Science.gov

Sample records for ai litre-1 sl

  1. AIS training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Barancik, J.I.

    1989-05-01

    This Training Manual was developed by the Injury Prevention and Analysis Group (IPAG) as part of a training program in AIS 85 and AIS-EM (Epidemiological Modifications) coding. The IPAG Program is designed primarily to train medical record and other health professionals from diverse backgrounds and experience levels in the use of AIS 85 and AIS 85-EM. The Manual is designed to be used as a reference text after completion of the Program and includes copies of visual projection materials used during the training sessions.

  2. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-10-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  3. Black knight of AI

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, F.

    1985-03-01

    For two decades now, Hubert Dreyfus, an existentialist philosopher at the University of California at Berkeley, has been in the forefront of the controversy over artificial intelligence. He maintains that computers will never be able to think because scientists will never come up with a suitably rigorous set of rules to describe how we think. To many computer scientists, this is like saying the Earth is flat. But so far, none of them have been able to prove him wrong. Even most AI researchers now admit that before they can make computers any smarter, they'll have to come up with an explanation of how intelligence works in people. This realization has coincided with the emergence of cognitive science, a new discipline linking philosophy, psychology, anthroplogy, linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science in an attempt to develop a theory of the way humans think. The guiding principle of most cognitive science research is the notion that the mind, like the computer, is a system for manipulating symbols - for processing information. The task of cognitive science is to discover how this processing occurs.

  4. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  5. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  6. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  7. AIS Investigation of Agricultural Monocultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired over an agricultural area in eastern San Joaquin County, California in July, 1984. Cover type information was subsequently collected for all fields along this flight line. The lack of detailed ground data on individual fields, however, limited AIS data analysis to a qualitative comparison of the spectral reflectance curves for a total of nine cover types. Based on this analysis, it appears that cover types with a positive slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region have a higher spectral response in the 1200 to 1300 nm region compared to those cover types with a negative slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region. Within cover type, spectral variability was also found to be greater than that between cover types. Given the lack of additional field data, the reason for these differences is a matter of speculation.

  8. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  9. RDS-SL VS Communication System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The RDS-SL VS Communication System is a component of the Radiation Detection System for Strategic, Low-Volume Seaports. Its purpose is to acquire real-time data from radiation portal monitors and cameras, record that data in a database, and make it available to system operators and administrators via a web interface. The software system contains two components: a standalone data acquisition and storage component and an ASP.NETweb application that implements the web interface.

  10. Mission requirements: Skylab rescue mission SL-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab Program includes three low earth orbit missions. These missions are designated SL-1/SL-2,SL-3 and SL-4. In addition to the three nominal Skylab missions, the program includes the Skylab Rescue Mission (SL-R). The SL-R mission is designed to provide a safe return of the Skylab crew in the event the Command Service Module (CSM) becomes disabled while docked to the Saturn Workshop (SWS). Mission requirements for the SL-R mission only are presented. SL-R mission configuration will be a CSM (modified with a field installed kit) manned by two crewmen launched on a Saturn IB Launch Vechicle. The SL-R CSM will rendezvous and dock with the SWS (or Orbital Assembly (OA), consisting of the SWS and disabled CSM, if the disabled CSM has not previously been jettisoned). The SWS configuration includes a Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Airlock Module (AM), and an S-IVB stage (modified as an Orbital Workshop (OWS), previously launched and inserted into orbit on a two-stage Saturn V Launch Vehicle for the SL-1/SL-2 mission.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-01-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf. PMID:21873532

  12. The AIS-5000 parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, L.A.; Wilson, S.S.

    1988-05-01

    The AIS-5000 is a commercially available massively parallel processor which has been designed to operate in an industrial environment. It has fine-grained parallelism with up to 1024 processing elements arranged in a single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) architecture. The processing elements are arranged in a one-dimensional chain that, for computer vision applications, can be as wide as the image itself. This architecture has superior cost/performance characteristics than two-dimensional mesh-connected systems. The design of the processing elements and their interconnections as well as the software used to program the system allow a wide variety of algorithms and applications to be implemented. In this paper, the overall architecture of the system is described. Various components of the system are discussed, including details of the processing elements, data I/O pathways and parallel memory organization. A virtual two-dimensional model for programming image-based algorithms for the system is presented. This model is supported by the AIS-5000 hardware and software and allows the system to be treated as a full-image-size, two-dimensional, mesh-connected parallel processor. Performance bench marks are given for certain simple and complex functions.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of SL3: A stem cell-specific SL RNA from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alessandro; Ross, Eric J.; Jack, Antonia; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a biological phenomenon, common among many metazoan taxa, consisting in the transfer of a short leader sequence from a small SL RNA to the 5′ end of a subset of pre-mRNAs. While knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms driving this process has accumulated over the years, the functional consequences of such post-transcriptional event at the organismal level remain unclear. In addition, the fact that functional analyses have been undertaken mainly in trypanosomes and nematodes leaves a somehow fragmented picture of the possible biological significance and evolution of SL trans-splicing in eukaryotes. Here, we analyzed the spatial expression of SL RNAs in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, with the goal of identifying novel developmental paradigms for the study of trans-splicing in metazoans. Besides the previously identified SL1 and SL2, S. mediterranea expresses a third SL RNA described here as SL3. While, SL1 and SL2 are collectively expressed in a broad range of planarian cell types, SL3 is highly enriched in a subset of the planarian stem cells engaged in regenerative responses. Our findings provide new opportunities to study how trans-splicing may regulate the phenotype of a cell. PMID:24120894

  14. The SL autoantibody-antigen system: clinical and biochemical studies.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, R M; Morgan, S H; Bunn, C C; Gainey, R C; Hughes, G R; Mathews, M B

    1986-01-01

    A recently described autoantibody, SL, was found in serum from 27 patients with autoimmune disease, including 20 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) where the frequently was 7%. Analysis of clinical, serological, and HLA data from 119 SLE patients showed no positive associations with anti-SL antibody apart from a higher frequency of non-infective fever. Most SL positive sera contained other precipitins, notably antibodies to Ro(SS-A) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA. Anti-SL IgG recognised a protein of 32 000 daltons without associated RNA. This polypeptide was distinguished from a similarly sized component of the Sm and RNP ribonucleoprotein particles by demonstrating different products of partial proteolysis. Although anti-SL antibody is of limited clinical importance, it occurs with twice the frequency of anti-SM antibody in white patients with SLE. Preliminary studies indicate that SL and the Japanese Ki system are identical. Images PMID:3487291

  15. Evidence of multiple permeability barriers in sarcolemmal (SL) aortic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, L.J.; Kahn, A.M.; Allen, J.C.

    1986-03-05

    SL vesicles from canine aorta were prepared using Mg aggregation and differential centrifugation. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase (NKA) and K/sup +/-Phosphatase (K-Pase) were determined in native and SDS treated SL with either 0.4 mM ouabain (OB) or the lipophilic inhibitor, digitoxigenin (DG). Native SL: OB inhibited NKA=0, DG inhibited NKA=7.7 ..mu..m/mg/hr; SDS treated SL: OB inhibited NKA=4.6, DG inhibited NKA=9.5; Native SL: OB inhibited K-Pase = 177nm/mg/hr, DG inhibited K-Pase = 285, SDS treated SL: OB inhibited K-Pase = 217, DG inhibited K- Pase = 283. Thus, native SL, primarily unbroken and both right side- and inside-out, may be impermeable to ATP and OB. Specific /sup 3/H-OB binding (Mg, P/sub i/) to SL was 5.0 pm/mg in native and 9.6 pm/mg in SL treated with the Mg chelator, CDTA. Altered binding was due to increased B/sub max/, not K/sub m/. Thus, in addition to the permeability barrier of SL, the Mg-bound basement membrane may present another barrier by obscuring OB binding sites. Gel filtration revealed that only the higher molecular weight fractions demonstrated specific OB binding which decreased with decreasing molecular weight, a finding consistent with varying vesicular size. These data indicate that SL prepared by Mg aggregation contain vesicles of differing size with at least two permeability barriers, SL and basement membrane.

  16. JGOMAS: New Approach to AI Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barella, A.; Valero, S.; Carrascosa, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new environment for teaching practical work in AI subjects. The main purpose of this environment is to make AI techniques more appealing to students and to facilitate the use of the toolkits which are currently widely used in research and development. This new environment has a toolkit for developing and executing agents,…

  17. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  18. The SL1 trans-spliced leader RNA performs an essential embryonic function in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be supplied by SL2 RNA.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, K C; Heid, P J; Rothman, J H

    1996-06-15

    Covalent joining of leader RNA exons to pre-mRNAs by trans-splicing has been observed in protists and invertebrates, and can occur in cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, approximately 60% of mRNA species are trans-spliced to the 22-nucleotide SL1 leader, and another approximately 10% of mRNAs receive the 22-nucleotide SL2 leader. We have isolated deletions that remove the rrs-1 cluster, a gene complex that contains approximately 110 tandem copies of a repeat encoding both SL1 RNA and 5S rRNA. An SL1-encoding gene alone rescues the embryonic lethality caused by these deletions. Mutations within the Sm-binding site of SL1 RNA, which is required for trans-splicing, eliminate rescue, suggesting that the ability of the SL1 leader to be trans-spliced is required for its essential activity. We observe pleiotropic defects in embryos lacking SL1 RNA, suggesting that multiple mRNAs may be affected by the absence of an SL1 leader. We found, however, that SL1-receiving messages are expressed without an SL1 leader. Surprisingly, when overexpressed, SL2 RNA, which performs a distinct function from that of SL1 RNA in wild-type animals, can rescue the lethality of embryos lacking SL1 RNA. Moreover, in these mutant embryos, we detect SL2 instead of SL1 leaders on normally SL1-trans-spliced messages; this result suggests that the mechanism that discriminates between SL1 and SL2-trans-splicing may involve competition between SL1 and SL2-specific trans-splicing. Our findings demonstrate that SL1 RNA is essential for embryogenesis in C. elegans and that SL2 RNA can substitute for SL1 RNA in vivo.

  19. [Ambulatory ureteral lithotripsy with "Modulith SL-20"].

    PubMed

    González Enguita, C; Calahorra Fernández, F J; García de la Peña, E; Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Vela Navarrete, R

    1993-03-01

    Analysis of our experience in 'in situ' ambulatory shockwave extracorporeal lithofragmentation of ureteral stones in 104 patients seen in the Lithotrity Unit, Urology Service, Fundación "Jiménez Díaz". Using Modulith SL 20, a third generation lithotripter, 'in situ' disintegration was achieved in 82.69% of cases, 51.92% of which were fragmented in a single lithotrity session. As a first choice, no ureteral handling was used in any of the patients prior to lithotrity. In 9.62% of patients it was necessary to place a 'double J' by-pass catheter, due to the disease presenting with a septic picture. The patient's position was either dorsal or ventral decubitus depending on the lithiatic site, while location and focusing of the stones was done radiologically. All patients were treated ambulatory without hospitalization. Only 18% was given oral or i.v. anaesthesia. Fursemide 40 mg was administered to all patients shortly before starting the session. Each patient received an average of 3,200 shockwaves per session (14-18 Kv, average 16 Kv). Haematuria was the single and modest side effect that happened during the 24 hours following lithofragmentation in 30% of patients, while 20% reported slight discomfort at the time of eliminating the gritted stones. We conclude stating that 'in situ' shockwave extracorporeal lithotrity of ureteral stones with Modulith SL 20 allows for elective disintegration of ureteral stones in whatever location they are found, due to the patient's easy positioning. The simple location and focusing of ureteral stones has allowed us to treat and solve some cases of ureteral lithiasis at the precise moment of the nephritic colic painful emergency, thus speeding up and facilitating the resolution of the condition. Our results and our strategy imply a new change of direction in the management of these lithiasis, as opposed to the well established and historical doctrines in existence regarding stones with ureteral location.

  20. The European SL-9/JUPITER Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    During the past six months, many astronomers - observational as well theoretical - have been busy interpreting the many data taken during the impacts and thereafter. This is a very labour-intensive task and although the first conclusions have begun to emerge, it has also become obvious that extensive consultations between the various groups are necessary before it will be possible to understand the very complex processes during the impacts and thereafter. In order to further the interaction among the involved scientists, it has been decided to hold a three-day "European SL-9/Jupiter Workshop" at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. More than 100 astronomers will meet on February 13-15, 1995, and close to 100 reports will be delivered on this occasion. Although most come from European countries, the major groups on other continents are also well represented. This meeting will give the participants the opportunity to exchange information about their individual programmes and will serve to establish future collaborative efforts. SL-9/JUPITER PRESS CONFERENCE In this connection, ESO is pleased to invite the media to a Press Conference: Wednesday, February 15, 1995, 17:30 CET ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany This conference will be held at the end of the Workshop and will provide a thorough overview of the latest results, as presented during the meeting. Media representatives who are interested in participating in this Press Conference are requested to register with the ESO Information Service (Mrs. E. Völk, Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax: +49-89-3202362), at the latest on Friday, February 10, 1995. ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.hq.eso.org/) and on CompuServe (space science and astronomy area, GO SPACE).

  1. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.

  2. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity. PMID:26185241

  3. Tensor hierarchy and generalized Cartan calculus in SL(3) × SL(2) exceptional field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Wang, Yi-Nan

    2015-04-01

    We construct exceptional field theory for the duality group SL(3) × SL(2). The theory is defined on a space with 8 `external' coordinates and 6 `internal' coordinates in the (3, 2) fundamental representation, leading to a 14-dimensional generalized spacetime. The bosonic theory is uniquely determined by gauge invariance under generalized external and internal diffeomorphisms. The latter invariance can be made manifest by introducing higher form gauge fields and a so-called tensor hierarchy, which we systematically develop to much higher degree than in previous studies. To this end we introduce a novel Cartan-like tensor calculus based on a covariant nil-potent differential, generalizing the exterior derivative of conventional differential geometry. The theory encodes the full D = 11 or type IIB supergravity, respectively.

  4. Inhibition of SlMPK1, SlMPK2, and SlMPK3 Disrupts Defense Signaling Pathways and Enhances Tomato Fruit Susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanyan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Can; Chen, Lin; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2015-06-10

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are major components of defense signaling pathways that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses in plants. Our previous study indicated that SlMPK1/2/3 were associated with nitric oxide-induced defense response in tomato fruit. In this study, we determine whether SlMPK1/2/3 influence the tomato fruit's innate immunity and whether plant hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in SlMPK1/2/3 defense signaling pathways. Treatment with 10 μM U0126 significantly inhibited the relative expression of SlMPK1, SlMPK2, and SlMPK3 (P < 0.05). U0126-treated fruit showed higher concentrations of auxin indole acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellic acid (GA), but a lower concentration of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The activities of defense enzymes, including β-1,3-glucanases (GLU), chitinase (CHI), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), decreased after U0126 treatment. Meanwhile, H2O2 content increased, and catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) activities decreased after U0126 treatment. U0126 treatment enhanced the susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea and resulted in more severe gray mold rot. These results demonstrate that inhibition of SlMPK1/2/3 disrupts tomato fruit defense signaling pathways and enhances the susceptibility to B. cinerea and also that plant hormones and ROS are associated with SlMPK1/2/3 defense signaling pathways. PMID:25910076

  5. Inhibition of SlMPK1, SlMPK2, and SlMPK3 Disrupts Defense Signaling Pathways and Enhances Tomato Fruit Susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanyan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Can; Chen, Lin; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2015-06-10

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are major components of defense signaling pathways that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses in plants. Our previous study indicated that SlMPK1/2/3 were associated with nitric oxide-induced defense response in tomato fruit. In this study, we determine whether SlMPK1/2/3 influence the tomato fruit's innate immunity and whether plant hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in SlMPK1/2/3 defense signaling pathways. Treatment with 10 μM U0126 significantly inhibited the relative expression of SlMPK1, SlMPK2, and SlMPK3 (P < 0.05). U0126-treated fruit showed higher concentrations of auxin indole acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellic acid (GA), but a lower concentration of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The activities of defense enzymes, including β-1,3-glucanases (GLU), chitinase (CHI), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), decreased after U0126 treatment. Meanwhile, H2O2 content increased, and catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) activities decreased after U0126 treatment. U0126 treatment enhanced the susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea and resulted in more severe gray mold rot. These results demonstrate that inhibition of SlMPK1/2/3 disrupts tomato fruit defense signaling pathways and enhances the susceptibility to B. cinerea and also that plant hormones and ROS are associated with SlMPK1/2/3 defense signaling pathways.

  6. Efficacy and fate of glyphosate on Swedish railway embankments.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet; Stenström, John

    2005-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, as Spectra (240 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto Europe AB), RoundUp (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto) and RoundUp Bio (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto), have been used for weed control on Swedish railway embankments since 1986. This article summarizes results from studies of the weed effect and behaviour of glyphosate for the period 1984-2003. Studies on a railway embankment with a range of application rates showed excellent weed control at 5 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio. The appearance of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA [(aminomethyl)phosphonic acid] in the embankment, eg mobility and persistence, was also studied. Mobility was low in most cases, the main proportion of both glyphosate and AMPA being found in the upper 30-cm layer although minor amounts penetrated to lower depths. The 50% disappearance time of glyphosate was generally <5 months in railway embankments but cases with longer persistence were found. Transport to the groundwater was observed for glyphosate and AMPA in groundwater pipes along tracks. Downward transport appears to be dependent on the application rate, which should not exceed 3 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio to avoid groundwater contamination. A lower rate of glyphosate mixed with a low rate of another herbicide may achieve acceptable weed control and be environmentally safer.

  7. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  8. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  9. Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5 Conferring Enhanced Drought Stress Tolerance in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Chuandong; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The function of aquaporin (AQP) protein in transporting water is crucial for plants to survive in drought stress. With 47 homologues in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reported, but the individual and integrated functions of aquaporins involved in drought response remains unclear. Here, three plasma membrane intrinsic protein genes, SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5, were identified as candidate aquaporins genes because of highly expressed in tomato roots. Assay on expression in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SlPIP2s protein displayed water channel activity and facilitated water transport into the cells. With real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analysis, SlPIP2s were considered to be involved in response to drought treatment. To test its function, transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato lines overexpressing SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 or SlPIP2;5 were generated. Compared with wild type, the over-expression of SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 or SlPIP2;5 transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato plants all showed significantly higher hydraulic conductivity levels and survival rates under both normal and drought conditions. Taken together, this study concludes that aquaporins (SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5) contribute substantially to root water uptake in tomato plants through improving plant water content and maintaining osmotic balance. PMID:27545827

  10. Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5 Conferring Enhanced Drought Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ren; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Chuandong; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The function of aquaporin (AQP) protein in transporting water is crucial for plants to survive in drought stress. With 47 homologues in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reported, but the individual and integrated functions of aquaporins involved in drought response remains unclear. Here, three plasma membrane intrinsic protein genes, SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5, were identified as candidate aquaporins genes because of highly expressed in tomato roots. Assay on expression in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SlPIP2s protein displayed water channel activity and facilitated water transport into the cells. With real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analysis, SlPIP2s were considered to be involved in response to drought treatment. To test its function, transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato lines overexpressing SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 or SlPIP2;5 were generated. Compared with wild type, the over-expression of SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 or SlPIP2;5 transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato plants all showed significantly higher hydraulic conductivity levels and survival rates under both normal and drought conditions. Taken together, this study concludes that aquaporins (SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5) contribute substantially to root water uptake in tomato plants through improving plant water content and maintaining osmotic balance. PMID:27545827

  11. Nitrogen and Oxygen Photochemistry following SL9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Allen, Mark; Gladstone, G. Randall

    1995-01-01

    The collision of Shoemaker Levy 9 (SL9) with Jupiter caused many new molecular species to be deposited in the Jovian stratosphere. We use a photochemical model to follow the evolution of the impact derived species. Our results regarding the nitrogen and oxygen compounds are presented here. NH3 photolysis initiates the nitrogen photochemistry. Much of the nitrogen ends up in N2, nitrogen-sulfur compounds, and HCN, but NH3 and nitriles such as C2H3CN may also exist in observable quantities for a year or so after the impacts. Oxygen species survive for a long time in the Jovian stratosphere. The only major oxygen containing compounds that exhibit dramatic changes in the lower stratosphere in the first year following the impacts are SO, SO2, and OCS - H2O, CO2, and CO are comparatively stable. We discuss the important photochemical processes operating on the nitrogen and oxygen species in the Jovian stratosphere, make prediction concerning the temporal variation of the major species, and identify molecules that might act as good tracers for atmospheric dynamics.

  12. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States

    PubMed Central

    Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

  13. Estimation of Space Transportation System Zenit-3SL Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, V. K.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Kovalev, B. A.; Goldstein, Yu. M.

    The authors analyze the competitiveness of the space transportation system Zenit-3SL in the global market of the commercial GEO-missions. The analysis is based on an original economic-mathematical model in which the summary cost of freights of competitive launchers is minimized. Their research within the framework of this model showed that Zenit-2SL has a potential possibility of assimilating up to 65% of the GEO-missions market.

  14. Applying AI to the Writer's Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlette, Forrest

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of current applications of artificial intelligence (AI) to writing focuses on how to represent knowledge of the writing process in a way that links procedural knowledge to other types of knowledge. A model is proposed that integrates the subtasks of writing into the process of writing itself. (15 references) (LRW)

  15. Differential regulation of human apolipoprotein AI and high-density lipoprotein by fenofibrate in hapoAI and hapoAI-CIII-AIV transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; He, Shirley; Newton, Roger S

    2011-02-01

    Fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, lowers triglycerides (TG) and raises high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) in humans. While fenofibrate is very effective in lowering TG, it does not raise HDL-C in humans to the same extent as seen in human apoAI transgenic (hAI-Tg) mice. We studied the mechanism of this discordance using the following compounds as tools: cholic acid that down-regulates human apoAI, and fenofibrate, that elevates hapoAI and HDL-C in hAI-Tg mice. We hypothesized that additional sequences, including apoCIII and AIV genes on chromosome 11, not present in the hapoAI transgene may be responsible for the dampened effect of fibrates on HDL-C seen in humans. For this, hAI-Tg mice with 11kb DNA segment and hapoAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice with 33kb DNA segment harboring apoCIII and AIV genes were employed. These mice were treated with fenofibrate and cholic acid. Fenofibrate increased apoAI and HDL-C levels, and HDL size in the apoAI-Tg mice via up-regulation of the hapoAI mRNA and increased activity and mRNA of PLTP, respectively. Consistent with earlier findings, cholic acid showed similar effects of lowering HDL-C, and elevating LDL-C in hAI-Tg mice as well as in the hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice. Fenofibrate decreased TG and increased HDL size in hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice as well, but surprisingly, did not elevate serum levels of hapoAI or hepatic AI mRNA, suggesting that additional sequences not present in the hapoAI transgene (11kb) may be partly responsible for the dampened effect on HDL-C seen in hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice. Since hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mouse mimics fenofibrate effects seen in humans, this transgenic mouse could serve as a better predictive model for screening HDL-C raising compounds.

  16. Fertility of holstein dairy heifers after synchronization of ovulation and timed AI or AI after removed tail chalk.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2004-07-01

    Nonlactating Holstein dairy heifers (n=352) 13 mo of age were managed using a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) breeding period in which they received AI after removed tail chalk evaluated once daily. At AI breeding period onset (d 0), heifers were randomly assigned to receive synchronization of ovulation (100 microg of GnRH, d 0; 25 mg of PGF2alpha, d 6; 100 microg of GnRH, d 8) and timed AI (TAI; d 8) and AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (GPG; n=175), or AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (TC; n=177). As expected, 17.7% (31/175) of GPG heifers received AI after removed tail chalk before scheduled TAI. Pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (PR/AI) at approximately 30 d after first AI tended to be greater for TC (46.5%) than for GPG (38.3%) heifers. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected; however, overall PR/AI was low for heifers in both treatments due to variation among the 3 inseminators (24.8, 30.0, and 58.0%). Pregnancy loss from approximately 30 to approximately 75 d after first AI was 10% and did not differ between treatments. Based on survival analysis, days to first AI was greater for TC than for GPG heifers, whereas days to pregnancy across the 42-d AI breeding period did not differ between treatments. Overall, 81.2% of GPG heifers receiving TAI synchronized luteal regression and ovulated within 48 h after the second GnRH injection. We conclude that this synchronization protocol can yield acceptable fertility in dairy heifers if AI to estrus is conducted between treatment with GnRH and PGF2alpha and AI efficiency is optimized. PMID:15328217

  17. AI in space: Past, present, and possible futures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.

    1992-01-01

    While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.

  18. Why Don't Accounting Students like AIS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Aoun, Chadi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The demand for Accounting Information Systems (AIS) knowledge has increased exponentially over the past two decades, but studying AIS has not proved easy for many accounting students. The aim of the study is to understand the challenges accounting students face in studying AIS through investigation of the factors which may be contributing…

  19. 47 CFR 80.393 - Frequencies for AIS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements for non-Federal Government ships. These requirements are codified at 33 CFR 164.46, 401.20. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for AIS stations. 80.393 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ais Stations § 80.393 Frequencies for AIS stations....

  20. The AI Interdisciplinary Context: Single or Multiple Research Bases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1992-01-01

    This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)

  1. Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal called, 'Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)', has been introduced, suggesting ways in which NASA may work to increase scientific literacy in the U.S. The future need for an adequate supply of scientists and engineers for the space program is discussed. The principles of the SL-21 proposal are outlined. The program would emphasize education in the fields of space technologies and earth and planetary sciences. The educational elements of the proposal for teachers, students, universities, and the general adult population are described.

  2. Autonomous vehicle control using AI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keirsey, D.; Mitchell, J.; Bullock, B.; Nussmeier, T.; Tseng, D.

    1983-11-01

    A review of early work on a project for developing autonomous vehicle control technology is presented. The primary goal of this effort is the development of a generic capability that can be specialized to a wide range of DOD applications. Project emphasis is on development of the fundamental AI-based technology required by autonomous systems and the implementation of a testbed environment to evaluate and demonstrate the system capabilities. 10 references.

  3. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  4. EcSL: Teaching Economics as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Richard

    Hazard Community College, in Kentucky, has implemented a new instructional methodology for economics courses called Economics as a Second Language (EcSL). This teaching approach, based on the theory of Rendigs Fel that the best model for learning economics is the foreign language classroom, utilizes strategies similar to those employed in…

  5. The tomato plastidic fructokinase SlFRK3 plays a role in xylem development.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ofer; Damari-Weissler, Hila; Secchi, Francesca; Rachamilevitch, Shimon; German, Marcelo A; Yeselson, Yelena; Amir, Rachel; Schaffer, Arthur; Holbrook, N Michele; Aloni, Roni; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Granot, David

    2016-03-01

    Plants have two kinds of fructokinases (FRKs) that catalyze the key step of fructose phosphorylation, cytosolic and plastidic. The major cytosolic tomato FRK, SlFRK2, is essential for the development of xylem vessels. In order to study the role of SlFRK3, which encodes the only plastidic FRK, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plants with RNAi suppression of SlFRK3 as well as plants expressing beta-glucoronidase (GUS) under the SlFRK3 promoter. GUS staining indicated SlFRK3 expression in vascular tissues of the leaves and stems, including cambium, differentiating xylem, young xylem fibers and phloem companion cells. Suppression of SlFRK3 reduced the stem xylem area, stem and root water conductance, and whole-plant transpiration, with minor effects on plant development. However, suppression of SlFRK3 accompanied by partial suppression of SlFRK2 induced significant growth-inhibition effects, including the wilting of mature leaves. Grafting experiments revealed that these growth effects are imposed primarily by the leaves, whose petioles had unlignified, thin-walled xylem fibers with collapsed parenchyma cells around the vessels. A cross between the SlFRK2-antisense and SlFRK3-RNAi lines exhibited similar wilting and anatomical effects, confirming that these effects are the result of the combined suppression of SlFRK3 and SlFRK2. These results demonstrate a role of the plastidic SlFRK3 in xylem development and hydraulic conductance.

  6. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively.

  7. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8′-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively. PMID:25039074

  8. Tomato Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 Play Key Roles in Regulating γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to <10% of WT levels) was observed in the SlGAD3- and triple SlGAD-suppressed lines. These findings suggest that both SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 expression are crucial for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions.

  9. Integrating Vision and AI for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1990-03-01

    The article describes an extension to the well-established AI language Prolog. This allows Prolog to operate both an image processing system and a controller for a variety of electro-mechanical devices. The user can define his/her own pull-down menus and provides an interface to a speech synthesis package. The latter enables the user to follow the flow of a program, easily and in a natural way. The application of the software to food inspection is also discussed

  10. Intelligent control: integrating AI and control theory

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, K.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the requirements placed upon computer-controlled systems is forcing a departure from rigid, predetermined control sequences toward more flexible, intelligent control regimes. The basic premise of this research is that such systems can be developed by exploiting the strengths of both standard control theory and recent developments in artificial intelligence. A framework is described for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with more traditional control theory approaches both at the design stages as well as online control. Its potential is then discussed in the context of several complex navy control problems including automatic tracking systems, autonomous vehicles, and large-scale, flexible space structures. 8 references.

  11. AI Based Personal Learning Environments: Directions for Long Term Research. AI Memo 384.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ira P.; Miller, Mark L.

    The application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to the design of personal learning environments is an enterprise of both theoretical and practical interest. In the short term, the process of developing and testing intelligent tutoring programs serves as a new experimental vehicle for exploring alternative cognitive and pedagogical…

  12. A systems engineering approach to AIS accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.M.; Hunteman, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    The systems engineering model provides the vehicle for communication between the developer and the customer by presenting system facts and demonstrating the system in an organized form. The same model provides implementors with views of the system`s function and capability. The authors contend that the process of obtaining accreditation for a classified Automated Information System (AIS) adheres to the typical systems engineering model. The accreditation process is modeled as a ``roadmap`` with the customer represented by the Designed Accrediting Authority. The ``roadmap`` model reduces the amount of accreditation knowledge required of an AIS developer and maximizes the effectiveness of participation in the accreditation process by making the understanding of accreditation a natural consequence of applying the model. This paper identifies ten ``destinations`` on the ``road`` to accreditation. The significance of each ``destination`` is explained, as are the potential consequences of its exclusion. The ``roadmap,`` which has been applied to a range of information systems throughout the DOE community, establishes a paradigm for the certification and accreditation of classified AISs.

  13. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  14. SL(2, r) Yang-Mills Theory on a Circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Hallin, Joakim

    The kinematic of SL(2, ℝ) Yang-Mills theory on a circle is considered, for reasons that are spelt out. The gauge transformations exhibit hyperbolic fixed points, and this results in a physical configuration space with a non-Hausdorff “network” topology. The ambiguity encountered in canonical quantization is then much more pronounced than in the compact case and cannot be resolved through the kind of appeal made to group theory in that case.

  15. LAGEOS geodetic analysis-SL7.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Dunn, P. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Williamson, R. G.; Pavlis, E. C.; Douglas, N. B.; Fricke, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    Laser ranging measurements to the LAGEOS satellite from 1976 through 1989 are related via geodetic and orbital theories to a variety of geodetic and geodynamic parameters. The SL7.1 analyses are explained of this data set including the estimation process for geodetic parameters such as Earth's gravitational constant (GM), those describing the Earth's elasticity properties (Love numbers), and the temporally varying geodetic parameters such as Earth's orientation (polar motion and Delta UT1) and tracking site horizontal tectonic motions. Descriptions of the reference systems, tectonic models, and adopted geodetic constants are provided; these are the framework within which the SL7.1 solution takes place. Estimates of temporal variations in non-conservative force parameters are included in these SL7.1 analyses as well as parameters describing the orbital states at monthly epochs. This information is useful in further refining models used to describe close-Earth satellite behavior. Estimates of intersite motions and individual tracking site motions computed through the network adjustment scheme are given. Tabulations of tracking site eccentricities, data summaries, estimated monthly orbital and force model parameters, polar motion, Earth rotation, and tracking station coordinate results are also provided.

  16. The LISST-SL streamlined isokinetic suspended-sediment profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Agrawal, Yogesh C.; Pottsmith, H. Charles

    2004-01-01

    The new manually deployed Laser In Situ Scattering Transmissometer-StreamLined profiler (LISST-SL) represents a major technological advance for suspended-sediment measurements in rivers. The LISST-SL is being designed to provide real-time data on sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions. A pressure sensor and current meter provide real-time depth and ambient velocity data, respectively. The velocity data are also used to control pumpage across an internal laser so that the intake velocity is constantly adjusted to match the ambient stream velocity. Such isokinetic withdrawal is necessary for obtaining representative sedimentary measurements in streamflow, and ensures compliance with established practices. The velocity and sediment-concentration data are used to compute fluxes for up to 32 particle-size classes at points, verticals, or in the entire stream cross section. All data are stored internally, as well as transmitted via a 2-wire conductor to the operator using a specially developed communication protocol. The LISST-SL's performance will be measured and compared to published sedimentological accuracy criteria, and a performance summary will be placed on-line.

  17. Quantifying the tracking capability of space-based AIS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has operated three Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in space. Two are on dedicated nano-satellites, AISSat-1 and AISSat-2. The third, the NORAIS Receiver, was installed on the International Space Station. A general method for calculating the upper bound on the tracking capability of a space-based AIS system has been developed and the results from the algorithm applied to AISSat-1 and the NORAIS Receiver individually. In addition, a constellation of AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 is presented. The tracking capability is defined as the probability of re-detecting ships as they move around the globe and is explained to represent and upper bound on a space-based AIS system performance. AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 operates on the nominal AIS1 and AIS2 channels, while the NORAIS Receiver data used are from operations on the dedicated space AIS channels, AIS3 and AIS4. The improved tracking capability of operations on the space AIS channels is presented.

  18. The implementation of AI technologies in computer wargames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, John A.

    2004-08-01

    Computer wargames involve the most in-depth analysis of general game theory. The enumerated turns of a game like chess are dwarfed by the exponentially larger possibilities of even a simple computer wargame. Implementing challenging AI is computer wargames is an important goal in both the commercial and military environments. In the commercial marketplace, customers demand a challenging AI opponent when they play a computer wargame and are frustrated by a lack of competence on the part of the AI. In the military environment, challenging AI opponents are important for several reasons. A challenging AI opponent will force the military professional to avoid routine or set-piece approaches to situations and cause them to think much deeper about military situations before taking action. A good AI opponent would also include national characteristics of the opponent being simulated, thus providing the military professional with even more of a challenge in planning and approach. Implementing current AI technologies in computer wargames is a technological challenge. The goal is to join the needs of AI in computer wargames with the solutions of current AI technologies. This talk will address several of those issues, possible solutions, and currently unsolved problems.

  19. The sulphur springs geothermal field, St. Lucia, lesser Antilles: Hydrothermal mineralogy of wells SL-1 and SL-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, S.; Gianelli, G.; Rossi, R.; Cavarretta, G.

    Two wells have been drilled to depths of 1413 and 2213 meters in the geothermal field of Sulphur Springs, St. Lucia, and reveal a complex volcanic sequence characterized by collapse episodes followed by the emplacement of dacite domes. The geothermal reservoir consists of fractured volcanic rocks and produces superheated steam. Well-bottom temperatures are around 270-290°C. The hydrothermal alteration found in both the productive SL-2 well and the non-productive SL-1 is strongly reminiscent of that of porphyry copper deposits, with (1) an inner, high-temperature potassic zone characterized by the occurrence of dravitic tourmaline, quartz, and biotite, (2) an outer propylitic alteration zone that is partly superimposed on (3) a potassic alteration zone. The alteration mineral assemblages indicate that the hydrothermal system has cooled at the levels sampled.

  20. The tomato SlSHINE3 transcription factor regulates fruit cuticle formation and epidermal patterning.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian Xin; Adato, Avital; Alkan, Noam; He, Yonghua; Lashbrooke, Justin; Matas, Antonio J; Meir, Sagit; Malitsky, Sergey; Isaacson, Tal; Prusky, Dov; Leshkowitz, Dena; Schreiber, Lukas; Granell, Antonio R; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Rogachev, Ilana; Rothan, Christophe; Aharoni, Asaph

    2013-01-01

    Fleshy tomato fruit typically lacks stomata; therefore, a proper cuticle is particularly vital for fruit development and interaction with the surroundings. Here, we characterized the tomato SlSHINE3 (SlSHN3) transcription factor to extend our limited knowledge regarding the regulation of cuticle formation in fleshy fruits. We created SlSHN3 overexpressing and silenced plants, and used them for detailed analysis of cuticular lipid compositions, phenotypic characterization, and the study on the mode of SlSHN3 action. Heterologous expression of SlSHN3 in Arabidopsis phenocopied overexpression of the Arabidopsis SHNs. Silencing of SlSHN3 results in profound morphological alterations of the fruit epidermis and significant reduction in cuticular lipids. We demonstrated that SlSHN3 activity is mediated by control of genes associated with cutin metabolism and epidermal cell patterning. As with SlSHN3 RNAi lines, mutation in the SlSHN3 target gene, SlCYP86A69, resulted in severe cutin deficiency and altered fruit surface architecture. In vitro activity assays demonstrated that SlCYP86A69 possesses NADPH-dependent ω-hydroxylation activity, particularly of C18:1 fatty acid to the 18-hydroxyoleic acid cutin monomer. This study provided insights into transcriptional mechanisms mediating fleshy fruit cuticle formation and highlighted the link between cutin metabolism and the process of fruit epidermal cell patterning.

