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Sample records for ai eds cecil

  1. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  2. Cecil Green receives Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Frank; Green, Cecil

    The Waldo E. Smith Medal, which is awarded for extraordinary service to geophysics, was presented to Cecil H. Green at the 1994 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on December 7, 1994 in San Francisco. The award citation and Green's response are given here.“It would take a book to do justice to Cecil Green's extraordinary contributions to the geophysics and electronics industries, to the training of scientists, physicians, and engineers, and to strengthening education and research institutions. In fact, such a book has been written about Cecil's multiple lives as engineer, geophysicist, cofounder of Texas Instruments, and partner with his wife, Ida, in international philanthropy.

  3. Arteriogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... M. Catheterization and angiography. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Food poisoning prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. Aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Catheter-associated UTI

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Toxins

    MedlinePlus

    ... trace metals and others. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Ford MD. Acute poisoning. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Stent

    MedlinePlus

    ... of coronary artery disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... AJ. Congenital heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  10. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and metabolic hepatic disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  11. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... failure: pathophysiology and diagnosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... failure: management and prognosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  12. Viral gastroenteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  13. Basal ganglia dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 71. Lang AE. Parkinsonism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation and tissue repair. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... and adaptive immune systems. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Hemoglobin derivatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... injuries of the lung In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. Hypertensive heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... failure: pathophysiology and diagnosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Victor RG. Arterial hypertension. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Caplan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... G. Interstitial lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... SM. Occupational lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. Leg pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Peripheral venous disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Campylobacter infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. ALP isoenzyme test

    MedlinePlus

    ... or abnormal liver tests. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... bladder and bile ducts In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  1. Giardia infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. Salmonella enterocolitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  3. Catheter-related UTI

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. ALP - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... or abnormal liver tests. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... gallbladder and bile ducts. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Staph infections - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Chambers HF. Staphylococcal infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Peritonitis - spontaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L,Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... peritoneum, mesentery, and omentum. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Diseases of the aorta. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016. Hayden FG. Influenza. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... RB. The common cold. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  10. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  11. Toxic wastes discovered in Cecil County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report focuses on the clean-up activities following toxic waste contamination in Cecil County, MD. The potentially hazardous leakage from waste containers buried in a quarry was addressed before it was turned into a civil emergency of the magnitude of Love Canal. US Superfund is a federal government trust fund largely comprised of taxes on the chemical and petrochemical industries. Local governments share in the cost of removing the waste and other aspects of emergency management.

  12. Toxic wastes discovered in Cecil County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report focuses on the clean-up activities following toxic waste contamination in Cecil County, MD. The potentially hazardous leakage from waste containers buried in a quarry was addressed before it was turned into a civil emergency of the magnitude of Love Canal. US Superfund is a federal government trust fund largely comprised of taxes on the chemical and petrochemical industries. Local governments share in the cost of removing the waste and other aspects of emergency management.

  13. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE INTERSECTION OF CECIL B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE INTERSECTION OF CECIL B. MOORE (FORMERLY COLUMBIA) AVENUE AND FIFTEENTH STREET. THE PHILADELPHIA REAL ESTATE RECORD AND BUILDERS’ GUIDE OBSERVED IN ITS JANUARY 3, 1887 ISSUE THAT “COLUMBIA AVENUE IN THE PAST TWO YEARS HAS SHOWN CONSIDERABLE IMPROVEMENT,” FURTHER ADDING, “WITHIN THE PAST 12 MONTHS COLUMBIA AVENUE BETWEEN BROAD & 23RD HAS UNDERGONE SOME VERY GREAT CHANGES, AT LEAST 50 OF THE PRIVATE DWELLINGS HAVE BEEN TURNED INTO STORES.” THE THREE-STORY COMMERCIAL BLOCK ON THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF COLUMBIA AND FIFTEENTH WAS NOT A CONVERSION; HOWEVER, IT STILL CONTRIBUTED TO COLUMBIA AVENUE’S 1880S TRANSFORMATION FROM RESIDENTIAL THOROUGHFARE INTO NORTH PHILADELPHIA’S PREMIER SHOPPING CORRIDOR. - 1400 Block Cecil B. Moore Avenue (Stores), South side of Cecil B. Moore Avenue between Carlisle & Fifteenth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning

  15. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning

  16. Aortic insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart valve - aortic regurgitation; Valvular disease - aortic regurgitation; AI - aortic insufficiency ... BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months to 1 year: 75 mg/day* *AI or Adequate Intake Children: 1 to 3 years ... minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... JJ. Bursitis, tendinitis, and other periarticular disorders and sports medicine. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  19. The Formation of a Renaissance Nobleman: William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury 1591-1668.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danushevskaya, Anna V.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the humanist ideal of nobility and humanist views about the type of education that would produce noblemen. Details the life and education of William Cecil, also known as Viscount Cranborne, as it pertains to humanist education culture established in the 16th and 17th centuries. (KDR)

  20. Bringing AI to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copple, Kevin L.

    Participation in the Loebner Prize Contest is a useful exercise in the development of intelligent computer systems (AI). This contest helps put a focus on performance and human interaction, countering idealistic and academic bias toward the elusive "true AI". Collection of a steadily expanding set of interacting features is being explored to find how far this approach can move toward better AI.

  1. Lipase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... for disease of the pancreas, most often acute pancreatitis . Lipase appears in the blood when the pancreas ... Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 144. ...

  2. Meningitis - tuberculous

    MedlinePlus

    Ellner JJ. Tuberculosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 332. Fitzgerald DW, Sterling TR, Haas DW. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In: Bennett ...

  3. Epididymitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... reproductive anatomy Blood in semen Pathway of sperm Male reproductive system References Geisler GM. Diseases caused by chlamydiae. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... tract: Prostatitis, and related conditions, orchitis, epididymitis. ...

  4. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  5. Mosaicism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011:chap 76. Stankiewicz P, Lupski JR. Gene, genomic, and chromosomal disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  6. Chagas disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kirchhoff LV. Chagas' disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 355. Kirchhoff LV. Trypanosoma species (American trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease): Biology ...

  7. Creatine phosphokinase test

    MedlinePlus

    Anderson JL. ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and complications of myocardial infarction. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  8. Thrombolytic therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Anderson JL. ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and complications of myocardial infarction. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  9. CPK isoenzymes test

    MedlinePlus

    Anderson JL. ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and complications of myocardial infarction. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  10. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... series References Keefe EB. Hepatic failure and liver transplantation. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... 2011:chap 157. Martin P, Rosen HR. Liver transplantation. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  11. Chronic subdural hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma ... Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  12. Inborn errors of metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism - inborn errors of ... Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 205. Rezvani I, Rezvani G. An ...

  13. Arterial insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Hansson GK, Hamsten A. Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 70. Libby P. The vascular biology ...

  14. Congenital spherocytic anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... spheres, and premature breakdown of red blood cells ( hemolytic anemia ). ... Schwartz RS. Autoimmune and intravascular hemolytic anemias In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 163.

  15. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 406. Stippler M. Trauma of ...

  16. Chronic subdural hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 406. Stippler M. Trauma of ...

  17. From d-tubocurarine to sugammadex: the contributions of T. Cecil Gray to modern anaesthetic practice.

    PubMed

    Shafer, S L

    2011-07-01

    One hundred years after Morton's demonstration of the anaesthetic effects of ether, T. Cecil Gray revolutionized anaesthesia with his introduction of balanced general anaesthesia. Gray's technique involved i.v. induction, administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent (curare), tracheal intubation, controlled ventilation, maintenance of unconsciousness with a light inhaled anaesthetic (supplemented with opioids if necessary), and reversal of neuromuscular blocking agent at the conclusion of the anaesthetic. In the 65 yr since his seminal papers, our drugs have changed, and i.v. anaesthetics suitable for maintenance of anaesthesia have been introduced, but the basic principles of general anaesthesia today are those set forward by Gray 65 yr ago. PMID:21613280

  18. The Henry Cecil Ranson McBay Chair in Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bota, Kofi B.; King, James, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The goals and objectives of the Henry Cecil Ransom McBay Chair in Space Sciences were to: (1) provide leadership in developing and expanding Space Science curriculum; (2) contribute to the research and education endeavors of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program; (3) expand opportunities for education and hands-on research in Space and Earth Sciences; (4) enhance scientific and technological literacy at all educational levels and to increase awareness of opportunities in the Space Sciences; and (5) develop a pipeline, starting with high school, of African American students who will develop into a cadre of well-trained scientists with interest in Space Science Research and Development.

  19. AI aerospace components

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, T.A.; Murphy, T.B.; Rasmussen, A.N.; Mcfarland, R.Z.; Montgomery, R.E.; Pohle, G.E.; Heard, A.E.; Atkinson, D.J.; Wedlake, W.E.; Anderson, J.M. Mitre Corp., Houston, TX Unisys Corp., Houston, TX Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL JPL, Pasadena, CA Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Austin, TX McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., McLean, VA )

    1991-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  20. Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Operable Unit 6, Jacksonville, FL, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site name is the Golf Course Pesticide Disposal Area, Site 11, Operable Unit (OU) 6. The site is located in a wooded area between the 11th fairway and the 17th green at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Cecil Field golf course, Jacksonville, Florida. The purpose of the interim remedial action is to remove buried containers of pesticides and associated contaminated soil.

  2. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saunders; 2011:chap 47. Libby P. The vascular biology of atherosclerosis. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes ... Hansson GK, Hamsten A. Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  3. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  4. Aging changes in the breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003999.htm Aging changes in the breast To use the sharing ... chap 18. Minaker KL. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  5. Unstable angina

    MedlinePlus

    ... Braunwald E. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, et ... coronary syndrome: unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  6. Laxative overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 125. Schwaab JL, Bravender T, Rund DA. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski JS, ... McGraw-Hill; 2011:chap 286. Tanofsky-Kraff M. Eating disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. Arterial insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Hansson GK, Hamsten A. Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 70. Libby P. The vascular biology of atherosclerosis. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  8. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your surgeon. Other recommendations: Weigh the risks and rewards. If you're happy wearing contacts or glasses, ... Yanoff M, Cameron D. Diseases of the visual system. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  9. Apolipoprotein B100

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011:chap 47. Robinson JG. What is the role of advanced lipoprotein analysis in practice? J Am Coll Cardiol. Dec 2012;60(25):2607-2615. Semenkovich, CF. Disorders of lipid metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  10. Cecil: A Moment or a Movement? Analysis of Media Coverage of the Death of a Lion, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, David W; Jacobsen, Kim S; Burnham, Dawn; Johnson, Paul J; Loveridge, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed "Cecil", a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University's Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated with a media-monitoring company to investigate the development of the media coverage spatially and temporally. Relevant articles were identified using a Boolean search for the terms Cecil AND lion in 127 languages. Stories about Cecil the Lion in the editorial media increased from approximately 15 per day to nearly 12,000 at its peak, and mentions of Cecil the Lion in social media reached 87,533 at its peak. We found that, while there were clear regional differences in the level of media saturation of the Cecil story, the patterns of the development of the coverage of this story were remarkably similar across the globe, and that there was no evidence of a lag between the social media and the editorial media. Further, all the main social media platforms appeared to react in synchrony. This story appears to have spread synchronously across media channels and geographically across the globe over the span of about two days. For lion conservation in particular, and perhaps for wildlife conservation more generally, we speculate that the atmosphere may have been changed significantly. We consider the possible reasons why this incident provoked a reaction unprecedented in the conservation sector. PMID:27120625

  11. [Oskar Vogt (1870-1959). Hypnotist and brain researcher, husband of Cecile Vogt (1875-1962)].

    PubMed

    V Stuckrad-Barre, S; Danek, A

    2004-10-01

    Oskar Vogt (1870-1955) and his wife Cecile (1875-1962) were neurologists and neuroanatomists with a strong interest in the cytoarchitectonics and myeloarchitectonics of the brain and in the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. In the 1920s, Vogt created a multi-disciplinary brain research institute, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fur Hirnforschung in Berlin-Buch, with divisions for e.g. neuroanatomy, neurohistology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and genetics. Oskar Vogt's scientific activities are discussed briefly with special regard to his former co-worker Brodmann. After being dismissed from office by the Nazi government in 1937, the Vogts continued their work in a privately funded institute in Neustadt, in the Black Forest. PMID:15300318

  12. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  13. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-10-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  14. Cecil: A Moment or a Movement? Analysis of Media Coverage of the Death of a Lion, Panthera leo

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, David W.; Jacobsen, Kim S.; Burnham, Dawn; Johnson, Paul J.; Loveridge, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary We provide chronology of events following the death of a lion nicknamed “Cecil” and analyse the global media coverage of the event spatially and temporally. We recruited a media monitoring company to explore patterns in both social and editorial media globally, regionally and by country. The number of articles in the editorial media mentioning Cecil the lion peaked at 11,788 on 29 July. There was remarkable global synchrony in this “spike”, so the world media appeared to respond as a globalised entity. We used media saturation, a relative measure of the number of mentions of the Cecil story, as a proxy for estimating the level of interest in the Cecil story. Regionally, saturation levels were high in North America. Interest was also high in Australia and parts of South America and Africa. This opposes the common assumption that interest in the Cecil story was the prerogative of wealthy nations. The social media response to Cecil’s death, was much larger than that in the editorial media in terms of the number of mentions of Cecil (87,533 mentions), but the time to the peak was very similar to that of the editorial media. We compared the development of coverage of the event in the three largest social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter and YouTube) to see whether they played identifiably different roles in the development of the story through time. All peaked at the same time, so there was no evidence that any one platform was responsible for precipitating the spread of the story in advance of the others. The editorial and social media also peaked in synchrony, neither one being a forerunner or follower in the coverage of the Cecil story. Instead, our results reveal a highly interconnected media universe: with the story going viral synchronously across media channels and geographically across the globe over the span of about two days. We consider whether the preoccupying interest in Cecil displayed by the millions of people who followed the

  15. A manoeuvre to locate the distal urethral opening at the tip of the glans in the final stage of Cecil-Culp urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Thatte, R L

    1989-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of Cecil-Culp urethroplasty for hypospadias is its failure to place the distal urethral meatus at the tip of the glans when the scrotal flap is detached. This paper describes a manoeuvre to overcome this drawback with the help of a small flap from the median raphe of the scrotum at the third and final stage of Cecil-Culp urethroplasty. Relevant illustrations from a case and line drawings are included to describe the procedure. A small note is appended as a comment. PMID:2917220

  16. Pulmonary nocardiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection from returning. Alternative Names Nocardiosis - pulmonary Images Respiratory system References Limper AH. Overview of pneumonia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  17. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  18. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  19. The Quickening of the National Spirit: Cecil Sharp and the Pioneers of the Folk-Dance Revival in English State Schools (1900-26).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the work of Cecil Sharp (1859-1924), an educator who was the driving force behind a folk-dance revival in England, and the English Folk-Dance Society whose goal was to disseminate knowledge of English Folk-Dances, Singing Games, and Folk-Songs to encourage their practice as a means of national identity in English society. (MER)

  20. Sequential P Extracts in Cecil soil during ten years of conventional and conservation tillage cropping management with and without poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil phosphorus (P) buildup from long-term applications of poultry litter presents a potential environmental problem. Knowledge of soil P distribution among its chemical forms is useful for assessing risk levels. We measured sequentially-fractioned H2O, NaHCO3, NaOH, and HCl extractable P in a Cecil...

  1. Portable AI Lab for Teaching Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Michael; Baj, Fabio.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Portable AI Lab, a computing environment containing artificial intelligence (AI) tools, examples, and documentation for use with university AI courses. Two modules of the lab are highlighted: the automated theorem proving module and the natural language processing module, which includes augmented transition networks. (23 references)…

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz ...

  3. Allergic vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cutaneous vasculitis Images Vasculitis on the palm Vasculitis Vasculitis, urticarial on the hand References Stone JH. The systemic vasculitides. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. ... small vessel vasculitis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes ...

  4. AIS Investigation of Agricultural Monocultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired over an agricultural area in eastern San Joaquin County, California in July, 1984. Cover type information was subsequently collected for all fields along this flight line. The lack of detailed ground data on individual fields, however, limited AIS data analysis to a qualitative comparison of the spectral reflectance curves for a total of nine cover types. Based on this analysis, it appears that cover types with a positive slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region have a higher spectral response in the 1200 to 1300 nm region compared to those cover types with a negative slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region. Within cover type, spectral variability was also found to be greater than that between cover types. Given the lack of additional field data, the reason for these differences is a matter of speculation.

  5. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  6. ED, heal thyself.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nora V; Friedman, Ari B

    2014-02-01

    Emergency department (ED) wait times have continued to worsen despite receiving considerable attention for more than 2 decades and despite the availability of a variety of methods to restructure care in a more streamlined fashion. This article offers an economic framework that abstracts away from the details of operations research to understand the fundamental disincentives to improving wait times. Hospitals that reduce wait times are financially penalized if they must provide more uncompensated care as a result. Pending changes under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act are considered. We find that the likely effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's insurance expansion is to reduce this penalty for improving ED wait times. Consequently, mandating adoption of solutions to ED crowding may be unnecessary and counterproductive. If the insurance expansion is insufficient to fully solve the problem, the hospital value-based purchasing initiative should adopt wait times as a goal in its next iteration. PMID:24332901

  7. PREFACE: EDS2010 Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggie, Malcolm I.

    2011-03-01

    The biennial international conference on Extended Defects in Semiconductors started in 1978 with a meeting in Hünfeld, Germany. Subsequent meetings rotated between Poland, France, Great Britain, Germany, Russia and Italy, culminating in EDS2004 in Chernogolovka, EDS2006 in Halle and EDS2008 in Poitiers. EDS2010 was held at the University of Sussex at Brighton, UK from September 19th to 24th. An extension of the tabulation of this history, which first appeared on the EDS2006 website, is given in the attached PDF. It is with sadness that we note one of the founders of the series, Prof. Dr Helmut Alexander, passed away on 3 December 2009 and we were proud to dedicate EDS2010 to his memory. It has become a tradition to make an award in his name, and this year it was made to Ivan Isacov for his poster "Electrical levels of dislocation networks in p- and n-type silicon". A short and warm celebration of Prof. Dr Alexander's life by his friends and colleagues, Prof. Drs Helmut Gottschalk, Eicke Weber and Wolfgang Schröter, is included in this volume. The conference was a forum for the state-of-the-art of investigation and modelling of extended defects in semiconductors. Scientists from universities, research institutes and industry made contributions to a deeper understanding of extended defects, their interaction with point defects and their role in the development of semiconductor technology. The remit of the conference included extended defects, nanostructures, nanoparticles, quantum dots and interfaces within semiconducting materials ranging from narrow to wide band gaps, including graphene-derived materials and diamond. Scientific interests range from defect geometry, electronic structure, dynamics, spectroscopy, microscopy, reactions and chemistry to introduction mechanisms, such as implantation and strained layers and the operation of devices such as integrated circuits, heterostructures, and solar cells. The organisers were confronted with a long period between

  8. JGOMAS: New Approach to AI Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barella, A.; Valero, S.; Carrascosa, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new environment for teaching practical work in AI subjects. The main purpose of this environment is to make AI techniques more appealing to students and to facilitate the use of the toolkits which are currently widely used in research and development. This new environment has a toolkit for developing and executing agents,…

  9. Tips to Improve AI Pregnancy Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is aimed at identifying and emphasizing the critical factors that contribute to a successful AI breeding season. Accurate and efficient heat detection is the first step toward achieving AI pregnancies. Electronic estrous detection is not necessary if producers will spend more time observi...

  10. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  11. Edward (Ed) T. Schneider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Research Pilot Edward T. Schneider is shown sitting in the cockpit of a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet that was used in the High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames - Dryden Flight Research Facility. When the aircraft arrived at the Dryden Facility in 1987, from the US Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland, it consisted of parts in crates. The aircraft crew made an airplane from those parts, and in doing so they took a 'sow's ear' and created a 'silk purse', thus the name on the side of the aircraft. Ed's helmet is from his time in the Navy. The design was taken from the Flag that is flown on the bow of a Navy ship, referred to as the Jack, and is navy blue with the 50 States being represented by the white stars. Ed arrived at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) on July 5, 1982, as a Navy Liaison Officer, becoming a NASA research pilot one year later. Ed was the project pilot for the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack program and later served as a project pilot for the F-15 aeronautical research aircraft, the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, and the SR-71 'Blackbird' aircraft. He served on active duty with the U.S. Navy from 1968 to 1983. Following squadron service he graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, in 1973, and then served as an engineering test pilot, and test pilot school instructor at the Naval Air Test Center. Ed has been an active member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots since 1974. He was made a Fellow of the Society in 1993 and served as its President in 1993/94. In 1996 he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Chanute Flight Award. He retired as a NASA research pilot in September 2000.

  12. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity. PMID:26185241

  13. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  14. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  15. Rebooting the EdD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wergin, Jon F.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Jon Wergin reminds readers of the philosophical and historical foundations of the doctor of education (EdD) degree. He argues that the EdD should be based, in large part, on John Dewey's progressive ideals of democratization and Paulo Freire's concepts of emancipatory education. Drawing on theories of reflective practice,…

  16. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  17. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17015547 . Marelli AJ. Congenital heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease. Circulation. 2008;118:e714-e833. Webb GD, Smallhorn ...

  18. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States

    PubMed Central

    Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

  19. Hemolysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 163. Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red ... eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 164. Gallagher PG, Jarolim P. Red ...

  20. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  1. Culture - duodenal tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  2. Angina

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 71. Lange RA, Hillis LD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 72. Marrow DA, Boden WE. ...

  3. Comparison of timed AI after synchronized ovulation to AI at estrus: reproductive and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, B A; Drillich, M; Surholt, R; Heuwieser, W

    2004-01-01

    A timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol using OvSynch was compared to artificial insemination (AI) at detected estrus in 2 large dairy herds differing in reproductive management. Cows were synchronized for TAI starting at 62 and 42 d in milk in herds 1 and 2, respectively. The OvSynch regimen included: GnRH (buserelin) at 0.02 mg (i.m.) on d 0; PGF2alpha (tiaprost) at 0.75 mg (i.m.) on d 7; buserelin at 0.02 mg (i.m.) on d 9; and TAI 16 to 20 h later. After TAI, cows seen in estrus received AI, whereas cows diagnosed not pregnant were resynchronized for TAI. Control cows received AI based on detected estrus after voluntary waiting periods of 72 d in herd 1 and 50 d in herd 2. An economic analysis included costs associated with days open, culling, AI, synchrony products, treatment, and examinations. A sensitivity analysis of those variables determined effects on total costs per pregnancy. Use of OvSynch reduced intervals to first AI and days open in both herds and reduced culling for infertility in herd 2. Conception rates for first AI at detected estrus were significantly higher compared to TAI in both herds and for overall AI at estrus in herd 2. For groups assigned to AI at estrus, mean 21-d submission rates over 200 d for AI were higher in herd 1 than in herd 2 (55.6 vs. 28.6%). Days open and culling were the major cost factors. Although OvSynch improved reproduction in both herds, AI based on detected estrus was economically superior in herd 1, whereas OvSynch was superior in herd 2. This was consistent across ranges of cost factors evaluated. Evaluation of synchrony protocols should include reproductive performance along with appropriate costs associated with treatments. Such costs may offset benefits to reproduction in herds with good estrous detection rates. PMID:14765814

  4. Effects of Using a Neuroeducational Intervention to Enhance Perseverance for Online EdD and EdS Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadle, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Developing and maintaining a "completion mindset" is a necessary mental condition for online educational doctorate (EdD) and educational specialist (EdS) students to obtain their advanced degrees. The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a neuroeducational intervention on a volunteer convenience sample of EdD and…

  5. Destriping AIS data using Fourier filtering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometers (AIS) data collected in 1984 and 1985 showed pronounced striping in the vertical and horizontal directions. This striping reduced the signal to noise ratio so that features of the spectra of forest canopies were obscured or altered by noise. This noise was removed by application of a notch filter to the Fourier transform of the imagery in each waveband.

  6. AI-2 Quorum Sensing in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing response modulates many physiological attributes, such as bacterial virulence/pathogenesis, competence, and biofilm formation, when the bacterial population has reached a certain threshold. Among the various signaling compounds, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is produced by most bacterial spec...

  7. SNAP and AI Fuel Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lords, R.E.

    1994-08-01

    The SNAP and AI Fuel Summary Report provides a detailed overview of treatment and storage of these fuels from fabrication through current storage including design parameters and reactor history. Chemical and physical characteristics are described, and potential indicators of as-stored fuel conditions are emphasized.

  8. AI gamma-ray burst classification: Methodology/preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1998-05-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) classifiers can be used to classify unknowns, refine existing classification parameters, and identify/screen-out ineffectual parameters. We present an AI methodology for classifying gamma-ray bursts, along with some preliminary results.

  9. Fertility of holstein dairy heifers after synchronization of ovulation and timed AI or AI after removed tail chalk.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2004-07-01

    Nonlactating Holstein dairy heifers (n=352) 13 mo of age were managed using a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) breeding period in which they received AI after removed tail chalk evaluated once daily. At AI breeding period onset (d 0), heifers were randomly assigned to receive synchronization of ovulation (100 microg of GnRH, d 0; 25 mg of PGF2alpha, d 6; 100 microg of GnRH, d 8) and timed AI (TAI; d 8) and AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (GPG; n=175), or AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (TC; n=177). As expected, 17.7% (31/175) of GPG heifers received AI after removed tail chalk before scheduled TAI. Pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (PR/AI) at approximately 30 d after first AI tended to be greater for TC (46.5%) than for GPG (38.3%) heifers. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected; however, overall PR/AI was low for heifers in both treatments due to variation among the 3 inseminators (24.8, 30.0, and 58.0%). Pregnancy loss from approximately 30 to approximately 75 d after first AI was 10% and did not differ between treatments. Based on survival analysis, days to first AI was greater for TC than for GPG heifers, whereas days to pregnancy across the 42-d AI breeding period did not differ between treatments. Overall, 81.2% of GPG heifers receiving TAI synchronized luteal regression and ovulated within 48 h after the second GnRH injection. We conclude that this synchronization protocol can yield acceptable fertility in dairy heifers if AI to estrus is conducted between treatment with GnRH and PGF2alpha and AI efficiency is optimized. PMID:15328217

  10. AI in space: Past, present, and possible futures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.

    1992-01-01

    While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.

  11. Why Don't Accounting Students like AIS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Aoun, Chadi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The demand for Accounting Information Systems (AIS) knowledge has increased exponentially over the past two decades, but studying AIS has not proved easy for many accounting students. The aim of the study is to understand the challenges accounting students face in studying AIS through investigation of the factors which may be contributing…

  12. 47 CFR 80.393 - Frequencies for AIS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements for non-Federal Government ships. These requirements are codified at 33 CFR 164.46, 401.20. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for AIS stations. 80.393 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ais Stations § 80.393 Frequencies for AIS stations....

  13. The AI Interdisciplinary Context: Single or Multiple Research Bases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1992-01-01

    This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)

  14. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linley, Judy; Mylne, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Ag-Ed, an agricultural education project for upper elementary students, was held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show in Queensland, Australia. Agriculture industry representatives provided 20 interactive agricultural presentations for class groups, which were supplemented with a teacher resource-package containing a directory and 13 sections of…

  15. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  16. Software development support for AI programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, C.V.; Shekhar, S.; Garg, V.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a growing branch of computer science that studies ways of enabling computers to do tasks that seem to require human intelligence. These tasks include game playing, expert problem solving, natural language understanding, and theorem proving. Many existing AI programs perform such tasks with varying degrees of success. Whereas a program that can understand natural language is still a dream, many chess-playing programs can beat expert human players. More successful AI programs include knowledge-based expert systems that are being applied to a wide spectrum of real-life problems from airline catering to oil exploration. These systems can acquire knowledge about a domain from a human expert and then use it to solve routine problems in that area. For example, expert systems can perform almost as well as human experts in the diagnosis of infectious diseases (MYCIN), finding the structure of chemical compounds (DENDRAL), and performing mathematical symbol manipulations (MACSYMA). These AI systems offer new capabilities to tackle several problems difficult to solve using the conventional algorithmic approach.

  17. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  18. Redesigning physician compensation and improving ED performance.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Jeff; Lifton, James; Capone, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    Redesigning a physician compensation system in the emergency department (ED) should include goals of improving quality, productivity, and patient satisfaction. Tips for hospital administrators: A contemporary ED information system is needed to ensure that the ED is essentially a paperless operation. Transparency, internally and externally, is essential. ED physicians should perform as individuals, yet as members of a team. Incentives, especially incentive compensation, should strike a balance between individual and team performance. PMID:21692383

  19. Integrating Vision and AI for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1990-03-01

    The article describes an extension to the well-established AI language Prolog. This allows Prolog to operate both an image processing system and a controller for a variety of electro-mechanical devices. The user can define his/her own pull-down menus and provides an interface to a speech synthesis package. The latter enables the user to follow the flow of a program, easily and in a natural way. The application of the software to food inspection is also discussed

  20. Bare PCB test method based on AI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aihua; Zhou, Huiyang; Wan, Nianhong; Qu, Liangsheng

    1995-08-01

    The shortcomings of conventional methods used for developing test sets on current automated printed circuit board (PCB) test machines consist of overlooking the information from CAD, historical test data, and the experts' knowledge. Thus, the generated test sets and proposed test sequence may be sub-optimal and inefficient. This paper presents a weighting bare PCB test method based on analysis and utilization of the CAD information. AI technique is applied for faults statistics and faults identification. Also, the generation of test sets and the planning of test procedure are discussed. A faster and more efficient test system is achieved.

  1. Will AI in pigs become more efficient?

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Parrilla, I; Bolarin, A; Martinez, E A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2016-07-01

    AI is commercially applied worldwide to breed pigs, yielding fertility outcomes similar to those of natural mating. However, it is not fully efficient, as only liquid-stored semen is used, with a single boar inseminating about 2000 sows yearly. The use of liquid semen, moreover, constrains international trade and slows genetic improvement. Research efforts, reviewed hereby, are underway to reverse this inefficient scenario. Special attention is paid to studies intended to decrease the number of sperm used per pregnant sow, facilitating the practical use of sexed frozen-thawed semen in swine commercial insemination programs. PMID:26723133

  2. Research needs for AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triscari, T., Jr.; Henghold, W. M.

    The Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories' Material Laboratory is charged with developing a research program for applications of artificial intelligence (AI) as it relates to manufacturing. As a part of program development, advisory input was sought from experts from industry, academia, and government. A structured methodology was employed which featured a top-down approach leading from concept level articulation, through application area goals and objectives, to project level detail. This paper documents the effort in terms of providing methodological background, application area goals and objectives, and results obtained from project generation and assessment. Emphasis is on project level results.

