predictors of pesticide body burden, bioconcentration factor, and skin permeability than logKow. Dermal uptake data can be used to improve risk estimates of pesticide exposure among amphibians as non-target organisms.

  13. Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Exposure to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Nsouly-Maktabi, Hala; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Ortega-Garcia, Juan Antonio; Colantino, Drew; Barr, Dana B.; Luban, Naomi L.; Shad, Aziza T.; Nelson, David

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates are pesticides ubiquitous in the environment and have been hypothesized as one of the risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we evaluated the associations of pesticide exposure in a residential environment with the risk for pediatric ALL. This is a case–control study of children newly diagnosed with ALL, and their mothers (n = 41 child–mother pairs) were recruited from Georgetown University Medical Center and Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC, between January 2005 and January 2008. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and county of residence. Environmental exposures were determined by questionnaire and by urinalysis of pesticide metabolites using isotope dilution gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry. We found that more case mothers (33%) than controls (14%) reported using insecticides in the home (P < 0.02). Other environmental exposures to toxic substances were not significantly associated with the risk of ALL. Pesticide levels were higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between children with ALL and controls for the organophosphate metabolites diethylthiophosphate (P < 0.03) and diethyldithiophosphate (P < 0.05). The association of ALL risk with pesticide exposure merits further studies to confirm the association. PMID:19571777

  14. Characterizing exposures and neurobehavioral performance in Egyptian adolescent pesticide applicators

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Lasarev, Michael; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents may have occupational exposure to pesticides. Although previous studies examining prenatal pesticide exposure have identified neurobehavioral deficits in children, there are limited studies examining the impact of occupational exposure in children. The objectives of this study are to estimate exposures to the organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), by measuring urinary levels of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific CPF metabolite, and blood cholinesterase (ChE) activities and to characterize neurobehavioral performance in adolescents working as seasonal pesticide applicators and non-applicator controls. A neurobehavioral test battery, consisting of 14 tests, was used to assess a broad range of functions. Applicators performed worse than controls on the majority of tests. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of outcome variables and two components, focused on reasoning-short-term memory and attention-executive functioning, showed significant deficits in applicators compared to non-applicators. Elevated metabolite levels were found in the applicators compared to the non-applicators, confirming CPF exposure in the applicators. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it provides preliminary evidence of moderate CPF exposures, decreased blood ChE in some applicators and decreased neurobehavioral performance in an adolescent working population. PMID:24833556

  15. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended.

  16. Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks. PMID:23136826

  17. Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks.

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  19. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACMT Recognition Awards Annual Scientific Meeting Travel Scholarships Pesticides Public Health > Public > Toxicology FAQ's > Pesticides Pesticides What are pesticides ? How do pesticides work ? How ...

  20. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Taylor, Michele M.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Miller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8–12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6–15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.—Richardson, J. R., Taylor, M. M., Shalat, S. L., Guillot III, T. S., Caudle, W. M., Hossain, M. M., Mathews, T. A., Jones, S. R., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Miller, G. W. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25630971

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  2. DETERMINANTS OF CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN YUMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999-2000, researchers from US EPA's Office of Research and Development in collaboration with several government and academic institutions conducted pesticide exposure assessment studies in Yuma county. Results from these studies have been previously reported (Gordon SM, et a...

  3. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  4. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  5. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Zhilin; Xue, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups to acceptable daily intakes (ADI), characterize pesticide trends in exposures over different time periods, and determine commodities contributing to pesticide exposures. SHEDS was applied, using Pesticide Data Program (PDP) (1991-2011) and pesticide usage data on crops from USDA combined with NHANES dietary consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by age group. ADI data collected from EPA, WHO, and other sources were used to rank pesticides based on relativeness of the dietary exposure potential to ADI by age groups. Sensitivity analysis provided trends in pesticide exposures. Within SHEDS, commodities contributing the majority of pesticides with greatest exposure potential were determined. The results indicated that the highest ranking pesticides were methamidophos and diazinon which exceeded 100% of the ADI. Sensitivity analysis indicated that exposure to methamidophos, diazinon, malathion, ethion and formetanate hydrochloride had a marked decrease from 1991-1999 to 2000-2011. Contributions analysis indicated that apples, mushroom, carrots, and lettuce contributed to diazinon exposure. Beans and pepper contributed to methamidophos exposure. PMID:27497764

  6. UNDERSTANDING CHILDREN'S TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that significant portion of total exposure of infants and children to environmental contaminants can result from contamination of food in the home. Children's foods become contaminated through handling and contact with surf...

  7. Occupational exposures to pesticides containing organoarsenicals in California.

    PubMed

    Peoples, S A; Maddy, K T; Peifer, W R; Edmiston, S

    1979-12-01

    The only organic arsenicals used in agriculture are methanearsonic acid (MSMA) and its sodium and ammonium salts and dimethylarsinic acid (cacodylic acid) and its sodium salt. They have an oral LD50 in the rat of 700-1,000 mg/kg and are classified as toxicity category 3 pesticides. During the three-year period 1975, 1976 and 1977 in California there were 34 reports by physicians of injury due to exposure to pesticides containing organic arsenicals of which nine resulted in systemic symptoms and the remainder being eye and skin irritations. There appeared to be prompt recovery from these exposures. They were caused primarily by use of faulty equipment, not using due care in its operation, poor work practices and improper use of protective equipment. There is no evidence that this group of chemicals is carcinogenic in animals or man.

  8. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  9. Linkage of the California Pesticide Use Reporting Database with Spatial Land Use Data for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Gunier, Robert B.; Riggs, Philip; Miller, Ryan; Reynolds, Peggy; Ward, Mary H.

    2007-01-01

    Background The State of California maintains a comprehensive Pesticide Use Reporting Database (CPUR). The California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) maps all crops in agricultural counties in California about once every 5 years. Objective We integrated crop maps with CPUR to more accurately locate where pesticides are applied and evaluated the effects for exposure assessment. Methods We mapped 577 residences and used the CPUR and CDWR data to compute two exposure metrics based on putative pesticide use within a 500-m buffer. For the CPUR metric, we assigned pesticide exposure to the residence proportionally for all square-mile Sections that intersected the buffer. For the CDWR metric, we linked CPUR crop-specific pesticide use to crops mapped within the buffer and assigned pesticide exposure. We compared the metrics for six pesticides: simazine, trifluralin (herbicides), dicofol, propargite (insecticides), methyl bromide, and metam sodium (fumigants). Results For all six pesticides we found good agreement (88–98%) as to whether the pesticide use was predicted. When we restricted the analysis to residences with reported pesticide use in Sections within 500 m, agreement was greatly reduced (35–58%). The CPUR metric estimates of pesticide use within 500 m were significantly higher than the CDWR metric for all six pesticides. Conclusions Our findings may have important implications for exposure classification in epidemiologic studies of agricultural pesticide use using CPUR. There is a need to conduct environmental and biological measurements to ascertain which, if any, of these metrics best represent exposure. PMID:17520053

  10. Tremor secondary to neurotoxic exposure: mercury, lead, solvents, pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Hashim, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Lead, mercury, solvents, and pesticide exposures are common in certain occupations and may cause nervous system dysfunction. Tremors may be the herald manifestation among a constellation of acute toxicity signs and symptoms. However, since tremors may also be the only sign on clinical presentation and since tremors also occur in other diseases, relating tremors to a specific occupational exposure can be challenging. Diagnosis of tremor etiology must be based on other findings on physical exam, laboratory results, and/or imaging. Discerning whether the tremor resulted from the occupational environment versus other etiologies requires knowledge of potential exposure sources, additional detail in history taking, and support of other health and industrial professionals. Reduction or removal from the exposure source remains the key first step in treating patients suffering from tremor that had resulted from occupational exposure toxicity. PMID:26563793

  11. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  12. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  13. Advective and diffusive dermal processes for estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Historically, evaluation of pesticide risk to both amphibians and reptiles has been achieved by comparing ingestion and inhalat...

  14. Pesticide exposure: human cancers on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Jaga, K; Brosius, D

    1999-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane, a halogenated hydrocarbon, was introduced as an insecticide in the 1940s. In her book "Silent Spring", Rachel Carson expressed her concern for the environment, plants, animals, and human health about the potential harmful effects of such chemicals. In 1972, the Environmental Protection Agency banned the chemical in the USA. DDT and its metabolite DDE are lipid soluble compounds that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in the body in adipose tissue at levels far higher than those in blood and breast milk. This paper evaluates the possibility of cancer occurring in humans from DDT exposure. Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue. On the basis of on epidemiological principles, human studies were deficient in adequate sample sizes and were not exempt from such confounding factors as multiple chemical exposure, lifestyle factors, genetic, and other environmental influences. Extrapolation of data on DDT toxicity from animals to humans has limitations. With the persistence of DDT and DDE in the environment, the potential risk to the health of man, animals, and the environment remains.

  15. Human Exposure to Live Poultry and Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Influenza A(H7N9), China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Wu, Peng; Yu, Jianxing; Li, Fu; Zeng, Lingjia; Wu, Joseph T.; Li, Zhongjie; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate human exposure to live poultry and changes in risk perception and behavior after the April 2013 influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China, we surveyed 2,504 urban residents in 5 cities and 1,227 rural residents in 4 provinces and found that perceived risk for influenza A(H7N9) was low. The highest rate of exposure to live poultry was reported in Guangzhou, where 47% of those surveyed reported visiting a live poultry market >1 times in the previous year. Most (77%) urban respondents reported that they visited live markets less often after influenza A(H7N9) cases were first identified in China in March 2013, but only 30% supported permanent closure of the markets to control the epidemic. In rural areas, 48% of respondents reported that they raised backyard poultry. Exposure to live commercial and private poultry is common in urban and rural China and remains a potential risk factor for human infection with novel influenza viruses. PMID:25076186

  16. Human exposure to live poultry and psychological and behavioral responses to influenza A(H7N9), China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Cowling, Benjamin J; Wu, Peng; Yu, Jianxing; Li, Fu; Zeng, Lingjia; Wu, Joseph T; Li, Zhongjie; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    To investigate human exposure to live poultry and changes in risk perception and behavior after the April 2013 influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China, we surveyed 2,504 urban residents in 5 cities and 1,227 rural residents in 4 provinces and found that perceived risk for influenza A(H7N9) was low. The highest rate of exposure to live poultry was reported in Guangzhou, where 47% of those surveyed reported visiting a live poultry market > or =1 times in the previous year. Most (77%) urban respondents reported that they visited live markets less often after influenza A(H7N9) cases were first identified in China in March 2013, but only 30% supported permanent closure of the markets to control the epidemic. In rural areas, 48% of respondents reported that they raised backyard poultry. Exposure to live commercial and private poultry is common in urban and rural China and remains a potential risk factor for human infection with novel influenza viruses.

  17. Farmworker Exposure to Pesticides: Methodologic Issues for the Collection of Comparable Data

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Barr, Dana B.; Hoppin, Jane A.; McCauley, Linda; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Robson, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families to agricultural and residential pesticides is a continuing public health concern. Pesticide exposure research has been spurred on by the development of sensitive and reliable laboratory techniques that allow the detection of minute amounts of pesticides or pesticide metabolites. The power of research on farmworker pesticide exposure has been limited because of variability in the collection of exposure data, the predictors of exposure considered, the laboratory procedures used in analyzing the exposure, and the measurement of exposure. The Farmworker Pesticide Exposure Comparable Data Conference assembled 25 scientists from diverse disciplinary and organizational backgrounds to develop methodologic consensus in four areas of farmworker pesticide exposure research: environmental exposure assessment, biomarkers, personal and occupational predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure. In this introduction to this mini-monograph, first, we present the rationale for the conference and its organization. Second, we discuss some of the important challenges in conducting farmworker pesticide research, including the definition and size of the farmworker population, problems in communication and access, and the organization of agricultural work. Third, we summarize major findings from each of the conference’s four foci—environmental exposure assessment, biomonitoring, predictors of exposure, and health outcomes of exposure—as well as important laboratory and statistical analysis issues that cross-cut the four foci. PMID:16759996

  18. SERUM LEVELS OF SEVERAL ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FARMERS CORRESPOND WITH DIETARY EXPOSURE AND LOCAL USE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to reported increased cancer risks among farmers, the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was designed to examine health outcomes and environmental exposures among farm families in the United States. In the pilot phase of the AHS,food,beverage,air,dermal,dust,surface wipe...

  19. Environmental and occupational pesticide exposure and human sperm parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-05-10

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January 2007 and August 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  20. Reducing Farmworker Residential Pesticide Exposure: Evaluation of a Lay Health Advisor Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Marín, Antonio; Snively, Beverly M.; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of a promotora program for teaching women in Latino farmworker families about pesticide safety and increasing pesticide safety behaviors. Volunteer promotoras delivered a pesticide safety curriculum (intervention) and nutrition curriculum (control) to farmworker women residing in western North Carolina and Virginia. Pre- and post-intervention interviews assessed differences in delivery of the intervention, recognition of the intervention, pesticide knowledge, pesticide exposures behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly more receipt of pesticide education and greater recognition of the key messages. However, their knowledge, pesticide exposure behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors did not change. A more structured program is needed to be sure that the dose of interventions is large enough to overcome educational and cultural characteristics of immigrant communities. Policy changes are needed to address circumstances outside of farmworkers’ control that affect pesticide exposure. PMID:18287581

  1. FEASIBILITY OF USING THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH TO ASSESS CHILDREN'S DERMAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results derived from an initial assessment of critical exposure pathways for children indicate that dermal contact may result in high residential exposures to pesticides. However, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to support quantitative assessments ...

  2. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

  3. Comparison of residents' pesticide exposure with predictions obtained using the UK regulatory exposure assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2015-11-01

    The UK regulatory methods currently used for estimating residents' potential pesticide exposure were assessed to determine whether they provide sufficiently conservative estimates. A non-random sample of 149 residents living within 100 m of fields where pesticides were sprayed provided first morning void urine samples one and/or two days after spraying. Using farmers' spray information, regulatory exposure assessment (REA) models were applied to estimate potential pesticide intake among residents, with a toxicokinetic (TK) model used to estimate urinary biomarker concentrations in the mornings of the two days following the spray. These were compared with actual measured urinary biomarker concentrations obtained following the spray applications. The study focused on five pesticides (cypermethrin, penconazole, captan, chlorpyrifos and chlormequat). All measured cypermethrin urinary biomarker levels were lower than the REA-predicted concentrations. Over 98% and 97% of the measured urinary biomarker concentrations for penconazole and captan respectively were lower than the REA-predicted exposures. Although a number of the chlorpyrifos and chlormequat spray-related urinary biomarker concentrations were greater than the predictions, investigation of the background urinary biomarker concentrations suggests these were not significantly different from the levels expected had no pesticide spraying occurred. The majority of measured concentrations being well below the REA-predicted concentrations indicate that, in these cases, the REA is sufficiently conservative.

  4. Comparison of residents' pesticide exposure with predictions obtained using the UK regulatory exposure assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2015-11-01

    The UK regulatory methods currently used for estimating residents' potential pesticide exposure were assessed to determine whether they provide sufficiently conservative estimates. A non-random sample of 149 residents living within 100 m of fields where pesticides were sprayed provided first morning void urine samples one and/or two days after spraying. Using farmers' spray information, regulatory exposure assessment (REA) models were applied to estimate potential pesticide intake among residents, with a toxicokinetic (TK) model used to estimate urinary biomarker concentrations in the mornings of the two days following the spray. These were compared with actual measured urinary biomarker concentrations obtained following the spray applications. The study focused on five pesticides (cypermethrin, penconazole, captan, chlorpyrifos and chlormequat). All measured cypermethrin urinary biomarker levels were lower than the REA-predicted concentrations. Over 98% and 97% of the measured urinary biomarker concentrations for penconazole and captan respectively were lower than the REA-predicted exposures. Although a number of the chlorpyrifos and chlormequat spray-related urinary biomarker concentrations were greater than the predictions, investigation of the background urinary biomarker concentrations suggests these were not significantly different from the levels expected had no pesticide spraying occurred. The majority of measured concentrations being well below the REA-predicted concentrations indicate that, in these cases, the REA is sufficiently conservative. PMID:26364754

  5. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  6. STUDY DESIGN FOR A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC PESTICIDES "CTEPP"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study is one of the largest aggregate exposure studies of young children in the United States. The CTEPP study examines the exposures of about 260 preschool children and their primary ad...

  7. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  8. Exposure of Delta Smelt to dissolved pesticides in 1998 and 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, G. Edward; Kuivila, Kathryn; Ruhl, Catherine A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews delta smelt habitat and early life stages followed by an explanation of the study design for assessing pesticide exposure. Results show the co-occurrence of multiple pesticides and delta smelt in their native habitat; these results are presented within the context of possible toxic effects to delta smelt. Finally, the annual variability of pesticide distributions is discussed.

  9. DESIGN STRATEGY FOR ASSESSING MULTI-PATHWAY EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN: THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although children are exposed to a variety of environmental hazards, including pesticides, there is a scarcity of information available to estimate exposures realistically. This article reports on one of the first attempts to measure multi-pathway pesticide exposures in a popu...

  10. Analysis of pesticide exposure and DNA damage in immigrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Linda A; Lasarev, Michael; Muniz, Juan; Nazar Stewart, Valle; Kisby, Glen

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the Comet assay has been used increasingly in studies of workers potentially exposed to genotoxic substances in the workplace or environment. Significant increases in DNA damage measured with the Comet assay has been reported in lymphocytes of agricultural workers; however, less intrusive means of biomonitoring are needed in epidemiological investigations. This study was designed to use the Comet assay to describe the association of markers of DNA damage in oral leukocytes with biomarkers of pesticide exposure in 134 farmworkers working in berry crops in Oregon compared to control populations. The authors also examined the extent of DNA damage in young workers compared to adults and the effect of work histories, lifestyle factors, and diet on markers of DNA damage. Urinary levels of organophosphate pesticides were low at the time of sampling; however, mean levels of the Captan metabolite tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) were found to be shifted significantly higher in the farmworkers (0.14 microg/ml) compared to controls (0.078 microg/ml) (one-sided p value=.01). Likewise, the combined molar equivalent of all dialkylphosphate metabolites was marginally higher in farmworkers (p value=.05). The mean tail intensity was significantly greater for agricultural workers compared to controls (one-sided p value<.001), indicating more DNA damage in the oral leukocytes. On average, the mean tail intensity was 10.9 units greater for agricultural workers (95% CI: 6-16 units greater). Tail moment was also significantly greater for agricultural workers compared to nonagricultural workers (one-sided p value<.001). No Comet parameter was significantly associated with years spent working in agriculture, age, sex, body mass index, diet, and alcohol or tobacco use. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility for using the Comet assay in biomonitoring studies of farmworkers. Additional studies are needed to examine the effects of different pesticide types on

  11. Assessing potential exposure of birds to pesticide-treated seeds.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Phil; Hart, A D M

    2005-10-01

    Seed treatments are widely used for crop protection and present a particular risk to granivorous birds. UK risk assessment for seed treatments has tended to focus on highly granivorous species; however, under some conditions, non-granivorous birds will take seeds. Better data is needed on which species eat seeds for which pesticide treatments are used. To identify which species will take and eat a range of crop seeds in common usage in the UK, birds visiting bait stations at which untreated seed was presented were video recorded. Information was also obtained on how much seed is taken by individual birds. The seeds tested were wheat, barley, maize, oilseed rape, grass, peas and pelleted sugar beet. For many of the species observed at the bait stations, the amounts of seed consumed during single visits were sufficient to pose a potential risk (toxicity-exposure ratio < 10) if the seed had been treated with one of the more acutely toxic seed treatments. Previous studies have shown that de-husking of seeds can substantially reduce birds' exposure. This paper provides information on which of the species recorded de-husked which seeds, in field conditions. The use of these data in pesticide risk assessment is considered.

  12. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-04-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  13. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  14. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  15. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of

  16. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  17. RELIABILITY OF BIOMARKERS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AMONG CHILDREN AND ADULTS IN CTEPP OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarkers offer the potential for providing an efficient tool for exposure classification by reflecting the aggregate of all exposure routes. Substantial variability observed in urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations over short periods of time, however, has cast so...

  18. Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Linda A.; Lasarev, Michael R.; Higgins, Gregory; Rothlein, Joan; Muniz, Juan; Ebbert, Caren; Phillips, Jacki

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of pesticide exposure in 96 homes of migrant Latino farmworkers with preschool children found the most frequent pesticide residue to be azinphos-methyl (AZM). AZM levels in farmworker homes were related to distance from fields and number of resident agricultural workers. Children's play areas had potential for disproportionate exposure.…

  19. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  20. Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed Central

    Balluz, L.; Moll, D.; Diaz Martinez, M. G.; Merida Colindres, J. E.; Malilay, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane Mitch (30-31 October 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of Istoca, Department of Choluteca, Honduras. The goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. METHODS: The survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. We also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. FINDINGS: There was significant contamination of the soil in Istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane Mitch. The soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the Environmental Data Quality Level. However, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. Toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-DDE) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (US reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults). Dieldrin levels > 0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in US adolescents are < 0.2 ng/ml). Of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (DEP) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 micrograms/g creatinine. We also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCPY) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in Honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. Moreover

  1. Linking Pesticide Exposure with Pediatric Leukemia: Potential Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Antonio F.; Menéndez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, representing 30% of all childhood cancers. The disease arises from recurrent genetic insults that block differentiation of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs) and drives uncontrolled proliferation and survival of the differentiation-blocked clone. Pediatric leukemia is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous with an obscure etiology. The interaction between genetic factors and environmental agents represents a potential etiological driver. Although information is limited, the principal toxic mechanisms of potential leukemogenic agents (e.g., etoposide, benzene metabolites, bioflavonoids and some pesticides) include topoisomerase II inhibition and/or excessive generation of free radicals, which may induce DNA single- and double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) in early HSPCs. Chromosomal rearrangements (duplications, deletions and translocations) may occur if these lesions are not properly repaired. The initiating hit usually occurs in utero and commonly leads to the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins. Subsequent cooperating hits define the disease latency and occur after birth and may be of a genetic, epigenetic or immune nature (i.e., delayed infection-mediated immune deregulation). Here, we review the available experimental and epidemiological evidence linking pesticide exposure to infant and childhood leukemia and provide a mechanistic basis to support the association, focusing on early initiating molecular events. PMID:27043530

  2. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  3. Long- and Short-Term Health Effects of Pesticide Exposure: A Cohort Study from China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are extensively used by farmers in China. However, the effects of pesticides on farmers’ health have not yet been systematically studied. This study evaluated the effects of pesticides exposure on hematological and neurological indicators over 3 years and 10 days respectively. A cohort of 246 farmers was randomly selected from 3 provinces (Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Hebei) in China. Two rounds of health investigations, including blood tests and neurological examinations, were conducted by medical doctors before and after the crop season in 2012. The data on pesticide use in 2009–2011 were collected retrospectively via face-to-face interviews and the 2012 data were collected from personal records maintained by participants prospectively. Ordinary least square (OLS), Probit, and fixed effect models were used to evaluate the relationship between pesticides exposure frequency and the health indicators. Long-term pesticide exposure was found to be associated with increased abnormality of nerve conductions, especially in sensory nerves. It also affected a wide spectrum of health indicators based on blood tests and decreased the tibial nerve compound muscle action potential amplitudes. Short-term health effects included alterations in complete blood count, hepatic and renal functions, and nerve conduction velocities and amplitudes. However, these effects could not be detected after 3 days following pesticide exposure. Overall, our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure adversely affects blood cells, the liver, and the peripheral nervous system. Future studies are needed to elucidate the specific effects of each pesticide and the mechanisms of these effects. PMID:26042669

  4. Long- and short-term health effects of pesticide exposure: a cohort study from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifa; Huang, Xusheng; Huang, Jikun; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are extensively used by farmers in China. However, the effects of pesticides on farmers' health have not yet been systematically studied. This study evaluated the effects of pesticides exposure on hematological and neurological indicators over 3 years and 10 days respectively. A cohort of 246 farmers was randomly selected from 3 provinces (Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Hebei) in China. Two rounds of health investigations, including blood tests and neurological examinations, were conducted by medical doctors before and after the crop season in 2012. The data on pesticide use in 2009-2011 were collected retrospectively via face-to-face interviews and the 2012 data were collected from personal records maintained by participants prospectively. Ordinary least square (OLS), Probit, and fixed effect models were used to evaluate the relationship between pesticides exposure frequency and the health indicators. Long-term pesticide exposure was found to be associated with increased abnormality of nerve conductions, especially in sensory nerves. It also affected a wide spectrum of health indicators based on blood tests and decreased the tibial nerve compound muscle action potential amplitudes. Short-term health effects included alterations in complete blood count, hepatic and renal functions, and nerve conduction velocities and amplitudes. However, these effects could not be detected after 3 days following pesticide exposure. Overall, our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure adversely affects blood cells, the liver, and the peripheral nervous system. Future studies are needed to elucidate the specific effects of each pesticide and the mechanisms of these effects.

  5. Molecular characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposure to TCDD: the mRNA and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Chang, Ziwei; Bae, Min-Ji; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Park, Jang-Su

    2013-08-01

    In bony fish or other aquatic vertebrates, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway is initiated by exposure to polycyclic (or/and halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD), which subsequently induces the up-regulated expression of a series of related genes (such as cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)). However, a lack of applicable protein reagents hinders our further understanding of the AhR signaling pathway, which focuses only on gene-based investigations. The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is an ideal model for a study of environmental pollution in whole-Asian fresh water. Here, three sensitive and specific polyclonal antisera against goldfish AhR1, AhR2, and CYP1A proteins were developed. These antisera not only bound the in-vitro synthesized target proteins, but recognized the real proteins expressed in goldfish tissues, with minimal cross-reactivity to non-specific proteins. Together with the analysis of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and polyclonal-antibody-based sandwich ELISA, we confirmed that goldfish AhRs differed in the expression (mRNA and protein levels) patterns among test tissues. Importantly, the relative abundance of each AhR mRNA levels from the different tissues showed no obvious consistency with their protein levels. After exposure to TCDD, goldfish AhR2 showed a more sensitivity than AhR1, and stimulated CYP1A expression directly, similar with the other reported fish models. Overall, development of these antibodies in this study will allow valuable and versatile investigations to further understand the AhR signaling pathway, and different expression (mRNA and protein) patterns represent the first step in determining the regulatory mechanisms underlying the TCDD-exposed aquatic environment.

  6. A Review of Nonoccupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review

  7. Identifying constituents to participate in a project to control pesticide exposure in children of farmworkers.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, B; Coronado, G; Puschel, K; Allen, E

    2001-01-01

    Farmers in Washington State use pesticides to control harmful pests that might interfere with the quality of their products. Farmworkers, who are primarily responsible for thinning, harvesting, and other agricultural work, are often exposed to these pesticides and take home pesticide residues on their clothing, shoes, and skin, potentially exposing children in the household to pesticides. We designed a project to reduce children's exposure by using a community organization model. To better understand the community views regarding pesticide exposure, we conducted a qualitative community analysis. Two methods of data gathering were used to collect information. Individual interviews were conducted with some respondents, and small group discussions were held with others. Analysis indicated wide disparity among involved groups in their views on pesticides; however, a number of themes common to the majority of the constituents were identified and discussed with a community planning group. Because of the contention around pesticides, the group recommended every constituent participate in decision making. The group noted it was important to emphasize that the research project could provide scientific information on pesticide exposure to everyone in the Lower Yakima Valley. Our study demonstrates both the widely varying views of different constituents around the issue of pesticide exposure and common themes that can form the basis for collaboration and consensus on approaching the issue. PMID:11427394

  8. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  9. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: An underestimated cause of global decline?

    PubMed Central

    Brühl, Carsten A.; Schmidt, Thomas; Pieper, Silvia; Alscher, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, a class of animals in global decline, are present in agricultural landscapes characterized by agrochemical inputs. Effects of pesticides on terrestrial life stages of amphibians such as juvenile and adult frogs, toads and newts are little understood and a specific risk assessment for pesticide exposure, mandatory for other vertebrate groups, is currently not conducted. We studied the effects of seven pesticide products on juvenile European common frogs (Rana temporaria) in an agricultural overspray scenario. Mortality ranged from 100% after one hour to 40% after seven days at the recommended label rate of currently registered products. The demonstrated toxicity is alarming and a large-scale negative effect of terrestrial pesticide exposure on amphibian populations seems likely. Terrestrial pesticide exposure might be underestimated as a driver of their decline calling for more attention in conservation efforts and the risk assessment procedures in place do not protect this vanishing animal group. PMID:23350038

  10. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: an underestimated cause of global decline?

    PubMed

    Brühl, Carsten A; Schmidt, Thomas; Pieper, Silvia; Alscher, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, a class of animals in global decline, are present in agricultural landscapes characterized by agrochemical inputs. Effects of pesticides on terrestrial life stages of amphibians such as juvenile and adult frogs, toads and newts are little understood and a specific risk assessment for pesticide exposure, mandatory for other vertebrate groups, is currently not conducted. We studied the effects of seven pesticide products on juvenile European common frogs (Rana temporaria) in an agricultural overspray scenario. Mortality ranged from 100% after one hour to 40% after seven days at the recommended label rate of currently registered products. The demonstrated toxicity is alarming and a large-scale negative effect of terrestrial pesticide exposure on amphibian populations seems likely. Terrestrial pesticide exposure might be underestimated as a driver of their decline calling for more attention in conservation efforts and the risk assessment procedures in place do not protect this vanishing animal group.

  11. The presence of dialkylphosphates in fresh fruit juices: implication for organophosphorus pesticide exposure and risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Bravo, R; Caltabiano, L M; Irish, R M; Weerasekera, G; Barr, D B

    2005-02-13

    This study was designed to determine whether dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are present in fresh fruit juices, as a result of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides degradation. Fresh conventional and organic fruit (apple and orange) juices were purchased from local grocery stores. DAPs were found in both conventional and organic juices, and the original levels were higher, for both apple and orange juices, in conventional than in organic juices. Additional DAPs were found in OP pesticide fortified juices after 72 h of storage at 4 degrees C, suggesting a degradation of OP pesticides in juices. Overall, 12% and 36.2% of fortified azinphosmethyl, a dimethyl OP pesticide, and the combination of fortified diazinon and chlorpyrifos, both diethyl OP pesticides, were degraded to dimethyl and diethyl DAPs, respectively. Although the exact mechanism of the degradation is unknown, hydrolysis is likely the cause of OP pesticide degradation in juice. The presence of DAPs in fresh fruit juices clouds the validity of using urinary DAP measurements for estimating OP pesticide exposures in humans, particularly in children. The overestimated OP pesticide exposures based on urinary DAPs reported in other studies is likely due to the coexistence of preformed DAPs and DAPs resulting from OP pesticide exposures. Thus, before urinary DAP concentrations can be reliably used in exposure and risk assessment, the proportion of the concentration attributable to environmental DAP exposure, particularly through the diet, must be ascertained. In conclusion, urinary DAPs have many limitations when being used as biomarkers for OP pesticides in exposure and risk assessment, and caution should be exercised when interpreting DAPs results.

  12. A COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE TOXICITIES FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: NEUROTOXICITY, IMMUNOTOXICITY, AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NAS report (Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 1993) called for significant research effort into the long-term effects of perinatal pesticide exposure on the nervous, immune, and reproductive systems. In response, the US EPA and NIEHS collaborated on a series o...

  13. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children's Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that im...

  14. TRANSFER OF PESTICIDES FROM SURFACES TO FOODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since small children spend much of their time in contact with contaminated surfaces, residues of pesticides found on floors and other surfaces contribute to their aggregate exposures. Any dislodgeable pesticide residues on hands and surfaces may be transferred to foods while bei...

  15. A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of over 58,000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and inten...

  16. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S. - MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship between health status in children living along the United States and Mexico border and repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. Children's health has bee...

  17. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner-Crisp, P.

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  18. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  19. A quantitative approach for estimating exposure to pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Dosemeci, Mustafa; Alavanja, Michael C R; Rowland, Andrew S; Mage, David; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lubin, Jay H; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron

    2002-03-01

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate long-term chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of more than 58000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and intensity-related information on pesticide exposure such as mixing condition, duration and frequency of application, application methods and personal protective equipment used. In addition, a detailed take-home questionnaire was administered to collect further intensity-related exposure information such as maintenance or repair of mixing and application equipment, work practices and personal hygiene. More than 40% of the enrolled applicators responded to this detailed take-home questionnaire. Two algorithms were developed to identify applicators' exposure scenarios using information from the enrollment and take-home questionnaires separately in the calculation of subject-specific intensity of exposure score to individual pesticides. The 'general algorithm' used four basic variables (i.e. mixing status, application method, equipment repair status and personal protective equipment use) from the enrollment questionnaire and measurement data from the published pesticide exposure literature to calculate estimated intensity of exposure to individual pesticides for each applicator. The 'detailed' algorithm was based on variables in the general algorithm plus additional exposure information from the take-home questionnaire, including types of mixing system used (i.e. enclosed or open), having a tractor with enclosed cab and/or charcoal filter, frequency of washing equipment after application, frequency of replacing old gloves, personal hygiene and changing clothes after a spill. Weighting factors applied in both algorithms were estimated using measurement data from the published pesticide exposure literature and professional judgment. For each study subject, chemical-specific lifetime

  20. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure.

  1. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.; Wilks, Martin F.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well-designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases. PMID:27600395

  2. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review).

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Wilks, Martin F; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well‑designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases. PMID:27600395

  3. Evaluating health risks from occupational exposure to pesticides and the regulatory response.

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, T J; Kyle, A D; Bois, F Y

    1994-01-01

    In this study, we used measurements of occupational exposures to pesticides in agriculture to evaluate health risks and analyzed how the federal regulatory program is addressing these risks. Dose estimates developed by the State of California from measured occupational exposures to 41 pesticides were compared to standard indices of acute toxicity (LD50) and chronic effects (reference dose). Lifetime cancer risks were estimated using cancer potencies. Estimated absorbed daily doses for mixers, loaders, and applicators of pesticides ranged from less than 0.0001% to 48% of the estimated human LD50 values, and doses for 10 of 40 pesticides exceeded 1% of the estimated human LD50 values. Estimated lifetime absorbed daily doses ranged from 0.1% to 114,000% of the reference doses developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and doses for 13 of 25 pesticides were above them. Lifetime cancer risks ranged from 1 per million to 1700 per million, and estimates for 12 of 13 pesticides were above 1 per million. Similar results were obtained for field workers and flaggers. For the pesticides examined, exposures pose greater risks of chronic effects than acute effects. Exposure reduction measures, including use of closed mixing systems and personal protective equipment, significantly reduced exposures. Proposed regulations rely primarily on requirements for personal protective equipment and use restrictions to protect workers. Chronic health risks are not considered in setting these requirements. Reviews of pesticides by the federal pesticide regulatory program have had little effect on occupational risks. Policy strategies that offer immediate protection for workers and that are not dependent on extensive review of individual pesticides should be pursued. Images Figure 1. PMID:7713022

  4. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  5. Methodologies for Estimating Cumulative Human Exposures to Current-Use Pyrethroid Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated cumulative residential pesticide exposures for a group of nine young children (4–6 years) using three different methodologies developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and compared the results with estimates derived from measured urinary metabolite concentr...