  1. Apolipoprotein AI mutation Arg-60 causes autosomal dominant amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Soutar, A K; Hawkins, P N; Vigushin, D M; Tennent, G A; Booth, S E; Hutton, T; Nguyen, O; Totty, N F; Feest, T G; Hsuan, J J

    1992-01-01

    A mutation in the gene for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) was identified in an English family with autosomal dominant non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis. The plasma of all affected individuals contained a variant apoAI with one additional charge, as well as normal apoAI. The propositus was heterozygous; the coding region of his apoAI gene contained both the normal sequence and a single-base substitution changing the codon for residue 60 of the mature protein from CTG (leucine) to CGG (arginine). Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization showed that the other affected individuals were also heterozygotes and that there was concordance of the mutant allele with the presence of variant plasma apoAI. Amyloid fibrils isolated from the spleen of the propositus consisted of proteins that ran as a doublet with an apparent mass of approximately 10 kDa in SDS/PAGE and a trace band at 28 kDa. Electrospray mass spectrometry of the purified 10-kDa material revealed components with mass corresponding to the N-terminal 88, 92, 93, and 94 residues of apoAI each with substitution of arginine for leucine. These observations were confirmed by direct protein sequencing and laser desorption time-of-flight mass analysis. No material with the normal apoAI sequence was detected. The trace band at 28 kDa yielded the N-terminal sequence of mature apoAI, indicating that intact or minimally degraded apoAI was also present in the fibril preparation. Discovery of this mutation and the detailed characterization of the apoAI fragments that form the amyloid fibrils open additional avenues for investigation of amyloidogenesis. Images PMID:1502149

  2. SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, inhibited human cancer growth more potently than gemcitabine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Cuirong; Yue, Bin; Liu, Huiping; Sun, Cuicui; Li, Wenbao; Qu, Xianjun

    2012-08-01

    SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl)pyrazine-2-carbonyl at the N4-position on the cytidine ring of gemcitabine. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on the growth of human cancers with gemcitabine as control. Experiments were performed on human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 and colon cancer HCT-116 both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays, SL-01 significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells as determined by the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Further studies indicated that SL-01 induced the cancer cells to apoptosis showing chromatin condensation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In in vivo studies, we evaluated the efficacy of SL-01 in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts. SL-01 effectively delayed the growth of NCI-H460 and HCT-116 without significant loss of body weight. Molecular analysis indicated that the high efficacy of SL-01 was associated with its ability to induce apoptosis as evidenced by increase of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining cells, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in tumor tissues. SL-01 also increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cancer cells. These biological activities of SL-01 were more potential than that of gemcitabine. Based on these in vitro and in vivo results, SL-01 is proposed as a potent oral anticancer agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine in the clinic. -- Highlights: ► An oral gemcitabine derivative SL-01 was synthesized. ► The effects of SL-01 were evaluated and its efficacy was compared with gemcitabine. ► The biological activities of SL-01 were more potent than that of gemcitabine. ► SL-01 could replace gemcitabine for clinical use.

  3. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  4. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  5. Application of AIS Technology to Forest Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.

  6. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  7. Pedagogy and the PC: Trends in the AIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badua, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time,…

  8. An Immune Agent for Web-Based AI Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing

    2006-01-01

    To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…

  9. The Social Stratification of /aI/ in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, L. Ben

    This study is a sociolinguistic analysis of the variant pronunciation of /aI/, a selected phonological variable, by white informants in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 56 informants were interviewed to determine their pronunciation of /aI/. Informants were ranked according to education, income, and occupation to…

  10. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  11. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  12. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Wang, Rui-Qi; Li, Wen-Bao; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine.

  13. Post-SL9 Sulfur Photochemistry on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Allen, Mark; Gladstone, G. Randall

    1995-01-01

    We have modeled the photochemical evolution of the sulfur containing species that were observed in Jupiter's stratosphere after the Shoemaker Levy 9 (SL9) impacts. We find that most of the sulfur is converted to S8 in the first few days. Other important sulfur reservoirs are CS, whose abundance increases markedly with time, and possibly H2CS, HNCS, and NS, whose abundances depend on kinetic reaction rates that are unknown at the present. We discuss the temporal variation of the major sulfur compounds, make abundance and compositional predictions useful for comparison with observations, and discuss the possible condensation of sulfur containing species.

  14. Apolipoprotein A-I variants. Naturally occurring substitutions of proline residues affect plasma concentration of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    von Eckardstein, A; Funke, H; Henke, A; Altland, K; Benninghoven, A; Assmann, G

    1989-01-01

    Six unrelated families with genetically determined structural variants of apo A-I were found in the course of an electrophoretic screening program for apo A-I variants in dried blood samples of newborns. The following structural variations were identified by the combined use of HPLC, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and automated gas phase sequencing: Pro3----Arg (1x), Pro4----Arg (1x), and Pro165----Arg (4x). All variant carriers were heterozygous for their mutant of apo A-I. Subjects heterozygous for apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) (n = 12) were found to exhibit lower mean values for apo A-I (109 +/- 16 mg/dl) and HDL cholesterol (37 +/- 9 mg/dl) than unaffected family members (n = 9): 176 +/- 41 and 64 +/- 18 mg/dl, respectively (P less than 0.001). In 9 of 12 apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) variant carriers the concentrations of apo A-I were below the fifth percentile of sex-matched controls. By two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis as well as by densitometry the relative concentration of the variant apo A-I in heterozygous carriers of apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) was determined to account for only 30% of the total plasma apo A-I mass instead of the expected 50%. Thus, the observed apo A-I deficiency may be largely a consequence of the decreased concentration of the variant apo A-I. In the case of the apo A-I(Pro3----Arg) mutant, densitometry of HDL apolipoproteins demonstrated a distinctly increased concentration of the variant proapo A-I relative to normal proapo A-I. This phenomenon was not observed in the apo A-I(Pro4----Arg) mutant or in other mutants. This suggests that the interspecies conserved proline residue in position 3 of mature apo A-I is functionally important for the regular enzymatic conversion of proapo A-I to mature apo A-I. Images PMID:2512329

  15. 134. ARAII SL1 decontamination and lay down building (ARA614) erected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. ARA-II SL-1 decontamination and lay down building (ARA-614) erected after accidental explosion of SL-1 reactor. Shows vicinity map, index of related drawings, plot plan and other detail. F.C. Torkelson Company 842-area/SL-1-101-U-2. Date: September 1962. Ineel index code no. 070-0101-65-851-150713. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Skylab program. Earth resources experiment package. Sensor performance report. Volume 7 (S190B): SL2, SL3 and SL4 evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The S190B Earth Terrain Camera (ETC) operated acceptably for all of its scheduled EREP passes throughout the SL2 mission. The crew reported no problems in unstowing the camera, changing filters, installing the ETC window in the SAL, or installing the camera onto the window. The ETC was operated for a total of seven times with no failures. The clock on the ETC was checked on DOY 170 (June 19, 1973) and was found to be 30 min. and 58 sec. slower than GMT. The change in time was expected since a similar circumstance was experienced during ETC qualification testing for launch vibration. A leak existed in the seal of the spare magazine to the camera vacuum interface. For EREP passes 08 and 10, black-and-white film EK 3414 (roll no. 82) was installed in this spare magazine. Since there was an audible hiss, the vacuum hose was not connected to the camera. This caused the vacuum platen to be inoperable, resulting in some degradation in resolution for this roll of film. The vegetation of the South American jungle areas proved to be much darker than vegetation found in the United States, and was consequently about 1/2 stop underexposed in all cases.

  17. Quality measures and assurance for AI (Artificial Intelligence) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.

  18. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  19. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle, SL-3.

    PubMed

    Lange, R D; Andrews, R B; Gibson, L A; Congdon, C C; Wright, P; Dunn, C D; Jones, J B

    1987-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays and clonal studies were performed for the first time.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Halorhodospira halophila SL1

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Jean F; Majid, Sophia; Deole, Ratnakar; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce, David; Delano, Susana; Detter, J. Chris; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Han, Cliff; Misra, Monica; Reitenga, Krista K.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Copeland, A; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Tapia, Roxanne; Lapidus, Alla L.; Ivanova, N; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halorhodospira halophila is among the most halophilic organisms known. It is an obligately photosynthetic and anaerobic purple sulfur bacterium that exhibits autotrophic growth up to saturated NaCl concentrations. The type strain H. halophila SL1 was isolated from a hypersaline lake in Oregon. Here we report the determination of its entire genome in a single contig. This is the first genome of a phototrophic extreme halophile. The genome consists of 2,678,452 bp, encoding 2493 predicted genes as determined by automated genome annotation. Of the 2407 predicted proteins, 1905 were assigned to a putative function. Future detailed analysis of this genome promises to yield insights into the halophilic adaptations of this organism, its ability for photoautotrophic growth under extreme conditions, and its characteristic sulfur metabolism.

  1. Hematologic parameters of astrorats flown on SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. D.; Andrews, R. B.; Gibson, L. A.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Hematologic studies were performed on a group of large and small rats which were sacrificed after flying in life sciences shuttle engineering flight SL-3. The results are presented on flight (F) and control (C) 200 gm rats. The small flight animals demonstrated a significant increase in hematocrits, red blood cell counts, hemoglobins and peripheral blood percentages of neutrophils as well as a decrease in percentage of lymphocytes. Erythropoietin (Ep) determinations were similar for the two groups as were the bone marrow an spleen differential counts. In vitro cultures for erythroid colonies of bone marrow showed that in response to different doses of Ep, in all cases where differnces were statistically significant, the F rats had increased colony counts. The changes in red cell parameters could be caused by a decrease in plasma volume. However, no isotopic studies were possible on this flight and this lack points up the need for such studies to determine the red cell mass and plasma volume.

  2. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle, SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. D.; Andrews, R. B.; Gibson, L. A.; Congdon, C. C.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C. D.; Jones, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays and clonal studies were performed for the first time.

  3. Calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.

  4. SL-401 and SL-501, targeted therapeutics directed at the interleukin-3 receptor, inhibit the growth of leukaemic cells and stem cells in advanced phase chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Frolova, Olga; Benito, Juliana; Brooks, Chris; Wang, Rui-Yu; Korchin, Borys; Rowinsky, Eric K; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Frankel, Arthur E; Konopleva, Marina

    2014-09-01

    While imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly efficacious in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), some patients become refractory to these therapies. After confirming that interleukin-3 receptor (IL3R, CD123) is highly expressed on CD34(+) /CD38(-) BCR-ABL1(+) CML stem cells, we investigated whether targeting IL3R with diphtheria toxin (DT)-IL3 fusion proteins SL-401 (DT388 -IL3) and SL-501 (DT388 -IL3[K116W]) could eradicate these stem cells. SL-401 and SL-501 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in the KBM5 cell line and its TKI-resistant KBM5-STI subline. Combinations of imatinib with these agents increased apoptosis in KBM5 and in primary CML cells. In six primary CML samples, including CML cells harbouring the ABL1 T315I mutation, SL-401 and SL-501 decreased the absolute numbers of viable CD34(+) /CD38(-) /CD123(+) CML progenitor cells by inducing apoptosis. IL3-targeting agents reduced clonogenic growth and diminished the fraction of primitive long-term culture-initiating cells in samples from patients with advanced phase CML that were resistant to TKIs or harboured an ABL1 mutation. Survival was also extended in a mouse model of primary TKI-resistant CML blast crisis. These data suggest that the DT-IL3 fusion proteins, SL-401 and SL-501, deplete CML stem cells and may increase the effectiveness of current CML treatment, which principally targets tumour bulk.

  5. 76. ARAII. After SL1 explosion, operators shielded crane cab try ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. ARA-II. After SL-1 explosion, operators shielded crane cab try to open door of SL-1 tank building. January 6, 1961. Ineel photo no. 61-80. Photographer: Holmes. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Parafermionic representation of the affine /sl(21C) algebra at fractional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowcock, P.; Hayes, M.; Taormina, A.

    1999-12-01

    The four fermionic currents of the affine superalgebra /sl(21C) at fractional level k=1/u-1,u∈N are shown to be realised in terms of a free scalar field, an /sl(2C) doublet field and primary fields of the parafermionic algebra Zu-1.

  7. Overexpression of SlUPA-like induces cell enlargement, aberrant development and low stress tolerance through phytohormonal pathway in tomato.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Hu, Jingtao; Zhang, Yanjie; Yin, Wencheng; Zhu, Zhiguo; Feng, Ye; Chen, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    upa20 induces cell enlargement and hypertrophy development. In our research, overexpression of SlUPA-like, orthologous to upa20, severely affected the growth of vegetative and reproductive tissues. Wilted leaves curled upwardly and sterile flowers were found in transgenic lines. Through anatomical analysis, palisade and spongy tissues showed fluffy and hypertrophic development in transgenic plants. Gene expression analysis showed that GA responsive, biosynthetic and signal transduction genes (e.g. GAST1, SlGA20OXs, SlGA3OXs, SlGID1s, and SlPREs) were significantly upregulated, indicating that GA response is stimulated by overproduction of SlUPA-like. Furthermore, SlUPA-like was strongly induced by exogenous JA and wounding. Decreased expression of PI-I and induced expression of SlJAZs (including SlJAZ2, SlJAZ10 and SlJAZ11) were observed in transgenic plants, suggesting that JA response is repressed. In addition, SlUPA-like overexpressed plant exhibited more opened stoma and higher water loss than the control when treated with dehydration stress, which was related to decreased ABA biosynthesis, signal transduction and response. Particularly, abnormal developments of transgenic plants promote the plant susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Therefore, it is deduced from these results that SlUPA-like plays vital role in regulation of plant development and stress tolerance through GA, JA and ABA pathways. PMID:27025226

  8. Overexpression of SlUPA-like induces cell enlargement, aberrant development and low stress tolerance through phytohormonal pathway in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Hu, Jingtao; Zhang, Yanjie; Yin, Wencheng; Zhu, Zhiguo; Feng, Ye; Chen, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    upa20 induces cell enlargement and hypertrophy development. In our research, overexpression of SlUPA-like, orthologous to upa20, severely affected the growth of vegetative and reproductive tissues. Wilted leaves curled upwardly and sterile flowers were found in transgenic lines. Through anatomical analysis, palisade and spongy tissues showed fluffy and hypertrophic development in transgenic plants. Gene expression analysis showed that GA responsive, biosynthetic and signal transduction genes (e.g. GAST1, SlGA20OXs, SlGA3OXs, SlGID1s, and SlPREs) were significantly upregulated, indicating that GA response is stimulated by overproduction of SlUPA-like. Furthermore, SlUPA-like was strongly induced by exogenous JA and wounding. Decreased expression of PI-I and induced expression of SlJAZs (including SlJAZ2, SlJAZ10 and SlJAZ11) were observed in transgenic plants, suggesting that JA response is repressed. In addition, SlUPA-like overexpressed plant exhibited more opened stoma and higher water loss than the control when treated with dehydration stress, which was related to decreased ABA biosynthesis, signal transduction and response. Particularly, abnormal developments of transgenic plants promote the plant susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Therefore, it is deduced from these results that SlUPA-like plays vital role in regulation of plant development and stress tolerance through GA, JA and ABA pathways. PMID:27025226

  9. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  10. Discovering Knowledge from AIS Database for Application in VTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng

    The widespread use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has had a significant impact on maritime technology. AIS enables the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) not only to offer commonly known functions such as identification, tracking and monitoring of vessels, but also to provide rich real-time information that is useful for marine traffic investigation, statistical analysis and theoretical research. However, due to the rapid accumulation of AIS observation data, the VTS platform is often unable quickly and effectively to absorb and analyze it. Traditional observation and analysis methods are becoming less suitable for the modern AIS generation of VTS. In view of this, we applied the same data mining technique used for business intelligence discovery (in Customer Relation Management (CRM) business marketing) to the analysis of AIS observation data. This recasts the marine traffic problem as a business-marketing problem and integrates technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), database management systems, data warehousing and data mining to facilitate the discovery of hidden and valuable information in a huge amount of observation data. Consequently, this provides the marine traffic managers with a useful strategic planning resource.

  11. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  12. Interface Analysis of the Complex between ERK2 and PTP-SL

    PubMed Central

    Balasu, Mihaela C.; Spiridon, Laurentiu N.; Miron, Simona; Craescu, Constantin T.; Scheidig, Axel J.; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Szedlacsek, Stefan E.

    2009-01-01

    The activity of ERK2, an essential component of MAP-kinase pathway, is under the strict control of various effector proteins. Despite numerous efforts, no crystal structure of ERK2 complexed with such partners has been obtained so far. PTP-SL is a major regulator of ERK2 activity. To investigate the ERK2–PTP-SL complex we used a combined method based on cross-linking, MALDI-TOF analysis, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular modeling and docking. Hence, new insights into the stoichiometry, thermodynamics and interacting regions of the complex are obtained and a structural model of ERK2-PTP-SL complex in a state consistent with PTP-SL phosphatase activity is developed incorporating all the experimental constraints available at hand to date. According to this model, part of the N-terminal region of PTP-SL has propensity for intrinsic disorder and becomes structured within the complex with ERK2. The proposed model accounts for the structural basis of several experimental findings such as the complex-dissociating effect of ATP, or PTP-SL blocking effect on the ERK2 export to the nucleus. A general observation emerging from this model is that regions involved in substrate binding in PTP-SL and ERK2, respectively are interacting within the interface of the complex. PMID:19424502

  13. Tumor FOXP3 represses the expression of long noncoding RNA 7SL.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanhui; Cheng, Jingli; Ren, Huizhu; Zhao, Hui; Gong, Wei; Shan, Chunyan

    2016-04-01

    The long noncoding RNA 7SL was over-expressed in tumor cells to promote cell growth through repressing translation of P53. However, the regulatory mechanism of 7SL remains to be defined. FOXP3 was identified as a suppressor in several tumors in addition to be a marker of regulatory T cells. In this study, we detected that over-expression of FOXP3 repressed the transcription of 7SL RNA and contributed to inhibiting tumor growth. Knock down of FOXP3 in MCF-10A normal mammary breast cells up-regulated the transcription of 7SL RNA. Chromatin Immuno-precipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that FOXP3 directly bound to the Forkhead/HNF-3 domain DNA binding sites (-789 to -795) relative to the transcription start site. Meanwhile, Luciferase analysis showed that FOXP3 repressed the full-length 7SL promoter activity, but this suppressive effect was reversed after mutation of the FOXP3 binding site. Further studies showed that FOXP3 promoted the expression of P53 at translational levels through repressing 7SL RNA. In conclusion, this study suggests that 7SL RNA is a direct target of FOXP3 and may be involved in the formation of FOXP3/P53 feedback loop. PMID:26718402

  14. SlARF2a plays a negative role in mediating axillary shoot formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Xin; Wang, Rong; Dong, Xiufen; Guan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanling; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Zihang; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2016-01-01

    SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development. Stem anatomy studies have revealed significantly altered cambia and phloem in tomato plants expressing down-regulated levels of ARF2a, which is associated with obvious alterations in auxin distribution. Further analysis has revealed that altered auxin transport may occur via altered pin expression. To identify the interactions of AUX/IAA and TPL with ARF2a, four axillary shoot development repressors that are down-regulated during axillary shoot development, IAA3, IAA9, SlTPL1 and SlTPL6, were tested for their direct interactions with ARF2a. Although none of these repressors are directly involved in ARF2a activity, similar expression patterns of IAA3, IAA9 and ARF2a implied they might work tightly in axillary shoot formation and other developmental processes. PMID:27645097

  15. SlARF2a plays a negative role in mediating axillary shoot formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Xin; Wang, Rong; Dong, Xiufen; Guan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanling; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Zihang; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2016-01-01

    SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development. Stem anatomy studies have revealed significantly altered cambia and phloem in tomato plants expressing down-regulated levels of ARF2a, which is associated with obvious alterations in auxin distribution. Further analysis has revealed that altered auxin transport may occur via altered pin expression. To identify the interactions of AUX/IAA and TPL with ARF2a, four axillary shoot development repressors that are down-regulated during axillary shoot development, IAA3, IAA9, SlTPL1 and SlTPL6, were tested for their direct interactions with ARF2a. Although none of these repressors are directly involved in ARF2a activity, similar expression patterns of IAA3, IAA9 and ARF2a implied they might work tightly in axillary shoot formation and other developmental processes. PMID:27645097

  16. Ectopic expression of SlAGO7 alters leaf pattern and inflorescence architecture and increases fruit yield in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongbo; Xiang, Ya; Xian, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhengguo

    2016-08-01

    ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7), a key regulator of the trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNA) pathway, plays a conserved role in controlling leaf pattern among species. However, little is known about the ta-siRNA pathway in regulating inflorescence architecture and fruit yield. In this study, we characterized the expression pattern, subcellular localization and developmental functions of SlAGO7 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Overexpressing SlAGO7 in tomato exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including improved axillary bud formation, altered leaf morphology and inflorescence architecture, and increased fruit yield. Cross-sectioning of leaves showed that the number of vascular bundles was significantly increased in 35:SlAGO7 lines. Overexpression of SlAGO7 increased the production of ta-siRNA, and repressed the expression ta-siRNA-targeted genes (SlARF2a, SlARF2b, SlARF3 and SlARF4). Further analysis showed that overexpression of SlAGO7 alters the expression of key genes implicated in leaf morphology, inflorescence architecture, auxin transport and signaling. In addition, the altered auxin response of 35:SlAGO7 lines were also investigated. These results suggested that SlAGO7 plays a positive role in determining inflorescence architecture and fruit yield though the ta-siRNA pathway. Therefore, SlAGO7 represents a useful gene that can be incorporated in tomato breeding programs for developing cultivars with yield potential. PMID:26847714

  17. Ectopic expression of SlAGO7 alters leaf pattern and inflorescence architecture and increases fruit yield in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongbo; Xiang, Ya; Xian, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhengguo

    2016-08-01

    ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7), a key regulator of the trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNA) pathway, plays a conserved role in controlling leaf pattern among species. However, little is known about the ta-siRNA pathway in regulating inflorescence architecture and fruit yield. In this study, we characterized the expression pattern, subcellular localization and developmental functions of SlAGO7 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Overexpressing SlAGO7 in tomato exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including improved axillary bud formation, altered leaf morphology and inflorescence architecture, and increased fruit yield. Cross-sectioning of leaves showed that the number of vascular bundles was significantly increased in 35:SlAGO7 lines. Overexpression of SlAGO7 increased the production of ta-siRNA, and repressed the expression ta-siRNA-targeted genes (SlARF2a, SlARF2b, SlARF3 and SlARF4). Further analysis showed that overexpression of SlAGO7 alters the expression of key genes implicated in leaf morphology, inflorescence architecture, auxin transport and signaling. In addition, the altered auxin response of 35:SlAGO7 lines were also investigated. These results suggested that SlAGO7 plays a positive role in determining inflorescence architecture and fruit yield though the ta-siRNA pathway. Therefore, SlAGO7 represents a useful gene that can be incorporated in tomato breeding programs for developing cultivars with yield potential.

  18. Toward detecting California shrubland canopy chemistry with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Westman, Walter E.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS)-2 data of coastal sage scrub vegetation were examined for fine spectral features that might be used to predict concentrations of certain canopy chemical constituents. A Fourier notch filter was applied to the AIS data and the TREE and ROCK mode spectra were ratioed to a flat field. Portions of the resulting spectra resemble spectra for plant cellulose and starch in that both show reduced reflectance at 2100 and 2270 nm. The latter are regions of absorption of energy by organic bonds found in starch and cellulose. Whether the relationship is sufficient to predict the concentration of these chemicals from AIS spectra will require testing of the predictive ability of these wavebands with large field sample sizes.

  19. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  20. MRI Near Metallic Implants Using MAVRIC SL: Initial Clinical Experience at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Luis B.; Do, Bao H.; Gold, Garry E.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Koch, Kevin M.; Worters, Pauline W.; Stevens, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To compare the effectiveness of MAVRIC SL with conventional 2D-FSE MR techniques at 3T in imaging patients with a variety of metallic implants. Materials and Methods Twenty-one 3T MR studies were obtained in 19 patients with different types of metal implants. Paired MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE sequences were reviewed by 2 radiologists, and compared for in-plane and through-plane metal artifact, visualization of the bone implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, blurring, and overall image quality using a 2-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. The area of artifact on paired images was measured and compared using a paired Wilcoxon signed rank test. Changes in patient management resulting from MAVRIC SL imaging were documented. Results Significantly less in-plane and through-plane artifact was seen with MAVRIC SL, with improved visualization of the bone-implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, and superior overall image quality (p = 0.0001). Increased blurring was seen with MAVRIC SL (p=0.0016). MAVRIC SL significantly decreased the image artifact compared to 2D-FSE (p=0.0001). Inclusion of MAVRIC SL to the imaging protocol determined the need for surgery or type of surgery in 5 patients, and ruled out the need for surgery in 13 patients. In 3 patients the area of interest was well seen on both MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE images, so the addition of MAVRIC had no effect on patient management. Conclusion Imaging around metal implants with MAVRIC SL at 3T significantly improved image quality and decreased image artifact compared to conventional 2D-FSE imaging techniques, and directly impacted patient management. PMID:25435186

  1. Situated, strategic, and AI-Enhanced technology introduction to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bushko, Renata G

    2005-01-01

    We work hard on creating AI-wings for physicians to let them fly higher and faster in diagnosing patients--a task that physicians do not want to automate. What we do not work hard on is determining the ENVIRONMENT in which physicians' AI wings are supposed to function. It seems to be a job for social/business analysts that have their own separate kingdom. For the sake of all of us (potential patients!) social/business consultants and their methodologies should not be treated as a separate kingdom. The most urgent task is to achieve synergy between (1) AI/Fuzzy/Neural research, (2) Applied medical AI, (3) Social/Business research on medical institutions. We need this synergy in order to assure humanistic medical technology; technology flexible and sensitive enough to facilitate healthcare work while leaving space for human pride and creativity. In order to achieve humanistic technology, designers should consider the impact of technological breakthroughs on the organizations in which this technology will function and the nature of work of humans destined to use this technology. Situated (different for each organization), Strategic (based on an in-depth knowledge of Healthcare business), and AI-Enhanced (ended with a dynamic model) method for introducing technology to Healthcare allows identifying areas where technology can make medical work easier. Using this method before automating human work will get us closer to the ideal where there is no discontinuity between design and use of programs; where the technology matches users' needs perfectly--the world with humanistic technology and healthcare workers with AI-wings.

  2. Validation of the ICD/AIS MAP for pediatric use

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, D; Localio, A; MacKenzie, E

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the performance of the ICD/AIS MAP (© E J MacKenzie et al) as a method of classifying injury severity for children. Methods—Data on all children less than 16 years of age admitted to all designated trauma centers in Pennsylvania from January 1994 through October 1996 were obtained from the state trauma registry. The ICD/AIS MAP was used to convert all injury related ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes into abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score and injury severity score (ISS). Agreement between trauma registry AIS and ISS scores and MAP generated scores was assessed using the weighted κ (κw) coefficient for ordered data and the intraclass correlation coefficient for continuous data. Results—Agreement in ISS scores was excellent, both overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 0.89)), and when grouped into three levels of severity (κw= 0.86, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.87). Agreement in AIS scores across all body regions and ages was also excellent, (κw= 0.86 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.87). Agreement increased with age (κw= 0.78 for children <2 years; κw= 0.86 for older children) and varied by body region, though was excellent across all regions. Conclusions—The performance of the ICD/AIS MAP in assessing severity of pediatric injuries was equal to or better than previous assessments of its performance on primarily adult patients. Its performance was excellent across the pediatric age range and across nearly all body regions of injury. PMID:11428572

  3. STS-55 German payload specialists pose in front of SL-D2 module at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, German payload specialists pose in front of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module at a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) processing facility. These two Germans have been assigned to support the STS-55/SL-D2 mission. They are Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel (left) and Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. Walter and Schlegel are scheduled to fly aboard OV-102 for the mission, joining five NASA astronauts. Clearly visible on the SL-D2 module are the European Space Agency (ESA) insignia, the feedthrough plate, and the D2 insignia.

  4. [The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Options and problems in application].

    PubMed

    Haasper, C; Junge, M; Ernstberger, A; Brehme, H; Hannawald, L; Langer, C; Nehmzow, J; Otte, D; Sander, U; Krettek, C; Zwipp, H

    2010-05-01

    The new AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) was released with an update by the AAAM (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine) in 2008. It is a universal scoring system in the field of trauma applicable in clinic and research. In engineering it is used as a classification system for vehicle safety. The AIS can therefore be considered as an international, interdisciplinary and universal code of injury severity. This review focuses on a historical overview, potential applications and new coding options in the current version and also outlines the associated problems. PMID:20376615

  5. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  6. Rapid prototyping and AI programming environments applied to payload modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1987-01-01

    This effort focused on using artificial intelligence (AI) programming environments and rapid prototyping to aid in both space flight manned and unmanned payload simulation and training. Significant problems addressed are the large amount of development time required to design and implement just one of these payload simulations and the relative inflexibility of the resulting model to accepting future modification. Results of this effort have suggested that both rapid prototyping and AI programming environments can significantly reduce development time and cost when applied to the domain of payload modeling for crew training. The techniques employed are applicable to a variety of domains where models or simulations are required.

  7. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  8. Diverter AI based decision aid, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Bayles, Scott J.; Patterson, Robert W.; Schulke, Duane A.; Williams, Deborah C.

    1989-01-01

    It was determined that a system to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) into airborne flight management computers is feasible. The AI functions that would be most useful to the pilot are to perform situational assessment, evaluate outside influences on the contemplated rerouting, perform flight planning/replanning, and perform maneuver planning. A study of the software architecture and software tools capable of demonstrating Diverter was also made. A skeletal planner known as the Knowledge Acquisition Development Tool (KADET), which is a combination script-based and rule-based system, was used to implement the system. A prototype system was developed which demonstrates advanced in-flight planning/replanning capabilities.

  9. Stream gradient Hotspot and Cluster Analysis (SL-HCA) for improving the longitudinal profiles metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Piacentini, Daniela; Seta Marta, Della

    2016-04-01

    Many researches successfully focused on stream longitudinal profiles analysis through Stream Length-gradient (SL) index for detecting, at different spatial scales, either tectonic structures or hillslope processes. The analysis and interpretation of spatial variability of SL values, both at a regional and local scale, is often complicated due to the concomitance of different factors generating SL anomalies, including the bedrock composition. The creation of lithologically-filtered SL maps is often problematic in areas where homogeneously surveyed geological maps, with a sufficient resolution are unavailable. Moreover, both the SL map classification and the unbiased anomaly detection are rather difficult. For instance, which is the best threshold to define the anomalous SL values? Further, is there a minimum along-channel extent of anomalous SL values for objectively defining over-steeped segments on long-profiles? This research investigates the relevance and potential of a new approach based on Hotspot and Cluster Analysis of SL values (SL-HCA) for detecting knickzones on long-profiles at a regional scale and for fine-tuning the interpretation of their geological-geomorphological meaning. We developed this procedure within a 2800 km2-wide area located in the mountainous sector of the Northern Apennines of Italy. The Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistic is applied for the SL-HCA approach. The value of SL, calculated starting from a 5x5 m Digital Elevation Model, is used as weighting factor and the Gi∗ index is calculated for each 50 m-long channel segment for the whole fluvial system. The outcomes indicate that high positive Gi∗ values imply the clustering of SL anomalies, thus the occurrence of knickzones on the stream long-profiles. Results show that high and very high Gi* values (i.e. values beyond two standard deviations from the mean) correlate well with the principal knickzones detected with existent lithologically-filtered SL maps. Field checks and remote sensing

  10. Tomato R2R3-MYB Proteins SlANT1 and SlAN2: Same Protein Activity, Different Roles

    PubMed Central

    Bassolino, Laura; Povero, Giovanni; Spelt, Cornelis; Buti, Sara; Giuliano, Giovanni; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Koes, Ronald; Perata, Pierdomenico; Gonzali, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds with a high nutraceutical value. Despite the fact that cultivated tomato varieties do not accumulate anthocyanins in the fruit, the biosynthetic pathway can be activated in the vegetative organs by several environmental stimuli. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating anthocyanin synthesis in tomato. Here, we carried out a molecular and functional characterization of two genes, SlAN2 and SlANT1, encoding two R2R3-MYB transcription factors. We show that both can induce ectopic anthocyanin synthesis in transgenic tomato lines, including the fruit. However, only SlAN2 acts as a positive regulator of anthocyanin synthesis in vegetative tissues under high light or low temperature conditions. PMID:26308527

  11. A STAY-GREEN protein SlSGR1 regulates lycopene and β-carotene accumulation by interacting directly with SlPSY1 during ripening processes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhidan; Zhang, Junhong; Li, Jinhua; Yang, Changxian; Wang, Taotao; Ouyang, Bo; Li, Hanxia; Giovannoni, James; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-04-01

    As a primary source of lycopene in the human diet, fleshy fruits synthesize this compound both de novo and via chlorophyll metabolism during ripening. SlSGR1 encodes a STAY-GREEN protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of chlorophyll degradation in tomato leaves and fruits. We report that SlSGR1 can regulate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lycopene accumulation through direct interaction with a key carotenoid synthetic enzyme SlPSY1, and can inhibit its activity. This interaction with SlSGR1 mediates lycopene accumulation during tomato fruit maturation. We confirmed this inhibitory activity in bacteria engineered to produce lycopene, where the introduction of SlSGR1 reduced dramatically lycopene biosynthesis. The repression of SlSGR1 in transgenic tomato fruits resulted in altered accumulation patterns of phytoene and lycopene, whilst simultaneously elevating SlPSY1 mRNA accumulation and plastid conversion at the early stages of fruit ripening, resulting in increased lycopene and β-carotene (four- and nine-fold, respectively) in red ripe fruits. SlSGR1 influences ethylene signal transduction via the altered expression of ethylene receptor genes and ethylene-induced genes. Fruit shelf-life is extended significantly in SlSGR1-repressed tomatoes. Our results indicate that SlSGR1 plays a pivotal regulatory role in color formation and fruit ripening regulation in tomato, and further suggest that SlSGR1 activity is mediated through direct interaction with PSY1.

  12. Comparisons of the Outcome Prediction Performance of Injury Severity Scoring Tools Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 90 Update 98 (AIS 98) and 2005 Update 2008 (AIS 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was revised in 2005 and updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to compare the outcome prediction performance of AIS-based injury severity scoring tools by using AIS 2008 and AIS 98. We used all major trauma patients hospitalized to the Royal Perth Hospital between 1994 and 2008. We selected five AIS-based injury severity scoring tools, including Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), modified Anatomic Profile (mAP), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). We selected survival after injury as a target outcome. We used the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC) as a performance measure. First, we compared the five tools using all cases whose records included all variables for the TRISS (complete dataset) using a 10-fold cross-validation. Second, we compared the ISS and NISS for AIS 98 and AIS 2008 using all subjects (whole dataset). We identified 1,269 and 4,174 cases for a complete dataset and a whole dataset, respectively. With the 10-fold cross-validation, there were no clear differences in the AUROCs between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based scores. With the second comparison, the AIS 98-based ISS performed significantly worse than the AIS 2008-based ISS (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based NISSs. Researchers should be aware of these findings when they select an injury severity scoring tool for their studies. PMID:22105401

  13. SL2: an interactive webtool for modeling of missing segments in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ismer, Jochen; Rose, Alexander S.; Tiemann, Johanna K. S.; Goede, Andrean; Preissner, Robert; Hildebrand, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    SuperLooper2 (SL2) (http://proteinformatics.charite.de/sl2) is the updated version of our previous web-server SuperLooper, a fragment based tool for the prediction and interactive placement of loop structures into globular and helical membrane proteins. In comparison to our previous version, SL2 benefits from both a considerably enlarged database of fragments derived from high-resolution 3D protein structures of globular and helical membrane proteins, and the integration of a new protein viewer. The database, now with double the content, significantly improved the coverage of fragment conformations and prediction quality. The employment of the NGL viewer for visualization of the protein under investigation and interactive selection of appropriate loops makes SL2 independent of third-party plug-ins and additional installations. PMID:27105847

  14. 54. ARAII. Structural steel framing for bottom SL1 reactor building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. ARA-II. Structural steel framing for bottom SL-1 reactor building. October 16, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-5186. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. AIS-2 automated meter for spectra recorded on photographic plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramendik, G.I.; Khromov, A.Yu.; Volkov, V.L.; Astaf'ev, P.N.

    1986-10-01

    The AIS-2 system contains a G-2 microdensitometer, an Elektronika D3-28 microcomputer, an Shch1312 digital voltmeter, and an S1-72 oscilloscope, which serves as a graphics display. The system operates in the interactive mode.

  16. New directions for Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in optimum design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1989-01-01

    Developments and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in the design of structural systems is reviewed. Principal shortcomings in the current approach are emphasized, and the need for some degree of formalism in the development environment for such design tools is underscored. Emphasis is placed on efforts to integrate algorithmic computations in expert systems.

  17. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  18. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  19. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  20. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-04-25

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project.

  1. Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bridget L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

  2. SL(2,R) duality-symmetric action for electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonkyu; Min, Hyunsoo

    2013-12-15

    For the SL(2,R) duality-invariant generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics in the presence of both electric and magnetic sources, we formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action by introducing a pair of four-potentials A{sup μ} and B{sup μ} in a judicious way. On the two potentials A{sup μ} and B{sup μ} the SL(2,R) duality transformation acts in a simple linear manner. In quantum theory including charged source fields, this action can be recast as a SL(2,Z)-invariant action. Also given is a Zwanziger-type action for SL(2,R) duality-invariant Born–Infeld electrodynamics which can be important for D-brane dynamics in string theory. -- Highlights: •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action. •Maxwell electrodynamics is generalized to include dilaton and axion fields. •SL(2,R) symmetry is manifest. •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, nonlinear Born–Infeld action with SL(2,R) symmetry.

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans. PMID:27382195

  4. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans.

  5. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  6. SL(n, r) in Particle Physics and Gravity — Decontraction Formula and Unitary Irreducible Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salom, Igor; Šijački, Djordje

    2013-11-01

    SL(n, R) and Diff(n, R) groups play a prominent role in various particle physics and gravity theories, notably in chromogravity (that models the IR region of QCD), gauge affine generalizations of general relativity, and pD-branes. Applications of these groups require a knowledge of their features and especially rely on the unitary irreducible representation details. Lie algebra, topology and unitary representation issues of the covering groups of the SL(n, R) and Diff(n, R) groups with respect to their maximal compact SO(n) subgroups are considered. Topological properties determining spinorial representations of these groups are reviewed. An especial attention is paid to the fact that, contrary to other classical Lie algebras, the SL(n, R), n ≥ 3 covering groups are groups of infinite matrices, as are all their spinorial representations. A notion of Lie algebra decontraction, also known as the Gell-Mann formula, that plays a role of an inverse to the Inonu-Wigner contraction, is recalled. Contrary to orthogonal type of algebras, the decontraction formula has a limited validity. The validity domain of this formula for sl(n, R) algebras contracted with respect to their so(n) subalgebras is outlined. A recent generalization of the decontraction formula, that applies to all SL(n, R) covering group representations, as well as an explicit closed expression of all non-compact sl(n, R) operators matrix elements for all representations is presented. A construction of the unitary sl(n, R) representations is discussed within a framework than combines the Harish-Chandra results and a method of fulfilling the unitarity requirements in Hilbert spaces with non-trivial scalar product kernel.

  7. AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, F. W.

    1991-03-01

    The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

  8. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  9. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  10. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged frommore » 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.« less

  11. Hereditary apolipoprotein AI-associated renal amyloidosis: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Samillán-Sosa, Kelly Del Rocío; Sención-Martínez, Gloria; Lopes-Martín, Vanessa; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Solé, Manel; Arostegui, Jose Luis; Mesa, Jose; García-Díaz, Juan de Dios; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Martínez-Miguel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary renal amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant condition with considerable overlap with other amyloidosis types. Differential diagnosis is complicated, but is relevant for prognosis and treatment. We describe a patient with nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal failure, who had a mother with renal amiloidosis. Renal biopsy revealed amyloid deposits in glomerular space, with absence of light chains and protein AA. We suspected amyloidosis with fibrinogen A alpha chain deposits, which is the most frequent cause of hereditary amyloidosis in Europe, with a glomerular preferential affectation. However, the genetic study showed a novel mutation in apolipoprotein AI. On reviewing the biopsy of the patient's mother similar glomerular deposits were found, but there were significant deposits in the renal medulla as well, which is typical in APO AI amyloidosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Apo AI amyloidosis is characterized by slowly progressive renal disease and end-stage renal disease occurs aproximately 3 to 15 years from initial diagnosis. Renal transplantation offers an acceptable graft survival and in these patients with hepatorenal involvement simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation could be considered.