  3. AI Based Personal Learning Environments: Directions for Long Term Research. AI Memo 384.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ira P.; Miller, Mark L.

    The application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to the design of personal learning environments is an enterprise of both theoretical and practical interest. In the short term, the process of developing and testing intelligent tutoring programs serves as a new experimental vehicle for exploring alternative cognitive and pedagogical…

  4. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  5. AI techniques in geomagnetic storm forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    This review deals with how geomagnetic storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict geomagnetic storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of geomagnetic storms.

  6. Quantifying the tracking capability of space-based AIS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has operated three Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in space. Two are on dedicated nano-satellites, AISSat-1 and AISSat-2. The third, the NORAIS Receiver, was installed on the International Space Station. A general method for calculating the upper bound on the tracking capability of a space-based AIS system has been developed and the results from the algorithm applied to AISSat-1 and the NORAIS Receiver individually. In addition, a constellation of AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 is presented. The tracking capability is defined as the probability of re-detecting ships as they move around the globe and is explained to represent and upper bound on a space-based AIS system performance. AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 operates on the nominal AIS1 and AIS2 channels, while the NORAIS Receiver data used are from operations on the dedicated space AIS channels, AIS3 and AIS4. The improved tracking capability of operations on the space AIS channels is presented.

  7. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  8. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  9. Application of AIS Technology to Forest Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.

  10. The Ai project: historical and ecological contexts.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2003-12-01

    This paper aims to review a long-term research project exploring the chimpanzee mind within historical and ecological contexts. The Ai project began in 1978 and was directly inspired by preceding ape-language studies conducted in Western countries. However, in contrast with the latter, it has focused on the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of chimpanzees rather than communicative skills between humans and chimpanzees. In the original setting, a single chimpanzee faced a computer-controlled apparatus and performed various kinds of matching-to-sample discrimination tasks. Questions regarding the chimpanzee mind can be traced back to Wolfgang Koehler's work in the early part of the 20th century. Yet, Japan has its unique natural and cultural background: it is home to an indigenous primate species, the Japanese snow monkey. This fact has contributed to the emergence of two previous projects in the wild led by the late Kinji Imanishi and his students. First, the Koshima monkey project began in 1948 and became famous for its discovery of the cultural propagation of sweet-potato washing behavior. Second, pioneering work in Africa, starting in 1958, aimed to study great apes in their natural habitat. Thanks to the influence of these intellectual ancestors, the present author also undertook the field study of chimpanzees in the wild, focusing on tool manufacture and use. This work has demonstrated the importance of social and ecological perspectives even for the study of the mind. Combining experimental approaches with a field setting, the Ai project continues to explore cognition and behavior in chimpanzees, while its focus has shifted from the study of a single subject toward that of the community as a whole. PMID:14566577

  11. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  12. Pedagogy and the PC: Trends in the AIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badua, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time,…

  13. An Immune Agent for Web-Based AI Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing

    2006-01-01

    To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…

  14. The Social Stratification of /aI/ in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, L. Ben

    This study is a sociolinguistic analysis of the variant pronunciation of /aI/, a selected phonological variable, by white informants in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 56 informants were interviewed to determine their pronunciation of /aI/. Informants were ranked according to education, income, and occupation to…

  15. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEMEN STORAGE AND AI TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkeys are the only commercial livestock species completely dependent upon artificial insemination (AI) for fertile egg production. Given that every breeder hen must be inseminated weekly during egg production, AI is both time and labor-intensive. Methods for the timing, frequency, semen dosage a...

  16. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  17. Instability of EDS maglev systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1993-09-01

    Instabilities of an EDS maglev suspension system with 3 D.O.F. and 5 D.O.F. vehicles traveling on a double L-shaped set of guideway conductors have been investigated with various experimentally measured magnetical force data incorporated into the theoretical models. Divergence and flutter are obtained from both analytical and numerical solutions for coupled vibration of the 3 D.O.F. maglev vehicle model. Instabilities of five direction motions (heave, slip, rill, pitch and yaw) are observed for the 4 D.O.F. vehicle model. It demonstrates that system parameters, such as, system damping, vehicle geometry and coupling effects among five different motions play very important roles in the occurrence of dynamic instabilities of maglev vehicles.

  18. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  19. Media campaign educates public on ED overcrowding.

    PubMed

    2004-04-01

    A Tennessee health care system is reducing overcrowding in its EDs with a media campaign that urges patients with nonurgent needs to seek other care options. The campaign has contributed to a 5% decrease in ED volume at one hospital in the first few months. Advertising spots urge patients to go to primary care physicians and urgent care clinics. ED staff help educate patients while treating them for nonurgent needs. PMID:15077530

  20. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality

  1. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  2. Stool C. difficile toxin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis ...

  3. Small bowel tissue smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  4. Culture - colonic tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  5. Stool ova and parasites exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  6. String test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291. Semrad CE. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I variants. Naturally occurring substitutions of proline residues affect plasma concentration of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    von Eckardstein, A; Funke, H; Henke, A; Altland, K; Benninghoven, A; Assmann, G

    1989-01-01

    Six unrelated families with genetically determined structural variants of apo A-I were found in the course of an electrophoretic screening program for apo A-I variants in dried blood samples of newborns. The following structural variations were identified by the combined use of HPLC, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and automated gas phase sequencing: Pro3----Arg (1x), Pro4----Arg (1x), and Pro165----Arg (4x). All variant carriers were heterozygous for their mutant of apo A-I. Subjects heterozygous for apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) (n = 12) were found to exhibit lower mean values for apo A-I (109 +/- 16 mg/dl) and HDL cholesterol (37 +/- 9 mg/dl) than unaffected family members (n = 9): 176 +/- 41 and 64 +/- 18 mg/dl, respectively (P less than 0.001). In 9 of 12 apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) variant carriers the concentrations of apo A-I were below the fifth percentile of sex-matched controls. By two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis as well as by densitometry the relative concentration of the variant apo A-I in heterozygous carriers of apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) was determined to account for only 30% of the total plasma apo A-I mass instead of the expected 50%. Thus, the observed apo A-I deficiency may be largely a consequence of the decreased concentration of the variant apo A-I. In the case of the apo A-I(Pro3----Arg) mutant, densitometry of HDL apolipoproteins demonstrated a distinctly increased concentration of the variant proapo A-I relative to normal proapo A-I. This phenomenon was not observed in the apo A-I(Pro4----Arg) mutant or in other mutants. This suggests that the interspecies conserved proline residue in position 3 of mature apo A-I is functionally important for the regular enzymatic conversion of proapo A-I to mature apo A-I. Images PMID:2512329

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian-Daryoush, Maryam; DiDonato, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the predominant protein in plasma HDL, have long been the focus of intense studies in the field of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. ApoA-I, in large part, is responsible for HDL assembly and its main atheroprotective function, that of shuttling excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion (reverse cholesterol transport). Recently, a protective role for HDL in cancer was suggested from several large clinical studies where an inverse relationship between plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and risk of developing cancer was noted. This notion has now been tested and found to be supported in mouse tumor studies, where increasing levels of apoA-I/HDL were discovered to protect against tumor development and provision of human apoA-I was therapeutic against established tumors. This mini-review discusses the emerging role of apoA-I in tumor biology and its potential as cancer therapeutic. PMID:26617517

  9. Creating an AI modeling application for designers and developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlette, Ryan; Fu, Daniel; Jensen, Randy

    2003-09-01

    Simulation developers often realize an entity's AI by writing a program that exhibits the intended behavior. These behaviors are often the product of design documents written by designers. These individuals, while possessing a vast knowledge of the subject matter, might not have any programming knowledge whatsoever. To address this disconnect between design and subsequent development, we have created an AI application whereby a designer or developer sketches an entity's AI using a graphical "drag and drop" interface to quickly articulate behavior using a UML-like representation of state charts. Aside from the design-level benefits, the application also features a runtime engine that takes the application's data as input along with a simulation or game interface, and makes the AI operational. We discuss our experience in creating such an application for both designer and developer.

  10. Quality measures and assurance for AI (Artificial Intelligence) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.

  11. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Miller, Christopher N.; Deitchman, Andrew R.; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25742126

  12. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  13. Calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.

  14. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Ed Lu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Ed Lu of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He explains why he became interested in space flight. He states that this is a different type of mission and gives his reaction to the Columbia Space Shuttle tragedy. The handover of Expedition six is explained by Ed Lu. The challenges of this mission are also described by Lu. These challenges include working with a crew member reduction from three to two, and the conservation of clothing and consumables. Ed Lu talks about what it is like to work with commander Yuri Malenchenko in space. Finally, Ed Lu states that he will continue scientific experiments in space on calcium loss in bones.

  15. MicroED data collection and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-07-01

    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  16. 'Mystery shoppers' can uncover ED weaknesses.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    One veteran "mystery shopper" has uncovered several common ED practices that can hurt patient satisfaction. You can learn from her observations to improve your ED's customer service: Be sure to let all of your patients know how long they might expect to wait before seeing a doctor. Wash your hands where the patient can see you, so they can be confident you are practicing good hygiene. Clearly explain all forms and discharge instructions to help ensure patient compliance. PMID:17209484

  17. 76 FR 44045 - Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... of Justice Programs Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee AGENCY: Office for... (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Initiative (``SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee'' or... (FACA), as amended, 5 U.S.C., App. 2. The SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee will provide the...

  18. Non–Emergency Department (ED) Interventions to Reduce ED Utilization: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Sofie Rahman; Chang, Anna Marie; Alqatari, Mahfood; Pines, Jesse M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent health policy changes have focused efforts on reducing emergency department (ED) visits as a way to reduce costs and improve quality of care. This was a systematic review of interventions based outside the ED aimed at reducing ED use. Methods This study was designed as a systematic review. We reviewed the literature on interventions in five categories: patient education, creation of additional non-ED capacity, managed care, prehospital diversion, and patient financial incentives. Studies written in English, with interventions administered outside of the ED, and a comparison group where ED use was an outcome, were included. Two independent reviewers screened search results using MEDLINE, Cochrane, OAIster, or Scopus. The following data were abstracted from included studies: type of intervention, study design, population, details of intervention, effect on ED use, effect on non-ED health care use, and other health and financial outcomes. Quality of individual articles was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Results Of 39 included studies, 34 were observational and five were randomized controlled trials. Two of five studies on patient education found reductions in ED use ranging from 21% to 80%. Out of 10 studies of additional non-ED capacity, four showed decreases of 9% to 54%, and one a 21% increase. Both studies on prehospital diversion found reductions of 3% to 7%. Of 12 studies on managed care, 10 had decreases ranging from 1% to 46%. Nine out of 10 studies on patient financial incentives found decreases of 3% to 50%, and one a 34% increase. Nineteen studies reported effect on non-ED use with mixed results. Seventeen studies included data on health outcomes, but 13 of these only included data on hospitalizations rather than morbidity and mortality. Seven studies included data on cost outcomes. According to the GRADE guidelines, all studies had at least some risk of bias, with four

  19. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  20. Maritime traffic monitoring using a space-based AIS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Torkild; Høye, Gudrun; Narheim, Bjørn; Meland, Bente Jensløkken

    2006-05-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime safety and vessel traffic system imposed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The system broadcasts position reports and short messages with information about the ship and the voyage. Using frequencies in the maritime VHF band, the coverage is similar to other VHF applications, and is essentially dependent on the altitude of the antenna. For ship-to-ship communications the range is typically 20 nautical miles and for ship-to-shore up to 40 nm. A space-based AIS receiver in low earth orbit will have a range to the horizon of more than 1000 nm, giving an excellent opportunity for large-area ocean surveillance. The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has performed a feasibility study on reception of AIS messages from space. The results show that a ship detection probability of near 100% can be obtained for up to 1000 ships within the coverage area, and that for a standard AIS receiver a signal power margin of 10-20 dB can be achieved. On this background, swath-width analyses for European scenarios are done. It is argued that space-based reception of AIS messages is a promising way of achieving long-range identification and tracking services at marginal cost.

  1. Discovering Knowledge from AIS Database for Application in VTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng

    The widespread use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has had a significant impact on maritime technology. AIS enables the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) not only to offer commonly known functions such as identification, tracking and monitoring of vessels, but also to provide rich real-time information that is useful for marine traffic investigation, statistical analysis and theoretical research. However, due to the rapid accumulation of AIS observation data, the VTS platform is often unable quickly and effectively to absorb and analyze it. Traditional observation and analysis methods are becoming less suitable for the modern AIS generation of VTS. In view of this, we applied the same data mining technique used for business intelligence discovery (in Customer Relation Management (CRM) business marketing) to the analysis of AIS observation data. This recasts the marine traffic problem as a business-marketing problem and integrates technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), database management systems, data warehousing and data mining to facilitate the discovery of hidden and valuable information in a huge amount of observation data. Consequently, this provides the marine traffic managers with a useful strategic planning resource.

  2. Toward detecting California shrubland canopy chemistry with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Westman, Walter E.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS)-2 data of coastal sage scrub vegetation were examined for fine spectral features that might be used to predict concentrations of certain canopy chemical constituents. A Fourier notch filter was applied to the AIS data and the TREE and ROCK mode spectra were ratioed to a flat field. Portions of the resulting spectra resemble spectra for plant cellulose and starch in that both show reduced reflectance at 2100 and 2270 nm. The latter are regions of absorption of energy by organic bonds found in starch and cellulose. Whether the relationship is sufficient to predict the concentration of these chemicals from AIS spectra will require testing of the predictive ability of these wavebands with large field sample sizes.

  3. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  4. ED Patients with Prolonged Complaints and Repeat ED Visits Have an Increased Risk of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Kristopher R.; Bahl, Rajiv; Marcinkowski, Nathan F.; Ammons, Katelyn R.; Akpunonu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to explore associations between presenting chief complaints of prolonged symptomatology, patient usage of the emergency department (ED), and underlying depression so that emergency physicians may better target patients for depression screening. Methods A convenience sample of ED patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to assess for depression. We correlated completed BDI-II surveys to patient information including demographics, pertinent history of present illness information, and past medical history. Results Out of 425 participants screened, we identified complaints of two weeks or longer in 92 patients (22%). Of these patients, mild to severe depression was recognized in over half of the population (47), yet only nine patients reported a prior depression diagnosis. These 92 patients also visited the ED three times as frequently as those patients with more acute complaints (p<0.001). Finally, our study showed that patients with mild to severe depression had three times as many ED visits compared to patients with minimal or no depression (p<0.001). Conclusion Patients with complaints of symptomatology two weeks or longer are more likely to have underlying depression when presenting to the ED. Patients with three or more ED visits within the past year also have a greater incidence of underlying depression. We found a strong correlation between complaints with symptomatology of two weeks or longer and multiple ED visits, in which underlying depression may have contributed to these patients’ ED visits. PMID:27625727

  5. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Mercer University MEd, EdS, and Doctoral Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Gaiek, Lura S.; White, Torian A.; Slappey, Lisa A.; Chastain, Andrea; Harris, Rose Prejean

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative content analysis of a body of research not only helps budding researchers understand the culture, language, and expectations of scholarship, it helps identify deficiencies and inform policy and practice. Because of these benefits, an analysis of a census of 980 Mercer University MEd, EdS, and doctoral theses was conducted. Each thesis…

  6. Can external quality control improve pig AI efficiency?

    PubMed

    Waberski, D; Petrunkina, A M; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    2008-11-01

    External quality control programmes carried out by central laboratories have been long established in human andrology with the aim of enhancing the accuracy and reproducibility of semen assessment. Compared to human, demands on boar semen assessment in AI stations are more complex, with the need both to identify boars with poor ejaculate quality and to monitor individual boar differences for semen storage. Additionally, appropriate assessment serves as a control instrument to ensure the security and efficiency of semen processing. Despite current limitations regarding the ability of sperm assays to estimate the potential fertility of males, it is evident that boar fertility is related to certain conventional semen tests, e.g. sperm morphology. In central studies carried out on stored semen from 11 AI stations, flow cytometric assessment of plasma and acrosome membrane integrity proved to be more sensitive in detecting sperm damage associated with ageing and temperature stress as compared to light microscopy. Membrane integrity of stored semen differed between AI stations indicating significant influences of semen processing on sperm quality. Thus external control of semen quality in reference laboratories may be useful to monitor the efficiency of internal semen quality control in individual AI stations, to identify males with lower semen quality and/or poor response to semen storage, and to verify the precision of sperm counting. The possibility that central laboratories with sufficient resources may be able to identify functionally different responding sperm subpopulations for better estimation of fertility is discussed. Ideally, external quality control schemes for AI stations would comprise application of validated tests with high relevance for fertility (including bacterial status), analysis of semen processing on the AI station, and training courses for laboratory personnel. PMID:18656253

  7. Diverter AI based decision aid, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Bayles, Scott J.; Patterson, Robert W.; Schulke, Duane A.; Williams, Deborah C.

    1989-01-01

    It was determined that a system to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) into airborne flight management computers is feasible. The AI functions that would be most useful to the pilot are to perform situational assessment, evaluate outside influences on the contemplated rerouting, perform flight planning/replanning, and perform maneuver planning. A study of the software architecture and software tools capable of demonstrating Diverter was also made. A skeletal planner known as the Knowledge Acquisition Development Tool (KADET), which is a combination script-based and rule-based system, was used to implement the system. A prototype system was developed which demonstrates advanced in-flight planning/replanning capabilities.

  8. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  9. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  10. MicroED data collection and processing

    PubMed Central

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; de la Cruz, M. Jason; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges. PMID:26131894

  11. One Year Medical Outcomes and ED Recidivism Following ED Observation for Cocaine-Associated Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen A.; Weber, Jim Edward; O'Broin, Samantha; Tripathi, Shanti P; Maio, Ronald F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Chest pain is the most common complaint among cocaine users who present to the ED seeking care and many hospital resources are applied to stratify cocaine users in regard to future cardiac morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the longitudinal cardiac and non cardiac medical outcomes of cocaine users who have been stratified to an ED observation period following their ED visit. Objectives to examine one-year cardiac outcomes in a low-intermediate risk sample of patients with cocaine- associated chest pain in an urban ED, as well as to examine ED recidivism one year for cardiac and non-cardiac complaints. Methods Prospective consecutive cohort study of patients (18–60 years) who presented to an urban Level 1 ED with cocaine-associated chest pain and were risk stratified to low-intermediate cardiac risk. Exclusion criteria: EKG suggestive of AMI, elevated serum cardiac markers, history of AMI or CABG, hemodynamic instability, unstable angina. Baseline interviews using validated measures of health functioning, and substance use were conducted during CPOU stay, and 3, 6, and 12 months. ED utilization during the study year was abstracted from medical chart. Zero-Inflated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to predict recurrent ED visits. Results 219 participants (73% participation) were enrolled, 65% returned to the ED post index visit; 23% returned for chest pain, of these 66% had a positive cocaine urine screen. No patient had an AMI within the one year follow up period. Patients with continued cocaine use were more likely to have a recurrent ED visit (p<0.001) but these repeat visits were most often related to musculoskeletal pain (21%), and injury (30%) rather than potential cardiac complaints. Conclusions Patients with cocaine-associated chest pain who are low to intermediate cardiac risk and complete a CPOU protocol have less then 1% rate of MI in the subsequent 12-months. PMID:18824277

  12. Improving ED efficiency to capture additional revenue.

    PubMed

    Mandavia, Sujal; Samaniego, Loretta

    2016-06-01

    An increase in the number of patients visiting emergency departments (EDs) presents an opportunity for additional revenue if hospitals take four steps to optimize resources: Streamline the patient pathway and reduce the amount of time each patient occupies a bed in the ED. Schedule staff according to the busy and light times for patient arrivals. Perform registration and triage bedside, reducing initial wait times. Create an area for patients to wait for test results so beds can be freed up for new arrivals. PMID:27451568

  13. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  14. Comparisons of the Outcome Prediction Performance of Injury Severity Scoring Tools Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 90 Update 98 (AIS 98) and 2005 Update 2008 (AIS 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was revised in 2005 and updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to compare the outcome prediction performance of AIS-based injury severity scoring tools by using AIS 2008 and AIS 98. We used all major trauma patients hospitalized to the Royal Perth Hospital between 1994 and 2008. We selected five AIS-based injury severity scoring tools, including Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), modified Anatomic Profile (mAP), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). We selected survival after injury as a target outcome. We used the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC) as a performance measure. First, we compared the five tools using all cases whose records included all variables for the TRISS (complete dataset) using a 10-fold cross-validation. Second, we compared the ISS and NISS for AIS 98 and AIS 2008 using all subjects (whole dataset). We identified 1,269 and 4,174 cases for a complete dataset and a whole dataset, respectively. With the 10-fold cross-validation, there were no clear differences in the AUROCs between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based scores. With the second comparison, the AIS 98-based ISS performed significantly worse than the AIS 2008-based ISS (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based NISSs. Researchers should be aware of these findings when they select an injury severity scoring tool for their studies. PMID:22105401

  15. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  16. New directions for Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in optimum design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1989-01-01

    Developments and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in the design of structural systems is reviewed. Principal shortcomings in the current approach are emphasized, and the need for some degree of formalism in the development environment for such design tools is underscored. Emphasis is placed on efforts to integrate algorithmic computations in expert systems.

  17. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-04-25

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project.

  18. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  19. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  20. SPIKE: AI scheduling techniques for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1991-09-01

    AI (Artificial Intelligence) scheduling techniques for HST are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: domain; HST constraint timescales; HTS scheduling; SPIKE overview; SPIKE architecture; constraint representation and reasoning; use of suitability functions by scheduling agent; SPIKE screen example; advantages of suitability function framework; limiting search and constraint propagation; scheduling search; stochastic search; repair methods; implementation; and status.

  1. ROBUST ESTIMATES OF THE ED50

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the possibility that robust estimators of location can be adapted to the problem of estimating the ED50 in binary-response bioassay, 10 estimators are compared. A Monte Carlo study is conducted to determine the mean squared errors (MSE) of the estimators. Taking into a...

  2. The Trouble with the Ed.D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessa, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This article review examines Arthur Levine's 2005 "Educating School Leaders," a report that recommended the elimination of the Ed.D. and the establishment of a new degree, the Master's in Educational Administration. The article review draws attention to the central irony of Levine's report: after chronicling the many ways that schools of education…

  3. The Consequences of edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    States and teacher preparation programs across the country are increasingly using a teacher candidate assessment called edTPA. The purpose? To make sure that teacher candidates are ready and able to teach before they begin their careers. The teacher performance assessment requires candidates to compile a portfolio that consists of lesson plans,…

  4. Space-based detection of spoofing AIS signals using Doppler frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanzeng

    2014-05-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a self-reporting system based on VHF radio to transmit a vessel's identity, position, speed, heading and other parameters to improve maritime domain awareness. However, AIS information can be programmatically spoofed by terrorists or other criminals, who often choose to masquerade as innocent civilians and exploit the vulnerabilities of military and civilian infrastructures for their purposes. Therefore, detecting and localizing a spoofing AIS ship become a critical and challenging issue for maritime security. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and geolocalize a spoofing AIS emitter using space-based AIS signals with its Doppler frequency. With an AIS signal sensor on a fast orbiting satellite, the measured AIS Doppler frequency of an AIS emitter can be used to define a double-napped cone of which the satellite is at its vertex and satellite velocity coincides with its axis, such that the theoretical Doppler frequency derived from the radial velocity to the AIS emitter matches the measured Doppler frequency. All such matches can only lie on either cone extending out from the satellite, which cuts the Earth's surface in two curves, so we know that the AIS emitter must lie somewhere on these curves. Two such AIS Doppler frequency measurements for the same stationary AIS emitter produce two valid curves which intersect at the position of the AIS emitter. Multiple Doppler frequency measurements can be used to better estimate the position fix of an AIS emitter, hence determine the spoofing AIS ship if the estimated position fix unreasonably differs from the position carried in its AIS message. A set of formulas are derived which relate an AIS emitter position to its Doppler frequency measurements.

  5. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans. PMID:27382195

  6. Detection of autoinducer (AI-2)-like activity in food samples.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Pillai, Suresh D

    2011-01-01

    The contamination, survival, and possible foodborne disease outbreaks are major issues confronting the food industry. However, from a microbial perspective, any food whether natural or processed is just another environmental niche that is available for colonization. Quorum sensing or cell-cell communication is a process by which microorganisms are thought to communicate with each other using a variety of small molecules termed autoinducers. The autoinducer AI-2 is thought to be a universal signaling molecule due to its ability to modulate the gene expression of a number of different bacterial species and genera. Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, Streptococcus sp., and Burkholderia cepacia form biofilms on a variety of man-made and natural surfaces using cell-cell mechanisms. It is important to detect and study autoinducers and their activities in foods, since a better understanding of these molecules in food and food ingredients may help in designing new approaches to thwart microbial persistence and biofilm formation. The autoinducer AI-2 is thought to be involved in microbial attachment and biofilm formation leading to food spoilage. To better understand microbial cell-cell signaling in foods especially as it relates to pathogen persistence, biofilm formation, and food spoilage, methods to process, extract, and purify autoinducer molecules need to be developed. This chapter details methods to process food samples to obtain cell-free supernatants (CFS), which could subsequently be tested for the presence of AI-2 or "AI-2-like activity" in the extracted CFS using autoinducer bioassays. Additionally, the method of synthesizing AI-2 in the laboratory is also provided. The methods that are presented in this chapter are based on previously published research articles from the authors' laboratory. PMID:21031305

  7. 77 FR 68150 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN...) Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Initiative (``SANE/SART...

  8. 78 FR 17232 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee AGENCY: Office for Victims of... Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)--Sexual Assault Response Team (SART..., victim-centered responses to sexual violence within AI/AN communities. DATES AND LOCATIONS: The...

  9. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.231 Section 80.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a) Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment must meet the technical requirements of...

  10. Apolipoprotein AI levels are increased in part as a consequence of reduced catabolism in nephrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, G A; Hoye, E; Jones, H

    1995-03-01

    Apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) synthesis, measured as the turnover of 125I-labeled apo AI-labeled high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was increased significantly in rats with Heymann nephritis (HN) vs. control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. However, fractional apo AI catabolic rate was also significantly less in HN vs. SD. We used 125I-apo AI tyramine cellobiose HDL, a marker retained at the catabolic site, to establish where apo AI catabolism decreased in six HN rats, seven rats with adriamycin (Adria)-induced nephrosis, and six control SD. Total renal apo AI catabolism, plus urinary losses, were the same in all three groups, despite significant urinary apo AI in HN and Adria rats. Apo AI catabolism was reduced in skin in both nephrotic groups, accounting for approximately 44% of reduced in apo AI catabolism. Thus a significant fraction of apo AI is catabolized in skin of normal male rats. Reduced apo AI catabolism in skin contributes to increased plasma levels in nephrotic rats. PMID:7900854

  11. Ictalurus punctatus apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1) mRNA, complete cds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete coding sequence of channel catfish apolipoprotein A-I is 777 bp in length, encoding 258 amino acids. The publishing of this coding sequence will also allow phylogenetic comparison between catfish ApoAI and ApoAI genes from other species. The availability of this complete coding sequence...

  12. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  13. Syncope risk stratification in the ED.

    PubMed

    Dipaola, Franca; Costantino, Giorgio; Solbiati, Monica; Barbic, Franca; Capitanio, Chiara; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Brunetta, Enrico; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Furlan, Raffaello

    2014-09-01

    Syncope may be the final common presentation of a number of clinical conditions spanning benign (i.e. neurally-mediated syncope) to life-threatening diseases (i.e. cardiac syncope). Hospitalization rate after a syncopal episode is high. An effective risk stratification is crucial to identify patients at risk of poor prognosis in the short term period to avoid unnecessary hospital admissions. The decision to admit or discharge a syncope patient from the ED is often based on the physician's clinical judgment. In recent years, several prognostic tools (i.e. clinical prediction rules and risk scores) have been developed to provide emergency physicians with accurate guidelines for hospital admission. At present, there are no compelling evidence that prognostic tools perform better than physician's clinical judgment in assessing the short-term outcome of syncope. However, the risk factors characterizing clinical prediction rules and risk scores may be profitably used by emergency doctors in their decision making, specifically whenever a syncope patient has to be discharged from ED or admitted to hospital. Patients with syncope of undetermined etiology, who are characterized by an intermediate-high risk profile after the initial evaluation, should be monitored in the ED. Indeed, data suggest that the 48h following syncope are at the highest risk for major adverse events. A new tool for syncope management is represented by the Syncope Unit in the ED or in an outpatient setting. Syncope Unit may reduce hospitalization and length of hospital stay. However, further studies are needed to clarify whether syncope patients' prognosis can be also improved. PMID:24811585

  14. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  15. Technology integration and synergies: radar, optics, and AIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellard, J. N.; Chen, Y.; Gonzalez Chevere, D.; Shahid, H.

    2015-05-01

    Various technologies were used to detect, track, and classify vessels on the Hudson River. Broadband radar was used to detect and track vessels. Visible light cameras, infrared cameras, and image processing techniques were used to detect, track, and classify vessels. Automatic Identification System (AIS) was used to track and classify vessels. The technologies, collectively referred to as the Integrated Technology System (ITS), were used in conjunction with each other to achieve synergies and to overcome individual system limitations. These limitations included a narrow field of view, false alarms, and misdetections. The suite of technologies successfully fulfilled its purpose. The radar was effective despite some errors. The cameras allowed for software development including automatic slewing and image processing. While AIS was considered the most reliable tool, it was determined not to be infallible. Future work includes integration of passive acoustics into the system and wake analysis for vessel detection.

  16. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  17. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  18. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged frommore » 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.« less

  19. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.

  20. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  1. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  2. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  3. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS Consolidation Program: flushing and blowdown system design

    SciTech Connect

    1984-01-01

    The flushing and blowdown system of an EDS plant provides the means of removing viscous coal products and slurry streams from plant vessels and lines. In addition, it provides the flushing oil needed during normal operations for purging instruments in slurry service, for flushing slurry pump and slurry agitator seals, and for flushing slurry safety valve inlet lines. It contains a blowdown system for collecting material from washing operations, including the transport of the collected material to slop tankage. The rerun options for depleting the inventory of collected slop are a related aspect of the flushing and blowdown system design although specific equipment for handling slop is not part of the flushing and blowdown system facilities. This report documents the results of a study which evaluates the flushing and blowdown requirements for a commercial-scale EDS plant. The work was conducted as part of the EDS Consolidation Program. The design recommendations represent a consolidation of learnings accrued during previous phases of the EDS Project including results obtained from ECLP operations, from the ECLP Test Program, and from past EDS Study Design preparations. 1 reference, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  5. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  6. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Humm, John R; Stadter, Gregory W; Curry, William H; Brasel, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990-1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m(2). Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  7. EFFECTS OF ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ON ADULT AND IMMATURE RABBIT LEYDIG CELLS: COMPARISON WITH EDS-TREATED RAT LEYDIG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethane-dimethanesulfonate (EDS) has been shown to selectively kill Leydig cells and depress testosterone production in adult rats. ecent study has shown that immature rat leydig cells are less sensitive to EDS exposure. here is evidence that the rabbit metabolizes EDS to methane ...