  6. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  7. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  8. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the app...

  9. A COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's exposures to pesticides and chemicals in consumer products may be different, and in some cases, higher than exposures for adults. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research to gain a better understanding of children's exposures and the fac...

  10. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-01-15

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado in both grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >2% of the samples included: insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), imidacloprid (13%), fipronil desulfinyl (7%; degradate); fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), pyraclostrobin (11%), fluxapyroxad (9%), and propiconazole (9%); herbicides atrazine (19%) and metolachlor (9%). Concentrations ranged from 1 to 310 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m radius influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in an agricultural landscape are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators.

  11. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-01-15

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado in both grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >2% of the samples included: insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), imidacloprid (13%), fipronil desulfinyl (7%; degradate); fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), pyraclostrobin (11%), fluxapyroxad (9%), and propiconazole (9%); herbicides atrazine (19%) and metolachlor (9%). Concentrations ranged from 1 to 310 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m radius influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in an agricultural landscape are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators. PMID:26520270

  12. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado from two land cover types: grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >10% of the samples included the insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), and imidacloprid (13%), the fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), and pyraclostrobin (11%), and the herbicide atrazine (19%). Concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 312 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m buffer influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in both grasslands and wheat fields are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators.

  13. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship.

  14. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  15. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  16. Application of brain cholinesterase reactivation to differentiate between organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.R.; Thomas, N.J.; Hulse, C.

    1995-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase activity was measured to evaluate pesticide exposure in wild birds. Thermal reactivation of brain cholinesterase was used to differentiate between carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Brain cholinesterase activity was compared with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of stomach contents. Pesticides were identified and confirmed in 86 of 102 incidents of mortality from 29 states within the USA from 1986 through 1991. Thermal reactivation of cholinesterase activity was used to correctly predict carbamates in 22 incidents and organophosphates in 59 incidents. Agreement (P < 0.001) between predictions based on cholinesterase activities and GC/MS results was significant.

  17. Sampling and Analysis for Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are used extensively in the United States to control a variety of pests. Commercial agriculture and non-agricultural industries account for about 80% of the total pesticide use in the United States, while the remaining 20% is used for pest control associated with home,...

  18. Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted?

    PubMed Central

    Bretveld, Reini W; Thomas, Chris MG; Scheepers, Paul TJ; Zielhuis, Gerhard A; Roeleveld, Nel

    2006-01-01

    Some pesticides may interfere with the female hormonal function, which may lead to negative effects on the reproductive system through disruption of the hormonal balance necessary for proper functioning. Previous studies primarily focused on interference with the estrogen and/or androgen receptor, but the hormonal function may be disrupted in many more ways through pesticide exposure. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function of the female reproductive system and in particular the ovarian cycle. Disruption can occur in all stages of hormonal regulation: 1. hormone synthesis; 2. hormone release and storage; 3. hormone transport and clearance; 4. hormone receptor recognition and binding; 5. hormone postreceptor activation; 6. the thyroid function; and 7. the central nervous system. These mechanisms are described for effects of pesticide exposure in vitro and on experimental animals in vivo. For the latter, potential effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides on the female reproductive system, i.e. modulation of hormone concentrations, ovarian cycle irregularities, and impaired fertility, are also reviewed. In epidemiological studies, exposure to pesticides has been associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, reduced fertility, prolonged time-to-pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects, which may or may not be due to disruption of the female hormonal function. Because pesticides comprise a large number of distinct substances with dissimilar structures and diverse toxicity, it is most likely that several of the above-mentioned mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiological pathways explaining the role of pesticide exposure in ovarian cycle disturbances, ultimately leading to fertility problems and other reproductive effects. In future research, information on the ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function as described in this review, can be

  19. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children

  20. Human exposure to mosquito-control pesticides--Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia, 2002 and 2003.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    Public health officials weigh the risk for mosquito-borne diseases against the risk for human exposure to pesticides sprayed to control mosquitoes. Response to outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases has focused on vector control through habitat reduction and application of pesticides that kill mosquito larvae. However, in certain situations, public health officials control adult mosquito populations by spraying ultra-low volume (ULV) (<3 fluid ounces per acre [oz/acre]) mosquito-control (MC) pesticides, such as naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin. These ULV applications generate aerosols of fine droplets of pesticides that stay aloft and kill mosquitoes on contact while minimizing the risk for exposure to persons, wildlife, and the environment. This report summarizes the results of studies in Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia that assessed human exposure to ULV naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin used in emergency, large-scale MC activities. The findings indicated ULV application in MC activities did not result in substantial pesticide exposure to humans; however, public health interventions should focus on the reduction of home and workplace exposure to pesticides. PMID:15931155

  1. Relative Pesticide and Exposure Route Contribution to Aggregate and Cumulative Dose in Young Farmworker Children

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Canales, Robert A.; Ferguson, Alesia C.; Leckie, James O.; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    The Child-Specific Aggregate Cumulative Human Exposure and Dose (CACHED) framework integrates micro-level activity time series with mechanistic exposure equations, environmental concentration distributions, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic components to estimate exposure for multiple routes and chemicals. CACHED was utilized to quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates for a population of young farmworker children and to evaluate the model for chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Micro-activities of farmworker children collected concurrently with residential measurements of pesticides were used in the CACHED framework to simulate 115,000 exposure scenarios and quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates. Modeled metabolite urine concentrations were not statistically different than concentrations measured in the urine of children, indicating that CACHED can provide realistic biomarker estimates. Analysis of the relative contribution of exposure route and pesticide indicates that in general, chlorpyrifos non-dietary ingestion exposure accounts for the largest dose, confirming the importance of the micro-activity approach. The risk metrics computed from the 115,000 simulations, indicate that greater than 95% of these scenarios might pose a risk to children’s health from aggregate chlorpyrifos exposure. The variability observed in the route and pesticide contributions to urine biomarker levels demonstrate the importance of accounting for aggregate and cumulative exposure in establishing pesticide residue tolerances in food. PMID:22470279

  2. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes. PMID:27182977

  3. Risk factors to pesticide exposure and associated health symptoms among cut-flower farmers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2005-06-01

    The study looked into the risk factors associated with pesticide exposure among cut-flower farmers. A survey questionnaire was given to 102 respondents in Barangay Bahong in La Trinidad, the center of cut-flower production in the Philippines. Results showed that 32% were symptomatic or had experienced pesticide-related illnesses since their first use of pesticides. The majority of the pesticides used by the farmers were Categories Ib and II which are moderately or highly hazardous chemicals. Individuals with signs and symptoms most often centered on the eye, ear, nose and throat (EENT) (44 respondents reporting these symptoms) followed by general and neuralgic (16 respondents) and the integumentary (14 respondents). The most common general signs and symptoms manifested were weakness followed by fatigue and muscle pain then by chills and fever. The most common EENT manifestations were eye itchiness and blurring of vision. For neurological signs and symptoms, dizziness followed by headache was reported. Logistic regression showed that illnesses for the past 12 months were associated with certain risk factors such as farm use of pesticides, exposure to pesticide while applying it, respiratory inhalation of pesticide vapours and mists (p = 0.05). Moreover, those who re-entered a recently sprayed area were 20 times more likely to get ill during the past 12 months than those who did not. Those who used pesticide-contaminated pieces of fabric to wipe sweat off their faces were 2% more likely to get ill, and those who had spills on their bodies while applying pesticide were 26 times more likely to get ill. The study suggested that the risk factors to pesticide exposure should be considered in policy formulations for the cut-flower farmers in the country.

  4. Multiple myeloma and exposure to pesticides: a Canadian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Punam; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Dosman, James A; Spinelli, John J; McDuffie, Helen H; McLaughlin, John R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the putative associations of specific pesticides with multiple myeloma. A matched, population-based, case-control study was conducted among men residing in six Canadian provinces (Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia). Data were collected on 342 multiple myelome cases and 1506 age and province of residence matched controls. Data were collected by mailed questionnaires to capture demographic characteristics, antecedent medical history, detailed lifetime occupational history, smoking history, family history of cancer, and exposure to broadly characterized pesticides at home, work, and practicing hobbies. Details of pesticide exposures were collected by telephone interview for those who reported 10 hours or more per year of exposure. Exposure to pesticides grouped into major chemical classes resulted in increased risk being detected only for carbamate insecticides [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90 (1.11, 3.27) adjusted for potential confounders]. An exposure to fungicide captan [2.35 (1.03, 5.35)] was positively associated with the incidence of multiple myeloma. While an exposure to carbaryl [1.89 (0.98, 3.67)] was associated with the incidence of multiple myelome with borderline significance. The authors further suggest that certain pesticide exposures may have a role in multiple myeloma etiology, and identify specific factors warranting investigation in other populations.

  5. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    PubMed

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  6. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    PubMed

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  7. Design strategy for assessing multi-pathway exposure for children: the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES).

    PubMed

    Quackenboss, J J; Pellizzari, E D; Shubat, P; Whitmore, R W; Adgate, J L; Thomas, K W; Freeman, N C; Stroebel, C; Lioy, P J; Clayton, A C; Sexton, K

    2000-01-01

    Although children are exposed to a variety of environmental hazards, including pesticides, there is a scarcity of information available to estimate exposures realistically. This article reports on one of the first attempts to measure multi-pathway pesticide exposures in a population-based sample of urban and non-urban children. A design strategy was developed to assess multi-pathway pesticide exposures in children using personal exposure measurements in combination with complimentary measurements of biological markers of exposure, concentrations in relevant environmental media, and time spent in important microenvironments and participating in exposure-related activities. Sample collection and analysis emphasized measurement of three insecticides (i.e., chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion) and one herbicide (i.e., atrazine). These compounds were selected because of their frequent use, presence in multiple environmental media, expected population exposures, and related hazard/toxicity. The study was conducted during the summer of 1997 in Minnesota and involved a stratified sample of households with children ages 3-12 years. Participants resided in either (a) the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul (urban households), or (b) Rice and Goodhue Counties just south of the metropolitan area (non-urban households). Results from a residential inventory documenting storage and use of products containing the target pesticides were used to preferentially select households where children were likely to have higher exposures. The study successfully obtained pesticide exposure data for 102 children, including measurements of personal exposures (air, hand rinse, duplicate diet), environmental concentrations (residential indoor/outdoor air, drinking water, residential surfaces, soil), activity patterns (obtained by questionnaire, diary, videotaping), and internal dose (metabolites in urine).

  8. Assessment of uncertainty in a probabilistic model of consumer exposure to pesticide residues in food.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Helen; Shaw, George; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Boobis, Alan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-06-01

    The assessment of consumer exposure to pesticides is an important part of pesticide regulation. Probabilistic modelling allows analysis of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments. The output of any assessment will be influenced by the characteristics and uncertainty of the inputs, model structure and assumptions. While the use of probabilistic models is well established in the United States, in Europe problems of low acceptance, sparse data and lack of guidelines are slowing the development. The analyses in the current paper focused on the dietary pathway and the exposure of UK toddlers. Three single food, single pesticide case studies were used to parameterize a simple probabilistic model built in Crystal Ball. Data on dietary consumption patterns were extracted from National Diet and Nutrition Surveys, and levels of pesticide active ingredients in foods were collected from Pesticide Residues Committee monitoring. The effect of uncertainty on the exposure estimate was analysed using scenarios, reflecting different assumptions related to sources of uncertainty. The most influential uncertainty issue was the distribution type used to represent input variables. Other sources that most affected model output were non-detects, unit-to-unit variability and processing. Specifying correlation between variables was found to have little effect on exposure estimates. The findings have important implications for how probabilistic modelling should be conducted, communicated and used by policy and decision makers as part of consumer risk assessment of pesticides.

  9. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides.

  10. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  11. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chensheng; Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES). Methods Parents were instructed to collect 24-hr duplicate food samples of all conventional fruits, vegetables, and fruit juices equal to the quantity consumed by their children, similarly prewashed/prepared, and from the same source or batch. Individual or composite food items were analyzed for organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticide residues. Results We collected a total of 239 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from the 46 CPES children. We found 14% or 5% of those food samples contained at least one OP or pyrethroid insecticide, respectively. We measured a total of 11 OP insecticides, at levels ranging from 1 to 387 ng/g, and three pyrethroid insecticides, at levels ranging from 2 to 1,133 ng/g, in children’s food samples. We found that many of the food items consumed by the CPES children were also on the list of the most contaminated food commodities reported by the Environmental Working Group. Conclusions The frequent consumption of food commodities with episodic presence of pesticide residues that are suspected to cause developmental and neurological effects in young children supports the need for further mitigation. PMID:20639183

  12. Insights into reptile dermal contaminant exposure: Reptile skin permeability to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in improving ecological risk assessment exposure estimation, specifically by incorporating dermal exposure. At the same time, there is a growing interest in amphibians and reptiles as receptors in ecological risk assessment, despite generally receiving less research than more traditional receptors. Previous research has suggested that dermal exposure may be more important than previously considered for reptiles. We measured reptile skin permeability to four pesticides (thiamethoxam, malathion, tebuthiuron, trifluralin) using ventral skin samples. All four pesticides penetrated the skin but generally had low permeability. There was no apparent relationship between physicochemical properties and permeability coefficients. Malathion had a significantly greater permeability rate at all time points compared to the other pesticides. Tebuthiuron had a greater permeability than thiamethoxam. Reptiles and mammals appear to have similar skin permeability suggesting that dermal exposure estimates for mammals may be representative of reptiles.

  13. Insights into reptile dermal contaminant exposure: Reptile skin permeability to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in improving ecological risk assessment exposure estimation, specifically by incorporating dermal exposure. At the same time, there is a growing interest in amphibians and reptiles as receptors in ecological risk assessment, despite generally receiving less research than more traditional receptors. Previous research has suggested that dermal exposure may be more important than previously considered for reptiles. We measured reptile skin permeability to four pesticides (thiamethoxam, malathion, tebuthiuron, trifluralin) using ventral skin samples. All four pesticides penetrated the skin but generally had low permeability. There was no apparent relationship between physicochemical properties and permeability coefficients. Malathion had a significantly greater permeability rate at all time points compared to the other pesticides. Tebuthiuron had a greater permeability than thiamethoxam. Reptiles and mammals appear to have similar skin permeability suggesting that dermal exposure estimates for mammals may be representative of reptiles. PMID:27037770

  14. Occupational exposure to pesticides and nerve conduction studies among Korean farmers.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Kyeong; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Gyu Taek; Lee, Won Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with decreased nerve conduction studies among farmers. On 2 separate occasions, the authors performed a cross-sectional study of a group of 31 male farmers who periodically applied pesticides. The study included questionnaire interviews and nerve conduction studies on the median, ulnar, posterior tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. Although all mean values remained within laboratory normal limits, significant differences between the first and second tests were found in sensory conduction velocities on the median and sural nerves, and motor conduction velocities on the posterior tibial nerve. Lifetime days of pesticide application was negatively associated with nerve conduction velocities at most nerves after adjusting for potential confounders. These findings may reflect a link between occupational pesticide exposure and peripheral neurophysiologic abnormality that deserves further evaluation.

  15. Platelet Mitochondrial Activity and Pesticide Exposure in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bronstein, Jeff M.; Paul, Kimberly; Yang, Laurice; Haas, Richard H.; Shults, Clifford W.; Le, Thuy; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) but the cause of this dysfunction is unclear. Methods Platelet mitochondrial complex I and I/III (NADH cytochrome c reductase, NCCR) activities were measured in early PD patients and matched controls enrolled in a population based case-control study. Ambient agricultural pesticide exposures were assessed with a geographic information system and California Pesticide Use Registry. Results In contrast to some previous reports, we found no differences in complex I and I/III activities in subjects with PD and controls. We did find that NCCR activity correlated with subjects’ exposure to pesticides known to inhibit mitochondrial activity regardless of their diagnosis. Conclusions ETC activity is not altered in PD in this well-characterized cohort when compared to community-matched controls but appears to be affected by environmental toxins, such as mitochondria-inhibiting pesticides. PMID:25757798

  16. A Review of Non-occupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...

  17. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides. PMID:25450567

  18. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides.

  19. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides.

  20. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  1. Wings as a new route of exposure to pesticides in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Yannick; Kairo, Guillaume; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P

    2015-09-01

    In pesticide risk assessment, estimating the routes and levels of exposure is critical. For honey bees subjected to pesticide spray, toxicity is assessed by thorax contact to account for all possible contact exposures. In the present study, the authors tested 6 active substances with different hydrophobicity. For the first time, the authors demonstrated that it is possible to induce mortality by pesticide contact with only the wings of the honey bee. The toxicities induced by contact with the wings and thorax were similar, with the wing median lethal dose (LD50) being 0.99 to 2.23 times higher than that of the thorax. This finding demonstrates that the wings represent a relevant route of exposure in the honey bee. In a second approach, the authors estimated the air volume displaced by the wings during 1 beating cycle to be 0.51 ± 0.03 cm(3), which corresponds to a volume of 116.8 ± 5.8 cm(3)  s(-1) at a wing beat frequency of 230 Hz. The authors then tested realistic scenarios of exposure for bees flying through a pesticide cloud at different concentrations. In the worst-case scenario, the dose accumulated during the flight reached 525 ng bee(-1)  s(-1). These results show that the procedure used to assess the risk posed by contact with pesticides could be improved by accounting for wing exposure. PMID:25867802

  2. Wings as a new route of exposure to pesticides in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Yannick; Kairo, Guillaume; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P

    2015-09-01

    In pesticide risk assessment, estimating the routes and levels of exposure is critical. For honey bees subjected to pesticide spray, toxicity is assessed by thorax contact to account for all possible contact exposures. In the present study, the authors tested 6 active substances with different hydrophobicity. For the first time, the authors demonstrated that it is possible to induce mortality by pesticide contact with only the wings of the honey bee. The toxicities induced by contact with the wings and thorax were similar, with the wing median lethal dose (LD50) being 0.99 to 2.23 times higher than that of the thorax. This finding demonstrates that the wings represent a relevant route of exposure in the honey bee. In a second approach, the authors estimated the air volume displaced by the wings during 1 beating cycle to be 0.51 ± 0.03 cm(3), which corresponds to a volume of 116.8 ± 5.8 cm(3)  s(-1) at a wing beat frequency of 230 Hz. The authors then tested realistic scenarios of exposure for bees flying through a pesticide cloud at different concentrations. In the worst-case scenario, the dose accumulated during the flight reached 525 ng bee(-1)  s(-1). These results show that the procedure used to assess the risk posed by contact with pesticides could be improved by accounting for wing exposure.

  3. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer. PMID:27418833

  4. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  5. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers for pesticides monitoring: impacts of field exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Nicolas; Mazellier, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on how Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) work in real environmental conditions. A selection of 23 polar pesticides and 8 metabolites were investigated by exposure of triplicates of integrative samplers in two rivers in France for successive 14-day periods. The pesticides and metabolites were trapped not only in Oasis HLB sorbent but also in the polyethersulfone (PES) membrane of the POCIS. The distribution of pesticides depended on the molecular structure. The use of the Performance Reference Compound (PRC) is also discussed here. The impact of some environmental parameters and exposure setup on the transfer of pesticides in POCIS sorbent was studied: river flow rate, biofouling on membranes, sampler holding design and position in the stream. Results show a significant impact of river flow velocity on PRC desorption, especially for values higher than 4 cm·s(-1). Some fouling was observed on the PES membrane which could potentially have an impact on molecule accumulation in the POCIS. Finally, the positioning of the sampler in the river did not have significant effects on pesticide accumulation, when perpendicular exposures were used (sampler positioning in front of the water flow). The POCIS with PRC correction seems to be a suitable tool for estimating time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, for all the molecules except for one of the nine pesticides analyzed in these two French rivers.

  6. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A.; Barr, Dana B.; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P. Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows

  7. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of

  8. Peripheral Nervous System Function and Organophosphate Pesticide Use among Licensed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Jones, Michael P.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence is limited that long-term human exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, without poisoning, is associated with adverse peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Objective: We investigated associations between OP pesticide use and PNS function by administering PNS tests to 701 male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods: Participants completed a neurological physical examination (NPx) and electrophysiological tests as well as tests of hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Self-reported information on lifetime use of 16 OP pesticides was obtained from AHS interviews and a study questionnaire. Associations between pesticide use and measures of PNS function were estimated with linear and logistic regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results: Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were observed for associations between ever use of 10 of the 16 OP pesticides and one or more of six NPx outcomes. Most notably, abnormal toe proprioception was significantly associated with ever use of 6 OP pesticides, with ORs ranging from 2.03 to 3.06; monotonic increases in strength of association with increasing use was observed for 3 of the 6 pesticides. Mostly null associations were observed between OP pesticide use and electrophysiological tests, hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to OP pesticides is associated with signs of impaired PNS function among pesticide applicators. PMID:22262687

  9. Home pesticide exposures and risk of childhood leukemia: Findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen D; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Metayer, Catherine; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Roman, Eve; Magnani, Corrado; Spector, Logan G; Th Petridou, Eleni; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Miligi, Lucia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Simpson, Jill; Zhang, Luoping; Rondelli, Roberto; Baka, Margarita; Orsi, Laurent; Moschovi, Maria; Kang, Alice Y; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25, 1.55) (using 2,785 cases and 3,635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases and 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases and 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases and 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases and 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases and 2,655 controls), respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants' exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate the associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood.

  10. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away. PMID:15175178

  11. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dana B; Martin, Eden R; Mayhew, Gregory M; Stajich, Jeffrey M; Jewett, Rita; Stacy, Mark A; Scott, Burton L; Vance, Jeffery M; Scott, William K

    2008-01-01

    Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming) are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29). Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013). Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies. PMID:18373838

  12. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Kinney, Patrick L.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Jack, Darby; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Whyatt, Robin; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Manu, Alexander; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Wylie, Blair J.

    2016-01-01

    In areas where malaria is endemic, pesticides are widely deployed for vector control, which has contributed to reductions in malaria deaths. Pesticide use for agrarian purposes reduces pest populations, thus improving crop production and post-harvest losses. However, adverse health effects have been associated with pesticide exposure, ranging from skin irritation to neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Though misuse of these pesticides can lead to widespread potential dangers, the debilitating effects are usually underappreciated in many developing countries. To evaluate the pattern of pesticide usage among rural communities in the Kintampo area of Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1455 heads of households randomly sampled from among 29,073 households in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area of Ghana to estimate the prevalence of pesticide use and indications for use among this rural populace. Seventy-one percent (1040/1455) of household heads reported having used pesticides on either their farms or homes, most commonly for control of weeds (96.4%, 1003/1040) or insects (85.4%, 888/1040). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by 22.9% (238/1040) of respondents. The majority of households who reported use of pesticides said women in their households assisted in the spraying efforts (69.3%, 721/1040); of these women, 50.8% (366/721) did so while carrying their babies on their backs. Only 28.9% (301/1040) of the study participants wore protective devices during pesticide applications. Frequent symptoms that were reported after spraying, included cough (32.3%; 336/1040), difficulty in breathing (26.7%; 278/1040) and skin irritation (39.0%; 406/1040). Pesticide use among community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana is common and its potential health impacts warrant further investigation. PMID:27239261

  13. Occurrence of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in non-invasive human specimens.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscolla, Clara; Pardo, Olga; Roca, Marta

    2015-11-01

    Biomonitoring has been used in many types of investigations, including national programmes and epidemiological studies, to explore the occurrence of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the general population or relevant groups. This review discusses recent studies that measure levels of biomarkers of pesticide exposure in non-invasive human specimens such as urine, breast milk, meconium and hair. Specific and non-specific metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides have been widely investigated in urine, where some of the suitable biomarkers present rates of detection higher than 80%, which stand for an ongoing chronic exposure to traces of these chemicals. Hair is a promising emerging matrix, but some issues on its suitability and the biological relevance needs further research. Breast milk was used in research investigations focused mainly on legacy pesticides, which provide useful information about time trends. PMID:26070147

  14. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  15. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Smith, Karen E; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-11-16

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness.

  16. Foodborne exposure to pesticides and methylmercury in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Christopher A; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Al-Harthi, Suaad S; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2012-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive environmental health strategic planning project initiated by the government of Abu Dhabi, we assessed potential dietary exposure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to methylmercury (in seafood) and pesticides (in fruits and vegetables) above international guideline levels. We present results for the UAE population by age, gender, and body mass index. Our results show very low daily risks of exposure to pesticides in fruits and vegetables at levels exceeding WHO guidelines even under the conservative assumption that no pesticides are removed during washing and food preparation. Thus, exposure to pesticides on fruits and vegetables does not appear to be a major public health concern in the UAE. The chances of exposure to methylmercury in seafood are much higher; our model estimates a mean 1 in 5 daily risk of exceeding the FAO/WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake. However, great caution should be used in interpreting these results, as we analyzed only the risks and not the substantial benefits of fish consumption. In fact, previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish can increase IQ in developing children, and it can substantially decrease the risk in adults of coronary heart disease and stroke. Further research is warranted to compare the risk of Me-Hg exposure from fish to the nutritional benefits of fish consumption in the UAE and to determine appropriate methods to communicate risk and benefit information to the UAE population.

  17. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Smith, Karen E.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness. PMID:26568480

  18. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  19. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  20. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  1. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals.

  2. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals. PMID:25413219

  3. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  4. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  5. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  6. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in Latino children living in an orchard community.

    PubMed

    Butler-Dawson, Jaime; Galvin, Kit; Thorne, Peter S; Rohlman, Diane S

    2016-03-01

    Children living in agricultural communities have a greater risk from pesticides due to para-occupational pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of school-aged Latino children over time. Two exposure measures were used to estimate children's pesticide exposure: parent's occupation (agricultural or non-agricultural) and organophosphate residues in home carpet dust samples. During 2008-2011, 206 school-aged children completed a battery of neurobehavioral tests two times, approximately one year apart. The associations between both exposure measures and neurobehavioral performance were examined. Pesticide residues were detected in dust samples from both agricultural and non-agricultural homes, however, pesticides were detected more frequently and in higher concentrations in agricultural homes compared to non-agricultural homes. Although few differences were found between agricultural and non-agricultural children at both visits, deficits in learning from the first visit to the second visit, or less improvement, was found in agricultural children relative to non-agricultural children. These differences were significant for the Divided Attention and Purdue Pegboard tests. These findings are consistent with previous research showing deficits in motor function. A summary measure of organophosphate residues was not associated with neurobehavioral performance. Results from this study indicate that children in agricultural communities are at increased risk from pesticides as a result of a parent working in agricultural. Our findings suggest that organophosphate exposure may be associated with deficits in learning on neurobehavioral performance, particularly in tests of with motor function. In spite of regulatory phasing out of organophosphates in the U.S., we still see elevated levels and higher detection rates of several organophosphates in agricultural households than non

  7. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional diets.

    PubMed Central

    Curl, Cynthia L; Fenske, Richard A; Elgethun, Kai

    2003-01-01

    We assessed organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure from diet by biological monitoring among Seattle, Washington, preschool children. Parents kept food diaries for 3 days before urine collection, and they distinguished organic and conventional foods based on label information. Children were then classified as having consumed either organic or conventional diets based on analysis of the diary data. Residential pesticide use was also recorded for each home. We collected 24-hr urine samples from 18 children with organic diets and 21 children with conventional diets and analyzed them for five OP pesticide metabolites. We found significantly higher median concentrations of total dimethyl alkylphosphate metabolites than total diethyl alkylphosphate metabolites (0.06 and 0.02 micro mol/L, respectively; p = 0.0001). The median total dimethyl metabolite concentration was approximately six times higher for children with conventional diets than for children with organic diets (0.17 and 0.03 micro mol/L; p = 0.0003); mean concentrations differed by a factor of nine (0.34 and 0.04 micro mol/L). We calculated dose estimates from urinary dimethyl metabolites and from agricultural pesticide use data, assuming that all exposure came from a single pesticide. The dose estimates suggest that consumption of organic fruits, vegetables, and juice can reduce children's exposure levels from above to below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's current guidelines, thereby shifting exposures from a range of uncertain risk to a range of negligible risk. Consumption of organic produce appears to provide a relatively simple way for parents to reduce their children's exposure to OP pesticides. PMID:12611667

  8. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives.

  9. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives. PMID:12358073

  10. Effects of pesticide exposure and the amphibian chytrid fungus on gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Gaietto, Kristina M; Rumschlag, Samantha L; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-10-01

    Pesticides are detectable in most aquatic habitats and have the potential to alter host-pathogen interactions. The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been associated with amphibian declines around the world. However, Bd-associated declines are more prominent in some areas, despite nearly global distribution of Bd, suggesting other factors contribute to disease outbreaks. In a laboratory study, the authors examined the effects of 6 different isolates of Bd in the presence or absence of a pesticide (the insecticide carbaryl or the fungicide copper sulfate) to recently hatched Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) tadpoles reared through metamorphosis. The authors found the presence or absence of pesticides differentially altered the mass at metamorphosis of tadpoles exposed to different Bd isolates, suggesting that isolate could influence metamorphosis but not in ways expected based on origin of the isolate. Pesticide exposure had the strongest impact on metamorphosis of all treatment combinations. Whereas copper sulfate exposure reduced the length of the larval period, carbaryl exposure had apparent positive effects by increasing mass at metamorphosis and lengthening larval period, which adds to evidence that carbaryl can stimulate development in counterintuitive ways. The present study provides limited support to the hypothesis that pesticides can alter the response of tadpoles to isolates of Bd and that the insecticide carbaryl can alter developmental decisions.

  11. Environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides and deficits in cochlear status in children

    PubMed Central

    Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Murínová, L’ubica Palkovičová; Wimmerová, Soňa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Čonka, Kamil; Šovčíková, Eva; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) are ototoxic to humans. A Multivariate General Linear Model was designed, in which the statistical relation between blood serum concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p′-DDT or p,p′-DDE at the different ages (at birth, 6, 16 and 45 months) and the DPOAEs were treated as multivariate outcome variables. PCB congeners and OCPs were strongly correlated in serum of children from our cohort. To ascertain that the association between DPOAEs at a given frequency and concentration of a pesticide is not influenced by PCBs or other OCP also present in serum, we calculated BMCs relating DPOAEs to a serum pesticides alone and in presence of confounding PCB-153 or other OCPs. We found that BMCs relating DPOAEs to serum pesticides are not affected by confounders. DPOAE amplitudes were associated with serum OCPs at all investigated time intervals, however in a positive way with prenatal exposure and in a negative way with all postnatal exposures. We observed tonotopicity in the association of pesticides with amplitude of DPOAEs as its strength was frequency dependent. We conclude that exposure to OCPs in infancy at environmental concentrations may be associated with hearing deficits. PMID:25989860

  12. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems.

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; Hoppin, Jane A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. Objectives: We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Results: Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728–1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129 PMID:27285288

  14. Infant Respiratory Outcomes Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Maternal 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Deshayne B.; Wilson, Kumanan; Ducharme, Robin; Hawken, Steven; Sprague, Ann E.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Graeme; Wen, Shi Wu; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants are at high risk for influenza illness, but are ineligible for vaccination before 6 months. Transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus has been demonstrated for 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccines; however, clinical effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination during pregnancy and rates of infant influenza and pneumonia. Methods We linked a population-based birth cohort to administrative databases to measure rates of influenza and pneumonia diagnosed during ambulatory physician visits, hospitalizations and emergency department visits during one year of follow-up. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Poisson regression, comparing infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women (vaccine-exposed infants) with unexposed infants, adjusted for confounding using high-dimensional propensity scores. Results Among 117,335 infants in the study, 36,033 (31%) were born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women. Crude rates of influenza during the pandemic (per 100,000 infant-days) for vaccine-exposed and unexposed infants were similar (2.19, 95% CI: 1.27–3.76 and 3.60, 95% CI: 2.51–5.14, respectively), as were crude rates of influenza and pneumonia combined. We did not observe any significant differences in rates of study outcomes between study groups during the second wave of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, nor during any post-pandemic time period. Conclusion We observed no difference in rates of study outcomes among infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated mothers relative to unexposed infants born during the second A/H1N1 pandemic wave; however, due to late availability of the pandemic vaccine, the available follow-up time during the pandemic time period was very limited. PMID:27486858

  15. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Julie Josse, Rozenn Lambert, Carine Antherieu, Sebastien Laurent, Veronique Loyer, Pascal Robin, Marie-Anne Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-11-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure of normal human dermal fibroblasts results in AhR-dependent and -independent changes in gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Akintobi, A.M.; Villano, C.M.; White, L.A. . E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu

    2007-04-01

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) results in a variety of lesions in mammals including severe skin lesions. The majority of TCDD's biological effects are mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We have chosen to examine the effect of TCDD and the AhR pathway on dermal fibroblasts because this cell type plays an integral role in skin homeostasis through the production of cytokines and other factors that regulate epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Our data show that normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) are responsive to TCDD, as demonstrated by induction of cytochrome p450 1B1 (CYP1B1) expression. Further, our data demonstrate that TCDD treatment of NHDFs results in significant (75-90%) decrease in expression of Id-1 and Id-3, proteins that are involved in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The Id (Inhibitor of DNA binding) proteins are transcriptional inhibitors that function by forming inactive heterodimers with other HLH proteins. TCDD-repression of Id-1 and -3 is independent of de novo protein synthesis; co-treatment with cycloheximide has no effect on TCDD inhibition of Id-1 and Id-3. Co-treatment with the AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone also does not block inhibition of Id-1 and Id-3 by TCDD, suggesting that TCDD inhibition of Id-1 and Id-3 is, at least in part, mediated independently of the AhR pathway. Our data also show that TCDD inhibits expression of the cell cycle regulatory gene p16{sup ink4a}, which is often linked to Id expression. TCDD-induced reduction of p16{sup ink4a} expression is also independent of protein synthesis and the AhR pathway.