  12. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  13. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  14. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  15. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.

  16. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits. PMID:26566837

  17. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  18. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  19. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  20. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG. PMID:25648212

  1. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato. PMID:26716451

  2. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato. PMID:26716451

  3. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  4. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  5. Action of different monoterpenic compounds against Anisakis simplex s.l. L3 larvae.

    PubMed

    Hierro, I; Valero, A; Pérez, P; González, P; Cabo, M M; Montilla, M P; Navarro, M C

    2004-01-01

    Different natural monoterpenes (geraniol, citronellol, citral, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde and eugenol) are studied in vitro against Anisakis simplex s.l. L3 larvae, employing perillaldehyde as a reference substance. Final concentrations used were: 12.50, 6.25 and 3.12 microg/ml for each of the tested products. The parameters average survival, survival 50 and maximum survival were determined at 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of the experiment. All tested products, except eugenol, were active at the highest concentration (12.50 microg/ml). The damage caused to A. simplex s.l. L3 was by examining histological sections. The antioxidant activity of the tested products by DPPH free radical scavenging does not appear to be associated with their larvicide activity against A. simplex s.l. L3.

  6. Detailed Skylab ECS consumables analysis for the interim revision flight plan (November, 1972, SL-1 launch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, C.; Kolkhorst, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    The consumables analysis was performed for the Skylab 2, 3, and 4 Preliminary Reference Interim Revision Flight Plan. The analysis and the results are based on the mission requirements as specified in the flight plan and on other available data. The results indicate that the consumables requirements for the Skylab missions allow for remaining margins (percent) of oxygen, nitrogen, and water nominal as follows: 83.5, 90.8, and 88.7 for mission SL-2; 57.1, 64.1, and 67.3 for SL-3; and 30.8, 44.3, and 46.5 for SL-4. Performance of experiment M509 as scheduled in the flight plan results in venting overboard the cluster atmosphere. This is due to the addition of nitrogen for propulsion and to the additional oxygen introduced into the cabin when the experiment is performed with the crewman suited.

  7. The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and fluxes of two ~ 2000 m3/s glacial floods which emerged from the Icelandic Mýrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull glaciers into the Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl rivers in July 2011. Water samples collected during both floods had neutral to alkaline pH and conductivity from 100 to 900 μS/cm. The total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), present mostly as HCO3-, was ~ 9 mmol/kg during the flood peak in the Múlakvísl but stabilized at around 1 mmol/kg; a similar behaviour was observed in the Kaldakvísl. Up to 1.5 μmol/kg of H2S was detected. Concentrations of most of the dissolved constituents in the flood waters were comparable to those commonly observed in these rivers. In contrast, the particulate suspended material concentration increased dramatically during the floods and dominated chemical transport during these events. Waters were supersaturated with respect to a number of clays, zeolites, carbonates, and Fe hydroxides. The most soluble elements were Na, Ca, K, Sr, Mn, and Mg, whereas the least soluble were Ti, Al, and REE. This is consistent with the compositions of typical surface waters in basaltic terrains and the compositions of global rivers in general. The toxic metal concentrations were below drinking water limits, suggesting that there was no detrimental effect of flood waters chemistry on the environment. Increased concentration of DOC, formate, and acetate in the flood waters suggests substantial subglacial microbiological activity in the melt water prior to the floods. Reaction path modelling of the flood water chemical evolution suggests that it experienced subglacial water-rock interaction for at least a year in the presence of limited amounts of acid gases (e.g. SO2, HCl and HF). This suggests that the heat source for glacier melting was geothermal rather than volcanic.

  8. STS-55 crewmembers work in the SL-D2 module onboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Working in the shirt-sleeve research environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module are STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. Ross examines sample tube at Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (left). Harris, holding his arm, waits to have his blood drawn by Schlegel (right). Wearing the baroreflex (BA) collar at Rack 12 Experiment Rack and waving is Walter. The SL-D2 module is located in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  9. Effect of flight in mission SL-3 on interferon-gamma production by rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, C. L.; Williams, J. A.; Mandel, A. D.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    Rats flown in Space Shuttle mission SL-3 were sacrificed after flight and spleens were removed. Cultures of spleen cells were challenged with the mitogen concanavalin-A to attempt to induce interferon-gamma. Most control, ground-based rats had spleen cells that produced moderate titers of interferon-gamma. Spleen cells from flown rats did not produce interferon-gamma in most cases, and one flown rat produced minimally detectable amounts of interferon. These data suggest that interferon-gamma production was inhibited in rats flown in mission SL-3 immediately upon return to earth.

  10. An action for F-theory: {SL}(2){{{R}}}^{+} exceptional field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, David S.; Blair, Chris D. A.; Malek, Emanuel; Rudolph, Felix J.

    2016-10-01

    We construct the 12-dimensional exceptional field theory (EFT) associated to the group {SL}(2)× {{{R}}}+. Demanding the closure of the algebra of local symmetries leads to a constraint, known as the section condition, that must be imposed on all fields. This constraint has two inequivalent solutions, one giving rise to 11-dimensional supergravity and the other leading to F-theory. Thus {SL}(2)× {{{R}}}+ EFT contains both F-theory and M-theory in a single 12-dimensional formalism.

  11. Maximally extended {\\mathfrak{sl}}(2| 2) as a quantum double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisert, Niklas; de Leeuw, Marius; Hecht, Reimar

    2016-10-01

    We derive the universal R-matrix of the quantum-deformed enveloping algebra of centrally extended {sl}(2| 2) using Drinfeld's quantum double construction. We are led to enlarging the algebra by additional generators corresponding to an {sl}(2) automorphism. For this maximally extended algebra we construct a consistent Hopf algebra structure where the extensions exhibit several uncommon features. We determine the corresponding universal R-matrix containing some non-standard functions. Curiously, this Hopf algebra has one extra deformation parameter for which the R-matrix does not factorize into products of exponentials.

  12. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  13. The tomato HD-Zip I transcription factor SlHZ24 modulates ascorbate accumulation through positive regulation of the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tixu; Ye, Jie; Tao, Peiwen; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Zhang, Yuyang; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA) is an antioxidant that can scavenge the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced when plants encounter stressful conditions. Here, it was revealed by a yeast one-hybrid assay that a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) HD-Zip I family transcription factor, SlHZ24, binds to the promoter of an AsA biosynthetic gene encoding GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase 3 (SlGMP3). Both the transient expression system and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that SlHZ24 binds to a regulatory cis-element in the SlGMP3 promoter, and further overexpression of SlHZ24 in transgenic tomato lines resulted in increased AsA levels. In contrast, suppressing expression of the gene using RNA interference (RNAi) had the opposite effect. These data suggest that SlHZ24 can positively regulate the accumulation of AsA, and in support of this it was shown that SlGMP3 expression increased in the SlHZ24-overexpressing lines and declined in SlHZ24-RNAi lines. SlHZ24 also affected the expression of other genes in the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway, such as genes encoding GDP-mannose-3',5'-epimerase 2 (SlGME2), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP) and SlGMP4. The EMSA indicated that SlHZ24 bound to the promoters of SlGME2 and SlGGP, suggesting multi-targeted regulation of AsA biosynthesis. Finally, SlHZ24-overexpressing plants showed less sensitivity to oxidative stress; we therefore conclude that SlHZ24 promotes AsA biosynthesis, which in turn enhances oxidative stress tolerance. PMID:26610866

  14. STAR - A computer language for hybrid AI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    Constructing Artificial Intelligence application systems which rely on both symbolic and non-symbolic processing places heavy demands on the communication of data between dissimilar languages. This paper describes STAR (Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning), a computer language for the development of AI application systems which supports the transfer of data structures between a symbolic level and a non-symbolic level defined in languages such as FORTRAN, C and PASCAL. The organization of STAR is presented, followed by the description of an application involving STAR in the interpretation of airborne imaging spectrometer data.

  15. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  16. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  17. Urban, Forest, and Agricultural AIS Data: Fine Spectral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) near Lafayette, IN, Ely, MN, and over the Stanford University campus, CA were analyzed for fine spectral structure using two techniques: the ratio of radiance of a ground target to the radiance of a standard and also the correlation coefficient of radiances at adjacent wavelengths. The results show ramp like features in the ratios. These features are due to the biochemical composition of the leaf and to the optical scattering properties of its cuticle. The size and shape of the ramps vary with ground cover.

  18. The AP2/ERF transcription factor SlERF52 functions in flower pedicel abscission in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshitsugu; Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In plants, abscission removes senescent, injured, infected, or dispensable organs. Induced by auxin depletion and an ethylene burst, abscission requires pronounced changes in gene expression, including genes for cell separation enzymes and regulators of signal transduction and transcription. However, the understanding of the molecular basis of this regulation remains incomplete. To examine gene regulation in abscission, this study examined an ERF family transcription factor, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE FACTOR 52 (SlERF52). SlERF52 is specifically expressed in pedicel abscission zones (AZs) and SlERF52 expression is suppressed in plants with impaired function of MACROCALYX and JOINTLESS, which regulate pedicel AZ development. RNA interference was used to knock down SlERF52 expression to show that SlERF52 functions in flower pedicel abscission. When treated with an abscission-inducing stimulus, the SlERF52-suppressed plants showed a significant delay in flower abscission compared with wild type. They also showed reduced upregulation of the genes for the abscission-associated enzymes cellulase and polygalacturonase. SlERF52 suppression also affected gene expression before the abscission stimulus, inhibiting the expression of pedicel AZ-specific transcription factor genes, such as the tomato WUSCHEL homologue, GOBLET, and Lateral suppressor, which may regulate meristematic activities in pedicel AZs. These results suggest that SlERF52 plays a pivotal role in transcriptional regulation in pedicel AZs at both pre-abscission and abscission stages. PMID:24744429

  19. Results of Wagner SL revision stem with impaction bone grafting in revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Somesh P; Bhalodiya, Haresh P

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the number of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed increases, so do the number of required revisions. Impaction bone grafting with Wagner SL Revision stem is a good option for managing bone deficiencies arising from aseptic osteolysis. We studied the results of cementless diaphyseal fixation in femoral revision after total hip arthroplasty and whether there was spontaneous regeneration of bone stock in the proximal femur after the use of Wagner SL Revision stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) with impaction bone grafting. Materials and Methods: We performed 53 hip revisions using impaction bone grafting and Wagner SL Revision stems in 48 patients; (5 cases were bilateral) for variety of indications ranging from aseptic osteolysis to preiprosthetic fractures. The average age was 59 years (range 44-68 years). There were 42 male and 6 female patients. Four patients died after surgery for reasons unrelated to surgery. 44 patients were available for complete analysis. Results: The mean Harris Hip Score was 42 before surgery and improved to 86 by the final followup evaluation at a mean point of 5.5 years. Of the 44 patients, 87% (n=39) had excellent results and 10% (n=5) had good results. The stem survival rate was 98% (n=43). Conclusion: Short term results for revision THA with impaction bone grafting and Wagner SL revision stems are encouraging. However, it is necessary to obtain long term results through periodic followup evaluation, as rate of complications may increase in future. PMID:23960279

  20. Morphological and ultrastructural diversity of orbicules in relation to evolutionary tendencies in apocynaceae s.L.

    PubMed

    Vinckier, Stefan; Smets, Erik

    2002-11-01

    Minute granules of sporopollenin, called orbicules, can be observed on the innermost tangential and/or radial walls of secretory tapetum cells. Orbicules were investigated in 62 species (50 genera) of Apocynaceae s.l. using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Orbicules were found in 43 species (34 genera) distributed amongst the subfamilies Rauvolfioideae, Apocynoideae, Periplocoideae, and in the genus Riocreuxia (Asclepiadoideae). Absence of orbicules is apparent in Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae (except Riocreuxia). The orbicule types described are based on observed morphological and ultrastructural variation. Of the six orbicule types previously described, Type I and Type II orbicules are lacking. In the majority of species, Type III orbicules were recorded in addition to Types IV, V and VI. In this study we suggest that embedded Type VI orbicules are more derived. A correlation between orbicule typology and evolutionary tendencies in Apocynaceae s.l. palynology was found. A trend was observed from the presence of Type III orbicules in the majority of species belonging to the basal group of genera characterized by colporate to porate single pollen grains, or 3-6-porate tetrads, towards the more derived embedded Type VI orbicules in the more advanced Periplocoideae genera with multiporate tetrads or pollinia. Orbicule data have proven not to be useful for evaluating tribal delimitation within the Apocynaceae s.l. contrary to the Rubiaceae and Loganiaceae s.l.

  1. 61. ARAII. Interior view of SL1 reactor building on operating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. ARA-II. Interior view of SL-1 reactor building on operating floor. Feedwater pumps in background. Three rings in center are top cover rings for fuel storage wells. January 21, 1958. Ineel photo no. 58-354. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. New integrable sl (2, R) -generalization of the classical Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Yu, Shuimeng; Shen, Shoufeng; Ma, Wen-Xiu

    2015-05-01

    With the aid of symbolic computation by Maple, a new integrable generalization of the classical Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa hierarchy is derived from a corresponding matrix spectral problem associated with the Lie algebra sl (2, R) . Each equation in the resulting hierarchy has a bi-Hamiltonian structure furnished by the trace identity, and possesses infinitely many independent commuting symmetries and conservation laws.

  3. 71. ARAII. Construction progress at SL1 site near end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. ARA-II. Construction progress at SL-1 site near end of 1957. Buildings from right to left are guard house, support building, reactor building, water tank and pump house. Construction was 23 percent complete. December 20, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-6224. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 66. ARAII. Looking up covered stairway outside SL1 reactor building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. ARA-II. Looking up covered stairway outside SL-1 reactor building while worker applies "air-o-therm" insulation. April 15, 1958. Ineel photo no. 58-1876. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 65. ARAII. Interior view of SL1 reactor building control piping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. ARA-II. Interior view of SL-1 reactor building control piping for water purification system. On operating floor of building. March 21, 1958. Ineel photo no. 58-1360. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Escherichia coli O157:H7 induces stronger plant immunity than Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debanjana; Panchal, Shweta; Rosa, Bruce A; Melotto, Maeli

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of fresh produce contaminated with bacterial human pathogens has resulted in various, sometimes deadly, disease outbreaks. In this study, we assessed plant defense responses induced by the fully pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in both Arabidopsis thaliana and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Unlike SL1344, O157:H7 induced strong plant immunity at both pre-invasion and post-invasion steps of infection. For instance, O157:H7 triggered stomatal closure even under high relative humidity, an environmental condition that generally weakens plant defenses against bacteria in the field and laboratory conditions. SL1344 instead induced a transient stomatal immunity. We also observed that PR1 gene expression was significantly higher in Arabidopsis leaves infected with O157:H7 compared with SL1344. These results suggest that plants may recognize and respond to some human pathogens more effectively than others. Furthermore, stomatal immunity can diminish the penetration of human pathogens through the leaf epidermis, resulting in low bacterial titers in the plant apoplast and suggesting that additional control measures can be employed to prevent food contamination. The understanding of how plant responses can diminish bacterial contamination is paramount in preventing outbreaks and improving the safety of food supplies.

  7. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL, Unit 5, Grade 2, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    The Spanish SL strand of unit five for second graders provides the English-dominant child with the structures and vocabulary he will need for effective communication in a bilingual environment. This teacher's guide contains assessment activities, activities for oral language development, and activities for listening and related skills of…

  8. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Walter freefloats inside the SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter demonstrates the microgravity aboard the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module in Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, payload bay (PLB). The module served as his space laboratory and that of his six crewmates for 10 days. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  9. 62. ARAII. Ventilating fan in SL1 reactor building, not yet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. ARA-II. Ventilating fan in SL-1 reactor building, not yet hooked up, but in place on fan floor. April 23, 1958. Ineel photo no. 58-2000. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 57. ARAII. Looking northwest at SL1 reactor building during hoisting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ARA-II. Looking northwest at SL-1 reactor building during hoisting of turbine-generator. Structural steel for fan floor is seen atop tank-like building. December 13, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-6102. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES, INC., SL-90B 8 POCKET BAG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 23-24, 1999, tests of Columbus Industries Inc's SL-90B 8 Pocket Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic pe...

  12. 126. ARAII Plot plan showing location of SL1 power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. ARA-II Plot plan showing location of SL-1 power plant (reactor) building, and planned location of administrative and technical support building. C.A. Sundberg and Associates 866-area/ALPR-606-U-1. Date: May 1958. Ineel index code no. 070-0100-00-822-102834. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 51. ARAII. Camera looking southeast at foundation piers for SL1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. ARA-II. Camera looking southeast at foundation piers for SL-1 reactor building support. August 22, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-4212. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. sl(2)-Trivial Deformations of Vect_{Pol}(R)-Modules of Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ammar, Mabrouk; Boujelbene, Maha

    2008-09-01

    We consider the action of VectPol(R) by Lie derivative on the spaces of symbols of differential operators. We study the deformations of this action that become trivial once restricted to sl(2). Necessary and sufficient conditions for integrability of infinitesimal deformations are given.

  15. Reduced D-Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchies from sl(2,ℝ) and so(3,ℝ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu; Zhou, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Two reduced D-Kaup-Newell spectral problems from sl(2,ℝ) and so(3,ℝ) are considered, and the corresponding soliton hierarchies are generated by using the zero curvature formulation. The resulting systems are shown to be bi-Hamiltonian and their hereditary recursion operators are explicitly computed.

  16. A role for Apolipoprotein A-I in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Lindsay; Groover, Chassidy J; Douglas, Joshua; Lee, Sangmin; Brand, David; Levin, Michael C; Gardner, Lidia A

    2014-12-15

    Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A-I), the most abundant component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is an anti-inflammatory molecule, yet its potential role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully investigated. In this study, Western blot analyses of human plasma showed differential Apo A-I expression in healthy controls compared to MS patients. Further, primary progressive MS patients had less plasma Apo A-I than other forms of MS. Using experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model for MS, Apo A-I deficient mice exhibited worse clinical disease and more neurodegeneration concurrent with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type animals. These data suggest that Apo A-I plays a role in the pathogenesis of EAE, a model for MS, creating the possibility for agents that increase Apo A-I levels as potential therapies for MS.

  17. Building distributed rule-based systems using the AI Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain C.

    1990-01-01

    The AI Bus software architecture was designed to support the construction of large-scale, production-quality applications in areas of high technology flux, running heterogeneous distributed environments, utilizing a mix of knowledge-based and conventional components. These goals led to its current development as a layered, object-oriented library for cooperative systems. This paper describes the concepts and design of the AI Bus and its implementation status as a library of reusable and customizable objects, structured by layers from operating system interfaces up to high-level knowledge-based agents. Each agent is a semi-autonomous process with specialized expertise, and consists of a number of knowledge sources (a knowledge base and inference engine). Inter-agent communication mechanisms are based on blackboards and Actors-style acquaintances. As a conservative first implementation, we used C++ on top of Unix, and wrapped an embedded Clips with methods for the knowledge source class. This involved designing standard protocols for communication and functions which use these protocols in rules. Embedding several CLIPS objects within a single process was an unexpected problem because of global variables, whose solution involved constructing and recompiling a C++ version of CLIPS. We are currently working on a more radical approach to incorporating CLIPS, by separating out its pattern matcher, rule and fact representations and other components as true object oriented modules.

  18. Discrimination of Coastal Vegetation and Biomass Using AIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over a coastal wetlands region near Lewes, Delaware, adjacent to the Delaware Bay on 16 August 1984. Using the AIS data, it was possible to discriminate between four different types of wetland vegetation canopies: (1) trees; (2) broadleaf herbaceous plants (e.g., Acnida cannabina, Hisbiscus moscheutos); (3) the low marsh grass Spartina alterniflora; and (4) the high marsh grasses Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens. The single most useful region of the spectrum was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns, where slopes of portions of the radiance curve and ratios of radiance at particular wavelengths were significantly different for the four canopy types. The ratio between the highest digital number in the 1.40 to 1.90 microns and .84 to .94 microns regions and a similar ratio between the peaks in radiance in the 1.12 to 1.40 microns and .84 to .94 microns spectral regions were also very effective at discriminating between vegetation types. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass.

  19. Using AI to understand key success features in evolving CTSAs.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Jennifer D; Nelson, David A; Simpson, Deborah; Gerrits, Ronald; Glass, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A vital role for Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) evaluators is to first identify and then articulate the necessary change processes that support the research infrastructures and achieve synergies needed to improve health through research. The use of qualitative evaluation strategies to compliment quantitative tracking measures (e.g., number of grants/publications) is an essential but under-utilized approach in CTSA evaluations. The Clinical and Translational Science Institute of Southeast Wisconsin implemented a qualitative evaluation approach using appreciative inquiry (AI) that has revealed three critical features associated with CTSA infrastructure transformation success: developing open communication, creating opportunities for proactive collaboration, and ongoing attainment of milestones at the key function group level. These findings are consistent with Bolman & Deal's four interacting hallmarks of successful organizations: structural (infrastructure), political (power distribution; organizational politics), human resource (facilitating change among humans necessary for continued success), and symbolic (visions and aspirations). Data gathered through this longitudinal AI approach illuminates how these change features progress over time as CTSA funded organizations successfully create the multiinstitutional infrastructures to connect laboratory discoveries with the diagnosis and treatment of human disease.

  20. Sensor assignment to mission in AI-TECD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganger, Robert; de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Rudnicki, Ronald; Schreiber, Yonatan

    2016-05-01

    Sensor-mission assignment involves the allocation of sensors and other information-providing resources to missions in order to cover the information needs of the individual tasks within each mission. The importance of efficient and effective means to find appropriate resources for tasks is exacerbated in the coalition context where the operational environment is dynamic and a multitude of critically important tasks need to achieve their collective goals to meet the objectives of the coalition. The Sensor Assignment to Mission (SAM) framework—a research product of the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Sciences (NIS-ITA) program—provided the first knowledge intensive resource selection approach for the sensor network domain so that contextual information could be used to effectively select resources for tasks in coalition environments. Recently, CUBRC, Inc. was tasked with operationalizing the SAM framework through the use of the I2WD Common Core Ontologies for the Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) sponsored Actionable Intelligence Technology Enabled Capabilities Demonstration (AI-TECD). The demonstration event took place at Fort Dix, New Jersey during July 2015, and this paper discusses the integration and the successful demonstration of the SAM framework within the AI-TECD, lessons learned, and its potential impact in future operations.

  1. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  2. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  3. Hydrogen independent expression of hupSL genes in Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Akos T; Rákhely, Gábor; Balogh, Judit; Maróti, Gergely; Cournac, Laurent; Carrier, Patrick; Mészáros, Lívia S; Peltier, Gilles; Kovács, Kornél L

    2005-09-01

    The expression of many membrane bound [NiFe] hydrogenases is regulated by their substrate molecule, hydrogen. The HupSL hydrogenase, encoded in the hupSLCDHIR operon, probably plays a role in hydrogen recycling in the phototrophic purple bacterium, Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS. RpoN, coding for sigma factor 54, was shown to be important for expression, suggesting a regulated biosynthsis from the hup gene cluster. The response regulator gene, hupR, has been identified in the hup operon and expression of hupSL was reduced in a chromosomal hupR mutant, which indicated that HupR was implicated in the activation process. The hupT and hupUV genes were isolated, and show similarity to the histidine kinase element of the H2-driven signal transduction system and to the regulatory hydrogenases of Ralstonia eutropha and Rhodobacter capsulatus, respectively. Although the genes of the entire H2 sensing and regulation system were present, the expression of the hupSL genes was not affected by the presence or absence of H2. Using reverse transcription PCR, we could not detect any mRNA specific to the hupTUV genes in cells grown under diverse conditions. The hupT and hupUV mutant strains had the same phenotype as the wild-type strains. The hupT gene product, expressed from a plasmid, repressed HupSL synthesis as expected while introduction of actively expressed hupTUV genes together derepressed the HupSL activity in T. roseopersicina. The gene product of hupUV behaves similarly to other regulatory hydrogenases and shows H-D exchange activity. PMID:16156799

  4. Interpretation of AIS Images of Cuprite, Nevada Using Constraints of Spectral Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is outlined that tests the hypothesis Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image spectra are produced by mixtures of surface materials. This technique allows separation of AIS images into concentration images of spectral endmembers (e.g., surface materials causing spectral variation). Using a spectral reference library it was possible to uniquely identify these spectral endmembers with respect to the reference library and to calibrate the AIS images.

  5. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  6. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event. PMID:10334486

  7. Analysis of AIS data of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired in 1985 over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska for the analysis of canopy characteristics including biochemistry. Concurrent with AIS overflights, foliage from fifteen coniferous and deciduous forest stands were analyzed for a variety of biochemical constituents including nitrogen, lignin, protein, and chlorophyll. Preliminary analysis of AIS spectra indicates that the wavelength region between 1450 to 1800 namometers (nm) displays distinct differences in spectral response for some of the forest stands. A flat field subtraction (forest stand spectra - flat field spectra) of the AIS spectra assisted in the interpretation of features of the spectra that are related to biology.

  8. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  9. Role of thyroid hormones in apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, W; Gorder, N L; Lin-Lee, Y C; Gotto, A M; Patsch, W

    1990-01-01

    To study the regulation of hepatic apo A-I gene expression, we measured synthesis and abundance of cellular apo A-I mRNA and its nuclear precursors in livers of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats. In hypothyroid animals, both synthesis and abundance of apo A-I mRNA was reduced to half of control values. After injection of a receptor-saturating dose of triiodothyronine into euthyroid rats, apo A-I gene transcription increased at 20 min, reached a maximum of 179% of control (P less than 0.01) at 3.5 h, and remained elevated for up to 48 h. The abundance of nuclear and total cellular apo A-I mRNA increased at 1 and 2 h, respectively, and exceeded the levels expected from enhanced transcription more than two fold at 24 h after hormone injection. Upon chronic administration of thyroid hormones, levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic apo A-I mRNA remained elevated but transcription of the apo A-I gene fell to 42% of control (P less than 0.01). Thus, thyroid hormones rapidly stimulate apo A-I gene transcription. Posttranscriptional events leading to increased stability of nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors become the principal mechanism for enhanced gene expression in chronic hyperthyroidism and may cause feedback inhibition of apo A-I gene transcription. Our results furthermore imply that the majority of hepatic nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors are degraded in euthyroid animals. Images PMID:2107206

  10. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, G.W.; Castle, C.K.

    1989-07-01

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD (apo A-I(50 kD)), whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range (apo A-I(LDL)). The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species.

  11. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins. PMID:24621662

  12. Overexpression of SlRBZ Results in Chlorosis and Dwarfism through Impairing Chlorophyll, Carotenoid, and Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingqin; Gao, Shenghua; Ren, Junling; Yang, Qihong; Li, Hanxia; Yang, Changxian; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    ZFPs play important roles in many biological processes, including plant development, stress response, and phytohormone response. RanBP2-type zinc finger transcription factors have been characterized in animals and humans. However, their functions remain largely unknown in plants. In this study, we identified a RanBP2-type zinc finger protein gene (SlRBZ) in tomato. SlRBZ was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. The SlRBZ-GFP fused protein was localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of SlRBZ resulted in chlorosis and dwarf phenotypes in tomato. Determination of physiological index showed that chlorophyll, carotenoid, and GAs contents were evidently decreased in transgenic plants. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analyses demonstrated that the transcription of the genes involved in these biosynthesis pathways obviously decreased in SlRBZ-OE plants. In addition, ultrastructural observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that plastids could not develop into mature chloroplasts with normal chloroplast membrane and thylakoid membrane system in SlRBZ-OE plants. The results suggest that overexpression of SlRBZ may impair the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoid, and gibberellin through blocking chloroplast development, resulting in chlorosis and dwarfism in tomato. PMID:27446137

  13. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-13

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  14. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  15. Overexpression of SlRBZ Results in Chlorosis and Dwarfism through Impairing Chlorophyll, Carotenoid, and Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Mingqin; Gao, Shenghua; Ren, Junling; Yang, Qihong; Li, Hanxia; Yang, Changxian; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    ZFPs play important roles in many biological processes, including plant development, stress response, and phytohormone response. RanBP2-type zinc finger transcription factors have been characterized in animals and humans. However, their functions remain largely unknown in plants. In this study, we identified a RanBP2-type zinc finger protein gene (SlRBZ) in tomato. SlRBZ was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. The SlRBZ-GFP fused protein was localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of SlRBZ resulted in chlorosis and dwarf phenotypes in tomato. Determination of physiological index showed that chlorophyll, carotenoid, and GAs contents were evidently decreased in transgenic plants. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analyses demonstrated that the transcription of the genes involved in these biosynthesis pathways obviously decreased in SlRBZ-OE plants. In addition, ultrastructural observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that plastids could not develop into mature chloroplasts with normal chloroplast membrane and thylakoid membrane system in SlRBZ-OE plants. The results suggest that overexpression of SlRBZ may impair the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoid, and gibberellin through blocking chloroplast development, resulting in chlorosis and dwarfism in tomato. PMID:27446137

  16. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  17. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening.

  18. Effects of fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus on conception rate in smallholder zebu and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double PGF2α administration.

    PubMed

    Gugssa, Tadesse; Ashebir, Gebregiorgis; Yayneshet, Tesfay

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate estrus response, time to the onset of estrus, and conception rate at fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus in local and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double administration of PGF2α. One hundred twenty local (heifers, n = 27; cows, n = 33) and crossbreds (heifers, n = 21; cows, n = 39) were used for the study. About 63 and 85.7 % of the local and crossbred heifers, respectively, exhibited estrus. Similarly, all crossbred cows and 90.9 % of local cows showed estrus. Most heifers came to estrus between 48 and 72 h while cows exhibited behavioral signs of estrus between 72 and 96 h. AI at detected estrus resulted in higher conception rate than fixed time AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination was higher in AI at detected estrus than fixed time AI. Accurate estrus detection followed by insemination are crucial factors in maximizing pregnancy, and this study has demonstrated that conception rate in smallholder heifers and cows should be inseminated following estrus detection to maximize the conception rate of the animals. PMID:27184042

  19. STS-55 Pilot Henricks with baroreflex collar in SL-D2 module onboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Working in the shirt-sleeve research environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module, STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks, shirtless and wearing the baroreflex (BA) collar, conducts a space adaptation experiment at Rack 12, an experiment rack. The BA experiment is designed to investigate the theory that light-headedness and a reduction in blood pressure behaves differently after having adapted to a microgravity environment. These space-based measurements of the baroreflex will be compared to ground measurements to determine if microgravity affects the reflex. The SL-D2 module is located in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  20. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  1. Critical Point Facility (CPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  2. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  3. Crystal Growth Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) During the STS-42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Crystal Growth team in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  4. Activities in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) During the STS-42 IML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured are activities in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  5. Cross-reactivity between antigens of Anisakis simplex s.l. and other ascarid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Maldonado J; Martín, Hita L; Díaz, Sáez V; Mañas, Almendros I; Valero, López A; Campos, Bueno M

    2004-06-01

    A study of the cross-reactivity among somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of the third stage larvae of Anisakis simplex s.l. and somatic antigens of other ascarid nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Toxocara canis, Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and H. fabri) was carried out by immunoblotting. It was revealed a high degree of cross-reactivity among ascarids in the 30 and > 212 kDa range by using sera against somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of A. simplex s.l. It has been revealed also specific components of the Anisakis genus (< 7.2, 9, 19 and 25 kDa) that will be interesting in diagnosis. PMID:15224584

  6. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Schlegel manipulates ROTEX controls in SL-D2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing goggles (eye glasses) and positioned in front of Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 4 System Rack controls, operates Robotics Technology Experiment (ROTEX) arm. ROTEX is a robotic arm that operates within an enclosed workcell in Rack 6 (partially visible in the foreground) and uses teleoperation from both an onboard station located nearby in Rack 4 and from a station on the ground. The device uses teleprogramming and artificial intelligence to look at the design, verification and operation of advanced autonomous systems for use in future applications. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR). SL-D2, a German-managed payload, is aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for this science research mission.

  7. Analysis of ocular torsion data from Space Labs D-1 and SL-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    A series of preflight, inflight, and postflight vestibular experiments were conducted on Spacelab missions SL-1 and D-1. Two portions of the investigation, the 'sled' and 'dome' functional objectives, involved recording the torsional motion of human subject's eyes. In the SL-1 sled and dome experiments, preflight and postflight ocular torsion was recorded on 35 mm film using a Nikon motor driven camera (2.6 frames/sec). The film was to be analyzed by measuring the motion of contact lens landmarks using a Hermes senior film scanner. However, an inflight failure of the dome experiment camera flash unit led the crew to utilize the Spacelab video camera as an alternative contingency method for imaging the eye in this FO. A suitable method for analysis of the video data was developed. Results of the analysis are presented.

  8. STS-55 crew poses for portrait in front of SL-D2 module at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers pose for group portrait in front of Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module at a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) processing facility. These five Americans and two Germans have been assigned as prime crewmembers to support the STS-55/SL-D2 mission. Left to right (front) are Commander Steven R. Nagel, Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and MS2 Charles J. Precourt; and (back) Pilot Terence T. Henricks and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel are scheduled to represent the DLR as payload specialists for the mission.

  9. STS-35 TV OPS Area of the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Pictured is the TV OPS area of the SL POCC.

  10. D-branes and extended characters in SL(2,R)/U(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulos, Angelos; Niarchos, Vasilis; Prezas, Nikolaos

    2005-03-01

    We present a detailed study of D-branes in the axially gauged SL(2/U(1) coset conformal field theory for integer level k. Our analysis is based on the modular bootstrap approach and utilizes the extended SL(2,R)/U(1) characters and the embedding of the parafermionic coset algebra in the N=2 superconformal algebra. We propose three basic classes of boundary states corresponding to D0-, D1- and D2-branes. We verify that these boundary states satisfy the Cardy consistency conditions and discuss their physical properties. The D0- and D1-branes agree with those found in earlier work by Ribault and Schomerus using different methods (descent from the Euclidean AdS model). The D2-branes are new. They are not, in general, space-filling but extend from the asymptotic circle at infinity up to a minimum distance ρ⩾0 from the tip of the cigar.

  11. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Su, L Y; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, J P; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology.

  12. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  13. 78 FR 17232 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ..., victim-centered responses to sexual violence within AI/AN communities. DATES AND LOCATIONS: The meeting... to assist victims of sexual violence within AI/AN communities, and to promote culturally relevant, victim-centered responses to sexual violence within those communities. Webinar Agenda: The agenda...

  14. Macrophage apoAI protects against dyslipidemia-induced dermatitis and atherosclerosis without affecting HDL.

    PubMed

    Tavori, Hagai; Su, Yan Ru; Yancey, Patricia G; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Wilhelm, Ashley J; Blakemore, John L; Zabalawi, Manal; Linton, MacRae F; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Fazio, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Tissue cholesterol accumulation, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation are features of atherosclerosis and some forms of dermatitis. HDL and its main protein, apoAI, are acceptors of excess cholesterol from macrophages; this process inhibits tissue inflammation. Recent epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence questions the role of HDL and its manipulation in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of ectopic macrophage apoAI expression on atherosclerosis and dermatitis induced by the combination of hypercholesterolemia and absence of HDL in mice. Hematopoietic progenitor cells were transduced to express human apoAI and transplanted into lethally irradiated LDL receptor(-/-)/apoAI(-/-) mice, which were then placed on a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Macrophage apoAI expression reduced aortic CD4(+) T-cell levels (-39.8%), lesion size (-25%), and necrotic core area (-31.6%), without affecting serum HDL or aortic macrophage levels. Macrophage apoAI reduced skin cholesterol by 39.8%, restored skin morphology, and reduced skin CD4(+) T-cell levels. Macrophage apoAI also reduced CD4(+) T-cell levels (-32.9%) in skin-draining lymph nodes but had no effect on other T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages compared with control transplanted mice. Thus, macrophage apoAI expression protects against atherosclerosis and dermatitis by reducing cholesterol accumulation and regulating CD4(+) T-cell levels, without affecting serum HDL or tissue macrophage levels.

  15. Health Information in French (français): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) PDF Healthy Roads ...

  16. Teaching AI Search Algorithms in a Web-Based Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grivokostopoulou, Foteini; Hatzilygeroudis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of teaching AI search algorithms in a web-based adaptive educational system. Teaching is based on interactive examples and exercises. Interactive examples, which use visualized animations to present AI search algorithms in a step-by-step way with explanations, are used to make learning more attractive. Practice…

  17. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  18. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Pieces of the experiment casing freefloat in the workstation.Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  19. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Walter at the SL-D2 Fluid Physics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter conducts an experiment using the advanced fluid physics module located in Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (Material Sciences Laboratory) aboard Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Walter uses intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints to position himself in front of the rack. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day mission.

  20. STS-55 German payload specialists Walter and Schlegel work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, wearing special head gear, conducts Tissue Thickness and Compliance Along Body Axis salt-water balance experiment in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Walter's activities in front of Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) are monitored by German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel. Walter uses intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  1. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Schlegel works at SL-D2 Biolabor microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel loads sample into a microscope at the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 7 Biolabor (BB) workstation. The BB facility is a life sciences and biotechnology research device developed by Germany (MBB/ERNO) for use aboard Spacelab. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) during this 10-day mission aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  2. North and South Atlantic Bidecadal SL variability: Rossby Waves, AMOC fingerprints and Regime Shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, M. L.; Menezes, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between the North and South Atlantic bidecadal sea level (SL) oscillations in the twentieth century (1908-2008) is investigated using SODA 2.2.4 reanalysis and 102 monthly mean SL time series from TG stations provided by PSMSL. Bidecadal SL signal extraction was done using our method of subjectively choosing groupings of space-time data into non-overlapping period bands by use of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA)/ Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) analysis. A CEOF analysis of the SODA bidecadal band shows dominance of 22-24 year periods. Propagating bidecadal mode expansions were then determined through this analysis, which gives two principal modes. The first mode is dominant from 1915 to 1965 and the second from 1970 onward. The amplitude variabilities obtained suggests the presence of regime shifts, which coincide in time with shifts actually observed in European climate and South African lobster fisheries. The first mode is characterized by states with North and South Atlantic subtropical gyres in phase, while tropical and subpolar regions are in opposite phase relative to them. The second mode is characterized by the subpolar gyre and North subtropical gyre almost in quadrature, with North and South subtropical gyres out of phase. The evolution mechanism of this latter mode is related to east-west density contrasts and westward propagating Rossby waves. These waves show phase speeds dominated by geostrophic self-advection of density anomalies relative to the mean meridional density gradient as known from previous studies, but are shown to be additionally influenced by bottom topography. The oscillations caused by these waves are shown to have phase differences (quadrature in the North Atlantic) with regional indices of bidecadal AMOC oscillations. A number of SL-AMOC fingerprints are also reviewed, and a new eastern equatorial fingerprint is proposed.