  8. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  9. ED navigators steer patients to appropriate providers.

    PubMed

    2012-03-01

    At Presbyterian Healthcare Services in Albuquerque, NM, emergency department navigators refer patients with minor ailments to primary care providers or urgent care centers. All patients are triaged by nurse in ED. - Appropriate patients are sent to the hospital's Lean Track area where they are evaluated by a physician or mid-level provider. - Patients who can safely be treated in 12-24 hours are referred to the navigator, who obtains an appointment for them with a primary care provider or urgent care center. PMID:22423392

  10. Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 129. Porter CC, Avner Ed. ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 515. Somlo S, Torres VE, Caplan ...

  11. Passive damping in EDS maglev systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D. M.

    2002-05-03

    There continues to be strong interest in the subjects of damping and drag forces associated with electrodynamic suspension (EDS) systems. While electromagnetic drag forces resist the forward motion of a vehicle and therefore consume energy, damping forces control, at least in part, the response of the vehicle to disturbances. Ideally, one would like to reduce the drag forces as much as possible while retaining adequate damping forces to insure dynamic stability and satisfactory ride quality. These two goals turn out to be difficult to achieve in practice. It is well known that maglev systems tend to be intrinsically under damped. Consequently it is often necessary in a practical system design to enhance the damping passively or actively. For reasons of cost and simplicity, it is desirable to rely as much as possible on passive damping mechanisms. In this paper, rough estimates are made of the passive damping and drag forces caused by various mechanisms in EDS systems. No attention will be given to active control systems or secondary suspension systems which are obvious ways to augment passive damping mechanisms if the latter prove to be inadequate.

  12. Testicular Feminization or Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) in Iran: a Retrospective Analysis of 30-Year Data

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush. D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan; SADIGHI, Hosein; ZANDVAKILI, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) or testicular feminization is a partial or complete inability of cell response to androgen. The cause is enzymatic defect in synthesis of testosterone, resulting sexually immature phenotypically female, with primary amenorrhea. There are three categories of AIS, complete, partial and mild, depending on the degree of external genital masculinization. The aim of this study was to find out chromosomal abnormalities, and correlation between AIS and maternal/paternal age, parents’ consanguineous marriage, family history and clinical observation, in Iranian AIS patients. Method: This study includes a retrospective data analysis of 72,000 families’ medical records in the Genetic Clinic in Tehran, during a 30-yr period (1984–2014). The essential basis for the patients’ referral to the clinic by gynecologists was primary amenorrhea. Cytogenetic abnormalities has been confirmed by chromosome G-banding and conventional staining methods. Results: Seventy AIS female patients with 46XY pattern were cytogenetically diagnosed and the frequency of AIS syndrome was estimated about 0.05% (∼70/140000). The results showed no association between AIS and maternal or paternal age nor were the marital pattern of the parents. The clinical findings illustrated that primary amenorrhea had the highest indication for referral of AIS patients for genetic counseling and cytogenetic study. Conclusion: No correlation was observed between AIS and maternal or paternal age or consanguineous marriages. Amenorrhea is the most clinically observed sign of AIS patients. PMID:27057514

  13. Analysis of SSME inspection imagery using AI approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegan, Michael K., Jr.; Wee, W. G.

    The automated analysis of SSME injector assemblies has been investigated for the cases of LOX post surface defects and injector-baffle deterioration. Defects are isolated via 2D feature extraction from borescope and camera images; temporal-frequency transforms are then used to create a multiresolution set of feature vectors representing image contents. The potential flaws thus discriminated are then segmented and classified according to known categories. AI is applied in the form of a blackboard architecture that is controlled by a rule-based production system.

  14. AiResearch QCGAT engine: Acoustic test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisner, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    The noise levels of the quiet, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) engine were measured in ground static noise tests. The static noise levels were found to be markedly lower than the demonstrably quiet AiResearch model TFE731 engine. The measured QCGAT noise levels were correlated with analytical noise source predictions to derive free-field component noise predictions. These component noise sources were used to predict the QCGAT flyover noise levels at FAR Part 36 conditions. The predicted flyover noise levels are about 10 decibels lower than the current quietest business jets.

  15. An AIS-Based E-mail Classification Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Jinjian; Mao, Ruilong; Bie, Rongfang; Gao, Xiao-Zhi

    This paper proposes a new e-mail classification method based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS), which is endowed with good diversity and self-adaptive ability by using the immune learning, immune memory, and immune recognition. In our method, the features of spam and non-spam extracted from the training sets are combined together, and the number of false positives (non-spam messages that are incorrectly classified as spam) can be reduced. The experimental results demonstrate that this method is effective in reducing the false rate.

  16. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  17. Urban, Forest, and Agricultural AIS Data: Fine Spectral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) near Lafayette, IN, Ely, MN, and over the Stanford University campus, CA were analyzed for fine spectral structure using two techniques: the ratio of radiance of a ground target to the radiance of a standard and also the correlation coefficient of radiances at adjacent wavelengths. The results show ramp like features in the ratios. These features are due to the biochemical composition of the leaf and to the optical scattering properties of its cuticle. The size and shape of the ramps vary with ground cover.

  18. STAR - A computer language for hybrid AI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    Constructing Artificial Intelligence application systems which rely on both symbolic and non-symbolic processing places heavy demands on the communication of data between dissimilar languages. This paper describes STAR (Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning), a computer language for the development of AI application systems which supports the transfer of data structures between a symbolic level and a non-symbolic level defined in languages such as FORTRAN, C and PASCAL. The organization of STAR is presented, followed by the description of an application involving STAR in the interpretation of airborne imaging spectrometer data.

  19. Text message program improves outcomes, decreases ED utilization among ED patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic patients who lack access to primary care tend to frequent the ED, often with complications from their disease that could have been prevented with proper management and education. To get around the problem of access, researchers tested an automated program that continuously delivered educational messaging via text to a group of patients who presented to the ED with poorly controlled diabetes. After six months, researchers noted improvements in Hb A1c levels, self-reported medication adherence, and ED utilization when compared with a control group. And the impact was particularly noteworthy among Latinos, according to the researchers. The text messaging program, dubbed TExT-Med, was developed by four physicians and two diabetes educators. The messages were delivered daily, and contained educational as well motivational content derived from the National Diabetes Education Program.There were also medication reminders, healthy living challenges, and trivia questions about diabetes. At six months, Hb A1c levels decreased by 1.05% in the intervention group, compared to 0.60% in the control group, and self-reported medication adherence improved from 4.5 to 5.4 (as measured on an 8 point scale) in the intervention group versus a decrease of 0.1 in the control group. During the six-month study period, 35.9% of patients in the intervention group presented to the ED for care, as compared to 51.6% of patients in the control group. PMID:24505864

  20. Discrimination of Coastal Vegetation and Biomass Using AIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over a coastal wetlands region near Lewes, Delaware, adjacent to the Delaware Bay on 16 August 1984. Using the AIS data, it was possible to discriminate between four different types of wetland vegetation canopies: (1) trees; (2) broadleaf herbaceous plants (e.g., Acnida cannabina, Hisbiscus moscheutos); (3) the low marsh grass Spartina alterniflora; and (4) the high marsh grasses Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens. The single most useful region of the spectrum was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns, where slopes of portions of the radiance curve and ratios of radiance at particular wavelengths were significantly different for the four canopy types. The ratio between the highest digital number in the 1.40 to 1.90 microns and .84 to .94 microns regions and a similar ratio between the peaks in radiance in the 1.12 to 1.40 microns and .84 to .94 microns spectral regions were also very effective at discriminating between vegetation types. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass.

  1. Building distributed rule-based systems using the AI Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain C.

    1990-01-01

    The AI Bus software architecture was designed to support the construction of large-scale, production-quality applications in areas of high technology flux, running heterogeneous distributed environments, utilizing a mix of knowledge-based and conventional components. These goals led to its current development as a layered, object-oriented library for cooperative systems. This paper describes the concepts and design of the AI Bus and its implementation status as a library of reusable and customizable objects, structured by layers from operating system interfaces up to high-level knowledge-based agents. Each agent is a semi-autonomous process with specialized expertise, and consists of a number of knowledge sources (a knowledge base and inference engine). Inter-agent communication mechanisms are based on blackboards and Actors-style acquaintances. As a conservative first implementation, we used C++ on top of Unix, and wrapped an embedded Clips with methods for the knowledge source class. This involved designing standard protocols for communication and functions which use these protocols in rules. Embedding several CLIPS objects within a single process was an unexpected problem because of global variables, whose solution involved constructing and recompiling a C++ version of CLIPS. We are currently working on a more radical approach to incorporating CLIPS, by separating out its pattern matcher, rule and fact representations and other components as true object oriented modules.

  2. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  3. Capillary Study - Skylab Student Experiment ED-72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment ED-72, Capillary Study, proposed by Roger G. Johnson of St. Paul, Mirnesota. Johnson theorized that capillary rise might continue to infinity in Skylab's zero-gravity environment. The behavior of fluids, particularly their flow properties in a low-gravity environment, had been important from the time that Robert H. Goddard launched his liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's to the more sophisticated space systems of the day. It was necessary to design fluid-flow systems that would not only overcome the lack of gravity but also overcome, or take advantage of, the effect of surface tension. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  4. Interpretation of AIS Images of Cuprite, Nevada Using Constraints of Spectral Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is outlined that tests the hypothesis Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image spectra are produced by mixtures of surface materials. This technique allows separation of AIS images into concentration images of spectral endmembers (e.g., surface materials causing spectral variation). Using a spectral reference library it was possible to uniquely identify these spectral endmembers with respect to the reference library and to calibrate the AIS images.

  5. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event. PMID:10334486

  6. Contribution of ED admissions to inpatient hospital revenue.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Alfred; Harris, Russell H; Warden, Todd; Roth, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) practices are traditionally profiled in terms of their patient encounters. Such evaluations reflect a preponderance of outpatient visits while crediting income from admitted patients to traditional hospital-based services. This study evaluates the contribution of ED admissions to inpatient hospital revenue. The study was set at an urban tertiary care community hospital with university affiliation. Information referable to ED patients was collected from the hospital's Universal Billing Code (UB-92)-based patient information warehouse. Data fields referable to hospital charges, insurance type, and disposition were used for analysis of a 1-year period from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 1999. Statistical analysis was through chi square and ANOVA. During the study period 33,174 patients were treated in the ED with 6,671 (20%) admitted to inpatient services. Total hospital charges for all ED patients during this time were $107 million dollars with $9.1 million (8.5%) generated from discharged patients and $98.0 million (91.5%) from admitted ED patients (P <.001). Mean charges for individual discharged patients were $344.10 whereas for individual admitted patients mean charges were $14,692.28. (P <.001) Medicaid and self pay represented 55.4% of the insurance coverage for discharged ED patients whereas these same insurance classes accounted for only 16.3% of admitted patients. (P <.001) Medicare visits accounted for 12.7% of discharged ED patients but 60.7% of admitted patients (P <.001). Total hospital gross revenue for inpatient services for the study period was $288 million of which 34% was contributed from admitted ED patients. ED services represent a major source of inpatient hospital revenue. The recognition of the ED's potential in this area may be lost if income from patients admitted through the ED is credited to traditional hospital-based services. PMID:11781909

  7. Analysis of AIS data of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired in 1985 over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska for the analysis of canopy characteristics including biochemistry. Concurrent with AIS overflights, foliage from fifteen coniferous and deciduous forest stands were analyzed for a variety of biochemical constituents including nitrogen, lignin, protein, and chlorophyll. Preliminary analysis of AIS spectra indicates that the wavelength region between 1450 to 1800 namometers (nm) displays distinct differences in spectral response for some of the forest stands. A flat field subtraction (forest stand spectra - flat field spectra) of the AIS spectra assisted in the interpretation of features of the spectra that are related to biology.

  8. Could your ED meet a 15-minute service pledge?

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Patients dissatisfied with long waits is one of the most pressing problems that emergency department (ED) managers must address, and there is a trend of EDs offering service guarantees to patients to obtain higher satisfaction scores. At participating EDs, patients are offered letters of apology, movie passes, or a free visit if the guarantee isn't met. Census increased dramatically after the guarantee programs were implemented. To ensure the guarantees are met, additional nursing staff or ED beds may need to be added. PMID:12515111

  9. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  10. Success of Elective Cholecystectomy Treatment Plans After ED Visit

    PubMed Central

    Bingener, Juliane; Thomsen, Kristine M.; McConico, Andrea; Hess, Erik P.; Habermann, Elizabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differentiation between patients with acute cholecystitis and patients with severe biliary colic can be challenging. Patients with undiagnosed acute cholecystitis can incur repeat emergency department (ED) visits, which is resource intensive. Methods Billing records from 2000 – 2013 of all adults who visited the ED in the 30 days preceding their cholecystectomy were analyzed. Patients who were discharged from the ED and underwent elective cholecystectomy were compared to those who were discharged and returned to the ED within 30 days. T-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis were utilized as appropriate. Results From 2000 - 2013, 3138 patients (34%) presented to the ED within 30 days prior to surgery, 63% were women, mean age 51 years, and of those 1625 were directly admitted from the ED for cholecystectomy while 1513 patients left the ED to return for an elective cholecystectomy. Patients who were discharged were younger (mean age 49 vs 54 yrs, p<0.001) and had shorter ED stays (5.9 vs 7.2 hrs, p<0.001) than the patients admitted immediately. Of the discharged patients, 303 (20%) returned to the ED within 30 days to undergo urgent cholecystectomy. Compared to patients with successful elective cholecystectomy after the ED visit, those who failed the pathway were more likely to have an ASA score > 3 and were <40 or ≥60 compared to the successful group. Conclusions One in five patients failed the elective cholecystectomy pathway after ED discharge, leading to additional patient distress and use of resources. Further risk factor assessment may help design efficient care pathways. PMID:25043530

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, G.W.; Castle, C.K.

    1989-07-01

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD (apo A-I(50 kD)), whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range (apo A-I(LDL)). The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species.

  12. Role of thyroid hormones in apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, W; Gorder, N L; Lin-Lee, Y C; Gotto, A M; Patsch, W

    1990-01-01

    To study the regulation of hepatic apo A-I gene expression, we measured synthesis and abundance of cellular apo A-I mRNA and its nuclear precursors in livers of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats. In hypothyroid animals, both synthesis and abundance of apo A-I mRNA was reduced to half of control values. After injection of a receptor-saturating dose of triiodothyronine into euthyroid rats, apo A-I gene transcription increased at 20 min, reached a maximum of 179% of control (P less than 0.01) at 3.5 h, and remained elevated for up to 48 h. The abundance of nuclear and total cellular apo A-I mRNA increased at 1 and 2 h, respectively, and exceeded the levels expected from enhanced transcription more than two fold at 24 h after hormone injection. Upon chronic administration of thyroid hormones, levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic apo A-I mRNA remained elevated but transcription of the apo A-I gene fell to 42% of control (P less than 0.01). Thus, thyroid hormones rapidly stimulate apo A-I gene transcription. Posttranscriptional events leading to increased stability of nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors become the principal mechanism for enhanced gene expression in chronic hyperthyroidism and may cause feedback inhibition of apo A-I gene transcription. Our results furthermore imply that the majority of hepatic nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors are degraded in euthyroid animals. Images PMID:2107206

  13. AI approach to optimal var control with fuzzy reactive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Shahidehpour, S.M.; Daneshdoost, M.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to the optimal reactive power (var) control problem. The method incorporates the reactive load uncertainty in optimizing the overall system performance. The artificial neural network (ANN) enhanced by fuzzy sets is used to determine the memberships of control variables corresponding to the given load values. A power flow solution will determine the corresponding state of the system. Since the resulting system state may not be feasible in real-time, a heuristic method based on the application of sensitivities in expert system is employed to refine the solution with minimum adjustments of control variables. Test cases and numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Simplicity, processing speed and ability to model load uncertainties make this approach a viable option for on-line var control.

  14. Visualizing the ai5γ group IIB intron

    PubMed Central

    Somarowthu, Srinivas; Legiewicz, Michal; Keating, Kevin S.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    It has become apparent that much of cellular metabolism is controlled by large well-folded noncoding RNA molecules. In addition to crystallographic approaches, computational methods are needed for visualizing the 3D structure of large RNAs. Here, we modeled the molecular structure of the ai5γ group IIB intron from yeast using the crystal structure of a bacterial group IIC homolog. This was accomplished by adapting strategies for homology and de novo modeling, and creating a new computational tool for RNA refinement. The resulting model was validated experimentally using a combination of structure-guided mutagenesis and RNA structure probing. The model provides major insights into the mechanism and regulation of splicing, such as the position of the branch-site before and after the second step of splicing, and the location of subdomains that control target specificity, underscoring the feasibility of modeling large functional RNA molecules. PMID:24203709

  15. Parallaxis: A Flexible Parallel Programming Environment For AI Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeunl, Thomas

    1989-03-01

    A parallel language has to match or reflect the hardware underneath to use these resources efficiently. Though every parallel language has to have some kind of parallel machine model, no existing language states this explicitly. The Parallaxis parallel programming environment introduces a different approach. The system comprises the specification of the parallel algorithm and the parallel hardware as well. Parallaxis has been designed for single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) system architectures, consisting of identical processing elements (PEs) with local memory. Data exchange is handled by message passing through a local network. In Parallaxis, the hardware structure is specified in the beginning of each program to establish the environment for coding the parallel algorithm. This is necessary for actually arranging this topology using a reconfigurable system, but it is also profitable for performing a simulation, or just stating the used topology. Parallelizable AI applications that demonstrate Parallaxis' usefulness include computer vision, productions systems, neural networks and robot control.

  16. MedEdPORTAL: Educational Scholarship for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robby J.; Candler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    MedEdPORTAL is an online publication service provided at no charge by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The intent is to promote collaboration and educational scholarship by helping educators publish and share educational resources. With MedEdPORTAL, users can quickly locate high-quality, peer-reviewed teaching materials in both…

  17. Teaching Elementary School Social Studies Methods under edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a self-study that analyzes my experience as a teacher educator navigating a turbulent educational landscape with the advent of edTPA. The data consist of my journal entries, the syllabi, handouts, work submitted by my students, and course evaluations. Data were analyzed by using an inductive process to describe how the edTPA…

  18. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  19. Effects of fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus on conception rate in smallholder zebu and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double PGF2α administration.

    PubMed

    Gugssa, Tadesse; Ashebir, Gebregiorgis; Yayneshet, Tesfay

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate estrus response, time to the onset of estrus, and conception rate at fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus in local and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double administration of PGF2α. One hundred twenty local (heifers, n = 27; cows, n = 33) and crossbreds (heifers, n = 21; cows, n = 39) were used for the study. About 63 and 85.7 % of the local and crossbred heifers, respectively, exhibited estrus. Similarly, all crossbred cows and 90.9 % of local cows showed estrus. Most heifers came to estrus between 48 and 72 h while cows exhibited behavioral signs of estrus between 72 and 96 h. AI at detected estrus resulted in higher conception rate than fixed time AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination was higher in AI at detected estrus than fixed time AI. Accurate estrus detection followed by insemination are crucial factors in maximizing pregnancy, and this study has demonstrated that conception rate in smallholder heifers and cows should be inseminated following estrus detection to maximize the conception rate of the animals. PMID:27184042

  20. Web Formation - Skylab Student Experiment ED-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Judith S. Miles of Lexington High School, Lexington, Massachusetts, proposed skylab student experiment ED-52, Web Formation. This experiment was a study of a spider's behavior in a weightless environment. The geometrical structure of the web of the orb-weaving spider provides a good measure of the condition of its central nervous system. Since the spider senses its own weight to determine the required thickness of web material and uses both the wind and gravity to initiate construction of its web, the lack of gravitational force in Skylab provided a new and different stimulus to the spider's behavioral response. Two common cross spiders, Arabella and Anita, were used for the experiment aboard the Skylab-3 mission. After initial disoriented attempts, both spiders produced almost Earth-like webs once they had adapted to weightlessness. This photograph is of Arabella, a cross spider, in her initial attempt at spirning a web. This picture was taken by the crew of the Skylab 3 mission before Arabella adapted to her new environment.

  1. TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series Fact Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murbach, Marcus; Martinez, Andres; Guarneros Luna, Ali

    2014-01-01

    TechEdSat-3p is the second generation in the TechEdSat-X series. The TechEdSat Series uses the CubeSat standards established by the California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. With typical blocks being constructed from 1-unit (1U 10x10x10 cm) increments, the TechEdSat-3p has a 3U volume with a 30 cm length. The project uniquely pairs advanced university students with NASA researchers in a rapid design-to-flight experience lasting 1-2 semesters.The TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series provides a rapid platform for testing technologies for future NASA Earth and planetary missions, as well as providing students with an early exposure to flight hardware development and management.

  2. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS)...

  3. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS)...

  4. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  5. Health Information in French (français): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) PDF Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) Multimedia Healthy Roads ...

  6. Regulation of the promoter of rat apolipoprotein A-I gene in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Y.; Pan, T.; Wu, T.; Hao, Q.; Yamin, T.; Kroon, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to study the regulation of the promoter of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene, they joined the 5' end of rat apo A-I gene (1.9 Kb) to the coding region of bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. The chimeric gene produced high levels of CAT activity in both mouse L cells and Hep G2 cells in transient expression assays. Ethanol increased the levels of rat apo A-I promoter activity in both cells. However, dexamethasone increased rat apo A-I promoter activity only in Hep G2 cells. Similar results were obtained in stable expression cell lines. Nucleotide deletion experiments showed DNA sequences between -149 and -469 base pairs upstream from the rat apo A-I transcription site are required for the high level of expression and that the regulatory sequences are located further upstream. These data demonstrated that the 5' end of rat apo A-I gene contains sequences which are responsible for the regulation of apo A-I expression by ethanol and dexamethasone and that the expression and regulation of rat apo A-I promoter are cell specific.

  7. Teaching AI Search Algorithms in a Web-Based Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grivokostopoulou, Foteini; Hatzilygeroudis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of teaching AI search algorithms in a web-based adaptive educational system. Teaching is based on interactive examples and exercises. Interactive examples, which use visualized animations to present AI search algorithms in a step-by-step way with explanations, are used to make learning more attractive. Practice…

  8. Novel AI-2 quorum sensing inhibitors in Vibrio harveyi identified through structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Peng, Hanjing; Ni, Nanting; Wang, Binghe; Li, Minyong

    2012-10-15

    In this letter, a high-throughput virtual screening was accomplished to identify potent inhibitors against AI-2 quorum sensing on the basis of Vibrio harveyi LuxPQ crystal structure. Seven compounds were found to inhibit AI-2 quorum sensing with IC(50) values in the micromolar range, and presented low cytotoxicity or no cytotoxicity in V. harveyi. PMID:22963763

  9. Real time magnetic resonance imaging of apo AI metabolism in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) plays a key role in maintaining cardiovascular health and constitutes the major lipoprotein component in high density lipoproteins (HDL). It metabolism, however, follows a complex pathway. Synthesized in the liver and intestines, its becomes lipidated by its interaction w...

  10. Health Information in French (français): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Instructions de prévention: Vous pouvez prévenir les risques d'exposition au monoxyde de carbone - français (French) ... AIDS - Reducing Your Sexual Risk - English Réduction des risques sexuels - français (French) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media HIV/ ...

  11. Crystal structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I suggests a lipid-bound conformation

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, David W.; Rogers, Danise P.; Engler, Jeffrey A.; Brouillette, Christie G.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high density lipoprotein, has been determined at 4-Å resolution. The crystals comprise residues 44–243 (exon 4) of apo A-I, a fragment that binds to lipid similarly to intact apo A-I and that retains the lipid-bound conformation even in the absence of lipid. The molecule consists almost entirely of a pseudo-continuous, amphipathic α-helix that is punctuated by kinks at regularly spaced proline residues; it adopts a shape similar to a horseshoe of dimensions 125 × 80 × 40 Å. Four molecules in the asymmetric unit associate via their hydrophobic faces to form an antiparallel four-helix bundle with an elliptical ring shape. Based on this structure, we propose a model for the structure of apo A-I bound to high density lipoprotein. PMID:9356442

  12. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  13. Reproductive performance of dairy cows resynchronized after pregnancy diagnosis at 31 (±3 days) after artificial insemination (AI) compared with resynchronization at 31 (±3 days) after AI with pregnancy diagnosis at 38 (±3 days) after AI

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R. V.; Caixeta, L. S.; Giordano, J. O.; Guard, C. L.; Bicalho, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    An important part of reproductive management programs on dairy farms is identification of nonpregnant cows and early re-insemination to achieve higher pregnancy rates. The objective of this study was to compare the effect on reproductive performance and pregnancy loss of 2 pregnancy diagnosis protocols: (1) pregnancy diagnosis performed 31 ± 3 d after artificial insemination (AI) by ultrasonography (ULTRA), and (2) resynchronization started 31 ± 3 d after AI but with pregnancy diagnosis performed 38 ± 3 d after AI by palpation per rectum (PALP). Cows were randomly allocated into 1 of the 2 management programs. For cows enrolled in ULTRA, the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) was performed by transrectal ultrasonography at 31 ± 3 d after AI, and nonpregnant cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive timed AI (TAI). For cows enrolled in PALP, the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive TAI was initiated at 31 ± 3 d after AI regardless of pregnancy status, with the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) performed by palpation per rectum at 38 ± 3 d after AI. For both groups, reconfirmation of pregnancy was performed by palpation per rectum at 63 ± 3 d after AI (P2). Cows were inseminated after detection of estrus by use of activity monitors at any time during the study. Two levels of activity were used as a reference for cows AI after detection of estrus based on activity: an activity level of ≥2 when a cow was coded in DairyComp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA) as open (nonpregnant) and an activity level of ≥3 when the pregnancy status of the cow was unknown. Our findings showed that the odds of pregnancy loss cows in ULTRA was 2 times higher between P1 and P2 compared with that of cows in PALP. Furthermore, pregnancy diagnosis method (ULTRA vs. PALP) did not have a significant effect on the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy at P2. The occurrence of assisted parturition

  14. Apolipoprotein AI Deficiency Inhibits Serum Opacity Factor Activity against Plasma High Density Lipoprotein via a Stabilization Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Corina; Patel, Niket; Gillard, Baiba K.; Yelamanchili, Dedipya; Yang, Yaliu; Courtney, Harry S.; Santos, Raul D.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of Streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) produces a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), a smaller neo HDL that is apolipoprotein (apo) AI-poor, and lipid-free apo AI. SOF is active vs. both human and mouse plasma HDL. In vivo injection of SOF into mice reduces plasma cholesterol ~40% in 3 hours while forming the same products observed in vitro, but at different ratios. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that labile apo AI is required for the SOF reaction vs. HDL. Here we further tested that hypothesis by studies of SOF against HDL from apo AI-null mice. When injected into apo AI-null mice, SOF reduced plasma cholesterol ~35% in three hours. The reaction of SOF vs. apo AI-null HDL in vitro produced a CERM and neo HDL, but no lipid-free apo. Moreover, according to the rate of CERM formation, the extent and rate of the SOF reaction vs. apo AI-null mouse HDL was less than that against wild-type (WT) mouse HDL. Chaotropic perturbation studies using guanidine hydrochloride showed that apo AI-null HDL was more stable than WT HDL. Human apo AI added to apo AI-null HDL was quantitatively incorporated, giving reconstituted HDL. Both SOF and guanidine hydrochloride displaced apo AI from the reconstituted HDL. These results support the conclusion that apo AI-null HDL is more stable than WT HDL because it lacks apo AI, a labile protein that is readily displaced by physico-chemical and biochemical perturbations. Thus, apo AI-null HDL is less SOF-reactive than WT HDL. The properties of apo AI-null HDL can be partially restored to those of WT HDL by the spontaneous incorporation of human apo AI. It remains to be determined what other HDL functions are affected by apo AI deletion. PMID:25790332

  15. Apolipoprotein AI deficiency inhibits serum opacity factor activity against plasma high density lipoprotein via a stabilization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Corina; Patel, Niket; Gillard, Baiba K; Yelamanchili, Dedipya; Yang, Yaliu; Courtney, Harry S; Santos, Raul D; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2015-04-14

    The reaction of Streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) produces a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), a smaller neo HDL that is apolipoprotein (apo) AI-poor, and lipid-free apo AI. SOF is active versus both human and mouse plasma HDL. In vivo injection of SOF into mice reduces plasma cholesterol ∼40% in 3 h while forming the same products observed in vitro, but at different ratios. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that labile apo AI is required for the SOF reaction vs HDL. Here we further tested that hypothesis by studies of SOF against HDL from apo AI-null mice. When injected into apo AI-null mice, SOF reduced plasma cholesterol ∼35% in 3 h. The reaction of SOF vs apo AI-null HDL in vitro produced a CERM and neo HDL, but no lipid-free apo. Moreover, according to the rate of CERM formation, the extent and rate of the SOF reaction versus apo AI-null mouse HDL were less than that against wild-type (WT) mouse HDL. Chaotropic perturbation studies using guanidine hydrochloride showed that apo AI-null HDL was more stable than WT HDL. Human apo AI added to apo AI-null HDL was quantitatively incorporated, giving reconstituted HDL. Both SOF and guanidine hydrochloride displaced apo AI from the reconstituted HDL. These results support the conclusion that apo AI-null HDL is more stable than WT HDL because it lacks apo AI, a labile protein that is readily displaced by physicochemical and biochemical perturbations. Thus, apo AI-null HDL is less SOF-reactive than WT HDL. The properties of apo AI-null HDL can be partially restored to those of WT HDL by the spontaneous incorporation of human apo AI. It remains to be determined what other HDL functions are affected by apo AI deletion. PMID:25790332

  16. LuxS-independent formation of AI-2 from ribulose-5-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Tavender, Timothy J; Halliday, Nigel M; Hardie, Kim R; Winzer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Background In many bacteria, the signal molecule AI-2 is generated from its precursor S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme LuxS. However, generation of AI-2-like activity has also been reported for organisms lacking the luxS gene and the existence of alternative pathways for AI-2 formation in Escherichia coli has recently been predicted by stochastic modelling. Here, we investigate the possibility that spontaneous conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate could be responsible for AI-2 generation in the absence of luxS. Results Buffered solutions of ribulose-5-phosphate, but not ribose-5-phosphate, were found to contain high levels of AI-2 activity following incubation at concentrations similar to those reported in vivo. To test whether this process contributes to AI-2 formation by bacterial cells in vivo, an improved Vibrio harveyi bioassay was used. In agreement with previous studies, culture supernatants of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus luxS mutants were found not to contain detectable levels of AI-2 activity. However, low activities were detected in an E. coli pgi-eda-edd-luxS mutant, a strain which degrades glucose entirely via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with ribulose-5-phosphate as an obligatory intermediate. Conclusion Our results suggest that LuxS-independent formation of AI-2, via spontaneous conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate, may indeed occur in vivo. It does not contribute to AI-2 formation in wildtype E. coli and S. aureus under the conditions tested, but may be responsible for the AI-2-like activities reported for other organisms lacking the luxS gene. PMID:18564424

  17. Having a patient advocate dedicated to the ED.

    PubMed

    2008-02-01

    The ED at St. Mary's Hospital in Tucson, AZ, has its own departmental patient advocate. This new staff position saves a lot of time for the rest of the team members. Here are some of the functions a patient advocate can perform in your ED: proactively prevent problems and satisfy delivery of care needs in a timelier manner to avoid complaints; train the ED staff in customer service and communication techniques; communicate with outside clinics to support uninsured or underinsured patients who don't have primary care physicians. PMID:18447293

  18. Utilizing AI in Temporal, Spatial, and Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stottler, Richard; Kalton, Annaka; Bell, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Aurora is a software system enabling the rapid, easy solution of complex scheduling problems involving spatial and temporal constraints among operations and scarce resources (such as equipment, workspace, and human experts). Although developed for use in the International Space Station Processing Facility, Aurora is flexible enough that it can be easily customized for application to other scheduling domains and adapted as the requirements change or become more precisely known over time. Aurora s scheduling module utilizes artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques to make scheduling decisions on the basis of domain knowledge, including knowledge of constraints and their relative importance, interdependencies among operations, and possibly frequent changes in governing schedule requirements. Unlike many other scheduling software systems, Aurora focuses on resource requirements and temporal scheduling in combination. For example, Aurora can accommodate a domain requirement to schedule two subsequent operations to locations adjacent to a shared resource. The graphical interface allows the user to quickly visualize the schedule and perform changes reflecting additional knowledge or alterations in the situation. For example, the user might drag the activity corresponding to the start of operations to reflect a late delivery.