  17. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Leukemia and Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Donald T.; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood leukemia and parental occupational pesticide exposure. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE (1950–2009) and other electronic databases yielded 31 included studies. Data extraction Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Data synthesis Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between childhood leukemia and any paternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88–1.34); there were slightly elevated risks in subgroups of studies with low total-quality scores (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.99–1.95), ill-defined exposure time windows (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.85), and exposure information collected after offspring leukemia diagnosis (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.70). Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.51–2.88); this association was slightly stronger for studies with high exposure-measurement-quality scores (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.68–3.58), higher confounder control scores (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56–3.62), and farm-related exposures (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.53–3.89). Childhood leukemia risk was also elevated for prenatal maternal occupational exposure to insecticides (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.47–5.04) and herbicides (OR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.28–10.3). Conclusions Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure in analyses of all studies combined and in several subgroups. Associations with paternal occupational pesticide exposure were weaker and less consistent. Research needs include improved pesticide exposure indices, continued follow-up of existing cohorts, genetic susceptibility assessment, and basic research on childhood leukemia initiation and progression. PMID:20019898

  18. Effect of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure during pregnancy on the growth and development of infants.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhanyou; Li, Xiaoqiong; Su, Qian; Xu, Li; Zhang, Peng; Kong, Zhenyu; Xu, Jianhui; Teng, Junfang

    2013-07-01

    Antenatal urine of 497 pregnant women was collected in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of a county hospital in Jiaozuo, Henan. The content of the main metabolites of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in urine were determined. After 1 year, physical development indices of 1-year old infants, such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference, were measured. The neural and mental development of the infants was assessed by the Development Screen Test (DST) scale. We observed that the level of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure was negatively related to the neural and mental development of infants (β = -0.1527, P < 0.05). Therefore, direct or indirect exposure to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides should be avoided during pregnancy.

  19. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in agricultural and non-agricultural Hispanic workers.

    PubMed

    Rothlein, Joan; Rohlman, Diane; Lasarev, Michael; Phillips, Jackie; Muniz, Juan; McCauley, Linda

    2006-05-01

    Our understanding of the health risks of farmworkers exposed to pesticides in their work and home environments is rapidly increasing, although studies designed to examine the possible neurobehavioral effects of low-level chronic pesticide exposure are limited. We measured dialkyl phosphate urinary metabolite levels, collected environmental dust samples from a subset of homes, obtained information on work practices, and conducted neurobehavioral tests on a sample of farmworkers in Oregon. Significant correlations between urinary methyl metabolite levels and total methyl organophosphate (azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion) house dust levels were observed. We found the neurobehavioral performance of Hispanic immigrant farmworkers to be lower than that observed in a nonagricultural Hispanic immigrant population, and within the sample of agricultural workers there was a positive correlation between urinary organophosphate metabolite levels and poorer performance on some neurobehavioral tests. These findings add to an increasing body of evidence of the association between low levels of pesticide exposure and deficits in neurobehavioral performance. PMID:16675422

  20. Pesticide exposure and respiratory health of indigenous women in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Karin B; Kromhout, Hans; Heederik, Dick; van Wendel de Joode, Berna

    2009-06-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the relation between pesticide exposure and respiratory health in a population of indigenous women in Costa Rica. Exposed women (n = 69) all worked at plantain plantations. Unexposed women (n = 58) worked at organic banana plantations or other locations without pesticide exposure. Study participants were interviewed using questionnaires to estimate exposure and presence of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry tests were conducted to obtain forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Among the exposed, prevalence of wheeze was 20% and of shortness of breath was 36% versus 9% and 26%, respectively, for the unexposed. Prevalence of chronic cough, asthma, and atopic symptoms was similar for exposed and unexposed women. Among nonsmokers (n = 105), reported exposures to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos (n = 25) and terbufos (n = 38) were strongly associated with wheeze (odd ratio = 6.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 28.0; odds ratio = 5.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 25.6, respectively). For both insecticides, a statistically significant exposure-effect association was found. Multiple organophosphate exposure was common; 81% of exposed women were exposed to both chlorpyrifos and terbufos. Consequently, their effects could not be separated. All findings were based on questionnaire data. No relation between pesticide exposure and ventilatory lung function was found. PMID:19372212

  1. Mishandling and exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Shomar, Basem; Al-Saad, Khalid; Nriagu, Jerome

    2014-08-01

    We used a combination of subjective (questionnaire) and objective (urinary metabolites) measurements to evaluate factors that can predict the exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides and to assess whether the levels of exposure are associated with any self-reported health outcomes. The results show that pesticides were being extensively mishandled in the farms. Very few (<2%) of the farm workers knew the names of the pesticide they were using, and about one-third of the participants did not know the amount of pesticides to be applied to the crops. Nearly all (96%) of the participants had participated in mixing pesticides together before use and few (29%) used protective clothing while engaged in this operation. A significant number of participants (18%) had no knowledge that pesticides are a health hazard. At least one dialkyllphosphate (DAP) metabolite was detected in every worker. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the dimethylalkylphosphates (DMAP) was 108 nM (range, from below the limit of detection (LOD) to 351 nM), and the GM for the diethylalkylphosphates (DEAP) was 43 nM (range, LOD-180 nM). The GM for total concentration of the metabolites (DAP) of 146 nM (maximum value estimated to be 531 nM) is below the values that have been reported for farmers in some countries, but higher than the levels in the general populations of many countries. We explored the influence of metal exposure and found consistent and negative relationships between the DAP metabolites and the concentrations of most of the trace elements in the urine of the farm workers; the negative associations were statistically significant for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, As, and Pb. We suspect that the negative associations are not source-dependent but may be reflective of antagonistic relationships in human metabolism of OPPs and trace metals; hence we recommend that metals should be included as co-factors in assessing the health effects of OPP exposure.

  2. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-12-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC; metam sodium breakdown product), molinate, propargite, and simazine. Risks were estimated for the median and 75th and 95th percentiles of probability (50, 25, and 5% of the exposed populations). Exposure estimates greater than or equal to noncancer reference values occurred for 50% of the exposed populations (adults and children) for MITC subchronic and chronic exposures, methyl bromide subchronic exposures (year 2000 monitoring), and 1,3-dichloropropene subchronic exposures (1990 monitoring). Short-term chlorpyrifos exposure estimates exceeded the acute reference value for 50% of children (not adults) in the exposed population. Noncancer risks were uniformly higher for children due to a proportionately greater inhalation rate-to-body weight ratio compared to adults and other factors. Target health effects of potential concern for these exposures include neurologic effects (methyl bromide and chlorpyrifos) and respiratory effects (1,3-dichloropropene and MITC). The lowest noncancer risks occurred for simazine and chlorothalonil. Lifetime cancer risks of one-in-a-million or greater were estimated for 50% of the exposed population for 1,3-dichloropropene (1990 monitoring) and 25% of the exposed populations for methidathion and molinate. Pesticide vapor pressure was found to be a better predictor of inhalation risk compared to other methods of ranking pesticides as potential toxic air contaminants. PMID:12460795

  3. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC; metam sodium breakdown product), molinate, propargite, and simazine. Risks were estimated for the median and 75th and 95th percentiles of probability (50, 25, and 5% of the exposed populations). Exposure estimates greater than or equal to noncancer reference values occurred for 50% of the exposed populations (adults and children) for MITC subchronic and chronic exposures, methyl bromide subchronic exposures (year 2000 monitoring), and 1,3-dichloropropene subchronic exposures (1990 monitoring). Short-term chlorpyrifos exposure estimates exceeded the acute reference value for 50% of children (not adults) in the exposed population. Noncancer risks were uniformly higher for children due to a proportionately greater inhalation rate-to-body weight ratio compared to adults and other factors. Target health effects of potential concern for these exposures include neurologic effects (methyl bromide and chlorpyrifos) and respiratory effects (1,3-dichloropropene and MITC). The lowest noncancer risks occurred for simazine and chlorothalonil. Lifetime cancer risks of one-in-a-million or greater were estimated for 50% of the exposed population for 1,3-dichloropropene (1990 monitoring) and 25% of the exposed populations for methidathion and molinate. Pesticide vapor pressure was found to be a better predictor of inhalation risk compared to other methods of ranking pesticides as potential toxic air contaminants. PMID:12460795

  4. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)
    <...

  5. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS. R A Matulka1, AA Rooney3, W Williams2, CB Copeland2, and R J Smialowicz2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ITB, ETD, NHEERL, RT...

  6. QUANTITATIVE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN LIVING IN AN AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of planning efforts for the National Children's Study, we conducted a pilot study to test field methods characterizing pesticide exposures to 20 farmworker children aged 6-24 months living in the Salinas Valley, Monterey County, California. Sample collection included d...

  7. Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particle Extracts (DEPe) Impairs Some Polarization Markers and Functions of Human Macrophages through Activation of AhR and Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Jaguin, Marie; Fardel, Olivier; Lecureur, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages (MΦ), well-known to play an important role in immune response, also respond to environmental toxic chemicals such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Potential effects of DEPs towards MΦ polarization, a key hall-mark of MΦ physiology, remain however poorly documented. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effects of a reference DEP extract (DEPe) on human MΦ polarization. Human blood monocytes-derived MΦ were incubated with IFNγ+LPS or IL-4 to obtain M1 and M2 subtypes, respectively; a 24 h exposure of polarizing MΦ to 10 μg/ml DEPe was found to impair expression of some macrophagic M1 and M2 markers, without however overall inhibition of M1 and M2 polarization processes. Notably, DEPe treatment increased the secretion of the M1 marker IL-8 and the M2 marker IL-10 in both MΦ subtypes, whereas it reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 and IL-12p40 secretion in M1 MΦ. In M2 MΦ, DEPe exposure led to a reduction of CD200R expression and of CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 secretion, associated with a lower chemotaxis of CCR4-positive cells. DEPe activated the Nrf2 and AhR pathways and induced expression of their reference target genes such as Hmox-1 and cytochrome P-4501B1 in M1 and M2 MΦ. Nrf2 or AhR silencing through RNA interference prevented DEPe-related down-regulation of IL-6. AhR silencing also inhibited the down-secretion of IL-12p40 and CCL18 in M1- and M2-DEPe-exposed MΦ, respectively. DEPs are therefore likely to alter expression of some M1 and M2 markers in an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent manner; such regulations may contribute to deleterious immune effects of atmospheric DEP. PMID:25710172

  8. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. METHODS This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother’s residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers. PMID:27156346

  9. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses.

  10. Erosion rills offset the efficacy of vegetated buffer strips to mitigate pesticide exposure in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Sebastian; Dabrowski, James Michael; Bangert, Uli; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory risk assessment considers vegetated buffer strips as effective risk mitigation measures for the reduction of runoff-related pesticide exposure of surface waters. However, apart from buffer strip widths, further characteristics such as vegetation density or the presence of erosion rills are generally neglected in the determination of buffer strip mitigation efficacies. This study conducted a field survey of fruit orchards (average slope 3.1-12.2%) of the Lourens River catchment, South Africa, which specifically focused on the characteristics and attributes of buffer strips separating orchard areas from tributary streams. In addition, in-stream and erosion rill water samples were collected during three runoff events and GIS-based modeling was employed to predict losses of pesticides associated with runoff. The results show that erosion rills are common in buffer strips (on average 13 to 24 m wide) of the tributaries (up to 6.5 erosion rills per km flow length) and that erosion rills represent concentrated entry pathways of pesticide runoff into the tributaries during rainfall events. Exposure modeling shows that measured pesticide surface water concentrations correlated significantly (R(2)=0.626; p<0.001) with runoff losses predicted by the modeling approach in which buffer strip width was set to zero at sites with erosion rills; in contrast, no relationship between predicted runoff losses and in-stream pesticide concentrations were detected in the modeling approach that neglected erosion rills and thus assumed efficient buffer strips. Overall, the results of our study show that erosion rills may substantially reduce buffer strip pesticide retention efficacies during runoff events and suggest that the capability of buffer strips as a risk mitigation tool for runoff is largely overestimated in current regulatory risk assessment procedures conducted for pesticide authorization.

  11. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. PMID:26218348

  12. Paraoxonase activity and genetic polymorphisms in greenhouse workers with long term pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio F; Mackness, Bharti; Rodrigo, Lourdes; López, Olga; Pla, Antonio; Gil, Fernando; Durrington, Paul N; Pena, Gloria; Parrón, Tesifón; Serrano, José L; Mackness, Michael I

    2003-11-01

    Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) associated protein, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, although it was primarily associated with the hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. PON1 was initially thought to be independent from physiological or pathological states, although recently some environmental factors have been reported to modulate its activity. In this study, we have investigated the promoter (PON1 -108C/T and -909 C/G) and coding region (PON1 192Q/R and 55L/M) polymorphisms, as well as PON1 activity towards different substrates (paraoxon, phenylacetate and diazoxon) in 102 individuals with long term low dose exposure to pesticides in a plastic greenhouse setting (sprayers), who are probably the group of agricultural workers with the highest exposure to pesticides. PON1 activity towards paraoxon was nonsignificantly decreased (up to 53.5%) in the sprayers subgroup exposed to organophosphates (n = 41) compared with nonsprayers acting as controls (n = 39). None of the genotypes studied was associated significantly with the subgroup of individuals exposed to organophosphates, although differences between sprayers and nonsprayers were observed in the PON1 -909 G/C polymorphism. Among the environmental factors that significantly predicted lower rates of PON1 activity towards paraoxon are, interestingly, the exposure to organophosphates and current smoking. By contrast, the utilization of protective clothing while spraying pesticides inside the greenhouses was positively associated with PON1 activity, very likely by preventing the pesticides from being absorbed. This study suggests that chronic exposure to pesticides might decrease PON1 activity and pinpoints the potential usefulness of monitoring PON1 activity in occupational settings where exposure to organophosphates occurs. PMID:14686479

  13. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-02-15

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T{sub 3}, total T{sub 4}, serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T{sub 4} hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (SIGMADMP) in urine (p-trend < 0.001) and a decrease in total T{sub 3} serum levels with an increase of SIGMADMP levels in the urine (p-trend = 0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T{sub 4} serum hormone levels and decreasing T{sub 3} serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.

  14. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Lacasaña, Marina; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E

    2010-02-15

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T(3), total T(4), serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T(4) hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (SigmaDMP) in urine (p-trend<0.001) and a decrease in total T(3) serum levels with an increase of SigmaDMP levels in the urine (p-trend=0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T(4) serum hormone levels and decreasing T(3) serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.

  15. Community-Based Intervention to Reduce Pesticide Exposure to Farmworkers and Potential Take-Home Exposure to their Families

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, Asa; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Boeniger, Mark; Castorina, Rosemary; Snyder, John; Barr, Dana B.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Striley, Cynthia; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. EPA Worker Protection Standard requires pesticide safety training for farmworkers. Combined with re-entry intervals, these regulations are designed to reduce pesticide exposure. Little research has been conducted on whether additional steps may reduce farmworker exposure and the potential for take-home exposure to their families. We conducted an intervention with 44 strawberry harvesters (15 control and 29 intervention group members) to determine whether education, encouragement of handwashing, and the use of gloves and removable coveralls reduced exposure. Post-intervention, we collected foliage and urine samples, as well as hand rinse, lower-leg skin patch, and clothing patch samples. Post-intervention loading of malathion on hands was lower among workers who wore gloves compared to those who did not (median = 8.2 vs 777.2 μg/pair, respectively (p<0.001)); similarly, median MDA levels in urine were lower among workers who wore gloves (45.3 vs 131.2 μg/g creatinine, p<0.05). Malathion was detected on clothing (median = 0.13 μg/cm2), but not on skin. Workers who ate strawberries had higher MDA levels in urine (median=114.5 vs 39.4 μg/g creatinine, p<0.01). These findings suggest that wearing gloves reduces pesticide exposure to workers contacting strawberry foliage containing dislodgeable residues. Additionally, wearing gloves and removing work clothes before returning home could reduce transport of pesticides to worker homes. Behavioral interventions are needed to reduce consumption of strawberries in the field. PMID:18368011

  16. Dermal exposure to pesticides modifies antioxidant enzymes in tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    2000-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were determined in rat tissues after dermal exposure to pesticides. Two experiments were conducted in male SD rats, 190-210 g body weight. Acephate (ACP), methamidophos (MAP) and nicotine (NIC) were dissolved either individually or together in 0.25 mL of 50% ethanol, which contained: AP = 12.6 or MAP 1.3 or NIC = 9.6 mg; EXP 1--individual pesticide exposure; 64 rats, 16/group; EXP 2--mixture of AP + MAP + NIC at levels of 1X, 2X, 3X; 48 rats, 12/group; 0.25 mL of solution or ethanol (Controls) was applied to 25 mm2 area of shaved skin 3 times a week. Half the rats were terminated after 4 weeks and the rest after 4 weeks of stopping exposure. Single pesticides decreased erythrocyte (RBC) SOD by 17% after exposure and in the NIC group after post exposure (P#0.05). Increasing concentrations of AP + MAP + NIC mixture elevated RBC SOD by 22% in the 2X and 3X groups and CAT by 13% in the 3X group (P#0.05); post exposure increased RBC SOD by 2-3 fold and CAT activity by 13% in all 3 groups. Liver GPX increased by 30-40% and CAT decreased by 12% in all exposed and post exposed groups (P#0.05). The results suggest that dermal exposure to mixtures of pesticides can selectively induce SOD, CAT and GPX activities in RBC and liver. PMID:10874619

  17. Dermal exposure to pesticides modifies antioxidant enzymes in tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    2000-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were determined in rat tissues after dermal exposure to pesticides. Two experiments were conducted in male SD rats, 190-210 g body weight. Acephate (ACP), methamidophos (MAP) and nicotine (NIC) were dissolved either individually or together in 0.25 mL of 50% ethanol, which contained: AP = 12.6 or MAP 1.3 or NIC = 9.6 mg; EXP 1--individual pesticide exposure; 64 rats, 16/group; EXP 2--mixture of AP + MAP + NIC at levels of 1X, 2X, 3X; 48 rats, 12/group; 0.25 mL of solution or ethanol (Controls) was applied to 25 mm2 area of shaved skin 3 times a week. Half the rats were terminated after 4 weeks and the rest after 4 weeks of stopping exposure. Single pesticides decreased erythrocyte (RBC) SOD by 17% after exposure and in the NIC group after post exposure (P#0.05). Increasing concentrations of AP + MAP + NIC mixture elevated RBC SOD by 22% in the 2X and 3X groups and CAT by 13% in the 3X group (P#0.05); post exposure increased RBC SOD by 2-3 fold and CAT activity by 13% in all 3 groups. Liver GPX increased by 30-40% and CAT decreased by 12% in all exposed and post exposed groups (P#0.05). The results suggest that dermal exposure to mixtures of pesticides can selectively induce SOD, CAT and GPX activities in RBC and liver.

  18. MODELING MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic model of individual exposure to chlorpyrifos has been developed in support of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) and the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) program. The model examines a v...

  19. Exposure to Multiple Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Men from Six Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Hohenadel, Karin; Harris, Shelley A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Spinelli, John J.; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A.; Demers, Paul A.; Blair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been linked to several agricultural exposures, including some commonly used pesticides. Although there is a significant body of literature examining the effects of exposure to individual pesticides on NHL, the impact of exposure to multiple pesticides or specific pesticide combinations has not been explored in depth. Data from a six-province Canadian case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 were analyzed to investigate the relationship between NHL, the total number of pesticides used and some common pesticide combinations. Cases (n = 513) were identified through hospital records and provincial cancer registries and controls (n = 1,506), frequency matched to cases by age and province of residence, were obtained through provincial health records, telephone listings, or voter lists. In multiple logistic regression analyses, risk of NHL increased with the number of pesticides used. Similar results were obtained in analyses restricted to herbicides, insecticides and several pesticide classes. Odds ratios increased further when only ‘potentially carcinogenic’ pesticides were considered (OR[one pesticide] = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.90–1.88; OR[two to four] = 1.54, CI = 1.11–2.12; OR[five or more] = 1.94, CI = 1.17–3.23). Elevated risks were also found among those reporting use of malathion in combination with several other pesticides. These analyses support and extend previous findings that the risk of NHL increases with the number of pesticides used and some pesticide combinations. PMID:21776232

  20. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  1. Untargeted profiling of pesticide metabolites by LC-HRMS: an exposomics tool for human exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Emilien L; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Chevrier, Cécile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Debrauwer, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Human exposure to xenobiotics is usually estimated by indirect methods. Biological monitoring has emerged during the last decade to improve assessment of exposure. However, biomonitoring is still an analytical challenge, because the amounts of sample available are often very small yet analysis must be as thorough and sensitive as possible. The purpose of this work was to develop an untargeted "exposomics" approach by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), which was applied to the characterization of pesticide metabolites in urine from pregnant women from a French epidemiological cohort. An upgradable list of pesticides commonly used on different crops, with their metabolites (more than 400 substances) was produced. Raw MS data were then processed to extract signals from these substances. Metabolites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry; putative identifications were validated by comparison with standards and metabolites generated by experiments on animals. Finally, signals of identified compounds were statistically analyzed by use of multivariate methods. This enabled discrimination of exposure groups, defined by indirect methods, on the basis of four metabolites from two fungicides (azoxystrobin, fenpropimorph) used in cereal production. This original approach applied to pesticide exposure can be extended to a variety of contaminant families for upstream evaluation of exposure from food and the environment. PMID:23892877

  2. Untargeted profiling of pesticide metabolites by LC-HRMS: an exposomics tool for human exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Emilien L; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Chevrier, Cécile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Debrauwer, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Human exposure to xenobiotics is usually estimated by indirect methods. Biological monitoring has emerged during the last decade to improve assessment of exposure. However, biomonitoring is still an analytical challenge, because the amounts of sample available are often very small yet analysis must be as thorough and sensitive as possible. The purpose of this work was to develop an untargeted "exposomics" approach by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), which was applied to the characterization of pesticide metabolites in urine from pregnant women from a French epidemiological cohort. An upgradable list of pesticides commonly used on different crops, with their metabolites (more than 400 substances) was produced. Raw MS data were then processed to extract signals from these substances. Metabolites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry; putative identifications were validated by comparison with standards and metabolites generated by experiments on animals. Finally, signals of identified compounds were statistically analyzed by use of multivariate methods. This enabled discrimination of exposure groups, defined by indirect methods, on the basis of four metabolites from two fungicides (azoxystrobin, fenpropimorph) used in cereal production. This original approach applied to pesticide exposure can be extended to a variety of contaminant families for upstream evaluation of exposure from food and the environment.

  3. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers’ exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  4. Exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    van Balen, E; Font, R; Cavallé, N; Font, L; Garcia‐Villanueva, M; Benavente, Y; Brennan, P; de Sanjose, S

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Methods This is a multicentre case control study conducted in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in four hospitals between 1998–2002. Hospital controls were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and centre. All subjects were interviewed about jobs ever held in lifetime for at least one year and the exposures in those jobs were recorded. The risk of lymphomas among subjects ever having had a job as a farmer was compared with all other occupations. Farmers were analysed according to the type of farming job performed: crop farming, animal farming, and general farming. Occupational exposure was summarised into 15 main categories: organic dust, radiation, contact with animals, PAH, non‐arsenic pesticides (carbamates, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, triazines and triazoles, phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran), arsenic pesticides, contact with meat, contact with children, solvents, asbestos, soldering fumes, organic colourants, polychlorinated biphenyls, ethylene oxide, and hair dyes. Results Although farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, farmers exposed to non‐arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2). This increased risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). Risk was highest for exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Conclusions Long term exposure to non‐arsenic pesticides may induce lymphomagenesis among farmers. PMID:16757510

  5. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Virginia C.; McMahen, Rebecca L.; Strynar, Mark J.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  6. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  7. URINARY LEVELS OF 2,4-D AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL FOR SPOUSES AND CHILDREN OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted pesticides, 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos, was measured in conjunction with agricultural applications for a subset of appl...

  8. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and specific pesticide exposures in men: cross-Canada study of pesticides and health.

    PubMed

    McDuffie, H H; Pahwa, P; McLaughlin, J R; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Dosman, J A; Robson, D; Skinnider, L F; Choi, N W

    2001-11-01

    Our objective in the study was to investigate the putative associations of specific pesticides with non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma [NHL; International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) 200, 202]. We conducted a Canadian multicenter population-based incident, case (n = 517)-control (n = 1506) study among men in a diversity of occupations using an initial postal questionnaire followed by a telephone interview for those reporting pesticide exposure of 10 h/year or more, and a 15% random sample of the remainder. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were computed using conditional logistic regression stratified by the matching variables of age and province of residence, and subsequently adjusted for statistically significant medical variables (history of measles, mumps, cancer, allergy desensitization treatment, and a positive history of cancer in first-degree relatives). We found that among major chemical classes of herbicides, the risk of NHL was statistically significantly increased by exposure to phenoxyherbicides [OR, 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.81] and to dicamba (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.32-2.68). Exposure to carbamate (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.22-3.04) and to organophosphorus insecticides (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.27-2.36), amide fungicides, and the fumigant carbon tetrachloride (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.19-5.14) statistically significantly increased risk. Among individual compounds, in multivariate analyses, the risk of NHL was statistically significantly increased by exposure to the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01-1.73), mecoprop (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.58-3.44), and dicamba (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); to the insecticides malathion (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.31-2.55), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), carbaryl (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.21-3.69), aldrin, and lindane; and to the fungicides captan and sulfur compounds. In additional multivariate models, which included exposure to other major chemical classes or individual

  9. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND CHIRAL CHEMISTRY: THE PYRETHROID FAMILY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in chiral chromatography significantly advanced the ability to analyze individual enantiomers of chiral compounds. These techniques are being employed at the U.S. EPA for human exposure and ecological research studies. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) were measured for cisp...

  10. Perspectives of Mothers in Farmworker Households on Reducing the Take-Home Pathway of Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Larkin L.; Sharks, Helene E.; Meischke, Hendrika; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Farmworkers carry pesticide residue home on their clothing, boots, and skin, placing other household members at risk, particularly children. Specific precautions are recommended to reduce this take-home pathway, yet few studies have examined the perspectives of farmworkers and other household members regarding these behaviors and the reasons for or against adoption. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 37 Mexican/Mexican-American women in farmworker households to explore the family and cultural context in which pesticide safety practices are performed and to identify factors that facilitate or hinder their adoption. Whereas women could describe the take-home pathway, they were less able to connect it with their family’s susceptibility to pesticide exposure. Women experienced difficulty integrating the prevention behaviors into their everyday lives because of competing responsibilities, conflicts with their husbands’ intentions and with cultural health beliefs, perceived lack of control, and community barriers that interfered with women’s motivations. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:19136611

  11. Risk assessment and management of occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Maroni, M; Fanetti, Anna Clara; Metruccio, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the world labour force is employed in agriculture. Over the last 50 years, agriculture has deeply changed with a massive utilisation of pesticides and fertilisers to enhance crop protection and production, food quality and food preservation. Pesticides are also increasingly employed for public health purposes and for domestic use. Pesticide are unique chemicals as they are intrinsically toxic for several biological targets, are deliberately spread into the environment, and their toxicity has a limited species selectivity. Pesticide toxicity depends on the compound family and is generally greater for the older compounds; in humans, they are responsible for acute poisonings as well as for long term health effects, including cancer and adverse effects on reproduction. Due to their intrinsic toxicity, in most countries a specific and complex legislation prescribes a thorough risk assessment process for pesticides prior to their entrance to the market (pre-marketing risk assessment). The post-marketing risk assessment takes place during the use of pesticides and aims at assessing the risk for exposed operators. The results of the risk assessment are the base for the health surveillance of exposed workers. Occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture concerns product distributors, mixers and loaders, applicators, bystanders, and rural workers re-entering the fields shortly after treatment. Assessing and managing the occupational health risks posed by the use of pesticides in agriculture is a complex but essential task for occupational health specialists and toxicologists. In spite of the economic and social importance of agriculture, the health protection of agricultural workforce has been overlooked for too many years, causing an heavy tribute paid in terms of avoidable diseases, human sufferance, and economic losses. Particularly in the developing countries, where agricultural work is one of the predominant job, a sustainable model of development

  12. Interaction between organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity on thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agricultural purposes. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated the ability of these chemicals to alter the function of the thyroid gland in human. Moreover, the paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity. This study evaluates the interaction between exposure to organophosphate compounds and PON1 enzyme activity on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones in a population of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. A longitudinal study was conducted on a population of floriculture workers from Mexico, during two periods of high and low-intensity levels of pesticide application. A structured questionnaire was completed by workers containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and other variables of interest. Urine and blood samples were taken, and biomarkers of exposure (dialkylphosphates), susceptibility (PON1 polymorphisms and activity) and effect (thyroid hormone levels) were determined. Interaction between dialkylphosphates and PON1 polymorphisms or PON1 activity on hormone levels was evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. A significant interaction was found between serum diazoxonase activity and total dialkylphosphates ({Sigma}DAP) on TSH levels. Thus, when PON1 activity was increased we observed a decrease in the percentage of variation of TSH level for each increment in one logarithmic unit of the {Sigma}DAP levels. This interaction was also observed with the PON1{sub 192}RR genotype. These results suggest a stronger association between organophosphate pesticides and thyroid function in individuals with lower PON1 activity.

  13. Exposure to pesticides in agriculture: a survey of spraymen using dimethoate in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Copplestone, J. F.; Fakhri, Z. I.; Miles, J. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Osman, Y.; Wolfe, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need for objective data on the exposure of spraymen to pesticides in agriculture in order to assess minimum requirements for practicable protection in tropical areas. To provide data, a survey was carried out in the Sudan on spraymen using dimethoate. No cholinesterase depressions were found and the calculated dose received by each man per day was within safe limits in the circumstances of this survey. Respiratory exposure was only a minor part of total exposure. The methodology of such surveys is discussed and the need for the use of a standard protocol is emphasized. PMID:1088104

  14. Prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment of intoxications caused by nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Musilek, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Soukup, Ondrej

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of intoxications caused by nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides consists of different approaches. The first approach is called prophylaxis or pre-exposure administration of antidotes such as cholinesterase reactivators or bioscavengers. The second, post-exposure treatment consists of anticholinergic drugs, acetylcholinesterase reactivators and anticonvulsants. This article is aimed at both mentioned approaches, especially focused on cholinesterase reactivators, which are a broad group of structurally different compounds that can be used in prophylaxis (separately or in combination with butyrylcholinesterase) and also as post-exposure treatment.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: ANALYSIS OF URINARY METABOLITE LEVELS IN A PROBABILITY-BASED SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study is a probability-based sample of 102 children 3-13 years old who were monitored for commonly used pesticides. During the summer of 1997, first-morning-void urine samples (1-3 per child) were obtained for 88% of study children a...

  16. Comparison of Four Probabilistic Models (CARES, Calendex, ConsEspo, SHEDS) to Estimate Aggregate Residential Exposures to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two deterministic models (US EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs Residential Standard Operating Procedures (OPP Residential SOPs) and Draft Protocol for Measuring Children’s Non-Occupational Exposure to Pesticides by all Relevant Pathways (Draft Protocol)) and four probabilistic mo...

  17. Dose-additivity modeling for acute and repeated exposure to a mixture of N-methycarbamate Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of N-methylcarbamate pesticides is attributed to the reversible inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes in the central and peripheral nervous system. The inhibition of ChE following a single exposure to this class of pesticides has been modeled using a dose-additi...

  18. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children’s Observational Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Egeghy, Peter P.; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Melnyk, Lisa J.; Morgan, Marsha K.; Fortmann, Roy C.; Sheldon, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals. PMID:21655147

  19. Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Sally M.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Pesticides are important agricultural tools often used in combination to avoid resistance in target pest species, but there is growing concern that their widespread use contributes to the decline of pollinator populations. Pollinators perform sophisticated behaviours while foraging that require them to learn and remember floral traits associated with food, but we know relatively little about the way that combined exposure to multiple pesticides affects neural function and behaviour. The experiments reported here show that prolonged exposure to field-realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor coumaphos and their combination impairs olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Using a method for classical conditioning of proboscis extension, honeybees were trained in either a massed or spaced conditioning protocol to examine how these pesticides affected performance during learning and short- and long-term memory tasks. We found that bees exposed to imidacloprid, coumaphos, or a combination of these compounds, were less likely to express conditioned proboscis extension towards an odor associated with reward. Bees exposed to imidacloprid were less likely to form a long-term memory, whereas bees exposed to coumaphos were only less likely to respond during the short-term memory test after massed conditioning. Imidacloprid, coumaphos and a combination of the two compounds impaired the bees' ability to differentiate the conditioned odour from a novel odour during the memory test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to sublethal doses of combined cholinergic pesticides significantly impairs important behaviours involved in foraging, implying that pollinator population decline could be the result of a failure of neural function of bees exposed to pesticides in agricultural landscapes. PMID:23393272

  20. Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sally M; Wright, Geraldine A

    2013-05-15

    Pesticides are important agricultural tools often used in combination to avoid resistance in target pest species, but there is growing concern that their widespread use contributes to the decline of pollinator populations. Pollinators perform sophisticated behaviours while foraging that require them to learn and remember floral traits associated with food, but we know relatively little about the way that combined exposure to multiple pesticides affects neural function and behaviour. The experiments reported here show that prolonged exposure to field-realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor coumaphos and their combination impairs olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Using a method for classical conditioning of proboscis extension, honeybees were trained in either a massed or spaced conditioning protocol to examine how these pesticides affected performance during learning and short- and long-term memory tasks. We found that bees exposed to imidacloprid, coumaphos, or a combination of these compounds, were less likely to express conditioned proboscis extension towards an odor associated with reward. Bees exposed to imidacloprid were less likely to form a long-term memory, whereas bees exposed to coumaphos were only less likely to respond during the short-term memory test after massed conditioning. Imidacloprid, coumaphos and a combination of the two compounds impaired the bees' ability to differentiate the conditioned odour from a novel odour during the memory test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to sublethal doses of combined cholinergic pesticides significantly impairs important behaviours involved in foraging, implying that pollinator population decline could be the result of a failure of neural function of bees exposed to pesticides in agricultural landscapes.