  3. Infection with B. burgdorferi s.l., and the CNS demyelinating disease. A case report.

    PubMed

    Durovska, Judita; Bazovska, Sylvia; Pancak, Jaroslav; Zaborska, Magdalena; Derdakova, Marketa; Traubner, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The work describes three cases of patients at various ages, diagnosed for CNS demyelinating disease. The presence of specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato, and findings of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, identified in one case as the genospecies B. garinii in the liquor, indicated previous experience with the infection. Presumably, persistence of borrelia in the organism could act as one of the autoimmune process triggers, resulting in the demyelinating disease. PMID:21876503

  4. 133. ARAII SL1 burial ground. Shows gravel path from ARAII ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. ARA-II SL-1 burial ground. Shows gravel path from ARA-II compound to the burial ground, detail of security fence and entry gate, and sign "Danger radiation hazard." F. C. Torkelson Company 842-area-101-1. Date: October 1961. Ineel index code no. 059-0101-00-851-150723. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Screenings and vertex operators of quantum superalgebra U{sub q}(sl-caret(N|1))

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Takeo

    2012-08-15

    We construct the screening currents of the quantum superalgebra U{sub q}(sl-caret(N|1)) for an arbitrary level k{ne}-N+ 1. We show that these screening currents commute with the superalgebra modulo total difference. We propose bosonizations of the vertex operators by using the screening currents. We check that these vertex operators are the intertwiners among the Fock-Wakimoto representation and the typical representation for rank N Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 4.

  6. Tissue Distribution and Timing of Appearance of Polytropic Envelope Recombinants during Infection with SL3-3 Murine Leukemia Virus or Its Weakly Pathogenic SL3ΔMyb5 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Karen; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia A.; Trubetskoy, Alla; Lenz, Jack; Levy, Laura S.

    2001-01-01

    A time course analysis was performed to identify the sites of formation and timing of appearance of polytropic recombinant viruses following infection of NIH/Swiss mice with the murine retrovirus SL3-3 murine leukemia virus (SL3) or with a weakly pathogenic mutant termed SL3ΔMyb5. The results indicated that (i) polytropic recombinant viruses occur initially in the thymus of SL3-infected animals, (ii) the timing of appearance of polytropic recombinants in bone marrow is not consistent with their participation in the previously reported formation of transplantable tumor-forming cells at 3 to 4 week postinoculation, and (iii) the efficient generation of recombinant virus is correlated with efficient tumor induction. PMID:11119621

  7. Tissue distribution and timing of appearance of polytropic envelope recombinants during infection with SL3-3 murine leukemia virus or its weakly pathogenic SL3DeltaMyb5 mutant.

    PubMed

    Rulli, K; Lobelle-Rich, P A; Trubetskoy, A; Lenz, J; Levy, L S

    2001-01-01

    A time course analysis was performed to identify the sites of formation and timing of appearance of polytropic recombinant viruses following infection of NIH/Swiss mice with the murine retrovirus SL3-3 murine leukemia virus (SL3) or with a weakly pathogenic mutant termed SL3DeltaMyb5. The results indicated that (i) polytropic recombinant viruses occur initially in the thymus of SL3-infected animals, (ii) the timing of appearance of polytropic recombinants in bone marrow is not consistent with their participation in the previously reported formation of transplantable tumor-forming cells at 3 to 4 week postinoculation, and (iii) the efficient generation of recombinant virus is correlated with efficient tumor induction.

  8. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  9. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l.) for Its Pharmacological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Wen; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Tai, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jing; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Chou, Tzu-Ho; Lai, Jui-Ya; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Irie, Kenji; Li, Tsai-Kun; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. PMID:26451152

  10. Joint Spacelab-J (SL-J) Activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in joint ground activities during the SL-J mission are NASA/NASDA personnel at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  11. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l.) for Its Pharmacological Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yen-Wen; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Tai, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jing; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Chou, Tzu-Ho; Lai, Jui-Ya; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Irie, Kenji; Li, Tsai-Kun; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. PMID:26451152

  12. Suppression of tomato SlNAC1 transcription factor delays fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Yang, Dongyue; Ma, Xiaocui; Zhao, Weiyang; Liang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Nana; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process involving many physiological and biochemical changes, including those for ethylene, carotenoid, and cell wall metabolism. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development and ripening because it possesses numerous favorable genetic features. In this study, SlNAC1 was cloned. An antisense (AS) vector was constructed and transferred to tomato to further explore the function of SlNAC1. The results showed that AS fruits exhibited delayed ripening and a deeper red appearance when these fruits were fully ripened. Fully ripened AS fruits also produced higher total carotenoid and lycopene contents than those of the wild-type (WT) line. Ethylene production of AS fruits was delayed but occurred to a higher extent than that of WT fruits. The softening of AS fruits was slower than that of WT fruits. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level in AS-4 fruits was lower than that in WT fruits. Exogenous ABA accelerated the softening of AS fruits. Furthermore, AS fruits demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes related to lycopene and ethylene biosynthesis but down-regulated expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism and ABA synthesis. Therefore, SlNAC1 is likely implicated in fruit ripening.

  13. Deciphering the metabolic capabilities of a lipase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa SL-72 strain.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shikha; Prasanna, Radha; Saxena, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinay; Nain, Lata

    2012-11-01

    Pseudomonads have been reported for their metabolic, nutritional and ecological versatility, which motivated us to prospect the metabolic profile of a lipolytic strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa SL-72. The strain SL-72 was found to produce high levels of lipase and pectinase (1,555.62 IU/mL and 1,490.33 IU/mL, respectively), esterase and amylase, besides low levels of xylanase, proteinase and cellulase. The strain also tested positive for different plant growth-promoting traits-production of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, phosphate solubilization, nitrate reduction and antifungal activity. The high levels of activity of aryl sulphatase, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolase makes it a useful strain for enhanced nutrient cycling in soil. The strain SL-72 produced rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant and its production was enhanced when starch was used as carbon source (0.256 g/L) and utilized polycyclic hydrocarbon compounds viz. anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene and its mixture. The multifaceted nature of the culture illustrates its promise in bioremediation, industry, besides its use as an inoculant. PMID:22661061

  14. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationship Study of 5a-Carbasugar Analogues of SL0101

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Ser/Thr protein kinase, RSK, is associated with oncogenesis, and therefore, there are ongoing efforts to develop RSK inhibitors that are suitable for use in vivo. SL0101 is a natural product that demonstrates selectivity for RSK inhibition. However, SL0101 has a short biological half-life in vivo. To address this issue we designed a set of eight cyclitol analogues, which should be resistant to acid catalyzed anomeric bond hydrolysis. The analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to selectively inhibit RSK in vitro and in cell-based assays. All the analogues were prepared using a stereodivergent palladium-catalyzed glycosylation/cyclitolization for installing the aglycon. The l-cyclitol analogues were found to inhibit RSK2 in in vitro kinase activity with a similar efficacy to that of SL0101, however, the analogues were not specific for RSK in cell-based assays. In contrast, the d-isomers showed no RSK inhibitory activity in in vitro kinase assay. PMID:25589938

  15. Reproductive performance of dairy cows resynchronized after pregnancy diagnosis at 31 (±3 days) after artificial insemination (AI) compared with resynchronization at 31 (±3 days) after AI with pregnancy diagnosis at 38 (±3 days) after AI.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Caixeta, L S; Giordano, J O; Guard, C L; Bicalho, R C

    2013-01-01

    An important part of reproductive management programs on dairy farms is identification of nonpregnant cows and early re-insemination to achieve higher pregnancy rates. The objective of this study was to compare the effect on reproductive performance and pregnancy loss of 2 pregnancy diagnosis protocols: (1) pregnancy diagnosis performed 31±3 d after artificial insemination (AI) by ultrasonography (ULTRA), and (2) resynchronization started 31±3 d after AI but with pregnancy diagnosis performed 38±3 d after AI by palpation per rectum (PALP). Cows were randomly allocated into 1 of the 2 management programs. For cows enrolled in ULTRA, the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) was performed by transrectal ultrasonography at 31±3 d after AI, and nonpregnant cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive timed AI (TAI). For cows enrolled in PALP, the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive TAI was initiated at 31±3 d after AI regardless of pregnancy status, with the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) performed by palpation per rectum at 38±3 d after AI. For both groups, reconfirmation of pregnancy was performed by palpation per rectum at 63±3 d after AI (P2). Cows were inseminated after detection of estrus by use of activity monitors at any time during the study. Two levels of activity were used as a reference for cows AI after detection of estrus based on activity: an activity level of ≥2 when a cow was coded in DairyComp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA) as open (nonpregnant) and an activity level of ≥3 when the pregnancy status of the cow was unknown. Our findings showed that the odds of pregnancy loss cows in ULTRA was 2 times higher between P1 and P2 compared with that of cows in PALP. Furthermore, pregnancy diagnosis method (ULTRA vs. PALP) did not have a significant effect on the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy at P2. The occurrence of assisted parturition, metritis, or retained

  16. Analysis of electrical and electro-optical characteristics of midwave infrared InAs/GaSb SL pin photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, M.; Taalat, R.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Christol, P.; Giard, E.; Ribet-Mohamed, I.; Imbert, J.; Derelle, S.; Trinité, V.

    2013-12-01

    In this communication, we examine the influence of the SL period of InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL), with diverse InAs to GaSb thickness ratio, on the material and device properties of midwave infrared pin photodiodes. Three SL devices made of three different periods, but exhibiting the same cut-off wavelength at 5 μm at 77K, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on p-type GaSb substrates. Optical and electrical characterizations (photoluminescence, current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and photoresponse measurements) were performed and analyzed in order to explain the results obtained. Our investigations show the strong influence of the SL composition on both the material and photodetector properties, such as residual doping concentration, shape of the response spectra and dark current values.

  17. Studies on the GH/SL gene family: cloning of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) growth hormone and somatolactin and toad (Bufo marinus) growth hormone.

    PubMed

    May, D; Alrubaian, J; Patel, S; Dores, R M; Rand-Weaver, M

    1999-01-01

    The lungfishes (lobe-finned fish) occupy a unique position in vertebrate phylogeny, being regarded as the closest extant relatives to the tetrapods. The putative pituitary hormone somatolactin (SL) has hitherto been found only in teleost fishes, and the presence of this protein in tetrapods or lobe-finned fishes has not been ascertained. It was therefore of interest to determine the structure of SL in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens), as this information would be useful for designing probes to facilitate the detection of SL genes in amphibians and other tetrapods. The structural relationships between SL, growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL) strongly suggest that these proteins evolved from a common ancestor. To obtain a more complete picture of the evolution of these hormones in lungfish, African lungfish GH has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA sequence of a toad (Bufo marinus) GH was determined to facilitate maximum parsimony analysis of GH sequences. Cladistic analysis confirmed that lungfish and amphibian GH sequences form a clade distinct from the GH sequences of ray-finned fishes. A distance matrix analysis of SL sequences indicated that lungfish SL had the lowest primary sequence identity with goldfish SL (47%) and the highest with flounder SL (66%). The detection of SL in a lungfish indicates that the gene duplication within the SL/GH/PRL family, which gave rise to SL, must have occurred in a common ancestor of the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) and the lungfishes (Sarcopterygii) and tetrapods.

  18. The cytotoxicology of momordicins I and II on Spodoptera litura cultured cell line SL-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Zhang, Mao-Xin; Ling, Bing

    2015-07-01

    Momordicin I and II are secondary metabolites from bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) that are toxic to the Spodoptera litura ovary cell line (SL-1 cell). Both momordicin I and II significantly inhibited SL-1 cells proliferation. IC50 values after 24 h were 8.35 and 82.31 µg/mL, 6.11 and 77.49 µg/mL for 36 h, 4.93 and 49.42 µg/mL for 48 h for cells treated by momordicin I and II, respectively. IC50 values of the azadirachtin A control were 149.63, 54.54 and 23.66 µg/mL at 24, 36 and 48 h respectively, indicating that the cytotoxicity of momordicin I was significantly higher than that of momordicin II and azadirachtin A. Using inverted phase contrast microscopy we found that after 24 h exposure to momordicin I and II, cell shapes changed to circular, swelling increased, adherence ability declined and the cellular membrane bubbled. After 48 h exposure to momordicin I, most cells were suspended and dead; vacuole deformation and cytoplasm leakage indicated that momordicin I was more toxic to the cytoskeleton than momordicin II. Cells treated with momordicin I and II inhibited glucose absorption by 23.04 and 13.38% after 48 h and 47.60 and 20.92% after 60 h. Flow cytometry analysis suggested that SL-1 cells treated with momordicin I and II dramatically accumulated during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and total cell protein content increased by 56.93 and 35.81% respectively after 48 h treatment. Following treatment with momordicin I and II the karyotheca dissolved, the chromatin condensed abnormally and the nucleoli were damaged, migrated, or disappeared. The PI fluorescent value by FCM showed that the relative fluorescent intensity of SL-1 cells induced by momordicin I and II increased to 521.45 and 370.17, higher than 135.04 induced by control group treatment for 48 h. This indicated significant damage to the cytomembrane. Overall, the results demonstrate that suppression of cytoskeletal function, interference of mitotic figures

  19. Novel cross-linked alcohol-insoluble solid (CL-AIS) affinity gel from pea pod for pectinesterase purification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Guan-Hui; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-10-01

    Alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) from pea pod were cross-linked (CL-AIS) and used as an affinity gel matrix to isolate pectin esterases (PEs) from tendril shoots of chayote (TSC) and jelly fig achenes (JFA), and the results were compared with those isolated by ion-exchange chromatography with a commercial resin. CL-AIS gel matrix in a column displayed poor absorption and purification fold of PE; however, highly methoxylated CL-AIS (HM-CL-AIS), by exposing CL-AIS to methanolic sulfuric acid to increase the degree of esterification (DE) to 92%, facilitated the enzyme purification. The purified TSC PE and JFA PE by the HM-CL-AIS column were proofed as a single band on an SDS-PAGE gel, showing that the HM-CL-AIS column was a good matrix for purification of PE, either with alkaline isoelectric point (pI) (TSC PE) or with acidic pI (JFA PE).

  20. The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2014-05-01

    The glacial floods, called 'jökulhlaups', are common in Iceland and are of interest to geologists for several reasons. Firstly, the heat source origin - subglacial volcanic eruption or/and subglacial geothermal activity - determines the potential environmental impact of the floods. For example, if the heat was sourced by a volcanic eruption, acid gas input might lead to acidic flood waters and toxic metal release from the host rock. In contrast, geothermal heat melts the ice slowly allowing long-term fluid-rock interaction to neutralize the flood waters, limiting their toxicity. The chemical composition of the flood waters is often the only indicator of the flood triggering mechanism in volcanic and geothermal areas. As such river water chemistry monitoring might be an effective method to predict an upcoming volcanic eruption. Secondly, glacial floods may play an important role in global cycle of elements. Due to high discharge during the events, flood waters can transport large amounts of particulate material. This particulate material has large surface areas, making it especially reactive once it arrives in estuaries. Slow dissolution of particulate material releases micro- and macronutrients which could enhance primary productivity along the coast and in lakes. In July 2011, two ~2000 m3/s glacial floods from the Icelandic Mördalsjökull and Vatnajökull glaciers emerged into the Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl rivers, respectively. Water samples collected during both floods had neutral to alkaline pH and conductivity from 100 to 900 μS/cm. The total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), present mostly as HCO3-, was ~9 mmol/kg during the flood peak in the Múlakvísl river but stabilized at around 1 mmol/kg; a similar trend was observed in the Kaldakvísl river. Concentrations of most dissolved elements in the flood waters were comparable to those commonly observed in these rivers. The concentration of suspended particulate material however, increased dramatically

  1. Stem-loop SL4 of the HIV-1 psi RNA packaging signal exhibits weak affinity for the nucleocapsid protein. structural studies and implications for genome recognition.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, G K; Zhou, J; Miskimon, M; Chancellor, K J; McDonald, J A; Matthews, A G; Miller, R R; Rouse, M D; Summers, M F

    2001-12-14

    Encapsidation of the genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) during retrovirus assembly is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domains of assembling Gag polyproteins and a approximately 110 nucleotide segment of the genome known as the Psi-site. The HIV-1 Psi-site contains four stem-loops (SL1 through SL4), all of which are important for genome packaging. Recent isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies have demonstrated that SL2 and SL3 are capable of binding NC with high affinity (K(d) approximately 140 nM), consistent with proposals for protein-interactive functions during packaging. To determine if SL4 may have a similar function, NC-interactive studies were conducted by NMR and gel-shift methods. In contrast to previous reports, we find that SL4 binds weakly to NC (K(d)=(+/-14 microM), suggesting an alternative function. NMR studies indicate that the GAGA tetraloop of SL4 adopts a classical GNRA-type fold (R=purine, N=G, C, A or U), a motif that stabilizes RNA tertiary structures in other systems. In combination with previously reported gel mobility studies of Psi-site deletion mutants, these findings suggest that SL4 functions in genome recognition not by binding to Gag, but by stabilizing the structure of the Psi-site. Differences in the affinities of NC for SL2, SL3 and SL4 stem-loops can now be rationalized in terms of the different structural properties of stem loops that contain GGNG (SL2 and SL3) and GNRA (SL4) sequences.

  2. Comparison of AIS Versus TMS Data Collected over the Virginia Piedmont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Evans, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS, NS001 Thematic Mapper Simlulator (TMS), and Zeiss camera collected remotely sensed data simultaneously on October 27, 1983, at an altitude of 6860 meters (22,500 feet). AIS data were collected in 32 channels covering 1200 to 1500 nm. A simple atmospheric correction was applied to the AIS data, after which spectra for four cover types were plotted. Spectra for these ground cover classes showed a telescoping effect for the wavelength endpoints. Principal components were extracted from the shortwave region of the AIS (1200 to 1280 nm), full spectrum AIS (1200 to 1500 nm) and TMS (450 to 12,500 nm) to create three separate three-component color image composites. A comparison of the TMS band 5 (1000 to 1300 nm) to the six principal components from the shortwave AIS region (1200 to 1280 nm) showed improved visual discrimination of ground cover types. Contrast of color image composites created from principal components showed the AIS composites to exhibit a clearer demarcation between certain ground cover types but subtle differences within other regions of the imagery were not as readily seen.

  3. Consequences of disrupting Salmonella AI-2 signaling on interactions within soft rots.

    PubMed

    Cox, Clayton E; McClelland, Michael; Teplitski, Max

    2013-04-01

    Within soft rots, Salmonella spp. reach population densities 10- to 100-fold higher than within intact plants. The hypothesis that Salmonella spp. exchange AI-2 signals with Pectobacterium carotovorum to increase its competitive fitness was tested using mutants involved in AI-2 production (luxS) or perception (lsrACDBF or lsrG). Co-infections of a wild-type Salmonella sp. and its AI-2 mutants (at ≈3 to 10(4)) were established in green or red tomato ('FL 47' or 'Campari' for 3 or 5 days) as well as tomato co-infected with Pectobacterium (at 10(9)) or its luxS mutant. There were no significant differences in the competitive fitness of Salmonella, indicating that AI-2 signaling is not a major input in the interactions between these organisms under the tested conditions. A Salmonella lsrG::tnpR-lacZ resolvase in vivo expression technology (RIVET) reporter, constructed to monitor AI-2-related gene expression, responded strongly to the luxS deletion but only weakly to external sources of AI-2. Growth in soft rots generally decreased RIVET resolution; however, the effect was not correlated to the luxS genotype of the Pectobacterium sp. The results of this study show that AI-2 signaling offers no significant benefit to Salmonella spp. in this model of colonization of tomato or soft rots. PMID:23324045

  4. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.

  5. Identification of Apolipoprotein A-I as a Retinoic Acid-binding Protein in the Eye.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jody A; Harper, Angelica R; Feasley, Christa L; Van-Der-Wel, Hanke; Byrum, Jennifer N; Hermann, Marcela; West, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid may be an important molecular signal in the postnatal control of eye size. The goal of this study was to identify retinoic acid-binding proteins secreted by the choroid and sclera during visually guided ocular growth. Following photoaffinity labeling with all-trans-[11,12-(3)H]retinoic acid, the most abundant labeled protein detected in the conditioned medium of choroid or sclera had an apparent Mr of 27,000 Da. Following purification and mass spectrometry, the Mr 27,000 band was identified as apolipoprotein A-I. Affinity capture of the radioactive Mr 27,000 band by anti-chick apolipoprotein A-I antibodies confirmed its identity as apolipoprotein A-I. Photoaffinity labeling and fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that binding of retinoic acid to apolipoprotein A-I is 1) concentration-dependent, 2) selective for all-trans-retinoic acid, and 3) requires the presence of apolipoprotein A-I-associated lipids for retinoid binding. Expression of apolipoprotein A-I mRNA and protein synthesis were markedly up-regulated in choroids of chick eyes during the recovery from induced myopia, and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA was significantly increased in choroids following retinoic acid treatment. Together, these data suggest that apolipoprotein A-I may participate in a regulatory feedback mechanism with retinoic acid to control the action of retinoic acid on ocular targets during postnatal ocular growth.

  6. Identification of Apolipoprotein A-I as a Retinoic Acid-binding Protein in the Eye.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jody A; Harper, Angelica R; Feasley, Christa L; Van-Der-Wel, Hanke; Byrum, Jennifer N; Hermann, Marcela; West, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid may be an important molecular signal in the postnatal control of eye size. The goal of this study was to identify retinoic acid-binding proteins secreted by the choroid and sclera during visually guided ocular growth. Following photoaffinity labeling with all-trans-[11,12-(3)H]retinoic acid, the most abundant labeled protein detected in the conditioned medium of choroid or sclera had an apparent Mr of 27,000 Da. Following purification and mass spectrometry, the Mr 27,000 band was identified as apolipoprotein A-I. Affinity capture of the radioactive Mr 27,000 band by anti-chick apolipoprotein A-I antibodies confirmed its identity as apolipoprotein A-I. Photoaffinity labeling and fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that binding of retinoic acid to apolipoprotein A-I is 1) concentration-dependent, 2) selective for all-trans-retinoic acid, and 3) requires the presence of apolipoprotein A-I-associated lipids for retinoid binding. Expression of apolipoprotein A-I mRNA and protein synthesis were markedly up-regulated in choroids of chick eyes during the recovery from induced myopia, and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA was significantly increased in choroids following retinoic acid treatment. Together, these data suggest that apolipoprotein A-I may participate in a regulatory feedback mechanism with retinoic acid to control the action of retinoic acid on ocular targets during postnatal ocular growth. PMID:27402828

  7. Methods for Processing and Interpretation of AIS Signals Corrupted by Noise and Packet Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poļevskis, J.; Krastiņš, M.; Korāts, G.; Skorodumovs, A.; Trokšs, J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors deal with the operation of Automatic Identification System (AIS) used in the marine traffic monitoring to broadcast messages containing information about the vessel: id, payload, size, speed, destination etc., meant primarily for avoidance of ship collisions. To extend the radius of AIS operation, it is envisaged to dispose its receivers on satellites. However, in space, due to a large coverage area, interfering factors are especially pronounced - such as packet collision, Doppler's shift and noise impact on AIS message receiving, pre-processing and decoding. To assess the quality of an AIS receiver's operation, a test was carried out in which, varying automatically frequency, amplitude, noise, and other parameters, the data on the ability of the receiver's ability to decode AIS signals are collected. In the work, both hardware- and software-based AIS decoders were tested. As a result, quite satisfactory statistics has been gathered - both on the common and the differing features of such decoders when operating in space. To obtain reliable data on the software-defined radio AIS receivers, further research is envisaged.

  8. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  9. A Model of Lipid-Free Apolipoprotein A-I Revealed by Iterative Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipid-free apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation. PMID:25793886

  10. Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among Treatment-Seeking Smoker

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.1% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at three time points (Baseline, Quit day, 1 month post-quit) as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor solution, described by inflexibility and avoidance due to smoking related “thoughts/feelings” (9 items) and “somatic sensations” (4 items). Results revealed that the AIS-total and factor scores demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The AIS total and factor scores also displayed high convergent, discriminant, and incremental predictive validity with theoretically-relevant smoking and affective variables. The present data suggest that the AIS measure appears to be a valid and reliable smoking-specific index of experiential avoidance. PMID:25642937

  11. Utilizing AI in Temporal, Spatial, and Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stottler, Richard; Kalton, Annaka; Bell, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Aurora is a software system enabling the rapid, easy solution of complex scheduling problems involving spatial and temporal constraints among operations and scarce resources (such as equipment, workspace, and human experts). Although developed for use in the International Space Station Processing Facility, Aurora is flexible enough that it can be easily customized for application to other scheduling domains and adapted as the requirements change or become more precisely known over time. Aurora s scheduling module utilizes artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques to make scheduling decisions on the basis of domain knowledge, including knowledge of constraints and their relative importance, interdependencies among operations, and possibly frequent changes in governing schedule requirements. Unlike many other scheduling software systems, Aurora focuses on resource requirements and temporal scheduling in combination. For example, Aurora can accommodate a domain requirement to schedule two subsequent operations to locations adjacent to a shared resource. The graphical interface allows the user to quickly visualize the schedule and perform changes reflecting additional knowledge or alterations in the situation. For example, the user might drag the activity corresponding to the start of operations to reflect a late delivery.

  12. Rapid solidification effects in martensitic Cu-Zn-AI Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Jeff

    1982-08-01

    The effects of rapid solidification on martensitic transformations were studied in Cu-Zn-AI samples prepared by the method of melt-spinning, with an estimated cooling rate of about 106 K per second near the freezing point. A diffusionless solidification reaction L → β occurs, and a very fine-grained β structure is obtained, with highly structured grain boundaries. The average β grain diameter (˜5 µm) is about two orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained by conventional solid state solution and quench treatment. The β:β grain boundaries contain extraordinary features such as large steps, and the matrix dislocation density is abnormally high. The Ms temperature is depressed significantly in as-melt-spun ribbon material, but as the martensitic transformation is cycled, it shifts upward in temperature and obtains a more narrow hysteresis loop. The martensite has the usual 9R structure (ABCBCACAB stacking) found in bulk alloys, and while the morphology is similar to that in bulk alloys, it is finer in scale. It is suggested that the β → 9R transformation is affected through the combined influence of rapid solidification on parent β grain size, disorder, β:β grain boundary structure, internal stresses, and dislocation substructure. Shape memory behavior is qualitatively similar in the rapidly solidified alloys.

  13. Computational intelligence from AI to BI to NI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Paul J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives highlights of the history of the neural network field, stressing the fundamental ideas which have been in play. Early neural network research was motivated mainly by the goals of artificial intelligence (AI) and of functional neuroscience (biological intelligence, BI), but the field almost died due to frustrations articulated in the famous book Perceptrons by Minsky and Papert. When I found a way to overcome the difficulties by 1974, the community mindset was very resistant to change; it was not until 1987/1988 that the field was reborn in a spectacular way, leading to the organized communities now in place. Even then, it took many more years to establish crossdisciplinary research in the types of mathematical neural networks needed to really understand the kind of intelligence we see in the brain, and to address the most demanding engineering applications. Only through a new (albeit short-lived) funding initiative, funding crossdisciplinary teams of systems engineers and neuroscientists, were we able to fund the critical empirical demonstrations which put our old basic principle of "deep learning" firmly on the map in computer science. Progress has rightly been inhibited at times by legitimate concerns about the "Terminator threat" and other possible abuses of technology. This year, at SPIE, in the quantum computing track, we outline the next stage ahead of us in breaking out of the box, again and again, and rising to fundamental challenges and opportunities still ahead of us.

  14. Measuring near infrared spectral reflectance changes from water stressed conifer stands with AIS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Running, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) data was acquired over two paired conifer stands for the purpose of detecting differences in spectral reflectance between stressed and natural canopies. Water stress was induced in a stand of Norway spruce and white pine by severing the sapwood near the ground. Water stress during the AIS flights was evaluated through shoot water potential and relative water content measurements. Preliminary analysis with raw AIS-2 data using SPAM indicates that there were small, inconsistent differences in absolute spectral reflectance in the near infrared 0.97 to 1.3 micron between the stressed and natural canopies.

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  16. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  17. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  18. Advantages of T2SL: results from production and new development at IRnova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höglund, Linda; Asplund, C.; Marcks von Würtemberg, R.; Gamfeldt, A.; Kataria, H.; Lantz, D.; Smuk, S.; Costard, E.; Martijn, H.

    2016-05-01

    IRnova has been manufacturing mid wave infrared (MWIR) detectors based on InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SL) since 2014. Results from the first years of production of MWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) with 320 x 256 pixels on 30 μm pitch using the ISC9705 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is presented in terms of operability, temporal and spatial noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) and other key production parameters. Results on image stability of T2SL detectors show that no deterioration of image quality over time can be observed. Furthermore it is shown that the non-uniformity correction remains stable even after repeated detector temperature cycles. Spatial and temporal NETD for fabricated mid wave arrays show a temporal NETD of 12 mK and a spatial NETD of 4 mK with f/2 optics and 8 ms integration time. When studied over a large scene temperature, the spatial noise is still less than 60 % of the temporal noise. Furthermore, 640 x 512 mid wave FPAs with 15 μm pitch using the ISC0403 ROIC are entering an industrialization phase. Temporal and spatial NETD values of 25 mK and 10 mK, respectively, are obtained with f/4 optics and 22 ms integration time and the operability is 99.85 %. A status update on the development of T2SL detectors for short wave, mid wave and long wave infrared wavelength regions for existing and new applications is given and recent development towards higher operating temperature, smaller pitch and larger FPA formats is presented.

  19. STS-55 SL-D2 crew reviews preflight CEIT procedures in KSC conference room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, seated at a conference table, discuss Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) procedures in a briefing room at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). From left are Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, MS3 Bernard J. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS2 Charles J. Precourt. Seated in the foreground are KSC technicians and payload integration officers. Walter and Schlegel are representatives from DLR. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-212.

  20. STS-55 Columbia, OV-102, crew poses for onboard portrait in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) portrait in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module. Front (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt. In the rear (left to right) are MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  1. Checklist of Hymenomycetes (Aphyllophorales s.l.) and Heterobasidiomycetes in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Zmitrovich, Ivan V.; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    A checklist is presented concerning the species composition of Hymenomycetes (Aphyllophorales s.l.) and Heterobasidiomycetes in Israel based on data of previous studies and field sample collections. In total, 242 species are presented, of which five are new records for the Israeli mycobiota, namely Australohydnum dregeanum, Ceriporiopsis consobrina, C. resinascens, Fibroporia vaillantii, and Postia inocybe. The distribution and habitat of each species in Israel are also summarized. This checklist will serve as valuable data for future species diversity studies of these fungi in Israel. PMID:23956665

  2. Molecular basis of TRAP-5'SL RNA interaction in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon transcription attenuation mechanism.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Adam P; Mokdad, Ali; Major, François; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Babitzke, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by the interaction of tryptophan-activated TRAP with 11 (G/U)AG trinucleotide repeats that lie in the leader region of the nascent trp transcript. Bound TRAP prevents folding of an antiterminator structure and favors formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator hairpin upstream of the trp operon structural genes. A 5'-stem-loop (5'SL) structure that forms just upstream of the triplet repeat region increases the affinity of TRAP-trp RNA interaction, thereby increasing the efficiency of transcription termination. Single-stranded nucleotides in the internal loop and in the hairpin loop of the 5'SL are important for TRAP binding. We show here that altering the distance between these two loops suggests that G7, A8, and A9 from the internal loop and A19 and G20 from the hairpin loop constitute two structurally discrete TRAP-binding regions. Photochemical cross-linking experiments also show that the hairpin loop of the 5'SL is in close proximity to the flexible loop region of TRAP during TRAP-5'SL interaction. The dimensions of B. subtilis TRAP and of a three-dimensional model of the 5'SL generated using the MC-Sym and MC-Fold pipeline imply that the 5'SL binds the protein in an orientation where the helical axis of the 5'SL is perpendicular to the plane of TRAP. This interaction not only increases the affinity of TRAP-trp leader RNA interaction, but also orients the downstream triplet repeats for interaction with the 11 KKR motifs that lie on TRAP's perimeter, increasing the likelihood that TRAP will bind in time to promote termination. PMID:19033375

  3. Surface Laplacians (SL) and phase properties of EEG rhythms: simulated generators in a volume-conduction model

    PubMed Central

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Surface Laplacian (SL) methods offer advantages in spectral analysis owing to the well-known implications of volume conduction. Although recognition of the superiority of SL over reference-dependent measures is widespread, well-reasoned cautions have precluded their universal adoption. Notably, the expected selectivity of SL for superficial rather than deep generators has relegated SL to the role of an add-on to conventional analyses, rather than as an independent area of inquiry, despite empirical findings supporting the consistency and replicability of physiological effects of interest. It has also been reasoned that the contrast-enhancing effects of SL necessarily make it insensitive to broadly distributed generators, including those suspected for oscillatory rhythms such as EEG alpha. These concerns are further exacerbated for phase-sensitive measures (e.g., phase-locking, coherence), where key features of physiological generators have yet to be evaluated. While the neuronal generators of empirically-derived EEG measures cannot be precisely known due to the inverse problem, simple dipole generator configurations can be simulated using a 4-sphere head model and linearly combined. We simulated subdural and deep generators and distributed dipole layers using sine and cosine waveforms, quantified at 67-scalp sites corresponding to those used in previous research. Reference-dependent (nose, average, mastoids reference) EEG and corresponding SL topographies were used to probe signal fidelity in the topography of the measured amplitude spectra, phase and coherence of sinusoidal stimuli at and between “active” recording sites. SL consistently outperformed the conventional EEG measures, indicating that continued reluctance by the research community is unfounded. PMID:26004020

  4. AI Techniques in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Paolo; Mea, Vincenzo Della; di Gaspero, Luca; Lomuscio, Raffaella; Mischis, Danny; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena; Scagnetto, Ivan; Vassena, Luca

    Nowadays, the mobile computing paradigm and the widespread diffusion of mobile devices are quickly changing and replacing many common assumptions about software architectures and interaction/communication models. The environment, in particular, or more generally, the so-called user context is claiming a central role in everyday’s use of cellular phones, PDAs, etc. This is due to the huge amount of data “suggested” by the surrounding environment that can be helpful in many common tasks. For instance, the current context can help a search engine to refine the set of results in a useful way, providing the user with a more suitable and exploitable information. Moreover, we can take full advantage of this new data source by “pushing” active contents towards mobile devices, empowering the latter with new features (e.g., applications) that can allow the user to fruitfully interact with the current context. Following this vision, mobile devices become dynamic self-adapting tools, according to the user needs and the possibilities offered by the environment. The present work proposes MoBe: an approach for providing a basic infrastructure for pervasive context-aware applications on mobile devices, in which AI techniques (namely a principled combination of rule-based systems, Bayesian networks and ontologies) are applied to context inference. The aim is to devise a general inferential framework to make easier the development of context-aware applications by integrating the information coming from physical and logical sensors (e.g., position, agenda) and reasoning about this information in order to infer new and more abstract contexts.

  5. AIS TLS-ESPRIT feature selection for prostate tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S. S.; Youssef, A. M.; El-Saadany, E. F.; Salama, M. M. A.

    2006-03-01

    The work in this paper aims for analyzing spectral features of the prostate using Trans-Rectal Ultra-Sound images (TRUS) for tissue classification. This research is expected to augment beginner radiologists' decision with the experience of more experienced radiologists. Moreover, Since, in some situations the biopsy results in false negatives due to inaccurate biopsy locations, therefore this research also aims to assist in determining the biopsy locations to decrease the false negative results. In this paper, a new technique for prostate tissue characterization is developed. The proposed system is composed of four stages. The first stage is automatically identifying Regions Of Interest (ROIs). This is achieved using the Gabor multiresolution analysis method, where preliminary regions are identified using the frequency response of the pixels, pixels that have the same response to the same filter are assigned to the same cluster. Next, the radiologist knowledge is integrated to the system to select the most suspicious ROIs among the prelimianry identified regions. The second stage is constructing the spectral features from the identified ROIs. The proposed technique is based on a novel spectral feature set for the TRUS images using the Total Least Square Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (TLS-ESPRIT). Classifier based feature selection is then performed to select the most salient features using the recently proposed Artificial Immune System (AIS) optimization technique. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used as an accuracy measure, our proposed system obtains a classification accuracy of 94.4%, with 100% sensitivity and 83.3% sensetivity.

  6. Automated AI-based designer of electrical distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumic, Zarko

    1992-03-01

    Designing the electrical supply system for new residential developments (plat design) is an everyday task for electric utility engineers. Presently this task is carried out manually resulting in an overdesigned, costly, and nonstandardized solution. As an ill-structured and open-ended problem, plat design is difficult to automate with conventional approaches such as operational research or CAD. Additional complexity in automating plat design is imposed by the need to process spatial data such as circuits' maps, records, and construction plans. The intelligent decision support system for automated electrical plate design (IDSS for AEPD) is an engineering tool aimed at automating plate design. IDSS for AEPD combines the functionality of geographic information systems (GIS) a geographically referenced database, with the sophistication of artificial intelligence (AI) to deal with the complexity inherent in design problems. Blackboard problem solving architecture, concentrated around INGRES relational database and NEXPERT object expert system shell have been chosen to accommodate the diverse knowledge sources and data models. The GIS's principal task it to create, structure, and formalize the real world representation required by the rule based reasoning portion of the AEPD. IDSS's capability to support and enhance the engineer's design, rather than only automate the design process through a prescribed computation, makes it a preferred choice among the possible techniques for AEPD. This paper presents the results of knowledge acquisition and the knowledge engineering process with AEPD tool conceptual design issues. To verify the proposed concept, the comparison of results obtained by the AEPD tool with the design obtained by an experienced human designer is given.