  19. AI and simulation: What can they learn from each other

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.

    1988-01-01

    Simulation and Artificial Intelligence share a fertile common ground both from a practical and from a conceptual point of view. Strengths and weaknesses of both Knowledge Based System and Modeling and Simulation are examined and three types of systems that combine the strengths of both technologies are discussed. These types of systems are a practical starting point, however, the real strengths of both technologies will be exploited only when they are combined in a common knowledge representation paradigm. From an even deeper conceptual point of view, one might even argue that the ability to reason from a set of facts (i.e., Expert System) is less representative of human reasoning than the ability to make a model of the world, change it as required, and derive conclusions about the expected behavior of world entities. This is a fundamental problem in AI, and Modeling Theory can contribute to its solution. The application of Knowledge Engineering technology to a Distributed Processing Network Simulator (DPNS) is discussed.

  20. Computational intelligence from AI to BI to NI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Paul J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives highlights of the history of the neural network field, stressing the fundamental ideas which have been in play. Early neural network research was motivated mainly by the goals of artificial intelligence (AI) and of functional neuroscience (biological intelligence, BI), but the field almost died due to frustrations articulated in the famous book Perceptrons by Minsky and Papert. When I found a way to overcome the difficulties by 1974, the community mindset was very resistant to change; it was not until 1987/1988 that the field was reborn in a spectacular way, leading to the organized communities now in place. Even then, it took many more years to establish crossdisciplinary research in the types of mathematical neural networks needed to really understand the kind of intelligence we see in the brain, and to address the most demanding engineering applications. Only through a new (albeit short-lived) funding initiative, funding crossdisciplinary teams of systems engineers and neuroscientists, were we able to fund the critical empirical demonstrations which put our old basic principle of "deep learning" firmly on the map in computer science. Progress has rightly been inhibited at times by legitimate concerns about the "Terminator threat" and other possible abuses of technology. This year, at SPIE, in the quantum computing track, we outline the next stage ahead of us in breaking out of the box, again and again, and rising to fundamental challenges and opportunities still ahead of us.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, J L; Ross, D; McPherson, J; Williams, H; Kurnit, D; Nussbaum, A L; Karathanasis, S K; Zannis, V I

    1982-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Twenty putative apo A-I cDNA clones were selected by screening 10,000 clones of an adult human liver cDNA library with an oligonucleotide probe. The probe was a mixture of synthetic 14-base-long DNA oligomers constructed to correspond to the codons for apo A-I amino acids 105-109. Four of these clones were examined further and showed 600- to 800-base-pair (bp) inserts. Preliminary restriction mapping and partial DNA sequence analysis indicated that the shorter inserts were a subset of the longer DNA inserts. DNA sequence analysis of the clone with an insert of approximately equal to 600 bp, designated pAI-113, revealed that it contained a DNA sequence corresponding to apo A-I amino acids 94-243. The DNA base sequence of this clone also contained a standard termination codon, polyadenylylation signal, and poly(A) tail. Partial DNA sequence of a second clone that contained an 800-bp insert, designated pAI-107, showed that it corresponded to apo A-I amino acids 18-243 and also included the 3' untranslated region. Isolation of these cDNA clones will facilitate molecular analyses of apolipoproteins in normal and disease states. PMID:6294659

  2. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  3. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.

  4. Comparison of AIS Versus TMS Data Collected over the Virginia Piedmont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Evans, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS, NS001 Thematic Mapper Simlulator (TMS), and Zeiss camera collected remotely sensed data simultaneously on October 27, 1983, at an altitude of 6860 meters (22,500 feet). AIS data were collected in 32 channels covering 1200 to 1500 nm. A simple atmospheric correction was applied to the AIS data, after which spectra for four cover types were plotted. Spectra for these ground cover classes showed a telescoping effect for the wavelength endpoints. Principal components were extracted from the shortwave region of the AIS (1200 to 1280 nm), full spectrum AIS (1200 to 1500 nm) and TMS (450 to 12,500 nm) to create three separate three-component color image composites. A comparison of the TMS band 5 (1000 to 1300 nm) to the six principal components from the shortwave AIS region (1200 to 1280 nm) showed improved visual discrimination of ground cover types. Contrast of color image composites created from principal components showed the AIS composites to exhibit a clearer demarcation between certain ground cover types but subtle differences within other regions of the imagery were not as readily seen.

  5. A Model of Lipid-Free Apolipoprotein A-I Revealed by Iterative Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipid-free apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation. PMID:25793886

  6. Methods for Processing and Interpretation of AIS Signals Corrupted by Noise and Packet Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poļevskis, J.; Krastiņš, M.; Korāts, G.; Skorodumovs, A.; Trokšs, J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors deal with the operation of Automatic Identification System (AIS) used in the marine traffic monitoring to broadcast messages containing information about the vessel: id, payload, size, speed, destination etc., meant primarily for avoidance of ship collisions. To extend the radius of AIS operation, it is envisaged to dispose its receivers on satellites. However, in space, due to a large coverage area, interfering factors are especially pronounced - such as packet collision, Doppler's shift and noise impact on AIS message receiving, pre-processing and decoding. To assess the quality of an AIS receiver's operation, a test was carried out in which, varying automatically frequency, amplitude, noise, and other parameters, the data on the ability of the receiver's ability to decode AIS signals are collected. In the work, both hardware- and software-based AIS decoders were tested. As a result, quite satisfactory statistics has been gathered - both on the common and the differing features of such decoders when operating in space. To obtain reliable data on the software-defined radio AIS receivers, further research is envisaged.

  7. Hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 149. Baloh RW, Jen J. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 430. Bauer CA, Jenkins HA. ...

  8. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 48. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Seger DL, Murray L. ...

  9. Flank pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015. Philadelphia: PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:1205-1207. Landry DW, Bazari H. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 114. McQuaid K. Approach to ...

  10. Giardia infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 110. Nash TE, Hill DR. ...

  11. Vascular dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer's Disease, and Dementia . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 6. Gorelick PB, Scuteri A, Black ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 402. Peterson R, Graff-Radford ...

  12. Salmonella enterocolitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ...

  13. Campylobacter infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 303. Bhutta ZA. Acute gastroenteritis ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. DuPont HL. Approach to the ...

  14. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 294. Elston DM. Arthropods and ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 359 Habif TP. Infestations and ...

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. ...

  16. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Cole JB, Roberts DJ. ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Goldberger AL, Goldberger ZD, ...

  17. Hemolysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Gallagher PG. Red blood ... Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 43. Michel M. Autoimmune and intravascular ...

  18. Barrett esophagus

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 138. Ferri FF. Barrett esophagus. ... FF ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:202-203. Katz PO, Gerson LB, Vela ...

  19. Leg pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 81. Marcussen B, Hogrefe C, ... Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 112. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. ...

  20. Trypsinogen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 144. Forsmark CE. Chronic pancreatitis. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 59. Pincus MR, Abraham NZ, ...

  1. Measuring near infrared spectral reflectance changes from water stressed conifer stands with AIS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Running, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) data was acquired over two paired conifer stands for the purpose of detecting differences in spectral reflectance between stressed and natural canopies. Water stress was induced in a stand of Norway spruce and white pine by severing the sapwood near the ground. Water stress during the AIS flights was evaluated through shoot water potential and relative water content measurements. Preliminary analysis with raw AIS-2 data using SPAM indicates that there were small, inconsistent differences in absolute spectral reflectance in the near infrared 0.97 to 1.3 micron between the stressed and natural canopies.

  2. AIS and Collision Avoidance a Sense of Déjà Vu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitt, I. P. A.

    2004-05-01

    Although AIS is already in use in a range of vessels, there has been little public discussion on how AIS should interact with the COLREGS in practice. The objective of this paper is to make a contribution to that debate, while recognising that “best practice” will evolve as more practical experience is obtained. The paper suggests the approach that should be adopted in several areas, but concludes that, overall, AIS is nothing more than one of several tools that should enable mariners to fulfil their existing obligations under the COLREGS.

  3. Structure of catalase determined by MicroED.

    PubMed

    Nannenga, Brent L; Shi, Dan; Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E; Gonen, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    MicroED is a recently developed method that uses electron diffraction for structure determination from very small three-dimensional crystals of biological material. Previously we used a series of still diffraction patterns to determine the structure of lysozyme at 2.9 Å resolution with MicroED (Shi et al., 2013). Here we present the structure of bovine liver catalase determined from a single crystal at 3.2 Å resolution by MicroED. The data were collected by continuous rotation of the sample under constant exposure and were processed and refined using standard programs for X-ray crystallography. The ability of MicroED to determine the structure of bovine liver catalase, a protein that has long resisted atomic analysis by traditional electron crystallography, demonstrates the potential of this method for structure determination. PMID:25303172

  4. SSF Terra-FM1 Ed3A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-13

    SSF Terra-FM1 Ed3A Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool: CERES Order Tool Subset Data:  CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & ...

  5. SSF Aqua-FM3 Ed3A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-13

    SSF Aqua-FM3 Ed3A Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool: CERES Order Tool Subset Data:  CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & ...

  6. Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160906.html Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade International study finds courses ... HealthDay News) -- Teens around the world are getting sex education in schools that fail to address their ...

  7. Redefining the EdD: Seeking a Separate Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to discuss the recommendations and guidelines of the Carnegie Group's 2007 effort to "Reclaim the EdD" as well as to outline the work completed at the University of Virginia related to their re-design of the Doctor of Education (EdD) degree. In order to address the re-envision and re-formulation of the Doctor of…

  8. Rethinking the Ed.D., or What's in a Name?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    This paper traces the development of the Ed.D., explores the purposes the degree serves, and assesses its value. The creation of the degree stemmed largely from the reluctance of faculty in Arts and Sciences to offer the Ph.D. in professional schools. The one thing most Ed.D. programs have in common is that it is supposed to be an applied or…

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  10. Community paramedics fill gaps, take load off EDs.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    In a continuing effort to ease demand on busy EDs, some communities are coming up with new ways to leverage paramedics. Under a three-year pilot program in Raleigh, NC, a select group of paramedics with added training are being used to assess patients with mental health or addiction problems and transfer them to alternative facilities when appropriate. In Robbinsdale, MN, a community paramedicine program is filling in care gaps for patients with chronic diseases and other complaints who are at risk for repeat ED visits or inpatient hospitalizations. * Administrators of the Raleigh, NC, program say that in 2013, paramedics diverted more than 300 patients to alternative facilities. Of these, only 20% to 25% need further transport to the hospital. * Every time the NC paramedics divert a patient from the ED to an alternative facility, they return an estimated 14 bed-hours back to the ED. * In addition to responding to patients with non-urgent needs, the Robbinsdale, MN, community paramedicine program is a referral source for ED physicians who are concerned about follow-up care for patients who have presented to the ED with medical problems that require ongoing attention. PMID:24640290

  11. Automated AI-based designer of electrical distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumic, Zarko

    1992-03-01

    Designing the electrical supply system for new residential developments (plat design) is an everyday task for electric utility engineers. Presently this task is carried out manually resulting in an overdesigned, costly, and nonstandardized solution. As an ill-structured and open-ended problem, plat design is difficult to automate with conventional approaches such as operational research or CAD. Additional complexity in automating plat design is imposed by the need to process spatial data such as circuits' maps, records, and construction plans. The intelligent decision support system for automated electrical plate design (IDSS for AEPD) is an engineering tool aimed at automating plate design. IDSS for AEPD combines the functionality of geographic information systems (GIS) a geographically referenced database, with the sophistication of artificial intelligence (AI) to deal with the complexity inherent in design problems. Blackboard problem solving architecture, concentrated around INGRES relational database and NEXPERT object expert system shell have been chosen to accommodate the diverse knowledge sources and data models. The GIS's principal task it to create, structure, and formalize the real world representation required by the rule based reasoning portion of the AEPD. IDSS's capability to support and enhance the engineer's design, rather than only automate the design process through a prescribed computation, makes it a preferred choice among the possible techniques for AEPD. This paper presents the results of knowledge acquisition and the knowledge engineering process with AEPD tool conceptual design issues. To verify the proposed concept, the comparison of results obtained by the AEPD tool with the design obtained by an experienced human designer is given.

  12. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  13. Preliminary evaluation of learning via the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology interactive videodisc system.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J. A.; Bridges, A. J.; Reid, J. C.; Cutts, J. H.; Hazelwood, S.; Sharp, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    AI/LEARN/Rheumatology is a level three videodisc system to teach clinical observational skills in three important diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The AI/LEARN software was developed on an independent authoring system called GALE designed for MS-DOS based computers. The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary data about the efficacy of teaching by the use of an interactive videodisc system as evaluated by examinations centered upon disease-oriented learning objectives and by attitude questionnaires. We tested the efficacy of the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system using both medical students and residents taking the rheumatology elective. Data collected were on learning, attitudes, and ranking of curricular elements of the rotation. We kept records on the student time and search path through the interactive videodisc system. Control data were collected during 1990, before the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology program was available. Data for the treatment groups were collected during 1991 and 1992, while the trainees used the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system. The basic difference between the control year and the treatment year curricula was the substitution of AI/LEARN/Rheumatology for three hours of lecture covering the three target diseases. AI/LEARN/Rheumatology was as effective as traditional methods of instruction as measured by scores on a multiple choice test. Student and resident learning was related to the time spent on the system. Students and residents ranked the AI/LEARN/Rheumatology system as the single most helpful learning tool in their 8 week rheumatology block, ranking it above the examination of patients. PMID:1482861

  14. An AIS-based approach to calculate atmospheric emissions from the UK fishing fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coello, Jonathan; Williams, Ian; Hudson, Dominic A.; Kemp, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The fishing industry is heavily reliant on the use of fossil fuel and emits large quantities of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. Methods used to calculate fishing vessel emissions inventories have traditionally utilised estimates of fuel efficiency per unit of catch. These methods have weaknesses because they do not easily allow temporal and geographical allocation of emissions. A large proportion of fishing and other small commercial vessels are also omitted from global shipping emissions inventories such as the International Maritime Organisation's Greenhouse Gas Studies. This paper demonstrates an activity-based methodology for the production of temporally- and spatially-resolved emissions inventories using data produced by Automatic Identification Systems (AIS). The methodology addresses the issue of how to use AIS data for fleets where not all vessels use AIS technology and how to assign engine load when vessels are towing trawling or dredging gear. The results of this are compared to a fuel-based methodology using publicly available European Commission fisheries data on fuel efficiency and annual catch. The results show relatively good agreement between the two methodologies, with an estimate of 295.7 kilotons of fuel used and 914.4 kilotons of carbon dioxide emitted between May 2012 and May 2013 using the activity-based methodology. Different methods of calculating speed using AIS data are also compared. The results indicate that using the speed data contained directly in the AIS data is preferable to calculating speed from the distance and time interval between consecutive AIS data points.

  15. Development of a robust mapping between AIS 2+ and ICD-9 injury codes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Ryan T; Loftis, Kathryn L; Martin, R Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in millions of injuries and thousands of deaths each year in the United States. While most crash research datasets use Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to identify injuries, most hospital datasets use the International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) codes. The objective of this research was to establish a one-to-one mapping between AIS and ICD-9 codes for use with motor vehicle crash injury research. This paper presents results from investigating different mapping approaches using the most common AIS 2+ injuries from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). The mapping approaches were generated from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) (428,637 code pairs), ICDMAP (2500 code pairs), and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) (4125 code pairs). Each approach may pair given AIS code with more than one ICD-9 code (mean number of pairs per AIS code: NTDB=211, ICDMAP=7, CIREN=5), and some of the potential pairs are unrelated. The mappings were evaluated using two comparative metrics coupled with qualitative inspection by an expert physician. Based on the number of false mappings and correct pairs, the best mapping was derived from CIREN. AIS and ICD-9 codes in CIREN are both manually coded, leading to more proper mappings between the two. Using the mapping presented herein, data from crash and hospital datasets can be used together to better understand and prevent motor vehicle crash injuries in the future. PMID:23333320

  16. Analysis of AIS Data of the Recluse Oil Field, Recluse, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Segal, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were flown over the Recluse, Wyoming oil field on September 9, 1984. Processing software was developed at Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat) for interactive analysis of the AIS data. EarthSat's AIS processing capabilities include destriping, solar irradiance corrections, residual calculations, geometric resampling, equal energy normalization, interactive spectral classifications and a variety of compressive algorithms to reduce the data to 8-bit format with a minimum of information loss. The in-house photolab facilities of EarthSat can routinely produce high-quality color renditions of the enhanced AIS data. A total of 80 lithologic samples were collected under the AIS flight lines. Correlation (within the atmospheric windows) between the laboratory and the AIS spectra of sample sites was generally poor. Reasonable correlation was only possible in large, freshly plowed fields. Mixed pixels and contrast between the natural and sample's surfaces were believed responsible for the poor correlation. Finally, a drift of approximately three channels was observed in the diffraction grating position within the 1.8 to 2.1 micron quadrant.

  17. Development and validation of the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test (AI-IAT).

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; Laplante, Debi A; Bannon, Brittany L; Ambady, Nalini; Shaffer, Howard J

    2011-09-01

    Alcohol identity is the extent to which an individual perceives drinking alcohol to be a defining characteristic of his or her self-identity. Although alcohol identity might play an important role in risky college drinking practices, there is currently no easily administered, implicit measure of this concept. Therefore we developed a computerized implicit measure of alcohol identity (the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test; AI-IAT) and assessed its reliability and predictive validity in relation to risky college drinking practices. One hundred forty-one college students completed the AI-IAT. Again 3- and 6-months later, we administered the AI-IAT and indices of engagement in risky college drinking practices. A subset of participants also completed the previously-validated implicit measure of alcohol identity. Scores on the AI-IAT were stable over time, internally consistent, and positively correlated with the previously-validated measure of alcohol identity. Baseline AI-IAT scores predicted future engagement in risky college drinking practices, even after controlling for standard alcohol consumption measures. We conclude that the AI-IAT reliably measures alcohol identity, a concept that appears to play an important role in risky college drinking practices. PMID:21621924

  18. Asymmetric DNA recognition by the OkrAI endonuclease, an isoschizomer of BamHI

    SciTech Connect

    Vanamee, Éva Scheuring; Viadiu, Hector; Chan, Siu-Hong; Ummat, Ajay; Hartline, Adrian M.; Xu, Shuang-yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2011-11-18

    Restriction enzymes share little or no sequence homology with the exception of isoschizomers, or enzymes that recognize and cleave the same DNA sequence. We present here the structure of a BamHI isoschizomer, OkrAI, bound to the same DNA sequence (TATGGATCCATA) as that cocrystallized with BamHI. We show that OkrAI is a more minimal version of BamHI, lacking not only the N- and C-terminal helices but also an internal 310 helix and containing {beta}-strands that are shorter than those in BamHI. Despite these structural differences, OkrAI recognizes the DNA in a remarkably similar manner to BamHI, including asymmetric contacts via C-terminal 'arms' that appear to 'compete' for the minor groove. However, the arms are shorter than in BamHI. We observe similar DNA-binding affinities between OkrAI and BamHI but OkrAI has higher star activity (at 37 C) compared to BamHI. Together, the OkrAI and BamHI structures offer a rare opportunity to compare two restriction enzymes that work on exactly the same DNA substrate.

  19. VR + AI = intelligent environments: a synergistic approach to engineering design support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darken, Rudolph P.; Darken, Christian J.

    1996-04-01

    Both VR and AI have the potential to be huge productivity enhancers for engineering design, and in complementary ways. VR is a visualization tool allowing users to comprehend complex spatial relationships among many variables. AI is an exploration tool capable of finding and exploiting relationships which are very difficult to visualize, but is most effective with few variables. Using engineering design as an example, we explore how VR and AI might be integrated to yield productivity gains greater than either might alone. The typical engineering design cycle for a complex system involves multiple passes through design, simulation, and analysis phases. VR is used to visualize a design simulation while AI is used to assist in the subsequent redesign. The role of the VR subsystem is twofold; it visualizes the data for analysis and problem diagnosis such that it is easily comprehended by the engineer, and it provides a mechanism by which the engineer can describe how the design is to be improved in the next iteration. The AI subsystem then acts on the redesign descriptions to suggest design modifications. These suggestions are integrated with direct modifications from the user, and the redesigned system is simulated again. The synthesis between the VR and AI subsystems results in a closed loop design system capable of effectively undertaking complex engineering design tasks.

  20. Evaluation of AIS-2 (1986) data over hydrothermally altered granitoid rocks of the Singatse Range (Yerington) Nevada and comparison with 1985 AIS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) flights along 2 subparallel lines (bearing 013) were designed to traverse 3 major rock assemblages - the Triassic sedimentary sequence; the granitoid rocks of the Yerington batholith and the Tertiary ignimbritic ash flow and ash fall tuffs. The first 2 sites are hydrothermally altered to a quartz-sericite-tourmaline mineralogy. The first AIS-2 data set showed numerous line dropouts and a considerable number of randomly distributed dark pixels. A second decommutation reduced the dropout essentially to near zero and the dark pixels by about 75 percent. Vertical striping was removed by histogram matching, column by column. A log residual spectrum was calculated which showed the departure of a 2 x 2 pixel area from the spatially and spectrally averaged scene. A 1:1 correlation was found with the log residual AIS-2 data and a large open pit area of gypsum. An area with known sericite agreed with the overflight data, and an area known to be free of any significant amount of O-H bearing materials showed no evidence of any in the AIS-2 log residuals.

  1. Authentic Field-Based Learning Experiences for EdD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Jane Boag

    2009-01-01

    This EPP examines the problem of EdD coursework not having sufficient connection to the work that EdD students will eventually assume as leaders of school districts or other educational systems. It reviews literature critical of EdD programs and websites of educational administration professional organizations with recommended curriculum for EdD…

  2. Maritime surveillance with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and automatic identification system (AIS) onboard a microsatellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, E. H.; Zee, R. E.; Fotopoulos, G.

    2012-11-01

    New developments in small spacecraft capabilities will soon enable formation-flying constellations of small satellites, performing cooperative distributed remote sensing at a fraction of the cost of traditional large spacecraft missions. As part of ongoing research into applications of formation-flight technology, recent work has developed a mission concept based on combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with automatic identification system (AIS) data. Two or more microsatellites would trail a large SAR transmitter in orbit, each carrying a SAR receiver antenna and one carrying an AIS antenna. Spaceborne AIS can receive and decode AIS data from a large area, but accurate decoding is limited in high traffic areas, and the technology relies on voluntary vessel compliance. Furthermore, vessel detection amidst speckle in SAR imagery can be challenging. In this constellation, AIS broadcasts of position and velocity are received and decoded, and used in combination with SAR observations to form a more complete picture of maritime traffic and identify potentially non-cooperative vessels. Due to the limited transmit power and ground station downlink time of the microsatellite platform, data will be processed onboard the spacecraft. Herein we present the onboard data processing portion of the mission concept, including methods for automated SAR image registration, vessel detection, and fusion with AIS data. Georeferencing in combination with a spatial frequency domain method is used for image registration. Wavelet-based speckle reduction facilitates vessel detection using a standard CFAR algorithm, while leaving sufficient detail for registration of the filtered and compressed imagery. Moving targets appear displaced from their actual position in SAR imagery, depending on their velocity and the image acquisition geometry; multiple SAR images acquired from different locations are used to determine the actual positions of these targets. Finally, a probabilistic inference

  3. Going LO (laparoscopic oviductal) for ET and AI in Felids – Challenges, Strategies and Successes

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, WF

    2012-01-01

    Contents Embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially invaluable techniques for the propagation and management of genetically valuable domestic cat and endangered nondomestic cat populations. Many of the challenges that impair the effective application of ET and AI in felids may be overcome by using laparoscopic oviductal (LO) approaches. LO-ET and LO-AI are minimally-invasive procedures, requiring only two small skin incisions for insertion of a laparoscope and grasping forceps into the abdominal cavity to permit visualization and catheterization of the oviduct for embryo or semen deposition. With concurrent improvements in embryo culture systems and ovarian synchronization protocols, LO-ET has proven effective over the past decade for propagation of laboratory cats, cat models of hereditary disease and nondomestic cats. To date, viable offspring have been produced following LO-ET of non-frozen and frozen-thawed IVF-derived embryos in eight cat hereditary disease models and two nondomestic cat species, the ocelot and sand cat. LO-AI with low sperm numbers (~2–8 million motile) has shown similar efficacy to LO-ET, resulting in high pregnancy percentages (50–70%) following insemination of gonadotropin-treated domestic cats. Multiple kittens also have been produced in two hereditary disease models following LO-AI with frozen semen, and both ocelot and Pallas’ cat kittens have been born after LO-AI with freshly-collected semen. The application of LO-ET and LO-AI to felids has resulted in substantial improvement in the efficiency of assisted reproduction for genetic management of these invaluable domestic cat and wild cat populations. PMID:23279483

  4. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Kumar, Ramesh; Soertidewi, Lyna; Abu Bakar, Azizi; Laik, Carine; Gan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction NeuroAiD (MLC601, MLC901), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry aims to assess its use and safety in the real-world setting. Methods and analysis The NeST Registry is designed as a product registry that would provide information on the use and safety of NeuroAiD in clinical practice. An online NeST Registry was set up to allow easy entry and retrieval of essential information including demographics, medical conditions, clinical assessments of neurological, functional and cognitive state, compliance, concomitant medications, and side effects, if any, among patients on NeuroAiD. Patients who are taking or have been prescribed NeuroAiD may be included. Participation is voluntary. Data collected are similar to information obtained during standard care and are prospectively entered by the participating physicians at baseline (before initialisation of NeuroAiD) and during subsequent visits. The primary outcome assessed is safety (ie, non-serious and serious adverse event), while compliance and neurological status over time are secondary outcomes. The in-person follow-up assessments are timed with clinical appointments. Anonymised data will be extracted and collectively analysed. Initial target sample size for the registry is 2000. Analysis will be performed after every 500 participants entered with completed follow-up information. Ethics and dissemination Doctors who prescribe NeuroAiD will be introduced to the registry by local partners. The central coordinator of the registry will discuss the protocol and requirements for implementation with doctors who show interest. Currently, the registry has been approved by the Ethics Committees of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia) and National Brain Center (Indonesia). In addition, for other countries, Ethics Committee approval will be obtained in accordance with local requirements. Trial

  5. Probing the Run-On Oligomer of Activated SgrAI Bound to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Santosh; Sanchez, Jonathan; Stewart, Andrew; Piperakis, Michael M.; Cosstick, Richard; Nichols, Claire; Park, Chad K.; Ma, Xin; Wysocki, Vicki; Bitinaite, Jurate; Horton, Nancy C.

    2015-01-01

    SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease with an unusual mechanism of activation involving run-on oligomerization. The run-on oligomer is formed from complexes of SgrAI bound to DNA containing its 8 bp primary recognition sequence (uncleaved or cleaved), and also binds (and thereby activates for DNA cleavage) complexes of SgrAI bound to secondary site DNA sequences which contain a single base substitution in either the 1st/8th or the 2nd/7th position of the primary recognition sequence. This modulation of enzyme activity via run-on oligomerization is a newly appreciated phenomenon that has been shown for a small but increasing number of enzymes. One outstanding question regarding the mechanistic model for SgrAI is whether or not the activating primary site DNA must be cleaved by SgrAI prior to inducing activation. Herein we show that an uncleavable primary site DNA containing a 3’-S-phosphorothiolate is in fact able to induce activation. In addition, we now show that cleavage of secondary site DNA can be activated to nearly the same degree as primary, provided a sufficient number of flanking base pairs are present. We also show differences in activation and cleavage of the two types of secondary site, and that effects of selected single site substitutions in SgrAI, as well as measured collisional cross-sections from previous work, are consistent with the cryo-electron microscopy model for the run-on activated oligomer of SgrAI bound to DNA. PMID:25880668

  6. ED quality performance moves into the public reporting arena.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    As an ED manager, you face the growing challenge of your performance data being shared with the public and with hospital administration. Be sure to share the good news with your administration, so they can use it to help market the hospital. When adverse rankings appear, you have two options: Seek additional resources to improve performance, or challenge the data. Use an automated system to access"real-time"data on your department's performance, so you will always be ready to defend your ED. PMID:20853578

  7. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H. Bulent

    2007-04-23

    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic.

  8. Microbiologic Methods Utilized in the MAL-ED Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals. PMID:25305291

  9. Characterization of pyrotechnic reaction residue particles by SEM/EDS.

    PubMed

    Kosanke, Ken L; Dujay, Richard C; Kosanke, Bonnie

    2003-05-01

    Today the method commonly used for detecting gunshot residue is through the combined use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In recent years, this same methodology began to find use in detecting and characterizing pyrotechnic reaction residue (PRR) particles whether produced by explosion or burning. This is accomplished by collecting particulate samples from a surface in the immediate area of the pyrotechnic reaction. Suspect PRR particles are identified by their morphology (typically 1 to 20 microm spheroidal particles) using an SEM; then they are analyzed for the elements they contain using X-ray EDS. This can help to identify the general type of pyrotechnic composition involved. PMID:12762523

  10. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H. Bulent

    2007-04-01

    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic.