  1. Environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides and deficits in cochlear status in children.

    PubMed

    Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Wimmerová, Soňa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Čonka, Kamil; Šovčíková, Eva; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'- DDE) are ototoxic to humans. A multivariate general linear model was designed, in which the statistical relation between blood serum concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p'-DDT, or p,p'-DDE at different ages (at birth, 6, 16, and 45 months) and the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) was treated as multivariate outcome variables. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and OCPs were strongly correlated in serum of children from our cohort. To ascertain that the association between DPOAEs at a given frequency and concentration of a pesticide is not influenced by PCBs or other OCP also present in serum, we calculated benchmark concentrations (BMCs) relating DPOAEs to a serum pesticide alone and in presence of confounding PCB-153 or other OCPs. We found that BMCs relating DPOAEs to serum pesticides are not affected by confounders. DPOAE amplitudes were associated with serum OCPs at all investigated time intervals, however, in a positive way with prenatal exposure and in a negative way with all postnatal exposures. We observed tonotopicity in the association of pesticides with amplitude of DPOAEs as its strength was frequency dependent. We conclude that exposure to OCPs in infancy at environmental concentrations may be associated with hearing deficits.

  2. Realistic approach of pesticide residues and French consumer exposure within fruit & vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Drouillet-Pinard, Peggy; Boisset, Michel; Periquet, Alain; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Casse, Francine; Catteau, Michel; Barnat, Saida

    2011-01-01

    The increase of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake contributes to the prevention of chronic diseases, but could also significantly increase pesticide exposure and may thus be of health concern. Following a previous pesticide exposure assessment study, the present study was carried out to determine actual levels of pesticides within 400 g of F&V intake and to evaluate consumer risk. Forty-three Active Substances (AS) exceeding 10 % of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in balanced menus established for our previous theoretical study were considered. Fifty-six pooled food samples were analyzed: 28 fruit samples and 28 vegetable samples. Pesticide values were compared to Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) and to the "toxicological credit" derived from ADI. It was observed that 23 out of the 43 retained AS were never detected, 5 were detected both in F&V samples, 12 only in fruits and 3 only in vegetables. The most frequently detected AS were carbendazim, iprodione and dithiocarbamates. When detected, AS were more frequently found in fruit samples (74 %) than in vegetable samples (26 %). A maximum of 3 AS were detected at once in a given sample. Overall, we observed 8 and 14 overruns of the MRL in 1204 measures in pooled vegetable and fruit samples, respectively (0.7 % and 1.2 % of cases, respectively). Chronic exposure for adults was the highest for dithiocarbamates but did not exceed 23.7 % of the ADI in F&V. It was concluded that raising both F&V consumption up to 400 g/day (~5 F&V/day) according to recommendations of the national health and nutrition plan, does not induce pesticide overexposure and should not represent a risk for the consumer. PMID:21191868

  3. Environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides and deficits in cochlear status in children.

    PubMed

    Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Wimmerová, Soňa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Čonka, Kamil; Šovčíková, Eva; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'- DDE) are ototoxic to humans. A multivariate general linear model was designed, in which the statistical relation between blood serum concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p'-DDT, or p,p'-DDE at different ages (at birth, 6, 16, and 45 months) and the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) was treated as multivariate outcome variables. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and OCPs were strongly correlated in serum of children from our cohort. To ascertain that the association between DPOAEs at a given frequency and concentration of a pesticide is not influenced by PCBs or other OCP also present in serum, we calculated benchmark concentrations (BMCs) relating DPOAEs to a serum pesticide alone and in presence of confounding PCB-153 or other OCPs. We found that BMCs relating DPOAEs to serum pesticides are not affected by confounders. DPOAE amplitudes were associated with serum OCPs at all investigated time intervals, however, in a positive way with prenatal exposure and in a negative way with all postnatal exposures. We observed tonotopicity in the association of pesticides with amplitude of DPOAEs as its strength was frequency dependent. We conclude that exposure to OCPs in infancy at environmental concentrations may be associated with hearing deficits. PMID:25989860

  4. Potential exposure of larval and juvenile delta smelt to dissolved pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, K.M.; Moon, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The San Francisco Estuary is critical habitat for delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a fish whose abundance has declined greatly since 1983 and is now listed as threatened. In addition, the estuary receives drainage from the Central Valley, an urban and agricultural region with intense and diverse pesticide usage. One possible factor of the delta smelt population decline is pesticide toxicity during vulnerable larval and juvenile stages, but pesticide concentrations are not well characterized in delta smelt spawning and nursery habitat. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential exposure of delta smelt during their early life stages to dissolved pesticides. For 3 years (1998-2000), water samples from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta were collected during April-June in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game's delta smelt early life stage monitoring program. Samples were analyzed for pesticides using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Water samples contained multiple pesticides, ranging from 2 to 14 pesticides in each sample. In both 1999 and 2000, elevated concentrations of pesticides overlapped in time and space with peak densities of larval and juvenile delta smelt. In contrast, high spring outflows in 1998 transported delta smelt away from the pesticide sampling sites so that exposure could not be estimated. During 2 years, larval and juvenile delta smelt were potentially exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides for a minimum of 2-3 weeks. Although the measured concentrations were well below short-term (96-h) LC50 values for individual pesticides, the combination of multiple pesticides and lengthy exposure duration could potentially have lethal or sublethal effects on delta smelt, especially during early larval development.

  5. An Observational Study to Evaluate Associations Between Low-Level Gestational Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Cognition During Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Donauer, Stephanie; Altaye, Mekibib; Xu, Yingying; Sucharew, Heidi; Succop, Paul; Calafat, Antonia M; Khoury, Jane C; Lanphear, Bruce; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which is ubiquitous, may be detrimental to neurological development. We examined 327 mother/infant pairs in Cincinnati, Ohio, between 2003 and 2006 to determine associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurodevelopment. Twice during pregnancy urinary concentrations of 6 common dialkylphosphates, nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, were measured. Aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphates, dimethylphosphates, and total dialkylphosphates were calculated. Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition-Mental and Psychomotor Developmental indices were administered at ages 1, 2, and 3 years, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition, at age 4, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, at age 5. Mothers with higher urinary total dialkylphosphate concentrations reported higher levels of socioeconomic status and increased fresh fruit and vegetable intake. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and cognition at 1-5 years of age. In our cohort, exposure to organophosphate pesticides during pregnancy was not associated with cognition during early childhood. It is possible that a higher socioeconomic status and healthier diet may protect the fetus from potential adverse associations with gestational organophosphate pesticide exposure, or that dietary exposure to the metabolites is innocuous and not an ideal measure of exposure to the parent compound. PMID:27539379

  6. Meta-analysis on occupational exposure to pesticides--neurobehavioral impact and dose-response relationships.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Knapp, Guido; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While the health impact of high exposures to pesticides is acknowledged, the impact of chronic exposures in the absence of acute poisonings is controversial. A systematic analysis of dose-response relationships is still missing. Its absence may provoke alternative explanations for altered performances. Consequently, opportunities for health prevention in the occupational and environmental field may be missed. Objectives were (1) quantification of the neurotoxic impact of pesticides by an analysis of functional alterations in workers measured by neuropsychological performance tests, (2) estimates of dose-response relationships on the basis of exposure duration, and (3) exploration of susceptible subgroups. The meta-analysis employed a random effects model to obtain overall effects for individual performance tests. Twenty-two studies with a total of 1758 exposed and 1260 reference individuals met the inclusion criteria. At least three independent outcomes were available for twenty-six performance variables. Significant performance effects were shown in adults and referred to both cognitive and motor performances. Effect sizes ranging from dRE=-0.14 to dRE=-0.67 showed consistent outcomes for memory and attention. Relationships between effect sizes and exposure duration were indicated for individual performance variables and the total of measured performances. Studies on adolescents had to be analyzed separately due to numerous outliers. The large variation among outcomes hampered the analysis of the susceptibility in this group, while data on female workers was too scant for the analysis. Relationships exist between the impact of pesticides on performances and exposure duration. A change in test paradigms would help to decipher the impact more specifically. The use of biomarkers appropriate for lower exposures would allow a better prevention of neurotoxic effects due to occupational and environmental exposure. Intervention studies in adolescents seem warranted to

  7. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues from foods of plant origin and drinks in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Rehaime, Maria; Kassaify, Zeina; Rechmany, Roula; Jaber, Farouk

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the dietary exposure of Lebanese adults to 47 pesticide residues from both foods of plant origin and drinks. The study was conducted using the Total Diet Study protocol in two different areas of Lebanon: Greater Beirut (urban) and Keserwan (semi-rural). A total of 1860 individual foods were collected, prepared, and cooked prior to analysis. Composite samples of similar foods were analyzed, following the QuEChERS Multiresidue method. Eighteen residues were detected/quantified on at least one composite sample, with 66.7 % of the results being quantifiable and 33.3 % detectable. Quantifiable levels ranged between 10.3 and 208 μg/kg. For the composite samples where residues were detected, 55 % had one residue, while 45 % had 2-4 residues. The most frequently detected/quantified pesticide residues included Chlorpyrifos, Procymidone, Primiphos methyl, Dimethoate, and Dieldrin. The dietary exposure assessment was conducted using the deterministic approach with two scenarios: (1) the lower bound (LB) approach and (2) the upper bound (UB) approach. Using the LB approach, mean estimated daily exposures were far below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for all investigated residues. Using the UB approach, which tends to overestimate exposure, mean estimated daily exposures were below the ADIs for all residues except for Dieldrin (semi-rural: 128.7 % ADI; urban: 100.7 % ADI). Estimates of mean exposure to Diazinon reached 50.3 % of ADI in the urban diet and 61.9 % in the semi-rural diet. Findings of this study identify specific pesticide residues as monitoring priorities for which more comprehensive and sensitive analyses are needed in order to refine exposure assessment. PMID:27461424

  8. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to pesticide residues: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yau, Arthur T C; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ma, Stephanie; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The use of pesticides and other chemicals has become a common practice in modern agriculture to enhance and stabilise crop yield, protect the nutritional integrity of food, facilitate food storage to assure year-round supplies, and provide attractive and appealing food products. With the adoption of strict good agricultural practice (GAP), only minimal amounts of pesticide residues should remain on the crops or in connected foods of animal origin up the food chain. To assess their associated health risk to local people, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to residues of four groups of pesticides or their metabolites - organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), carbamates, pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and dithiocarbamate (DTC) metabolites - is estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS). A total of 150 commonly consumed food items were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 600 composite food samples were analysed for 85 pesticides or their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These pesticides were primarily found at low levels (highest mean = 350 μg kg⁻¹) in food samples of plant origin such as vegetables and fruits. Dietary exposures to pesticide residues were estimated based on the analytical results and the food consumption data of the local residents. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to all individual pesticides were well below their respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). The percentage contributions of the estimated mean and 95th percentile dietary exposures to the ADIs of individual pesticides were <6% and <24% for the OPPs, <1% for the carbamates and pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and <1% and <4% for the DTC metabolites, respectively. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the pesticide residues analysed in this study were unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks to the Hong Kong population.

  9. A pragmatic approach to assess the exposure of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) when subjected to pesticide spray.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Yannick; Bodin, Laurent; Tchamitchian, Marc; Fusellier, Marion; Giroud, Barbara; Lafay, Florent; Buleté, Audrey; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Cousin, Marianne; Pélissier, Michel; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P

    2014-01-01

    Plant protection spray treatments may expose non-target organisms to pesticides. In the pesticide registration procedure, the honey bee represents one of the non-target model species for which the risk posed by pesticides must be assessed on the basis of the hazard quotient (HQ). The HQ is defined as the ratio between environmental exposure and toxicity. For the honey bee, the HQ calculation is not consistent because it corresponds to the ratio between the pesticide field rate (in mass of pesticide/ha) and LD50 (in mass of pesticide/bee). Thus, in contrast to all other species, the HQ can only be interpreted empirically because it corresponds to a number of bees/ha. This type of HQ calculation is due to the difficulty in transforming pesticide field rates into doses to which bees are exposed. In this study, we used a pragmatic approach to determine the apparent exposure surface area of honey bees submitted to pesticide treatments by spraying with a Potter-type tower. The doses received by the bees were quantified by very efficient chemical analyses, which enabled us to determine an apparent surface area of 1.05 cm(2)/bee. The apparent surface area was used to calculate the exposure levels of bees submitted to pesticide sprays and then to revisit the HQ ratios with a calculation mode similar to that used for all other living species. X-tomography was used to assess the physical surface area of a bee, which was 3.27 cm(2)/bee, and showed that the apparent exposure surface was not overestimated. The control experiments showed that the toxicity induced by doses calculated with the exposure surface area was similar to that induced by treatments according to the European testing procedure. This new approach to measure risk is more accurate and could become a tool to aid the decision-making process in the risk assessment of pesticides.

  10. A Pragmatic Approach to Assess the Exposure of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) When Subjected to Pesticide Spray

    PubMed Central

    Poquet, Yannick; Bodin, Laurent; Tchamitchian, Marc; Fusellier, Marion; Giroud, Barbara; Lafay, Florent; Buleté, Audrey; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Cousin, Marianne; Pélissier, Michel; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P.

    2014-01-01

    Plant protection spray treatments may expose non-target organisms to pesticides. In the pesticide registration procedure, the honey bee represents one of the non-target model species for which the risk posed by pesticides must be assessed on the basis of the hazard quotient (HQ). The HQ is defined as the ratio between environmental exposure and toxicity. For the honey bee, the HQ calculation is not consistent because it corresponds to the ratio between the pesticide field rate (in mass of pesticide/ha) and LD50 (in mass of pesticide/bee). Thus, in contrast to all other species, the HQ can only be interpreted empirically because it corresponds to a number of bees/ha. This type of HQ calculation is due to the difficulty in transforming pesticide field rates into doses to which bees are exposed. In this study, we used a pragmatic approach to determine the apparent exposure surface area of honey bees submitted to pesticide treatments by spraying with a Potter-type tower. The doses received by the bees were quantified by very efficient chemical analyses, which enabled us to determine an apparent surface area of 1.05 cm2/bee. The apparent surface area was used to calculate the exposure levels of bees submitted to pesticide sprays and then to revisit the HQ ratios with a calculation mode similar to that used for all other living species. X-tomography was used to assess the physical surface area of a bee, which was 3.27 cm2/bee, and showed that the apparent exposure surface was not overestimated. The control experiments showed that the toxicity induced by doses calculated with the exposure surface area was similar to that induced by treatments according to the European testing procedure. This new approach to measure risk is more accurate and could become a tool to aid the decision-making process in the risk assessment of pesticides. PMID:25412103

  11. Using Landsat satellite data to support pesticide exposure assessment in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, Susan K.; Airola, Matthew; Nuckols, John R.

    2010-01-01

    We found the combination of Landsat 5 and 7 image data would clearly benefit pesticide exposure assessment in this region by 1) providing information on crop field conditions at or near the time when pesticides are applied, and 2) providing information for validating the CDWR map. The Landsat image time-series was useful for identifying idle, single-, and multi-cropped fields. Landsat data will be limited during the winter months due to cloud cover, and for years prior to the Landsat 7 launch (1999) when only one satellite was operational at any given time. We suggest additional research to determine the feasibility of integrating CDWR land use maps and Landsat data to derive crop maps in locations and time periods where maps are not available, which will allow for substantial improvements to chemical exposure estimation.

  12. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  13. The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Shannon L.; Vyas, Nimish B.; Christman, Mary C.

    2014-02-01

    Field studies of pesticide effects on birds often utilize indicator species with the purpose of extrapolating to other avian taxa. Little guidance exists for choosing indicator species to monitor the presence and/or effects of contaminants that are labile in the environment or body, but are acutely toxic, such as anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides. Use of an indicator species that does not represent maximum exposure and/or effects could lead to inaccurate risk estimates. Our objective was to test the relevance of a priori selection of indicator species for a study on pesticide exposure to birds inhabiting fruit orchards. We used total plasma ChE activity and ChE reactivation to describe the variability in anti-ChE pesticide exposure among avian species in two conventionally managed fruit orchards. Of seven species included in statistical analyses, the less common species, chipping sparrow ( Spizella passerina), showed the greatest percentage of exposed individuals and the greatest ChE depression, whereas the two most common species, American robins ( Turdus migratorius) and gray catbirds ( Dumatella carolinensis), did not show significant exposure. Due to their lower abundance, chipping sparrows would have been an unlikely choice for study. Our results show that selection of indicator species using traditionally accepted criteria such as abundance and ease of collection may not identify species that are at greatest risk. Our efforts also demonstrate the usefulness of conducting multiple-species pilot studies prior to initiating detailed studies on pesticide effects. A study such as ours can help focus research and resources on study species that are most appropriate.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Pesticide Exposure Downstream of a Heavily Irrigated Cropping Area: Application of Different Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Dominique; Lewis, Stephen; Davis, Aaron; Gallen, Christie; Smith, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Warne, Michael; Turner, Scott; Caswell, Stewart; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon

    2016-05-25

    Pesticide exposure threatens many freshwater and estuarine ecosystems around the world. This study examined the temporal and spatial trends of pesticide concentrations in a waterway within an agriculturally developed dry-tropics catchment using a combination of grab and passive sampling methods over a continuous two-year monitoring program. A total of 43 pesticide residues were detected with 7 pesticides exceeding ecologically relevant water quality guidelines/trigger values during the study period and 4 (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor) of these exceeding guidelines for several months. The presence and concentration of the pesticides in the stream coincided with seasonal variability in rainfall, harvest timing/cropping cycle, and management changes. The sampling approach used demonstrates that the application of these complementary sampling techniques (both grab and passive sampling methods) was effective in establishing pesticide usage patterns in upstream locations where application data are unavailable.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Pesticide Exposure Downstream of a Heavily Irrigated Cropping Area: Application of Different Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Dominique; Lewis, Stephen; Davis, Aaron; Gallen, Christie; Smith, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Warne, Michael; Turner, Scott; Caswell, Stewart; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon

    2016-05-25

    Pesticide exposure threatens many freshwater and estuarine ecosystems around the world. This study examined the temporal and spatial trends of pesticide concentrations in a waterway within an agriculturally developed dry-tropics catchment using a combination of grab and passive sampling methods over a continuous two-year monitoring program. A total of 43 pesticide residues were detected with 7 pesticides exceeding ecologically relevant water quality guidelines/trigger values during the study period and 4 (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor) of these exceeding guidelines for several months. The presence and concentration of the pesticides in the stream coincided with seasonal variability in rainfall, harvest timing/cropping cycle, and management changes. The sampling approach used demonstrates that the application of these complementary sampling techniques (both grab and passive sampling methods) was effective in establishing pesticide usage patterns in upstream locations where application data are unavailable. PMID:26755130

  16. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures.

    PubMed

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Reeves, Alison M; Anderson, Troy D; Rodrigues, Richard R; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation. PMID:27579024

  17. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures.

    PubMed

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Reeves, Alison M; Anderson, Troy D; Rodrigues, Richard R; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation.

  18. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L.; Reeves, Alison M.; Anderson, Troy D.; Rodrigues, Richard R.; Williams, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2–V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation. PMID:27579024

  19. Environmental monitoring of pesticide exposure and effects on mangrove aquatic organisms of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Scarlet, Perpetua; Halling, Maja; Kreuger, Jenny; Macia, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides in Mozambique is increasing along with the development of agriculture in the country. Mangroves along the coastlines are ecologically important areas and vital nursing grounds for many aquatic species, several of which are of high economic value in Mozambique. Barred mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus), Jarbua fish (Terapon jarbua), Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus) and the clam Meretrix meretrix were collected at three mangrove sites in the Maputo Bay area. This was complemented with samplings of the freshwater fish Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), which was collected from three sampling sites along rivers in the surroundings of Maputo and from three sites along the Olifants and Limpopo River. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is an established biomarker for organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, was measured in brain and liver tissue in fish, and hepatopancreas tissue in prawn and clam. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was also analyzed. Freshwater samples for pesticide analyses were collected in order to get an initial understanding of the classes and levels of pesticides present in aquatic systems in Mozambique. In addition to field samplings two 48-h exposure experiments were also conducted where the Indian white prawn and Barred mudskipper were exposed to malathion, and Mozambique tilapia exposed to malathion and diazinon. Field results show a significant decrease in AChE activity in fish from four of the sampling sites suggesting that pesticides present in water could be one stressor potentially affecting aquatic organisms negatively. The 48 h exposure experiment results showed a clear dose-response relationship of AChE activity in mudskipper and tilapia suggesting these species as suitable as sentinel species in environmental studies. PMID:27422103

  20. Exposure to pesticides and cryptorchidism: geographical evidence of a possible association.

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, J; García-Martín, M; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; de Dios Luna-del-Castillo, J; Espigares García, M; Olea, N; Lardelli-Claret, P

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic hormone-disrupting chemicals may play a role in the increased frequency of cryptorchidism observed in some studies. We used a spatial ecological design to search for variations in orchidopexy rates in the province of Granada in Spain and to search for relationships between these differences and geographical variations in exposure to pesticides. Orchidopexy rates were estimated for the period from 1980 to 1991 in all municipalities and health care districts served by the University of Granada Hospital. A random sample of males of the same age (1-16 years) admitted for any reason during the same period was used to estimate inpatient control rates. Each municipality was assigned to one of four levels of pesticide use. We used Poisson homogeneity tests to detect significant differences in rates of orchidopexy between districts and between levels of pesticide use. Poisson and logistic regression models were also used to estimate the strength of association between orchidopexy and level of pesticide use. Orchidopexy rates tended to be higher in districts near the Mediterranean coast where intensive farming is widespread. The city of Granada, where the reference hospital is located, also had higher figures both for orchidopexy and inpatient control rates. Regression models showed that the strength of association between orchidopexy and level of pesticide use tended to increase with higher levels of use, with the exception of level 0 (mainly in the city of Granada). Our results are compatible with a hypothetical association between exposure to hormone-disruptive chemicals and the induction of cryptorchidism. Several methodological limitations in the design make it necessary to evaluate the results with caution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8930551

  1. Environmental monitoring of pesticide exposure and effects on mangrove aquatic organisms of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Scarlet, Perpetua; Halling, Maja; Kreuger, Jenny; Macia, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides in Mozambique is increasing along with the development of agriculture in the country. Mangroves along the coastlines are ecologically important areas and vital nursing grounds for many aquatic species, several of which are of high economic value in Mozambique. Barred mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus), Jarbua fish (Terapon jarbua), Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus) and the clam Meretrix meretrix were collected at three mangrove sites in the Maputo Bay area. This was complemented with samplings of the freshwater fish Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), which was collected from three sampling sites along rivers in the surroundings of Maputo and from three sites along the Olifants and Limpopo River. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is an established biomarker for organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, was measured in brain and liver tissue in fish, and hepatopancreas tissue in prawn and clam. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was also analyzed. Freshwater samples for pesticide analyses were collected in order to get an initial understanding of the classes and levels of pesticides present in aquatic systems in Mozambique. In addition to field samplings two 48-h exposure experiments were also conducted where the Indian white prawn and Barred mudskipper were exposed to malathion, and Mozambique tilapia exposed to malathion and diazinon. Field results show a significant decrease in AChE activity in fish from four of the sampling sites suggesting that pesticides present in water could be one stressor potentially affecting aquatic organisms negatively. The 48 h exposure experiment results showed a clear dose-response relationship of AChE activity in mudskipper and tilapia suggesting these species as suitable as sentinel species in environmental studies.

  2. Pesticide exposure assessment in rice paddies in Europe: a comparative study of existing mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Cervelli, Stefano; Watanabe, Hirozumi; Capri, Ettore; Ferrero, Aldo

    2006-07-01

    A comparative test was undertaken in order to identify the potential of existing mathematical models, including the rice water quality (RICEWQ) 1.6.4v model, the pesticide concentration in paddy field (PCPF-1) model and the surface water and groundwater (SWAGW) model, for calculating pesticide dissipation and exposure in rice paddies in Europe. Previous versions of RICEWQ and PCPF-1 models had been validated under European and Japanese conditions respectively, unlike the SWAGW model which was only recently developed as a tier-2 modelling tool. Two datasets, derived from field dissipation studies undertaken in northern Italy with the herbicides cinosulfuron and pretilachlor, were used for the modelling exercise. All models were parameterized according to field experimentations, as far as possible, considering their individual deficiencies. Models were not calibrated against field data in order to remove bias in the comparison of the results. RICEWQ 1.6.4v provided the highest agreement between measured and predicted pesticide concentrations in both paddy water and paddy soil, with modelling efficiency (EF) values ranging from 0.78 to 0.93. PCPF-1 simulated well the dissipation of herbicides in paddy water, but significantly underestimated the concentrations of pretilachlor, a chemical with high affinity for soil sorption, in paddy soil. SWAGW simulated relatively well the dissipation of both herbicides in paddy water, and especially pretilachlor, but failed to predict closely the pesticide dissipation in paddy soil. Both RICEWQ and SWAGW provided low groundwater (GW) predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), suggesting a low risk of GW contamination for the two herbicides. Overall, this modelling exercise suggested that RICEWQ 1.6.4v is currently the most reliable model for higher-tier exposure assessment in rice paddies in Europe. PCPF-1 and SWAGW showed promising results, but further adjustments are required before these models can be considered as strong

  3. Childhood Brain Tumors, Residential Insecticide Exposure, and Pesticide Metabolism Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Susan Searles; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Farin, Federico M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Preston-Martin, Susan; Mueller, Beth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Insecticides that target the nervous system may play a role in the development of childhood brain tumors (CBTs). Constitutive genetic variation affects metabolism of these chemicals. Methods We analyzed population-based case–control data to examine whether CBT is associated with the functional genetic polymorphisms PON1C–108T, PON1Q192R, PON1L55M, BCHEA539T, FMO1C–9536A, FMO3E158K, ALDH3A1S134A, and GSTT1 (null). DNA was obtained from newborn screening archives for 201 cases and 285 controls, ≤ 10 years of age, and born in California or Washington State between 1978 and 1990. Conception-to-diagnosis home insecticide treatment history was ascertained by interview. Results We observed no biologically plausible main effects for any of the metabolic polymorphisms with CBT risk. However, we observed strong interactions between genotype and insecticide exposure during childhood. Among exposed children, CBT risk increased per PON1–108T allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–3.0] and FMO1–9536A (*6) allele (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–5.9), whereas among children never exposed, CBT risk was not increased (PON1: OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5–1.0, interaction p = 0.005; FMO1: OR = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6–1.6, interaction p = 0.009). We observed a similar but statistically nonsignificant interaction between childhood exposure and BCHEA539T (interaction p = 0.08). These interactions were present among both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Conclusion Based on known effects of these variants, these results suggest that exposure in childhood to organophosphorus and perhaps to carbamate insecticides in combination with a reduced ability to detoxify them may be associated with CBT. Confirmation in other studies is required. PMID:20056567

  4. Exposure to pesticide mixtures and DNA damage among rice field workers.

    PubMed

    Varona-Uribe, Marcela Eugenia; Torres-Rey, Carlos H; Díaz-Criollo, Sonia; Palma-Parra, Ruth Marien; Narváez, Diana María; Carmona, Sandra Patricia; Briceño, Leonardo; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the use of pesticides mixtures and their potential association with comet assay results in 223 rice field workers in Colombia. Thirty-one pesticides were quantified in blood, serum, and urine (15 organochlorines, 10 organophosphorus, 5 carbamates, and ethylenethiourea), and the comet assay was performed. Twenty-four (77.42%) pesticides were present in the workers. The use of the maximum-likelihood factor analysis identified 8 different mixtures. Afterwards, robust regressions were used to explore associations between the factors identified and the comet assay. Two groups of mixtures--α-benzene hexachloride (α-BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and β-BHC (β: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33-2.10) and pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, bromophos-methyl, and bromophos-ethyl (β: 11.97, 95% CI: 2.34-21.60)--were associated with a higher percentage of DNA damage and comet tail length, respectively. The findings suggest that exposure to pesticides varies greatly among rice field workers. PMID:24972111

  5. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  6. Inhalation exposure of organophosphate pesticides by vegetable growers in the Bang-Rieng subdistrict in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jaipieam, Somsiri; Visuthismajarn, Parichart; Siriwong, Wattasit; Borjan, Marija; Robson, Mark G

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated inhalation exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and evaluated the associated health risks to vegetable growers living in the Bang-Rieng agricultural community. Air samples were collected by using personal sampling pumps with sorbent tubes placed in the vegetable growers' breathing zone. Samples were collected during both wet and dry seasons. Residues of organophosphate pesticides, that is, chlorpyrifos, dicrotofos, and profenofos, were analyzed from 33 vegetable growers and 17 reference subjects. Results showed that median concentrations of OPPs in air in farm areas were in the range of 0.022-0.056 mg/m(3) and air in nonfarm areas in the range of <0.0016-<0.005 mg/m(3). The concentration of the three pesticides in the vegetable growers was significantly higher than that of the references during both seasons. The results also indicate that the vegetable growers may be at risk for acute adverse effects via the inhalation of chlorpyrifos and dicrotofos during pesticide application, mixing, loading, and spraying. It is suggested that authorities and the community should implement appropriate strategies concerning risk reduction and risk management. PMID:20168980

  7. Population-Based Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Pesticides in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, J. Bryan; Kass, Daniel; Barr, Dana Boyd; Davis, Mark; Calafat, Antonia M.; Aldous, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Organophosphates and pyrethroids are the most common classes of insecticides used in the United States. Widespread use of these compounds to control building infestations in New York City (NYC) may have caused higher exposure than in less-urban settings. Objectives: The objectives of our study were to estimate pesticide exposure reference values for NYC and identify demographic and behavioral characteristics that predict exposures. Methods: The NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was a population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 2004 among adults ≥ 20 years of age. It measured urinary concentrations of organophosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate] in 883 participants, and pyrethroid metabolites [3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA), 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid] in 1,452 participants. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate least-squares geometric mean total dialkylphospate (ΣDAP) and 3-PBA concentrations across categories of predictors. Results: The dimethyl organophosphate metabolites had the highest 95th percentile concentrations (87.4 μg/L and 74.7 μg/L for DMP and DMTP, respectively). The highest 95th percentiles among pyrethroid metabolites were measured for 3-PBA and trans-DCCA (5.23 μg/L and 5.94 μg/L, respectively). Concentrations of ΣDAP increased with increasing age, non-Hispanic white or black compared with Hispanic race/ethnicity, professional pesticide use, and increasing frequency of fruit consumption; they decreased with non-green vegetable consumption. Absolute differences in geometric mean urinary 3-PBA concentrations across categories of predictors were too small to be meaningful. Conclusion: Estimates of exposure to

  8. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Krupke, Christian H; Hunt, Greg J; Eitzer, Brian D; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  9. Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krupke, Christian H.; Hunt, Greg J.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments. PMID

  10. Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Isling, Louise Krag; Christiansen, Sofie; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Berthelsen, Line Olrik; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2012-09-01

    There is growing concern of permanent damage to the endocrine and nervous systems after developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this study the permanent reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of combined exposure to five endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, were examined. Pregnant and lactating rat dams were dosed with a mixture of the five pesticides at three different doses, or with the individual pesticides at one of two doses. Adverse effects were observed in young and adult male offspring from the group exposed to the highest dose of the mixture. These included reduced prostate and epididymis weights, increased testes weights, altered prostate histopathology, increased density of mammary glands, reduced sperm counts, and decreased spatial learning. As no significant effects were seen following single compound exposure at the doses included in the highest mixture dose, these results indicate cumulative adverse effects of the pesticide mixture. PMID:22677472

  11. Pesticides, chemical and industrial exposures in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Parks, C G; De Roos, A J

    2014-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests exposure to chemicals and industrial pollutants may increase risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we review research on SLE associations with occupational and industrial exposures, primarily drawing on studies in human populations and summarizing epidemiologic research published in the past decade. The association of occupational silica exposure with SLE is well established, but key questions remain, including the required dose and susceptibility factors, and SLE risk due to other silicate exposures. Research on SLE and other exposures is less well developed, though several potential associations merit further consideration because of the consistency of preliminary human findings, experimental animal research, and biologic plausibility. These include pesticides and solvents, for which experimental findings also support investigation of specific agents, including organochlorines and trichloroethylene. Experimental findings and biologic plausibility suggest research on SLE and occupational exposure to hydrocarbons (i.e. mineral oils) is warranted, especially given the widespread exposures in the population. Experimental and limited human findings support further investigation of SLE related to mercury exposure, especially in dental occupations. Research on environmental risk factors in risk-enriched cohorts (family-based) is recommended, as is further investigation of exposures in relation to intermediate markers of effect (e.g. antinuclear antibodies), clinical features (e.g. nephritis), and outcomes.

  12. Pyrethroid pesticide exposure and risk of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guodong; Shi, Rong; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Kamijima, Michihiro; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Wang, Guoquan; Feng, Chao; Tian, Ying

    2012-12-18

    Significant amounts of pyrethroid pesticides are used throughout China. Previous studies have suggested that exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of childhood cancer; however, few studies have focused on pyrethroid metabolites. We investigated five nonspecific metabolites of pyrethroid pesticides found in children's urine and examined the correlation with childhood leukemia. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in Shanghai between 2010 and 2011. The study included 176 children aged 0-14 years and 180 controls matched for age and sex. Compared with those in the lowest quartiles of total and individual metabolites, the highest quartiles were associated with an approximate 2-fold increased risk of ALL [total metabolites: odds ratio (OR) = 2.75, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-5.29; cis-DCCA: OR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.16-4.19; trans-DCCA: OR = 2.33, 95% CI, 1.23-4.41; and 3-PBA: OR = 1.84, 95% CI, 1.00-3.38], and most of the positive trends were significant (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that urinary levels of pyrethroid metabolites may be associated with an elevated risk of childhood ALL and represent a previously unreported quantitative exposure assessment for childhood leukemia.

  13. Consumer exposure to pesticide residues in apples from the region of south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Kurdziel, Anna; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Grzegorzak, Magdalena; Matyaszek, Aneta

    2013-11-01

    The production of apples in Poland is the largest among the countries of the European Union, and therefore, the consumption of these fruits is high in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pesticide residues in Polish apples and to assess if these residues pose a risk to the health of the consumer. Furthermore, compliance with legal regulations concerning the use of plant protection products in crop cultivation was ascertained. Pesticide residues were found in 192 samples (61.5% of tested samples). In six samples (1.9%), residues exceeded maximum residue limits. Violations concerned the insecticides: indoxacarb, diazinon and fenitrothion. The highest long-term consumer exposure was found in the case of consumption of apples with diazinon residue for both groups, adults and toddlers [4% acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 21% ADI, toddlers]. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of apples with indoxacarb [5% acute reference dose (ARfD), adults; 27% ARfD, toddlers] and fenitrothion (4% ARfD, adults; 23% ARfD, toddlers). Although fungicides are the pesticides found most often in apples, the consumption of apples with insecticide residues constitutes the greatest hazard to human health.