  7. Optimized bacterial expression of human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert O; Forte, Trudy M; Oda, Michael N

    2003-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) serves critical functions in plasma lipoprotein metabolism as a structural component of high density lipoprotein, activator of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and acceptor of cellular cholesterol as part of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. In an effort to facilitate structure:function studies of human apoA-I, we have optimized a plasmid vector for production of recombinant wild type (WT) and mutant apoA-I in bacteria. To facilitate mutagenesis studies, subcloning, and DNA manipulation, numerous silent mutations have been introduced into the apoA-I cDNA, generating 13 unique restriction endonuclease sites. The coding sequence for human apoA-I has been modified by the introduction of additional silent mutations that eliminate 18 separate codons that employ tRNAs that are of low or moderate abundance in Escherichia coli. Yields of recombinant apoA-I achieved using the optimized cDNA were 100+/-20 mg/L bacterial culture, more than fivefold greater than yields routinely obtained with the original cDNA. Site-directed mutagenesis of the apoA-I cDNA was performed to generate a Glu2Asp mutation in the N-terminal sequence of apoA-I. This modification, which creates an acid labile Asp-Pro peptide bond between amino acids 2 and 3, permits specific chemical cleavage of an N-terminal His-Tag fusion peptide used for rapid protein purification. The product protein's primary structure is identical to WT apoA-I in all other respects. Together, these changes in apoA-I cDNA and bacterial expression protocol significantly improve the yield of apoA-I protein without compromising the relative ease of purification.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I and its mimetics for the treatment of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Although statin treatment leads consistently to a reduction in major adverse coronary events and death in clinical trials, approximately 60 to 70% residual risk of these outcomes still remains. One frontier of investigational drug research is treatment to increase HDL, the ‘good cholesterol’ that is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) are protective against atherosclerosis through several mechanisms, including the ability to mediate reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical findings for two types of therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis: apoAI-containing compounds and apoAI mimetic peptides. Both of these therapies have excellent potential to be useful clinically to promote atherosclerosis regression and stabilize existing plaques, but significant hurdles must be overcome in order to develop these approaches into safe and effective therapies. PMID:20730693

  9. 76 FR 44045 - Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... National Coordination Committee on the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Sexual Assault Response Team... valuable advice about the complex issues that arise when AI/AN law enforcement agencies and their...

  10. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  11. AI-2 biosynthesis module in a magnetic nanofactory alters bacterial response via localized synthesis and delivery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rohan; Bentley, William E

    2009-02-01

    Nanofactories are nano-dimensioned and comprised of modules serving various functions that alter the response of targeted cells when deployed by locally synthesizing and delivering cargo to the surfaces of the targeted cells. In its basic form, a nanofactory consists of a minimum of two functional modules: a cell capture module and a synthesis module. In this work, magnetic nanofactories that alter the response of targeted bacteria by the localized synthesis and delivery of the "universal" bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule autoinducer AI-2 are demonstrated. The magnetic nanofactories consist of a cell capture module (chitosan-mag nanoparticles) and an AI-2 biosynthesis module that contains both AI-2 biosynthetic enzymes Pfs and LuxS on a fusion protein (His-LuxS-Pfs-Tyr, HLPT) assembled together. HLPT is hypothesized to be more efficient than its constituent enzymes (used separately) at conversion of the substrate SAH to product AI-2 on account of the proximity of the two enzymes within the fusion protein. HLPT is demonstrated to be more active than the constituent enzymes, Pfs and LuxS, over a wide range of experimental conditions. The magnetic nanofactories (containing bound HLPT) are also demonstrated to be more active than free, unbound HLPT. They are also shown to elicit an increased response in targeted Escherichia coli cells, due to the localized synthesis and delivery of AI-2, when compared to the response produced by the addition of AI-2 directly to the cells. Studies investigating the universality of AI-2 and unraveling AI-2 based quorum sensing in bacteria using magnetic nanofactories are envisioned. The prospects of using such multi-modular nanofactories in developing the next generation of antimicrobials based on intercepting and interrupting quorum sensing based signaling are discussed.

  12. Asymmetric DNA recognition by the OkrAI endonuclease, an isoschizomer of BamHI

    SciTech Connect

    Vanamee, Éva Scheuring; Viadiu, Hector; Chan, Siu-Hong; Ummat, Ajay; Hartline, Adrian M.; Xu, Shuang-yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2011-11-18

    Restriction enzymes share little or no sequence homology with the exception of isoschizomers, or enzymes that recognize and cleave the same DNA sequence. We present here the structure of a BamHI isoschizomer, OkrAI, bound to the same DNA sequence (TATGGATCCATA) as that cocrystallized with BamHI. We show that OkrAI is a more minimal version of BamHI, lacking not only the N- and C-terminal helices but also an internal 310 helix and containing {beta}-strands that are shorter than those in BamHI. Despite these structural differences, OkrAI recognizes the DNA in a remarkably similar manner to BamHI, including asymmetric contacts via C-terminal 'arms' that appear to 'compete' for the minor groove. However, the arms are shorter than in BamHI. We observe similar DNA-binding affinities between OkrAI and BamHI but OkrAI has higher star activity (at 37 C) compared to BamHI. Together, the OkrAI and BamHI structures offer a rare opportunity to compare two restriction enzymes that work on exactly the same DNA substrate.

  13. Analysis of AIS Data of the Recluse Oil Field, Recluse, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Segal, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were flown over the Recluse, Wyoming oil field on September 9, 1984. Processing software was developed at Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat) for interactive analysis of the AIS data. EarthSat's AIS processing capabilities include destriping, solar irradiance corrections, residual calculations, geometric resampling, equal energy normalization, interactive spectral classifications and a variety of compressive algorithms to reduce the data to 8-bit format with a minimum of information loss. The in-house photolab facilities of EarthSat can routinely produce high-quality color renditions of the enhanced AIS data. A total of 80 lithologic samples were collected under the AIS flight lines. Correlation (within the atmospheric windows) between the laboratory and the AIS spectra of sample sites was generally poor. Reasonable correlation was only possible in large, freshly plowed fields. Mixed pixels and contrast between the natural and sample's surfaces were believed responsible for the poor correlation. Finally, a drift of approximately three channels was observed in the diffraction grating position within the 1.8 to 2.1 micron quadrant.

  14. Concentration and pattern changes of porcine serum apolipoprotein A-I in four different infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Bassols, Anna; Miller, Ingrid

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is a major protein in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and decreased serum levels have been observed in many species in response to inflammatory and infectious challenges. Little is known about the porcine homologue, therefore in this work we have characterized it through biochemical and proteomic techniques. In 2DE, porcine serum Apo A-I is found as three spots, the two more acidic ones corresponding to the mature protein, the more basic spot to the protein precursor. Despite high sequence coverage in LC-MS/MS, we did not find a sequence or PTM difference between the two mature protein species. Besides this biochemical characterization, we measured overall levels and relative species abundance of serum Apo A-I in four different viral and bacterial porcine infectious diseases. Lower overall amounts of Apo A-I were observed in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli infections. In the 2DE protein pattern, an increase of the protein precursor together with a lower level of mature protein species were detected in the porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease and S. typhimurium infection. These results reveal that both the porcine serum Apo A-I concentration and the species pattern are influenced by the nature of the infectious disease.

  15. An AIS-based approach to calculate atmospheric emissions from the UK fishing fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coello, Jonathan; Williams, Ian; Hudson, Dominic A.; Kemp, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The fishing industry is heavily reliant on the use of fossil fuel and emits large quantities of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. Methods used to calculate fishing vessel emissions inventories have traditionally utilised estimates of fuel efficiency per unit of catch. These methods have weaknesses because they do not easily allow temporal and geographical allocation of emissions. A large proportion of fishing and other small commercial vessels are also omitted from global shipping emissions inventories such as the International Maritime Organisation's Greenhouse Gas Studies. This paper demonstrates an activity-based methodology for the production of temporally- and spatially-resolved emissions inventories using data produced by Automatic Identification Systems (AIS). The methodology addresses the issue of how to use AIS data for fleets where not all vessels use AIS technology and how to assign engine load when vessels are towing trawling or dredging gear. The results of this are compared to a fuel-based methodology using publicly available European Commission fisheries data on fuel efficiency and annual catch. The results show relatively good agreement between the two methodologies, with an estimate of 295.7 kilotons of fuel used and 914.4 kilotons of carbon dioxide emitted between May 2012 and May 2013 using the activity-based methodology. Different methods of calculating speed using AIS data are also compared. The results indicate that using the speed data contained directly in the AIS data is preferable to calculating speed from the distance and time interval between consecutive AIS data points.

  16. Physiological changes in fruit ripening caused by overexpression of tomato SlAN2, an R2R3-MYB factor.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xia; Yang, Dongyue; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Shuya; Sui, Na; Meng, Qingwei

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-MYB protein SlAN2 has long been thought to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the role of SlAN2, we have previously overexpressed the gene in tomato. In this work, we analysed physiological characters of the transgenic plants during the fruit ripening. We show that fruits of transformants overexpressing SlAN2 displayed an orange colour, fast softening and elevated ethylene production. Overexpression of SlAN2 resulted in reduction of carotenoid levels via alteration of flux through the carotenoid pathway, elevated ethylene synthesis mainly via upregulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes, and early softening of fruits. We also found that the transcript level of SlRIN, an important ripening-related gene, was up-regulated in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that SlAN2 acts as an important regulator of fruit ripening.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency due to a codon 84 nonsense mutation of the apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Yanagi, Hisako; Hattori, Naoko; Yamakawa, Kimiko; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Hamaguchi, Hideo ); Hiasa, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Toshihiro ); Tanaka, Isao; Obara, Takashi )

    1991-04-01

    The molecular genetic defect of a female patient with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency and premature atherosclerosis was examined. Her parents were first cousins. Her plasma density fraction from 1.063 to 1.21 g/ml contained no apoA-I on SDS/PAGE and no measurable high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Southern blot hybridization showed no gross abnormality to be present in the patient's apoA-I gene and homozygosity for a haplotype of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the apoA-I gene region. Sequencing after amplification by PCR revealed a codon 84 nonsense mutation (CAG {r arrow} TAG, Gln {r arrow} stop) of exon 4 and a codon 37 missense mutation (GCC{r arrow} ACC, Ala {r arrow} Thr) of exon 3 in the patient's apoA-I gene. The data from dot-blot hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes indicated that she was homozygous for the apoA-I gene with regard to the two mutations. The codon 37 missense mutation was also detected in the apoA-I gene of 6 out of 60 controls, who all had normal levels of apoA-I and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, suggesting that the missense mutation is polymorphic and not associated with apoA-I deficiency. These finding indicate that homozygosity for the apoA-I gene with codon 84 nonsense mutation causes the deficiency of apoA-I and of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the patient.

  18. [Clinical application of Modulith SL20 on extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for upper urinary tract calculi].

    PubMed

    Tanda, H; Kato, S; Ohnishi, S; Nakajima, H; Ujiie, T; Maruta, H

    1991-12-01

    Thirty-nine patients, 27 males and 12 females with renal and ureteral stones, were treated using the Modulith SL 20 between October 1990 and January 1991. Thirty-three of the 39 cases had a single session of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and the other six cases had two sessions. The pulverization rate of ESWL by this device was 84.6%. According to the X-rays taken 21 days after ESWL, of the 37 cases, 14 (37.8%) were stone-free, 18 (48.7%) had residual sandy stones less than 4 mm in diameter, five (13.5%) had residual stone fragments larger than 4.1 mm in diameter, and two cases were not clear. Using the criterion of cases which can be expected to have spontaneous passage, in other words, residual stones less than 4 mm in diameter, lithotripsy with the Modulith SL 20 was regarded as "effective" in 32 of the 37 cases (86.5%). As side effects of this treatment, hematuria was observed for several days after ESWL in all patients, but not other serious complications were observed. Among the 37 cases in which the grade could be evaluated the evaluation for 24 (64.9%) was "useful" and that for 13 (35.1%) "useful to some extent". Therefore, ESWL was performed very successfully.

  19. Spacelab Operations Support Room Space Engineering Support Team in the SL POCC During the IML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Spacelab Operations Support Room Space Engineering Support team in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  20. Traces of Intertwiners for Quantum Affine sl_2 and Felder-Varchenko Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi

    2016-10-01

    We show that the traces of {U_q({widehat{sl}_2)}-intertwiners of [ESV02] valued in the three-dimensional evaluation representation converge in a certain region of parameters and give a representation-theoretic construction of Felder-Varchenko's hypergeometric solutions to the q-KZB heat equation given in [FV02]. This gives the first proof that such a trace function converges and resolves the first case of the Etingof-Varchenko conjecture of [EV00]. As applications, we prove a symmetry property for traces of intertwiners and prove Felder-Varchenko's conjecture in [FV04] that their elliptic Macdonald polynomials are related to the affine Macdonald polynomials defined as traces over irreducible integrable {U_q({widehat{sl}_2)}-modules in [EK95]. In the trigonometric and classical limits, we recover results of [EK94,EV00]. Our method relies on an interplay between the method of coherent states applied to the free field realization of the q-Wakimoto module of [Mat94], convergence properties given by the theta hypergeometric integrals of [FV02], and rationality properties originating from the representation-theoretic definition of the trace function.

  1. SL-1 Accident Briefing Report - 1961 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown Educational Documentary

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-25

    U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (Idaho Operations Office) briefing about the SL-1 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown. The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators. The direct cause was the improper withdrawal of the central control rod, responsible for absorbing neutrons in the reactor core. The event is the only known fatal reactor accident in the United States. The accident released about 80 curies (3.0 TBq) of Iodine-131, which was not considered significant due to its location in a remote desert of Idaho. About 1,100 curies (41 TBq) of fission products were released into the atmosphere. The facility, located at the National Reactor Testing Station approximately 40 miles (64 km) west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, was part of the Army Nuclear Power Program and was known as the Argonne Low Power Reactor (ALPR) during its design and build phase. It was intended to provide electrical power and heat for small, remote military facilities, such as radar sites near the Arctic Circle, and those in the DEW Line. The design power was 3 MW (thermal). Operating power was 200 kW electrical and 400 kW thermal for space heating. In the accident, the core power level reached nearly 20 GW in just four milliseconds, precipitating the reactor accident and steam explosion.

  2. Non-holomorphic modular forms and SL(2,R)/U(1) superconformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Sugawara, Yuji

    2011-03-01

    We study the torus partition function of the {{{{text{SL}}left( {2,mathbb{R}} right)}} left/ {{{text{U}}(1)}} right.} SUSY gauged WZW model coupled to mathcal{N} = 2 U(1) current. Starting from the path-integral formulation of the theory, we introduce an infra-red regularization which preserves good modular properties and discuss the decomposition of the partition function in terms of the mathcal{N} = 2 characters of discrete (BPS) and continuous (non-BPS) representations. Contrary to our naive expectation, we find a non-holomorphic dependence (dependence on bar{tau } ) in the expansion coefficients of continuous representations. This non-holomorphicity appears in such a way that the anomalous modular behaviors of the discrete (BPS) characters are compensated by the transformation law of the non-holomorphic coefficients of the continuous (non-BPS) characters. Discrete characters together with the non-holomorphic continuous characters combine into real analytic Jacobi forms and these combinations exactly agree with the "modular completion" of discrete characters known in the theory of Mock theta functions [11]. We consider this to be a general phenomenon: we expect to encounter "holomorphic anomaly" ( bar{tau } -dependence) in string partition function on non-compact target manifolds. The anomaly occurs due to the incompatibility of holomorphy and modular invariance of the theory. Appearance of non-holomorphicity in {{{{text{SL}}left( {2,mathbb{R}} right)}} left/ {{{text{U}}(1)}} right.} elliptic genus has recently been observed by Troost [12].

  3. Topological charges in SL(2,R) covariant massive 11-dimensional and type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Andrew K.; Smith, Douglas J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we construct closed expressions that correspond to the topological charges of the various 1/2-BPS states of the maximal 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity theories. These expressions are related to the structure of the supersymmetry algebras in curved spacetimes. We mainly focus on IIB supergravity and 11-dimensional supergravity in a double M9-brane background, with an emphasis on the SL(2,R) multiplet structure of the charges and how these map between theories. This includes the charges corresponding to the multiplets of 7- and 9-branes in IIB. We find that examining the possible multiplet structures of the charges provides another tool for exploring the spectrum of BPS states that appear in these theories. As a prerequisite to constructing the charges we determine the field equations and multiplet structure of the 11-dimensional gauge potentials, extending previous results on the subject. The massive gauge transformations of the fields are also discussed. We also demonstrate how these massive gauge transformations are compatible with the construction of an SL(2,R) covariant kinetic term in the 11-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole worldvolume action.

  4. Ecophysiology of Anopheles gambiae s.l.: Persistence in the Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Diana L.; Lehmann, Tovi

    2014-01-01

    The dry-season biology of malaria vectors is poorly understood, especially in arid environments when no surface waters are available for several months, such as during the dry season in the Sahel. Here we reappraise results on the dry-season physiology of members of the Anopheles gambiae s.l. complex in the broad context of dormancy in insects and especially in mosquitoes. We examine evidence on seasonal changes in reproduction, metabolism, stress tolerance, nutrition, molecular regulation, and environmental conditions and determine if the current results are compatible with dry-season diapause (aestivation) as the primary strategy for persistence throughout the dry season in the Sahel. In the process, we point out critical gaps in our knowledge that future studies can fill. We find compelling evidence that members of the An. gambiae s.l. complex undergo a form of aestivation during the Sahelian dry season by shifting energetic resources away from reproduction and towards increased longevity. Considering the differences between winter at temperate latitudes, which entails immobility of the insect and hence reliance on physiological solutions, as opposed to the Sahelian dry season, which restricts reproduction exclusively, we propose that behavioral changes play an important role in complementing physiological changes in this strategy. PMID:24933461

  5. SL(2,C) Chern-Simons Theory and Quantum Gravity with a Cosmological Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggard, Hal; Han, Muxin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Riello, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    We show a relation between 4-dimensional quantum gravity with a cosmological constant and SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory in 3-dimensions with knotted graph defects. In particular, we study the expectation value of a non-planar Wilson graph operator in SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory on S3. We analyze its asymptotic behavior in the double-scaling limit in which both the representation labels and the Chern-Simons coupling are taken to be large, but with fixed ratio. We find that a class of flat connections in the graph complement manifold are in correspondence with the geometries of constant curvature 4-simplices. We show that the asymptotic behavior of the amplitude contains an oscillatory part proportional to the Regge action for the single 4-simplex in the presence of a cosmological constant. In particular, the cosmological term contains the full-fledged curved volume of the 4-simplex. Interestingly, the volume term stems from the asymptotics of the Chern-Simons action. Another peculiarity of our approach is that the sign of the curvature of the reconstructed geometry, and hence of the cosmological constant in the Regge action, is not fixed a priori, but rather emerges semiclassically and dynamically from the solution of the equations of motion. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, the European Marie Curie actions, and the Perimeter Institute.

  6. SL-1 Accident Briefing Report - 1961 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown Educational Documentary

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (Idaho Operations Office) briefing about the SL-1 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown. The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators. The direct cause was the improper withdrawal of the central control rod, responsible for absorbing neutrons in the reactor core. The event is the only known fatal reactor accident in the United States. The accident released about 80 curies (3.0 TBq) of Iodine-131, which was not considered significant due to its location in a remote desert of Idaho. About 1,100 curies (41 TBq) of fission products were released into the atmosphere. The facility, located at the National Reactor Testing Station approximately 40 miles (64 km) west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, was part of the Army Nuclear Power Program and was known as the Argonne Low Power Reactor (ALPR) during its design and build phase. It was intended to provide electrical power and heat for small, remote military facilities, such as radar sites near the Arctic Circle, and those in the DEW Line. The design power was 3 MW (thermal). Operating power was 200 kW electrical and 400 kW thermal for space heating. In the accident, the core power level reached nearly 20 GW in just four milliseconds, precipitating the reactor accident and steam explosion.

  7. Ectopic overexpression of SlHsfA3, a heat stress transcription factor from tomato, confers increased thermotolerance and salt hypersensitivity in germination in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjun; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Aoxue; Xu, Xiangyang; Li, Jingfu

    2013-01-01

    Plant heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are the critical components involved in mediating responses to various environmental stressors. However, the detailed roles of many plant Hsfs are far from fully understood. In this study, an Hsf (SlHsfA3) was isolated from the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Sl) and functionally characterized at the genetic and developmental levels. The nucleus-localized SlHsfA3 was basally and ubiquitously expressed in different plant organs. The expression of SlHsfA3 was induced dramatically by heat stress, moderately by high salinity, and slightly by drought, but was not induced by abscisic acid (ABA). The ectopic overexpression of SlHsfA3 conferred increased thermotolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, SlHsfA3 played a negative role in controlling seed germination under salt stress. RNA-sequencing data demonstrated that a number of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and stress-associated genes were induced in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing SlHsfA3. A gel shift experiment and transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated that SlHsfA3 directly activates the expression of SlHsp26.1-P and SlHsp21.5-ER. Taken together, our results suggest that SlHsfA3 behaves as a typical Hsf to contribute to plant thermotolerance. The late flowering and seed germination phenotypes and the RNA-seq data derived from SlHsfA3 overexpression lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant Hsfs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions. PMID:23349984

  8. Ss-Sl2, a novel cell wall protein with PAN modules, is essential for sclerotial development and cellular integrity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Jiang, Daohong; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Fu, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    The sclerotium is an important dormant body for many plant fungal pathogens. Here, we reported that a protein, named Ss-Sl2, is involved in sclerotial development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ss-Sl2 does not show significant homology with any protein of known function. Ss-Sl2 contains two putative PAN modules which were found in other proteins with diverse adhesion functions. Ss-Sl2 is a secreted protein, during the initial stage of sclerotial development, copious amounts of Ss-Sl2 are secreted and accumulated on the cell walls. The ability to maintain the cellular integrity of RNAi-mediated Ss-Sl2 silenced strains was reduced, but the hyphal growth and virulence of Ss-Sl2 silenced strains were not significantly different from the wild strain. Ss-Sl2 silenced strains could form interwoven hyphal masses at the initial stage of sclerotial development, but the interwoven hyphae could not consolidate and melanize. Hyphae in these interwoven bodies were thin-walled, and arranged loosely. Co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Woronin body major protein (Hex1) and elongation factor 1-alpha interact with Ss-Sl2. GAPDH-knockdown strains showed a similar phenotype in sclerotial development as Ss-Sl2 silenced strains. Hex1-knockdown strains showed similar impairment in maintenance of hyphal integrity as Ss-Sl2 silenced strains. The results suggested that Ss-Sl2 functions in both sclerotial development and cellular integrity of S. sclerotiorum.

  9. Ectopic Overexpression of SlHsfA3, a Heat Stress Transcription Factor from Tomato, Confers Increased Thermotolerance and Salt Hypersensitivity in Germination in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenjun; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Aoxue; Xu, Xiangyang; Li, Jingfu

    2013-01-01

    Plant heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are the critical components involved in mediating responses to various environmental stressors. However, the detailed roles of many plant Hsfs are far from fully understood. In this study, an Hsf (SlHsfA3) was isolated from the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Sl) and functionally characterized at the genetic and developmental levels. The nucleus-localized SlHsfA3 was basally and ubiquitously expressed in different plant organs. The expression of SlHsfA3 was induced dramatically by heat stress, moderately by high salinity, and slightly by drought, but was not induced by abscisic acid (ABA). The ectopic overexpression of SlHsfA3 conferred increased thermotolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, SlHsfA3 played a negative role in controlling seed germination under salt stress. RNA-sequencing data demonstrated that a number of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and stress-associated genes were induced in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing SlHsfA3. A gel shift experiment and transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated that SlHsfA3 directly activates the expression of SlHsp26.1-P and SlHsp21.5-ER. Taken together, our results suggest that SlHsfA3 behaves as a typical Hsf to contribute to plant thermotolerance. The late flowering and seed germination phenotypes and the RNA-seq data derived from SlHsfA3 overexpression lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant Hsfs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions. PMID:23349984

  10. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium trxA mutants are protective against virulent challenge and induce less inflammation than the live-attenuated vaccine strain SL3261.

    PubMed

    Peters, S E; Paterson, G K; Bandularatne, E S D; Northen, H C; Pleasance, S; Willers, C; Wang, J; Foote, A K; Constantino-Casas, F; Scase, T J; Blacklaws, B A; Bryant, C E; Mastroeni, P; Charles, I G; Maskell, D J

    2010-01-01

    In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, trxA encodes thioredoxin 1, a small, soluble protein with disulfide reductase activity, which catalyzes thiol disulfide redox reactions in a variety of substrate proteins. Thioredoxins are involved as antioxidants in defense against oxidative stresses, such as exposure to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. We have made a defined, complete deletion of trxA in the mouse-virulent S. Typhimurium strain SL1344 (SL1344 trxA), replacing the gene with a kanamycin resistance gene cassette. SL1344 trxA was attenuated for virulence in BALB/c mice by the oral and intravenous routes and when used in immunization experiments provided protection against challenge with the virulent parent strain. SL1344 trxA induced less inflammation in murine spleens and livers than SL3261, the aroA mutant, live attenuated vaccine strain. The reduced splenomegaly observed following infection with SL1344 trxA was partially attributed to a reduction in the number of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and B lymphocytes in the spleen and reduced infiltration by CD11b(+) cells into the spleen compared with spleens from mice infected with SL3261. This less severe pathological response indicates that a trxA mutation might be used to reduce reactogenicity of live attenuated vaccine strains. We tested this by deleting trxA in SL3261. SL3261 trxA was also less inflammatory than SL3261 but was slightly less effective as a vaccine strain than either the SL3261 parent strain or SL1344 trxA.

  11. Ss-Sl2, a novel cell wall protein with PAN modules, is essential for sclerotial development and cellular integrity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Jiang, Daohong; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Fu, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    The sclerotium is an important dormant body for many plant fungal pathogens. Here, we reported that a protein, named Ss-Sl2, is involved in sclerotial development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ss-Sl2 does not show significant homology with any protein of known function. Ss-Sl2 contains two putative PAN modules which were found in other proteins with diverse adhesion functions. Ss-Sl2 is a secreted protein, during the initial stage of sclerotial development, copious amounts of Ss-Sl2 are secreted and accumulated on the cell walls. The ability to maintain the cellular integrity of RNAi-mediated Ss-Sl2 silenced strains was reduced, but the hyphal growth and virulence of Ss-Sl2 silenced strains were not significantly different from the wild strain. Ss-Sl2 silenced strains could form interwoven hyphal masses at the initial stage of sclerotial development, but the interwoven hyphae could not consolidate and melanize. Hyphae in these interwoven bodies were thin-walled, and arranged loosely. Co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Woronin body major protein (Hex1) and elongation factor 1-alpha interact with Ss-Sl2. GAPDH-knockdown strains showed a similar phenotype in sclerotial development as Ss-Sl2 silenced strains. Hex1-knockdown strains showed similar impairment in maintenance of hyphal integrity as Ss-Sl2 silenced strains. The results suggested that Ss-Sl2 functions in both sclerotial development and cellular integrity of S. sclerotiorum. PMID:22558105

  12. Evaluation of AIS-2 (1986) data over hydrothermally altered granitoid rocks of the Singatse Range (Yerington) Nevada and comparison with 1985 AIS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) flights along 2 subparallel lines (bearing 013) were designed to traverse 3 major rock assemblages - the Triassic sedimentary sequence; the granitoid rocks of the Yerington batholith and the Tertiary ignimbritic ash flow and ash fall tuffs. The first 2 sites are hydrothermally altered to a quartz-sericite-tourmaline mineralogy. The first AIS-2 data set showed numerous line dropouts and a considerable number of randomly distributed dark pixels. A second decommutation reduced the dropout essentially to near zero and the dark pixels by about 75 percent. Vertical striping was removed by histogram matching, column by column. A log residual spectrum was calculated which showed the departure of a 2 x 2 pixel area from the spatially and spectrally averaged scene. A 1:1 correlation was found with the log residual AIS-2 data and a large open pit area of gypsum. An area with known sericite agreed with the overflight data, and an area known to be free of any significant amount of O-H bearing materials showed no evidence of any in the AIS-2 log residuals.

  13. InAs/GaSb superlattice pin photodiode: choice of the SL period to enhance the temperature operation in the MWIR domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christol, P.; Taalat, R.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Giard, E.; Ribet-Mohamed, I.

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, we studied the influence of the SL period on the electrical performances of MWIR pin photodiodes, fabricated by MBE on p-type GaSb substrate. These SL structures are made of symmetric or asymmetric SL period designs and exhibited cut-off wavelength around 5μm at 77K. Experimental measurements carried out on several SL pin photodiodes show the superiority, in terms of dark current density, of the asymmetric SL structure composed of 7 InAs monolayers (MLs) and 4 GaSb MLs. As a result, the 7/4 SL diode exhibits dark current density values as low as 40nA/cm2 and R0A product greater than 1.7x106 Ohm.cm2 at 77K, one decade larger than the value obtained with equivalent symmetric 10/10 SL diode. This result obtained demonstrates the strong influence of the SL period design on the performances, and then on temperature operation, of MWIR SL photodiodes.

  14. Expression of tomato SlTIP2;2 enhances the tolerance to salt stress in the transgenic Arabidopsis and interacts with target proteins.

    PubMed

    Xin, Shichao; Yu, Guohong; Sun, Linlin; Qiang, Xiaojing; Xu, Na; Cheng, Xianguo

    2014-11-01

    Three independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing SlTIP2;2 from Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Lichun under the control of its endogenous promoter were used to analyze the expression of SlTIP2;2 and the salt stress tolerance under NaCl concentration gradient treatment. The expression patterns of SlTIP2;2 were shown to be tissue-specific and NaCl dose-dependent under salt stress. SlTIP2;2-transformed Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced salt stress tolerance, and the physiological parameters suggested that SlTIP2;2 has close links with the ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzymes activities in salt-stressed transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, SlTIP2;2 expression significantly affected the Na(+) and K(+) fluxes from the root meristematic zones and resulted in remarkable changes in the morphology of the pith ray cells in the inflorescence stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Based on the yeast growth assay, β-galactosidase activity testing and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, SlTIP1;1, SlTIP2;1 and an UDP-galactose transporter were confirmed to interact with SlTIP2;2, which may greatly broaden our understanding of the physiological functions of aquaporins. PMID:25186161

  15. The tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene, SlGLO1, plays key roles in petal and stamen development

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuhu; Hu, Zongli; Yin, Wencheng; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important role in plant growth and development, especially floral organ identities. In our study, a MADS-box gene SlGLO1- tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene was isolated. Its tissue-specific expression profile analysis showed that SlGLO1 was highly expressed in petals and stamens. RNAi (RNA interference) repression of SlGLO1 resulted in floral organ abnormal phenotypes, including green petals with shorter size, and aberrant carpelloid stamens. SlGLO1-silenced lines are male sterile. Total chlorophyll content was increased and chlorophyll biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in SlGLO1-silenced petals and stamens. Furthermore, B-class genes expression analysis indicated that the repressed function of SlGLO1 led to the enhanced expression of TAP3 and the down-regulation of TPI in the petals and stamens, while the expression of TM6 was reduced in petals and increased in stamens and carpels of SlGLO1-RNAi plants. Additionally, pollen grains of transgenic lines were aberrant and failed to germinate and tomato pollen-specific genes were down-regulated by more than 90% in SlGLO1-silenced lines. These results suggest that SlGLO1 plays important role in regulating plant floral organ and pollen development in tomato. PMID:26842499

  16. RECONSTRUCTING THE ORIGINS OF HIGH-ALPINE NICHES AND CUSHION LIFE FORM IN THE GENUS ANDROSACE S.L. (PRIMULACEAE)

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Florian C.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Roquet, Cristina; Douzet, Rolland; Aubert, Serge; Alvarez, Nadir; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Relatively, few species have been able to colonize extremely cold alpine environments. We investigate the role played by the cushion life form in the evolution of climatic niches in the plant genus Androsace s.l., which spreads across the mountain ranges of the Northern Hemisphere. Using robust methods that account for phylogenetic uncertainty, intraspecific variability of climatic requirements and different life-history evolution scenarios, we show that climatic niches of Androsace s.l. exhibit low phylogenetic signal and that they evolved relatively recently and punctually. Models of niche evolution fitted onto phylogenies show that the cushion life form has been a key innovation providing the opportunity to occupy extremely cold environments, thus contributing to rapid climatic niche diversification in the genus Androsace s.l. We then propose a plausible scenario for the adaptation of plants to alpine habitats. PMID:22486702

  17. STS-55 German payload specialists and backups pose in front of SL-D2 at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, German payload specialists and backup (alternate) payload specialists pose in front of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module at a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) processing facility. These four Germans have been assigned to support the STS-55/SL-D2 mission. Left to right are Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, backup Payload Specialist Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele (kneeling), Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and backup Payload Specialist Renate Brummer. Walter and Schlegel are scheduled to fly aboard OV-102 for the mission while Brummer and Thiele will serve as alternates and fill supportive roles on the ground. Clearly visible on the SL-D2 module are the European Space Agency (ESA) insignia, the feedthrough plate, and the D2 insignia.

  18. AF4 uses the SL1 components of RNAP1 machinery to initiate MLL fusion- and AEP-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Akinori; Ito, Shinji; Matsui, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2015-11-23

    Gene rearrangements generate MLL fusion genes, which can lead to aggressive leukemia. In most cases, MLL fuses with a gene encoding a component of the AEP (AF4 family/ENL family/P-TEFb) coactivator complex. MLL-AEP fusion proteins constitutively activate their target genes to immortalize haematopoietic progenitors. Here we show that AEP and MLL-AEP fusion proteins activate transcription through selectivity factor 1 (SL1), a core component of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) of RNA polymerase I (RNAP1). The pSER domain of AF4 family proteins associates with SL1 on chromatin and loads TATA-binding protein (TBP) onto the promoter to initiate RNA polymerase II (RNAP2)-dependent transcription. These results reveal a previously unknown transcription initiation mechanism involving AEP and a role for SL1 as a TBP-loading factor in RNAP2-dependent gene activation.

  19. DNA inversion within the apolipoproteins AI/CIII/AIV-encoding gene cluster of certain patients with premature atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Karathanasis, S.K.; Ferris, E.; Haddad, I.A.

    1987-10-01

    The genes coding for apolipoproteins (apo) AI, CIII, and AIV, designated APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4, respectively, are closely linked and tandemly organized in the long arm of the human chromosome 11. A DNA rearrangement involving the genes encoding apoAI and apoCIII in certain patients with premature atherosclerosis has been associated with deficiency of both apoAI and apoCIII in the plasma of these patients. Structural characterization of the genes for apoAI and apoCIII in one of these patients indicates that this rearrangement consists of a DNA inversion containing portions of the 3' ends of the apoAI and apoCIII genes, including the DNA region between these genes. The breakpoints of this DNA inversion are located within the fourth exon of the apoAI gene and the first intron of the apoCIII gene. Thus, this DNA inversion results in reciprocal fusion of the apoAI and apoCIII gene transcriptional units. Expression of these gene fusions in cultured mammalian cells results in stable mRNA transcripts with sequences representing fusions of the apoAI and apoCIII mRNAs. These results indicate that absence of transcripts with correct apoAI and apoCIII mRNA sequences causes apoAI and apoCIII deficiency in the plasma of these patients and suggest that these apolipoproteins are involved in cholesterol homeostasis and protection against premature atherosclerosis.

  20. Expression and recovery of biologically active recombinant Apolipoprotein AI(Milano) from transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L; Shen, Yin; Murray, Elizabeth W; Boothe, Joseph G; Busseuil, David; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Reid, Alexandra; Moloney, Maurice M

    2011-02-01

    Apolipoprotein AI Milano (ApoAI(Milano) ) was expressed as a fusion protein in transgenic safflower seeds. High levels of expression corresponding to 7 g of ApoAI(Milano) per kilogram of seed have been identified in a line selected for commercialization. The ApoAI(Milano) fusion protein was extracted from seed using an oilbody-based process and matured in vitro prior to final purification. This yielded a Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) product which was confirmed by biochemical characterization including immunoreactivity against ApoAI antibodies, isoelectric point, N-terminal sequencing and electrospray mass spectrometry. Purified Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) readily associated with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine in clearance assays comparable to Human ApoAI. Its biological activity was assessed by cholesterol efflux assays using Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) :1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine complexes in vitro and in vivo. This study has established that high levels of biologically functional ApoAI(Milano) can be produced using a plant-based expression system.

  1. The sucrose transporter SlSUT2 from tomato interacts with brassinosteroid functioning and affects arbuscular mycorrhiza formation.

    PubMed

    Bitterlich, Michael; Krügel, Undine; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Franken, Philipp; Kühn, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Mycorrhizal plants benefit from the fungal partners by getting better access to soil nutrients. In exchange, the plant supplies carbohydrates to the fungus. The additional carbohydrate demand in mycorrhizal plants was shown to be balanced partially by higher CO2 assimilation and increased C metabolism in shoots and roots. In order to test the role of sucrose transport for fungal development in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tomato, transgenic plants with down-regulated expression of three sucrose transporter genes were analysed. Plants that carried an antisense construct of SlSUT2 (SlSUT2as) repeatedly exhibited increased mycorrhizal colonization and the positive effect of plants to mycorrhiza was abolished. Grafting experiments between transgenic and wild-type rootstocks and scions indicated that mainly the root-specific function of SlSUT2 has an impact on colonization of tomato roots with the AM fungus. Localization of SISUT2 to the periarbuscular membrane indicates a role in back transport of sucrose from the periarbuscular matrix into the plant cell thereby affecting hyphal development. Screening of an expression library for SlSUT2-interacting proteins revealed interactions with candidates involved in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling or biosynthesis. Interaction of these candidates with SlSUT2 was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Tomato mutants defective in BR biosynthesis were analysed with respect to mycorrhizal symbiosis and showed indeed decreased mycorrhization. This finding suggests that BRs affect mycorrhizal infection and colonization. If the inhibitory effect of SlSUT2 on mycorrhizal growth involves components of BR synthesis and of the BR signaling pathway is discussed.

  2. Strigolactone deficiency confers resistance in tomato line SL-ORT1 to the parasitic weeds Phelipanche and Orobanche spp.

    PubMed

    Dor, Evgenia; Yoneyama, Koichi; Wininger, Smadar; Kapulnik, Yoram; Yoneyama, Kaori; Koltai, Hinanit; Xie, Xiaonan; Hershenhorn, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    The parasitic flowering plants of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche (broomrape species) are obligatory chlorophyll-lacking root-parasitic weeds that infect dicotyledonous plants and cause heavy economic losses in a wide variety of plant species in warm-temperate and subtropical regions. One of the most effective strategies for broomrape control is crop breeding for broomrape resistance. Previous efforts to find natural broomrape-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genotypes were unsuccessful, and no broomrape resistance was found in any wild tomato species. Recently, however, the fast-neutron-mutagenized tomato mutant SL-ORT1 was found to be highly resistant to various Phelipanche and Orobanche spp. Nevertheless, SL-ORT1 plants were parasitized by Phelipanche aegyptiaca if grown in pots together with the susceptible tomato cv. M-82. In the present study, no toxic activity or inhibition of Phelipanche seed germination could be detected in the SL-ORT1 root extracts. SL-ORT1 roots did not induce Phelipanche seed germination in pots but they were parasitized, at the same level as M-82, after application of the synthetic germination stimulant GR24 to the rhizosphere. Whereas liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analysis of root exudates of M-82 revealed the presence of the strigolactones orobanchol, solanacol, and didehydro-orobanchol isomer, these compounds were not found in the exudates of SL-ORT1. It can be concluded that SL-ORT1 resistance results from its inability to produce and secrete natural germination stimulants to the rhizosphere.