  11. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. PMID:21486000

  12. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli. PMID:27309855

  13. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli. PMID:27309855

  14. Structural models of human apolipoprotein A-I: a critical analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, C G; Anantharamaiah, G M; Engler, J A; Borhani, D W

    2001-03-30

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I has been the subject of intense investigation because of its well-documented anti-atherogenic properties. About 70% of the protein found in high density lipoprotein complexes is apo A-I, a molecule that contains a series of highly homologous amphipathic alpha-helices. A number of significant experimental observations have allowed increasing sophisticated structural models for both the lipid-bound and the lipid-free forms of the apo A-I molecule to be tested critically. It seems clear, for example, that interactions between amphipathic domains in apo A-I may be crucial to understanding the dynamic nature of the molecule and the pathways by which the lipid-free molecule binds to lipid, both in a discoidal and a spherical particle. The state of the art of these structural studies is discussed and placed in context with current models and concepts of the physiological role of apo A-I and high-density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism. PMID:11278170

  15. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Peggy Brick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Peggy Brick, former director of Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey's Center for Family Life Education (CFLE) and author of numerous sexuality education resources used worldwide, is the subject of this interview. Ms. Brick was interviewed by William J.…

  16. Candidate Success and edTPA: Looking at the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Lesley A.; Kelly, Mary K.; Baldwin, Joni L.; Arnold, Jackie M.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study looks at the correlations between Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) data and numerous program data points, including GPA, major GPA, and benchmark assignment scores, gathered in an Early Childhood Education (ECE) program. Previous studies have looked to correlate grade point average (GPA) with pre-service teacher…

  17. Weck Ed. Weck Educational Development Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer; And Others

    This document includes a final performance report and evaluation report from the Weck Ed program, through which job-linked adult basic education and General Educational Development (GED) test preparation courses that were jointly developed by the company Pilling Weck and Durham Technical Community College were offered to Pilling Weck employees on…

  18. Creating a Minnesota Statewide SNAP-Ed Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Abby; Barno, Trina Adler; Sherman, Shelley; Lovett, Kathleen; Hurtado, G. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an essential tool for understanding program effectiveness. This article describes the pilot test of a statewide evaluation tool for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed). A computer algorithm helped Community Nutrition Educators (CNEs) build surveys specific to their varied educational settings…

  19. Lifeworld and Textualism: Reassembling the Researcher/ed and "Others"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Phillip G.

    2005-01-01

    This response to McKenzie's "post-post" concerns about environmental education research draws upon empirical, conceptual, anecdotal, metaphorical, imaged and poetic means to help the researcher "reassemble" the researcher/ed by attending to her/his relational body and embodiment of various, often hegemonic, socially constructed environmental…

  20. Prediction of College Student Dropouts Using EDS Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon, A. D.; Long, Carolyn K.; Chubick, Jennifer D.

    1999-01-01

    To identify college students at risk for dropping out, scores on the Environmental Deprivation Scale (EDS) given six quarters earlier were studied. Students who had graduated at follow-up had lower scores than those who had dropped out. Examination of items showed types of support lacking for at-risk students. (EMK)

  1. Engaging the public through writing an op-ed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labosier, Chris; Zhu, Laiyin; Quiring, Steven

    2012-10-01

    In May, prior to the start of the 2012 hurricane season, AGU asked us to write an op-ed for the Houston Chronicle on the importance of funding hurricane research. We were excited to be asked and pleased that AGU facilitated the process by providing us with some guidance on writing the op-ed. Given the impact that Hurricane Ike had in Texas just a few years ago, we felt it was important to remind the citizens of the greater Houston metropolitan area of the societal benefits of funding hurricane research. Thanks to the assistance of AGU staff, writing the article required only a few hours of time. Our op-ed was published in the print edition of the Houston Chronicle on 1 June 2012, the official start of the hurricane season (http://www.chron.com/default/article/Tight-budgets-posing-threat-to-Texas-hurricane-3600363.php). It was picked up by the media relations office in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M University and featured on the college's Web site in the dean's biweekly briefing and on its Facebook page. As a result, the op-ed reached a large and diverse audience.

  2. Air pollution and ED visits for chest pain.

    PubMed

    Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw

    2009-02-01

    This was a study of 157,028 emergency department (ED)-diagnosed visits for chest pain (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9]: 786) in 6 cities in Canada. The generalized linear mixed methods technique was applied to analyze the relations between daily counts of ED visits for chest pain on the levels of ambient air pollutants after adjusting for meteorological variables. The daily counts of visits were analyzed separately for the whole period (January-December), warm (April-September), and cold (October-March). The results are presented in the form of the excess risks associated with an increase in the mean values of the pollutant concentrations. The highest increase was obtained for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in the warm period as follows: 5.9% (95% confidence interval, 3.3-5.8) for mean value equals to 20.1 ppb. The associations of ED visits for chest pain with air pollution are very similar to the associations of ED visits related to cardiac problems. PMID:19371523

  3. FETC, TCEA Commemorate 25 Years of Serving Ed Tech Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There's only one way to prepare for all of the exciting things that the ed tech market has in store for 2005-- by attending a conference. That's why T.H.E. Journal hopes readers will join them at this year's FETC (Booth 1505) and TCEA (Booth 1934) conferences to help celebrate their 25th anniversaries. Overviews are provided for both conferences…

  4. Three Ways edTPA Prepared Me for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    edTPA, a capstone assessment designed to assess whether new teachers are ready for the job by evaluating their teaching and their analysis of their teaching, helped prepare the author for the classroom in three ways. First, he became accountable to his students. Second, he learned to analyze his teaching. Third, he discovered how to relate…

  5. EdMOO: One Approach to a Multimedia Collaborative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holkner, Bernard

    The nature of the multiuser object oriented (MOO) environment lends itself to flexible and rich interactive collaboration space providing interactive discussion, mail, mailing list, and news features to its virtual denizens. EdMOO (HREF1) was created in mid-1995 as an environment for teachers to experience the text based virtual reality…

  6. 5 Ways That edX Could Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Since MIT and Harvard started edX, their joint experiment with free online courses, the venture has attracted enormous attention for opening the ivory tower to the world. But in the process, the world will become part of an expensive and ambitious experiment testing some of the most interesting--and difficult--questions in digital education. Can…

  7. Institutionalizing Environmental Scanning in the ED QUEST Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    An environmental scanning system is structured to identify and evaluate trends, events, and emerging issues. QUEST represents the quick environmental scanning technique, and an ED QUEST process enables an educational organization to clarify its future and define its options. This paper describes how an educational organization can establish an…

  8. HAZ-ED Classroom Activities for Understanding Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Superfund Program investigates and cleans up hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Part of this program is devoted to informing the public and involving people in the process of cleaning up hazardous waste sites from beginning to end. The Haz-Ed program was developed to assist the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)…

  9. Merging Career and Ex Ed Centers: A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Denise Dwight

    1995-01-01

    Career centers in universities are increasingly being merged with other student employment programs, such as internship and cooperative education programs. Experiential education (ex ed) is poised to become the largest service component of the new merged services. Discusses values to students, employers, and career services professionals. (JPS)

  10. Indiana AdvancED/NCA District Accreditation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sterling M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived strengths and limitations of the AdvancED/NCA district model of accreditation. Indiana public school superintendent, principal, and teacher results were examined in order to determine effective systems model improvement efforts. The survey results of district-accredited staff members from…

  11. SSF1deg-Day Terra Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-08

    ... and Order:  Reverb   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool:  CERES Order Tool Search and Order:  ASDC Order ... Documents:  Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Day_Ed4_R5V1 ...

  12. SSF1deg-Day Aqua Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-08

    ... and Order:  Reverb   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool:  CERES Order Tool Search and Order:  ASDC Order ... Documents:  Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Day_Ed4_R6V1 ...

  13. Interactions between lipid-free apolipoprotein-AI and a lipopeptide incorporating the RGDS cell adhesion motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, V.; Hamley, I. W.; Reza, M.; Ruokolainen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of a designed bioactive lipopeptide C16-GGGRGDS, comprising a hexadecyl lipid chain attached to a functional heptapeptide, with the lipid-free apoliprotein, Apo-AI, is examined. This apolipoprotein is a major component of high density lipoprotein and it is involved in lipid metabolism and may serve as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimers' disease. We find via isothermal titration calorimetry that binding between the lipopeptide and Apo-AI occurs up to a saturation condition, just above equimolar for a 10.7 μM concentration of Apo-AI. A similar value is obtained from circular dichroism spectroscopy, which probes the reduction in α-helical secondary structure of Apo-AI upon addition of C16-GGGRGDS. Electron microscopy images show a persistence of fibrillar structures due to self-assembly of C16-GGGRGDS in mixtures with Apo-AI above the saturation binding condition. A small fraction of spheroidal or possibly ``nanodisc'' structures was observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data for Apo-AI can be fitted using a published crystal structure of the Apo-AI dimer. The SAXS data for the lipopeptide/Apo-AI mixtures above the saturation binding conditions can be fitted to the contribution from fibrillar structures coexisting with flat discs corresponding to Apo-AI/lipopeptide aggregates.

  14. Remote Stratigraphic Analysis: Combined TM and AIS Results in the Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Adams, S.

    1985-01-01

    An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic evolution of a North American, western interior foreland basin. AIS data are used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of mineralogical facies that are diagnostic of specific depositional environments. After wavelength and amplitude calibration using natural ground targets with known spectral characteristics, AIS data identify calcite, dolomite, gypsum and montmorillonite-bearing strata in the Permian-Cretaceous sequence. Combined AIS and TM results illustrate the feasibility of spectral stratigraphy, remote analysis of stratigraphic sequences.

  15. AIS wavefront sensor: a robust optical test of exposure tools using localized wavefront curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Zhou, Xibin; Goldstein, Michael; Ashworth, Dominic; Cummings, Kevin; Fan, Yu-Jen; Shroff, Yashesh; Denbeaux, Greg; Kandel, Yudhi; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We present an update of the AIS wavefront sensor, a diagnostic sensor set for insertion in the upgraded 0.5 NA SEMATECH Albany and Berkeley METs. AIS works by using offset monopole illumination to probe localized regions of the test optic pupil. Variations in curvature manifest as focus shifts, which are measured using a photodiode- based grating-on- grating contrast monitor, and the wavefront aberrations are reconstructed using a least-squares approach. We present results from an optical prototype of AIS demonstrating an accuracy of better than λ/30 rms for Zernike polynomials Z4 through Z10. We also discuss integration strategies and requirements as well as specifications on system alignment.

  16. Manipulation of the quorum sensing signal AI-2 affects the antibiotic-treated gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica Ann; Oliveira, Rita Almeida; Djukovic, Ana; Ubeda, Carles; Xavier, Karina Bivar

    2015-03-24

    The mammalian gut microbiota harbors a diverse ecosystem where hundreds of bacterial species interact with each other and their host. Given that bacteria use signals to communicate and regulate group behaviors (quorum sensing), we asked whether such communication between different commensal species can influence the interactions occurring in this environment. We engineered the enteric bacterium, Escherichia coli, to manipulate the levels of the interspecies quorum sensing signal, autoinducer-2 (AI-2), in the mouse intestine and investigated the effect upon antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. E. coli that increased intestinal AI-2 levels altered the composition of the antibiotic-treated gut microbiota, favoring the expansion of the Firmicutes phylum. This significantly increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, to oppose the strong effect of the antibiotic, which had almost cleared the Firmicutes. This demonstrates that AI-2 levels influence the abundance of the major phyla of the gut microbiota, the balance of which is known to influence human health. PMID:25801025

  17. Detection of hydrothermal alteration at Virginia City, Nevada using Airborne Imaging Spectrometry (AIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsinpiller, A.; Taranik, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over Virginia City, Nevada; an area of gold and silver mineralization with extensive surface exposures of altered volcanic rocks. The data were corrected for atmospheric effects by a flat-field method, and compared to library spectra of various alteration minerals using a spectral analysis program SPAM. Areas of strong clay alteration were identified on the AIS images that were mapped as kaolinitic, illitic, and sericitic alterations zones. Kaolinitic alteration is distinguishable in the 2.1 to 2.4 and 1.2 to 1.5 micrometer wavelength regions. Montmorillonite, illite, and sericite have absorption features similar to each other at 2.2 micrometer wavelength. Montnorillonite and illite also may be present in varying proportions within one Ground Instantaneous Field of View (GIFOV). In general AIS data is useful in identifying alteration zones that are associated with or lie above precious metal mineralization at Virginia City.

  18. Sodium nitroprusside: low price and safe drug to control BP during thrombolysis in AIS.

    PubMed

    Koslyk, Jessyca L; Ducci, Renata D; Nóvak, Edison M; Zétola, Viviane F; Lange, Marcos C

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes the use of sodium nitroprusside (SN) as an option to reduce blood pressure (BP) below 180/105 mmHg during the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients submitted to intravenous thrombolysis.Method The sample was composed by 60 patients who had AIS and were submitted to intravenous rtPA, split in two groups: half in the control group (CG) with BP < 180/105 mmHg and half in SN group with BP > 180/105 mmHg. Outcome variables were any hemorrhagic transformation (HT); the presence of symptomatic HT, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours of treatment; the independence on discharge and death until three months after stroke onset.Results There were no statistical differences between both groups to any of the outcome variables analyzed.Conclusion The SN might be safe for BP control during thrombolysis to AIS. PMID:26352493

  19. Two faces of Thanatos: Broken flowers (2005) and Ai no corrida (1976).

    PubMed

    Minerbo, Marion

    2007-06-01

    Since Freud formulated the death instinct concept, it has received widely diverse interpretations. Even Freud advanced two versions. The concomitant analyses of two films, "Ai no Corrida" (1976) [ In the realm of the senses (1977)] and "Broken Flowers" (2005) evince Thanatos's two faces: the cold death of decathexis of an object, in the case of Don (in "Broken Flowers" ) and the hot death of the subject-object fusion in Sada's case ("Ai no Corrida"). In our analysis, we elaborate two possible vicissitudes of the death instinct: in "Broken Flowers" , the main character finds an 'analyst' and is cured. In "Ai no Corrida", the protagonist meets a complementary object and goes mad. PMID:17537705

  20. Decreased serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations in cows infected with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, S; Katoh, N; Itoh, H; Miyamoto, T; Konno, M; Kajita, T

    1997-01-01

    Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations in cows infected with Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated to assess its relevance in salmonellosis. Apolipoprotein A-I has been shown in rats to be secreted by the intestine as well as the liver. Clinical symptoms such as diarrhea revealed an outbreak of salmonellosis in 22 cows on a farm, and sera were obtained at 6 (acute phase), 16, 28 (convalescent period) and 42 d (postconvalescent period) after the outbreak. Apolipoprotein A-I concentrations (mean +/- SD, mg/mL), determined by ELISA, were 0.598 +/- 0.497 (day 6), 0.111 +/- 0.060 (day 16), 0.432 +/- 0.311 (day 28) and 0.727 +/- 0.516 (day 42). Compared with the concentration at day 42, those at 16 and 28 d were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) lower, but that at day 6 was not. The serum concentration of apolipoprotein B-100 (of liver origin in cattle) was unaltered during the course of salmonellosis. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I was positively correlated with those of serum total cholesterol (r = 0.589, P < 0.01) and phospholipids (r = 0.590, P < 0.01). These results suggest that apolipoprotein A-I in cattle is in part of intestinal origin, and also that its decreased serum concentration in salmonellosis can be attributed to the reduced intestinal synthesis or secretion of this apolipoprotein. Moreover, as a potential carrier for dietary lipids such as cholesterol, determination of serum apolipoprotein A-I concentration is suggested to be useful when assessing the nutritional status of the affected cows. PMID:9242997

  1. Role of apolipoprotein A-I in HDL binding to a rat hepatoma cell in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of HDL to rat Fu5AH hepatoma cells at 4/sup 0/, and uptake and degradation at 37/sup 0/, was investigated in monolayer cultures. HDL, free of apo E and apo A-IV, was obtained from the plasma of nephrotic rats (HDLne). /sup 125/I-labeled HDLne bound to the cells in a specific, saturable manner. By Scatchard analysis, two classes of binding sites were obtained: a high affinity binding site (Kd = 1.25 +/- 0.023 ..mu..g/ml, or 5 x 10/sup -9/ M), and a lower affinity site (Kd = 45 +/- 15 ..mu..g/ml, or 1.8 x 10/sup -7/ M). In competitive binding experiments, normal rat HDL was nearly as effective as HDLne, but rat VLDL and human lipoproteins were ineffective. Rat apo A-I/phospholipid complexes also did not complete effectively for HDLne binding, although they were capable of binding to the cells. However, LDL (1.02 < d < 1.063) from nephrotic rat plasma, containing 20% of apo A-I, was as effective as rat HDL in competing for HDLne binding when the competition was expressed as a function of apo A-I content. Control experiments indicated that labeled apo A-I from HDLne did not exchange appreciably with unlabeled apo A-I on the LDLne. When the hepatoma cells were allowed to internalize and degrade HDLne at 37/sup 0/, the acid-soluble products (iodotyrosine and iodide) were derived almost entirely from the breakdown of apo A-I. We conclude that the rat hepatoma cell (Fu5AH) has high affinity HDL binding sites which recognize apo A-I-lipid complexes in which apo A-I an appropriate conformation.

  2. Participation of Chromosome Segregation Protein ParAI of Vibrio cholerae in Chromosome Replication▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Baek, Jong Hwan; Sarker, Arnab; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae carries homologs of plasmid-borne parA and parB genes on both of its chromosomes. The par genes help to segregate many plasmids and chromosomes. Here we have studied the par genes of V. cholerae chromosome I. Earlier studies suggested that ParBI binds to the centromeric site parSI near the origin of replication (oriI), and parSI-ParBI complexes are placed at the cell poles by ParAI. Deletion of parAI and parSI caused the origin-proximal DNA to be less polar. Here we found that deletion of parBI also resulted in a less polar localization of oriI. However, unlike the deletion of parAI, the deletion of parBI increased the oriI number. Replication was normal when both parAI and parBI were deleted, suggesting that ParBI mediates its action through ParAI. Overexpression of ParAI in a parABI-deleted strain also increased the DNA content. The results are similar to those found for Bacillus subtilis, where ParA (Soj) stimulates replication and this activity is repressed by ParB (SpoOJ). As in B. subtilis, the stimulation of replication most likely involves the replication initiator DnaA. Our results indicate that control of chromosomal DNA replication is an additional function of chromosomal par genes conserved across the Gram-positive/Gram-negative divide. PMID:21257772

  3. Glomerular autoimmune multicomponents of human lupus nephritis in vivo: α-enolase and annexin AI.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2014-11-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti-α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti-α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti-α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti-α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum. PMID:24790181

  4. Design of integrated ship monitoring system using SAR, RADAR, and AIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chan-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Hong, Danbee; Ahn, Hyung-Wook

    2013-06-01

    When we talk about for the ship detection, identification and its classification, we need to go for the wide area of monitoring and it may be possible only through satellite based monitoring approach which monitors and covers coastal as well as the oceanic zone. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect targets of interest with the advantage of the operating capability in all weather and luminance free condition (Margarit and Tabasco, 2011). In EU waters, EMSA(European Maritime Safety Agency) is operating the SafeSeaNet and CleanSeaNet systems which provide the current positions of all ships and oil spill monitoring information in and around EU waters in a single picture to Member States using AIS, LRIT and SAR images. In many countries, a similar system has been developed and the key of the matter is to integrate all available data. This abstract describes the preliminary design concept for an integration system of RADAR, AIS and SAR data for vessel traffic monitoring. SAR sensors are used to acquire image data over large coverage area either through the space borne or airborne platforms in UTC. AIS reports should be also obtained on the same date as of the SAR acquisition for the purpose to perform integration test. Land-based RADAR can provide ships positions detected and tracked in near real time. In general, SAR are used to acquire image data over large coverage area, AIS reports are obtained from ship based transmitter, and RADAR can monitor continuously ships for a limited area. In this study, we developed individual ship monitoring algorithms using RADAR(FMCW and Pulse X-band), AIS and SAR(RADARSAT-2 Full-pol Mode). We conducted field experiments two times for displaying the RADAR, AIS and SAR integration over the Pyeongtaek Port, South Korea.

  5. Integration of AI-2 Based Cell-Cell Signaling with Metabolic Cues in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Arindam; Herren, Christopher D.; Patel, Isha R.; Coleman, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The quorum sensing molecule Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is generated as a byproduct of activated methyl cycle by the action of LuxS in Escherichia coli. AI-2 is synthesized, released and later internalized in a cell-density dependent manner. Here, by mutational analysis of the genes, uvrY and csrA, we describe a regulatory circuit of accumulation and uptake of AI-2. We constructed a single-copy chromosomal luxS-lacZ fusion in a luxS + merodiploid strain and evaluated its relative expression in uvrY and csrA mutants. At the entry of stationary phase, the expression of the fusion and AI-2 accumulation was positively regulated by uvrY and negatively regulated by csrA respectively. A deletion of csrA altered message stability of the luxS transcript and CsrA protein exhibited weak binding to 5’ luxS regulatory region. DNA protein interaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed direct interaction of UvrY with the luxS promoter. Additionally, reduced expression of the fusion in hfq deletion mutant suggested involvement of small RNA interactions in luxS regulation. In contrast, the expression of lsrA operon involved in AI-2 uptake, is negatively regulated by uvrY and positively by csrA in a cell-density dependent manner. The dual role of csrA in AI-2 synthesis and uptake suggested a regulatory crosstalk of cell signaling with carbon regulation in Escherichia coli. We found that the cAMP-CRP mediated catabolite repression of luxS expression was uvrY dependent. This study suggests that luxS expression is complex and regulated at the level of transcription and translation. The multifactorial regulation supports the notion that cell-cell communication requires interaction and integration of multiple metabolic signals. PMID:27362507

  6. Glomerular Autoimmune Multicomponents of Human Lupus Nephritis In Vivo: α-Enolase and Annexin AI

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D’Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino

    2014-01-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti–α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti–α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti–α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti–α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum. PMID:24790181

  7. A Novel Position Estimation Method Based on Displacement Correction in AIS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shufang; Yang, Dongkai

    2014-01-01

    A new position estimation method by using the signals from two automatic identification system (AIS) stations is proposed in this paper. The time of arrival (TOA) method is enhanced with the displacement correction, so that the vessel's position can be determined even for the situation where it can receive the signals from only two AIS base stations. Its implementation scheme based on the mathematical model is presented. Furthermore, performance analysis is carried out to illustrate the relation between the positioning errors and the displacement vector provided by auxiliary sensors. Finally, the positioning method is verified and its performance is evaluated by simulation. The results show that the positioning accuracy is acceptable. PMID:25232913

  8. Radial and nonradial periods and growth rates of an AI Velorum model

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Walraven, Walraven, and Balona recently discovered several new periodicities in addition to the well-known fundamental and first overtone periods of the high-amplitude {delta} Scuti star AI Velorum. Linear nonadiabatic pulsation calculations were performed for an AI Velorum model of mass 1.96 M{sub {circle dot}}, 24.05 L{sub {circle dot}}, and T{sub eff}7566 K for the radial and low-degree nonradial modes to help verify the tentative identifications made by Walraven, et al. Comparison of the calculated periods with the observations suggests some alternatives to the identifications proposed by Walraven, et al.

  9. Hikiokoshins A-I, diterpenes from the leaves of Isodon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuji, Eri; Sakai, Kanae; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-06-01

    Diterpenes, hikiokoshins A-I, and twelve known diterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonicus (Burm. f.) H. Hara (Lamiaceae). The hikiokoshins A-I possess various skeletons such as ternifonane {hikiokoshin A}, ent-6,7:8,15-diseco-6,8-cyclokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin B}, ent-6,7-secokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin C}, and ent-7,20-epoxykaurane {hikiokoshins D-I}. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial activities of hikiokoshins A and B were evaluated. PMID:24702849

  10. Overview of Austrian Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) programme and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected from eight test areas in Austria were evaluated for their usefulness in forest damage assessment, geobotany, alpine vegetation mapping, and land use classification. Difficulties encountered in installing the SPAM spectral analysis software for use on the image display system and the necessity to adapt existing programs for this task impeded and delayed the analysis of the AIS data. Spectral reflectance curves obtained from a geobotanical test site show a marked increase in reflectance across most of the measured spectrum for metal stressed spruce trees compared with nonstressed spruce trees.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of AIS Spectra Along a Topographic/moisture Gradient in the Nebraska Sandhills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runquist, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Six spectral plots, each summarizing single-pixel reflectance for 128 channels of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, were examined. The six sample pixels were located along a topographic/moisture gradient from lake surface to dune top in the Nebraska Sandhills. AIS spectra for various moisture regimes/vegetative zones appear quite logical, with a general positive relationship between increasing elevation (i.e., decreasing access of plant roots to water) and increasing reflectance in the spectral regions diagnostic of leaf-water content (i.e., bands centered on 1.65 and 2.20 microns).

  12. Sp and GATA factors are critical for Apolipoprotein AI downstream enhancer activity in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Gleb S; Kater, Jessie M; Jha, Shivkumar H; Stutius, Erica A; Sabharwal, Ravleen; Tricarico, Marisa D; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Ozer, Josef S

    2003-12-24

    The factors that bind to the hepatic-specific human apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) 48-bp downstream enhancer (DSE) were identified and characterized by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. A significant homology was shown between the histone 4 (H4) promoters and the hepatic-specific human apoAI DSE at Sp1 and H4TF2 binding sites. Human HepG2 nuclear extracts were used to form four specific complexes with the DSE (referred to as apoAI DSE-1, -2, -3, and -4). The apoAI DSE-1 and -2 complexes showed similar binding specificity to the Sp/H4TF1 consensus site within the apoAI DSE. The apoAI DSE-1 complex was predominantly recognized by anti-Sp1 and Sp3 sera in gel shift assays, indicating that the DSE was recognized by multiple Sp family members. Nuclear extracts that were prepared from retinoic acid treated HepG2 cells showed increased levels of Sp factors in gel shift and Western blot assays. The apoAI DSE-2 complex was identified as H4TF1 and formed in the absence of magnesium chloride. The apoAI DSE-3 complex bound to a consensus GATA element within the DSE that was recognized by recombinant human GATA-6 as well. The apoAI DSE-3 complex was completely disrupted by a GATA-4 antibody in EMSA. GATA-4 and -6 were detected in nuclear extracts prepared from retinoic acid treated HepG2 cells using Western blot assays. The highest apoAI DSE-3 levels were observed with retinoic acid treated HepG2 cell nuclear extracts in EMSA. ApoAI DSE-4 is a multi-factor complex that includes an Sp/H4TF1 factor and either H4TF2 or apoAI DSE-3. Because apoAI DSE mutations revealed transcription defects in transient transfection assays, we conclude that the entire DSE sequence is required for full apoAI transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. PMID:14659877

  13. ED becomes 'lean' and cuts LBTC, LOS times.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    Lean manufacturing techniques, first developed by Toyota, can be successfully adapted to help improve processes in your ED. St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, has used Lean to reduce median length of stay, frequency of diversions, and the percentage of patients who left before treatment was complete (LBTC). Here's why "Lean" can help improve the performance of your ED: It enables you and your staff to see things from the patient's point of view. Lean tools enable you to view the status of your department in real-time and to compare that status with your performance goals. Exercises help identify areas where your processes break down and determine the most likely solutions. PMID:18689224

  14. Patient's jewelry stolen as she rests in the ED.

    PubMed

    2007-12-01

    In a hospital ED in Rhode Island, a 96-year-old patient was robbed of her jewelry while she rested in her room. The thief was dressed in scrubs. Identification badges are only one way of keeping unwanted intruders out and your patients' belongings safe. Other suggestions: Have different groups of staff members, i.e., ED doctors and nurses, wear color-coded scrubs that distinguish them from other hospital personnel. If your staff see a strangely dressed person or someone who looks lost or like they don't fit in, they should question them about their identity. Create protocols for the removal and safekeeping of patients' jewelry that cover several different scenarios. PMID:18198764

  15. 78 FR 63494 - Meeting of the National Coordination Committee on the AI/AN SANE-SART Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the National Coordination Committee on the AI/AN SANE--SART Initiative... Coordination Committee on the American Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE... (OVC) to promote culturally relevant, victim-centered responses to sexual violence within...

  16. AI at Ames: Artificial Intelligence research and application at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, February 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Charts are given that illustrate function versus domain for artificial intelligence (AI) applications and interests and research area versus project number for AI research. A list is given of project titles with associated project numbers and page numbers. Also, project descriptions, including title, participants, and status are given.

  17. Appreciative Inquiry and Autonomy-Supportive Classes in Business Education: A Semilongitudinal Study of AI in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Thomas A.; Hartman, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe 10 separate classroom experiences where an appreciative inquiry (AI) exercise was used for course creation. Post-exercise surveys of students showed that the AI exercise was perceived to be a successful practice. Students indicated putting effort toward reaching their peak learning experience and were satisfied with…

  18. ai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  19. Purification and Characterization of BmooAi: A New Toxin from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom That Inhibits Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro de Queiroz, Mayara; Mamede, Carla Cristine N.; de Morais, Nadia Cristina G.; Cortes Fonseca, Kelly; Barbosa de Sousa, Bruna; Migliorini, Thaís M.; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda C.; Stanziola, Leonilda; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Martins Soares, Andreimar; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column). BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. PMID:24971359

  20. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  1. 76 FR 11846 - 24th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... MET Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is...: AIS and MET Data Link Services. DATES: The meeting will be held March 21-25, 2011 from 9 a.m. to 5...

  2. 75 FR 55847 - 22nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... MET Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is...: AIS and MET Data Link Services. DATES: The meeting will be held October 5-7, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 5...

  3. 75 FR 29811 - 21st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... MET Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is...: AIS and MET Data Link Services. DATES: The meeting will be held June 14-18, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5...

  4. 75 FR 71183 - 23rd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... MET Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is...: AIS and MET Data Link Services. DATES: The meeting will be held December 14-16, 2010 from 9 a.m. to...

  5. Autosomal recessive

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012:chap 40. Stankiewicz P, Lupsik JR. Gene, genomic, and chromosomal disorders. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  6. Appetite - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 4. Mcquaid K. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 134. Stewart GD, Skipworth RJE, Fearon ...

  7. Stool Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 63. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ...

  8. Bladder outlet obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 125. McNicholas TA, Kirby RS, Lepor ... Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 92. Andersson K, Wein AJ. Pharmacologic ...