  14. Pesticide exposure and endocrine dysfunction in the cotton crop agricultural workers of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dilshad A; Ahad, Karam; Ansari, Wafa M; Khan, Hizbullah

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated pesticide effects on reproductive and thyroid hormones of cotton farmers of southern Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 88 cotton farmers (42 spray applicators and 46 cotton pickers) were randomly included with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. Sampling was done in high spraying and peak picking seasons. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyroxine (TT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) were carried out by enzymatic immunoassay. Plasma cholinesterase (PChE) levels were measured by Ellman's method. Serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were significantly high in spray applicators (P < .01).Serum FSH and testosterone levels were significantly raised in cotton pickers (P < .01). Serum prolactin was decreased significantly in both groups (P < .01).Serum fT4 was significantly reduced in cotton pickers (P < .01). Pesticide exposure is associated with thyroid and reproductive hormone levels disturbance.

  15. Dermal Exposure Assessment to Pesticides in Farming Systems in Developing Countries: Comparison of Models

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM) were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analysis and from these results five models (i.e., DERM, DREAM, PHED, RISKOFDERM and PFAM) were selected for the assessment of dermal exposure in the case study of the potato farming system in the Andean highlands of Vereda La Hoya, Colombia. The results show that the models provide different dermal exposure estimations which are not comparable. However, because of the simplicity of the algorithm and the specificity of the determinants, the DERM, DREAM and PFAM models were found to be the most appropriate although their estimations might be more accurate if specific determinants are included for the case studies in developing countries. PMID:25938911

  16. Calibration and field application of passive sampling for episodic exposure to polar organic pesticides in streams.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Bandow, Nicole; Muñoz, Katherine; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-11-01

    Rainfall-triggered runoff is a major driver of pesticide input in streams. Only few studies have examined the suitability of passive sampling to quantify such episodic exposures. In this study, we used Empore™ styrene-divinylbenzene reverse phase sulfonated disks (SDB disks) and event-driven water samples (EDS) to assess exposure to 15 fungicides and 4 insecticides in 17 streams in a German vineyard area during 4 rainfall events. We also conducted a microcosm experiment to determine the SDB-disk sampling rates and provide a free-software solution to derive sampling rates under time-variable exposure. Sampling rates ranged from 0.26 to 0.77 L d(-1) and time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations from 0.05 to 2.11 μg/L. The 2 sampling systems were in good agreement and EDS exceeded TWA concentrations on average by a factor of 3. Our study demonstrates that passive sampling is suitable to quantify episodic exposures from polar organic pesticides.

  17. The influence of study species selection on estimates of pesticide exposure in free-ranging birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borges, Shannon L.; Vyas, Nimish B.; Christman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies of pesticide effects on birds often utilize indicator species with the purpose 16 of extrapolating to other avian taxa. Little guidance exists for choosing indicator species to 17 monitor the presence and/or effects of contaminants that are labile in the environment or body, 18 but are acutely toxic, such as anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides. Use of an indicator 19 species that does not represent maximum exposure and/or effects could lead to inaccurate risk 20 estimates. Our objective was to test the relevance of a priori selection of indicator species for a 21 study on pesticide exposure to birds inhabiting fruit orchards. We used total plasma 22 cholinesterase (ChE) activity and ChE reactivation to describe the variability in anti-ChE exposure among avian species in two conventionally managed fruit orchards. Of seven 24 species included in statistical analyses, the less common species, chipping sparrow (Spizella 25 passerina), showed the greatest percentage of exposed individuals and the greatest ChE 26 depression, whereas the two most common species, American robins (Turdus migratorius) and 27 grey catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), did not show significant exposure. Due to their lower 28 abundance, chipping sparrows would have been an unlikely choice for study. Our results show 29 that selection of indicator species using traditionally accepted criteria such as abundance and 30 ease of collection may not identify species that are at greatest risk. Our efforts also demonstrate 31 the usefulness of conducting multiple-species pilot studies prior to initiating detailed studies on 32 pesticide effects. A study such as ours can help focus research and resources on study species 33 that are most appropriate.

  18. Control of workers’ exposure to xylene in a pesticide production factory

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadyan, M; Baharfar, Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute and chronic exposure to xylene can result in a range of negative health effects. However, xylene is widely used and emitted in the air of workplaces. Objectives: To evaluate xylene vapor concentrations to guide the design and evaluation of a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system to reduce exposure in a pesticide production factory. Method: A real time volatile organic compound (VOC) monitor was used to determine the workers’ time-weighted average (TWA) exposure. A LEV system was designed, and then, workers’ exposure to xylene vapor was evaluated. Results: We found that worker’s exposure to xylene (4.7±5.5 ppm) was lower than the standards recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and the Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA). Despite the low TWA exposures, the short-term exposures for some workers were higher than STEL levels. Three canopy hoods were designed and installed with capture velocities of 0.508 m second−1 and duct velocity of 10.16 m second−1. Conclusion: We found that an exhaust ventilation system had a significantly reduced occupational exposure to xylene vapor. PMID:25487643

  19. Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, I L; Bernstein, J A; Miller, M; Tierzieva, S; Bernstein, D I; Lummus, Z; Selgrade, M K; Doerfler, D L; Seligy, V L

    1999-01-01

    Although health risks to pesticides containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been minimal, the potential allergenicity of these organisms has not been evaluated. Therefore, a health survey was conducted in farm workers before and after exposure to Bt pesticides. Farm workers who picked vegetables that required Bt pesticide spraying were evaluated before the initial spraying operation (n = 48) and 1 and 4 months after (n = 32 and 20, respectively). Two groups of low- (n = 44) and medium- (n = 34) exposure workers not directly exposed to Bt spraying were also assessed. The investigation included questionnaires, nasal/mouth lavages, ventilatory function assessment, and skin tests to indigenous aeroallergens and to a variety of Bt spore and vegetative preparations. To authenticate exposure to the organism present in the commercial preparation, isolates from lavage specimens were tested for Bt genes by DNA-DNA hybridization. Humoral immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to spore and vegetative Bt extracts were assayed. There was no evidence of occupationally related respiratory symptoms. Positive skin-prick tests to several spore extracts were seen chiefly in exposed workers. In particular, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the number of positive skin tests to spore extracts 1 and 4 months after exposure to Bt spray. The number of positive skin test responses was also significantly higher in high (p < 0.05) than in low- or medium-exposure workers. The majority of nasal lavage cultures from exposed workers was positive for the commercial Bt organism, as demonstrated by specific molecular genetic probes. Specific IgE antibodies were present in more high-exposure workers (p < 0.05) than in the low and medium groups. Specific IgG antibodies occurred more in the high (p < 0.05) than in the low-exposure group. Specific IgG and IgE antibodies to vegetative organisms were present in all groups of workers. Exposure to Bt sprays may

  20. Portable Analytical Systems for On-Site Diagnosis of Exposure to Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Chuck

    2009-12-01

    In this chapter, we summarize recent work in our laboratory on the development of sensitive portable analytical systems for use in on-site detection of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and chemical nerve agents. These systems are based on various nanomaterials functioning as transducers; recognition agents or labels and various elelectrochemical/immunoassay techniques. The studied nanomaterials included functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT), zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs). Three biomarkers e.g. the free OPs, metabolites of OPs and protein-OP adducts in biological matrices have been employed for biomonitoring of OP exposure with our developed system. It has been found that the nanomaterial-based portable analytical systems have high sensitivity for the detection of the biomarkers, which suggest that these technologies offer great promise for the rapid and on-site detection and evaluation of OP exposure.

  1. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450s and chlorinated hydrocarbons in largha and ribbon seals from Hokkaido, Japan: differential response of seal species to Ah receptor agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Issei; Sakakibara, Akihito; Iwata, T Hisato; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Akahori, Fumiaki; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2002-04-01

    From 16 largha seals (Phoca largha) and 15 ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata) in the coastal waters of Hokkaido, Japan, blubber chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) levels and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) catalytic activities and their immunochemically detected protein content levels were measured. Concentrations of DDTs (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene,p,p'-DDE; 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane, p,p'-DDD; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, p,p'-DDT), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and chlordane compounds (oxychlordane, chlordanes, and nonachlors) in both species were in the range of 290 to 5,300, 420 to 4,000, and 130 to 1,500 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, non-ortho (IUPAC 77 and 126) and mono-ortho (IUPAC 105, 118, and 156) coplanar PCB congeners, were also detected, and the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4.9 to 120 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. Cross-reactive proteins with polyclonal antibodies against rat CYP1A1 and CYP3A2 were notably detected in seal liver microsomes. Interestingly, a polyclonal antibody against rat CYP2B1 recognized proteins only at trace levels. In largha seals, both levels of alkoxyresorufin- (methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxy-, and benzyloxyresorufin) O-dealkylase (AROD) activities and proteins detected by polyclonal antibodies against rat CYP1A1 were significantly correlated with the concentrations of individual coplanar PCB congeners, total TEQs, and total PCBs. Threshold concentrations for TEQs in blubber of the largha seal to induce hepatic CYP1A protein and EROD activity were estimated to be 8.5 and 19 pg TEQ/g fat weight, respectively. In ribbon seals, similar correlations were not detected, although the TEQ levels were not significantly lower than those in largha seals. These results suggest that AROD activity and CYP1A1 protein in the liver of the largha seal could be a biomarker for the exposure to AhR agonists such as coplanar PCB

  2. Risk assessment of bioaccessible organochlorine pesticides exposure via indoor and outdoor dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-Juan; Wu, Fu-Yong; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Dust, enriched by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), was defined as a new route of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) exposure, especially for children. Chemical analyses showed the medians of ∑OCPs were 171 (outdoor) and 520 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Guangzhou (GZ) while 130 (outdoor) and 115 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Hong Kong (HK). Significantly higher accumulative effect of OCPs occurred in the size fractions of <63 and 63-100 μm than 100-280 and 280-2000 μm, therefore 0-100 μm dust particles were used for risk evaluation. Different cytotoxic effects on human hepatocellular live carcinoma cell (HepG2) and human skin keratinocyte cell line (KERTr) were found for extracts of indoor dust and outdoor dust from different functional areas. For total exposure (dust and food), OCPs intake via dust was low for adults (accounting for 0.16-3.78% of total exposure), while for children it was high (8.16-24.4% of total exposure). Non-carcinogenic OCPs exposure via dust was safe for adults; however DDT and Dieldrin exposure for children was higher than Reference Dose (RfD). The cancer risk related to indoor dust exposure for GZ and HK was moderate, below 10-4, while 42% of residences in GZ should be of concern (10-5). However, when bioaccessible OCPs used, daily intake and health risk were found to be greatly lower than the estimates without considering bioaccessibility.

  3. Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Dearry, A

    2001-06-01

    The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The articles in this collection are based on a workshop convened at the 1999 American Public Health Association meeting. The goals in presenting this collection are to provide those endeavoring to initiate CBPR projects needed information, guidelines, and procedures to improve the quality of the CBPR experience; to increase the scientific validity of CBPR projects; and to reduce the potential difficulties and stress of these collaborations. In this introduction we discuss the context in which these projects operate, summarizing background information about farmworkers in the United States, what is known about farmworker pesticide exposure, and the concept of community-based participatory research. Finally, the articles in this collection are summarized, and major themes common to successful CBPR projects are identified. These common features are taking the time to interact with the community, using multiple approaches to engage the different parts of the community, understanding different participants often have different goals, appreciating each group's strengths, valuing community knowledge, and being flexible and creative in conducting research. The final article in this collection describes the translational research program at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) highlighting activities pertinent to the health of rural communities, giving an overview of NIEHS-supported projects addressing health concerns of Native Americans

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Maryse F.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Vedar, Michelle; Calderon, Norma; Trujillo, Celina; Johnson, Caroline; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Context: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children’s cognitive development. Objective: We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to OP pesticides and cognitive abilities in school-age children. Methods: We conducted a birth cohort study (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study) among predominantly Latino farmworker families from an agricultural community in California. We assessed exposure to OP pesticides by measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine collected during pregnancy and from children at 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, to 329 children 7 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education and intelligence, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score, and language of cognitive assessment. Results: Urinary DAP concentrations measured during the first and second half of pregnancy had similar relations to cognitive scores, so we used the average of concentrations measured during pregnancy in further analyses. Averaged maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for Working Memory, Processing Speed, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Children in the highest quintile of maternal DAP concentrations had an average deficit of 7.0 IQ points compared with those in the lowest quintile. However, children’s urinary DAP concentrations were not consistently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Prenatal but not postnatal urinary DAP concentrations were associated with poorer intellectual development in 7-year-old children. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations in the present study were higher but nonetheless within the range of levels measured in the general U.S. population. PMID:21507776

  5. Association between organochlorine pesticide exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that exposure to DDT may be related to changes in thyroid hormone levels in animals and humans, even though results across studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to p,p'-DDE (a stable metabolite of DDT) and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the States of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, who were occupationally exposed to pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine serum levels of TSH, total T3, total T4, and p,p'-DDE, and metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (OP), respectively. The analysis of the associations between p,p'-DDE levels and thyroid hormone profile adjusting by potential confounding variables including urinary OP metabolites was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed that the geometric means of p,p'-DDE levels were 6.17 ng/ml and 4.71 ng/ml in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. We observed positive associations between the serum levels of p,p'-DDE and those of total T3 (β=0.01, 95% CI: -0.009, 0.03), and total T4 (β=0.08, 95% CI:0.03, 0.14) and negative but no significant changes in TSH in male floricultural workers, supporting the hypothesis that acts as thyroid disruptor in humans. PMID:27344267

  6. Using Landsat satellite data to support pesticide exposure assessment in California

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The recent U.S. Geological Survey policy offering Landsat satellite data at no cost provides researchers new opportunities to explore relationships between environment and health. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for using Landsat satellite data to support pesticide exposure assessment in California. Methods and Results We collected a dense time series of 24 Landsat 5 and 7 images spanning the year 2000 for an agricultural region in Fresno County. We intersected the Landsat time series with the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) land use map and selected field samples to define the phenological characteristics of 17 major crop types or crop groups. We found the frequent overpass of Landsat enabled detection of crop field conditions (e.g., bare soil, vegetated) over most of the year. However, images were limited during the winter months due to cloud cover. Many samples designated as single-cropped in the CDWR map had phenological patterns that represented multi-cropped or non-cropped fields, indicating they may have been misclassified. Conclusions We found the combination of Landsat 5 and 7 image data would clearly benefit pesticide exposure assessment in this region by 1) providing information on crop field conditions at or near the time when pesticides are applied, and 2) providing information for validating the CDWR map. The Landsat image time-series was useful for identifying idle, single-, and multi-cropped fields. Landsat data will be limited during the winter months due to cloud cover, and for years prior to the Landsat 7 launch (1999) when only one satellite was operational at any given time. We suggest additional research to determine the feasibility of integrating CDWR land use maps and Landsat data to derive crop maps in locations and time periods where maps are not available, which will allow for substantial improvements to chemical exposure estimation. PMID:20846438

  7. EUROPOEM, a predictive occupational exposure database for registration purposes of pesticides.

    PubMed

    van Hemmen, J J

    2001-02-01

    For registration of agricultural pesticides, the risks for humans, animals, and the environment must be determined. The risk assessment is based on an appraisal of the levels of exposure and the hazards of the active substance(s) in the plant protection product, that is, the agricultural pesticide. Funded by the European Commission (AIR3 CT93-1370), the EUROPOEM database has been developed by a group of experts, representing governments, industry, and academia. The currently available exposure database reflects exposure to operators (mixer/loaders and applicators). The EUROPOEM approach is based on a harmonized protocol for conduct of field studies of operator exposure (presently published as an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] Guidance Document) and a tiered approach to exposure and risk assessment. The database is constructed from exposure data obtained in representative field studies. These field studies are considered according to criteria reflecting the quality of documentation, study design, adequate methodology, number of replicates, and QA/QC elements, for use of the inhalation and dermal exposure data. The resulting exposure data were combined according to comparable use scenarios. From the resulting databases typical surrogate potential exposure values have been obtained, which are determined by their use for either acute or chronic health effects, and the size of the database. For large databases (over 50-100 data points), from many different field studies (10 or more), the 75th percentile is taken if the exposure is considered leading to chronic effects. For smaller databases, a more conservative 90th percentile is taken as surrogate value, or none at all for very small databases (15-20 or less data points from 3 or less different field studies). The choice for the 75th percentile is based on the assumed or observed lognormal distribution of the exposure data, as being the most relevant typical value for long-term effects

  8. A community-based participatory worksite intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers and their families.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Alicia L; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Camacho, José; López, Jesús; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Minkler, Meredith; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2009-11-01

    We evaluated a community-based participatory research worksite intervention intended to improve farmworkers' behaviors at work and after work to reduce occupational and take-home pesticide exposures. The workers received warm water and soap for hand washing, gloves, coveralls, and education. Self-reported assessments before and after the intervention revealed that glove use, wearing clean work clothes, and hand washing at the midday break and before going home improved significantly. Some behaviors, such as hand washing before eating and many targeted after-work behaviors, did not improve, indicating a need for additional intervention. PMID:19890160

  9. Early-life Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Pediatric Respiratory Symptoms in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Balmes, John R.; Bradman, Asa; Lipsett, Michael; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pesticide use is widespread, the possible effect of early-life exposure to organophosphate (OP) on pediatric respiratory health is not well described. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between early-life exposure to OPs and respiratory outcomes. Methods: Participants included 359 mothers and children from the CHAMACOS birth cohort. Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, specifically diethyl (DE) and dimethyl (DM) phosphate metabolites, were measured in urine from mothers twice during pregnancy (mean = 13 and 26 weeks gestation) and from children five times during childhood (0.5–5 years). Childhood DAP concentrations were estimated by the area under curve (AUC). Mothers reported their child’s respiratory symptoms at 5 and 7 years of age. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine associations of prenatal and childhood DAP concentrations with repeated measures of respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing at 5 and 7 years of age, adjusting for child’s sex and age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand tobacco smoke, season of birth, PM2.5, breastfeeding, mold and cockroaches in home, and distance from highway. Results: Higher prenatal DAP concentrations, particularly DE, were nonsignificantly associated with respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10-fold increase = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.12]. This association was strongest with total DAP and DE from the second half of pregnancy (aOR per 10-fold increase = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.95; and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.39, respectively). Childhood DAP, DE, and DM concentrations were associated with respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age (total DAPs: aOR per 10-fold increase = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.86; and aOR = 5.40; 95% CI: 2.10, 13.91, respectively). Conclusions: Early-life exposure to OP pesticides was associated with

  10. Changes in antioxidant enzymes in humans with long-term exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    López, Olga; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Gil, Fernando; Pena, Gloria; Serrano, José Luis; Parrón, Tesifón; Villanueva, Enrique; Pla, Antonio

    2007-07-10

    Different pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), have been reported to induce oxidative stress due to generation of free radicals and alteration in antioxidant defence mechanisms. In this study, a cohort of 81 intensive agriculture workers (pesticide sprayers) was assessed twice during the course of a spraying season for changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was used as a reference biomarker. Sprayers presented lower levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) as compared to controls independently of age, BMI, smoking habit or alcohol consumption. A positive correlation between SOD and AChE was observed at the high exposure period. Those individuals with a decrease in AChE greater than 15% exhibited lower SOD and catalase (CAT) activities at the same period. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) remained unaffected in the exposed population. Paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphism influenced erythrocyte CAT and GR, as subjects with the R allele presented lower CAT and higher GR levels. Whether or not the decreased enzyme activities found in this study are linked to the adverse health effects related to chronic pesticide toxicity (in which oxidative damage plays a pathophysiological role, such as cancer or neurodegenerative disorders) is an attractive hypothesis that warrants further investigation. PMID:17590542

  11. Occupational exposure of workers to pesticides: Toxicogenetics and susceptibility gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Adad, Lúcia Maria de Miranda; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues; Kvitko, Kátia; Lehmann, Mauricio; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Farm workers are often exposed to pesticides, which are products belonging to a specific chemical group that affects the health of agricultural workers and is mostly recognized as genotoxic and carcinogenic. The exposure of workers from Piauí, Brazil, to these hazardous chemicals was assessed and cytogenetic alterations were evaluated using the buccal micronucleus assay, hematological and lipid parameters, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides, such as PON1, as well as of the DNA repair system (OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC4). Two groups of farm workers exposed to different types of pesticides were evaluated and compared to matched non-exposed control groups. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of micronuclei, kariorrhexis, karyolysis and binucleated cells in the exposed groups (n = 100) compared to controls (n = 100). No differences were detected regarding the hematological parameters, lipid profile and BChE activity. No significant difference was observed either regarding DNA damage or nuclear fragmentation when specific metabolizing and DNA repair genotypes were investigated in the exposed groups.

  12. Occupational exposure of workers to pesticides: Toxicogenetics and susceptibility gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Adad, Lúcia Maria de Miranda; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues; Kvitko, Kátia; Lehmann, Mauricio; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Farm workers are often exposed to pesticides, which are products belonging to a specific chemical group that affects the health of agricultural workers and is mostly recognized as genotoxic and carcinogenic. The exposure of workers from Piauí, Brazil, to these hazardous chemicals was assessed and cytogenetic alterations were evaluated using the buccal micronucleus assay, hematological and lipid parameters, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides, such as PON1, as well as of the DNA repair system (OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC4). Two groups of farm workers exposed to different types of pesticides were evaluated and compared to matched non-exposed control groups. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of micronuclei, kariorrhexis, karyolysis and binucleated cells in the exposed groups (n = 100) compared to controls (n = 100). No differences were detected regarding the hematological parameters, lipid profile and BChE activity. No significant difference was observed either regarding DNA damage or nuclear fragmentation when specific metabolizing and DNA repair genotypes were investigated in the exposed groups. PMID:26500434

  13. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Residential Proximity to Nearby Fields: Evidence for the Drift Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Holte, Sarah; Vigoren, Eric; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine; Thompson, Beti

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Residential proximity to pesticide-treated farmland is an important pesticide exposure pathway. Methods In-person interviews and biological samples were collected from 100 farmworker and 100 non-farmworker adults and children living in Eastern Washington State. We examined the relationship of residential proximity to farmland to urinary metabolite concentrations of dimethylphosphate (DMTP) and levels of pesticide residues in house dust. Results DMTP concentrations were higher in farmworkers than non-farmworkers (71 μg/L vs 6 μg/L) and in farmworker children than non-farmworker children (17 μg/L vs 8 μg/L). Compared to non-farmworker households, farmworker households had higher levels of azinphos-methyl (643 ng/g vs 121 ng/g) and phosmet (153 ng/g vs 50 ng/g). Overall, a 20% reduction in DMTP concentration was observed per mile increase in distance from farmland. Conclusions Lower OP metabolite concentrations correlated with increasing distance from farmland. PMID:21775902

  14. Predictors of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Quezada, Maria Teresa; Iglesias, Verónica; Lucero, Boris; Steenland, Kyle; Barr, Dana Boyd; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P. Barry; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background Few data exist in Latin America concerning the association between organophosphate (OP) urinary metabolites and the consumption of fruits and vegetables and other exposure risk variables in schoolchildren. Methods We collected samples of urine from 190 Chilean children aged 6-12 years, fruits and vegetables, water and soil from schools and homes, and sociodemographic data through a questionnaire. We measured urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) OP metabolites and OP pesticide residues in food consumed by these 190 children during two seasons: December 2010 (summer) and May 2011(fall). We analyzed the relationship between urinary DAP concentrations and pesticide residues in food, home pesticide use, and residential location. Results Diethylalkylphosphates (DEAP) and dimethylalkylphosphates (DMAP) were detected in urine in 76% and 27% of samples, respectively. Factors associated with urinary DEAP included chlorpyrifos in consumed fruits (p<0.0001), urinary creatinine (p<0.0001), rural residence (p=0.02) and age less than 9 years (p=0.004). Factors associated with urinary DMAP included the presence of phosmet residues in fruits (p<0.0001), close proximity to a farm (p=0.002), home fenitrothion use (p=0.009), and season (p<0.0001). Conclusions Urinary DAP levels in Chilean school children were high compared previously reported studies. The presence of chlorpyrifos and phosmet residues in fruits was the major factor predicting urinary DAP metabolite concentrations in children. PMID:22732215

  15. Household Exposure to Pesticides and Risk of Childhood Hematopoietic Malignancies: The ESCALE Study (SFCE)

    PubMed Central

    Rudant, Jérémie; Menegaux, Florence; Leverger, Guy; Baruchel, André; Nelken, Brigitte; Bertrand, Yves; Patte, Catherine; Pacquement, Hélène; Vérité, Cécile; Robert, Alain; Michel, Gérard; Margueritte, Geneviève; Gandemer, Virginie; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the role of household exposure to pesticides in the etiology of childhood hematopoietic malignancies. Methods The national registry-based case–control study ESCALE (Etude sur les cancers de l’enfant) was carried out in France over the period 2003–2004. Population controls were frequency matched with the cases on age and sex. Maternal household use of pesticides during pregnancy and paternal use during pregnancy or childhood were reported by the mothers in a structured telephone questionnaire. Insecticides (used at home, on pets, or for garden crops), herbicides, and fungicides were distinguished. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) using unconditional regression models closely adjusting for age, sex, degree of urbanization, and type of housing (flat or house). Results We included a total of 764 cases of acute leukemia (AL), 130 of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 166 of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and 1,681 controls. Insecticide use during pregnancy was significantly associated with childhood AL [OR = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7–2.5], both lymphoblastic and myeloblastic, NHL (OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.6), mainly for Burkitt lymphoma (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6–4.5), and mixed-cell HL (OR = 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4–11.8), but not nodular sclerosis HL (OR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6–1.9). Paternal household use of pesticides was also related to AL (OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2–1.8) and NHL (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2–2.6); but for AL the relationships did not remain after adjustment for maternal pesticide use during pregnancy. Conclusion The study findings strengthen the hypothesis that domestic use of pesticides may play a role in the etiology of childhood hematopoietic malignancies. The consistency of the findings with those of previous studies on AL raises the question of the advisability of preventing pesticide use by pregnant women. PMID:18087601

  16. Influence of exposure to pesticides on serum components and enzyme activities of cytotoxicity among intensive agriculture farmers.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio F; Amparo Gómez, M; Pérez, Vidal; García-Lario, Jose V; Pena, Gloria; Gil, Fernando; López, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Pino, Guadalupe; Pla, Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Although the effects of acute pesticide poisoning are well known for the pesticides most currently used, hardly any data exist on health effects after long-term low-dose exposures. Major unresolved issues include the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning. The increased utilization of pesticides other than organophosphates makes it even more difficult to find associations. In this study a cohort of 106 intensive agriculture workers were assessed twice during the course of a spraying season for changes in serum biochemistry, namely enzymes reflecting cytotoxicity (AST, ALT, LDH, CK, and amino-oxidase) and other biochemical parameters, such as markers of nephrotoxicity (urea, creatinine) and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides). Several criteria for estimating pesticide exposure were used, the most important one being serum cholinesterase depression greater than 25% from baseline to peak exposure. Our results revealed an association of pesticide exposure with changes in AST (increased activity), LDH, and amino-oxidase (decreased activity) as well as with changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus (lower and higher levels, respectively). These results provide support for a very slight impairment of the liver function, but overall these findings are consistent with no clinically significant hepatotoxicity. Intriguingly, paraoxonase-1 R allele was found to be an independent predictor of higher rates of AST and lower rates of amino-oxidase, so that it may play a supporting role as an individual marker of susceptibility on pesticide-induced health effects. In conclusion, different biomarkers might be used to detect early biochemical effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. PMID:16620808

  17. Association of in Utero Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Fetal Growth and Length of Gestation in an Agricultural Population

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Weltzien, Erin; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Barr, Dana B.; Furlong, Clement E.; Holland, Nina T.

    2004-01-01

    Although pesticide use is widespread, little is known about potential adverse health effects of in utero exposure. We investigated the effects of organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and gestational duration in a cohort of low-income, Latina women living in an agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We measured nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates) and metabolites specific to malathion (malathion dicarboxylic acid), chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphoro-thioate], and parathion (4-nitrophenol) in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy. We also measured levels of cholinesterase in whole blood and butyryl cholinesterase in plasma in maternal and umbilical cord blood. We failed to demonstrate an adverse relationship between fetal growth and any measure of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure. In fact, we found increases in body length and head circumference associated with some exposure measures. However, we did find decreases in gestational duration associated with two measures of in utero pesticide exposure: urinary dimethyl phosphate metabolites [βadjusted = −0.41 weeks per log10 unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.75–−0.02; p = 0.02], which reflect exposure to dimethyl organophosphate compounds such as malathion, and umbilical cord cholinesterase (βadjusted = 0.34 weeks per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.13–0.55; p = 0.001). Shortened gestational duration was most clearly related to increasing exposure levels in the latter part of pregnancy. These associations with gestational age may be biologically plausible given that organophosphate pesticides depress cholinesterase and acetylcholine stimulates contraction of the uterus. However, despite these observed associations, the rate of preterm delivery in this population (6.4%) was lower than in a U.S. reference population. PMID:15238287

  18. Impacts of stage-specific acute pesticide exposure on predicted population structure of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S.; Chasse, J.; Butler, R.A.; Morrill, W.; Van Beneden, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A combined laboratory and modeling approach was used to assess the impact of selected pesticides on early life stages of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. Clams were exposed for 24 h as veligers or pediveligers to the broad-spectrum herbicide hexazinone [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1h,3h)-dione; (Velpar®)], the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide, 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Agway® Super BK 32), or phosmet (Imidan®). In addition, juvenile clams were exposed for 24 h to 2,4-D and their growth monitored for 21 months. Laboratory experiments indicated veligers were more sensitive to acute pesticide exposure than pediveligers, with 2,4-D exposed veligers exhibiting the lowest survival among all treatments. Relative to controls, juvenile clams exposed to 0.5 ppm 2,4-D had enhanced survival following the initial 3 months of grow out. Juveniles exposed to 0.5 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm 2,4-D showed an initial growth delay relative to control clams, but at 21 months post exposure these clams were significantly larger than control clams. Data from the larval and juvenile exposures were used to generate a stage-specific matrix model to predict the effect of pesticide exposure on clam populations. Impacts on simulated clam populations varied with the pesticide and stage exposed. For example, 2,4-D exposure of veligers and pediveligers significantly reduced predicted recruitment as well as population growth rate compared to controls, but juvenile exposure to 2,4-D did not significantly reduce population growth rate. With the exception of veligers exposed to 10 ppm, hexazinone exposure at the both veliger and pediveliger stages significantly reduced predicted recruitment success compared to 0 ppm controls. Hexazinone exposure also reduced modeled population growth rates, but these reductions were only slight in the pediveliger exposure simulations. Veliger and pediveliger exposure to phosmet reduced modeled population growth rate in a dose

  19. Pesticide exposure and lymphohaematopoietic cancers: a case-control study in an agricultural region (Larissa, Thessaly, Greece)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The causality of lymphohaematopoietic cancers (LHC) is multifactorial and studies investigating the association between chemical exposure and LHC have produced variable results. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between exposure to pesticides and LHC in an agricultural region of Greece. Methods A structured questionnaire was employed in a hospital-based case control study to gather information on demographics, occupation, exposure to pesticides, agricultural practices, family and medical history and smoking. To control for confounders, backward conditional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used. To assess the dose-response relationship between exposure and disease, the chi-square test for trend was used. Results Three hundred and fifty-four (354) histologically confirmed LHC cases diagnosed from 2004 to 2006 and 455 sex- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Pesticide exposure was associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.04), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.00-3.51) and leukaemia (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.09-4.20). A dose-response pattern was observed for total LHC cases (P = 0.004), MDS (P = 0.024) and leukaemia (P = 0.002). Pesticide exposure was independently associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00 - 2.00) and leukaemia (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02-4.12) after controlling for age, smoking and family history (cancers, LHC and immunological disorders). Smoking during application of pesticides was strongly associated with total LHC cases (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.81-5.98), MDS (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.18-12.11), leukaemia (OR 10.15, 95% CI 2.15-65.69) and lymphoma (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.02-8.00). This association was even stronger for total LHC cases (OR 18.18, 95% CI 2.38-381.17) when eating simultaneously with pesticide application. Conclusions Lymphohaematopoietic cancers were associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. Smoking and eating during pesticide

  20. Home-based community health worker intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers' children: A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Alicia L; Castorina, Rosemary; Camacho, José; Morga, Norma; López, Jesús; Nishioka, Marcia; Barr, Dana B; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a randomized-controlled trial of a home-based intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers' children in Monterey County, California (n=116 families). The intervention consisted of three home-based educational sessions delivered by community health workers in Spanish. Measurements of organophosphate (OP) insecticide metabolites in child urine (n=106) and pesticides in home floor wipes (n=103) were collected before and after the intervention. Median child urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite levels were slightly lower among the intervention group children at follow-up compared with baseline, albeit nonsignificantly. DAP metabolite levels in the control group children were markedly higher at follow-up compared with baseline. In adjusted models, intervention participation was associated with a 51% decrease in total DAP metabolite levels. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dacthal, diazinon, malathion, and trans-permethrin were commonly detected in the floor wipes. In adjusted models, intervention participation was significantly associated with a 37% decrease in trans-permethrin floor wipe levels in homes, but not OP or other agricultural pesticides. In summary, intervention group children had slightly reduced pesticide exposures, whereas child exposures were higher among the control group. Additional intervention studies evaluating methods to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworker families and children are needed.

  1. [Effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on semen quality of workers in an agricultural community of Merida state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity.

  2. Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth Y; Krupke, Christian H

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to evaluate the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides to worldwide pollinator declines have focused on honey bees and the chronic levels of exposure experienced when foraging on crops grown from neonicotinoid-treated seeds. However, few studies address non-crop plants as a potential route of pollinator exposure to neonicotinoid and other insecticides. Here we show that pollen collected by honey bee foragers in maize- and soybean-dominated landscapes is contaminated throughout the growing season with multiple agricultural pesticides, including the neonicotinoids used as seed treatments. Notably, however, the highest levels of contamination in pollen are pyrethroid insecticides targeting mosquitoes and other nuisance pests. Furthermore, pollen from crop plants represents only a tiny fraction of the total diversity of pollen resources used by honey bees in these landscapes, with the principle sources of pollen originating from non-cultivated plants. These findings provide fundamental information about the foraging habits of honey bees in these landscapes.