  3. Efficacy and safety of Stealth liposomal doxorubicin in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The International SL-DOX Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, F. D.; Goldstein, D.; Goos, M.; Jablonowski, H.; Stewart, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The utility of current chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) is often compromised by both limited efficacy and substantial toxicity. Pegylated (Stealth) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (SL-DOX) has been demonstrated specifically to deliver high concentrations of doxorubicin to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions. This phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SL-DOX in the treatment of moderate to severe AIDS-KS. Patients were treated biweekly with 10, 20, or 40 mg m-2 SL-DOX. Tumour response was assessed according to AIDS Clinical Trials Groups (ACTG) criteria before each cycle. Best response was determined for 238 patients and was achieved after a mean of 2.3 cycles (range 1-20). Fifteen patients (6.3%) had a complete response to SL-DOX, 177 (74.4%) had a partial response, 44 (18.5%) had stable disease and two (0.8%) had disease progression. SL-DOX was well tolerated: ten patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events, in four cases because of neutropenia. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred after 281 of 2023 cycles (13.9%) but involved 137 of 240 patients (57.1%) for whom data were available. SL-DOX has substantial activity in AIDS-KS. Best response is typically seen after fewer than three cycles of chemotherapy and in some cases may be prolonged. The most important adverse event is neutropenia, which occurs after a minority of cycles but which may occur in over half of all patients. PMID:8611437

  4. Do Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Neglect Proprioceptive Information in Sensory Integration of Postural Control?

    PubMed Central

    Assaiante, Christine; Mallau, Sophie; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Bollini, Gérard; Vaugoyeau, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that AIS rely much more on ankle proprioception to control the amplitude of the balance control commands as compared to age-matched healthy adolescents. Our hypothesis was that AIS do not neglect proprioceptive information to control posture probably because of their vestibular deficits. We investigated the proprioceptive contribution to postural control in AIS which expresses spinal deformity during a crucial transitional period of ontogenesis. Methods 10 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate spinal deformity (10° < Cobb Angle >35°) and 10 control adolescents (CA) had to maintain vertical stance while very slow oscillations in the frontal plane (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system) were applied to the support with the eyes open and closed. Postural orientation and segmental stabilisation were analysed at head, shoulder, trunk and pelvis levels. Results Scoliosis did not affect vertical orientation control and segmental stabilization strategies. Vision improves postural control in both CA and AIS, which seem more dependent on visual cues than adults. Conclusions AIS as CA were unable to control efficiently their postural orientation on the basis of the proprioceptive cues, the only sensory information available in the EC situation, whereas in the same condition healthy young adults present no difficulty to achieve the postural control. This suggests that AIS as CA transitory neglect proprioceptive information to control their posture. These results and previous studies suggest the existence of different afferent pathways for proprioceptive information subserving different parts in sensory integration of postural control. We conclude that the static proprioceptive system is not affected by the idiopathic scoliosis, while the dynamic proprioceptive system would be mainly affected. PMID:22815779

  5. Embryonic mortality in buffaloes synchronized and mated by AI during the seasonal decline in reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca; Galiero, Giorgio; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Zicarelli, Luigi

    2005-05-01

    The aim was to determine the factors that contribute to embryonic mortality in buffaloes mated by AI during a period of increasing day length which corresponds to a natural decline in reproductive activity. Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows (n=243) showing regular estrous cycles were synchronized using the Ovsynch-TAI program and mated by AI at 16 and 40 h after the second injection of GnRH. Blood samples were collected on Days 10 and 20 after the first AI and assayed for progesterone (P4). Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken on Days 26 and 40 after the first AI using rectal ultrasonography. Buffaloes with a conceptus on Day 26 but not on Day 40 were judged to have undergone embryonic mortality and for these animals uterine fluid was recovered by flushing and analysed for common infectious agents. Estrus synchronization was achieved in 86% of buffaloes and the pregnancy rate on Day 40 was 34%. Embryonic mortality between Days 26 and 40 occurred in 45% of buffaloes and was associated with the presence of significant infectious agents in only 10 buffaloes (8%). Concentrations of P4 on Day 10 after AI were higher (P<0.05) in buffaloes that established a pregnancy than in buffaloes that showed embryonic mortality that was not associated with infectious agents. Similarly, on Day 20 after AI P4 concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in pregnant buffaloes compared with non-pregnant buffaloes and buffaloes that had embryonic mortality. It is concluded that a reduced capacity for P4 secretion can explain around 50% of embryonic mortalities in buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI during a period of low reproductive activity and that other as yet unidentified factors also have a significant effect on embryonic survival. PMID:15826694

  6. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Kumar, Ramesh; Soertidewi, Lyna; Abu Bakar, Azizi; Laik, Carine; Gan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction NeuroAiD (MLC601, MLC901), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry aims to assess its use and safety in the real-world setting. Methods and analysis The NeST Registry is designed as a product registry that would provide information on the use and safety of NeuroAiD in clinical practice. An online NeST Registry was set up to allow easy entry and retrieval of essential information including demographics, medical conditions, clinical assessments of neurological, functional and cognitive state, compliance, concomitant medications, and side effects, if any, among patients on NeuroAiD. Patients who are taking or have been prescribed NeuroAiD may be included. Participation is voluntary. Data collected are similar to information obtained during standard care and are prospectively entered by the participating physicians at baseline (before initialisation of NeuroAiD) and during subsequent visits. The primary outcome assessed is safety (ie, non-serious and serious adverse event), while compliance and neurological status over time are secondary outcomes. The in-person follow-up assessments are timed with clinical appointments. Anonymised data will be extracted and collectively analysed. Initial target sample size for the registry is 2000. Analysis will be performed after every 500 participants entered with completed follow-up information. Ethics and dissemination Doctors who prescribe NeuroAiD will be introduced to the registry by local partners. The central coordinator of the registry will discuss the protocol and requirements for implementation with doctors who show interest. Currently, the registry has been approved by the Ethics Committees of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia) and National Brain Center (Indonesia). In addition, for other countries, Ethics Committee approval will be obtained in accordance with local requirements. Trial

  7. Probing the Run-On Oligomer of Activated SgrAI Bound to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Santosh; Sanchez, Jonathan; Stewart, Andrew; Piperakis, Michael M.; Cosstick, Richard; Nichols, Claire; Park, Chad K.; Ma, Xin; Wysocki, Vicki; Bitinaite, Jurate; Horton, Nancy C.

    2015-01-01

    SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease with an unusual mechanism of activation involving run-on oligomerization. The run-on oligomer is formed from complexes of SgrAI bound to DNA containing its 8 bp primary recognition sequence (uncleaved or cleaved), and also binds (and thereby activates for DNA cleavage) complexes of SgrAI bound to secondary site DNA sequences which contain a single base substitution in either the 1st/8th or the 2nd/7th position of the primary recognition sequence. This modulation of enzyme activity via run-on oligomerization is a newly appreciated phenomenon that has been shown for a small but increasing number of enzymes. One outstanding question regarding the mechanistic model for SgrAI is whether or not the activating primary site DNA must be cleaved by SgrAI prior to inducing activation. Herein we show that an uncleavable primary site DNA containing a 3’-S-phosphorothiolate is in fact able to induce activation. In addition, we now show that cleavage of secondary site DNA can be activated to nearly the same degree as primary, provided a sufficient number of flanking base pairs are present. We also show differences in activation and cleavage of the two types of secondary site, and that effects of selected single site substitutions in SgrAI, as well as measured collisional cross-sections from previous work, are consistent with the cryo-electron microscopy model for the run-on activated oligomer of SgrAI bound to DNA. PMID:25880668

  8. Effectiveness of Juventox 040 SL in the control of glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on tomato cv. Gracja.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz-Jodko, Jan; Nawrocka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 a glasshouse experiment was carried out on the effectiveness of Juventox 040 SL at the concentration 0.05% in the control of glasshouse whitefly on tomato. The standard treatment was pyriproxyfen. In order to determine the efficiency of the insecticides the dynamics of whitefly development was determined for each treatment and in the control on 10 plants, on 3 leafs per plant. Juventox 040SL performed well in limiting of glasshouse whitefly and keep pest population on low level for many days.

  9. SonTek SL3G Side-Looking Doppler Current Meter application in Complex Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, D.

    2014-12-01

    The SonTek Argonaut SL Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters are well established products in the measurement of real-time water velocity in open channels. With the development of acoustic doppler technology the decision was made to incorporate latest technology in the Argonaut SL and hence the SonTek SL3G was born.The SonTek SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument incorporates a number of innovations that improves velocity measurements and quality assurance of data for Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters. SmartPulseHD was originally introduced with the launch of the SonTek M9/S5 RiverSurveyor Acoustic Doppler Instruments and the increased accuracy and resolution of velocity measurements made it obvious to include into the new SL3G instruments. SmartPulseHD continuously tracks the water conditions and selects the optimum processing configuration required using multiple ping types and processing techniques. The new SL3G design makes it the smallest Side Looking Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter on the market reducing flow disturbance caused by the instrument and the distance of first measurement cell from boundary.The application of the SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument is designed for complex flow conditions where the use of conventional stage-discharge relationships is economically not viable and therefore requires the use of velocity index methodology. The case-study presented in this paper is situated in the Colorado River downstream of Imperial Dam affected by controlled releases, drainage from adjacent irrigation areas and backwater from a weir situated downstream of the monitoring site. The paper analyses the relationship between measured mean velocity and index velocity and if additional variables such as stage and or Y-velocity need to be incorporated in the development of the index velocity rating. In addition, to determine the variables impacting on the index velocity rating, the index velocity applied will be evaluated by the best linear relationship between the

  10. STS-55 Commander Nagel uses SAREX II inside the SL-D2 module aboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Commander Steven R. Nagel, wearing headset, holds the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) transceiver during testing of the whip antenna protruding from the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module. Nagel is stationed in front of the SL-D2 aft end cone. The seven member crew participated in communications with students and licensed radio operators via SAREX. Attached to the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and an STS-37 extravehicular activity (EVA) photo of Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (STS037-18-032).

  11. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  12. Simulations of Wave Propagation in the Jovian Atmosphere after SL9 Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Jarrad W.; Palotai, C.; Korycansky, D.; Harrington, J.

    2013-10-01

    Our previous numerical investigations into Jovian impacts, including the Shoemaker Levy- 9 (SL9) event (Korycansky et al. 2006 ApJ 646. 642; Palotai et al. 2011 ApJ 731. 3), the 2009 bolide (Pond et al. 2012 ApJ 745. 113), and the ephemeral flashes caused by smaller impactors in 2010 and 2012 (Hueso et al. 2013; Submitted to A&A), have covered only up to approximately 3 to 30 seconds after impact. Here, we present further SL9 impacts extending to minutes after collision with Jupiter’s atmosphere, with a focus on the propagation of shock waves generated as a result of the impact events. Using a similar yet more efficient remapping method than previously presented (Pond et al. 2012; DPS 2012), we move our simulation results onto a larger computational grid, conserving quantities with minimal error. The Jovian atmosphere is extended as needed to accommodate the evolution of the features of the impact event. We restart the simulation, allowing the impact event to continue to progress to greater spatial extents and for longer times, but at lower resolutions. This remap-restart process can be implemented multiple times to achieve the spatial and temporal scales needed to investigate the observable effects of waves generated by the deposition of energy and momentum into the Jovian atmosphere by an SL9-like impactor. As before, we use the three-dimensional, parallel hydrodynamics code ZEUS-MP 2 (Hayes et al. 2006 ApJ.SS. 165. 188) to conduct our simulations. Wave characteristics are tracked throughout these simulations. Of particular interest are the wave speeds and wave positions in the atmosphere as a function of time. These properties are compared to the characteristics of the HST rings to see if shock wave behavior within one hour of impact is consistent with waves observed at one hour post-impact and beyond (Hammel et al. 1995 Science 267. 1288). This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-1109729 and NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program Grant

  13. Expression of human apolipoprotein A-I in transgenic mice results in reduced plasma levels of murine apolipoprotein A-I and the appearance of two new high density lipoprotein size subclasses.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E M; Ishida, B Y; Clift, S M; Krauss, R M

    1991-01-15

    In Western societies high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels correlate inversely with the risk for coronary heart disease. The primary protein component of both human and mouse HDL is apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI), which comprises greater than 70% of HDL protein and 30% of HDL mass. Human HDLs include particles of several distinct size subpopulations, whereas HDLs from inbred C57BL/6 mice contain a single population of particles. To study the regulation of apoAI expression and its role in HDL assembly, we created transgenic C57BL/6 mice containing the human apoAI gene. Two independent lines of transgenic mice with approximately twice the normal plasma levels of total apoAI were studied. The level of mouse apoAI is reduced greater than 4-fold in both transgenic lines, comprising only 4% of total plasma apoAI levels in one transgenic line and 13% in the other. We demonstrate that the mechanism responsible for the decrease in mouse apoAI is posttranscriptional. Parallel to the replacement of mouse with human apoAI, the single HDL species normally present in the plasma of C57BL/6 is replaced by two HDL subclasses similar in size to human HDL2b and HDL3a. The changes in murine apolipoprotein levels and HDL subclass size are inherited by all transgenic offspring of the two founder animals. These results suggest a dominant role of apoAI in determining the HDL particle size distribution and a mechanism involving expression of human apoAI transgenes that alters the plasma levels of mouse apoAI.

  14. SlTPR1, a tomato tetratricopeptide repeat protein, interacts with the ethylene receptors NR and LeETR1, modulating ethylene and auxin responses and development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhefeng; Arciga-Reyes, Luis; Zhong, Silin; Alexander, Lucy; Hackett, Rachel; Wilson, Ian; Grierson, Don

    2008-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of ethylene receptors which interact with the Raf-like kinase CTR1. SlTPR1 encodes a novel TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) protein from tomato that interacts with the ethylene receptors NR and LeETR1 in yeast two-hybrid and in vitro protein interaction assays. SlTPR1 protein with a GFP fluorescent tag was localized in the plasmalemma and nuclear membrane in Arabidopsis, and SlTPR1-CFP and NR-YFP fusion proteins were co-localized in the plasmalemma and nuclear membrane following co-bombardment of onion cells. Overexpression of SlTPR1 in tomato resulted in ethylene-related pleiotropic effects including reduced stature, delayed and reduced production of inflorescences, abnormal and infertile flowers with degenerate styles and pollen, epinasty, reduced apical dominance, inhibition of abscission, altered leaf morphology, and parthenocarpic fruit. Similar phenotypes were seen in Arabidopsis overexpressing SlTPR1. SlTPR1 overexpression did not increase ethylene production but caused enhanced accumulation of mRNA from the ethylene responsive gene ChitB and the auxin-responsive gene SlSAUR1-like, and reduced expression of the auxin early responsive gene LeIAA9, which is known to be inhibited by ethylene and to be associated with parthenocarpy. Cuttings from the SlTPR1-overexpressors produced fewer adventitious roots and were less responsive to indole butyric acid. It is suggested that SlTPR1 overexpression enhances a subset of ethylene and auxin responses by interacting with specific ethylene receptors. SlTPR1 shares features with human TTC1, which interacts with heterotrimeric G-proteins and Ras, and competes with Raf-1 for Ras binding. Models for SlTPR1 action are proposed involving modulation of ethylene signalling or receptor levels. PMID:19036844

  15. SlTPR1, a tomato tetratricopeptide repeat protein, interacts with the ethylene receptors NR and LeETR1, modulating ethylene and auxin responses and development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhefeng; Arciga-Reyes, Luis; Zhong, Silin; Alexander, Lucy; Hackett, Rachel; Wilson, Ian; Grierson, Don

    2008-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of ethylene receptors which interact with the Raf-like kinase CTR1. SlTPR1 encodes a novel TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) protein from tomato that interacts with the ethylene receptors NR and LeETR1 in yeast two-hybrid and in vitro protein interaction assays. SlTPR1 protein with a GFP fluorescent tag was localized in the plasmalemma and nuclear membrane in Arabidopsis, and SlTPR1-CFP and NR-YFP fusion proteins were co-localized in the plasmalemma and nuclear membrane following co-bombardment of onion cells. Overexpression of SlTPR1 in tomato resulted in ethylene-related pleiotropic effects including reduced stature, delayed and reduced production of inflorescences, abnormal and infertile flowers with degenerate styles and pollen, epinasty, reduced apical dominance, inhibition of abscission, altered leaf morphology, and parthenocarpic fruit. Similar phenotypes were seen in Arabidopsis overexpressing SlTPR1. SlTPR1 overexpression did not increase ethylene production but caused enhanced accumulation of mRNA from the ethylene responsive gene ChitB and the auxin-responsive gene SlSAUR1-like, and reduced expression of the auxin early responsive gene LeIAA9, which is known to be inhibited by ethylene and to be associated with parthenocarpy. Cuttings from the SlTPR1-overexpressors produced fewer adventitious roots and were less responsive to indole butyric acid. It is suggested that SlTPR1 overexpression enhances a subset of ethylene and auxin responses by interacting with specific ethylene receptors. SlTPR1 shares features with human TTC1, which interacts with heterotrimeric G-proteins and Ras, and competes with Raf-1 for Ras binding. Models for SlTPR1 action are proposed involving modulation of ethylene signalling or receptor levels. PMID:19036844

  16. STS-55 SL-D2 crew, in LESs, rehearse launch procedures during TCDT at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), depart the Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building for Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Leading the way are Pilot Terence T. Henricks (left) and Commander Steven R. Nagel; behind them are, from left Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel. This is the final portion of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch which cumulates with a simulated T-0. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-310.

  17. STS-55 Pilot Henricks uses CTE equipment mounted on SL-D2 aft end cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks, positioned in front of an adjustable workstation mounted on the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aft end cone, conducts Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE). The STS-55 crew portrait (STS055(S)002) appears on the screen of the Macintosh portable computer. CTE will demonstrate real-time communication between the shuttle crew and the ground via a computer-based multimedia documentation file that includes text, graphics, and photos. CTE is expected to improve the effectiveness of on-orbit payload operations, returns from scientific investigations, crew interaction with the ground, and contingency maintenance tasks for systems and payloads. Also in the view and attached to the end cone are a fire extinguisher, a checklist, and an STS-37 extravehicular activity (EVA) photo of Mission Specialist (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (STS037-18-032).

  18. Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

  19. Multi-parametric R-matrix for the {sl}(2|1) Yangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichenko, Andrei; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    We study the Yangian of the {sl}(2|1) Lie superalgebra in a multi-parametric four-dimensional representation. We use Drinfeld's second realization to independently rederive the R-matrix, and to obtain the antiparticle representation, the crossing and the unitarity condition. We consistently apply the Yangian antipode and its inverse to the individual particles involved in the scattering. We explicitly find a scalar factor solving the crossing and unitarity conditions, and study the analytic structure of the resulting dressed R-matrix. The formulas we obtain bear some similarities with those familiar from the study of integrable structures in the Anti de Sitter (AdS) / Conformal Field Theory (CFT) correspondence, although they present obvious crucial differences.

  20. Integrable spin chain for the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole sigma model.

    PubMed

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2012-02-24

    We introduce a spin chain based on finite-dimensional spin-1/2 SU(2) representations but with a non-Hermitian "Hamiltonian" and show, using mostly analytical techniques, that it is described at low energies by the SL(2,R)/U(1) Euclidian black hole conformal field theory. This identification goes beyond the appearance of a noncompact spectrum; we are also able to determine the density of states, and show that it agrees with the formulas in [J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri, and J. Son, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 42, 2961 (2001)] and [A. Hanany, N. Prezas, and J. Troost, J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2002) 014], hence providing a direct "physical measurement" of the associated reflection amplitude. PMID:22463514

  1. The genus Macroteleia Westwood in Middle Miocene amber from Peru (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae).

    PubMed

    Perrichot, Vincent; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Engel, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the scelionine genus Macroteleia Westwood (Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae) is described and figured from a female beautifully preserved in Middle Miocene amber from Peru. Macroteleia yaguarum Perrichot & Engel, sp. n., shows a unique combination of characters otherwise seen independently within its congeners. It is most similar to the modern M. surfacei Brues, but differs from it by the non-foveolate notauli, the contiguous punctures of the vertex, and the continuous propodeum. The new species is the first New World fossil of the genus, suggesting a Cretaceous origin for the group and a relatively old age of the South American, tropical African, and Australian faunas, and a younger age of the modern Holarctic faunas. PMID:25147461

  2. Development of chloroplast microsatellite markers for the endangered Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.)1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Kim, Changkyun; Lee, You-Mi; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ten polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and characterized in an endemic and endangered herb, Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.), for use in conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Primer sets flanking each of the 10 cpSSR loci in noncoding regions of the chloroplast genome of M. bicolor were designed. These cpSSR markers were tested on a total of 33 adult individuals from three natural populations in South Korea. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to three. The unbiased haplotype diversity per locus ranged from 0.061 to 0.682. All markers were successfully transferred to the congeneric species M. japonicum, M. bifolium, and M. dilatatum with polymorphisms among the species. Conclusions: The developed cpSSR markers will be useful in assessing the genetic diversity and population structure of M. bicolor and will help to infer its molecular identification, thereby providing a basis for conservation.

  3. Relaxed singular vectors, Jack symmetric functions and fractional level sl ˆ (2) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The fractional level models are (logarithmic) conformal field theories associated with affine Kac-Moody (super)algebras at certain levels k ∈ Q. They are particularly noteworthy because of several longstanding difficulties that have only recently been resolved. Here, Wakimoto's free field realisation is combined with the theory of Jack symmetric functions to analyse the fractional level sl ˆ (2) models. The first main results are explicit formulae for the singular vectors of minimal grade in relaxed Wakimoto modules. These are closely related to the minimal grade singular vectors in relaxed (parabolic) Verma modules. Further results include an explicit presentation of Zhu's algebra and an elegant new proof of the classification of simple relaxed highest weight modules over the corresponding vertex operator algebra. These results suggest that generalisations to higher rank fractional level models are now within reach.

  4. On the reality of spectra of U q (sl 2)-invariant XXZ Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Ruelle, Philippe; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2016-05-01

    A new inner product is constructed on each standard module over the Temperley-Lieb algebra $\\mathsf{TL}_n(\\beta)$ for $\\beta\\in \\mathbb R$ and $n \\ge 2$. On these modules, the Hamiltonian $h = -\\sum_i e_i$ is shown to be self-adjoint with respect to this inner product. This implies that its action on these modules is diagonalisable with real eigenvalues. A representation theoretic argument shows that the reality of spectra of the Hamiltonian extends to all other Temperley-Lieb representations. In particular, this result applies to the celebrated $U_q(sl_2)$-invariant XXZ Hamiltonian, for all $q+q^{-1}\\in \\mathbb R$.

  5. The genus Macroteleia Westwood in Middle Miocene amber from Peru (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Perrichot, Vincent; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Engel, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the scelionine genus Macroteleia Westwood (Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae) is described and figured from a female beautifully preserved in Middle Miocene amber from Peru. Macroteleia yaguarum Perrichot & Engel, sp. n., shows a unique combination of characters otherwise seen independently within its congeners. It is most similar to the modern M. surfacei Brues, but differs from it by the non-foveolate notauli, the contiguous punctures of the vertex, and the continuous propodeum. The new species is the first New World fossil of the genus, suggesting a Cretaceous origin for the group and a relatively old age of the South American, tropical African, and Australian faunas, and a younger age of the modern Holarctic faunas. PMID:25147461

  6. A Directory Service for the CERN PS/SL Java Programming Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Cuperus, J.; Charrue, P.; DiMaio, F.; Kostro, K.; Watson, W.

    1999-10-01

    The CERN PS and SL accelerator control groups developed a common application programming interface (API) in Java [1]. Part of this API is a directory service that provide information about the underlying hardware and software. With this information, it is possible to write generic programs that do general actions on lists of devices without hard coding of device names. And, starting from a device name, full details about related devices, the device itself and its class and properties, can be obtained, including the meaning of bits and bit-patterns in status words. The interface definition is independent of any implementation but a reference implementation is provided using Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) against a set of tables in a relational database. Data from very different systems can be brought together and presented in a uniform way to the user. The full potential of the directory service is reached when it is used in software components (Java Beans).

  7. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

  8. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli. PMID:27309855

  9. Using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify Computed Tomography (CT) features in the Marshall System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is to code various types of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) based on their anatomical location and severity. The Marshall CT Classification is used to identify those subgroups of brain injured patients at higher risk of deterioration or mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and how AIS coding can be translated to the Marshall Classification Methods Initially, a Marshall Class was allocated to each AIS code through cross-tabulation. This was agreed upon through several discussion meetings with experts from both fields (clinicians and AIS coders). Furthermore, in order to make this translation possible, some necessary assumptions with regards to coding and classification of mass lesions and brain swelling were essential which were all approved and made explicit. Results The proposed method involves two stages: firstly to determine all possible Marshall Classes which a given patient can attract based on allocated AIS codes; via cross-tabulation and secondly to assign one Marshall Class to each patient through an algorithm. Conclusion This method can be easily programmed in computer softwares and it would enable future important TBI research programs using trauma registry data. PMID:20691038

  10. Remote Stratigraphic Analysis: Combined TM and AIS Results in the Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Adams, S.

    1985-01-01

    An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic evolution of a North American, western interior foreland basin. AIS data are used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of mineralogical facies that are diagnostic of specific depositional environments. After wavelength and amplitude calibration using natural ground targets with known spectral characteristics, AIS data identify calcite, dolomite, gypsum and montmorillonite-bearing strata in the Permian-Cretaceous sequence. Combined AIS and TM results illustrate the feasibility of spectral stratigraphy, remote analysis of stratigraphic sequences.

  11. Interactions between lipid-free apolipoprotein-AI and a lipopeptide incorporating the RGDS cell adhesion motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, V.; Hamley, I. W.; Reza, M.; Ruokolainen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of a designed bioactive lipopeptide C16-GGGRGDS, comprising a hexadecyl lipid chain attached to a functional heptapeptide, with the lipid-free apoliprotein, Apo-AI, is examined. This apolipoprotein is a major component of high density lipoprotein and it is involved in lipid metabolism and may serve as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimers' disease. We find via isothermal titration calorimetry that binding between the lipopeptide and Apo-AI occurs up to a saturation condition, just above equimolar for a 10.7 μM concentration of Apo-AI. A similar value is obtained from circular dichroism spectroscopy, which probes the reduction in α-helical secondary structure of Apo-AI upon addition of C16-GGGRGDS. Electron microscopy images show a persistence of fibrillar structures due to self-assembly of C16-GGGRGDS in mixtures with Apo-AI above the saturation binding condition. A small fraction of spheroidal or possibly ``nanodisc'' structures was observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data for Apo-AI can be fitted using a published crystal structure of the Apo-AI dimer. The SAXS data for the lipopeptide/Apo-AI mixtures above the saturation binding conditions can be fitted to the contribution from fibrillar structures coexisting with flat discs corresponding to Apo-AI/lipopeptide aggregates.

  12. Genetic structure of the four wil tomato species in the Solanum peruvianum s.l. species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most diverse wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four separate species. However, reproductive barriers among the species are incomplete and this can lead to discrepancies regarding genetic identity of germplasm. We used genotyping by sequencing (...

  13. Rapid Diagnosis of Old World Leishmaniasis by High-Resolution Melting Analysis of the 7SL RNA Gene▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Jaffe, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis PCR (HRM PCR) for diagnosis of Old World Leishmania was developed using the 7SL RNA gene. Cutaneous leishmaniasis samples were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of HRM PCR were significantly better (P < 0.001) than those of internal transcribed spacer 1 PCR and similar to those of kinetoplast DNA PCR. PMID:20392923

  14. 76 FR 27240 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 18, 2011 (76 FR 9513). That NPRM proposed to correct... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and ] (3) Will not have a significant... GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  15. Differential expression of calcium-regulated SlSRs in response to abiotic and biotic stresses in tomato fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium has been shown to increase stress tolerance, enhance fruit firmness and reduce decay. Previously we reported that seven tomato SlSRs encode calcium/calmodulin-regulated proteins, and that their expressions are developmentally regulated during fruit development and ripening, and are also resp...

  16. STS-55 MS2 Precourt changes LiOH canister in SL-D2 module aboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt changes lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Precourt lifts one LiOH canister from its subfloor location while holding the replacement canister and the access panel open with his left hand.

  17. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... May 1, 2010, unless renewed in accordance with section 766.24 of the Regulations. \\1\\ 74 FR 24,786. \\2... on November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57626). On April 9, 2010, BIS, through its Office of Export Enforcement... Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real...

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of HMW Glutenin Subunits from 1Sl Genome of Aegilops longissima Positively Affecting Wheat Breadmaking Quality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Weißgerber, H.; Zeller, Friedrich; Hsam, Sai; Yan, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    A wheat cultivar “Chinese Spring” chromosome substitution line CS-1Sl(1B), in which the 1B chromosome was substituted by 1Sl from Aegilops longissima, was developed and found to possess superior dough and breadmaking quality. The molecular mechanism of its super quality conformation is studied in the aspects of high molecular glutenin genes, protein accumulation patterns, glutenin polymeric proteins, protein bodies, starch granules, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like protein expressions. Results showed that the introduced HMW-GS 1Sl×2.3* and 1Sly16* in the substitution line possesses long repetitive domain, making both be larger than any known x- and y-type subunits from B genome. The introduced subunit genes were also found to have a higher level of mRNA expressions during grain development, resulting in more HMW-GS accumulation in the mature grains. A higher abundance of PDI and PDI-like proteins was observed which possess a known function of assisting disulfide bond formation. Larger HMW-GS deposited in protein bodies were also found in the substitution line. The CS substitution line is expected to be highly valuable in wheat quality improvement since the novel HMW-GS are located on chromosome 1Sl, making it possible to combine with the known superior D×5+Dy10 subunits encoded by Glu-D1 for developing high quality bread wheat. PMID:23593125

  19. Sodium nitroprusside: low price and safe drug to control BP during thrombolysis in AIS.

    PubMed

    Koslyk, Jessyca L; Ducci, Renata D; Nóvak, Edison M; Zétola, Viviane F; Lange, Marcos C

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes the use of sodium nitroprusside (SN) as an option to reduce blood pressure (BP) below 180/105 mmHg during the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients submitted to intravenous thrombolysis.Method The sample was composed by 60 patients who had AIS and were submitted to intravenous rtPA, split in two groups: half in the control group (CG) with BP < 180/105 mmHg and half in SN group with BP > 180/105 mmHg. Outcome variables were any hemorrhagic transformation (HT); the presence of symptomatic HT, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours of treatment; the independence on discharge and death until three months after stroke onset.Results There were no statistical differences between both groups to any of the outcome variables analyzed.Conclusion The SN might be safe for BP control during thrombolysis to AIS. PMID:26352493

  20. Two faces of Thanatos: Broken flowers (2005) and Ai no corrida (1976).

    PubMed

    Minerbo, Marion

    2007-06-01

    Since Freud formulated the death instinct concept, it has received widely diverse interpretations. Even Freud advanced two versions. The concomitant analyses of two films, "Ai no Corrida" (1976) [ In the realm of the senses (1977)] and "Broken Flowers" (2005) evince Thanatos's two faces: the cold death of decathexis of an object, in the case of Don (in "Broken Flowers" ) and the hot death of the subject-object fusion in Sada's case ("Ai no Corrida"). In our analysis, we elaborate two possible vicissitudes of the death instinct: in "Broken Flowers" , the main character finds an 'analyst' and is cured. In "Ai no Corrida", the protagonist meets a complementary object and goes mad. PMID:17537705

  1. AIS wavefront sensor: a robust optical test of exposure tools using localized wavefront curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Zhou, Xibin; Goldstein, Michael; Ashworth, Dominic; Cummings, Kevin; Fan, Yu-Jen; Shroff, Yashesh; Denbeaux, Greg; Kandel, Yudhi; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We present an update of the AIS wavefront sensor, a diagnostic sensor set for insertion in the upgraded 0.5 NA SEMATECH Albany and Berkeley METs. AIS works by using offset monopole illumination to probe localized regions of the test optic pupil. Variations in curvature manifest as focus shifts, which are measured using a photodiode- based grating-on- grating contrast monitor, and the wavefront aberrations are reconstructed using a least-squares approach. We present results from an optical prototype of AIS demonstrating an accuracy of better than λ/30 rms for Zernike polynomials Z4 through Z10. We also discuss integration strategies and requirements as well as specifications on system alignment.

  2. Glomerular autoimmune multicomponents of human lupus nephritis in vivo: α-enolase and annexin AI.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2014-11-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti-α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti-α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti-α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti-α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum.

  3. Role of apolipoprotein A-I in HDL binding to a rat hepatoma cell in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of HDL to rat Fu5AH hepatoma cells at 4/sup 0/, and uptake and degradation at 37/sup 0/, was investigated in monolayer cultures. HDL, free of apo E and apo A-IV, was obtained from the plasma of nephrotic rats (HDLne). /sup 125/I-labeled HDLne bound to the cells in a specific, saturable manner. By Scatchard analysis, two classes of binding sites were obtained: a high affinity binding site (Kd = 1.25 +/- 0.023 ..mu..g/ml, or 5 x 10/sup -9/ M), and a lower affinity site (Kd = 45 +/- 15 ..mu..g/ml, or 1.8 x 10/sup -7/ M). In competitive binding experiments, normal rat HDL was nearly as effective as HDLne, but rat VLDL and human lipoproteins were ineffective. Rat apo A-I/phospholipid complexes also did not complete effectively for HDLne binding, although they were capable of binding to the cells. However, LDL (1.02 < d < 1.063) from nephrotic rat plasma, containing 20% of apo A-I, was as effective as rat HDL in competing for HDLne binding when the competition was expressed as a function of apo A-I content. Control experiments indicated that labeled apo A-I from HDLne did not exchange appreciably with unlabeled apo A-I on the LDLne. When the hepatoma cells were allowed to internalize and degrade HDLne at 37/sup 0/, the acid-soluble products (iodotyrosine and iodide) were derived almost entirely from the breakdown of apo A-I. We conclude that the rat hepatoma cell (Fu5AH) has high affinity HDL binding sites which recognize apo A-I-lipid complexes in which apo A-I an appropriate conformation.

  4. Design of integrated ship monitoring system using SAR, RADAR, and AIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chan-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Hong, Danbee; Ahn, Hyung-Wook

    2013-06-01

    When we talk about for the ship detection, identification and its classification, we need to go for the wide area of monitoring and it may be possible only through satellite based monitoring approach which monitors and covers coastal as well as the oceanic zone. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect targets of interest with the advantage of the operating capability in all weather and luminance free condition (Margarit and Tabasco, 2011). In EU waters, EMSA(European Maritime Safety Agency) is operating the SafeSeaNet and CleanSeaNet systems which provide the current positions of all ships and oil spill monitoring information in and around EU waters in a single picture to Member States using AIS, LRIT and SAR images. In many countries, a similar system has been developed and the key of the matter is to integrate all available data. This abstract describes the preliminary design concept for an integration system of RADAR, AIS and SAR data for vessel traffic monitoring. SAR sensors are used to acquire image data over large coverage area either through the space borne or airborne platforms in UTC. AIS reports should be also obtained on the same date as of the SAR acquisition for the purpose to perform integration test. Land-based RADAR can provide ships positions detected and tracked in near real time. In general, SAR are used to acquire image data over large coverage area, AIS reports are obtained from ship based transmitter, and RADAR can monitor continuously ships for a limited area. In this study, we developed individual ship monitoring algorithms using RADAR(FMCW and Pulse X-band), AIS and SAR(RADARSAT-2 Full-pol Mode). We conducted field experiments two times for displaying the RADAR, AIS and SAR integration over the Pyeongtaek Port, South Korea.