  9. Mononeuritis multiplex

    MedlinePlus

    Mononeuropathy multiplex; Multifocal neuropathy; Peripheral neuropathy - mononeuritis multiplex ... Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 446.

  10. Rotavirus antigen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and ... and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 107. Zulfigar AB. Acute gastroenteritis in ...

  11. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26503035

  12. Autonomously generating operations sequences for a Mars Rover using AI-based planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Mishkin, Andrew; Estlin, Tara; Chien, Steve; Backes, Paul; Cooper, Brian; Maxwell, Scott; Rabideau, Gregg

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from highlevel science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules.

  13. Evaluation of new techniques to enhance the use of A.I. on farm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination (AI) has played a seminal role in facilitating genetic improvement in dairy, beef and swine industries. The technology has not been routinely employed by the sheep industry and as a result genetic improvement has not been fully realized. The University of Wyoming and the US...

  14. Test de Français Laval-Montreal: Does It Measure What It Should Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Romain; Saif, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted as part of a larger investigation of the predictive validity of the Test de Français Laval-Montreal (TFLM), a high-stakes French language test used for admission and placement purposes for Teacher-Training Programs (TTPs) in major francophone universities in Canada (Schmitt, 2015). The objective of this…

  15. Abundance and distribution of ultramafic microbreccia in Moses Rock Dike: Quantitative application of AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    Moses Rock dike is a Tertiary diatreme containing serpentinized ultramafic microbreccia (SUM). Field evidence indicates the SUM was emplaced first followed by breccias derived from the Permian strata exposed in the walls of the diatreme and finally by complex breccias containing basement and mantle derived rocks. SUM is found primarily dispersed throughout the matrix of the diatreme. Moses Rock dike was examined with Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) to map the distribution and excess of SUM in the matrix and to better understand the nature of the eruption which formed this explosive volcanic feature. AIS data was calibrated by dividing the suite of AIS data by data from an internal standard area and then multiplying this relative reflectance data by the absolute bidirectional reflectance of a selected sample from the standard area which was measured in the lab. From the calibrated AIS data the minerals serpentine, gypsum, and illite as well as desert varnish and the lithologies SUM and other sandstones were identified. SUM distribution and abundance in the matrix of the diatreme were examined in detail and two distinct styles of SUM dispersion were observed. The two styles are discussed in detail.

  16. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships §...

  17. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.231 Section 80.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.231 Technical...

  18. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a)...

  19. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a)...

  20. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment...; (2) Copies of the test report and test data obtained from the test facility showing that the...

  1. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment...; (2) Copies of the test report and test data obtained from the test facility showing that the...

  2. The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls.

    PubMed

    Attia, S; Katila, T; Andersson, M

    2016-02-01

    Good-quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p < 0.001). No significant differences were detected between stations or birth years. We also compared the CR of 695 AI bulls with the CR of their 27 sires to study the inheritance of fertility. Sire's CR did not correlate with the CR of the sons (p = 0.218). This result indicates that at least when sires of acceptable CR are used to produce sons for use in AI the inheritance of CR is not significantly correlated. PMID:26660630

  3. Impact of initiating a fixed-time AI program on herd calving date and weaning weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved reproductive efficiency is critical for profitability in cow-calf operations. Cows that give birth early wean more pounds of calf and stay in the herd longer. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the impact of implementing a fixed time AI protocol in a herd that had a defined 6...

  4. Gene regulation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as influenced by LuxS/AI-2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing is mediated by small signaling molecules, autoinducer molecules. The luxS gene which is conserved in several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is involved in the synthesis of the autoinducer molecule-2 (AI-2). Genes controlled by luxS in S. Typhimurium were identified using mic...

  5. Finished genome assembly of warm spring isolate Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Teshima, Hazuki; Coyne, Susan R.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James G.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-09-17

    We sequenced the complete genome of Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS to closed and finished status. This is a warm spring isolate recovered from Hobo Warm Spring (Utah, USA). The last assembly is available in NCBI under accession number CP012037.

  6. DNA microarray analysis reveals crosstalk of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with AI-2 of Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing, or cell-to-cell communication, is made possible by the production and sensing of small, extracellular chemical signals called autoinducers (AI). These autoinducers accumulate as the population density increases, and thereby help bacteria to regulate their behavior by promoting or rep...

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses apolipoprotein A-I gene expression through hepatocyte nuclear factor-3beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Dietary fish-oil supplementation has been shown in human kinetic studies to lower the production rate of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein component of HDL. The underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect and...

  8. Factors that influence fertility in synchronized breeding programs: AI or natural service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms involved in pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle are complex. This review has focused on some of the factors that affect pregnancy rates in both natural service and AI and synchronized and non-synchronized breeding programs. One of the best methods to look at factors influen...

  9. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  10. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  11. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  12. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  13. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  14. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  15. Prediction of shipboard electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems using artificial intelligence (AI) technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

  16. [To the history of Tretiyakov almshouse of the A.I. Vishnevskiy Institute of Surgery].

    PubMed

    Kuzybayeva, M P

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with reconstruction of history of building and functioning of Tretiyakov almshouse in the A.I. Vishnevskiy institute of surgery. The archive documents were used for exploration. The input of architect S.I. Soloviyev into formation of architectural complex is demonstrated. The significance of this object in the history of national architecture is established. PMID:24772658

  17. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  18. Remotely operated welding systems for EdF plant maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Thapon, G. ); Blight, J.; Durand, B. )

    1992-01-01

    With the objective of improving weld quality, reducing outage times, and minimizing integrated dose, Electricite de France (EdF) and Comex Nucleaire (CxN) have developed a number of advanced remotely controlled welding systems. Three such developments are described, two having been used operationally and the third being qualified for use in the coming months. The three developments involve replacing pressurizes heaters, replacing fuel charge head sleeves, and real-time interactive welding.

  19. AI-2 signalling is induced by acidic shock in probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2009-11-15

    Survival and ability to respond to various environmental stresses such as low pH are important factors for lactobacilli for their function as probiotics. LuxS-mediated quorum sensing mechanism, which is based on the production of universal signal molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2), regulates important physiological traits and a variety of adaptive processes in different bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acidic stress on LuxS-mediated quorum sensing (AI-2 signalling) in four probiotic strains of different Lactobacillus species. Initially, the production of AI-2-like molecule was investigated in four strains of Lactobacillus spp. at standard growth conditions using Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay. Species variation in AI-2 activity was observed. AI-2 activity started at early-exponential growth phase and increased during the mid-exponential phase concomitant with the reduction of pH, reaching maximum at late exponential phase (L. rhamnosus GG) or at stationary phase (L. salivarius UCC118, L. acidophilus NCFM and L. johnsonii NCC533). Acidic shock experiments were conducted on L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM after exposure to different acidic shocks (pH 5.0, 4.0 and 3.0) and to pH 6.5 as control, measuring AI-2 activity and transcription of the luxS gene. AI-2 activity increased by lowering the pH in a dose dependent manner and was negatively influenced by acid adaptation. In both species, the luxS gene was repressed after exposure to pH 6.5 as control. However, after acidic shock (pH 4.0) a transient response of luxS gene was observed and the transcription augmented over time, reaching a maximum level and decreased subsequently. Acid adaptation of cells attenuated the transcription of this gene. Based on the observations done in the present study, the luxS gene appears to have a clear role in acidic stress response in probiotic lactobacilli. This might be important in the survival of these bacteria during the passage

  20. The implementation of Mask-Ed: reflections of academic participants.

    PubMed

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Cooper, Simon; Happell, Brenda

    2014-09-01

    This paper profiles the findings from a study that explored the perspectives and experiences of nurse educators who implemented a novel simulation approach termed Mask-Ed. The technique involves the educator wearing a silicone mask and or body parts and transforming into a character. The premise of this approach is that the masked educator has domain specific knowledge related to the simulation scenario and can transmit this to learners in a way that is engaging, realistic, spontaneous and humanistic. Nurse educators charged with the responsibility of implementing Mask-Ed in three universities were invited to participate in the study by attending an introductory workshop, implementing the technique and then journaling their experiences, insights and perspectives over a 12 month period. The journal entries were then thematically analysed. Key themes were categorised under the headings of Preparation, Implementation and Impact; Reflexivity and Responsiveness; Student Engagement and Ownership; and Teaching and Learning. Mask-Ed is a simulation approach which allows students to interact with the 'characters' in humanistic ways that promote person-centred care and therapeutic communication. This simulation approach holds previously untapped potential for a range of learning experiences, however, to be effective, adequate resourcing, training, preparation and practice is required. PMID:24906681

  1. Edward (Ed) T. Schneider preparing for an F-104 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA research pilot Edward T. Scheider is shown standing in the cockpit of a two-seat F-104. He is wearing a full pressure suit, which is required on all flights above 50,000 feet. Ed served in the U.S. Navy from 1968 to 1983. He attended the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and graduated in 1973. He was then assigned as an engineering test pilot, and as an instructor at the Naval Test Pilot School. He first arrived at what was then called the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) as a Navy Liaison Officer on July 5, 1982. He joined NASA as a research pilot a year later. Ed was a project pilot on the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack program, the F-15 aeronautical research aircraft, the B-52 launch aircraft, and the NASA-operated SR-71 Blackbirds. Ed retired as a NASA research pilot in September 2000.

  2. Lean-driven solutions slash ED wait times, LOS.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    The ED at The Aroostook Medical Center (TAMC) in Presque Isle, ME, is a level II trauma center. It is the largest in the region, with only 89 beds. It has undergone a transformation in recent months, with average wait times to see a provider going from four to five hours down to less than five minutes, and the left-without-being-seen (LWBS) rate has been slashed from a high of 7% down to less than 1%. The hospital says the improvements are the result of lean-driven, staff-designed solutions, coupled with administrative engagement and oversight. And administrators say more improvements are on the way in 2013 when a hospital-wide workgroup will try to clear away obstacles and inefficiencies from the hospital admissions process. To tackle long wait times among patients with lower triage levels, the ED instituted a fast-track system, manned by mid-level providers and a tech or LPN. Responsibilities for charge nurses have been redesigned so that they have the power to monitor and facilitate patient flow. The ED has initiated more point-of-care testing so that nurses and techs can conduct many routine tests on their own. While the lean model relies on staff-driven solutions, administrators make the difference when it comes to sustaining changes and minimizing employee resistance. PMID:23214229

  3. States leverage telepsychiatry solutions to ease ED crowding, accelerate care.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Many states are having success turning to telepsychiatry-based solutions to connect mental health patients with needed care while also decompressing crowded EDs. Just one year into a statewide telepsychiatry initiative in North Carolina (NC-STeP), administrators say the approach has saved as much as $7 million, and hospital demand for the service is higher than anticipated. In Texas, mental health emergency centers (MHEC) that use telepsychiatry to connect patients in rural areas with needed psychiatric care are freeing up EDs to focus on medical care. In just 11 months, 91 North Carolina hospitals have at least started the process to engage in NC-STeP. Much of the savings from NC-STeP come from involuntary commitment orders being overturned as a result of the telepsychiatry consults, reducing the need for expensive inpatient care. Implementing NC-STeP has involved multiple hurdles including credentialing difficulties and technical/firewall challenges. The Texas model provides 24/7 availability of psychiatrists via telemedicine through a network of MHECs. In-person staff at the MHECs perform basic screening tests and blood draws so that medical clearance can be achieved without the need for an ED visit in most cases. Funding for the MHECs comes from the state, hospitals in the region, and local governmental authorities that reap savings or benefits from the initiative. PMID:25688413

  4. Teachers are students in ZPG program called 'Pop Ed.'.

    PubMed

    Schline, S

    1977-01-01

    Zero Population Growth's Population Education (Pop Ed) program began in 1975 as an ongoing effort to bring the "real world" into the classroom by demonstrating the relationships among population trends, food and energy resources, and environmental and economic problems. The training workshops which last for a day or 2 have the following goals: 1) to offer a brief demographic overview for teachers, 2) to provide lesson plans and techniques readily usable in the classroom, 3) to alert teachers to the best written and audiovisual materials available, 4) to identify local resources for teaching Pop Ed, and 5) to provide sample materials. In the 1st year of program operation 10 workshops were held. These workshops are credited, at least partly, with the subsequent population instruction that reached over 10,400 students and 1600 teachers. Another 15 workshops were held in the 2nd year of operation. Obstacles to the program are the assumption on the part of some teachers that Pop Ed belongs in disciplines other than their own and the belief on the part of many teachers that they will require extensive training. PMID:12308748

  5. Fresh policies and procedures, transparency fuel ED turnaround.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    The ED at Banner Payson Medical Center in Payson, AZ, has charted dramatic improvements on key metrics through a range of staff and policy changes. In just a few months, the ED has halved wait times, patient satisfaction has improved, and daily volume is up. Administrators say the secret to the success of the effort is a move to be transparent by posting key metrics regarding patient flow, a tactic that has helped the team pull together and feel a sense of accomplishment when performance goals are achieved. Administrators adjusted staff schedules to better match patient volume patterns in the ED, and they added staff to help nurses during peak hours. A new provider group enlisted the assistance of scribes during peak hours to manage the documentation workload while also enabling physicians to focus more patient interaction. Physicians hold end-of-shift huddles to review successes and challenges, and to improve physician/nurse communication. The tactic also helps develop the staff from an educational standpoint. PMID:27266001

  6. Activated-Ion ETD (AI-ETD) Improves the Ability of ETD to Identify Peptides in a Complex Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Ledvina, Aaron R.; Beauchene, Nicole A.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Syka, John E. P.; Schwartz, Jae C.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a modified ETD-enabled QLT mass spectrometer, we demonstrate the utility of IR activation concomitant with ETD ion-ion reactions (activated-ion ETD, AI-ETD). Analyzing 12 SCX fractions of a LysC digest of human cells (HS) using ETD, CAD, and AI-ETD, we find that AI-ETD generates 13,405 peptide spectral matches (PSMs) at a 1% false-discovery rate (1% FDR), surpassing both ETD (7,968) and CAD (10,904). We also analyze 12 SCX fractions of a tryptic HS digest and find that ETD produces 6,234 PSMs, AI-ETD 9,130 PSMs, and CAD 15,209 PSMs. Compared to ETcaD, AI-ETD generates ~80% more PSMs for tryptic whole cell lysate and ~50% more PSMs for LysC whole cell lysate. PMID:21062032

  7. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: Factors Associated with ED Revisits

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Brian R.; Sharp, Kristen M.; Patterson, Brian; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that commonly affects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Despite frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits, little evidence exists to characterize the nature of ED visits or to guide its treatment in the ED. Our objectives were to evaluate the treatment of NVP in the ED and to identify factors that predict return visits to the ED for NVP. Methods We conducted a retrospective database analysis using the electronic medical record from a single, large academic hospital. Demographic and treatment variables were collected using a chart review of 113 ED patient visits with a billing diagnosis of “nausea and vomiting in pregnancy” or “hyperemesis gravidarum.” Logistic regression analysis was used with a primary outcome of return visit to the ED for the same diagnoses. Results There was wide treatment variability of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy patients in the ED. Of the 113 patient visits, 38 (33.6%) had a return ED visit for NVP. High gravidity (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.06–1.61]), high parity (OR 1.50 95% CI [1.12–2.00]), and early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.60–0.90]) were associated with an increase in return ED visits in univariate logistic regression models, while only early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.59–0.91]) was associated with increased return ED visits in a multiple regression model. Admission to the hospital was found to decrease the likelihood of return ED visits (p=0.002). Conclusion NVP can be difficult to manage and has a high ED return visit rate. Optimizing care with aggressive, standardized treatment in the ED and upon discharge, particularly if factors predictive of return ED visits are present, may improve quality of care and reduce ED utilization for this condition. PMID:27625723

  8. Transport of Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II by Human Thoracic Duct Lymph

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David W.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Bronzert, Thomas J.; Lindgren, Frank T.; Forte, Trudy; Starzl, Thomas E.; Niblack, Gary D.; Zech, Loren A.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1981-01-01

    The daily transport of human plasma apolipoproteins A-I and A-II, triglyceride, and total cholesterol from the thoracic duct lymph into plasma was measured in two subjects before and three subjects after renal transplantation. Lymph triglyceride transport was ∼83% of the daily ingested fat loads, whereas lymph cholesterol transport was consistently greater than the amount of daily ingested cholesterol. Lymph apolipoprotein transport significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded the predicted apolipoprotein synthesis rate by an average of 659±578 mg/d for apolipoprotein A-I and 109±59 mg/d for apolipoprotein A-II among the five subjects. It is estimated that 22-77% (apolipoprotein A-I) and 28-82% (apolipoprotein A-II) of daily total body apolipoprotein synthesis takes place in the intestine. Lymph high density lipoprotein particles are mostly high density lipoprotein2b and high density lipoprotein2a and have a greater overall relative triglyceride content and a smaller relative cholesteryl ester content when compared with homologous plasma high density lipoproteins. The major quantity of both lymph apolipoprotein A-I (81±8%) and apolipoprotein A-II (90±11%) was found within high density lipoproteins with almost all of the remainder found in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. The combined results are consistent with a major contribution of the intestine to total body synthesis of apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II. An important role of lymph in returning filtered apolipoprotein to plasma in association with high density lipoproteins is proposed. Accompanying the return of filtered apolipoprotein to the plasma is a probable transformation, both in size and composition, of at least some of the lymph high density lipoprotein2b and high density lipoprotein2a particles into high density lipoprotein3. Images PMID:7204560

  9. AI-related BMD variation in actual practice conditions: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Garrigos, Laia; Rodriguez-Morera, Jaime; Albanell, Joan; Martínez-García, Maria; González, Iria; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of bone mineral density (BMD) during 3 years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) therapy in actual practice conditions. This prospective, clinical cohort study of Barcelona-Aromatase induced Bone Loss in Early breast cancer (B-ABLE) assessed BMD changes during 3 years of AI treatment in women with breast cancer. Patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 or T score ≤ -2.0) and a major risk factor and/or prevalent fragility fractures were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). Of 685 women recruited, 179 (26.1%) received BP treatment. By the third year of AI therapy, this group exhibited increased BMD in the lumbar spine (LS; 2.59%) and femoral neck (FN; 2.50%), although the increase was significant only within the first year (LS: 1.99% and FN: 2.04%). Despite BP therapy, however, approximately 15% of these patients lost more than 3% of their baseline bone mass. At 3 years, patients without BP experienced BMD decreases in the LS (-3.10%) and FN (-2.79%). In this group, BMD changes occurred during the first (LS: -1.33% and FN: -1.25%), second (LS: -1.19% and FN: -0.82%), and third (LS: -0.57% and FN: -0.65%) years of AI treatment. Increased BMD (>3%) was observed in just 7.6% and 10.8% of these patients at the LS and FN, respectively. Our data confirm a clinically relevant bone loss associated with AI therapy amongst nonusers of preventative BPs. We further report on the importance of BMD monitoring as well as calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D supplementation in these patients. PMID:26911377

  10. Processing the Interspecies Quorum-sensing Signal Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    SciTech Connect

    J Marques; P Lamosa; C Russell; R Ventura; C Maycock; M Semmelhack; S Miller; K Xavier

    2011-12-31

    The molecule (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is produced by many different species of bacteria and is the precursor of the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). AI-2 mediates interspecies communication and facilitates regulation of bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation and virulence. A variety of bacterial species have the ability to sequester and process the AI-2 present in their environment, thereby interfering with the cell-cell communication of other bacteria. This process involves the AI-2-regulated lsr operon, comprised of the Lsr transport system that facilitates uptake of the signal, a kinase that phosphorylates the signal to phospho-DPD (P-DPD), and enzymes (like LsrG) that are responsible for processing the phosphorylated signal. Because P-DPD is the intracellular inducer of the lsr operon, enzymes involved in P-DPD processing impact the levels of Lsr expression. Here we show that LsrG catalyzes isomerization of P-DPD into 3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-pentanone-5-phosphate. We present the crystal structure of LsrG, identify potential catalytic residues, and determine which of these residues affects P-DPD processing in vivo and in vitro. We also show that an lsrG deletion mutant accumulates at least 10 times more P-DPD than wild type cells. Consistent with this result, we find that the lsrG mutant has increased expression of the lsr operon and an altered profile of AI-2 accumulation and removal. Understanding of the biochemical mechanisms employed by bacteria to quench signaling of other species can be of great utility in the development of therapies to control bacterial behavior.

  11. Analysis of microtraces in invasive traumas using SEM/EDS.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, E J; Zoon, P D; Chang, S B C G; Keereweer, I; Pieterman, R; Gerretsen, R R R

    2012-01-10

    Scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a proven forensic tool and has been used to analyze several kinds of trace evidence. A forensic application of SEM/EDS is the examination of morphological characteristics of tool marks that tools and instruments leave on bone. The microtraces that are left behind by these tools and instruments on the bone are, however, often ignored or not noticed at all. In this paper we will describe the use of SEM/EDS for the analysis of microtraces in invasive sharp-force, blunt-force and bone-hacking traumas in bone. This research is part of a larger multi-disciplinary approach in which pathologists, forensic anthropologists, toolmark and microtrace experts work together to link observed injuries to a suspected weapon or, in case of an unknown weapon, to indicate a group of objects that could have been used as a weapon. Although there are a few difficulties one have to consider, the method itself is rather simple and straightforward to apply. A sample of dry and clean bone is placed into the SEM sample chamber and brightness and contrast are set such that bone appears grey, metal appears white and organic material appears black. The sample is then searched manually to find relevant features. Once features are found their elemental composition is measured by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). This method is illustrated using several cases. It is shown that SEM/EDS analysis of microtraces in bone is a valuable tool to get clues about an unknown weapon and can associate a specific weapon with injuries on the basis of appearance and elemental composition. In particular the separate results from the various disciplines are complementary and may be combined to reach a conclusion with a stronger probative value. This is not only useful in the courtroom but above all in criminal investigations when one have to know for what weapon or object to look for. PMID:21871744

  12. Self-Esteem and Emotional Intelligence among B.Ed Trainees of Tsunami Affected Coastal Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu M, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Through this study the author investigates the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among B.Ed trainees of Tsunami affected coastal belt of Alappey district of Kerala, India. Stream of study, marital status and age based comparisons were made among the B.Ed trainees. 92 B.Ed trainees were the participants in the study. It…

  13. EDS1 mediates pathogen resistance and virulence function of a bacterial effector in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) and phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) are well known regulators of both basal and resistance (R) protein-mediated plant defense. We identified two EDS1- (GmEDS1a/b) and one PAD4-like (GmPAD4) protein that are required for resistance signaling in soybean. Consist...

  14. Rapid Assessment of the ED Institutional Eligibility and Compliance Monitoring Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Steven M.

    Two U.S. Department of Education (ED) systems for establishing the initial eligibility and monitoring the performance of postsecondary institutions that participate in ED financial assistance programs were assessed. The evaluation was designed to describe and evaluate the eligibility and certification functions of ED's Eligibility and Agency…

  15. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  16. EDS coal liquefaction process development, Phase V. Engineering design study of an EDS Illinois bottoms fired hybrid boiler

    SciTech Connect

    1984-04-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company and was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report is the second of two reports by Combustion Engineering, Inc. on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program and covers the results of an engineering design study of a Hybrid Boiler firing the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from processing Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. The function of the Hybrid Boiler is to heat the coal slurry feed for an EDS coal liquefaction plant by a process coil in the convection section and to generate high pressure steam in the radiant section. The Hybrid Boiler design developed in this phase of the program is based on the results of a laboratory characterization program (reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-112), on Combustion Engineering, Inc.'s extensive experience as a designer and supplier of steam generating equipment, and on Exxon Research and Engineering Co.'s experience with the design and operation of process heaters.

  17. Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-AI Vaccine Virus Replication in Different Species of Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Kovács, Edit Walkóné; Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Felföldi, Balázs; Homonnay, Zalán G; Mató, Tamás; Sato, Takanori; Gardin, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl play a key role in the epidemiology of the H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus; therefore, efficient immunization of domesticated ducks and geese to maximize the impact of other control measures is of great importance. A recombinant (r)HVT-AI, expressing the HA gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain had been developed and proved to be efficient against different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus in chickens after a single vaccination at 1 day old and could provide long-term immunity. We investigated whether rHVT-AI applied at 1 day old is able to replicate in different species and crossbreeds of ducks and in geese with the aim of collecting data on the possible application of rHVT-AI vaccine in different species of waterfowl for the control of H5N1 HPAI. We tested the possible differences among different waterfowl species, i.e., between geese (Anser anser, domesticated greylag goose), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata forma domestica), Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica), and mule ducks (Muscovy duck × Pekin duck), in their susceptibility to support the replication of rHVT-AI. Vaccine virus replication was followed by real-time PCR in spleen, bursa, and feather tip samples. Humoral immune response to vaccination was tested using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and H5-specific commercial ELISA. Significant differences among the different waterfowl species regarding the rate of rHVT-AI replication was detected that were not reflected by the same difference in the immune response to vaccination. Replication of the rHVT-AI vaccine was very limited in Pekin ducks, somewhat better in mule ducks, and the vaccine virus was replicating significantly better in Muscovy ducks and geese, reaching 100% detectability at certain time points after administration at 1 day old. Results indicated that the vaccine virus could establish different levels of persistent infection in these species of waterfowl. No humoral immune response

  18. Characterization and functional properties of the alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Le Berre-Anton, V; Bompard-Gilles, C; Payan, F; Rougé, P

    1997-11-14

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Tendergreen) seeds has been purified to homogeneity by heat treatment in acidic medium, ammonium sulphate fractionation, chromatofocusing and gel filtration. Two isoforms, alpha-AI1 and alpha-AI1', of 43 kDa have been isolated which differ from each other by their isoelectric points and neutral sugar contents. The major isoform alpha-AI1 inhibited human and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylases (PPA) but was devoid of activity on alpha-amylases of bacterial or fungal origins. As shown on the Lineweaver-Burk plots, the nature of the inhibition is explained by a mixed non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Alpha-AI1 formed a 1:2 stoichiometric complex with PPA which showed an optimum pH of 4.5 at 30 degrees C. Owing to the low optimum pH found for alpha-AI activity, inhibitor-containing diets such as beans or transgenic plants expressing alpha-AI should be devoid of any harmful effect on human health. PMID:9428656

  19. Investigation of the conserved glutamate immediately following the DEAD box in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AI.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishnaben; Shah, Grishma K; Kommaraju, Sai Shilpa; Low, Woon-Kai

    2014-02-01

    The DExD-box family (DEAD-box) of proteins was surveyed for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-specific sequences surrounding the DEAD box. An eIF4A-unique glutamate residue (E186 in eIF4AI) was identified immediately following the D-E-A-D sequence in eIF4AI, II, and III that was found to be conserved from yeast to Man. Mutation to a selection of alternative amino acids was performed within recombinant eIF4AI expressed in Escherichia coli and mutant proteins were surveyed for RNA-dependent ATPase activity. The mutants were also investigated for changes in activity in the presence of the two eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI as well as for co-purification ability to these two domains. The E186 residue was found to be of significance for RNA-dependent ATPase activity for eIF4AI alone and in the presence of eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI through point-mutation analysis. Furthermore, binding interactions between eIF4AI and eIF4GI domains were also significantly influenced by mutation of E186, as observed through co-purification assays. Thus, this residue appears to be of functional significance for eIF4A. PMID:24471916

  20. The Vibrio harveyi bioassay used routinely to detect AI-2 quorum sensing inhibition is confounded by inconsistent normalization across marine matrices.

    PubMed

    Blair, Walter M; Doucette, Gregory J

    2013-03-01

    The Vibrio harveyi autoinducer-2 (AI-2) bioassay is used routinely to screen for inhibition of the AI-2 quorum sensing system. The present study utilizes three well-described bacterial strains to demonstrate that inconsistent normalization across matrices undermines the assay's use in screening marine samples for AI-2 inhibition. PMID:23305926

  1. Secondary contamination of ED personnel from hazardous materials events, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Horton, D Kevin; Berkowitz, Zahava; Kaye, Wendy E

    2003-05-01

    Hazardous materials (hazmat) events pose a health threat not only for those individuals in the immediate vicinity of the release (ie, members of the general public, on-site first responders, employees), but also for ED personnel (ie, physicians and nurses) treating the chemically contaminated victims arriving at the hospital. Secondary contamination injuries to ED personnel result when exposed victims enter the ED without being properly decontaminated. Data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System were used to conduct a retrospective analysis on hazmat events occurring in 16 states from 1995 through 2001 that involved secondary injury to ED personnel. Six events were identified in which 15 ED personnel were secondarily injured while treating contaminated victims. The predominant injuries sustained were respiratory and eye irritation. Proper victim decontamination procedures, good field-to-hospital communication, and appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) use can help prevent ED personnel injuries and contamination of the ED. PMID:12811712

  2. SEM/EDS Characterization of Ambient PM during Agricultural Burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Wall, S.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected with UNC passive samplers during agricultural burns in Imperial Valley, California. Four Bermuda grass field burn events were sampled at 3-8 locations surrounding each burn. Sampling began at the start of each burn (30-60 min) and continued for 24-120 hours. During 3 of the 4 burn events, winds were calm and plumes were observed to travel straight up to the inversion layer. In one event, winds created a ground-level plume that enveloped two UNC samplers mounted on telephone poles very close to the field (0.2-0.3 miles away). Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy / energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDS) was used to measure particle sizes and elemental composition, from which mass concentrations and size distributions were calculated. The median PM2.5 and PM10 levels measured in this study were 3.4 and 20 ug/m3, respectively. To determine quantitative accuracy, UNC sampler PM2.5 results (PM< 2.5 um) were compared to PM2.5 results from four co-located, continuous-reading beta-attenuation monitors (EBAMs). The median agreement (EBAM - UNC) was 3.8 ug/m3. Manual SEM/EDS detected various distinctive species in these samples, including sea salt, spores, plant fragments, and large soot agglomerates. During the ‘plume event’, 24-hour PM2.5 exposures downwind were up to 17 times higher than that measured upwind. Numerous submicron combustion particles with carbon and oxygen only were directly observed by manual SEM/EDS in the two plume-impacted samples, along with larger ash particles enriched in potassium, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. CCSEM/EDS data from this event was grouped into 5 particle classes to generate size-fraction-specific pie charts. Burn-related particle types contributed 95% of the PM2.5 in the location directly impacted by the ground-level plume, compared to only 12% in the upwind location. A sample of Imperial County Bermuda grass analyzed in bulk and

  3. An Extremely Rare Situation - Subcutaneously Filariasis Presented at ED Craiova

    PubMed Central

    ROTARU, LUCIANA; ȘERBAN, C,

    2014-01-01

    A 32 year old male patient presented to the ED Craiova with migratory, burning pain, to the right cervical and left upper eyelid. Sudden, transient, bilateral knee swelling six months ago. An inflammatory trace and a renitent cord can feel at this level, with spontaneous mobility. A microfilaraemic parasite was surgically extracted from upper eyelid. Mobility of the parasite was the key element of an extremely quick and easy diagnosis for a very rare disease but the specific circumstances of the contamination remains unclear. Even uncommon, multiple determinations are possible requiring systematic and long term investigation and medical surveillance. PMID:25729596

  4. Status of the development of EDS coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, G.K.; Epperly, W.R.

    1982-07-23

    This article traces the evolution and development of a modern coal liquefaction technology, the EDS (Exxon Donor Solvent) process, over a period of 15 years. During this time the technology has been advanced from laboratory experiments to a pilot plant with a coal feed rate of 250 tons per day, and findings from several areas of science and technology have been important. The process is now in the final stage of development to generate the data needed to design a plant of commercial size.