  3. Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth Y.; Krupke, Christian H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to evaluate the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides to worldwide pollinator declines have focused on honey bees and the chronic levels of exposure experienced when foraging on crops grown from neonicotinoid-treated seeds. However, few studies address non-crop plants as a potential route of pollinator exposure to neonicotinoid and other insecticides. Here we show that pollen collected by honey bee foragers in maize- and soybean-dominated landscapes is contaminated throughout the growing season with multiple agricultural pesticides, including the neonicotinoids used as seed treatments. Notably, however, the highest levels of contamination in pollen are pyrethroid insecticides targeting mosquitoes and other nuisance pests. Furthermore, pollen from crop plants represents only a tiny fraction of the total diversity of pollen resources used by honey bees in these landscapes, with the principle sources of pollen originating from non-cultivated plants. These findings provide fundamental information about the foraging habits of honey bees in these landscapes. PMID:27240870

  4. Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth Y; Krupke, Christian H

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to evaluate the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides to worldwide pollinator declines have focused on honey bees and the chronic levels of exposure experienced when foraging on crops grown from neonicotinoid-treated seeds. However, few studies address non-crop plants as a potential route of pollinator exposure to neonicotinoid and other insecticides. Here we show that pollen collected by honey bee foragers in maize- and soybean-dominated landscapes is contaminated throughout the growing season with multiple agricultural pesticides, including the neonicotinoids used as seed treatments. Notably, however, the highest levels of contamination in pollen are pyrethroid insecticides targeting mosquitoes and other nuisance pests. Furthermore, pollen from crop plants represents only a tiny fraction of the total diversity of pollen resources used by honey bees in these landscapes, with the principle sources of pollen originating from non-cultivated plants. These findings provide fundamental information about the foraging habits of honey bees in these landscapes. PMID:27240870

  5. Prevalence of exposure to solvents, metals, grain dust, and other hazards among farmers in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Coble, Joseph; Hoppin, Jane A; Engel, Lawrence; Elci, Omur Cinar; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Exposures to multiple chemical, physical, and biological agents in agricultural work environments can result in confounding that may obscure or distort risks observed in epidemiologic studies. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a large epidemiology study being conducted to investigate health risks among pesticide applicators and their families. During enrollment in the AHS, questionnaires were administered to over 52,000 licensed pesticide applicators from North Carolina and Iowa, who were mostly farmers. Questions about the frequency of various farming tasks were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to solvents (25%), metals (68%), grain dusts (65%), diesel exhaust fumes (93%), and other hazards, including exposure to pesticides. Most of the farmers in the AHS reported performing routine maintenance tasks at least once a month, such as painting (63%), welding (64%), and repair of pesticide equipment (58%). The majority of farmers (74% in North Carolina; 59% in Iowa) reported holding nonfarm jobs, of which the most frequent were construction and transportation. The majority of the farmers enrolled in the AHS (55%) also reported that they mixed or applied pesticides on 10 or more days per year. The associations between the use of pesticides and the frequency with which the farmers in the AHS reported performing various types of specific farming activities were assessed to evaluate potential confounding. Confounding risk ratios calculated for these activities suggest that the magnitude of bias due to confounding is likely to be minimal. PMID:12415490

  6. Parental Exposure to Pesticides and Childhood Brain Cancer: U.S. Atlantic Coast Childhood Brain Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Youn K.; Mlynarek, Steven P.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Background The etiology of childhood brain cancer remains largely unknown. However, previous studies have yielded suggestive associations with parental pesticide use. Objectives We aimed to evaluate parental exposure to pesticides at home and on the job in relation to the occurrence of brain cancer in children. Methods We included 526 one-to-one–matched case–control pairs. Brain cancer cases were diagnosed at < 10 years of age, and were identified from statewide cancer registries of four U.S. Atlantic Coast states. We selected controls by random digit dialing. We conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews with mothers. Using information on residential pesticide use and jobs held by fathers during the 2-year period before the child’s birth, we assessed potential exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. For each job, two raters independently classified the probability and intensity of exposure; 421 pairs were available for final analysis. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, after adjustment for maternal education. Results A significant risk of astrocytoma was associated with exposures to herbicides from residential use (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–3.0). Combining parental exposures to herbicides from both residential and occupational sources, the elevated risk remained significant (OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–3.1). We observed little association with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) for any of the pesticide classes or exposure sources considered. Conclusions Our observation is consistent with a previous literature reporting suggestive associations between parental exposure to pesticides and risk of astrocytoma in offspring but not PNET. However, these findings should be viewed in light of limitations in exposure assessment and effective sample size. PMID:19590697

  7. In utero exposure of neonatal buffalo calves to pesticide residues and the alterations within their reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Karanpreet; Ghuman, Sarvpreet Singh; Singh, Opinder; Bedi, Jasbir Singh; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2015-11-01

    In utero exposure of neonates to pesticide residues could be damaging to the reproductive tract. Hence, the present study assessed the circulating concentrations of pesticide residues in buffalo and their neonatal calves as well as in the reproductive tract tissue samples of same calves. Also, histopathological alterations were revealed in the reproductive tract of calves. Pesticide residues were high (P<0.05) in the reproductive tract of calves (119.5 ± 20.2 ng/g, 35% positive) in comparison to their blood (32.1 ± 8.4 ng/ml, 15% positive) or blood of their dams (41.5 ± 8.3 ng/ml, 25% positive). The number of histopathological alterations were high (P<0.05) in the reproductive tract of a calf contaminated with high concentrations of pesticide residues (3.43 ± 1.29) in comparison to a tract positive for low residue concentrations (1.57 ± 0.60) or pesticide negative tract (0.28 ± 0.10). In conclusion, in utero exposure of neonatal buffalo calves to pesticide residues may be associated with damaging alterations in their reproductive tract.

  8. Experimental strategy for translational studies of organophosphorus pesticide neurotoxicity based on real-world occupational exposures to chlorpyrifos

    PubMed Central

    Lein, Pamela J.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Olson, James R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Lattal, K. Matthew; Lasarev, Michael R.; Galvin, Kit; Farahat, Taghreed M.; Anger, W. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Translational research is needed to understand and predict the neurotoxic consequences associated with repeated occupational exposures to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). In this report, we describe a research strategy for identifying biomarkers of OP neurotoxicity, and we characterize pesticide application workers in Egypt’s Menoufia Governorate who serve as our anchor human population for developing a parallel animal model with similar exposures and behavioral deficits and for examining the influence of human polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzymes on OP metabolism and toxicity. This population has previously been shown to have high occupational exposures and to exhibit a broad range of neurobehavioral deficits. In addition to observational studies of work practices in the field, questionnaires on demographics, lifestyle and work practices were administered to 146 Egyptian pesticide application workers applying pesticides to the cotton crop. Survey results indicated that the application workforce uses standard operating procedures and standardized equipment provided by Egypt’s Ministry of Agriculture, which provides a workforce with a stable work history. We also found that few workers report using personal protective equipment (PPE), which likely contributes to the relatively high exposures reported in these application workers. In summary, this population provides a unique opportunity for identifying biomarkers of OP-induced neurotoxicity associated with occupational exposure. PMID:22240005

  9. Lessons Learned for the Assessment of Children’s Pesticide Exposure: Critical Sampling and Analytical Issues for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Richard A.; Bradman, Asa; Whyatt, Robin M.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barr, Dana B.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine sampling strategies and analytical methods used in a series of recent studies of children’s exposure to pesticides that may prove useful in the design and implementation of the National Children’s Study. We focus primarily on the experiences of four of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/ Children’s Centers and include University of Washington studies that predated these centers. These studies have measured maternal exposures, perinatal exposures, infant and toddler exposures, and exposure among young children through biologic monitoring, personal sampling, and environmental monitoring. Biologic monitoring appears to be the best available method for assessment of children’s exposure to pesticides, with some limitations. It is likely that a combination of biomarkers, environmental measurements, and questionnaires will be needed after careful consideration of the specific hypotheses posed by investigators and the limitations of each exposure metric. The value of environmental measurements, such as surface and toy wipes and indoor air or house dust samples, deserves further investigation. Emphasis on personal rather than environmental sampling in conjunction with urine or blood sampling is likely to be most effective at classifying exposure. For infants and young children, ease of urine collection (possible for extended periods of time) may make these samples the best available approach to capturing exposure variability of nonpersistent pesticides; additional validation studies are needed. Saliva measurements of pesticides, if feasible, would overcome the limitations of urinary metabolite-based exposure analysis. Global positioning system technology appears promising in the delineation of children’s time–location patterns. PMID:16203262

  10. Predation Risk versus Pesticide Exposure: Consequences of Fear and Loathing in the Life of Stream Shredders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, J. T.; Baird, D. J.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Stream invertebrates are exposed to complex stressor regimes including both biotic and abiotic factors. Species living in streams in agricultural landscapes are often subjected to episodic or continuous exposures to low levels of agrochemicals, which may approach or exceed specific substance guidelines. Sublethal effects of pesticides may result in direct effects on organisms (e.g. reduced physiological performance), which may in turn contribute to indirect effects relating to survival (e.g. increased predation risk). Here, we investigate the possibility that predator-release kairomones can act additively with low-level pesticide exposure to reduce physiological performance and survival of stream invertebrates in previously unforeseen ways. Feeding, metabolic and behavioural responses of two shredder insects, the North American stonefly Pteronarcys comstockii and the European caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum were measured under exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid at different levels of indirect predation stress using predator-release kairomones from Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Pteronarcys feeding was measured in terms of mass of naturally conditioned alder leaf discs consumed over a 6-day and 10 -day period in animals held in cages in stream mesocosms. Pteronarcys feeding was impaired at 1 ppb in the 6-day trial and at 0,5 ppb in the 10-day trial relatively to unexposed controls. Metabolic rate was measured in the lab in terms of oxygen consumption of Pteronarcys. Animals exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppb imidacloprid showed elevated respiratory rates compared to controls. Laboratory experiments with Sericostoma, currently in progress, are examining the separate and combined effects of imidacloprid and predator kairomone on similar endpoints. These preliminary results are discussed in relation to the development of the Mechanistic Unifying Stressor Effects (MUSE) model which can be used to predict combined ecological effects of multiple stressors at the population level.

  11. Organophosphorous pesticide exposure increases the frequency of sperm sex null aneuploidy.

    PubMed Central

    Recio, R; Robbins, W A; Borja-Aburto, V; Morán-Martínez, J; Froines, J R; Hernández, R M; Cebrián, M E

    2001-01-01

    It has been estimated that 4 of 1,000 live births and 35% of spontaneous abortions are aneuploid and that an important proportion of embryo and newborn aneuploidy is of paternal origin. Exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with sperm hyperploidy/polyploidy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the frequency of sperm aneuploidy (X, Y, and 18) and its relationship with urinary OP metabolites in agricultural workers. We performed multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization on samples from nine men obtained before and during the pesticide spraying season to assess sperm aneuploidy. We measured urinary OP metabolite levels by gas-liquid chromatography. Aneuploidies were found in 0.67% of total sperm nuclei. The most frequent aneuploidy was the lack of a sexual chromosome or sex null (0.19%), followed by XY18 (0.15%) and XY18-18 (0.06%). OP metabolites detected at higher concentrations were dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, and diethylphosphate (DEP). There were no differences in average aneuploidy frequency or urinary metabolite levels between samples collected before and after exposure. However, Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age, alcohol intake, and sperm concentration showed significant associations between OP metabolite concentrations and increased frequency of sperm aneuploidies. The association was more evident between DEP and sex null, and the risk increased further during the spraying season. Thus, OP exposure could interfere with sperm chromosome segregation and increase the risk for genetic syndromes, such as Turner's. Further studies are required to assess the prevalence of spontaneous abortions, birth defects, and genetic syndromes in agricultural communities. PMID:11748030

  12. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  13. Exposure of leopard frogs to a pesticide mixture affects life history characteristics of the lungworm Rhabdias ranae.

    PubMed

    Gendron, A D; Marcogliese, D J; Barbeau, S; Christin, M-S; Brousseau, P; Ruby, S; Cyr, D; Fournier, M

    2003-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of leopard frogs ( Rana pipiens) to agricultural pesticides can affect the infection dynamics of a common parasite of ranid frogs, the lungworm Rhabdias ranae. After a 21-day exposure to sublethal concentrations of a pesticide mixture composed of atrazine, metribuzin, aldicarb, endosulfan, lindane and dieldrin, or to control solutions (water, dimethyl sulfoxide), parasite-free juvenile frogs were challenged with 30 infective larvae of R. ranae. Approximately 75% of the larvae penetrated the skin and survived in both exposed and control animals, suggesting that pesticides did not influence host recognition or penetration components of the transmission process. Rather, we found that the migration of R. ranae was significantly accelerated in hosts exposed to the highest concentrations of pesticides, leading to the establishment of twice as many adult worms in the lungs of frogs 21 days post-infection. Pesticide treatment did not influence the growth of lungworms but our results indicate that they matured and reproduced earlier in pesticide-exposed frogs compared to control animals. Such alterations in life history characteristics that enhance parasite transmission may lead to an increase in virulence. Supporting evidence shows that certain components of the frog immune response were significantly suppressed after exposure to the pesticide mixture. This suggests that the immune system of anurans exerts a control over lungworm migration and maturation and that agricultural contaminants can interfere with these control mechanisms. Our results also contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the role that anthropogenic factors could play in the perplexing disease-related die-offs of amphibians observed in several parts of the world.

  14. Preventing occupational exposure to pesticides: using participatory research with latino farmworkers to develop an intervention.

    PubMed

    Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A; Austin, C K; Cabrera, L F

    2001-04-01

    Pesticide exposure is an occupational health hazard for migrant farmworkers. The US-EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) mandates training programs to prevent or reduce exposure. WPS implementation in a local context requires understanding individual, workplace, and community environmental factors that lead to exposure and influence intervention effectiveness. Participatory research within the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning framework was used to design a WPS training program for Mexican farmworkers in North Carolina cucumber and tobacco production. Research with farmworkers, farmers, health care providers, and Cooperative Extension agents identified modifiable behaviors and environmental factors, as well as structural and regulatory barriers requiring intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed through individual and group interviews, community forums, an advisory board, and a partnership between academic researchers and a community-based organization. The intervention's dominant features are (a) focus on key health behaviors, (b) relevance to local conditions, and (c) attention to issues of control in the workplace. Participatory research is effective for designing a health intervention where diverse social, cultural, political, and regulatory issues affect farmworkers' risk of exposure. PMID:16228792

  15. Initial development of a multigene 'omics-based exposure biomarker for pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Biales, Adam D; Kostich, Mitchell S; Batt, Angela L; See, Mary J; Flick, Robert W; Gordon, Denise A; Lazorchak, Jim M; Bencic, David C

    2016-10-01

    Omics technologies have long since promised to address a number of long standing issues related to environmental regulation. Despite considerable resource investment, there are few examples where these tools have been adopted by the regulatory community, which is in part due to a focus of most studies on discovery rather than assay development. The current work describes the initial development of an omics based assay using 48h Pimephales promelas (FHM) larvae for identifying aquatic exposures to pyrethroid pesticides. Larval FHM were exposed to seven concentrations of each of four pyrethroids (permethrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate and bifenthrin) in order to establish dose response curves. Then, in three separate identical experiments, FHM were exposed to a single equitoxic concentration of each pyrethroid, corresponding to 33% of the calculated LC50. All exposures were separated by weeks and all materials were either cleaned or replaced between runs in an attempt to maintain independence among exposure experiments. Gene expression classifiers were developed using the random forest algorithm for each exposure and evaluated first by cross-validation using hold out organisms from the same exposure experiment and then against test sets of each pyrethroid from separate exposure experiments. Bifenthrin exposed organisms generated the highest quality classifier, demonstrating an empirical Area Under the Curve (eAUC) of 0.97 when tested against bifenthrin exposed organisms from other exposure experiments and 0.91 against organisms exposed to any of the pyrethroids. An eAUC of 1.0 represents perfect classification with no false positives or negatives. Additionally, the bifenthrin classifier was able to successfully classify organisms from all other pyrethroid exposures at multiple concentrations, suggesting a potential utility for detecting cumulative exposures. Considerable run-to-run variability was observed both in exposure concentrations and molecular responses of

  16. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposures, Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Variants, and Gene–Pesticide Interactions in a Case–Control Study of Parkinson’s Disease, California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Kimberly C.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes are candidates for Parkinson’s disease (PD) because NOS enzymes produce nitric oxide (NO), a pro-oxidant that can damage neurons. Widely used organophosphate (OP) pesticides can induce oxidative stress and are reported to increase PD risk. Additionally, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the PON1 (paraoxonase 1) gene influence the ability to metabolize OPs. Objective: Here, we investigated contributions of NOS genes and OP pesticides to PD risk, controlling for PON1 status. Methods: In 357 incident PD cases and 495 population controls, we investigated eight NOS SNPs and interactions with both household and ambient agricultural OP exposures assessed with geographic information system (GIS). Results: In comparing PD in homozygous variant carriers of NOS2A rs1060826 versus homozygous wild-type or heterozygotes, we estimate an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.41). When considering interactions between NOS1 rs2682826 and OP exposure from household use, the OR for frequent OP use alone was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.34) and for the CT+TT genotype alone was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.39), and for frequent OP use combined with the CT+TT genotype the OR was 2.84 (95% CI: 1.49, 5.40) (interaction p-value 0.04). Similar results were seen for ambient OP exposure. Interactions between OP exposure and three other NOS1 SNPs and a genetic risk score combining all NOS1 SNPs reached statistical significance. Conclusions: We found that OP pesticides were more strongly associated with PD among participants with variant genotypes in NOS1, consistent with the importance of oxidative stress-inducing mechanisms. Our data provide evidence for NOS1 modifying PD risk in OP exposed populations. Citation: Paul KC, Sinsheimer JS, Rhodes SL, Cockburn M, Bronstein J, Ritz B. 2016. Organophosphate pesticide exposures, nitric oxide synthase gene variants, and gene–pesticide interactions in a case–control study of Parkinson

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Vedar, Michelle G.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Bradman, Asa; Rauh, Virginia A.; Yolton, Kimberly; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Perera, Frederica P.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are associated with reduced fetal growth in animals, but human studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We pooled data from four cohorts to examine associations of prenatal OP exposure with birth weight (n = 1,169), length (n = 1,152), and head circumference (n = 1,143). Methods: Data were from the CHAMACOS, HOME, Columbia, and Mount Sinai birth cohorts. Concentrations of three diethyl phosphate (ΣDEP) and three dimethyl phosphate (ΣDMP) metabolites of OP pesticides [summed to six dialkyl phosphates (ΣDAPs)] were measured in maternal urine. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to examine associations with birth outcomes. Results: We found no significant associations of ΣDEP, ΣDMP, or ΣDAPs with birth weight, length, or head circumference overall. However, among non-Hispanic black women, increasing urinary ΣDAP and ΣDMP concentrations were associated with decreased birth length (β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.0 and β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.0, respectively, for each 10-fold increase in metabolite concentration). Among infants with the PON1192RR genotype, ΣDAP and ΣDMP were negatively associated with length (β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.0 and β = –0.5 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, –0.1). Conclusions: This study confirms previously reported associations of prenatal OP exposure among black women with decreased infant size at birth, but finds no evidence of smaller birth weight, length, or head circumference among whites or Hispanics. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found stronger inverse associations of DAPs and birth outcome in infants with the less susceptible PON1192RR genotype. The large pooled data set facilitated exploration of interactions by race/ethnicity and PON1 genotype, but was limited by differences in study populations. Citation: Harley KG, Engel SM, Vedar MG, Eskenazi B, Whyatt RM, Lanphear BP, Bradman A, Rauh VA, Yolton K, Hornung RW, Wetmur JG, Chen J, Holland NT, Barr DB

  18. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  19. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-09-23

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  20. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  1. Memory impairment due to fipronil pesticide exposure occurs at the GABAA receptor level, in rats.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Antonio Francisco; de Oliveira Souza, Ana Carolina; Carvalho, Caio Cristóvão; Horta, Daniel França; De Fraia, Daniel; Anselmo, Fabio; Chaguri, João Leandro; Faria, Caique Aparecido

    2016-10-15

    Fipronil (F) a pesticide considered of second generation cause various toxic effects in target and non-target organisms including humans in which provoke neurotoxicity, having the antagonism of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) as their main mechanism for toxic action. GABAergic system has been involved in processes related to the memory formation and consolidation. The present work studied the importance of GABA to the mechanisms involved in the very early development of fipronil-induced memory impairment in rats. Memory behavior was assessed using new object recognition task (ORT) and eight radial arm maze task (8-RAM) to study effects on cognitive and spatial memory. Locomotor behavior was assessed using open field task (OF). The dose of fipronil utilized was studied through a pilot experiment. The GABA antagonist picrotoxin (P) was used to enhance fipronil effects on GABAergic system. Fipronil or picrotoxin decrease memory studied in ORT and 8-RAM tasks. Additionally, F and P co-exposure enhanced effects on memory compared to controls, F, and P, suggesting strongly a GABAergic effect. Weight gain modulation and fipronil in blood were utilized as animal's intoxication indicators. In conclusion, here we report that second-generation pesticides, such as fipronil, can have toxic interactions with the CNS of mammals and lead to memory impairment by modulating the GABAergic system. PMID:27374426

  2. Memory impairment due to fipronil pesticide exposure occurs at the GABAA receptor level, in rats.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Antonio Francisco; de Oliveira Souza, Ana Carolina; Carvalho, Caio Cristóvão; Horta, Daniel França; De Fraia, Daniel; Anselmo, Fabio; Chaguri, João Leandro; Faria, Caique Aparecido

    2016-10-15

    Fipronil (F) a pesticide considered of second generation cause various toxic effects in target and non-target organisms including humans in which provoke neurotoxicity, having the antagonism of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) as their main mechanism for toxic action. GABAergic system has been involved in processes related to the memory formation and consolidation. The present work studied the importance of GABA to the mechanisms involved in the very early development of fipronil-induced memory impairment in rats. Memory behavior was assessed using new object recognition task (ORT) and eight radial arm maze task (8-RAM) to study effects on cognitive and spatial memory. Locomotor behavior was assessed using open field task (OF). The dose of fipronil utilized was studied through a pilot experiment. The GABA antagonist picrotoxin (P) was used to enhance fipronil effects on GABAergic system. Fipronil or picrotoxin decrease memory studied in ORT and 8-RAM tasks. Additionally, F and P co-exposure enhanced effects on memory compared to controls, F, and P, suggesting strongly a GABAergic effect. Weight gain modulation and fipronil in blood were utilized as animal's intoxication indicators. In conclusion, here we report that second-generation pesticides, such as fipronil, can have toxic interactions with the CNS of mammals and lead to memory impairment by modulating the GABAergic system.

  3. Is plasma {beta}-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H. |. E-mail: salmaan@mib.gov.my; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Ali, Noor Suhailah; El Sersi, Magdi; Toong, Lee Mun; Zainal, Awang Mat; Hashim, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Mohd Shariman; Saidin, Mohd Nazri; Rahman, Ab Razak Ab; Rafaai, Mohd Jamil Mohd; Omar, Sollahudin; Rapiai, Rafiah; Othman, Radziah; Chan, Lee Tiong; Johari, Amran; Soon, Wong Hing; Salleh, Abdul Rahim; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The {beta}-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on {beta}-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) among the patients (1386.786 {+-} 791.291 U/L/min) but the inhibition in plasma cholinesterase activity among the farmers (7346.5 {+-} 1860.786 U/L/min) was not significant (p > 0.05). The plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) (0.737 {+-} 0.425 {mu}M/h) but not significant among the patients (p > 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p < 0.01) but not among the patients (r = 0.79, p > 0.05). Thus, plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma {beta}-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning.

  4. Effects of pesticides on songbird productivity in conjunction with pecan cultivation in southern Georgia: A multiple-exposure experimental design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A prototypic experimental design was used to assess sublethal effects of multiple and varied organophosphates and carbamates on reproduction in birds. The design allowed for classification of pesticide exposure according to toxicity of applied compounds and type and frequency of applications. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs, and nestlings were determined for northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum), and northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting along edges of pecan orchards and row crops in southern Georgia [USA]. Egg and nestling DSRs for all species combined varied inversely (P 0.05) among three exposure levels. Brain cholinesterase activities were age-dependent and substantiated adult, but not nestling, exposure. Results suggest that increasing exposure to pesticides may reduce songbird productivity.

  5. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  6. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    PubMed

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  7. Prenatal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 Months: An Analysis of Four Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Bradman, Asa; Wolff, Mary S.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Harley, Kim G.; Yang, Jenny H.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Yolton, Kimberly; Vedar, Michelle G.; Xu, Yingying; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are used in agriculture worldwide. Residential use was common in the United States before 2001. Objectives: We conducted a pooled analysis of four birth cohorts (children’s centers; n = 936) to evaluate associations of prenatal exposure to OPs with child development at 24 months. Methods: Using general linear models, we computed site-specific and pooled estimates of the association of total dialkyl (ΣDAP), diethyl (ΣDEP), and dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine with mental and psychomotor development indices (MDI/PDI) and evaluated heterogeneity by children’s center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Results: There was significant heterogeneity in the center-specific estimates of association for ΣDAP and ΣDMP and the MDI (p = 0.09, and p = 0.05, respectively), as well as heterogeneity in the race/ethnicity-specific estimates for ΣDAP (p = 0.06) and ΣDMP (p = 0.02) and the MDI. Strong MDI associations in the CHAMACOS population per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP (β = –4.17; 95% CI: –7.00, –1.33) and ΣDMP (β = –3.64; 95% CI: –5.97, –1.32) were influential, as were associations among Hispanics (β per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP = –2.91; 95% CI: –4.71, –1.12). We generally found stronger negative associations of ΣDAP and ΣDEP with the 24-month MDI for carriers of the 192Q PON1 allele, particularly among blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions: Data pooling was complicated by center-related differences in subject characteristics, eligibility, and changes in regulations governing residential use of OPs during the study periods. Pooled summary estimates of prenatal exposure to OPs and neurodevelopment should be interpreted with caution because of significant heterogeneity in associations by center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Subgroups with unique exposure profiles or susceptibilities may be at higher risk for adverse neurodevelopment following prenatal

  8. Association of chronic pesticide exposure with serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary functions.

    PubMed

    Sutoluk, Zeynel; Kekec, Zeynep; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hant, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the analysis of serum cholinesterase levels and the pulmonary function tests in seasonal farm workers who were chronically exposed to pesticides, mostly organophosphorus, in comparison with non-farm workers in the farming areas of Cukurova region, Turkey. Serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary function tests using spyrometer in 50 male seasonal farm workers (study group) were compared to 50 male non-farm workers (control group) in this cross-sectional study. The mean serum cholinesterase enzyme level in the farm worker group (7095.5 ± 1699.4 U/L) was significantly lower than those of the control group (9716.4 ± 1484.4 U/L) (p < .001). There was no significant difference between pulmonary function tests of 2 groups (p > .05). These results show that chronic environmental organophosphorus exposure caused a decrease in the serum cholinesterase enzyme levels in farm workers, emphasizing the importance of primary prevention. PMID:24484366

  9. Pesticide exposure and sprayer's task goals: comparison between vineyards and greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Mandy; Richardson, James; Grimbuhler, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Plant protection products are used in agriculture to improve yields, but this use can cause contamination of the environment and is also likely to have adverse short and long term effects on agricultural workers. The field study took place in greenhouses and vineyards where operators are involved in high levels of pesticide spraying. The objective of this intervention was to identify factors explaining the influence of task factors on the exposure of greenhouse growers and vineyard workers. Thirteen operators were selected for detailed observations during one session of spraying. Video recordings provide counts of physical contacts between the operator and all the surrounding surfaces during the spraying operation. Both in vineyards and in greenhouses, physical and temporal constraints are the predominant factors in establishing a specific spraying procedure. Every action taken by the operator is a result of a compromise between safety, task performance and quality.

  10. Pesticide Exposure Alters Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Mexican Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by enzymatic immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in 64 men. A total of 147 urine and blood samples were analyzed for each parameter. More than 80% of the participants had at least one OP metabolite in their urine samples. The most frequent metabolite found was diethylthiophosphate (DETP; 55%), followed by diethylphosphate (DEP; 46%), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP; 32%), and dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP; 31%). However, the metabolites detected at higher concentrations were DMTP, DEP, DMDTP, and dimethylphosphate. There was a high proportion of individuals with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations outside the range of normality (48%). The average FSH serum levels were higher during the heavy pesticide spraying season. However, a multivariate analysis of data collected in all periods showed that serum FSH levels were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of both DMTP and DMDTP, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) was negatively associated with DMTP. We observed no significant associations between estradiol or testosterone serum levels with OP metabolites. The hormonal disruption in agricultural workers presented here, together with results from experimental animal studies, suggests that OP exposure disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine function and also indicates that FSH and LH are the hormones most affected. PMID:16140621

  11. Evolution determines how global warming and pesticide exposure will shape predator-prey interactions with vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tam T; Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh, Khuong V; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2016-07-01

    How evolution may mitigate the effects of global warming and pesticide exposure on predator-prey interactions is directly relevant for vector control. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we addressed how 4°C warming and exposure to the pesticide endosulfan shape the predation on Culex pipiens mosquitoes by damselfly predators from replicated low- and high-latitude populations. Although warming was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates on these prey. Possibly, under warming escape speeds of the mosquitoes increased more than the attack efficiency of the predators. Endosulfan imposed mortality and induced behavioral changes (including increased filtering and thrashing and a positional shift away from the bottom) in mosquito larvae. Although the pesticide was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates by the low-latitude predators. This can be explained by the combination of the evolution of a faster life history and associated higher vulnerabilities to the pesticide (in terms of growth rate and lowered foraging activity) in the low-latitude predators and pesticide-induced survival selection in the mosquitoes. Our results suggest that predation rates on mosquitoes at the high latitude will be reduced under warming unless predators evolve toward the current low-latitude phenotype or low-latitude predators move poleward.

  12. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Feng, Yaqian; Shen, Xiaoli; Mei, Surong

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could increase non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. However, results from epidemiological studies investigating this association remain controversial. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association between OCP exposure and NHL risk. Relevant publications were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase and identified according to the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (6 nested case-control, 1 case-cohort, and 6 case-control) were selected for this meta-analysis. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the relationship between OCPs exposure and NHL risk. The summary OR for included studies was 1.40 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.56). No overall significant heterogeneity in the OR was observed (Ph = 0.253, I2 = 12.6%). Furthermore, OR estimates in subgroup analyses were discussed, and strong associations were observed for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.66), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.87), chlordane (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.48), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB, OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99). This meta-analysis had suggested that total OCPs of interest was significantly positively associated with NHL risk. PMID:27185567

  13. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Teresa; Younglove, Lisa; Lu, Chensheng; Funez, Aura; Weppner, Sarah; Barr, Dana B; Fenske, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite. PMID:17168218

  14. Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Goulson, Dave

    2016-04-13

    Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid clothianidin impaired olfactory learning acquisition in honeybees, leading to potential impacts on colony fitness, but not in bumblebees. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae slightly impaired learning in honeybees, but no interactive effects were observed. Nosema did not infect bumblebees (3% infection success). Nevertheless, Nosema-treated bumblebees had a slightly lower rate of learning than controls, but faster learning in combination with neonicotinoid exposure. This highlights the potential for complex interactive effects of stressors on learning. Our results underline that one cannot readily extrapolate findings from one bee species to others. This has important implications for regulatory risk assessments which generally use honeybees as a model for all bees. PMID:27053744

  15. Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Goulson, Dave

    2016-04-13

    Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid clothianidin impaired olfactory learning acquisition in honeybees, leading to potential impacts on colony fitness, but not in bumblebees. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae slightly impaired learning in honeybees, but no interactive effects were observed. Nosema did not infect bumblebees (3% infection success). Nevertheless, Nosema-treated bumblebees had a slightly lower rate of learning than controls, but faster learning in combination with neonicotinoid exposure. This highlights the potential for complex interactive effects of stressors on learning. Our results underline that one cannot readily extrapolate findings from one bee species to others. This has important implications for regulatory risk assessments which generally use honeybees as a model for all bees.

  16. Achieving environmentally relevant organochlorine pesticide concentrations in eggs through maternal exposure in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wiebe, J.J.; Buckland, J.E.; Smith, Joe T.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis eggs from organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminated sites in Florida exhibit high rates of embryonic mortality compared to reference sites (p<0.05). The objective of the present study was to use captive adult alligators to test the hypotheses that maternal exposure to OCPs results in increased OCP concentrations in eggs, and that increased exposure is associated with increased embryonic mortality. A total of 24 adult alligators (8 males and 16 females) were housed in eight pens. Eight females in four pens were dosed with a mixture of p,p'-DDE, toxaphene, dieldrin, and chlordane at a rate of 0.2 ? 0.01 mg/kg/day for 274 ? 8 days. Treated females produced eggs containing higher OCP concentrations (12,814 ? 813 ng/g yolk) than controls (38 ? 4 ng/g yolk). Eggs of treated females exhibited decreased viability (13 ? 22%) as compared to controls (45 ? 20%). Results indicated that 0.6% of administered OCPs were maternally transferred to the eggs of American alligators, and that maternal exposure is associated with decreased egg/embryo viability in this species.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION. PART II - USE OF THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more susceptible to pesticides because they are undergoing rapid physiological and behavioral development. In addition, young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to engage in activities (i.e., playing, sitting on the floor) in which they may ...