  5. Glomerular Autoimmune Multicomponents of Human Lupus Nephritis In Vivo: α-Enolase and Annexin AI

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D’Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino

    2014-01-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti–α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti–α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti–α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti–α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum. PMID:24790181

  6. Integration of AI-2 Based Cell-Cell Signaling with Metabolic Cues in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Arindam; Herren, Christopher D.; Patel, Isha R.; Coleman, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The quorum sensing molecule Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is generated as a byproduct of activated methyl cycle by the action of LuxS in Escherichia coli. AI-2 is synthesized, released and later internalized in a cell-density dependent manner. Here, by mutational analysis of the genes, uvrY and csrA, we describe a regulatory circuit of accumulation and uptake of AI-2. We constructed a single-copy chromosomal luxS-lacZ fusion in a luxS + merodiploid strain and evaluated its relative expression in uvrY and csrA mutants. At the entry of stationary phase, the expression of the fusion and AI-2 accumulation was positively regulated by uvrY and negatively regulated by csrA respectively. A deletion of csrA altered message stability of the luxS transcript and CsrA protein exhibited weak binding to 5’ luxS regulatory region. DNA protein interaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed direct interaction of UvrY with the luxS promoter. Additionally, reduced expression of the fusion in hfq deletion mutant suggested involvement of small RNA interactions in luxS regulation. In contrast, the expression of lsrA operon involved in AI-2 uptake, is negatively regulated by uvrY and positively by csrA in a cell-density dependent manner. The dual role of csrA in AI-2 synthesis and uptake suggested a regulatory crosstalk of cell signaling with carbon regulation in Escherichia coli. We found that the cAMP-CRP mediated catabolite repression of luxS expression was uvrY dependent. This study suggests that luxS expression is complex and regulated at the level of transcription and translation. The multifactorial regulation supports the notion that cell-cell communication requires interaction and integration of multiple metabolic signals. PMID:27362507

  7. Synergistic interactions between transcription factors control expression of the apolipoprotein AI gene in liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Widom, R L; Ladias, J A; Kouidou, S; Karathanasis, S K

    1991-01-01

    The gene coding for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), a plasma protein involved in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids in the plasma, is expressed predominantly in liver and intestine. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that different cis-acting elements in the 5'-flanking region of the human apoAI gene control its expression in human hepatoma (HepG2) and colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Hepatocyte-specific expression is mediated by elements within the -256 to -41 DNA region relative to the apoAI gene transcription start site (+1). In this study it was found that the -222 to -110 apoAI gene region is necessary and sufficient for expression in HepG2 cells. It was also found that this DNA region functions as a powerful hepatocyte-specific transcriptional enhancer. Gel retardation and DNase I protection experiments showed that HepG2 cells contain proteins that bind to specific sites, sites A (-214 to -192), B (-169 to -146), and C (-134 to -119), within this enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis that prevents binding of these proteins to individual or different combinations of these sites followed by functional analysis of these mutants in HepG2 cells revealed that protein binding to any one of these sites in the absence of binding to the others was not sufficient for expression. Binding to any two of these sites in any combination was sufficient for only low levels of expression. Binding to all three sites was essential for maximal expression. These results indicate that the transcriptional activity of the apoAI gene in liver cells is dependent on synergistic interactions between transcription factors bound to its enhancer. Images PMID:1846669

  8. The impact of the Tekay chromoviral elements on genome organisation and evolution of Anemone s.l. (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Mlinarec, J; Franjević, D; Harapin, J; Besendorfer, V

    2016-03-01

    We studied the highly abundant chromoviral Tekay clade in species from three sister genera - Anemone, Pulsatilla and Hepatica (Ranunculaceae). With this clade, we performed a concomitant survey of its phylogenetic diversity, chromosomal organisation and transcriptional activity in Anemone s.l. in order to investigate dynamics of the Tekay elements at a finer scale than previously achieved in this or any other flowering clade. The phylogenetic tree built from Tekay sequences conformed to expected evolutionary relationships of the species; exceptions being A. nemorosa and A. sylvestris, which appeared more closely related that expected, and we invoke hybridisation events to explain the observed topology. The separation of elements into six clusters could be explained by episodic bursts of activity since divergence from a common ancestor at different points in their respective evolutionary histories. In Anemone s.l. the Tekay elements do not have a preferential position on chromosomes, i.e. they can have a: (i) centromeric/pericentromeric position; (ii) interstitial position in DAPI-positive AT-rich heterochromatic regions; can be (iii) dispersed throughout chromosomes; or even (iv) be absent from large heterochromatic blocks. Widespread transcriptional activity of the Tekay elements in Anemone s.l. taxa indicate that some copies of Tekay elements could still be active in this plant group, contributing to genome evolution and speciation within Anemone s.l. Identification of Tekay elements in Anemone s.l. provides valuable information for understanding how different localisation patterns might help to facilitate plant genome organisation in a structural and functional manner. PMID:26370195

  9. A Novel Position Estimation Method Based on Displacement Correction in AIS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shufang; Yang, Dongkai

    2014-01-01

    A new position estimation method by using the signals from two automatic identification system (AIS) stations is proposed in this paper. The time of arrival (TOA) method is enhanced with the displacement correction, so that the vessel's position can be determined even for the situation where it can receive the signals from only two AIS base stations. Its implementation scheme based on the mathematical model is presented. Furthermore, performance analysis is carried out to illustrate the relation between the positioning errors and the displacement vector provided by auxiliary sensors. Finally, the positioning method is verified and its performance is evaluated by simulation. The results show that the positioning accuracy is acceptable. PMID:25232913

  10. Overview of Austrian Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) programme and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected from eight test areas in Austria were evaluated for their usefulness in forest damage assessment, geobotany, alpine vegetation mapping, and land use classification. Difficulties encountered in installing the SPAM spectral analysis software for use on the image display system and the necessity to adapt existing programs for this task impeded and delayed the analysis of the AIS data. Spectral reflectance curves obtained from a geobotanical test site show a marked increase in reflectance across most of the measured spectrum for metal stressed spruce trees compared with nonstressed spruce trees.

  11. Hikiokoshins A-I, diterpenes from the leaves of Isodon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuji, Eri; Sakai, Kanae; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-06-01

    Diterpenes, hikiokoshins A-I, and twelve known diterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonicus (Burm. f.) H. Hara (Lamiaceae). The hikiokoshins A-I possess various skeletons such as ternifonane {hikiokoshin A}, ent-6,7:8,15-diseco-6,8-cyclokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin B}, ent-6,7-secokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin C}, and ent-7,20-epoxykaurane {hikiokoshins D-I}. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial activities of hikiokoshins A and B were evaluated. PMID:24702849

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of AIS Spectra Along a Topographic/moisture Gradient in the Nebraska Sandhills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runquist, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Six spectral plots, each summarizing single-pixel reflectance for 128 channels of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, were examined. The six sample pixels were located along a topographic/moisture gradient from lake surface to dune top in the Nebraska Sandhills. AIS spectra for various moisture regimes/vegetative zones appear quite logical, with a general positive relationship between increasing elevation (i.e., decreasing access of plant roots to water) and increasing reflectance in the spectral regions diagnostic of leaf-water content (i.e., bands centered on 1.65 and 2.20 microns).

  13. The characterization of six auxin-induced tomato GH3 genes uncovers a member, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Dehua; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Aiqun; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jianjian; Liu, Junli; Gu, Mian; Sun, Shubin; Xu, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    In plants, the GH3 gene family is widely considered to be involved in a broad range of plant physiological processes, through modulation of hormonal homeostasis. Multiple GH3 genes have been functionally characterized in several plant species; however, to date, limited works to study the GH3 genes in tomato have been reported. Here, we characterize the expression and regulatory profiles of six tomato GH3 genes, SlGH3.2, SlGH3.3, SlGH3.4, SlGH3.7, SlGH3.9 and SlGH3.15, in response to different phytohormone applications and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization. All six GH3 genes showed inducible responses to external IAA, and three members were significantly up-regulated in response to AM symbiosis. In particular, SlGH3.4, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal growth conditions, was strongly activated in the IAA-treated and AM fungal-colonized roots. A comparison of the SlGH3.4 expression in wild-type plants and M161, a mutant with a defect in AM symbiosis, confirmed that SlGH3.4 expression is highly correlated to mycorrhizal colonization. Histochemical staining demonstrated that a 2,258 bp SlGH3.4 promoter fragment could drive β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression strongly in root tips, steles and cortical cells of IAA-treated roots, but predominantly in the fungal-colonized cells of mycorrhizal roots. A truncated 654 bp promoter failed to direct GUS expression in IAA-treated roots, but maintained the symbiosis-induced activity in mycorrhizal roots. In summary, our results suggest that a mycorrhizal signaling pathway that is at least partially independent of the auxin signaling pathway has evolved for the co-regulation of the auxin- and mycorrhiza-activated GH3 genes in plants.

  14. The characterization of six auxin-induced tomato GH3 genes uncovers a member, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Dehua; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Aiqun; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jianjian; Liu, Junli; Gu, Mian; Sun, Shubin; Xu, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    In plants, the GH3 gene family is widely considered to be involved in a broad range of plant physiological processes, through modulation of hormonal homeostasis. Multiple GH3 genes have been functionally characterized in several plant species; however, to date, limited works to study the GH3 genes in tomato have been reported. Here, we characterize the expression and regulatory profiles of six tomato GH3 genes, SlGH3.2, SlGH3.3, SlGH3.4, SlGH3.7, SlGH3.9 and SlGH3.15, in response to different phytohormone applications and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization. All six GH3 genes showed inducible responses to external IAA, and three members were significantly up-regulated in response to AM symbiosis. In particular, SlGH3.4, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal growth conditions, was strongly activated in the IAA-treated and AM fungal-colonized roots. A comparison of the SlGH3.4 expression in wild-type plants and M161, a mutant with a defect in AM symbiosis, confirmed that SlGH3.4 expression is highly correlated to mycorrhizal colonization. Histochemical staining demonstrated that a 2,258 bp SlGH3.4 promoter fragment could drive β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression strongly in root tips, steles and cortical cells of IAA-treated roots, but predominantly in the fungal-colonized cells of mycorrhizal roots. A truncated 654 bp promoter failed to direct GUS expression in IAA-treated roots, but maintained the symbiosis-induced activity in mycorrhizal roots. In summary, our results suggest that a mycorrhizal signaling pathway that is at least partially independent of the auxin signaling pathway has evolved for the co-regulation of the auxin- and mycorrhiza-activated GH3 genes in plants. PMID:25535196

  15. Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein to psi-RNA-SL3.

    PubMed

    Shubsda, M F; Kirk, C A; Goodisman, J; Dabrowiak, J C

    2000-10-30

    The interaction of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7, from the pNL4-3 isolate of HIV-1, with psi-RNA-SL3, with the sequence 5'-GGACUAGCGGAGGCUAGUCC, was studied using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. Two kinds of experiments were performed, using buffered solutions of radiolabeled RNA and unlabeled protein. In the 'dilution' experiments, the total RNA concentration, RT, was varied for a series of solutions, but kept equal to the total protein concentration, PT, In the 'titration' experiments, solutions having RT constant but with varying PT were analyzed. The solutions were electrophoresed and the autoradiographic spot intensities, proportional to the amounts of the different species present, were measured. The intensities were fit to a number of equilibrium models, differing in species stoichiometries, by finding the best values of the binding constants. It was shown that NCp7 protein and SL3 RNA combine to form at least two complexes. When PT is below approximately 10 microM, a complex that contains two RNAs and one protein forms. Increasing PT to approximately 100 microM causes the 2:1 complex to oligomerize, forming a species having eight RNAs and four proteins. For the dilution experiments, run at 5 degrees C at an ionic strength of 31 mM, we found K1 for the 2:1 complex is approximately 10(11) M(-2) and K2 for the 8:4 complex is approximately 10(16) M(-3). The titration experiments returned K1 approximately 10(7) M(-2) (poorly determined) and K2 approximately 10(19) M(-3). The analysis was complicated by the loss of RNA at higher protein concentrations, due to formation of an insoluble species containing both RNA and protein, which does not enter the gel. Correcting for this changes the calculated values of equilibrium constants, but not the molecularities determined by our analysis. The observation that a small complex can oligomerize to form a larger species is consistent with the fact that NCp7 organizes and condenses the genome in the virus particle.

  16. 75 FR 29811 - 21st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 21st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and... Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76...

  17. 76 FR 11846 - 24th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 24th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and... Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76...

  18. 75 FR 55847 - 22nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 22nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and... Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76...

  19. 78 FR 63494 - Meeting of the National Coordination Committee on the AI/AN SANE-SART Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... (OVC) to promote culturally relevant, victim-centered responses to sexual violence within AI/AN... victims of sexual violence within AI/AN communities, and to promote culturally relevant, victim-centered responses to sexual violence within those communities. Webinar Agenda: The agenda will include:...

  20. ai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, gstD1 and mtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  1. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  2. ai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging.

  3. AI at Ames: Artificial Intelligence research and application at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, February 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Charts are given that illustrate function versus domain for artificial intelligence (AI) applications and interests and research area versus project number for AI research. A list is given of project titles with associated project numbers and page numbers. Also, project descriptions, including title, participants, and status are given.

  4. Purification and Characterization of BmooAi: A New Toxin from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom That Inhibits Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro de Queiroz, Mayara; Mamede, Carla Cristine N.; de Morais, Nadia Cristina G.; Cortes Fonseca, Kelly; Barbosa de Sousa, Bruna; Migliorini, Thaís M.; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda C.; Stanziola, Leonilda; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Martins Soares, Andreimar; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column). BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. PMID:24971359

  5. Appreciative Inquiry and Autonomy-Supportive Classes in Business Education: A Semilongitudinal Study of AI in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Thomas A.; Hartman, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe 10 separate classroom experiences where an appreciative inquiry (AI) exercise was used for course creation. Post-exercise surveys of students showed that the AI exercise was perceived to be a successful practice. Students indicated putting effort toward reaching their peak learning experience and were satisfied with…

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma.

  7. [To the history of Tretiyakov almshouse of the A.I. Vishnevskiy Institute of Surgery].

    PubMed

    Kuzybayeva, M P

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with reconstruction of history of building and functioning of Tretiyakov almshouse in the A.I. Vishnevskiy institute of surgery. The archive documents were used for exploration. The input of architect S.I. Soloviyev into formation of architectural complex is demonstrated. The significance of this object in the history of national architecture is established.

  8. Preliminary geological investigation of AIS data at Mary Kathleen, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. F.; Green, A. A.; Craig, M. D.; Cocks, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over granitic, volcanic, and calc-silicate terrain around the Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine in Queensland, in a test of its mineralocial mapping capabilities. An analysis strategy and restoration and enhancement techniques were developed to process the 128 band AIS data. A preliminary analysis of one of three AIS flight lines shows that the data contains considerable spectral variation but that it is also contaminated by second-order leakage of radiation from the near-infrared region. This makes the recognition of expected spectral absorption shapes very difficult. The effect appears worst in terrains containing considerable vegetation. Techniques that try to predict this supplementary radiation coupled with the log residual analytical technique show that expected mineral absorption spectra can be derived. The techniques suggest that with additional refinement correction procedures, the Australian AIS data may be revised. Application of the log residual analysis method has proved very successful on the cuprite, Nevada data set, and for highlighting the alunite, linite, and SiOH mineralogy.

  9. Autonomously generating operations sequences for a Mars Rover using AI-based planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Mishkin, Andrew; Estlin, Tara; Chien, Steve; Backes, Paul; Cooper, Brian; Maxwell, Scott; Rabideau, Gregg

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from highlevel science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules.

  10. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-02-15

    Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray ionization (HESI) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) were used to determine the composition of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanin content was 0.57±0.39mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g fresh weight (FW) and TPC was 6.07±2.17mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g FW. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was 3.1±1.3μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/100g FW, whereas the DPPH value was 2693.1±332.8μmol TE/100g FW. Overall, results show that Colombian açai has a more diverse polyphenolic profile and higher antioxidant activity than Brazilian açai. This information could be useful in authentification procedures to differentiate Brazilian açai from Colombian açai when used as an alternative for the supply of this fruit during the time of shortage in Brazil. PMID:27664647

  11. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  12. Advances in Breeding Management and Use of Ovulation Induction for Fixed-time AI.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, R N; Kauffold, J

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the breeding herd is the predictable and consistent production of high quality pigs. To achieve this objective, an appropriate number of females need to be mated in each breeding week and they should maintain their pregnancy and deliver large litters. Many factors can impact achievement of optimal sow productivity, particularly breeding management. Most matings will involve artificial insemination (AI), and successful AI requires deposition into the cervix (or beyond) of sufficient viable high quality sperm at an appropriate time relative to ovulation. This is facilitated by improved knowledge of the sow's ovarian function prior to and during her oestrous period. Realization of the importance of establishing an adequate sperm reservoir in the oviduct at an appropriate time relative to ovulation has led to advances in the management of AI. The future of AI will likely involve insemination of single doses of high genetic merit semen, potentially having a reduced sperm concentration which is made possible by knowledge of the effect of site of sperm deposition on sow fertility. In particular, knowledge of when a sow is likely to ovulate during a natural or induced oestrous period will prove invaluable in the maintenance of herd productivity. This review will examine options for breeding management, including the control of oestrus and ovulation, on sow herd reproductive performance.

  13. Can novel Apo A-I polymorphisms be responsible for low HDL in South Asian immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Dodani, Sunita; Dong, Yanbin; Zhu, Haidong; George, Varghese

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the world. Even though its rates have decreased worldwide over the past 30 years, event rates are still high in South Asians. South Asians are known to have low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. The objective of this study was to identify Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) polymorphisms, the main protein component of HDL and explore its association with low HDL levels in South Asians. A pilot study on 30 South Asians was conducted and 12-h fasting samples for C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, Lipoprotein (a), Insulin, glucose levels, DNA extraction, and sequencing of Apo A-I gene were done. DNA sequencing revealed six novel Apo A-I single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in South Asians, one of which (rs 35293760, C938T) was significantly associated with low (<40 mg/dl) HDL levels (P = 0.004). The association was also seen with total cholesterol (P = 0.026) and LDL levels (P = 0.032). This pilot work has highlighted some of the gene-environment associations that could be responsible for low HDL and may be excess CAD in South Asians. Further larger studies are required to explore and uncover these associations that could be responsible for excess CAD risk in South Asians. PMID:20300285

  14. Impact of initiating a fixed-time AI program on herd calving date and weaning weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved reproductive efficiency is critical for profitability in cow-calf operations. Cows that give birth early wean more pounds of calf and stay in the herd longer. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the impact of implementing a fixed time AI protocol in a herd that had a defined 6...

  15. Progress towards an AIS early detection monitoring network for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the lower St. Louis River system (SLR) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates f...

  16. Finished genome assembly of warm spring isolate Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Teshima, Hazuki; Coyne, Susan R.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James G.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-09-17

    We sequenced the complete genome of Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS to closed and finished status. This is a warm spring isolate recovered from Hobo Warm Spring (Utah, USA). The last assembly is available in NCBI under accession number CP012037.

  17. Evaluation of new techniques to enhance the use of A.I. on farm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination (AI) has played a seminal role in facilitating genetic improvement in dairy, beef and swine industries. The technology has not been routinely employed by the sheep industry and as a result genetic improvement has not been fully realized. The University of Wyoming and the US...

  18. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  19. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  20. 77 FR 68150 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee AGENCY: Office for Victims of Crime, Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Coordination Committee on the...

  1. Prediction of shipboard electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems using artificial intelligence (AI) technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

  2. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  3. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  4. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  5. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  6. Test de Français Laval-Montreal: Does It Measure What It Should Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Romain; Saif, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted as part of a larger investigation of the predictive validity of the Test de Français Laval-Montreal (TFLM), a high-stakes French language test used for admission and placement purposes for Teacher-Training Programs (TTPs) in major francophone universities in Canada (Schmitt, 2015). The objective of this…

  7. Chronic Apocynin Treatment Attenuates Beta Amyloid Plaque Size and Microglial Number in hAPP(751)SL Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lull, Melinda E.; Levesque, Shannon; Surace, Michael J.; Block, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM), to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751)SL). Methods Four month old hAPP(751)SL mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months. Results Only hAPP(751)SL mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin) demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751)SL mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751)SL mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load) and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ) phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival. Conclusions Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751)SL mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number, suggesting that apocynin

  8. Pregnancy rates following AI with sexed semen in Mediterranean Italian buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L

    2011-08-01

    The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy

  9. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life. PMID:27558543

  10. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life. PMID:27558543

  11. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life.

  12. [Study on safety of sodium hyaluronate (SL-1010) by injection in the anterior chamber].

    PubMed

    Sawa, M; Murao, M; Yanagi, M; Shiratori, K; Morita, H

    1993-04-01

    We investigated effects of a newly developed sodium hyaluronate (SL-1010) on the anterior segment of the eye. The tested sodium hyaluronate was biosynthesized using Streptococcus zoo-epidemicus. Under an operating microscope, we replaced the aqueous humor of Macaca fascicularis (n = 3) with 150 microliters of 1% sodium hyaluronate solution without loss of the anterior chamber. The opposite eye was treated as a control and its aqueous was replaced with the same volume of the vehicle, isotonic phosphate buffer solution. We performed follow-up clinical examination with slit-lamp microscopy, pachymetry, pneumotonometery, and specular microscopy. On the 7th day, we performed histological study by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Although the sodium hyaluronate group showed a significant increase of intraocular pressure at 9 hours after the treatment over the control, there were no significant differences in clinical findings between the sodium hyaluronate and the control groups. Histological studies demonstrated nothing particular except for slight swelling of mitochondria of corneal endothelial cells in both groups. It was concluded that the newly developed sodium hyaluronate is a biologically inactive and safe biomaterial.

  13. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy using Storz Modulith SL20--the Singapore General Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Wong, M Y; Li, M K; Foo, K T

    1993-11-01

    The Storz Modulith SL20 is a third-generation lithotripter which was installed in our hospital in March 1991. The aim of this paper is to evaluate our results in the management of renal calculi using this machine. We report our experience in the treatment of the first 215 renal units (118 renal and 83 ureteric) in 190 patients with a minimum follow-up period of three months. Success for renal stones was defined as stone-free or with insignificant residual fragments of less than 4 mm in size post therapy. Success for ureteric stones was defined as stone-free after therapy. The success rate for renal calculi was 88% and for ureteric calculi 71%. The mean number of sessions to achieve these results for renal calculi was 1.6 and for ureteric calculi 1.4. Of the failures, only 1.9% required open surgery whilst the remainder were dealt with using minimally invasive procedures like intracorporeal laser lithotripsy. There was no mortality in our series. Complications occurred in four patients, who required hospitalisation for renal colic (n = 1), urinary tract infection (n = 1) and obstructive uropathy (n = 2).

  14. The fragment R collision: W. M. Keck telescope observations of SL9.

    PubMed

    Graham, J R; de Pater, I; Jernigan, J G; Liu, M C; Brown, M E

    1995-03-01

    The W. M. Keck telescope was used to observe the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) fragment R at a wavelength of 2.3 micrometers on 21 July 1994. The data showed three outbursts. The first flash lasted about 40 seconds and was followed 1 minute after its peak by a second flash that lasted about 3 minutes. A third, longer lasting flare began 6 minutes after the first flash and lasted for 10 minutes. At its maximum brightness, the flare outshone Jupiter. The two short flashes are probably associated with the initial meteor trail and the subsequent fireball, respectively. The bright flare occurred when the impact site rotated into view. These data show that the explosion ejected material at least 1300 kilometers above the visible cloud tops. The luminosity of the impact site during the long bright flare was probably maintained by the release of gravitational potential energy, as this material fell back onto the lower atmosphere. PMID:7871431

  15. Development of chloroplast microsatellite markers for the endangered Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.)1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Kim, Changkyun; Lee, You-Mi; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ten polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and characterized in an endemic and endangered herb, Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.), for use in conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Primer sets flanking each of the 10 cpSSR loci in noncoding regions of the chloroplast genome of M. bicolor were designed. These cpSSR markers were tested on a total of 33 adult individuals from three natural populations in South Korea. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to three. The unbiased haplotype diversity per locus ranged from 0.061 to 0.682. All markers were successfully transferred to the congeneric species M. japonicum, M. bifolium, and M. dilatatum with polymorphisms among the species. Conclusions: The developed cpSSR markers will be useful in assessing the genetic diversity and population structure of M. bicolor and will help to infer its molecular identification, thereby providing a basis for conservation. PMID:27610276

  16. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. -- is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte; Melzig, Matthias F

    2007-09-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, two fractions enriched in flavonoids and dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs), respectively, were also tested in order to evaluate their contribution to the antiphlogistic activity of the plant. The extract and the flavonoid fraction inhibited HNE showing IC(50) values of approximately 20 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction was less active (IC(50)=72 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and -9 was observed at IC(50) values from 600 to 800 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction showed stronger effects than the flavonoid fraction and the extract. In conclusion, the in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug.

  17. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.): pharmaceutical quality of commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Benedek, B; Rothwangl-Wiltschnigg, K; Rozema, E; Gjoncaj, N; Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Kopp, B; Glasl, S

    2008-01-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) is traditionally used against inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, hepato-biliary disorders, as an appetite enhancing drug, against skin inflammations and for wound healing due to its antiphlogistic, choleretic and spasmolytic properties. The main pharmacologically active principles were shown to be the essential oil (antimicrobial), proazulenes and other sesquiterpene lactones (antiphlogistic), dicaffeoylquinic acids (choleretic) and flavonoids (antispasmodic). In order to assess the pharmaceutical quality of the drug we evaluated the content of these bioactive compounds in 40 commercial drug samples. The essential oil and the proazulenes were analysed according to the European Pharmacopoeia, whereas the content of dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids was determined by solid phase extraction (SPE)-HPLC. This comprehensive survey revealed that the quality of the drug material was very heterogenous, and only 50% of the samples met the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia. Moreover, this study gives information about the content of phenolic compounds in the drug and allowed to establish tentative reference values which may be used as additional parameters in the quality control of the drug.

  18. The clinical introduction of a third generation lithotriptor: Modulith SL 20.

    PubMed

    Köhrmann, K U; Rassweiler, J J; Manning, M; Mohr, G; Henkel, T O; Jünemann, K P; Alken, P

    1995-05-01

    The Modulith SL 20* was designed as a third generation lithotriptor with outstanding disintegrative efficacy in vitro, and equipped with a combined fluoroscopic and ultrasound localization system integrated in a multifunctional table. Its introduction to clinical extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy took place in 3 phases. In phase 1 (49 patients) only in line ultrasound localization was possible. The many caliceal stones were adequately disintegrated with restricted generator voltage. In phase 2 (81 patients) fluoroscopic localization with the virtual focus of an adapted x-ray C-arm unit enabled in situ lithotripsy of ureteral stones in 33% of all patients. Phase 3 (549 patients) was characterized by additionally increasing the generator voltage to 20 kv. This development of the lithotriptor by improving the localization system and shock wave energy resulted in the possibility for successful disintegration of stones in the entire upper urinary tract (including the complete ureter), decreased treatment time (52 to 39 minutes) and an improved efficiency quotient (0.45 to 0.67). During phase 3 auxiliary measures were performed before lithotripsy in 24% of the cases. After 1.8% of the treatments minor or moderate perirenal fluid collection or bleeding was detected by routine followup sonography. A 91% stone-free rate was achieved with only 9.3% curative auxiliary measures after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, including a 23% retreatment rate. Thus, the Modulith device had a high efficacy quotient compared with other lithotriptors. PMID:7714946

  19. Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani village, Mali.

    PubMed

    Edillo, Frances E; Touré, Yeya T; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Dolo, Guimogo; Taylor, Charles E

    2004-05-01

    We observed the survivorship and distribution of larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles immature stages in three habitats (rock pools, swamp, and puddles) in Banambani village. Mali, West Africa, during the mid-rainy season of 2000. Horizontal life tables were constructed for immatures in the laboratory. Times spent in the various immature stages were determined, and laboratory survival was measured. Vertical life tables were obtained from each habitat. We found large day-to-day variation for age class composition within habitats across days. The swamp samples had small but statistically significant different distributions in some instar stages compared with rock pools and puddles as affected by precipitation history. There were obviously unstable age distributions in the swamp and puddles and to some extent in rock pools. There were more individuals in some later age classes than in earlier ones. The daily survival estimates using an exponential decay model were 0.807 in rock pools, 0.899 in the swamp, 0.818 in puddles, and 0.863 in the overall village. Possible reasons for the departure from stable age distribution were cannibalism, predation and other complex interactions, rainfall effects, sampling bias, and differences in physicochemical properties of the water in the habitats. PMID:15185933

  20. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. -- is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte; Melzig, Matthias F

    2007-09-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, two fractions enriched in flavonoids and dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs), respectively, were also tested in order to evaluate their contribution to the antiphlogistic activity of the plant. The extract and the flavonoid fraction inhibited HNE showing IC(50) values of approximately 20 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction was less active (IC(50)=72 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and -9 was observed at IC(50) values from 600 to 800 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction showed stronger effects than the flavonoid fraction and the extract. In conclusion, the in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug. PMID:17689902

  1. Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani village, Mali.

    PubMed

    Edillo, Frances E; Touré, Yeya T; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Dolo, Guimogo; Taylor, Charles E

    2004-05-01

    We observed the survivorship and distribution of larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles immature stages in three habitats (rock pools, swamp, and puddles) in Banambani village. Mali, West Africa, during the mid-rainy season of 2000. Horizontal life tables were constructed for immatures in the laboratory. Times spent in the various immature stages were determined, and laboratory survival was measured. Vertical life tables were obtained from each habitat. We found large day-to-day variation for age class composition within habitats across days. The swamp samples had small but statistically significant different distributions in some instar stages compared with rock pools and puddles as affected by precipitation history. There were obviously unstable age distributions in the swamp and puddles and to some extent in rock pools. There were more individuals in some later age classes than in earlier ones. The daily survival estimates using an exponential decay model were 0.807 in rock pools, 0.899 in the swamp, 0.818 in puddles, and 0.863 in the overall village. Possible reasons for the departure from stable age distribution were cannibalism, predation and other complex interactions, rainfall effects, sampling bias, and differences in physicochemical properties of the water in the habitats.

  2. AI-related BMD variation in actual practice conditions: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Garrigos, Laia; Rodriguez-Morera, Jaime; Albanell, Joan; Martínez-García, Maria; González, Iria; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of bone mineral density (BMD) during 3 years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) therapy in actual practice conditions. This prospective, clinical cohort study of Barcelona-Aromatase induced Bone Loss in Early breast cancer (B-ABLE) assessed BMD changes during 3 years of AI treatment in women with breast cancer. Patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 or T score ≤ -2.0) and a major risk factor and/or prevalent fragility fractures were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). Of 685 women recruited, 179 (26.1%) received BP treatment. By the third year of AI therapy, this group exhibited increased BMD in the lumbar spine (LS; 2.59%) and femoral neck (FN; 2.50%), although the increase was significant only within the first year (LS: 1.99% and FN: 2.04%). Despite BP therapy, however, approximately 15% of these patients lost more than 3% of their baseline bone mass. At 3 years, patients without BP experienced BMD decreases in the LS (-3.10%) and FN (-2.79%). In this group, BMD changes occurred during the first (LS: -1.33% and FN: -1.25%), second (LS: -1.19% and FN: -0.82%), and third (LS: -0.57% and FN: -0.65%) years of AI treatment. Increased BMD (>3%) was observed in just 7.6% and 10.8% of these patients at the LS and FN, respectively. Our data confirm a clinically relevant bone loss associated with AI therapy amongst nonusers of preventative BPs. We further report on the importance of BMD monitoring as well as calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D supplementation in these patients. PMID:26911377

  3. Processing the Interspecies Quorum-sensing Signal Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    SciTech Connect

    J Marques; P Lamosa; C Russell; R Ventura; C Maycock; M Semmelhack; S Miller; K Xavier

    2011-12-31

    The molecule (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is produced by many different species of bacteria and is the precursor of the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). AI-2 mediates interspecies communication and facilitates regulation of bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation and virulence. A variety of bacterial species have the ability to sequester and process the AI-2 present in their environment, thereby interfering with the cell-cell communication of other bacteria. This process involves the AI-2-regulated lsr operon, comprised of the Lsr transport system that facilitates uptake of the signal, a kinase that phosphorylates the signal to phospho-DPD (P-DPD), and enzymes (like LsrG) that are responsible for processing the phosphorylated signal. Because P-DPD is the intracellular inducer of the lsr operon, enzymes involved in P-DPD processing impact the levels of Lsr expression. Here we show that LsrG catalyzes isomerization of P-DPD into 3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-pentanone-5-phosphate. We present the crystal structure of LsrG, identify potential catalytic residues, and determine which of these residues affects P-DPD processing in vivo and in vitro. We also show that an lsrG deletion mutant accumulates at least 10 times more P-DPD than wild type cells. Consistent with this result, we find that the lsrG mutant has increased expression of the lsr operon and an altered profile of AI-2 accumulation and removal. Understanding of the biochemical mechanisms employed by bacteria to quench signaling of other species can be of great utility in the development of therapies to control bacterial behavior.

  4. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianling; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants. PMID:26241658

  5. Investigation of quantum efficiency in mid-wave infrared (MWIR) InAs/GaSb type-II strained layer superlattice (T2SL) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Lilian; Klein, Brianna; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Frantz, Eric; Myers, Stephen; Gautam, Nutan; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Plis, Elena; Krishna, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize the absorption in the active region of InAs/GaSb T2SL photodetectors for the realization of high-performance MWIR devices. Two sets of MWIR (λ100% cut-off ~ 5.5μm at 77K) T2SL detectors were realized; one set with varied detector absorber thickness, the other set with varied T2SL period. The T2SL material quality was evaluated on the basis of room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) and the high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) data. Then the device performance was compared using spectral response, dark current and responsivity measurements. Finally, quantum efficiency was calculated and employed as a metric for the definition of the optimal T2SL period and active region thickness. For the first part of the study, a homojunction pin architecture based on 8 monolayers (MLs) InAs/8MLs GaSb T2SL was used. The thickness of the non-intentionally doped absorber layers were 1.5μm, 2.5μm, and 3.5μm. For the second part of the study, unipolar barrier (pBiBn) devices were grown. The thickness of the absorber region and the T2SL constituent InAs layer thicknesses were kept the same (1.5 μm and 8 MLs, respectively) whereas the T2SL constituent GaSb thickness was varied as 6 MLs, 8 MLs, and 10 MLs. We have found that the pin detector with 2.5 μm thick absorber and the pBiBn detector with 8 ML InAs/ 8 ML GaSb T2SL composition are, within the scope of this study, optimal for the realization of MWIR single-element devices and FPAs with corresponding architectures.

  6. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianling; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants. PMID:26241658

  7. Deletion of the propeptide of apolipoprotein A-I impairs exit of nascent apolipoprotein A-I from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, R S; Robbins, C; Burns, A; Yao, Z; Pritchard, P H

    1994-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is secreted as a proprotein of 249 amino acids and is processed extracellularly to the mature form (243 amino acids) by removal of a six-residue propeptide segment. We have examined the role of the apoA-I propeptide in intracellular transport and secretion using transfected baby hamster kidney cells that secreted either proapoA-I (from the wild-type cDNA, A-Iwt) or mature-form apoA-I (from A-I delta pro, a cDNA in which the propeptide sequence was deleted). Deletion of the propeptide from the apoA-I sequence did not affect the rate of apoA-I synthesis, nor did it affect the fidelity of proteolytic removal of the prepeptide. However, the propeptide deletion caused mature-form apoA-I to accumulate within the cells as determined by pulse-chase experiments; the intracellular retention times for the mature-form apoA-I in which the propeptide was prematurely removed was three times longer than that of proapoA-I (t1/2 > 3 h compared with approximately 50 min). There was no detectable degradation of either form of newly synthesized apoA-I. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that, whereas the proapoA-I was located predominantly in the Golgi apparatus, large quantities of the mature-form apoA-I were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and very little was in the Golgi apparatus of A-I delta pro-transfected cells. These findings suggest that the propeptide sequence may be involved in the intracellular transport of apoA-I from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. We propose that the function of the propeptide sequence is to facilitate efficient transport of apoA-I through the secretory pathway. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7945187

  8. RNA sequencing analysis of gene expression regulated by the transcription factor SlZFP2 during early fruit development.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xiao, Han

    2016-06-01

    The transcription factor SlZFP2 (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger Protein 2) regulates ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. To reveal the regulatory network of this transcription factor, we conducted a high-throughput RNA-seq to identify differentially expressed genes in 2 dpa (days post anthesis) fruits from a representative RNAi line in Solanum pimpinellifolium LA1589 background and the wild type. The transcriptome analysis revealed that expression of 2722 genes was regulated by SlZFP2 during early fruit development and further helped to narrow down its direct targets to 193 genes. Here, we provide a detailed description of the experimental procedure associated with our transcriptome sequencing data deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (accession no. GSE63838). PMID:27114906

  9. Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) Team in the SL POCC During the STS-42 IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) team in SL POCC), during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  10. Lattice realizations of the open descendants of twisted boundary conditions for sl(2) A D E models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, C. H. Otto; Pearce, Paul A.

    2005-06-01

    The twisted boundary conditions and associated partition functions of the conformal sl(2) A D E models are studied on the Klein bottle and the Möbius strip. The A D E minimal lattice models give realization to the complete classification of the open descendants of the sl(2) minimal theories. We construct the transfer matrices of these lattice models that are consistent with non-orientable geometries. In particular, we show that in order to realize all the Klein bottle amplitudes of different crosscap states, not only the topological flip on the lattice but also the involution in the spin configuration space must be taken into account. This involution is the \\mathbb {Z}_2 symmetry of the Dynkin diagrams which corresponds to the simple current of the Ocneanu algebra.

  11. STS-55 crewmembers pose with U.S. and German flags in SL-D2 module on OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 crewmembers pose with United States and German flags inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module located in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Wearing communications kit assembly headsets (HDSTs) are (left to right) Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel.

  12. Tomato cystatin SlCYS8 as a stabilizing fusion partner for human serpin expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Varennes-Jutras, Philippe; Goulet, Marie-Claire; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Michaud, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Studies have reported the usefulness of fusion proteins to bolster recombinant protein yields in plants. Here, we assess the potential of tomato SlCYS8, a Cys protease inhibitor of the cystatin protein superfamily, as a stabilizing fusion partner for human alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (α1ACT) targeted to the plant cell secretory pathway. Using the model expression platform Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that the cystatin imparts a strong stabilizing effect when expressed as a translational fusion with α1ACT, allowing impressive accumulation yields of over 2 mg/g of fresh weight tissue for the human serpin, a 25-fold improvement on the yield of α1ACT expressed alone. Natural and synthetic peptide linkers inserted between SlCYS8 and α1ACT have differential effects on protease inhibitory potency of the two protein partners in vitro. They also have a differential impact on the yield of α1ACT, dependent on the extent to which the hybrid protein may remain intact in the plant cell environment. The stabilizing effect of SlCYS8 does not involve Cys protease inhibition and can be partly reproduced in the cytosol, where peptide linkers are less susceptible to degradation. The effect of SlCYS8 on α1ACT yields could be explained by: (i) an improved translation of the human protein coding sequence; and/or (ii) an overall stabilization of its tertiary structure preventing proteolytic degradation and/or polymerization. These findings suggest the potential of plant cystatins as stabilizing fusion partners for recombinant proteins in plant systems. They also underline the need for an empirical assessment of peptide linker functions in plant cell environments.

  13. Orbiter multiplexer-demultiplexer (MDM)/Space Lab Bus Interface Unit (SL/BIU) serial data interface evaluation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobey, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the operating characteristics of the interface between the Space Lab Bus Interface Unit (SL/BIU) and the Orbiter Multiplexer-Demultiplexer (MDM) serial data input-output (SIO) module. This volume contains the test equipment preparation procedures and a detailed description of the Nova/Input Output Processor Simulator (IOPS) software used during the data transfer tests to determine word error rates (WER).

  14. NeSL-1, an ancient lineage of site-specific non-LTR retrotransposons from Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, H S; Eickbush, T H

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of non-LTR retrotransposons suggest that all elements can be divided into 11 lineages. The 3 oldest lineages show target site specificity for unique locations in the genome and encode an endonuclease with an active site similar to certain restriction enzymes. The more "modern" non-LTR lineages possess an apurinic endonuclease-like domain and generally lack site specificity. The genome sequence of Caenorhabditis elegans reveals the presence of a non-LTR retrotransposon that resembles the older elements, in that it contains a single open reading frame with a carboxyl-terminal restriction-like endonuclease domain. Located near the N-terminal end of the ORF is a cysteine protease domain not found in any other non-LTR element. The N2 strain of C. elegans appears to contain only one full-length and several 5' truncated copies of this element. The elements specifically insert in the Spliced leader-1 genes; hence the element has been named NeSL-1 (Nematode Spliced Leader-1). Phylogenetic analysis confirms that NeSL-1 branches very early in the non-LTR lineage and that it represents a 12th lineage of non-LTR elements. The target specificity of NeSL-1 for the spliced leader exons and the similarity of its structure to that of R2 elements leads to a simple model for its expression and retrotransposition. PMID:10628980

  15. Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Norte, A C; da Silva, L P; Tenreiro, P J Q; Felgueiras, M S; Araújo, P M; Lopes, P B; Matos, C; Rosa, A; Ferreira, P J S G; Encarnação, P; Rocha, A; Escudero, R; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2015-09-01

    Wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. The aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in Portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using PCR techniques. Seven tick species were collected from birds including Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma spp., Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes ventalloi. We found that I. frontalis and Hyalomma spp. were the most common ticks infesting birds of several species and that they were widespread in Portugal. Turdus merula was the bird species that presented the highest diversity of infesting ticks and had one of the highest infestation intensities. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 7.3% (37/505) of Ixodidae ticks derived from birds. The most common genospecies was Borrelia turdi (6.9%), detected in ticks collected from Parus major, T. merula and Turdus philomelos, but Borrelia valaisiana (0.2%) and one Borrelia sp. (0.2%) similar to Borrelia bissettii (96% of similarity of the flaB gene in Blastn) were also detected. This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks.