  5. Designing concrete EDS maglev guideways: Power losses in metallic reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Beto, D.; Plotkin, D.

    1997-05-01

    Conventional reinforced concrete designs will have to be altered when designing a guideway for a maglev using an electrodynamically suspended (EDS) propulsion system. This type of propulsion system generates large magnetic fields that will develop magnetically induced, circulating eddy currents in any conventional steel reinforcement in close proximity to the magnets. These eddy currents, if large enough, may produce significant power losses that could adversely effect operation of the system. This paper presents a method and explanation for civil engineers to use for estimating the power losses due to the presence of metallic reinforcement. This procedure may be used to help guide future designs in the selection and placement of reinforcing material.

  6. Hypothermic cardiac arrest: an 11 year review of ED management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D D; McVaney, K

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the emergency department (ED) management of hypothermic cardiac arrest and its outcome. The medical records of all patients with hypothermic cardiac arrest treated in the ED from January 1, 1988 to January 31, 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included initial body temperature, serum potassium, methods of rewarming, return of perfusing rhythm, and morbidity and mortality. Data were analyzed by descriptive methods. Eleven patients were treated in the ED resuscitation room for hypothermic cardiac arrest. Six patients were found in cardiac arrest in the field, one patient arrested during transport, and four patients arrested after ED arrival. The average initial temperature was 79.1 degrees F (range 69.0 degrees F to 86.7 degrees F). Seven patients received an ED thoracotomy with internal cardiac massage and warm mediastinal irrigation. Four patients had airway management in the ED and then direct transport to the operating room for cardiac bypass rewarming. Three of the seven patients who received an ED thoracotomy subsequently went to intraoperative cardiac bypass rewarming. Five of the seven (71.4%) patients who received an ED thoracotomy survived, versus none of the four patients (0%) who went directly to intraoperative cardiac bypass. A direct comparison of immediate ED thoracotomy versus intraoperative cardiac bypass without ED thoracotomy is cautiously made as this was an unmatched and nonrandomized study. Three of the surviving patients underwent intraoperative cardiac bypass rewarming after receiving an ED thoracotomy. In two of these patients a perfusing rhythm had been established after thoracotomy in the ED and before transport to the operating room for cardiac bypass. Only one of seven (14.3%) patients who arrested prehospital survived versus four of four (100%) who arrested in the ED. ED thoracotomy with internal cardiac massage and mediastinal irrigation rewarming is effective in the management

  7. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG against a version of AML and against human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements.

  8. Identification of liver receptor homolog-1 as a novel regulator of apolipoprotein AI gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Delerive, Philippe; Galardi, Cristin M; Bisi, John E; Nicodeme, Edwige; Goodwin, Bryan

    2004-10-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has been reported to play a role in bile acid biosynthesis and reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we examined the role of LRH-1 in the regulation of the apolipoprotein AI (APOAI) gene. Using RNA interference and adenovirus-mediated overexpression, we show that LRH-1 directly regulates APOAI gene transcription. Transient transfection experiments and EMSAs revealed that LRH-1 directly regulates APOAI transcription by binding to an LRH-1 response element located in the proximal APOAI promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that LRH-1 binds to the human APO AI promoter in vivo. Finally, we show that the transcriptional repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) suppressed APOAI gene expression by inhibiting LRH-1 transcriptional activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LRH-1 is a novel regulator of APOAI transcription and underscore the role of this receptor in cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:15218078

  9. Repression by ARP-1 sensitizes apolipoprotein AI gene responsiveness to RXR alpha and retinoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Widom, R L; Rhee, M; Karathanasis, S K

    1992-01-01

    The gene coding for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), a lipid binding protein involved in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids in the plasma, is expressed in mammals predominantly in the liver and the intestine. Liver-specific expression is controlled by synergistic interactions between transcription factors bound to three separate sites, sites A (-214 to -192), B (-169 to -146), and C (-134 to -119), within a powerful liver-specific enhancer located between nucleotides -222 and -110 upstream of the apoAI gene transcription start site (+1). Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ARP-1, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily whose ligand is unknown (orphan receptor), binds to site A and represses transcription of the apoAI gene in liver cells. In a more recent series of experiments, we found that site A is a retinoic acid (RA) response element that responds preferentially to the recently identified RA-responsive receptor RXR alpha over the previously characterized RA receptors RAR alpha and RAR beta. In this study we investigated the combined effects of ARP-1 and RXR alpha on apoAI gene expression in liver cells. Transient transfection assays showed that site A is necessary and sufficient for RXR alpha-mediated transactivation of the apoAI gene basal promoter in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in the presence of RA and that this transactivation is abolished by increasing amounts of cotransfected ARP-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and subsequent Scatchard analysis of the data revealed that ARP-1 and RXR alpha bind to site A with similar affinities. These assays also revealed that ARP-1 and RXR alpha bind to site A as heterodimers with an affinity approximately 10 times greater than that of either ARP-1 or RXR alpha alone. Further transfection assays in HepG2 cells, using as a reporter a construct containing the apoAI gene basal promoter and its upstream regulatory elements (including site A) in their natural context, revealed that RXR alpha

  10. Robots with AI: A retrospective on the AAAI robot competitions and exhibitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonasso, P.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    There have been five years of robot competitions and exhibitions since the inception of this annual event in 1992. Since that first show we have seen 30 different teams compete and almost that many more exhibit their robots. These teams ranged from universities to industry and government research labs to one or two inventors working out of garages. Their composition ranged from seasoned AI researchers to eager undergraduates, and they hailed from the United States, Canada, Europe and the Far East. Despite the concerns of some about the relevance and even the appropriateness of such an event, the robots have become a key attraction of the national and international conferences. In this talk, we look back on the form and function of the five years of exhibitions and competitions and attempt to draw some lessons in retrospect as well as future implications for the AI community and our society at large.

  11. Mission activities planning for a Hermes mission by means of AI-technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, U.; Hajen, G.; Schielow, N.; Mitschdoerfer, P.; Allard, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Activities Planning is a complex task to be performed by mission control centers. AI technology can offer attractive solutions to the planning problem. This paper presents the use of a new AI-based Mission Planning System for crew activity planning. Based on a HERMES servicing mission to the COLUMBUS Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) with complex time and resource constraints, approximately 2000 activities with 50 different resources have been generated, processed, and planned with parametric variation of operationally sensitive parameters. The architecture, as well as the performance of the mission planning system, is discussed. An outlook to future planning scenarios, the requirements, and how a system like MARS can fulfill those requirements is given.

  12. S&T converging trends in dealing with disaster: A review on AI tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Abu Bakar; Isa, Mohd. Hafez Mohd.

    2016-01-01

    Science and Technology (S&T) has been able to help mankind to solve or minimize problems when arise. Different methodologies, techniques and tools were developed or used for specific cases by researchers, engineers, scientists throughout the world, and numerous papers and articles have been written by them. Nine selected cases such as flash flood, earthquakes, workplace accident, fault in aircraft industry, seismic vulnerability, disaster mitigation and management, and early fault detection in nuclear industry have been studied. This paper looked at those cases, and their results showed nearly 60% uses artificial intelligence (AI) as a tool. This paper also did some review that will help young researchers in deciding the types of AI tools to be selected; thus proving the future trends in S&T.

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  14. Adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I to biological membranes. A statistical mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Eitan

    2012-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), reduces the risk for atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from the membrane of foam cells. Experiments with model membrane systems have indicated, however, that membrane cholesterol reduces apo A-I binding to the membrane. Foam cells resolve this discrepancy electrostatically by co-inserting negatively charged phospholipids in their membrane. Here we present a statistical mechanical model to account for the effect of cholesterol. Our model is based on the Haugen and May model which takes into account the dipolar nature of the zwitterionic phospholipid head group in the membrane, in which the positive end of the zwitterionic dipole moment can move randomly on a hemispherical surface with a radius equal to the arm of the dipole moment and with the negative end fixed at the hydrocarbon layer. Adsorption of a positively charged apo A-I macroion to the surface of the membrane modifies the electric field within the head group region and induces lateral demixing of phospholipid molecules in the membrane. Results from numerical integration of model equations show that i) as a result of the strong charge-dipole electrostatic coupling, the positive end of the dipoles tilts away from the adsorbed macroion in a cooperative manner; and ii) cholesterol reduces macroion adsorption to the membrane by reducing the surface area of the membrane and restricting the dipoles range of rotation. Model predictions for the change in free energy of adsorption to zwitterionic membrane are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data with liposomes. The model can assist in designing new mimetic peptides.

  15. Conceptual designs of AI-based systems for local prediction of voltage collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Yabe, K.; Koda, J.; Yoshida, K.; Chiang, K.H.; Khedkar, P.S.; Leonard, D.J.; Miller, N.W.

    1996-02-01

    Vulnerability of modern power systems to locally initiated voltage collapse gives rise to a need for methods to measure local voltage security and to predict voltage instability. The paper presents a novel architecture based on a suite of AI technologies and three-dimensional PQV surfaces which provides prediction of local voltage collapse and indices of system voltage security. Robustness and adaptation are demonstrated on difficult and realistic power system simulation models.

  16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): a multifactorial cascade concept for pathogenesis and embryonic origin.

    PubMed

    Burwell, R Geoffrey; Clark, Emma M; Dangerfield, Peter H; Moulton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This paper formulates a novel multifactorial Cascade Concept for the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This Concept stems from the longitudinal findings of Clark et al. (J Bone Miner Res 29(8):1729-36, 2014) who identified leptin body composition factors at 10 years of age associated with a scoliosis deformity found at 15 years. We interpret these findings in the light of some concepts for AIS pathogenesis. In particular, we speculate that the leptin body composition effect is linked to central nervous system development and the initiation of the asynchronous neuro-osseous growth mechanism that involves the creation of a neuraxis tether of relative anterior vertebral overgrowth. The latter mechanism in combination with age and gender-related anatomical variants of vertebral backward tilt (dorsal shear concept), human upright posture, adolescent growth factors, Hueter-Volkmann effect in vertebrae and vertebral bone mass abnormalities, lead to AIS, possibly both initiation and progression of scoliosis curvatures. Being multifactorial, while the Cascade Concept cannot be tested for all its components, some components should be testable by the method of numerical simulation. Clark et al. (J Bone Miner Res 29(8):1729-36, 2014) also suggested the origin of scoliosis was in the embryonic stages of life from cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts, derived from the same progenitor cells, and myoblasts from mesodermal somites. The involvement of cell types from different developmental origins suggests a process acting in embryonic life at a similar time, probably environmental, as previously proposed from anthropometric studies. As a Complex disease, AIS will involve genetic, environmental and life style factors operating in development and growth; this possibility needs evaluating in epidemiological studies. PMID:27252984

  17. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mark A.; Davis, Sonnet S.; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M.; Mitchell, Kylie P.; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y.; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Lamba, Deepak A.; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2′-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice. PMID:27364765

  18. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programming Techniques to Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined in detail and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG versus a version of AML and versus human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify than the updated FORTRAN AML programs.

  19. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Mark A; Davis, Sonnet S; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M; Mitchell, Kylie P; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H; Hubbard, Troy D; Lamba, Deepak A; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2'-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice. PMID:27364765

  20. Use of agroindustrial wastes (açai fiber and glycerol) in the preparation of cookies.

    PubMed

    Lima, Helena; Corrêa, Nádia Cristina Fernandes; Santos, Orquidea; de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding industrial byproducts (açai fiber and glycerol) on the physical, physicochemical, and sensory properties of cookies. The statistical analysis showed that only the parameters of water content and water activity are significantly influenced by the amount of açai fiber added and by the fiber's particle size. Through sensory analysis of crispness and the flavor, it was found that the best percentage of açai fiber and the best particle size added to the cookie formulation were 10 % and +28 mesh, respectively. From this result, another sensory analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of glycerol over the texture of the cookies. Acceptance indices for the crispness and flavor above 70 % were observed, indicating the possibility for industrial exploitation. Cookies with added industrial byproducts may be considered a source of fiber, as they contain 6 g/100 g fiber. PMID:26139930

  1. Luminescence and energy transfer from açai oil in polystyrene matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, N. S.; Monte, A. F. G.; Reis, A.; Morais, P. C.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to examine the optical properties of the açai oil embedded in polystyrene (PS) matrix. By doing this, we expect to introduce new properties in the polymeric matrix and check their availability for the construction of light-emitting devices. Energy transfer experiments were conducted using a confocal microscope adapted for scanning the luminescence on the sample surface with micrometer spatial resolution. The luminescence from the sample was provided by the large amount of chlorophyll molecules found in the açai oil. Two main emission peaks were observed, one peaked at 621 nm and the other at 654 nm. The photon migration length increases by increasing the oil concentration. The migration length is larger at 654 nm compared to that at 621 nm wavelength, showing the energy transfer from higher energy states to lower energy states. Indeed, addition of açai oil changed the optical properties of the PS template, thus making this material a promising candidate for optical applications.

  2. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  3. AIS Spectra for Stressed and Unstressed Plant Communities in the Carolina Slate Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over a number of derelict heavy metal mine sites in the Carolina slate belt of North Carolina. A 32 channel (1156 to 1456 nm) data set was acquired in October, 1983 at the time of peak fall foliage display, and a 128 channel (1220 to 2420) data set was acquired near the end of the spring leaf flush in May, 1984. Spectral curves were extracted from the AIS data for differing ground cover types (e.g., pine forests, mixed deciduous forests, mine sites, and pastures). Variation in the width of an absorption feature located at approximately 1190 nm has been related to differences in forest type. Small differences in the location and shape of features in the near infrared plateau (1156 to 1300 nm) and the region 2000 to 2420 nm have yet to be evaluated. Because these variations were subtle, and because atmospheric effects were apparent in the data, high priority must be assigned to devising a means of removing atmospheric effects from AIS spectra.

  4. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  5. The collection of MicroED data for macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dan; Nannenga, Brent L; de la Cruz, M Jason; Liu, Jinyang; Sawtelle, Steven; Calero, Guillermo; Reyes, Francis E; Hattne, Johan; Gonen, Tamir

    2016-05-01

    The formation of large, well-ordered crystals for crystallographic experiments remains a crucial bottleneck to the structural understanding of many important biological systems. To help alleviate this problem in crystallography, we have developed the MicroED method for the collection of electron diffraction data from 3D microcrystals and nanocrystals of radiation-sensitive biological material. In this approach, liquid solutions containing protein microcrystals are deposited on carbon-coated electron microscopy grids and are vitrified by plunging them into liquid ethane. MicroED data are collected for each selected crystal using cryo-electron microscopy, in which the crystal is diffracted using very few electrons as the stage is continuously rotated. This protocol gives advice on how to identify microcrystals by light microscopy or by negative-stain electron microscopy in samples obtained from standard protein crystallization experiments. The protocol also includes information about custom-designed equipment for controlling crystal rotation and software for recording experimental parameters in diffraction image metadata. Identifying microcrystals, preparing samples and setting up the microscope for diffraction data collection take approximately half an hour for each step. Screening microcrystals for quality diffraction takes roughly an hour, and the collection of a single data set is ∼10 min in duration. Complete data sets and resulting high-resolution structures can be obtained from a single crystal or by merging data from multiple crystals. PMID:27077331

  6. Rats with Malformations of Cortical Development Exhibit Decreased Length of AIS and Hypersensitivity to Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yelan; Sun, Danni; Yue, Zongwei; Tang, Weiting; Xiao, Bo; Feng, Li

    2016-09-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are critical brain development disorders associated with varied abnormalities in both anatomic structures and neural functioning. It is also a very common etiology to the epilepsy, in which the alteration on excitability of cortical neurons is hypothesized as one of important causes to the epileptic seizures. Due to the key role in regulating neuron firing properties, the plasticity of axon initial segment (AIS) was investigated in present study to further determine the relation between MCD and epilepsy. Our results showed a prolonged decrease in the length of AIS occurred in MCD animal models. Besides, the AIS was also found greatly shortened in MCD models during the acute, but not chronic phase of status epileptics compared with intact controls. Our findings of identification of AIS plasticity in MCD animal models and its hypersensitivity to status epilepsy are significant in furthering our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this disorder. PMID:27286680

  7. Why AI

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Bruce I.

    1984-01-01

    This is a personal essay. It marks a point in my thinking. The point was chosen by the demands of a schedule; the conclusions, therefore, do not represent a position of resolution in my intellectual odyssey. Indeed, I assume that the SCAMC meeting will mature my views and that (if useful) this paper will be rewritten. Nevertheless, I believe my observations will be of interest to the reader.

  8. Surface-induced assembly of apolipoprotein A-I: Implications for symmetry-driven non-cooperative clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winford, Sidney; Tobin, Moriah; Gross, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    In condensed matter physics the geometry of a crystal is determined by the mechanism of condensation. In biology, the link between clustering mechanisms and the shape of a protein crystal is not well defined. To gain more insight into the problem, we studied clustering of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) on a solid surface using AFM. The amyloidogenic protein apo A-I is the main protein component of high density lipoprotein and thus reduces the risk of atherosclerosis. We found that apo A-I clustered to form nano-scale, symmetrical clusters on mica. Statistical analysis of size distribution for several thousand clusters suggested that the clustering reaction followed a non-cooperative kinetic scheme characterized by a single equilibrium constant of 0.92·106 M-1 and a change in free energy (ΔG) of -0.03 kJ mole-1/residue. This is close to ΔG of-0.04 kJ mole-1/residue for apo A-I binding to phospholipid membrane; and 30-fold smaller than ΔG for β-amyloid formation by apo A-I. The high symmetry of the clusters is consistent with an isotropic diffusion coefficient of protein monomers on the surface of the substrate. This previously unrecognized link between protein clustering mechanism and the symmetry of the growth pattern may have important implications in medicine, pharmaceutics and polymer science.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of thiazolidinedione and dioxazaborocane analogues as inhibitors of AI-2 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Brackman, Gilles; Al Quntar, Abed Al Aziz; Enk, Claes D; Karalic, Izet; Nelis, Hans J; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Srebnik, Morris; Coenye, Tom

    2013-02-01

    Two focused libraries based on two types of compounds, that is, thiazolidinediones and dioxazaborocanes were designed. Structural resemblances can be found between thiazolidinediones and well-known furanone type quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors such as N-acylaminofuranones, and/or acyl-homoserine lactone signaling molecules, while dioxazaborocanes structurally resemble previously reported oxazaborolidine derivatives which antagonized autoinducer 2 (AI-2) binding to its receptor. Because of this, we hypothesized that these compounds could affect AI-2 QS in Vibrio harveyi. Although all compounds blocked QS, the thiazolidinediones were the most active AI-2 QS inhibitors, with EC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Their mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of V. harveyi QS mutants and by DNA-binding assays with purified LuxR protein. The active compounds neither affected bioluminescence as such nor the production of AI-2. Instead, our results indicate that the thiazolidinediones blocked AI-2 QS in V. harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. In addition, several dioxazaborocanes were found to block AI-2 QS by targeting LuxPQ. PMID:23286963

  10. ACOs: time for ED managers to get involved, shape how their departments will add value.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    Even with a proposed rule outlining how accountable care organizations (ACO) will be structured under fee-for-service Medicare, emergency medicine experts are concerned about how ACOs will impact patient access to the ED. Further, some see a clear need to beef-up case management staff, while others say ED managers need to get involved with ACO-development now so their interests and concerns are represented. Under a proposed rule unveiled by the Department of Health and Human Services, a handful of quality indicators will require the tracking of ED visits related to certain ambulatory care-sensitive conditions; experts say it could be a challenge for ED staff to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate use of the ED. EDs that figure out how to contribute value under the ACO mission will be better positioned to prosper under the new model. The ACO model is likely to add considerable complexity to billing and reimbursement. PMID:21675150

  11. Magnetic Vibration Simulator with Magnetic Levitation for EDS Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Kashiwagi, Takayuki

    A magnetic vibration simulator is one of the most important test tools to evaluate the basic performance of superconducting magnet (SCM) for EDS maglev. In this paper, we propose a new magnetic vibration simulator which can also suspend car and bogie mounted with the SCMs to evaluate the performance of not only SCMs but also vehicle dynamics with levitation. This system is composed of magnetic exciting coils which can simultaneously suspend and vibrate the SCMs and inverters which can simultaneously control 3-phase and zero-phase currents. This paper describes the principle, analytical method and control method of this system, and using numerical example, the vehicle dynamics and the vibration response of SCM are revealed.

  12. Mechanical engineers' handbook, energy and power. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Myer Kutz

    2005-12-15

    In addition to chapters on thermophysical properties of fluids, fundamentals of fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, combustion, and furnaces, Book 4 of the Handbook features coverage of both conventional (gaseous and liquid fuels, coal, and nuclear) and alternative (solar, geothermal, and fuel cells) energy sources, plus chapters on power machinery, refrigeration and cryogenics, environmental issues, and thermal systems optimization. Much of the material in this book is new or extensively revised, including coverage of such topics as: Heat pipes; Wind turbines; Fuel cells; Thermal systems optimization; Combustion; Fans, blowers, compressors, and pumps; Indoor environmental control; and Fluid power. Chapters of particular interest are: Combustion by Eric Eddings; Furnaces by Carroll Cone; Gaseous fuels by Richard J. Reed; Coals, lignite, peat by James Keppeler; and Air pollution-control technologies by C.A. Miller.

  13. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  14. High-resolution structure determination by continuous rotation data collection in MicroED

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    MicroED uses very small three-dimensional protein crystals and electron diffraction for structure determination. An improved data collection protocol for MicroED called “continuous rotation” is presented. Here microcrystals are continuously rotated during data collection yielding improved data, and allowing data processing with MOSFLM resulting in improved resolution for the model protein lysozyme. These improvements pave the way for the implementation and application of MicroED with wide applicability in structural biology. PMID:25086503

  15. EdF`s Mercier on the biggest maintenance program in the world

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, E.F.

    1993-08-01

    This article presents an interview with Jean-Pierre Mercier, present vice president of operations and maintenance engineering at Electricite de France (EdF). The maintenance budget for EdF is in the range of 1.5 to 1.7 billion US dollars per year. Mercier discusses the changing direction of the EdF maintenance program, with increasing emphasis on human performance, safety culture, and professionalism at the power station sites and among the many outside contractors.

  16. Frequency of ED revisits and death among older adults after a fall

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan W.; Obermeyer, Ziad; Chang, Yuchiao; Shankar, Kalpana N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls among older adults (aged ≥65 years) are the leading cause of both injury deaths and emergency department (ED) visits for trauma. We examine the characteristics and prevalence of older adult ED fallers as well as the recurrent ED visit and mortality rate. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of elderly fall patients who presented to the ED between 2005 and 2011 at two urban, level-1 trauma, teaching hospitals with approximately 80,000-95,000 annual visits. We examined the frequency of ED revisits and death at 3 days, 7 days, 30 days, and 1 year controlling for certain covariates. Results Our cohort included 21,340 patients. The average age was 78.6. An increasing proportion of patients revisited the ED over the course of a year, ranging from 2% of patients at 3 days to 25% at 1 year. Death rates increased from 1.2% at 3 days to 15% at 1 year. 10,728 (50.2%) patients returned to the ED at some point during our 7-year study period and 36% of patients had an ED revisit or death within 1 year. In multivariate logistic regression, male sex and comorbidities were associated with ED revisits and death. Conclusion Over a third of older adult ED fall patients had an ED revisit or died within one year. Falls are one of the geriatric syndromes that contribute to frequent ED revisits and death rates. Future research should determine whether falls increase the risk of such outcomes and how to prevent future fall and death. PMID:25983268

  17. Curvature sensing MARCKS-ED peptides bind to membranes in a stereo-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; de Jesus, Armando Jerome; Tamura, Ryo; Li, Victoria; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Hang

    2015-07-01

    Membrane curvature and lipid composition plays a critical role in interchanging of matter and energy in cells. Peptide curvature sensors are known to activate signaling pathways and promote molecular transport across cell membranes. Recently, the 25-mer MARCKS-ED peptide, which is derived from the effector domain of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate protein, has been reported to selectively recognize highly curved membrane surfaces. Our previous studies indicated that the naturally occurring L-MARCKS-ED peptide could simultaneously detect both phosphatidylserine and curvature. Here, we demonstrate that D-MARCKS-ED, composed by unnatural D-amino acids, has the same activities as its enantiomer, L-MARCKS-ED, as a curvature and lipid sensor. An atomistic molecular dynamics simulation suggests that D-MARCKS-ED may change from linear to a boat conformation upon binding to the membrane. Comparable enhancement of fluorescence intensity was observed between D- and L-MARCKS-ED peptides, indicating similar binding affinities. Meanwhile, circular dichroism spectra of D- and L-MARCKS-ED are almost symmetrical both in the presence and absence of liposomes. These results suggest similar behavior of artificial D- and natural L-MARCKS-ED peptides when binding to curved membranes. Our studies may contribute to further understanding of how MARCKS-ED senses membrane curvature as well as provide a new direction to develop novel membrane curvature probes. PMID:25851418

  18. Transformation and Immobilization of Chromium by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as Revealed by SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS, and XAFS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songlin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yuqing; Wu, Zhaoxiang; Li, Tao; Hu, Yajun; Su, Dan; Lv, Jitao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zhensong; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Baodong

    2015-12-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), ubiquitous soil fungi that form symbiotic relationships with the majority of terrestrial plants, are known to play an important role in plant tolerance to chromium (Cr) contamination. However, the underlying mechanisms, especially the direct influences of AMF on the translocation and transformation of Cr in the soil-plant continuum, are still unresolved. In a two-compartment root-organ cultivation system, the extraradical mycelium (ERM) of mycorrhizal roots was treated with 0.05 mmol L(-1) Cr(VI) for 12 days to investigate the uptake, translocation, and transformation of Cr(VI) by AMF using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), and X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) technologies. The results indicated that AMF can immobilize quantities of Cr via reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), forming Cr(III)-phosphate analogues, likely on the fungal surface. Besides this, we also confirmed that the extraradical mycelium (ERM) can actively take up Cr [either in the form of Cr(VI) or Cr(III)] and transport Cr [potentially in the form of Cr(III)-histidine analogues] to mycorrhizal roots but immobilize most of the Cr(III) in the fungal structures. Based on an X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis of Cr(VI)-treated roots, we proposed that the intraradical fungal structures can also immobilize Cr within mycorrhizal roots. Our findings confirmed the immobilization of Cr by AMF, which plays an essential role in the Cr(VI) tolerance of AM symbioses. PMID:26551890

  19. Global Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.

    2011-12-01

    All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how communities of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of marine resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.

  20. Francisella tularensis Subtype A.II Genomic Plasticity in Comparison with Subtype A.I

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Marilynn A.; Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Sayood, Khalid; Zentz, Emily B.; Bartling, Amanda M.; Francesconi, Stephen C.; Fey, Paul D.; Dempsey, Michael P.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Although Francisella tularensis is considered a monomorphic intracellular pathogen, molecular genotyping and virulence studies have demonstrated important differences within the tularensis subspecies (type A). To evaluate genetic variation within type A strains, sequencing and assembly of a new subtype A.II genome was achieved for comparison to other completed F. tularensis type A genomes. In contrast with the F. tularensis A.I strains (SCHU S4, FSC198, NE061598, and TI0902), substantial genomic variation was observed between the newly sequenced F. tularensis A.II strain (WY-00W4114) and the only other publically available A.II strain (WY96-3418). Genome differences between WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 included three major chromosomal translocations, 1580 indels, and 286 nucleotide substitutions of which 159 were observed in predicted open reading frames and 127 were located in intergenic regions. The majority of WY-00W4114 nucleotide deletions occurred in intergenic regions, whereas most of the insertions and substitutions occurred in predicted genes. Of the nucleotide substitutions, 48 (30%) were synonymous and 111 (70%) were nonsynonymous. WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 nucleotide polymorphisms were predominantly G/C to A/T allelic mutations, with WY-00W4114 having more A+T enrichment. In addition, the A.II genomes contained a considerably higher number of intact genes and longer repetitive sequences, including transposon remnants than the A.I genomes. Together these findings support the premise that F. tularensis A.II may have a fitness advantage compared to the A.I subtype due to the higher abundance of functional genes and repeated chromosomal sequences. A better understanding of the selective forces driving F. tularensis genetic diversity and plasticity is needed. PMID:25918839

  1. Highly Effective Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by the First Metagenome-Derived AI-2 Quenching Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Kisch, Martin J.; Pinnow, Nicole; Liese, Andreas; Schmitz, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell–cell communication (quorum sensing, QS) represents a fundamental process crucial for biofilm formation, pathogenicity, and virulence allowing coordinated, concerted actions of bacteria depending on their cell density. With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistance of biofilms, there is an increasing need for novel strategies to control harmful biofilms. One attractive and most likely effective approach is to target bacterial communication systems for novel drug design in biotechnological and medical applications. In this study, metagenomic large-insert libraries were constructed and screened for QS interfering activities (quorum quenching, QQ) using recently established reporter strains. Overall, 142 out of 46,400 metagenomic clones were identified to interfere with acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), 13 with autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Five cosmid clones with highest simultaneous interfering activities were further analyzed and the respective open reading frames conferring QQ activities identified. Those showed homologies to bacterial oxidoreductases, proteases, amidases and aminotransferases. Evaluating the ability of the respective purified QQ-proteins to prevent biofilm formation of several model systems demonstrated highest inhibitory effects of QQ-2 using the crystal violet biofilm assay. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of the respective QQ proteins in Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 and monitoring biofilm formation in a continuous flow cell system. Moreover, QQ-2 chemically immobilized to the glass surface of the flow cell effectively inhibited biofilm formation of K. oxytoca as well as clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from patients with urinary tract infections. Indications were obtained by molecular and biochemical characterizations that QQ-2 represents an oxidoreductase most likely reducing the signaling molecules AHL and AI-2 to QS-inactive hydroxy-derivatives. Overall, we propose that the identified novel QQ-2 protein

  2. Highly Effective Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by the First Metagenome-Derived AI-2 Quenching Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Kisch, Martin J; Pinnow, Nicole; Liese, Andreas; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell-cell communication (quorum sensing, QS) represents a fundamental process crucial for biofilm formation, pathogenicity, and virulence allowing coordinated, concerted actions of bacteria depending on their cell density. With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistance of biofilms, there is an increasing need for novel strategies to control harmful biofilms. One attractive and most likely effective approach is to target bacterial communication systems for novel drug design in biotechnological and medical applications. In this study, metagenomic large-insert libraries were constructed and screened for QS interfering activities (quorum quenching, QQ) using recently established reporter strains. Overall, 142 out of 46,400 metagenomic clones were identified to interfere with acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), 13 with autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Five cosmid clones with highest simultaneous interfering activities were further analyzed and the respective open reading frames conferring QQ activities identified. Those showed homologies to bacterial oxidoreductases, proteases, amidases and aminotransferases. Evaluating the ability of the respective purified QQ-proteins to prevent biofilm formation of several model systems demonstrated highest inhibitory effects of QQ-2 using the crystal violet biofilm assay. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of the respective QQ proteins in Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 and monitoring biofilm formation in a continuous flow cell system. Moreover, QQ-2 chemically immobilized to the glass surface of the flow cell effectively inhibited biofilm formation of K. oxytoca as well as clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from patients with urinary tract infections. Indications were obtained by molecular and biochemical characterizations that QQ-2 represents an oxidoreductase most likely reducing the signaling molecules AHL and AI-2 to QS-inactive hydroxy-derivatives. Overall, we propose that the identified novel QQ-2 protein

  3. Use of intravaginal progesterone-releasing inserts in a synchronization protocol before timed AI and for synchronizing return to estrus in Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2005-03-01

    Holstein heifers (n = 189) were submitted to a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) period in which they underwent AI after once-daily evaluation of rubbed tail chalk. At the onset of the AI period (d 0), heifers were assigned randomly to receive synchronization of ovulation and timed AI (TAI; d 0: 100 mug of GnRH; d 6: 25 mg of PGF(2alpha); d 8: 100 mug of GnRH + TAI) either without (GPG; n = 95), or with inclusion of a CIDR insert (CIDR; n = 94) from d 0 to 6. No CIDR heifers received AI before d 8 compared with 24% of GPG heifers, and pregnancy rate per AI (PR/AI) at 30 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. To synchronize return to estrus for heifers failing to conceive after TAI, heifers (n = 166) receiving TAI to first service were randomly assigned to receive no further treatment (control; n = 85) or receive a new CIDR insert between 14 and 20 d after TAI (Resynch; n = 81). No Resynch heifers received AI during CIDR treatment compared with 35% of control heifers, and the proportion of heifers receiving AI within 72 h after the day of CIDR removal was 78 vs. 50% for Resynch vs. control heifers, respectively. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected at first or second AI; however, overall PR/AI was modest for heifers throughout the experiment due to poor performance of 2 of the 3 herd inseminators (14, 6, and 58% PR/AI, respectively). Inclusion of CIDR inserts suppressed estrus during the TAI protocol with no reduction in PR/ AI. Resynchronization of estrus using CIDR inserts resulted in tighter synchrony of estrus among nonpregnant heifers compared with untreated controls. PMID:15738230

  4. Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais.