  18. Biologic Monitoring to Characterize Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure among Children and Workers: An Analysis of Recent Studies in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Richard A.; Lu, Chensheng; Curl, Cynthia L.; Shirai, Jeffry H.; Kissel, John C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined findings from five organophosphorus pesticide biomonitoring studies conducted in Washington State between 1994 and 1999. We compared urinary dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) concentrations for all study groups and composite dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) concentrations for selected groups. Children of pesticide applicators had substantially higher metabolite levels than did Seattle children and farmworker children (median DMTP, 25 μg/L; p < 0.0001). Metabolite levels of children living in agricultural communities were elevated during periods of crop spraying. Median DMTP concentrations for Seattle children and farmworker children did not differ significantly (6.1 and 5.8 μg/L DMTP, respectively; p = 0.73); however, the DMAP concentrations were higher for Seattle children than for farmworker children (117 and 87 nmol/L DMAP, respectively; p = 0.007). DMTP concentrations of U.S. children 6–11 years of age (1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey population) were higher than those of Seattle children and farmworker children at the 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles. DMTP concentrations for workers actively engaged in apple thinning were 50 times higher than DMTP concentrations for farmworkers sampled outside of peak exposure periods. We conclude that workers who have direct contact with pesticides should continue to be the focus of public health interventions and that elevated child exposures in agricultural communities may occur during active crop-spraying periods and from living with a pesticide applicator. Timing of sample collection is critical for the proper interpretation of pesticide biomarkers excreted relatively soon after exposure. We surmise that differences in dietary exposure can explain the similar exposures observed among farmworker children, children living in the Seattle metropolitan area, and children sampled nationally. PMID:16263526

  19. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  20. Quantifying Amphibian Pesticide Body Burdens for Active Ingredients Versus Formulations Through Dermal Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread pesticide applications throughout agricultural landscapes pose a risk to post-metamorphic amphibians leaving or moving between breeding ponds in terrestrial habitats. Recent studies indicate that the inactive ingredients in pesticide formulations may be equally or more...

  1. Measurement of pesticides and other toxicants in amniotic fluid as a potential biomarker of prenatal exposure: a validation study.

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana B; Claus Henn, Birgit G; Drumheller, Timothy; Curry, Cynthia; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Prenatal pesticide exposures may adversely affect children's health. However, exposure and health research is hampered by the lack of reliable fetal exposure data. No studies have been published that report measurements of commonly used nonpersistent pesticides in human amniotic fluid, although recent studies of pesticides in urine from pregnant women and in meconium indicate that fetuses are exposed to these chemicals. Amniotic fluid collected during amniocentesis is the only medium available to characterize direct fetal exposures early in pregnancy (approximately 18 weeks of gestation). As a first step in validating this exposure biomarker, we collected 100 amniotic fluid samples slated for disposal and evaluated analytical methods to measure organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and metabolites, synthetic pyrethroid metabolites, herbicides, and chlorinated phenolic compounds. The following six phenols were detected (detection frequency): 1- and 2-naphthol (70%), 2,5-dichlorophenol (55%), carbofuranphenol (5%), ortho-phenylphenol (30%), and pentachlorophenol (15%), with geometric mean concentrations of 0.72, 0.39, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.23 microg/L, respectively, for positive values. The organophosphate metabolites diethylphosphate and dimethylphosphate were detected in two (10%) samples, and dimethylthiophosphate was detected in one (5%) sample, with geometric mean concentrations of 0.31, 0.32, and 0.43 microg/L, respectively, for positive values. These levels are low compared with levels reported in urine, blood, and meconium in other studies, but indicate direct exposures to the young fetus, possibly during critical periods of development. Results of this pilot study suggest that amniotic fluid offers a unique opportunity to investigate fetal exposures and health risks. PMID:14594631

  2. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  3. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  4. Does the Honey Bee "Risk Cup" Runneth Over? Estimating Aggregate Exposures for Assessing Pesticide Risks to Honey Bees in Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, May R

    2016-01-13

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are uniquely vulnerable to nontarget pesticide impacts because, as ubiquitous managed pollinators, they are deliberately transported into areas where crops are grown with pesticides. Moreover, attributes making them excellent managed pollinators, including large long-lived colonies and complex behavior, also make them challenging subjects for toxicity bioassays. For over 150 years, improvements in formulation and delivery of pesticides, increasing their environmental and temporal presence, have had unintended consequences for honey bees. Since 1996, the Environmental Protection Agency has used "aggregate risk"--exposure risks to all possible sources--to set tolerances; once a "risk cup" is filled, no new pesticide or use can be approved unless risks are reduced elsewhere. The EPA now recommends a modeling approach for aggregating all exposure risks for bees, with differential lifestage sensitivity and exposure probabilities. Thus, the honey bee is the first insect with its own "risk cup"--a technological innovation that may not have unintended consequences for this beleaguered beneficial species.

  5. Does the Honey Bee "Risk Cup" Runneth Over? Estimating Aggregate Exposures for Assessing Pesticide Risks to Honey Bees in Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, May R

    2016-01-13

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are uniquely vulnerable to nontarget pesticide impacts because, as ubiquitous managed pollinators, they are deliberately transported into areas where crops are grown with pesticides. Moreover, attributes making them excellent managed pollinators, including large long-lived colonies and complex behavior, also make them challenging subjects for toxicity bioassays. For over 150 years, improvements in formulation and delivery of pesticides, increasing their environmental and temporal presence, have had unintended consequences for honey bees. Since 1996, the Environmental Protection Agency has used "aggregate risk"--exposure risks to all possible sources--to set tolerances; once a "risk cup" is filled, no new pesticide or use can be approved unless risks are reduced elsewhere. The EPA now recommends a modeling approach for aggregating all exposure risks for bees, with differential lifestage sensitivity and exposure probabilities. Thus, the honey bee is the first insect with its own "risk cup"--a technological innovation that may not have unintended consequences for this beleaguered beneficial species. PMID:25885594

  6. Assessment of exposure to pesticides during mixing/loading and spraying of tomatoes in the open field.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Maria Cristina; Bosi, Anna; Manara, Michele; Mazzocchi, Barbara; Pompini, Alessandra; Sormani, Francesca; Lunghini, Liana; Sciarra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Some evidence of exposure-response of metolachlor and pendimethalin for lung cancer and an association of metribuzin with risk of glioma have been reported. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate exposure and occupational risk during mixing/loading of pesticides and during their application to tomatoes cultivated in open fields. Sixteen farmers were sampled. Respiratory exposure was estimated by personal air sampling using fiberglass filters in a IOM device. Dermal exposure was assessed using skin pads and hand washing. Absorbed doses were estimated assuming 100% lung retention, and 50% or 10% skin absorption for metribuzin, and pendimethalin and metolachlor, respectively. The three pesticides were quantified by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in all matrices. Metolachlor was used as a tracer of contamination of clothes and tractors unrelated to the exposure monitored. Respiratory exposure to metribuzin, used in granular form, was on average more than one order of magnitude higher than exposure to pendimethalin, used in the form of microencapsulated liquid. The actual doses were 0.067-8.08 µg/kg bw, 0.420-12.6 µg/kg bw, and 0.003-0.877 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. Dermal exposure was about 88% of the actual dose for metribuzin and more than 95%, for pendimethalin and metolachlor. For risk assessment, the total absorbed doses (sum of respiratory and skin absorbed doses) were compared with the AOEL for each compound. The actual and absorbed doses of the three pesticides were always lower than the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL), which are reported to be 234 µg/kg bw, 20 µg/kg bw, and 150 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. In any case, personal protective equipment and spraying devices should be chosen with care to minimize exposure.

  7. A Pilot Study Comparing Observational and Questionnaire Surrogate Measures of Pesticide Exposure Among Residents Impacted by the Ecuadorian Flower Industry.

    PubMed

    Handal, Alexis J; McGough-Maduena, Alison; Páez, Maritza; Skipper, Betty; Rowland, Andrew S; Fenske, Richard A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported measures of residential pesticide exposure are commonly used in epidemiological studies, especially when financial and logistical resources are limited. However, self-reporting is prone to misclassification bias. This pilot study assesses the agreement between self-report of residential pesticide exposure with direct observation measures, in an agricultural region of Ecuador, as a cross-validation method in 26 participants (16 rose workers and 10 controls), with percent agreement and kappa statistics calculated. Proximity of homes to nearby flower farms was found to have only fair agreement (kappa =.35). The use of discarded plastics (kappa =.06) and wood (kappa =.13) were found to have little agreement. Results indicate that direct observation or measurement may provide more accurate appraisals of residential exposures, such as proximity to industrial farmland and the use of discarded materials obtained from the flower farms.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Reciprocal Social Behavior in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Melissa A.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, including low IQ, Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), attention problems and ADHD. Many of these disorders involve impairments in social functioning. Thus, we investigated the relationship between biomarkers of prenatal OP exposure and impaired reciprocal social behavior in childhood, as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Using a multi-ethnic urban prospective cohort of mother-infant pairs in New York City recruited between 1998 and 2002 (n=404) we examined the relation between third trimester maternal urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (ΣDAP) OP metabolites and SRS scores among 136 children who returned for the 7–9 year visit. Overall, there was no association between OPs and SRS scores, although in multivariate adjusted models, associations were heterogeneous by race and by sex. Among blacks, each 10-fold increase in total diethylphosphates (ΣDEP) was associated with poorer social responsiveness (β = 5.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8, 9.4). There was no association amongst whites or Hispanics, or for total ΣDAP or total dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) biomarker levels. Additionally, stratum-specific models supported a stronger negative association among boys for ΣDEPs (β = 3.5 points, 95% CI 0.2, 6.8), with no notable association among girls. Our results support an association of prenatal OP exposure with deficits in social functioning among blacks and among boys, although this may be in part reflective of differences in exposure patterns. PMID:24934853

  9. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides: assessment of endocrine disruption and hepatotoxicity in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, A; Rovedatti, M G; Sabino, G; Magnarelli, G G

    2012-06-01

    In utero exposure is the first point of contact with environmental xenobiotics that may affect the maternal-placental-fetal balance. Considering that maternal pathophysiological changes affect intrauterine development, this pilot study was conducted to address how environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) during pregnancy may contribute to maternal endocrine disruption and disturbed hepatic function. A prospective study was carried out with pregnant women (n=97) living in a rural area of the Rio Negro province where OPs are intensively applied throughout 6 months of the year. Blood samples were obtained and biomarkers of OPs exposure (cholinesterases and β-glucuronidase), cortisol (CT) and progesterone (PG) levels, as well as glycemia, were determined. Parameters of liver injury were assayed by measuring aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT); liver function was assayed by measuring albumin. Biomonitoring carried out during the pre-spraying period (PreS) and spraying period (SP) showed that the population studied was exposed to OPs, proven by the fact that plasma (PCh) and erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) decreased very significantly (p<0.01) during SP. CT values increased very significantly (p<0.01) in the first trimester of pregnancy during SP with respect to PreS. Individual values above the upper limit of the CT and PG reference range were found both in PreS and SP. This finding could be associated with changes in hormone metabolism pathways produced by OPs exposure. During the second trimester of pregnancy there were increases in ALT values and the AST/ALT ratio in SP, suggesting subclinical hepatotoxicity. In SP, glycemia was unchanged while albuminemia increased. Although anthropometric newborn parameters and pregnancy alterations were within normal values for the general population, the increase in CT in the maternal compartment may lead to impaired newborn health later in life.

  10. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and reciprocal social behavior in childhood.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Melissa A; Engel, Stephanie M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, including low IQ, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), attention problems and ADHD. Many of these disorders involve impairments in social functioning. Thus, we investigated the relationship between biomarkers of prenatal OP exposure and impaired reciprocal social behavior in childhood, as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Using a multi-ethnic urban prospective cohort of mother-infant pairs in New York City recruited between 1998 and 2002 (n=404) we examined the relation between third trimester maternal urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (ΣDAP) OP metabolites and SRS scores among 136 children who returned for the 7-9year visit. Overall, there was no association between OPs and SRS scores, although in multivariate adjusted models, associations were heterogeneous by race and by sex. Among blacks, each 10-fold increase in total diethylphosphates (ΣDEP) was associated with poorer social responsiveness (β=5.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8, 9.4). There was no association among whites or Hispanics, or for total ΣDAP or total dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) biomarker levels. Additionally, stratum-specific models supported a stronger negative association among boys for ΣDEPs (β=3.5 points, 95% CI 0.2, 6.8), with no notable association among girls. Our results support an association of prenatal OP exposure with deficits in social functioning among blacks and among boys, although this may be in part reflective of differences in exposure patterns. PMID:24934853

  11. Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Heras-Gonzalez, L; Ibañez-Peinado, D; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2016-08-01

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (<2500 g). These results indicate prenatal exposure to OCPs in Southern Spain and its possible impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns. PMID:27174826

  12. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands.

    PubMed

    Bro, Elisabeth; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk; Devillers, James

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥1 AS and 67% to ≥2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April-June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TERlt) <5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TERlt <5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1-4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed.

  13. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Axelstad, Marta

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase in gestation length was seen, while in male offspring increased nipple retention and increased incidence and severity of genital malformations were observed. Severe mixture effects on gestation length, nipple retention and genital malformations were seen at dose levels where the individual pesticides caused no or smaller effects when given alone. Generally, the mixture effect predictions based on dose-additivity were in good agreement with the observed effects. The results indicate that there is a need for modification of risk assessment procedures for pesticides, in order to take account of the mixture effects and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans. PMID:22659286

  14. Something for everyone? A community and academic partnership to address farmworker pesticide exposure in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A; Pell, A I

    2001-06-01

    Partnerships between academic researchers and community organizations are frequently formed to address environmental health concerns in underserved communities. Although such participatory approaches to research combine valuable assets of both partners, they are often difficult to maintain. We describe a partnership formed to investigate migrant and seasonal farmworker exposure to pesticides in North Carolina and to develop effective interventions to reduce exposure. North Carolina ranks fifth in the United States in the number of farmworkers; most are from Mexico, and a significant minority come to the United States on work contracts. Several barriers to establishing effective collaboration were recognized in this partnership, including stereotypes, cultural differences, competing demands for time and attention, and differences in orientation to power structures. To overcome these barriers, members of the partnership took actions in three domains: clarifying the different goals of each partner, operationalizing a model of participation that could involve many different community segments developing cultural sensitivity. By taking these actions, the work of the partnership was accomplished in ways that met the criteria for success of both academic researchers and community members. This approach can be used by others to develop collaborative relationships to investigate environmental health issues within a community-based participatory framework.

  15. Something for everyone? A community and academic partnership to address farmworker pesticide exposure in North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A; Pell, A I

    2001-01-01

    Partnerships between academic researchers and community organizations are frequently formed to address environmental health concerns in underserved communities. Although such participatory approaches to research combine valuable assets of both partners, they are often difficult to maintain. We describe a partnership formed to investigate migrant and seasonal farmworker exposure to pesticides in North Carolina and to develop effective interventions to reduce exposure. North Carolina ranks fifth in the United States in the number of farmworkers; most are from Mexico, and a significant minority come to the United States on work contracts. Several barriers to establishing effective collaboration were recognized in this partnership, including stereotypes, cultural differences, competing demands for time and attention, and differences in orientation to power structures. To overcome these barriers, members of the partnership took actions in three domains: clarifying the different goals of each partner, operationalizing a model of participation that could involve many different community segments developing cultural sensitivity. By taking these actions, the work of the partnership was accomplished in ways that met the criteria for success of both academic researchers and community members. This approach can be used by others to develop collaborative relationships to investigate environmental health issues within a community-based participatory framework. PMID:11427393

  16. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  17. Parental occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring: Findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Helen D; Fritschi, Lin; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Glass, Deborah C; Miligi, Lucia; Dockerty, John D; Lightfoot, Tracy; Clavel, Jacqueline; Roman, Eve; Spector, Logan G; Kaatsch, Peter; Metayer, Catherine; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Simpson, Jill; Rudant, Jérémie; Sidi, Vasiliki; Rondelli, Roberto; Orsi, Laurent; Kang, Alice; Petridou, Eleni; Schüz, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Maternal occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy and/or paternal occupational pesticide exposure around conception have been suggested to increase risk of leukemia in the offspring. With a view to providing insight in this area we pooled individual level data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Occupational data were harmonized to a compatible format. Pooled individual analyses were undertaken using unconditional logistic regression. Using exposure data from mothers of 8,236 cases, and 14,850 controls, and from fathers of 8,169 cases and 14,201 controls the odds ratio (OR) for maternal exposure during pregnancy and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78, 1.30) and for paternal exposure around conception 1.20 (95% 1.06, 1.38). For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the OR for maternal exposure during pregnancy was 1.94 (CI 1.19, 3.18) and for paternal exposure around conception 0.91 (CI 0.66, 1.24.) based on data from 1,329 case and 12,141 control mothers, and 1,231 case and 11,383 control fathers. Our finding of a significantly increased risk of AML in the offspring with maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy is consistent with previous reports. We also found a slight increase in risk of ALL with paternal exposure around conception which appeared to be more evident in children diagnosed at the age of five years or more and those with T cell ALL which raises interesting questions on possible mechanisms. PMID:24700406

  18. Long-term exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid status in adults in a heavily contaminated area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Sarcinelli, Paula Novaes; Simões Rosa, Ana Cristina; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Sergio

    2013-11-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides are endocrine disruptors altering the thyroid hormonal system. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between exposure to OC pesticides and thyroid status in adults from a rural area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, heavily contaminated with OC pesticides. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 303 men and 305 women >14 years old. Concentrations of 19 OC pesticides and levels of free thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin (TgAg) antibodies were analyzed in serum samples. Associations between OC pesticides concentrations and values of biochemical thyroid parameters were determined using multivariate regression models stratified by gender. Prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and the presence of TPOAb antibodies were higher than those described for euthyroid populations elsewhere. After adjusting for confounders, total T3 levels were associated with lower concentrations of endosulphan 2 in men and with higher alpha-chlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan 2, and methoxychlor in women. Levels of free T4 showed inverse association with beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p'-DDT in men, and were positively associated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT in women. TSH levels were associated with higher beta-HCH in men. A positive association was observed between exposure methoxychlor in males and presence of TPOAb, but no association with TPOAb was found in women. These results suggest that OC pesticides can affect the thyroid system through gender-specific mechanisms that may differ among compounds. Further detailed investigations and health monitoring should be warranted for this population. PMID:24183346

  19. A COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA: RESULTS FROM THE AGGREGATE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more susceptible to pesticides because they are undergoing rapid development and more likely to engage in activities in which they directly contact contaminated surfaces. As a result, children may be more exposed to pesticides through normal daily activitie...

  20. A systematic review of the influence of occupational organophosphate pesticides exposure on neurological impairment

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Noriko; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature and to estimate whether or not there is a causal relationship between occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and either neurological impairment or depressive symptoms. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health and PsycINFO (1980 to April 2014). Setting Observational studies (cross-sectional, cohort and case–control studies) with exposed and unexposed groups. Participants People who occupationally use OPs for more than 1 month and their family. Primary outcome Results of neurological core test batteries or depressive symptoms such as headaches, anxiety and dizziness. Study appraisal and synthesis methods After an extensive search of various literature databases, one author screened titles and abstracts, searched the relevant publications manually and conducted data extraction. All extracted data from the selected articles were synthesised for analysis. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Results Of the 1024 articles retrieved by database search, 24 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for analysis. Of the selected studies, 17 were cross-sectional and the remaining 7 were cohort and nested case–control studies. The geographical areas included in the studies were the USA (10 studies), the UK (4 studies), Africa (4 studies), Asia (3 studies), Europe (2 studies) and South America (1 study). Each of the included studies used different exposure and outcome assessments such as neurological scores and depressive symptoms, making it difficult to compare the results exactly. Most studies showed that exposed groups had poorer results than unexposed groups; however, owing to the inconsistent neurological test batteries, there was not enough pooling evidence to conduct a meta-analysis. Conclusions The findings of this literature review indicate that it is necessary to standardise the neurological or

  1. Exposure to well water and pesticides in Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in the Madrid area

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.J.; Mateo, D.; Gimenez-Roldan, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Past exposure to well water and pesticides was assessed in 128 unselected Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 256 age and sex-matched controls. All were residents in a defined urban area of Madrid, Spain. In keeping with other reports, we found that exposure to well water might be a factor associated with the likelihood of developing PD, though only prolonged exposures of 30 years or longer were significantly different between PD and controls (p less than 0.02). In contrast, past exposure to pesticides did not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing PD. Prolonged well water drinking antedating the development of PD was not associated with early onset of the disease, nor did such cases progress to greater disability. Future case-control studies addressing prolonged well water consumption as a risk factor in PD should look for differences in the content of substances other than pesticides in the water as determined by the source of water to which patients may have been specifically exposed.

  2. Effects of a sublethal pesticide exposure on locomotor behavior: a video-tracking analysis in larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Denoël, Mathieu; Libon, Sylvie; Kestemont, Patrick; Brasseur, Catherine; Focant, Jean-François; De Pauw, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as endosulfan have been shown to have both lethal and sublethal effects on amphibians. In this context, behavioral endpoints have proved their usefulness in evidencing impacts of such chemicals at environmental concentrations that do not necessarily cause mortality. The recent development of video-tracking technologies now offers the possibility of accurately quantifying locomotor behaviors. However, these techniques have not yet been applied to evaluating the toxicity of pesticides in amphibians. We therefore aimed at determining the potential toxicity of endosulfan on endpoints associated with locomotion after short-term environmental endosulfan exposure in Rana temporaria tadpoles and at using these data as warning systems for survival alterations after a longer exposure. To this end, we analyzed video-tracks of 64 tadpoles (two pesticide treatments: 5 and 50 μg L(-1), one control and one solvent-control) with Ethovision XT 7 software. The highest endosulfan concentration had a significant effect on all four behavioral endpoints. Contaminated tadpoles traveled shorter distances, swam less often, at a lower mean speed, and occupied a less peripherical position than control tadpoles. The lowest endosulfan concentration had similar but lower effects, and did not affect mean speed during swimming. Survival was reduced only after a long-term exposure to endosulfan and was associated with short-term behavioral dysfunctions. These results show that endosulfan strongly affects the behavioral repertory of amphibian tadpoles, but in different ways depending on concentration, thus suggesting that the pesticide has complex modes of action. Given the importance of locomotion and space use in tadpole success in their aquatic environment, these results confirm the toxic action of endosulfan. By highlighting effects before mortality markers, video-tracking systems also show their potential as sentinels of sublethal effects of pesticides.

  3. [Using atomic force microscopy to analyze morphological changes and mechanical properties caused by cellular exposure to low doses of pesticides].

    PubMed

    L'Abbate, N; Lasalvia, M; Perna, G; D'Antonio, P; Quartucci, G; Gallo, C; Capozzi, V

    2012-01-01

    A commercial pesticide is usually composed of active ingredients and formulants. Among the active ingredients, Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid chemical widely used for synthesizing pesticides products which are very effective in damaging the central nervous system of pests. In this work, we analyze, by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), cellular morphological changes induced by exposure to a Deltamethrin-based commercial pesticide (Decaflow). AFM microscopy, in addition to the well-known characterization of the cellular topography, has the ability to monitor interesting biomechanical parameters of the surface as roughness and elastic modulus. In particular, we exposed normal human keratinocytes for 24 hours at different solutions of Decaflow, well below the threshold of cytotoxicity. The AFM images of exposed cells show alterations of surface cell shape. Moreover exposed cells are characterized by an increase of the value of membrane roughness. The mechanical properties of cells are also modified after Decaflow exposure, as confirmed by a decrease of the elasticity modulus with increasing the concentration of pesticide.

  4. Associations of maternal organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity with birth outcomes in SAWASDEE birth cohort, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Srinual, Niphan; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Riederer, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure has been reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of OP pesticides on human fetal development have not yet been elucidated. Our pilot study birth cohort, the Study of Asian Women and Offspring's Development and Environmental Exposures (SAWASDEE cohort) aimed to evaluate environmental chemical exposures and their relation to birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment in 52 pregnant farmworkers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A large array of data was collected multiple times during pregnancy including approximately monthly urine samples for evaluation of pesticide exposure, three blood samples for pesticide-related enzyme measurements and questionnaire data. This study investigated the changes in maternal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and their relation to urinary diakylphosphates (DAPs), class-related metabolites of OP pesticides, during pregnancy. Maternal AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PON1 activities were measured three times during pregnancy and urinary DAP concentrations were measured, on average, 8 times from enrollment during pregnancy until delivery. Among the individuals in the group with low maternal PON1 activity (n=23), newborn head circumference was negatively correlated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (gestational age=12±3 weeks; β=-1.0 cm, p=0.03 and β=-1.8 cm, p<0.01, respectively) and at 32 weeks pregnancy (β=-1.1cm, p=0.04 and β=-2.6 cm, p=0.01, respectively). Furthermore, among these mothers, newborn birthweight was also negatively associated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (β=-219.7 g, p=0.05 and β=-371.3g, p=0.02, respectively). Associations between maternal DAP levels and newborn outcomes were not observed in the group of participants with high maternal PON1 activity. Our results support previous findings from US birth

  5. Estimating Pesticide Exposure from Dietary Intake and Organic Food Choices: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. Objectives We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Methods Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce (“conventional consumers”), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Results Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p < 0.05). DAP concentrations were also significantly lower in groups reporting more frequent consumption of organic produce (p < 0.02). Conclusions Long-term dietary exposure to OPs was estimated from dietary intake data, and estimates were consistent with DAP measurements. More frequent consumption of organic produce was associated with lower DAPs. Citation Curl CL, Beresford SA, Fenske RA, Fitzpatrick AL, Lu C, Nettleton JA, Kaufman JD. 2015. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Environ

  6. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  7. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  8. Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients: characteristics and outcomes following high-dose oseltamivir exposure.

    PubMed

    Watcharananan, S P; Suwatanapongched, T; Wacharawanichkul, P; Chantratitaya, W; Mavichak, V; Mossad, S B

    2010-04-01

    We report 2 cases of severe pneumonia due to the novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in kidney transplant recipients. Our patients initially experienced influenza-like illness that rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia within 48 h. The patients became hypoxic and required non-invasive ventilation. The novel influenza A/H1N1 2009 was identified from their nasal swabs. These cases were treated successfully with a relatively high dose of oseltamivir, adjusted for their renal function. Clinical improvement was documented only after a week of antiviral therapy. Despite early antiviral treatment, we showed that morbidity following novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection is high among kidney transplant recipients. PMID:20102550

  9. Organochlorine Pesticides in Consumer Fish and Mollusks of Liaoning Province, China: Distribution and Human Exposure Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmei; Tao, Minhui; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Ying; Ma, Dandan; He, Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    Fish and mollusk samples were collected from markets located in 12 cities in Liaoning province, China, during August and September 2007, and 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. DDT, HCH, endosulfan, chlordane, and HCB were the dominating OCPs, with mean concentrations and ranges of, respectively, 15.41 and 0.57 to 177.56 ng/g, 0.84 and below detection limit (BDL) to 22.99 ng/g, 1.31 and BDL to 13.1 ng/g, 1.05 and BDL to 15.68 ng/g, and 0.63 and BDL to 9.21 ng/g in all fish and mollusk samples. The concentrations of other OCPs generally were low and were detectable in a minority of samples, reflecting the low levels of these OCPs in the study region. In general, OCP concentrations were obviously higher in fish than in mollusks, and higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish, which indicated, first, that freshwater fish are more easily influenced than seawater fish and mollusks by OCP residues in agricultural areas and, second, that there are different biota accumulation factors for OCPs between fish and mollusk. To learn the consumption of fish and mollusk, 256 questionnaires were sent to families in 12 cities of Liaoning province. Using the contamination data, average estimated daily intakes of OCPs via fish and mollusk consumption were calculated, which were used for exposure assessment. The public health risks caused by exposure to OCPs in the course of fish and mollusk consumption were compared to noncancer benchmarks and cancer benchmarks. PMID:20352204

  10. Prenatal exposure to pesticide ingredient piperonyl butoxide and childhood cough in an urban cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Horton, Megan K.; Camann, David E.; Liu, Xinhua; Reardon, Ann Marie; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Zhang, Hanjie; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Previously we reported that airborne concentrations of cis-permethrin, but not trans-permethrin, measured during pregnancy in an inner city pediatric cohort was associated with cough by age 5. However, the effect of subsequent exposures to both permethrins during early childhood, and to piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a synergist for residential pyrethroid insecticides) remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that prenatal and age 5-6 year measures of PBO and permethrins would be associated with cough at age 5-6 years in this cohort. Further, we explored the associations between these pesticides measures and wheeze, asthma, seroatopy, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Methods PBO and permethrins were measured in personal air during the third trimester of pregnancy and indoor residential air at age 5-6 years (n=224). Health outcome questionnaires were administered to the mothers of 5-6 years old children. Indoor allergen specific and total immunoglobulin (Ig) E production was measured from sera collected at age 5, and FeNO was measured at 5-6 years. The hypotheses were tested using regression models adjusting for common confounders. Results Noninfectious cough was reported among 14% of children at age 5-6 years. Measures of prenatal PBO, but not age 5-6 year PBO or permethrins, increased the odds of cough [OR (95% CI): 1.27 (1.09-1.48), p<0.01; n=217]. No significant associations were found for other measured health outcomes. Conclusions Prenatal PBO exposure was associated with childhood cough. It is unclear whether the observed effect is due mainly to PBO itself or residential pyrethroids of which PBO is an indicator. PMID:22935766

  11. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants.

  12. Health impacts of pesticide exposure in a cohort of outdoor workers.

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John; Sladden, Tim; Morgan, Geoffrey; Berry, Geoffrey; Brooks, Lyndon; McMichael, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    We compared mortality of 1,999 outdoor staff working as part of an insecticide application program during 1935-1996 with that of 1,984 outdoor workers not occupationally exposed to insecticides, and with the Australian population. Surviving subjects also completed a morbidity questionnaire. Mortality was significantly higher in both exposed and control subjects compared with the Australian population. The major cause was mortality from smoking-related diseases. Mortality was also significantly increased in exposed subjects for a number of conditions that do not appear to be the result of smoking patterns. Compared with the general Australian population, mortality over the total study period was increased for asthma [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 3.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-7.10] and for diabetes (SMR = 3.57; 95% CI, 1.16-8.32 for subjects working < 5 years). Mortality from pancreatic cancer was more frequent in subjects exposed to 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (SMR = 5.27; 95% CI, 1.09-15.40 for subjects working < 3 years). Compared with the control population, mortality from leukemia was increased in subjects working with more modern chemicals (standardized incidence ratio = 20.90; 95% CI, 1.54-284.41 for myeloid leukemia in the highest exposure group). There was also an increase in self-reported chronic illness and asthma, and lower neuropsychologic functioning scores among surviving exposed subjects when compared with controls. Diabetes was reported more commonly by subjects reporting occupational use of herbicides. These findings lend weight to other studies suggesting an association between adverse health effects and exposure to pesticides. PMID:12727601

  13. Effect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. Results For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young

  14. Nanoparticle-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase: An Exposure Biomarker of Organophosphate Pesticides and Nerve AgentsOrganophosphate Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Barry, Richard C.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Timchalk, Charles; Gassman, Paul L.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) adducts, which is a potential exposure biomarker for organophosphate pesticides (OP) and chemical warfare nerve agent exposures. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were used as selective sorbents to capture the phosphorylated AChE adduct, and quantum dots (ZnS@CdS, QDs) were used as tags to label monoclonal anti-AChE antibody to track the immunorecognition events. The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the ZrO2 NPs, which were pre-coated on a screen printed electrode (SPE) by electrodeposition, phosphorylated AChE and QD-anti-AChE. The captured QD tags were determined on the SPE by electrochemical stripping analysis of its metallic component (cadmium) after an acid-dissolution step. Paraoxon was used as a model OP insecticide to prepare the phosphorylated AChE adduct to demonstrate the proof of principle for this sensor technology. The paraoxon-AChE adduct was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum, and the binding affinity of anti-AChE to the paraoxon-AChE was validated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The parameters (e.g., amount of ZrO2 NP, QD-anti-AChE concentration,) that govern the electrochemical response of immunosensors were optimized. The voltammetric response of the immunosensor is highly linear over the range of 10 pM to 4 nM paraoxon-AChE, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 8 pM. This new nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor thus provides a sensitive and quantitative tool for biomonitoring exposure to OP pesticides and nerve agents.

  15. Meta-modeling of the pesticide fate model MACRO for groundwater exposure assessments using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Stenemo, Fredrik; Lindahl, Anna M L; Gärdenäs, Annemieke; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2007-08-15

    Several simple index methods that use easily accessible data have been developed and included in decision-support systems to estimate pesticide leaching across larger areas. However, these methods often lack important process descriptions (e.g. macropore flow), which brings into question their reliability. Descriptions of macropore flow have been included in simulation models, but these are too complex and demanding for spatial applications. To resolve this dilemma, a neural network simulation meta-model of the dual-permeability macropore flow model MACRO was created for pesticide groundwater exposure assessment. The model was parameterized using pedotransfer functions that require as input the clay and sand content of the topsoil and subsoil, and the topsoil organic carbon content. The meta-model also requires the topsoil pesticide half-life and the soil organic carbon sorption coefficient as input. A fully connected feed-forward multilayer perceptron classification network with two hidden layers, linked to fully connected feed-forward multilayer perceptron neural networks with one hidden layer, trained on sub-sets of the target variable, was shown to be a suitable meta-model for the intended purpose. A Fourier amplitude sensitivity test showed that the model output (the 80th percentile average yearly pesticide concentration at 1 m depth for a 20 year simulation period) was sensitive to all input parameters. The two input parameters related to pesticide characteristics (i.e. soil organic carbon sorption coefficient and topsoil pesticide half-life) were the most influential, but texture in the topsoil was also quite important since it was assumed to control the mass exchange coefficient that regulates the strength of macropore flow. This is in contrast to models based on the advection-dispersion equation where soil texture is relatively unimportant. The use of the meta-model is exemplified with a case-study where the spatial variability of pesticide leaching is

  16. Use of biomarkers to indicate exposure of children to organophosphate pesticides: implications for a longitudinal study of children's environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Denise; Barr, Dana B; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Because of their history of widespread use in the United States and unknown long-term health effects, organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are being considered as a chemical class of interest in planning for the National Children's Study, a longitudinal study of children's environmental health. The availability and appropriate use of biomarkers to determine absorbed doses of environmental chemicals such as OPs are critical issues. Biomarkers of OP exposure are typically measured in blood and urine; however, postpartum meconium has been shown to be a promising matrix for assessing cumulative in utero exposure to the fetus, and studies are currently in progress to determine the utility of using saliva and amniotic fluid as matrices. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available OP exposure monitoring methods (cholinesterase inhibition in blood, pesticides in blood, metabolites in urine and alternative matrices); study design issues for a large, long-term study of children's environmental health; and current research and future research needs. Because OPs are rapidly metabolized and excreted, the utility of one-time spot measurements of OP biomarkers is questionable unless background exposure levels are relatively stable over time or a specific time frame of interest for the study is identified and samples are collected accordingly. Biomarkers of OP exposure can be a valuable tool in epidemiology of children's environmental health, as long as they are applied and interpreted appropriately. PMID:14644670

  17. Levels and determinants of pesticide exposure in operators involved in treatment of vineyards: results of the PESTEXPO Study.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Isabelle; Lebailly, Pierre; Rondeau, Virginie; Bouchart, Valérie; Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Canal-Raffin, Mireille; Garrigou, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Exposure assessment is a critical point for epidemiological studies on pesticide health effects. PESTEXPO study provides data on levels of exposure and their determinants in real conditions of pesticide use. We described levels of exposure in vineyards during treatment tasks (mixing, spraying and cleaning) and we analysed their determinants. Sixty-seven operators using dithiocarbamates or folpet were observed. Detailed information on the tasks (general conditions, operator, farm and equipment characteristics) were collected and dermal contamination was measured, using patches placed onto the skin on eleven body parts, and washing the hands at the end of each phase. The spraying phase represented roughly half of the contamination, whereas mixing and equipment cleaning accounted for 30% and 20% of the contamination, respectively. The main determinants of exposure were the number of phases, the characteristics of the equipment, the educational level of the operator and his status (farm -worker or -owner) and the general characteristics of the vines. Algorithms were built to estimate daily external contamination, according to these characteristics during mixing, spraying or equipment cleaning. With additional information of frequency and duration of use, they will enable to develop exposure indices usable in epidemiological studies on farmers' health.

  18. Assessment of exposure to organochlorine pesticides and levels of DNA damage in mother-infant pairs of an agrarian community.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Hernandez, Diana Lorena; Montero-Montoya, Regina; Serrano-García, Luis; Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Jasso-Pineda, Yolanda; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to organochlorine pesticides was studied in a group of mother-infant pairs living in a rural area where agriculture is the main economic activity. Fumigation in this zone is performed with airplanes, thus affecting the inhabited areas around them, including schools. Heparinized venous blood of mothers and umbilical cords was used to evaluate the olive tail moment in the comet assay, and micronuclei, chromatin buds, and nucleoplasmic bridges in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cord blood samples were taken at the moment of birth only from natural and normal parturitions. Determinations of hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxichlordane, t and c-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, mirex, alpha and beta-endosulfan, alpha, beta and gamma hexachlorocyclohexane, and p'p'-DDT, p'p'-DDE were conducted to establish the differential distribution of the toxicants between compartments, i.e., mother and umbilical cord. Significantly higher pesticide levels were found in umbilical cord plasma than in mothers' plasma for almost all compounds tested, except DDE and oxychlordane. Significantly higher olive tail moments were found in umbilical cords than in mothers, whereas micronuclei frequencies were higher in mothers than in umbilical cords. However, neither the levels of micronuclei nor the olive tail moment were correlated with pesticide levels. Given that no other exposure to toxic compounds has been identified in this region, the lack of correlation between genotoxicity biomarkers and pesticide levels may be due to the variability of the exposure and to endogenous processes related to lipid mobility during pregnancy, the metabolism of the compounds, and individual susceptibilities. PMID:23355095

  19. Assessment of exposure to organochlorine pesticides and levels of DNA damage in mother-infant pairs of an agrarian community.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Hernandez, Diana Lorena; Montero-Montoya, Regina; Serrano-García, Luis; Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Jasso-Pineda, Yolanda; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to organochlorine pesticides was studied in a group of mother-infant pairs living in a rural area where agriculture is the main economic activity. Fumigation in this zone is performed with airplanes, thus affecting the inhabited areas around them, including schools. Heparinized venous blood of mothers and umbilical cords was used to evaluate the olive tail moment in the comet assay, and micronuclei, chromatin buds, and nucleoplasmic bridges in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cord blood samples were taken at the moment of birth only from natural and normal parturitions. Determinations of hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxichlordane, t and c-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, mirex, alpha and beta-endosulfan, alpha, beta and gamma hexachlorocyclohexane, and p'p'-DDT, p'p'-DDE were conducted to establish the differential distribution of the toxicants between compartments, i.e., mother and umbilical cord. Significantly higher pesticide levels were found in umbilical cord plasma than in mothers' plasma for almost all compounds tested, except DDE and oxychlordane. Significantly higher olive tail moments were found in umbilical cords than in mothers, whereas micronuclei frequencies were higher in mothers than in umbilical cords. However, neither the levels of micronuclei nor the olive tail moment were correlated with pesticide levels. Given that no other exposure to toxic compounds has been identified in this region, the lack of correlation between genotoxicity biomarkers and pesticide levels may be due to the variability of the exposure and to endogenous processes related to lipid mobility during pregnancy, the metabolism of the compounds, and individual susceptibilities.

  20. Dietary patterns among the Metro Atlanta Cohort: implications for population-based longitudinal dietary pesticide exposure and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Anne M; Pearson, Melanie A; Lu, Chensheng

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing dietary consumption patterns is critical to dietary pesticide exposure assessment. We compared consumption patterns between adults (age 18-60) in the Metro Atlanta Cohort (MAC), a longitudinal study of pesticide exposure among Atlanta residents, and US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adults. We focused on foods commonly eaten by US adults and foods likely to contain certain pesticide residues. MAC participants provided consumption data for 6 days per month for 1 year using a web-based data collection tool. We defined "percent eaters" as the percent of participants who reported eating a particular food in 24 h. We computed the NHANES weighted percent eaters and 95% confidence limits (CLs) using the 24-h dietary recall data. We calculated the MAC percent eaters for each sampling day and the percent of days this number fell below, within, or above the NHANES 95% CLs. We also re-sampled the MAC percent eaters across sampling days to find whether the resulting distribution resembled the NHANES estimate, and used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate whether season affected the number of MAC eaters of a particular food on a given sampling day. In general, across all sampling days, a greater proportion of MAC participants reported eating banana, broccoli, cream, grapes, lettuce, onion, peach, pear, peas, strawberries, string beans, and tomatoes than the national estimate, whereas the proportion of apple, spinach, ketchup and white bread/roll eaters was similar, and the proportion of milk drinkers was lower. Season predicted the number of MAC peach and strawberry eaters but not other foods. The data show how a higher proportion of Atlanta adults may eat certain foods (e.g., peaches in summer or strawberries in spring) than the national average depending on season or other factors. An exposure assessment that ignored this difference could underestimate dietary pesticide intakes. PMID:20354565

  1. Interactive effects of pesticide exposure and habitat structure on behavior and predation of a marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Renick, Violet Compton; Anderson, Todd W; Morgan, Steven G; Cherr, Gary N

    2015-03-01

    Coastal development has generated multiple stressors in marine and estuarine ecosystems, including habitat degradation and pollutant exposure, but the effects of these stressors on the ecology of fishes remain poorly understood. We studied the separate and combined effects of an acute 4 h sublethal exposure of the pyrethroid pesticide esfenvalerate and structural habitat complexity on behavior and predation risk of larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Larvae were exposed to four nominal esfenvalerate concentrations (control, 0.12, 0.59, 1.18 μg/L), before placement into 12 L mesocosms with a three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) predator. Five treatments of artificial eelgrass included a (1) uniform and (2) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a low density (500 shoots per m(2)), a (3) uniform and (4) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a high density (1,000 shoots per m(2)), and (5) the absence of eelgrass. The capture success of predators and aggregative behavior of prey were observed in each mesocosm for 10 min of each trial, and mortality of prey was recorded after 60 min. Exposure to esfenvalerate increased the proportion of larvae with swimming abnormalities. Surprisingly, prey mortality did not increase linearly with pesticide exposure but increased with habitat structure (density of eelgrass), which may have been a consequence of compensating predator behavior. The degree of prey aggregation decreased with both habitat structure and pesticide exposure, suggesting that anti-predator behaviors by prey may have been hampered by the interactive effects of both of these factors.

  2. AhR signalling and dioxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years. Although TCDD has been classified by the WHO as a human carcinogen, its carcinogenic potential to humans is not clearly demonstrated. It was first believed that AhR activation accounted for most, if not all, biological properties of dioxins. However, certain AhR agonists found in vegetables do not induce chloracne, and other chemicals, in particular certain therapeutic agents, may induce a chloracne-like syndrome without activating AhR. It is time to rethink the mechanism of dioxin toxicity and analyse in more details the biological events following exposure to these compounds and other AhR agonists, some of which have a very different chemical structure than TCDD. In particular various food-containing AhR agonists are non-toxic and may on the contrary have beneficial properties to human health. PMID:24239782

  3. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  4. Prenatal 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl exposure modulates induction of rat hepatic CYP 1A1, 1B1, and AhR by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakui, Shin . E-mail: wakui@azabu-u.ac.jp; Yokoo, Kiyofumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Muto, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hano, Hiroshi; Furusato, Masakuni; Endou, Hitoshi

    2006-02-01

    We previously reported the finding that prenatal exposure to a relatively low dose of PCB126 increases the rate of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma, while a high dose decreased it. One of the most important factors determining the sensitivity to mammary carcinogenesis is the metabolic stage at administration of the carcinogenic agent. DMBA is a procarcinogen that recruits the host metabolism to yield its ultimate carcinogenic form, and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 (CYP1) conduct this metabolism. We investigated the hepatic expression of CYP1 and AhR following oral administration of DMBA (100 mg/kg b.w.) (i.g.) to 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats whose dams had been treated (i.g.) with 2.5 ng, 250 ng, 7.5 {mu}g of PCB126/kg or the vehicle on days 13 to 19 post-conception. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the prenatal exposure to a relatively low dose of PCB126 (the 250 ng group) prolonged the higher expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhR mRNA, while prenatal exposure to a high dose of PCB126 (the 7.5 {mu}g group) prolonged the higher expression of CYP1A1 and AhR mRNA. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses were consistent with mRNAs changes. Because DMBA oxidation produces a highly mutagenic metabolite and is finally catalyzed by CYP1B1, a relatively low PCB126 dose might produce the biological character to potentially increase the risk of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma.

  5. Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

  6. The Be-WetSpa-Pest modeling approach to simulate human and environmental exposure from pesticide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Claudia; Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easy to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  7. Dietary exposure to low pesticide doses causes long-term immunosuppression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Albert, Anathea; Drouillard, Ken; Haffner, G Douglas; Dixon, Brian

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between dietary exposure of pesticides, DDT, and dieldrin and immunosuppression in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Immune function was measured before, during, and after a 10-week exposure period with the use of both adaptive and innate immunity responses. Exposure to low doses (75 ng/g body wt DDT or 2.1 ng/g dieldrin total dose over the 10 weeks) resulted in significant suppressive effects on antibody production and secondary delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). The high doses (750 ng/g DDT and 21 ng/g dieldrin), however, did not affect antibody production, DTH, or oxidative burst in a predictable dose-response manner. The differences in magnitude and direction of the effects of the two dosing regimes were likely due to differences in chemical exposure on the basis of feeding and effectiveness of chemical uptake. The low dose results demonstrated that moderate concentrations of pesticides, frequently observed in the environment, are able to weaken the immune response of R. pipiens.

  8. Quantifying the Effects of Pesticide Exposure on Seasonal Fecundity Rates of Birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current risk assessment practice uses the results of avian reproduction tests in risk quotients to classify the potential for pesticide use to adversely affect avian reproductive success. However, as risk assessors move toward better understanding the population-level consequenc...

  9. Distinct influence of filter strips on acute and chronic pesticide aquatic environmental exposure assessments across U.S. EPA scenarios.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, George J; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are proposed for protection of receiving water bodies and aquatic organisms from pesticides in runoff, but there is debate regarding the efficiency and filter size requirements. This debate is largely due to the belief that no quantitative methodology exists for predicting runoff buffer efficiency when conducting acute and/or chronic environmental exposure assessments. Previous research has proposed a modeling approach that links the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) PRZM/EXAMS with a well-tested process-based model for VFS (VFSMOD). In this research, we apply the modeling framework to determine (1) the most important input factors for quantifying mass reductions of pesticides by VFS in aquatic exposure assessments relative to three distinct U.S. EPA scenarios encompassing a wide range of conditions; (2) the expected range in percent reductions in acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs); and (3) the differential influence of VFS when conducting acute versus chronic exposure assessments. This research utilized three, 30-yr U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. A global sensitivity analysis (GSA) method identified the most important input factors based on discrete uniform probability distributions for five input factors: VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (K(oc)), half-lives in both water and soil phases, and application timing. For percent reductions in acute and chronic EECs, VL and application timing were consistently the most important input factors independent of EPA scenario. The potential ranges in acute and chronic EECs varied as a function of EPA scenario and application timing. Reductions in acute EECs were typically less than percent reductions in chronic EECs because acute exposure was driven primarily by large individual rainfall and runon events. Importantly, generic specification of VFS design characteristics equal across scenarios

  10. Utilization of umbilical cords to assess in utero exposure to persistent pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Burse, V W; Najam, A R; Williams, C C; Korver, M P; Smith, B F; Sam, P M; Young, S L; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    In support of a study to relate developmental and cognitive effects with prenatal exposure to selected environmental toxicants, we developed and applied an analytical method to determine the concentration of two persistent pesticides, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and 32 specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 316 umbilical cords taken in 1986-1987 from women of the Faroe Islands. The analytical method consisted of homogenization of the cords, partitioning, microsilica gel column chromatography for clean-up, and dual-column capillary gas chromatography (DB-5 and DB-1701) with electron capture detection. Several quality control parameters were followed to monitor the performance of the method. Important criteria used before reporting unknown data were the recovery of in vitro-spiked analytes from a bovine umbilical cord (BUC) and the percentage lipid obtained for a Certified Reference Material (CRM)-350 of mackerel oil (MO). Recoveries of analytes that had been spiked at two concentration ranges (0.26-0.95 ng/g whole weight; 0.35-2.42 ng/g whole weight) into bovine cords ranged from 38.5% to 158% and from 50.4% to 145%, respectively, with a median recovery of 77.7%. Measurement of the percentage lipid for CRM-350 ranged from 73.8% to 107% with a median lipid value of 96.0%. The most prevalent analytes detected (%) in unknown umbilical cords were HCB (100), DDE (100), Ballschmiter/Zell PCBs 153 (100), 138 (98), 180 (98), 170 (93), 118 (88), 187 (86), and 146 (83), with corresponding median concentrations (ng/g whole weight) of 0.17, 1.19, 0.38, 0.30, 0.17, 0.11, 0.12, 0.09, and 0.07, respectively. Total PCB--sum of all measurable PCB congeners--had a median concentration of 1.37 ng/g whole weight. The analytes, which were very low in lipid content were also quantified on a lipid-adjusted basis, which provided an analytical challenge in these umbilical cord samples. The gravimetrically measured lipids in the

  11. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  12. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings. PMID:24579518

  13. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  14. Evaluation of exposure to organophosphate, carbamate, phenoxy acid, and chlorophenol pesticides in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean for both household and agricultural purposes. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds can cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure of pregnant women residing in 10 Caribbean countries to the following commonly used classes of pesticides in the Caribbean: organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, phenoxy acids, and chlorophenols. Out of 438 urine samples collected, 15 samples were randomly selected from each Caribbean country giving a total of 150 samples. Samples were analyzed for the following metabolites: six OP dialkylphosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)]; two carbamate metabolites [2-isopropoxyphenol (2-IPP) and carbofuranphenol]; one phenoxy acid 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); and five chlorophenols [2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)]. OP metabolites were consistently detected in ≥60% of the samples from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, and Jamaica. Of the carbamate metabolites, 2-IPP was detected in seven of the 10 Caribbean countries with a detection frequency around 30%, whereas carbofuranphenol was detected in only one sample. The detection frequency for the phenoxy acid 2,4-D ranged from 20% in Grenada to a maximum of 67% in Belize. Evidence of exposure to chlorophenol pesticides was also established with 2,4-DCP by geometric means ranging from 0.52 μg L(-1) in St Lucia to a maximum of 1.68 μg L(-1) in Bermuda. Several extreme concentrations of 2,5-DCP were detected in four Caribbean countries-Belize (1100 μg L(-1)), Bermuda (870 μg L(-1)), Jamaica (1300 μg L(-1)), and St Kitts and Nevis (1400 μg L(-1

  15. Association of Parkinson’s Disease and Its Subtypes with Agricultural Pesticide Exposures in Men: A Case–Control Study in France

    PubMed Central

    Spinosi, Johan; Delabre, Laurène; Gourlet, Véronique; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Bénatru, Isabelle; Goldberg, Marcel; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticides have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), but there are few data on important exposure characteristics such as dose–effect relations. It is unknown whether associations depend on clinical PD subtypes. Objectives We examined quantitative aspects of occupational pesticide exposure associated with PD and investigated whether associations were similar across PD subtypes. Methods As part of a French population-based case–control study including men enrolled in the health insurance plan for farmers and agricultural workers, cases with clinically confirmed PD were identified through antiparkinsonian drug claims. Two controls were matched to each case. Using a comprehensive occupational questionnaire, we computed indicators for different dimensions of exposure (duration, cumulative exposure, intensity). We used conditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among exposed male farmers (133 cases, 298 controls). We examined the relation between pesticides and PD subtypes (tremor dominant/non-tremor dominant) using polytomous logistic regression. Results There appeared to be a stronger association with intensity than duration of pesticide exposure based on separate models, as well as a synergistic interaction between duration and intensity (p-interaction = 0.04). High-intensity exposure to insecticides was positively associated with PD among those with low-intensity exposure to fungicides and vice versa, suggesting independent effects. Pesticide exposure in farms that specialized in vineyards was associated with PD (OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.31, 4.98). The association with intensity of pesticide use was stronger, although not significantly (p-heterogeneity = 0.60), for tremor-dominant (p-trend < 0.01) than for non-tremor–dominant PD (p-trend = 0.24). Conclusions This study helps to better characterize different aspects of pesticide exposure associated with PD, and shows a significant

  16. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  17. Pesticide potential dermal exposure during the manipulation of concentrated mixtures at small horticultural and floricultural production units in Argentina: the formulation effect.

    PubMed

    Berenstein, Giselle A; Hughes, Enrique A; March, Hugo; Rojic, Guillermo; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2014-02-15

    Potential dermal exposure measurements of horticultural and floricultural field operators that handled concentrated pesticides showed a correlation with the types of formulations used (liquid or solid) during the mix and load stage. For liquid formulations, hand exposure was 22-62 times greater than that for solid ones. The dermal exposure mechanism was studied for this formulation under laboratory conditions, finding that the rupture of the aluminum seal of the pesticide container and the color of the liquid formulation are important factors. Additionally, significant external surface contamination of pesticide containers collected at horticultural farms was found. This could partially account for the differences between the exposure levels of field and laboratory experiments for liquid formulations.

  18. Rapid method for determining dermal exposures to pesticides by use of tape stripping and FTIR spectroscopy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Chiu, Hsiao-Hui

    2007-12-01

    Tape stripping is a common method for estimating dermal exposure to pesticides because it is relatively noninvasive and easy to use. A major disadvantage is that samples are usually analyzed with gas chromatography, a time-consuming method in terms of sample preparation. In this study, the authors evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to analyze tape stripped samples to provide near real-time dermal exposure estimates. Various exposure scenarios were evaluated, including a single chemical (i.e., chlorpyrifos, a commonly used pesticide) and a mixture of two chemicals (i.e., chlorpyrifos and captan); these were analyzed with or without the human stratum corneum in the samples. Infrared transparent tape was used for sample collection; samples were analyzed using a FTIR spectrometer in the transmittance mode. The partial least squares algorithm was applied to quantify the spectra and the respective R(2) values for calibration, and test samples were larger than 0.99 and 0.90. The percent divergence of this approach was mostly below 10%, except for several low loading samples. The ANOVA test showed that the stratum corneum's influence on the percent divergence was not significant. Although all the samples evaluated in this study were collected from the same human subject, advantages and feasibility of the stripping-FTIR approach were demonstrated.

  19. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian larvae are commonly exposed to low levels of pesticides during their development. Chronic studies generally examine the effects of long-term exposure, but they often disregard the importance of the individual life stage at which tadpoles are exposed. I determined the point during development at which carbaryl effects are manifested by exposing southern leopard frog tadpoles (Rana sphenocephala) to the pesticide carbaryl at five different times during development. Metamorphs exposed throughout the tadpole stage and throughout development (egg, embryo, tadpole) experienced significant mortality at all chemical levels. Although the length of the larval period was the same for all experimental groups, metamorphs exposed during the egg stage were smaller than their corresponding controls, independent of whether they were exposed at any other stage. Nearly 18% of individuals exposed to carbaryl during development exhibited some type of developmental deformity (including both visceral and limb malformities), compared to a single deformed (< 1%) control tadpole, demonstrating that a chemical hypothesis for amphibian deformities remains viable. Because exposure to nonpersistent chemicals may last for only a short period of time, it is important to examine the long-term effects that short-term exposure has on larval amphibians and the existence of any sensitive life stage. Any delay in metamorphosis or decrease in size at metamorphosis can impact demographic processes of the population, potentially leading to declines or local extinction.

  20. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala).

    PubMed

    Bridges, C M

    2000-07-01

    Amphibian larvae are commonly exposed to low levels of pesticides during their development. Chronic studies generally examine the effects of long-term exposure, but they often disregard the importance of the individual life stage at which tadpoles are exposed. I determined the point during development at which carbaryl effects are manifested by exposing southern leopard frog tadpoles (Rana sphenocephala) to the pesticide carbaryl at five different times during development. Metamorphs exposed throughout the tadpole stage and throughout development (egg, embryo, tadpole) experienced significant mortality at all chemical levels. Although the length of the larval period was the same for all experimental groups, metamorphs exposed during the egg stage were smaller than their corresponding controls, independent of whether they were exposed at any other stage. Nearly 18% of individuals exposed to carbaryl during development exhibited some type of developmental deformity (including both visceral and limb malformities), compared to a single deformed (< 1%) control tadpole, demonstrating that a chemical hypothesis for amphibian deformities remains viable. Because exposure to nonpersistent chemicals may last for only a short period of time, it is important to examine the long-term effects that short-term exposure has on larval amphibians and the existence of any sensitive life stage. Any delay in metamorphosis or decrease in size at metamorphosis can impact demographic processes of the population, potentially leading to declines or local extinction.

  1. Cumulative organophosphate pesticide exposure and risk assessment among pregnant women living in an agricultural community: a case study from the CHAMACOS cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Rosemary; Bradman, Asa; McKone, Thomas E; Barr, Dana B; Harnly, Martha E; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 230,000 kg of organophosphate (OP) pesticides are applied annually in California's Salinas Valley. These activities have raised concerns about exposures to area residents. We collected three spot urine samples from pregnant women (between 1999 and 2001) enrolled in CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas), a longitudinal birth cohort study, and analyzed them for six dialkyl phosphate metabolites. We used urine from 446 pregnant women to estimate OP pesticide doses with two deterministic steady-state modeling methods: method 1, which assumed the metabolites were attributable entirely to a single diethyl or dimethyl OP pesticide; and method 2, which adapted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) draft guidelines for cumulative risk assessment to estimate dose from a mixture of OP pesticides that share a common mechanism of toxicity. We used pesticide use reporting data for the Salinas Valley to approximate the mixture to which the women were exposed. Based on average OP pesticide dose estimates that assumed exposure to a single OP pesticide (method 1), between 0% and 36.1% of study participants' doses failed to attain a margin of exposure (MOE) of 100 relative to the U.S. EPA oral benchmark dose(10) (BMD(10)), depending on the assumption made about the parent compound. These BMD(10) values are doses expected to produce a 10% reduction in brain cholinesterase activity compared with background response in rats. Given the participants' average cumulative OP pesticide dose estimates (method 2) and regardless of the index chemical selected, we found that 14.8% of the doses failed to attain an MOE of 100 relative to the BMD(10) of the selected index. An uncertainty analysis of the pesticide mixture parameter, which is extrapolated from pesticide application data for the study area and not directly quantified for each individual, suggests that this point estimate could range from 1 to 34%. In future analyses, we

  2. Central nervous system function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Jones, Michael P; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure is associated with adverse central nervous system (CNS) outcomes, however, little is known about the neurotoxicity of chronic exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and CNS function, neurobehavioral (NB) tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD = 12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence that long-term OP pesticide use is associated with adverse CNS-associated NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these mostly null associations

  3. Effects of Agricultural Management Policies on the Exposure of Black-Winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) Chicks to Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides in Rice Fields.

    PubMed

    Toral, Gregorio M; Baouab, Riad E; Martinez-Haro, Mónica; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Broggi, Juli; Martínez-de la Puente, Josue; Viana, Duarte; Mateo, Rafael; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Levels of exposure to pesticides in rice fields can be significant depending on the environmental policies practiced. The aim of European Union integrated management policy is to reduce pesticide use and impact on environment. Rice fields provide an alternative breeding habitat for many waterbirds that are exposed to the pesticides used and therefore can be valuable indicators of their risk for wildlife. To evaluate integrated management success we examined exposure of Black-winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in rice fields under different types of management by measuring plasma cholinesterase activity. Cholinesterase activity was lower in birds sampled in (a) 2008 after a period of intense pesticide application, than in (b) 2005-2007 and 2011 in rice fields subject to integrated management in Doñana (SW Spain) and (c) in control natural wetlands in Spain and Morocco. During 2009 and 2010, cholinesterase activity was lower in rice fields in Doñana than in rice fields in Larache and Sidi Allal Tazi (NW Morocco). Our results suggest that integrated management successfully reduced the exposure of Black-winged Stilts to pesticides in most of the years. Care should be taken to implement mosquito and pest crop controls on time and with environmentally friendly products in order to reduce its impact on wildlife. PMID:25970170

  4. Effects of Agricultural Management Policies on the Exposure of Black-Winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) Chicks to Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides in Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Toral, Gregorio M.; Baouab, Riad E.; Martinez-Haro, Mónica; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S.; Broggi, Juli; Martínez-de la Puente, Josue; Viana, Duarte; Mateo, Rafael; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Levels of exposure to pesticides in rice fields can be significant depending on the environmental policies practiced. The aim of European Union integrated management policy is to reduce pesticide use and impact on environment. Rice fields provide an alternative breeding habitat for many waterbirds that are exposed to the pesticides used and therefore can be valuable indicators of their risk for wildlife. To evaluate integrated management success we examined exposure of Black-winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in rice fields under different types of management by measuring plasma cholinesterase activity. Cholinesterase activity was lower in birds sampled in (a) 2008 after a period of intense pesticide application, than in (b) 2005-2007 and 2011 in rice fields subject to integrated management in Doñana (SW Spain) and (c) in control natural wetlands in Spain and Morocco. During 2009 and 2010, cholinesterase activity was lower in rice fields in Doñana than in rice fields in Larache and Sidi Allal Tazi (NW Morocco). Our results suggest that integrated management successfully reduced the exposure of Black-winged Stilts to pesticides in most of the years. Care should be taken to implement mosquito and pest crop controls on time and with environmentally friendly products in order to reduce its impact on wildlife. PMID:25970170

  5. Effects of Agricultural Management Policies on the Exposure of Black-Winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) Chicks to Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides in Rice Fields.

    PubMed

    Toral, Gregorio M; Baouab, Riad E; Martinez-Haro, Mónica; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Broggi, Juli; Martínez-de la Puente, Josue; Viana, Duarte; Mateo, Rafael; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Levels of exposure to pesticides in rice fields can be significant depending on the environmental policies practiced. The aim of European Union integrated management policy is to reduce pesticide use and impact on environment. Rice fields provide an alternative breeding habitat for many waterbirds that are exposed to the pesticides used and therefore can be valuable indicators of their risk for wildlife. To evaluate integrated management success we examined exposure of Black-winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in rice fields under different types of management by measuring plasma cholinesterase activity. Cholinesterase activity was lower in birds sampled in (a) 2008 after a period of intense pesticide application, than in (b) 2005-2007 and 2011 in rice fields subject to integrated management in Doñana (SW Spain) and (c) in control natural wetlands in Spain and Morocco. During 2009 and 2010, cholinesterase activity was lower in rice fields in Doñana than in rice fields in Larache and Sidi Allal Tazi (NW Morocco). Our results suggest that integrated management successfully reduced the exposure of Black-winged Stilts to pesticides in most of the years. Care should be taken to implement mosquito and pest crop controls on time and with environmentally friendly products in order to reduce its impact on wildlife.

  6. Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A; Hou, Lifang; Koutros, Stella; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Savage, Sharon A; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoxha, Mirjam; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sandler, Dale; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides.

  7. Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A; Hou, Lifang; Koutros, Stella; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Savage, Sharon A; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoxha, Mirjam; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sandler, Dale; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides. PMID:26196902

  8. Determinants of high pesticide exposure events in the agricultural health cohort study from enrollment (1993-1997) through phase II (1999-2003).

    PubMed

    Payne, K; Andreotti, G; Bell, E; Blair, A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an analysis of the determinants of high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs), which are defined as self-reported incidents of high exposure to pesticides, fertilizers, or other chemicals in the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of private applicators and their spouses residing in North Carolina or Iowa, and commercial applicators residing in Iowa. We examined the risk of HPEEs occurring between enrollment (phase 1: 1993-1997) and follow-up (phase II: 1999-2003) among participants who completed the phase II questionnaire (n=43,149) by calculating hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional-hazard regression. During the followup period, 1,582 HPEEs were reported (3.8%). HPEE risk was significantly higher among Iowa residents, younger participants, those with a hearing deficit, a risk-taking personality, and an HPEE prior to enrollment. Among private applicators (n=30,102), larger farm size, higher frequency and duration of pesticide use, spraying pesticides with open cab windows, using a tractor cab without a charcoal filter, repairing spray equipment, wearing work clothing more than two days without changing, not removing work boots before entering the home, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with significantly higher HPEE risk. Among commercial applicators (n=2326), higher frequency of pesticide use was associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Among spouses (n=10,721), higher frequency of pesticide use, using an application vehicle with a cab, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Our findings indicate that HPEEs were associated with several modifiable pesticide handling procedures that can be targeted in safety training and education. PMID:22900431

  9. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide causes disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and l-thyroxine (T4) exert a wide range of biological effects on physiological processes of fish. To elucidate the thyroid disruption effects of monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphate pesticide, on male goldfish (Carassius auratus), thyroid follicle histology, plasma total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3) and free T4 levels, and the mRNA expression of indices involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) were examined following 21-day exposure to 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00mg/L of a 40% MCP-based pesticide. The results showed that MCP exposure induced the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular epithelium and led to decreased plasma TT3 levels and TT3-to-TT4 ratios, without effect on plasma TT4 levels. Profiles of the changes in the relative abundance of deiodinase (D1, D2 and D3) transcripts were observed in the liver, brain and kidneys, during MCP exposure. An increase in the metabolism of T3, expressed as highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels, might be associated with the reduction in plasma TT3 levels in both the 0.01 and 0.10mg/L groups, while in the 1.00mg/L MCP group, inhibited hepatic d2 transcripts might have also resulted in decreased TT3 levels by preventing the activation of T4 to T3. As a compensatory response to decreased T3 levels, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit mRNA transcription was up-regulated by the MCP pesticide. Decreases in plasma FT3 levels were also correlated with the modulation of hepatic transthyretin mRNA expression. Overall, the MCP pesticide exhibited thyroid-disrupting effects via interference with the HPT axis at multiple potential sites, resulting in disturbance of TH homeostasis.

  10. Pesticide exposures and the risk of multiple myeloma in men: An analysis of the North American Pooled Project.

    PubMed

    Presutti, Roseanna; Harris, Shelley A; Kachuri, Linda; Spinelli, John J; Pahwa, Manisha; Blair, Aaron; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Cantor, Kenneth P; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Pahwa, Punam; McLaughlin, John R; Dosman, James A; Freeman, Laura Beane

    2016-10-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) has been consistently linked with agricultural activities, including farming and pesticide exposures. Three case-control studies in the United States and Canada were pooled to create the North American Pooled Project (NAPP) to investigate associations between pesticide use and haematological cancer risk. This analysis used data from 547 MM cases and 2700 controls. Pesticide use was evaluated as follows: ever/never use; duration of use (years); and cumulative lifetime-days (LD) (days/year handled × years of use). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for age, province/state of residence, use of proxy respondents and selected medical conditions. Increased MM risk was observed for ever use of carbaryl (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.28-3.21), captan (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.04-3.77) and DDT (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.05-1.97). Using the Canadian subset of NAPP data, we observed a more than threefold increase in MM risk (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.40-7.23) for ≤10 cumulative LD of carbaryl use. The association was attenuated but remained significant for >10 LD of carbaryl use (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.05-5.64; ptrend  = 0.01). For captan, ≤17.5 LD of exposure was also associated with a more than threefold increase in risk (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.32-9.34), but this association was attenuated in the highest exposure category of >17.5 LD (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 0.81-6.43; ptrend  = 0.01). An increasing trend (ptrend  = 0.04) was observed for LD of DDT use (LD > 22; OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 0.95-3.88). In this large North American study of MM and pesticide use, we observed significant increases in MM risk for use of carbaryl, captan and DDT. PMID:27261772

  11. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Cobb, George P; Maul, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides increased transcript abundance of CSA and MUTL. In addition, mRNA abundance of HSP70 and GADD45α were increased by endosulfan and mRNA abundance of XPG was increased by α-cypermethrin. XPC, HR23B, XPG, and GADD45α exhibited elevated mRNA concentrations whereas there was a reduction in MUTL transcript concentrations in UVB-alone treatments. It appeared that even

  12. [RISK OF THE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES TO WORKERS AND ENVIRONMENT DURING THE AERIAL TREATMENTS].

    PubMed

    Artemova, O V

    2016-01-01

    Performed hygienic studies of conditions of the usage of various pesticides by an aerial method allowed to establish the admissible risk for the workers and the minimum risk for population upon compliance with both safety requirements and technological and hygienic regulations. PMID:27430071

  13. Dermal Danger? Estimating Pesticide Exposure and Accumulation in Terrestrial Phase Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide registration is required in the US. The EPA must ensure, when used according to label directions: reasonable certainty of no harm to human health, wildlife, fish, and plants, including endangered and non-target species, as well as surface and groundwater.

  14. Perspectives of Mothers in Farmworker Households on Reducing the Take-Home Pathway of Pesticide Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Larkin L.; Starks, Helene E.; Meischke, Hendrika; Thompson, Beti

    2009-01-01

    Farmworkers carry pesticide residue home on their clothing, boots, and skin, placing other household members at risk, particularly children. Specific precautions are recommended to reduce this take-home pathway, yet few studies have examined the perspectives of farmworkers and other household members regarding these behaviors and the reasons for…