    PubMed

    Wanning, T

    1993-07-01

    1. The health practitioner may encounter clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care. 2. One way that some choose to confront these systemic complaints is to employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. 3. Massage, acupuncture and acupressure, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais focus on the mind/body connection to facilitate healing through relaxation, pressure points, and movement. PMID:8338610

  5. DAISY-DAMP: A distributed AI system for the dynamic allocation and management of power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steven B.; Ohler, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    One of the critical parameters that must be addressed when designing a loosely coupled Distributed AI SYstem (DAISY) has to do with the degree to which authority is centralized or decentralized. The decision to implement the Dynamic Allocation and Management of Power (DAMP) system as a network of cooperating agents mandated this study. The DAISY-DAMP problem is described; the component agents of the system are characterized; and the communication protocols system elucidated. The motivations and advantages in designing the system with authority decentralized is discussed. Progress in the area of Speech Act theory is proposed as playing a role in constructing decentralized systems.

  6. An AI-based approach to structural damage identification by modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. J.; Hanagud, S.

    1990-01-01

    Flexible-structure damage is presently addressed by a combined model- and parameter-identification approach which employs the AI methodologies of classification, heuristic search, and object-oriented model knowledge representation. The conditions for model-space search convergence to the best model are discussed in terms of search-tree organization and initial model parameter error. In the illustrative example of a truss structure presented, the use of both model and parameter identification is shown to lead to smaller parameter corrections than would be required by parameter identification alone.

  7. The Use of AIS Data for Identifying and Mapping Calcareous Soils in Western Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The identification of calcareous soils, through unique spectral responses of the vegetation to the chemical nature of calcareous soils, can improve the accuracy of delineating the boundaries of soil mapping units over conventional field techniques. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the use of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) in the identification and delineation of calcareous soils in the western Sandhills of Nebraska. Based upon statistical differences found in separating the spectral curves below 1.3 microns, calcareous and non-calcareous soils may be identified by differences in species of vegetation. Additional work is needed to identify biogeochemical differences between the two soils.

  8. Molecules that Mimic Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential Agents for Treating Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Luke J.; Maryanoff, Bruce E.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2013-01-01

    Certain amphipathic α-helical peptides can functionally mimic many of the properties of full-length apolipoproteins, thereby offering an approach to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for combating atherosclerosis. In this Perspective, we summarize the key findings and advances over the past 25 years in the development of peptides that mimic apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). This assemblage of information provides a reasonably clear picture of the state of the art in the apolipoprotein mimetic field, an appreciation of the potential for such agents in pharmacotherapy, and a sense of the opportunities for optimizing the functional properties of HDL. PMID:24168751

  9. Neural computation methods and applications: Summary talk of the AI session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, David

    1997-02-01

    The sixty papers selected for oral presentation in the AI session of the workshop were mostly application oriented, with high energy physics taking central stage. The most popular methodology was that of neural networks. In this summary talk I point out some general trends of the research work presented at the workshop, and concentrate on papers that I found especially interesting. I add sections that deal with recent developments in neural computation techniques that may be of relevance to applications in the future. The latter include PCA and ICA analyses, averaging over estimators and models of spiking neurons. Touching on some general questions, I indicate the advantages of the neural computation approach.

  10. Contribution of Estrone Sulfate to Cell Proliferation in Aromatase Inhibitor (AI) -Resistant, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, Toru; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Niwa, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Horiguchi, Jun; Hayashi, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) effectively treat hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer, but some patients do not respond to treatment or experience recurrence. Mechanisms of AI resistance include ligand-independent activation of the estrogen receptor (ER) and signaling via other growth factor receptors; however, these do not account for all forms of resistance. Here we present an alternative mechanism of AI resistance. We ectopically expressed aromatase in MCF-7 cells expressing green fluorescent protein as an index of ER activity. Aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells were cultured in estrogen-depleted medium supplemented with testosterone and the AI, letrozole, to establish letrozole-resistant (LR) cell lines. Compared with parental cells, LR cells had higher mRNA levels of steroid sulfatase (STS), which converts estrone sulfate (E1S) to estrone, and the organic anion transporter peptides (OATPs), which mediate the uptake of E1S into cells. LR cells proliferated more in E1S-supplemented medium than did parental cells, and LR proliferation was effectively inhibited by an STS inhibitor in combination with letrozole and by ER-targeting drugs. Analysis of ER-positive primary breast cancer tissues showed a significant correlation between the increases in the mRNA levels of STS and the OATPs in the LR cell lines, which supports the validity of this AI-resistant model. This is the first study to demonstrate the contribution of STS and OATPs in E1S metabolism to the proliferation of AI-resistant breast cancer cells. We suggest that E1S metabolism represents a new target in AI-resistant breast cancer treatment. PMID:27228187

  11. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening

  12. A preliminary examination of Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Matherne, Camden E; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Altschul, Anne M; Shank, Lisa M; Schvey, Natasha A; Brady, Sheila M; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew P; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) has been proposed as a diagnostic category for children 6-12years with binge-type eating. However, characteristics of youth with LOC-ED have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that the proposed criteria for LOC-ED would identify children with greater adiposity, more disordered eating attitudes, and greater mood disturbance than those without LOC-ED. Participants were 251 youth (10.29years±1.54, 53.8% female, 57.8% White, 35.5% Black, 2.0% Asian, 4.8% Hispanic, 53.0% overweight). Youth were interviewed regarding eating attitudes and behaviors, completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology, and underwent measurements of body fat mass. Using previously proposed criteria for LOC-ED, children were classified as LOC-ED (n=19), LOC in the absence of the full disorder (subLOC, n=33), and youth not reporting LOC (noLOC, n=199). LOC-ED youth had higher BMIz (p=0.001) and adiposity (p=0.003) and reported greater disordered eating concerns (p<0.001) compared to noLOC youth. Compared to subLOC youth, LOC-ED youth had non-significantly higher BMIz (p=0.11), and significantly higher adiposity (p=0.04) and disordered eating attitudes (p=0.02). SubLOC youth had greater disordered eating concerns (p<0.001) and BMIz (p=0.03) but did not differ in adiposity (p=0.33) compared to noLOC youth. These preliminary data suggest that LOC-ED youth are elevated on disordered eating cognitions and anthropometric measures compared to youth without LOC-ED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if those with LOC-ED are at particularly increased risk for progression of disordered eating and excess weight gain. PMID:25913008

  13. A Preliminary Examination of Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) in Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Matherne, Camden E.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Altschul, Anne M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) has been proposed as a diagnostic category for children 6–12y with binge-type eating. However, characteristics of youth with LOC-ED have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that the proposed criteria for LOC-ED would identify children with greater adiposity, more disordered eating attitudes, and greater mood disturbance than those without LOC-ED. Participants were 251 youth (10.29y ± 1.54, 53.8% female, 57.8 % White, 35.5% Black, 2.0% Asian, 4.8% Hispanic, 53.0% overweight). Youth were interviewed regarding eating attitudes and behaviors, completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology, and underwent measurements of body fat mass. Using previously proposed criteria for LOC-ED, children were classified as LOC-ED (n = 19), LOC in the absence of the full disorder (subLOC, n = 33), and youth not reporting LOC (noLOC, n = 199). LOC-ED youth had higher BMIz (p = 0.001) and adiposity (p = 0.003) and reported greater disordered eating concerns (p < 0.001) compared to noLOC youth. Compared to subLOC youth, LOC-ED youth had non-significantly higher BMIz (p = 0.11), and significantly higher adiposity (p = 0.04) and disordered eating attitudes (p = 0.02). SubLOC youth had greater disordered eating concerns (p < 0.001) and BMIz (p = 0.03) but did not differ in adiposity (p = 0.33) compared to noLOC youth. These preliminary data suggest that LOC-ED youth are elevated on disordered eating cognitions and anthropometric measures compared to youth without LOC-ED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if those with LOC-ED are at particularly increased risk for progression of disordered eating and excess weight gain. PMID:25913008

  14. Standalone engine simulator (SAES), Engine Dynamics simulator (EDS) Xerox Sigma 5 interface hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirshten, P. M.; Black, S.; Pearson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The ESS-EDS and EDS-Sigma interfaces within the standalone engine simulator are described. The operation of these interfaces, including the definition and use of special function signals and data flow paths within them during data transfers, is presented along with detailed schematics and circuit layouts of the described equipment.

  15. Assessment of the Framingham risk factors among ED patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Storrow, Alan B.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Harrell, Frank E.; Amdahl, John; Russ, Stephan; Slovis, Corey M.; Darbar, Dawood

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often first diagnosed in the emergency department (ED) and accounts for nearly 1% of all ED visits. Our objective was to assess the Framingham Heart Study risk score for AF development in ED patients with newly diagnosed AF. Methods We systematically reviewed the electronic medical records of ED patients with newly diagnosed AF between August 2005 and July 2008. We measured the frequency of the Framingham Heart Study predictors and calculated each patient's risk score. Results During the 3-year study period, 914 patients had 1228 ED visits. New AF was diagnosed in 296 (32%) patients. Among these patients, 107 (36%) were female, 127 (43%) had prior ED visits since 2003, 189 (64%) were taking hypertension medications and 170 (57.4%) had previous electrocardiograms with measurable PR intervals. The median PR interval was 166 ms (151 to 180) and 60% of available PR intervals were ≥160 ms. The median (Interquartile range) age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure were 66 years (53 to 77), 27 (23 to 31), and 134 mm Hg (118 to 151), respectively. Median risk score was 7 (3 to 9) indicating high predicted risk. Heart failure and cardiac murmurs were previously diagnosed in 45 (15%) and 32 (11%) of these patients, respectively. Conclusions The Framingham risk factors for AF are commonly encountered among ED patients with newly diagnosed AF. The ED might provide an opportunity to identify patients at high risk for AF and refer them for primary prevention interventions. PMID:21208770

  16. Internet-Based Economic Education: The Case of EconEdLink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFossen, Phillip J.; Herman-Ellison, Lisa C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconEdLink site provides lessons and classroom learning activities based on economics topics in the news, as well as access to real-time economic data. EconEdLink's content is designed to help integrate economic concepts across the curriculum as outlined in the Voluntary National Content…

  17. The Distinctiveness of the EdD in Producing and Transforming Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taysum, Alison

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to focus on the distinctiveness of the Professional doctorate in education (EdD) located in the development of higher education (HE) in England using Bourdieu's theory of practice. It does this by building on a previous paper published in this journal, "The Distinctiveness of the EdD in the University Tradition" (vol. 38,…

  18. Evaluation of the Demonstration Sites in the ConnectEd Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Beverly; Bradby, Denise; Hartry, Ardice; Sipes, Laurel; Hall, Leslie; Tasoff, Shayna

    2009-01-01

    In California, the James Irvine Foundation created ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career to promote multiple pathways that link to the state's 15 major industry sectors. The ConnectEd Network of Schools, a demonstration project supported by Irvine, plays a critical role in expanding student options through multiple pathways and…

  19. Unstandardized Responses to a "Standardized" Test: The edTPA as Gatekeeper and Curriculum Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledwell, Katherine; Oyler, Celia

    2016-01-01

    We examine edTPA (a teacher performance assessment) implementation at one private university during the first year that our state required this exam for initial teaching certification. Using data from semi-structured interviews with 19 teacher educators from 12 programs as well as public information on edTPA pass rates, we explore whether the…

  20. Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of Prospective B.Ed Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracious, F. L. Antony; Shyla, F. L. Jasmine Anne

    2012-01-01

    The present study Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of prospective B.Ed teachers was probed to find the relationship between Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of Prospective B.Ed Teachers. Data for the study were collected using self made Multiple Intelligence Inventory and Digital Learning Awareness Scale.…

  1. "What about Bilingualism?" A Critical Reflection on the edTPA with Teachers of Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleyn, Tatyana; López, Dina; Makar, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Amidst the debates surrounding teacher quality and preparation programs, the edTPA (education Teaching Performance Assessment) has emerged to assess future teachers through a portfolio-based certification process. This study offers the perspective of three faculty members who participated in an experimental configuration of edTPA implementation…

  2. G. ED. Paper-Book 1974-1984. The Process of Growth of an Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verduin-Muller, Henriette, Ed.

    Fifteen papers presented at conferences throughout Europe and in the USSR, Nigeria, Japan, Jamaica, and Tunesia provide an introduction to the research work being done by the graduate level Department of Geography for Education (G.ED.) at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. An introductory chapter describes the three G.ED. modules, which…

  3. An Evaluation of California's Community College Based Economic Development Programs (ED>Net).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This study describes economic outcomes of California's ED>Net (California Community College Economic Network) program, an alliance between community colleges and California businesses. ED>Net's purpose is to advance the state's economic growth by providing job-related education and services to businesses and organizations. This report develops…

  4. Economic Development Network (ED>Net): 1995-96 Report to the Governor and the Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The Economic Development Network (ED>Net) of the California Community Colleges was designed to advance the state's economic growth and competitiveness by coordinating and facilitating workforce improvement, technology deployment, and business development initiatives. This report reviews outcomes for ED>Net for 1995-96 based on reports prepared by…

  5. Characteristics of Reading Disability Types in Middle School Students Classified ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Types of reading disabilities (RD) have not yet been investigated in students classified with emotional disturbance (ED). The prevalence of RD and differentiating characteristics were examined in 118 middle school students attending a self-contained school for ED students by defining RDs with reading standard scores less than 85 on the two…

  6. Minimizing ED Waiting Times and Improving Patient Flow and Experience of Care.

    PubMed

    Sayah, Assaad; Rogers, Loni; Devarajan, Karthik; Kingsley-Rocker, Lisa; Lobon, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a pre- and postintervention analysis to assess the impact of a process improvement project at the Cambridge Hospital ED. Through a comprehensive and collaborative process, we reengineered the emergency patient experience from arrival to departure. The ED operational changes have had a significant positive impact on all measured metrics. Ambulance diversion decreased from a mean of 148 hours per quarter before changes in July 2006 to 0 hours since April 2007. ED total length of stay decreased from a mean of 204 minutes before the changes to 132 minutes. Press Ganey patient satisfaction scores rose from the 12th percentile to the 59th percentile. ED patient volume grew by 11%, from a mean of 7,221 patients per quarter to 8,044 patients per quarter. Compliance with ED specific quality core measures improved from a mean of 71% to 97%. The mean rate of ED patients that left without being seen (LWBS) dropped from 4.1% to 0.9%. Improving ED operational efficiency allowed us to accommodate increasing volume while improving the quality of care and satisfaction of the ED patients with minimal additional resources, space, or staffing. PMID:24829802

  7. A Review of "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Joan Mogul

    2010-01-01

    While virtually all sex ed curricula are designed to be used with children, teens and young adults, "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only" ([C] 2009, Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey) offers lessons to help participants fully embrace the possibility of sexual pleasure and intimacy from mid-life through…

  8. Race to the Top District Competition: The Data Quality Campaign's Comments on ED's Proposed Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) submits these comments in response to the US Department of Education's (ED) draft requirements, priorities, selection criteria, and definitions for the Race to the Top District (RTT-D) competition. DQC applauds ED for including the following components of the proposal: (1) Data is acknowledged throughout the…

  9. EdTrAc Teacher Education Program: First-Year Implementation Evaluation (2005-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Brian; Shelton, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The Educational Training Academy (EdTrAc) is an NSF-funded project of Normandale Community College to increase the number, diversity, and skills of students preparing to be elementary and middle school teachers with a specialty in math and science. Overall, this evaluation indicates that the EdTrAc implementation is on track after its first year…

  10. AI vibration control of high-speed rotor systems using electrorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seungchul; Park, Sang-Min; Kim, Kab-Il

    2005-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and application of an electrorheological (ER) fluid damper to semiactive vibration control of rotor systems. In particular, the system under the present study is constructed structurally flexible in order to explore the behavior of a high-speed spindle system traversing multiple critical speeds within motor capacity. To seek a way of suppressing the rotor vibration, dynamic models for the proposed ER damper and its associated amplifier are derived. Subsequently, they are assembled with the other relevant spindle components by means of the finite element method, enabling predictions as to free and forced vibration characteristics of the entire rotor system. Next, an artificial intelligent (AI) feedback controller is synthesized based on the system model, taking into account the stiffening effect of the point damper in flexible rotor applications. Finally, computational and experimental results are presented regarding model validation and control performances. In practice, such an AI control scheme proves effective and robust whether the spin rate is either below or above the critical speeds.

  11. An endogenous protein inhibitor, YjhX (TopAI), for topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Inouye, Masayori

    2015-01-01

    Almost all free-living bacteria contain toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems on their genomes and the targets of toxins are highly diverse. Here, we found a novel, previously unidentified TA system in Escherichia coli named yjhX-yjhQ. Induction of YjhX (85 amino acid residues) causes cell-growth arrest resulting in cell death, while YjhQ (181 residues) co-induction resumes cell growth. The primary cellular target of YjhX was found to be topoisomerase I (TopA), inhibiting both DNA replication and RNA synthesis. Notably, YjhX has no homology to any other toxins of the TA systems. YjhX was expressed well with an N-terminal protein S (PrS) tag in soluble forms. PrS-YjhX specifically interacts with the N-terminal region of TopA (TopA67) but not full-TopA in the absence of plasmid DNA, while PrS-YjhX binds to full-TopA in the presence of DNA. Notably, YjhX does not directly interact with DNA and RNA. YjhX inhibits only topoisomerase I but not topoisomerase III and IV in vitro. Hence, yjhX is renamed as the gene for the TopA inhibitor (the topAI gene). TopAI is the first endogenous protein inhibitor specific for topoisomerase I. PMID:26553797

  12. An endogenous protein inhibitor, YjhX (TopAI), for topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Inouye, Masayori

    2015-12-01

    Almost all free-living bacteria contain toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems on their genomes and the targets of toxins are highly diverse. Here, we found a novel, previously unidentified TA system in Escherichia coli named yjhX-yjhQ. Induction of YjhX (85 amino acid residues) causes cell-growth arrest resulting in cell death, while YjhQ (181 residues) co-induction resumes cell growth. The primary cellular target of YjhX was found to be topoisomerase I (TopA), inhibiting both DNA replication and RNA synthesis. Notably, YjhX has no homology to any other toxins of the TA systems. YjhX was expressed well with an N-terminal protein S (PrS) tag in soluble forms. PrS-YjhX specifically interacts with the N-terminal region of TopA (TopA67) but not full-TopA in the absence of plasmid DNA, while PrS-YjhX binds to full-TopA in the presence of DNA. Notably, YjhX does not directly interact with DNA and RNA. YjhX inhibits only topoisomerase I but not topoisomerase III and IV in vitro. Hence, yjhX is renamed as the gene for the TopA inhibitor (the topAI gene). TopAI is the first endogenous protein inhibitor specific for topoisomerase I. PMID:26553797

  13. Usability of EFBs for Viewing NOTAMs and AIS/MET Data Link Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Emory T.; Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Tammi S.; Myer, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) are increasingly integral to flight deck information management. A piloted simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center, one aspect of which was to evaluate the usability and acceptability of EFBs for viewing and managing Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) and data linked aeronautical information services (AIS) and meteorological information (MET). The study simulated approaches and landings at Memphis International Airport (KMEM) using various flight scenarios and weather conditions. Ten two-pilot commercial airline crews participated, utilizing the Cockpit Motion Facility's Research Flight Deck (CMF/RFD) simulator. Each crew completed approximately two dozen flights over a two day period. Two EFBs were installed, one for each pilot. Study data were collected in the form of questionnaire/interview responses, audio/video recordings, oculometer recordings, and aircraft/system state data. Preliminary usability results are reported primarily based on pilot interviews and responses to questions focused on ease of learning, ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction, and acceptability. Analysis of the data from the other objective measures (e.g., oculometer) is ongoing and will be reported in a future publication. This paper covers how the EFB functionality was set up for the study; the NOTAM, AIS/MET data link, and weather messages that were presented; questionnaire results; selected pilot observations; and conclusions.

  14. Soil types and forest canopy structures in southern Missouri: A first look with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance properties of deciduous oak-hickory forests covering the eastern half of the Rolla Quadrangle were examined using Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in August and December, 1982 and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in August, 1985. For the TM data distinctly high relative reflectance values (greater than 0.3) in the near infrared (Band 4, 0.73 to 0.94 micrometers) correspond to regions characterized by xeric (dry) forests that overlie soils with low water retention capacities. These soils are derived primarily from rhyolites. More mesic forests characterized by lower TM band 4 relative reflectances are associated with soils of higher retention capacities derived predominately from non-cherty carbonates. The major factors affecting canopy reflectance appear to be the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf optical properties. The Suits canopy reflectance model predicts the relative reflectance values for the xeric canopies. The mesic canopy reflectance is less well matched and incorporation of canopy shadowing caused by the irregular nature of the mesic canopy may be necessary. Preliminary examination of high spectral resolution AIS data acquired in August of 1985 reveals no more information than found in the broad band TM data.

  15. Treating Survivors of Torture and Refugee Trauma: A Preliminary Case Series Using Qigong and T'ai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Fulker, Derek; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Saper, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This paper seeks to explore the potential value of qigong and t'ai chi practice as a therapeutic intervention to aid in the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Design The common effects of torture and refugee trauma are surveyed with a focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. An alternative theoretical framework for conceptualizing and healing trauma is presented. Evidence is reviewed from the scientific literature that describes how qigong and t'ai chi have been used in studies of the general population to alleviate symptoms that are also expressed in torture survivors. Observations are presented from a combined, simplified qigong and t'ai chi intervention with a convenience sample of four refugee survivors of torture. Results Preliminary observations from four cases and a review of the literature support the potential efficacy of incorporating qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Conclusions The incorporation of qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of torture survivors, within a new framework for healing trauma, merits further investigation. PMID:18803491

  16. MARCKS-ED Peptide as a Curvature and Lipid Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Leslie A.; Yang, Hengwen; Saludes, Jonel P.; Fiorini, Zeno; Beninson, Lida; Chapman, Edwin R.; Fleshner, Monika; Xue, Ding; Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    Membrane curvature and lipid composition regulate important biological processes within a cell. Currently, several proteins have been reported to sense and/or induce membrane curvatures, e.g. Synaptotagmin-1 and Amphiphysin. However, the large protein scaffold of these curvature sensors limits their applications in complex biological systems. Our interest focuses on identifying and designing peptides that can sense membrane curvature based on established elements observed in natural curvature-sensing proteins. Membrane curvature remodeling also depends on their lipid composition, suggesting strategies to specifically target membrane shape and lipid components simultaneously. We have successfully identified a 25-mer peptide, MARCKS-ED, based on the effector domain sequence of the intracellular membrane protein myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate that can recognize PS with preferences for highly curved vesicles in a sequence specific manner. These studies further contribute to the understanding of how proteins and peptides sense membrane curvature, as well as provide potential probes for membrane shape and lipid composition. PMID:23075500

  17. Regulation of Yersina pestis Virulence by AI-2 Mediated Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Segelke, B; Hok, S; Lao, V; Corzett, M; Garcia, E

    2010-03-29

    The proposed research was motivated by an interest in understanding Y. pestis virulence mechanisms and bacteria cell-cell communication. It is expected that a greater understanding of virulence mechanisms will ultimately lead to biothreat countermeasures and novel therapeutics. Y. pestis is the etiological agent of plague, the most devastating disease in human history. Y. pestis infection has a high mortality rate and a short incubation before mortality. There is no widely available and effective vaccine for Y. pestis and multi-drug resistant strains are emerging. Y. pestis is a recognized biothreat agent based on the wide distribution of the bacteria in research laboratories around the world and on the knowledge that methods exist to produce and aerosolize large amounts of bacteria. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication via signaling molecules, or quorum sensing, by Y. pestis is important for the regulation of virulence factor gene expression during host invasion, though a causative link had never been established. Quorum sensing is a mode of intercellular communication which enables orchestration of gene expression for many bacteria as a function of population density and available evidence suggests there may be a link between quorum sensing and regulation of Y. pesits virulence. Several pathogenic bacteria have been shown to regulate expression of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding type III secretion, via quorum sensing. The Y. pestis genome encodes several cell-cell signaling pathways and the interaction of at least three of these are thought to be involved in one or more modes of host invasion. Furthermore, Y. pestis gene expression array studies carried out at LLNL have established a correlation between expression of known virulence factors and genes involved in processing of the AI-2 quorum sensing signal. This was a basic research project that was intended to provide new insights into bacterial intercellular communication and how it is

  18. High-Resolution Macromolecular Structure Determination by MicroED, a cryo-EM Method.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Gonen, T

    2016-01-01

    Microelectron diffraction (MicroED) is a new cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) method capable of determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution from vanishingly small 3D crystals. MicroED promises to solve atomic resolution structures from even the tiniest of crystals, less than a few hundred nanometers thick. MicroED complements frontier advances in crystallography and represents part of the rebirth of cryo-EM that is making macromolecular structure determination more accessible for all. Here we review the concept and practice of MicroED, for both the electron microscopist and crystallographer. Where other reviews have addressed specific details of the technique (Hattne et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2016; Shi, Nannenga, Iadanza, & Gonen, 2013), we aim to provide context and highlight important features that should be considered when performing a MicroED experiment. PMID:27572734

  19. Accuracy of ED Bedside Ultrasound for Identification of gallstones: retrospective analysis of 575 studies

    PubMed Central

    Scruggs, William; Fox, J. Christian; Potts, Brian; Zlidenny, Alexander; McDonough, JoAnne; Anderson, Craig L.; Larson, Jarrod; Barajas, Graciela; Langdorf, Mark I.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the ability of emergency department (ED) physicians to diagnose cholelithiasis with bedside ultrasound. Methods ED gallbladder ultrasounds recorded over 37 months were compared to radiology ultrasound interpretation. Results Of 1,690 ED gallbladder ultrasound scans performed during this period, radiology ultrasound was performed in 575/1690 (34%) cases. ED physician bedside interpretation was 88% sensitive [95% CI, 84–91] and 87% specific [95% CI, 82–91], while positive predictive value (PPV) was 91% [88–94%] and negative predictive value (NPV) was 83% [78–87%], using radiology interpretation as the criterion reference. Conclusion ED physician ultrasound of the gallbladder for cholelithiasis is both sensitive and specific. PMID:19561694

  20. Pregnancy per AI differences between primiparous and multiparous high-yield dairy cows after using Double Ovsynch or G6G synchronization protocols.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Fargas, O

    2013-04-15

    The objective of the present work was to determine the optimal protocol for timed AI on high-yield dairy cows. The pregnancy per AI (pregnancy/AI) arising from 7805 first timed artificial inseminations on 27 dairy farms in eastern Spain was examined after use of the Double Ovsynch (DOv; N = 6783) or G6G (N = 1022) synchronization protocols. Parity number, farm, prostaglandin analogue, and season (hot or cool) were examined for their possible association with postsynchronization fertility (in terms of pregnancy/AI). Mean pregnancy/AI overall was 36.1 ± 8.4%, with no significant differences between the DOv or G6G protocols (36.3 ± 8.3% vs. 34.8 ± 9.1%). However, parity and synchronization treatment resulted in a significant interaction (P = 0.03). When DOv AIs (N = 6783) and G6G AIs (N = 1022) were analyzed separately it was observed that pregnancy/AI was significantly better in primiparous than in multiparous cows after DOv (44.3 ± 11.4% vs. 31.4 ± 8.2%; P < 0.0001), and pregnancy/AI was similar after G6G in primiparous and in multiparous cows (34.7 ± 9.2% vs. 34.8 ± 9.9%). Hot season significantly reduced pregnancy/AI to a similar extent for primiparous and multiparous cows and showed a significant interaction of protocol and season (P = 0.001). These results were similar across all farms, regardless that their overall pregnancy/AI was similar or significantly different from the average. These results indicate that G6G tended to be associated with a higher pregnancy/AI than DOv in multiparous cows, and the opposite was observed in primiparous cows. PMID:23453255