  16. Interaction of brassinosteroid functions and sucrose transporter SlSUT2 regulate the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Bitterlich, Michael; Krügel, Undine; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Franken, Philipp; Kühn, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with reduced expression of the sucrose transporter SlSUT2 showed higher efficiency of mycorrhization suggesting a sucrose retrieval function of SlSUT2 from the peri-arbuscular space back into the cell cytoplasm plant cytoplasm thereby limiting mycorrhiza fungal development. Sucrose uptake in colonized root cells requires efficient plasma membrane-targeting of SlSUT2 which is often retained intracellularly in vacuolar vesicles. Protein-protein interaction studies suggested a link between SISUT2 function and components of brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling. Indeed, the tomato DWARF mutant dx defective in BR synthesis1 showed significantly reduced mycorrhization parameters.2 The question has been raised whether the impact of brassinosteroids on mycorrhization is a general phenomenon. Here, we include a rice mutant defective in DIM1/DWARF1 involved in BR biosynthesis to investigate the effects on mycorrhization. A model is presented where brassinolides are able to impact mycorrhization by activating SUT2 internalization and inhibiting its role in sucrose retrieval. PMID:25482803

  17. Interaction of brassinosteroid functions and sucrose transporter SlSUT2 regulate the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Bitterlich, Michael; Krügel, Undine; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Franken, Philipp; Kühn, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with reduced expression of the sucrose transporter SlSUT2 showed higher efficiency of mycorrhization suggesting a sucrose retrieval function of SlSUT2 from the peri-arbuscular space back into the cell cytoplasm plant cytoplasm thereby limiting mycorrhiza fungal development. Sucrose uptake in colonized root cells requires efficient plasma membrane-targeting of SlSUT2 which is often retained intracellularly in vacuolar vesicles. Protein-protein interaction studies suggested a link between SISUT2 function and components of brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling. Indeed, the tomato DWARF mutant d(x) defective in BR synthesis (1) showed significantly reduced mycorrhization parameters. (2) The question has been raised whether the impact of brassinosteroids on mycorrhization is a general phenomenon. Here, we include a rice mutant defective in DIM1/DWARF1 involved in BR biosynthesis to investigate the effects on mycorrhization. A model is presented where brassinolides are able to impact mycorrhization by activating SUT2 internalization and inhibiting its role in sucrose retrieval.

  18. Cordyceps s.l. (Ascomycetes) Species Used as Medicinal Mushrooms are Closely Related with Higher Ability to Produce Cordycepin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Huang, I-Ching; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps s.l. (sensu lato) species have been used as herbal medicines; one of their main constituents is cordycepin. As genome sequencing techniques have become more cost-effective and more popular, more entomogenous fungal genomes have been sequenced and published. Here, we constructed a phylogenetic tree based on 18S rRNA sequences from Cordyceps species and analyzed the copy number of the key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of cordycepin from related fungal genomes that have been published. The sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were examined, and seven single nucleotides were found that could represent the evolutionary history of Cordyceps s.l. and which perfectly fit the phylogenetic tree. Their evolution was influenced mainly by host factors, rather than geographical location. The Cordyceps s.l. species that are used as herbal medicines are closely related in the phylogenetic tree. The major species for Chinese pharmaceutical markets, such as C. militaris and C. sinensis, have higher copy numbers of 5'-nucleotidase and adenylate kinase, and ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), respectively. Moreover, absence of an RNR inhibitor may cause cordycepin accumulation. Presence of an RNR inhibitor may lead to lower cordycepin levels in fungal species in which no medicinal applications have been described. Cordycepin is not only an important secondary metabolite that is used as an herbal medicine, but it also has significance for understanding the evolution of these entomogenous species. PMID:26853963

  19. Sparse-view computed tomography image reconstruction via a combination of L(1) and SL(0) regularization.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hongliang; Chen, Zijia; Guo, Jingyu; Zhou, Linghong

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose computed tomography reconstruction is an important issue in the medical imaging domain. Sparse-view has been widely studied as a potential strategy. Compressed sensing (CS) method has shown great potential to reconstruct high-quality CT images from sparse-view projection data. Nonetheless, low-contrast structures tend to be blurred by the total variation (TV, L1-norm of the gradient image) regularization. Moreover, TV will produce blocky effects on smooth and edge regions. To overcome this limitation, this study has proposed an iterative image reconstruction algorithm by combining L1 regularization and smoothed L0 (SL0) regularization. SL0 is a smooth approximation of L0 norm and can solve the problem of L0 norm being sensitive to noise. To evaluate the proposed method, both qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted on a digital Shepp-Logan phantom and a real head phantom. Experimental comparative results have indicated that the proposed L1/SL0-POCS algorithm can effectively suppress noise and artifacts, as well as preserve more structural information compared to other existing methods.

  20. Preparation and characterization of alginate-gelatin microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 by emulsification/internal gelation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Liang; He, Yanhui; Yang, Hongbing; Wu, Zhansheng; Yi, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin was blended with sodium alginate (NaALG) to obtain a novel microbial fungicide, and dispersed micron Bacillus subtilis SL-13 microspheres prepared by emulsification/internal gelation method. Microscopic examination revealed that microcapsules were nearly spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction confirmed that the electrostatic interaction was occurred when gelatin added into NaALG. The maximum encapsulation efficiency was 93.44% at a gelatin concentration of 1.5%. Particle size, swelling, and biodegradation of beads increased with gelatin content increase. Furthermore, the viability of encapsulated SL-13 could be preserved at more than 10(8) CFU/mL after 120 d storage at 25 °C. The number of viable cells released from microcapsules presented an initial rapid increase followed by a gradual increase, and reached the maximum as 10(10) CFU/mL on day 35. Thus, it is feasible to prepare uniform, rounded shape, and well-dispersed micron microcapsules of SL-13 via emulsification/internal gelation using NaALG and gelatin composites. This encapsulation strategy could be considered as a potential alternative to future applications in the agricultural industry.

  1. The auxin Sl-IAA17 transcriptional repressor controls fruit size via the regulation of endoreduplication-related cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Su, Liyan; Bassa, Carole; Audran, Corinne; Mila, Isabelle; Cheniclet, Catherine; Chevalier, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Chervin, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Auxin is known to regulate cell division and cell elongation, thus controlling plant growth and development. Part of the auxin signaling pathway depends on the fine-tuned degradation of the auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressors. Recent evidence indicates that Aux/IAA proteins play a role in fruit development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), a model species for fleshy fruit development. We report here on the functional characterization of Sl-IAA17 during tomato fruit development. Silencing of Sl-IAA17 by an RNA interference (RNAi) strategy resulted in the production of larger fruit than the wild type. Histological analyses of the fruit organ and tissues demonstrated that this phenotype was associated with a thicker pericarp, rather than larger locules and/or a larger number of seeds. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that the higher pericarp thickness in Sl-IAA17 RNAi fruits was not due to a larger number of cells, but to the increase in cell size. Finally, we observed that the cell expansion in the transgenic fruits is tightly coupled with higher ploidy levels than in the wild type, suggesting a stimulation of the endoreduplication process. In conclusion, this work provides new insights into the function of the Aux/IAA pathway in fleshy fruit development, especially fruit size and cell size determination in tomato.

  2. Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-AI Vaccine Virus Replication in Different Species of Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Kovács, Edit Walkóné; Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Felföldi, Balázs; Homonnay, Zalán G; Mató, Tamás; Sato, Takanori; Gardin, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl play a key role in the epidemiology of the H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus; therefore, efficient immunization of domesticated ducks and geese to maximize the impact of other control measures is of great importance. A recombinant (r)HVT-AI, expressing the HA gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain had been developed and proved to be efficient against different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus in chickens after a single vaccination at 1 day old and could provide long-term immunity. We investigated whether rHVT-AI applied at 1 day old is able to replicate in different species and crossbreeds of ducks and in geese with the aim of collecting data on the possible application of rHVT-AI vaccine in different species of waterfowl for the control of H5N1 HPAI. We tested the possible differences among different waterfowl species, i.e., between geese (Anser anser, domesticated greylag goose), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata forma domestica), Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica), and mule ducks (Muscovy duck × Pekin duck), in their susceptibility to support the replication of rHVT-AI. Vaccine virus replication was followed by real-time PCR in spleen, bursa, and feather tip samples. Humoral immune response to vaccination was tested using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and H5-specific commercial ELISA. Significant differences among the different waterfowl species regarding the rate of rHVT-AI replication was detected that were not reflected by the same difference in the immune response to vaccination. Replication of the rHVT-AI vaccine was very limited in Pekin ducks, somewhat better in mule ducks, and the vaccine virus was replicating significantly better in Muscovy ducks and geese, reaching 100% detectability at certain time points after administration at 1 day old. Results indicated that the vaccine virus could establish different levels of persistent infection in these species of waterfowl. No humoral immune response

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the SL221 Cells at the Early Stage during Spodoptera litura Nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Liu, Jianliang; Wen, Dongling; Wu, Xiaohui; Yin, Hanqi

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide. There is urgent need for a nuclear polyhedrosis virus that is specific to S. litura. To date, there have been no reports regarding the responses of S. litura cells to early Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infection due to the lack of a reference genome and transcriptome for S. litura. In this study, a cell transcriptome from the host S. litura was assembled and used for Illumina strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate 99180 unigenes, representing the 18 hour infection cycle. More than 2000 S. litura genes were significant differentially regulated throughout the infection. The levels of viral mRNAs began to increase dramatically at 6 hpi, and this increase continued throughout the remainder of the infection. We focused on the expression of genes related to stress responses, apoptosis, metabolic enzymes and host cell innate immune system. A small subset of genes related to host stress response, especially for 62 ones being able to annotated as enzyme, ligand and receptor genes, were observed to be specifically differentially expressed at 6 hpi. At 18 hpi, 104 unigenes were continuously significantly changing from 0 hpi to 18 hpi, considered to be viral multiplication related genes, including 3 annotated SL221 unigenes and 81 viral genes, such as tetraspanin and iap gene. This information and further studies on the regulation of host gene expression by baculovirus infection at early stage will provide the tools needed to enhance the utility of this virus as an effective insecticide. PMID:26840182

  4. Dual African Origins of Global Aedes aegypti s.l. Populations Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michelle; Sylla, Massamba; Goss, Laura; Burugu, Marion Warigia; Sang, Rosemary; Kamau, Luna W.; Kenya, Eucharia Unoma; Bosio, Chris; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes; Sharakova, Maria; Black, William Cormack

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary global vector to humans of yellow fever and dengue flaviviruses. Over the past 50 years, many population genetic studies have documented large genetic differences among global populations of this species. These studies initially used morphological polymorphisms, followed later by allozymes, and most recently various molecular genetic markers including microsatellites and mitochondrial markers. In particular, since 2000, fourteen publications and four unpublished datasets have used sequence data from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene to compare Ae. aegypti collections and collectively 95 unique mtDNA haplotypes have been found. Phylogenetic analyses in these many studies consistently resolved two clades but no comprehensive study of mtDNA haplotypes have been made in Africa, the continent in which the species originated. Methods and Findings ND4 haplotypes were sequenced in 426 Ae. aegypti s.l. from Senegal, West Africa and Kenya, East Africa. In Senegal 15 and in Kenya 7 new haplotypes were discovered. When added to the 95 published haplotypes and including 6 African Aedes species as outgroups, phylogenetic analyses showed that all but one Senegal haplotype occurred in a basal clade while most East African haplotypes occurred in a second clade arising from the basal clade. Globally distributed haplotypes occurred in both clades demonstrating that populations outside Africa consist of mixtures of mosquitoes from both clades. Conclusions Populations of Ae. aegypti outside Africa consist of mosquitoes arising from one of two ancestral clades. One clade is basal and primarily associated with West Africa while the second arises from the first and contains primarily mosquitoes from East Africa PMID:23638196

  5. Mass Losses Of Co, Cs And Hcn On Jupiter/sl9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Raphael; Marten, A.

    2006-09-01

    Since comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) collided with Jupiter in 1994, the IRAM 30-m Telescope (Pico Veleta, Spain) and the 15-m JCMT (Mauna Kea,Hawaii) have regularly observed Jupiter at millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. Molecular trace species such as HCN, CO, CS and their isotopomers have been detected in the upper atmosphere since the collision. Because of the high spectral resolution attained, our data allow one to infer both temperature and abundances in Jupiter's stratosphere with a maximum spatial resolution of 10 arcsec. We have used all these data to monitor the latitudinal spreading since the impacts occurred (Marten et al. 1995), to look for changes in their abundances with time (Moreno et al. 2001, 2003) and to determine several isotopic ratios (Matthews et al. 2002). Data taken in 2004 have shown that latitudinal distributions of all these species were almost homogeneous 10 years after impacts, as predicted by Moreno et al. 2003. Moreover, compared to 1998 results, respective mass loss factors as high as 2-7 have been determined for the three molecular main compounds (Moreno et al. 2005). In order to follow-up our monitoring, new disk mapping observations took place in May 2006 using the IRAM-30m Telescope. Here we report the results of the recent measurements of CO, CS and HCN, and also the search for new species: H2CO, H2CS, CH3CN, CH3OH. Such trace compounds could have explained the mass losses observed in 2004, but no clear detections have been obtained after reasonable integration times. Estimates of the new CO, CS and HCN total masses and upper limits for the trace species searched for will be presented. The loss mechanisms will be discussed. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  6. Apo A-I inhibits foam cell formation in apo E–deficient mice after monocyte adherence to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Dansky, Hayes M.; Charlton, Sherri A.; Barlow, Courtenay B.; Tamminen, Minna; Smith, Jonathan D.; Frank, Joy S.; Breslow, Jan L.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously shown that expression of the human apo A-I transgene on the apo E–deficient background increases HDL cholesterol and greatly diminishes fatty streak lesion formation. To examine the mechanism, prelesional events in atherosclerotic plaque development were examined in 6- to 8-week-old apo E–deficient and apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. A quantitative assessment of subendothelial lipid deposition by freeze-fracture and deep-etch electron microscopy indicated that elevated apo A-I did not affect the distribution or amount of aortic arch subendothelial lipid deposits. Immunohistochemical staining for VCAM-1 demonstrated similar expression on endothelial cells at prelesional aortic branch sites from both apo E–deficient and apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. Transmission electron microscopy revealed monocytes bound to the aortic arch in mice of both genotypes, and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the area occupied by bound mononuclear cells was unchanged. Serum paraoxonase and aryl esterase activity did not differ between apo E–deficient and apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. These data suggest that increases in apo A-I and HDL cholesterol inhibit foam cell formation in apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice at a stage following lipid deposition, endothelial activation, and monocyte adherence, without increases in HDL-associated paraoxonase. PMID:10393696

  7. Investigation of the conserved glutamate immediately following the DEAD box in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AI.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishnaben; Shah, Grishma K; Kommaraju, Sai Shilpa; Low, Woon-Kai

    2014-02-01

    The DExD-box family (DEAD-box) of proteins was surveyed for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-specific sequences surrounding the DEAD box. An eIF4A-unique glutamate residue (E186 in eIF4AI) was identified immediately following the D-E-A-D sequence in eIF4AI, II, and III that was found to be conserved from yeast to Man. Mutation to a selection of alternative amino acids was performed within recombinant eIF4AI expressed in Escherichia coli and mutant proteins were surveyed for RNA-dependent ATPase activity. The mutants were also investigated for changes in activity in the presence of the two eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI as well as for co-purification ability to these two domains. The E186 residue was found to be of significance for RNA-dependent ATPase activity for eIF4AI alone and in the presence of eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI through point-mutation analysis. Furthermore, binding interactions between eIF4AI and eIF4GI domains were also significantly influenced by mutation of E186, as observed through co-purification assays. Thus, this residue appears to be of functional significance for eIF4A. PMID:24471916

  8. Characterization and functional properties of the alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Le Berre-Anton, V; Bompard-Gilles, C; Payan, F; Rougé, P

    1997-11-14

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Tendergreen) seeds has been purified to homogeneity by heat treatment in acidic medium, ammonium sulphate fractionation, chromatofocusing and gel filtration. Two isoforms, alpha-AI1 and alpha-AI1', of 43 kDa have been isolated which differ from each other by their isoelectric points and neutral sugar contents. The major isoform alpha-AI1 inhibited human and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylases (PPA) but was devoid of activity on alpha-amylases of bacterial or fungal origins. As shown on the Lineweaver-Burk plots, the nature of the inhibition is explained by a mixed non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Alpha-AI1 formed a 1:2 stoichiometric complex with PPA which showed an optimum pH of 4.5 at 30 degrees C. Owing to the low optimum pH found for alpha-AI activity, inhibitor-containing diets such as beans or transgenic plants expressing alpha-AI should be devoid of any harmful effect on human health. PMID:9428656

  9. Investigation of the conserved glutamate immediately following the DEAD box in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AI.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishnaben; Shah, Grishma K; Kommaraju, Sai Shilpa; Low, Woon-Kai

    2014-02-01

    The DExD-box family (DEAD-box) of proteins was surveyed for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-specific sequences surrounding the DEAD box. An eIF4A-unique glutamate residue (E186 in eIF4AI) was identified immediately following the D-E-A-D sequence in eIF4AI, II, and III that was found to be conserved from yeast to Man. Mutation to a selection of alternative amino acids was performed within recombinant eIF4AI expressed in Escherichia coli and mutant proteins were surveyed for RNA-dependent ATPase activity. The mutants were also investigated for changes in activity in the presence of the two eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI as well as for co-purification ability to these two domains. The E186 residue was found to be of significance for RNA-dependent ATPase activity for eIF4AI alone and in the presence of eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI through point-mutation analysis. Furthermore, binding interactions between eIF4AI and eIF4GI domains were also significantly influenced by mutation of E186, as observed through co-purification assays. Thus, this residue appears to be of functional significance for eIF4A.

  10. The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2014-09-01

    Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and α-amylase StAmy23, β-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both α-amylase and β-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers.

  11. Interaction of apolipoprotein A-I with lecithin-cholesterol vesicles in the presence of phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Gudheti, Manasa V; Gonzalez, Yamaira I; Lee, Sum P; Wrenn, Steven P

    2003-12-30

    Here we study the anti-nucleating mechanism of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) on model biliary vesicles in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC) utilizing dynamic light scattering (DLS), steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and UV/Vis spectroscopy. PLC induces aggregation of cholesterol-free lecithin vesicles from an initial, average size of 100 nm to a maximal size of 600 nm. The presence of apo A-I likely inhibits vesicle aggregation by shielding the PLC-generated hydrophobic moieties, which results in vesicles of an average size of 200 nm. A similar phenomenon is observed in cholesterol-enriched lecithin vesicles. Whereas PLC alone produces aggregates of 300 nm, no aggregation is observed when apo A-I is present along with PLC. However, the ability of apo A-I to inhibit aggregation is temporary, and after 8 h, a broad particle size distribution with sizes as high as 800 nm is observed. Apo A-I possibly induces the formation of small apo A-I/lecithin/cholesterol complexes of about 5-20 nm similar to the discoidal pre-HDL complexes found in blood when it can no longer effectively shield all the DAG molecules. Concomitant with formation of complexes, DAG molecules coalesce into large oil droplets, which account for the large particles observed by light scattering. Thus, apo A-I acts as an anti-nucleating agent by two mechanisms, anti-aggregation and microstructural transition. The mode of protection is dependent on the cholesterol content and the relative amounts of DAG and apo A-I present. This study supports the possibility of apo A-I solubilizing lipids in bile in a similar fashion as it does in blood and also delineates the mechanism of formation of the complexes.

  12. Genome-Wide Study of the Tomato SlMLO Gene Family and Its Functional Characterization in Response to the Powdery Mildew Fungus Oidium neolycopersici.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Appiano, Michela; Pavan, Stefano; Bracuto, Valentina; Ricciardi, Luigi; Visser, Richard G F; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    The MLO (Mildew Locus O) gene family encodes plant-specific proteins containing seven transmembrane domains and likely acting in signal transduction in a calcium and calmodulin dependent manner. Some members of the MLO family are susceptibility factors toward fungi causing the powdery mildew disease. In tomato, for example, the loss-of-function of the MLO gene SlMLO1 leads to a particular form of powdery mildew resistance, called ol-2, which arrests almost completely fungal penetration. This type of penetration resistance is characterized by the apposition of papillae at the sites of plant-pathogen interaction. Other MLO homologs in Arabidopsis regulate root response to mechanical stimuli (AtMLO4 and AtMLO11) and pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte (AtMLO7). However, the role of most MLO genes remains unknown. In this work, we provide a genome-wide study of the tomato SlMLO gene family. Besides SlMLO1, other 15 SlMLO homologs were identified and characterized with respect to their structure, genomic organization, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. In addition, by analysis of transgenic plants, we demonstrated that simultaneous silencing of SlMLO1 and two of its closely related homologs, SlMLO5 and SlMLO8, confer higher level of resistance than the one associated with the ol-2 mutation. The outcome of this study provides evidence for functional redundancy among tomato homolog genes involved in powdery mildew susceptibility. Moreover, we developed a series of transgenic lines silenced for individual SlMLO homologs, which lay the foundation for further investigations aimed at assigning new biological functions to the MLO gene family. PMID:27579028

  13. In vivo and in vitro sensitivity of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm to SL-401, an interleukin-3 receptor targeted biologic agent

    PubMed Central

    Angelot-Delettre, Fanny; Roggy, Anne; Frankel, Arthur E.; Lamarthee, Baptiste; Seilles, Estelle; Biichle, Sabeha; Royer, Bernard; Deconinck, Eric; Rowinsky, Eric K.; Brooks, Christopher; Bardet, Valerie; Benet, Blandine; Bennani, Hind; Benseddik, Zehaira; Debliquis, Agathe; Lusina, Daniel; Roussel, Mikael; Solly, Françoise; Ticchioni, Michel; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an aggressive malignancy derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. There is currently no accepted standard of care for treating this neoplasm, and therapeutic strategies have never been prospectively evaluated. Since blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells express high levels of interleukin-3 receptor α chain (IL3-Rα or CD123), antitumor effects of the interleukin-3 receptor-targeted drug SL-401 against blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity of SL-401 was assessed in patient-derived blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines (CAL-1 and GEN2.2) and in primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells isolated from 12 patients using flow cytometry and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The cytotoxic effects of SL-401 were compared to those of several relevant cytotoxic agents. SL-401 exhibited a robust cytotoxicity against blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of SL-401 were observed at substantially lower concentrations than those achieved in clinical trials to date. Survival of mice inoculated with a blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell line and treated with a single cycle of SL-401 was significantly longer than that of untreated controls (median survival, 58 versus 17 days, P<0.001). These findings indicate that blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells are highly sensitive to SL-401, and support further evaluation of SL-401 in patients suffering from blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. PMID:25381130

  14. Auxin Response Gene SlARF3 Plays Multiple Roles in Tomato Development and is Involved in the Formation of Epidermal Cells and Trichomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yan, Fang; Tang, Yuwei; Yuan, Yujin; Deng, Wei; Li, Zhengguo

    2015-11-01

    The auxin response factor (ARF) genes encode a large family of proteins involved in auxin signaling transduction. SlARF3, a member of the ARF gene family, encodes a protein containing two conserved domains, B3 and ARF, and lacking an Aux/IAA domain. Expression analysis showed that SlARF3 has a particularly high expression level in trichomes. In situ hybridization also detected the SlARF3 transcripts in epidermal pavement cells of leaves. The physiological function of SlARF3 was studied by using the RNA interference (RNAi) strategy. SlARF3-down-regulated plants exhibited decreased density of epidermal pavement cells and obviously reduced density of type I, V and VI trichomes of leaves, which indicates the important role of SlARF3 in the formation of trichomes and epidermal cells in tomato. The number of shoot xylem cells was also decreased in SlARF3-down-regulated lines. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis identified 51 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) belonging to 14 transcription factor (TF) families, such as MYB, bHLH, WD40 and C2H2 zinc finger. Twenty-seven DEGs were involved in the metabolism and signaling transduction of phytohormones, such as auxin, ethylene and gibberellin. These results indicated the important roles of the TFs and hormones in auxin-dependent transcriptional regulation of trichome formation in tomato. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SlARF3 plays an important role in the formation of epidermal cells and trichomes and reveal novel and specific functions for ARFs in tomato developmental processes. PMID:26412778

  15. Detoxification of insecticides, allechemicals and heavy metals by glutathione S-transferase SlGSTE1 in the gut of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Bin; Zou, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ni; Feng, Qi-Li; Zheng, Si-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in detoxifying toxic compounds and eliminating oxidative stress caused by these compounds. In this study, detoxification activity of the epsilon GST SlGSTE1 in Spodoptera litura was analyzed for several insecticides and heavy metals. SlGSTE1 was significantly up-regulated by chlorpyrifos and xanthotoxin in the midgut of S. litura. The recombinant SlGSTE1 had Vmax (reaction rate of the enzyme saturated with the substrate) and Km (michaelis constant and equals to the substrate concentration at half of the maximum reaction rate of the enzyme) values of 27.95 ± 0.88 μmol/min/mg and 0.87 ± 0.028 mmol/L for glutathione, respectively, and Vmax and Km values of 22.96 ± 0.78 μmol/min/mg and 0.83 ± 0.106 mmol/L for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In vitro enzyme indirect activity assay showed that the recombinant SlGSTE1 possessed high binding activities to the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, malathion, phoxim and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). SlGSTE1 showed higher binding activity to toxic heavy metals cadmium, chromium and lead than copper and zinc that are required for insect normal growth. Western blot analysis showed that SlGSTE1 was induced in the gut of larvae fed with chlorpyrifos or cadmium. SlGSTE1 also showed high peroxidase activity. All the results together indicate that SlGSTE1 may play an important role in the gut of S. litura to protect the insect from the toxic effects of these compounds and heavy metals. PMID:24863567

  16. Genome-Wide Study of the Tomato SlMLO Gene Family and Its Functional Characterization in Response to the Powdery Mildew Fungus Oidium neolycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Appiano, Michela; Pavan, Stefano; Bracuto, Valentina; Ricciardi, Luigi; Visser, Richard G. F.; Wolters, Anne-Marie A.; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    The MLO (Mildew Locus O) gene family encodes plant-specific proteins containing seven transmembrane domains and likely acting in signal transduction in a calcium and calmodulin dependent manner. Some members of the MLO family are susceptibility factors toward fungi causing the powdery mildew disease. In tomato, for example, the loss-of-function of the MLO gene SlMLO1 leads to a particular form of powdery mildew resistance, called ol-2, which arrests almost completely fungal penetration. This type of penetration resistance is characterized by the apposition of papillae at the sites of plant-pathogen interaction. Other MLO homologs in Arabidopsis regulate root response to mechanical stimuli (AtMLO4 and AtMLO11) and pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte (AtMLO7). However, the role of most MLO genes remains unknown. In this work, we provide a genome-wide study of the tomato SlMLO gene family. Besides SlMLO1, other 15 SlMLO homologs were identified and characterized with respect to their structure, genomic organization, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. In addition, by analysis of transgenic plants, we demonstrated that simultaneous silencing of SlMLO1 and two of its closely related homologs, SlMLO5 and SlMLO8, confer higher level of resistance than the one associated with the ol-2 mutation. The outcome of this study provides evidence for functional redundancy among tomato homolog genes involved in powdery mildew susceptibility. Moreover, we developed a series of transgenic lines silenced for individual SlMLO homologs, which lay the foundation for further investigations aimed at assigning new biological functions to the MLO gene family. PMID:27579028

  17. On the mechanism of cholesterol interaction with apolipoproteins A-I and E.

    PubMed

    Klimov, A N; Kozhevnikova, K A; Klueva, N N; Belova, E V

    1992-10-01

    It is shown that cholesterol may interact with some substances containing the guanidine group (guanidine itself, arginine, metformin and dodecylguanidine bromide) and with arginine-rich proteins--apoproteins A-I and E. In the latter case the interaction produces the formation of cholesterol-apoprotein complexes. Analysis of such complexes has shown that one apo A-I molecule binds 17-22 and one apo E molecule binds 30-35 sterol molecules, which approximately corresponds to the amount of arginine residues in these proteins. Formation of cholesterol-apoprotein complexes has been suggested to occur due to: (1) formation of hydrogen bond and/or ion-dipole interaction between cholesterol hydroxyl and guanidine groups of the apoprotein arginine residues and (2) hydrophobic interaction of the cholesterol aliphatic chain with nonpolar side chains of the amino acids occupying the third position from arginine in the protein molecule. PMID:1468123

  18. The use of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data to differentiate marsh vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) is a high spectral resolution (9.6-nm-wide bands between 0.9 and 2.4 microns) instrument. Analysis of AIS data revealed significant differences in characteristics of the spectral radiance curves of four types of wetland vegetation canopies (trees, broadleaf herbaceous, Spartina alterniflora, and S. patens/Distichlis spicata) in Delaware, enabling them to be distinguished. The single most useful spectral region was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass. Thus, high spectral resolution spectrometry appears to have significant value for remote sensing studies of wetland vegetation.

  19. Mission activities planning for a Hermes mission by means of AI-technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, U.; Hajen, G.; Schielow, N.; Mitschdoerfer, P.; Allard, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Activities Planning is a complex task to be performed by mission control centers. AI technology can offer attractive solutions to the planning problem. This paper presents the use of a new AI-based Mission Planning System for crew activity planning. Based on a HERMES servicing mission to the COLUMBUS Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) with complex time and resource constraints, approximately 2000 activities with 50 different resources have been generated, processed, and planned with parametric variation of operationally sensitive parameters. The architecture, as well as the performance of the mission planning system, is discussed. An outlook to future planning scenarios, the requirements, and how a system like MARS can fulfill those requirements is given.

  20. S&T converging trends in dealing with disaster: A review on AI tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Abu Bakar; Isa, Mohd. Hafez Mohd.

    2016-01-01

    Science and Technology (S&T) has been able to help mankind to solve or minimize problems when arise. Different methodologies, techniques and tools were developed or used for specific cases by researchers, engineers, scientists throughout the world, and numerous papers and articles have been written by them. Nine selected cases such as flash flood, earthquakes, workplace accident, fault in aircraft industry, seismic vulnerability, disaster mitigation and management, and early fault detection in nuclear industry have been studied. This paper looked at those cases, and their results showed nearly 60% uses artificial intelligence (AI) as a tool. This paper also did some review that will help young researchers in deciding the types of AI tools to be selected; thus proving the future trends in S&T.

  1. Robots with AI: A retrospective on the AAAI robot competitions and exhibitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonasso, P.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    There have been five years of robot competitions and exhibitions since the inception of this annual event in 1992. Since that first show we have seen 30 different teams compete and almost that many more exhibit their robots. These teams ranged from universities to industry and government research labs to one or two inventors working out of garages. Their composition ranged from seasoned AI researchers to eager undergraduates, and they hailed from the United States, Canada, Europe and the Far East. Despite the concerns of some about the relevance and even the appropriateness of such an event, the robots have become a key attraction of the national and international conferences. In this talk, we look back on the form and function of the five years of exhibitions and competitions and attempt to draw some lessons in retrospect as well as future implications for the AI community and our society at large.

  2. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG against a version of AML and against human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements.

  3. [Effects of a programme of aquatic Ai Chi exercise in patients with fibromyalgia. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Perez-De la Cruz, Sagrario; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. La fibromialgia es un trastorno reumatico que presenta sintomatologia fisica, psicologica y social. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los beneficios de un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico sobre la calidad de vida, depresion y dolor en pacientes con fibromialgia. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio experimental con 20 pacientes diagnosticadas de fibromialgia de dos localidades distintas. Las dimensiones del estudio fueron la capacidad funcional (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), la valoracion del dolor (escala analogica visual) y la salud fisica y mental (Short Form-36). Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en el momento basal y al finalizar las 20 sesiones. Resultados. Finalizadas las diez semanas de tratamiento, se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) en practicamente todas las variables valoradas. Conclusion. Un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico contribuye a mejorar la salud fisica y mental, el dolor y la calidad de vida de pacientes con fibromialgia.

  4. Down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato altered stem xylem development and production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Yan, Fang; Liu, Minchun; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Zhengguo

    2012-08-01

    The Aux/IAA family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that function as transcriptional regulators in auxin signal transduction. Aux/IAA genes have been reported to control many processes of plant development. Our recent study showed that down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato reduced apical dominance, altered pattern of axillary shoot development, increased lateral root formation and leaves thickness. The SlIAA15 suppressed lines display strong reduction of trichome density, suggesting that SlIAA15 is involved in trichome formation. Here, we reported that SlIAA15-suppressed transgenic lines display increased number of xylem cells compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, the monoterpene content in trichome exudates are significantly reduced in SlIAA15 down-regulated leaves. The results provide the roles of SlIAA15 in production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates and xylem development, clearly indicating that members of the Aux/IAA gene family can play distinct and specific functions.  PMID:22836503

  5. A novel cold-adapted and highly salt-tolerant esterase from Alkalibacterium sp. SL3 from the sediment of a soda lake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guozeng; Wang, Qiaohuang; Lin, Xianju; Ng, Tzi Bun; Yan, Renxiang; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    A novel esterase gene (estSL3) was cloned from the Alkalibacterium sp. SL3, which was isolated from the sediment of soda lake Dabusu. The 636-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino acid residues that is closely related with putative GDSL family lipases from Alkalibacterium and Enterococcus. The gene was successfully expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant protein (rEstSL3) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. rEstSL3 exhibited the highest activity towards pNP-acetate and had no activity towards pNP-esters with acyl chains longer than C8. The enzyme was highly cold-adapted, showing an apparent temperature optimum of 30 °C and remaining approximately 70% of the activity at 0 °C. It was active and stable over the pH range from 7 to 10, and highly salt-tolerant up to 5 M NaCl. Moreover, rEstSL3 was strongly resistant to most tested metal ions, chemical reagents, detergents and organic solvents. Amino acid composition analysis indicated that EstSL3 had fewer proline residues, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges than mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts, but more acidic amino acids and less hydrophobic amino acids when compared with other salt-tolerant esterases. The cold active, salt-tolerant and chemical-resistant properties make it a promising enzyme for basic research and industrial applications.

  6. A novel cold-adapted and highly salt-tolerant esterase from Alkalibacterium sp. SL3 from the sediment of a soda lake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guozeng; Wang, Qiaohuang; Lin, Xianju; Bun Ng, Tzi; Yan, Renxiang; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    A novel esterase gene (estSL3) was cloned from the Alkalibacterium sp. SL3, which was isolated from the sediment of soda lake Dabusu. The 636-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino acid residues that is closely related with putative GDSL family lipases from Alkalibacterium and Enterococcus. The gene was successfully expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant protein (rEstSL3) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. rEstSL3 exhibited the highest activity towards pNP-acetate and had no activity towards pNP-esters with acyl chains longer than C8. The enzyme was highly cold-adapted, showing an apparent temperature optimum of 30 °C and remaining approximately 70% of the activity at 0 °C. It was active and stable over the pH range from 7 to 10, and highly salt-tolerant up to 5 M NaCl. Moreover, rEstSL3 was strongly resistant to most tested metal ions, chemical reagents, detergents and organic solvents. Amino acid composition analysis indicated that EstSL3 had fewer proline residues, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges than mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts, but more acidic amino acids and less hydrophobic amino acids when compared with other salt-tolerant esterases. The cold active, salt-tolerant and chemical-resistant properties make it a promising enzyme for basic research and industrial applications. PMID:26915906

  7. SlNAC1, a stress-related transcription factor, is fine-tuned on both the transcriptional and the post-translational level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weizao; Miao, Min; Kud, Joanna; Niu, Xiangli; Ouyang, Bo; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao; Kuhl, Joseph C; Liu, Yongsheng; Xiao, Fangming

    2013-03-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC2) transcription factors play significant roles in diverse physiological processes. In this study, we determined the regulation of a stress-related tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC1 (SlNAC1) transcription factor at both the transcriptional and the post-translational level. The SlNAC1 protein was found to be stable in the presence of proteasome-specific inhibitor MG132 or MG115 and ubiquitinated in plant cells, suggesting that the SlNAC1 is subject to the ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation. Deletion analysis identified a short segment of 10 amino acids (aa261-270) that was required for ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation, among which two leucine residues (L268 and L269) were critical for the protein instability of SlNAC1. Fusion of the degron (SlNAC1(191-270) ) containing these 10 amino acids to green fluorescent protein was found to be sufficient to trigger the degradation of the fusion protein. In addition, the SlNAC1 gene is strongly upregulated during Pseudomonas infection, while repression of the NAC1 ortholog in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas bacteria. These results suggest that rapid upregulation of the NAC1 gene resulting in more protein production is likely one of the strategies plants use to defend themselves against pathogen infection.

  8. Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-09

    The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato.

  9. The spliced leader-associated RNA is a trypanosome-specific sn(o) RNA that has the potential to guide pseudouridine formation on the SL RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Xu, Yu-Xin; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2002-01-01

    The spliced leader-associated (SLA1) RNA is a trypanosome-specific small RNA with unknown function. SLA1 carries a Sm-like site, and is associated with core Sm proteins. Here we found that SLA1 belongs to a family of hairpin-containing RNAs that are implicated in directing pseudouridylation. A potential for base-pair interaction between SLA1 and spliced leader (SL) RNA agrees with the canonical rules for guiding pseudouridylation on SL RNA. Direct RNA analysis showed that this uridine is indeed pseudouridylated in the SL RNA of Leptomonas collosoma, Leishmania major, and Trypanosoma brucei. This position is conserved in all trypanosomatid SL RNAs. Mutations introduced in the SL RNA to disrupt the interaction domain of SLA1/SL RNA abolished the formation of the pseudouridine. SLA1 is localized both to the nucleolus and nucleoplasm. This study solves a long-standing question regarding the function of this novel RNA and describes the first H/ACA RNA, which, unlike all other pseudouridine guides, is also a bona fide snRNA. PMID:11911368

  10. Infection rates and parasitic loads of Onchocerca volvulus, and other filariae, in Simulium sanctipauli s.l. and S. yahense in a rain-forest area of Liberia.

    PubMed

    Garms, R

    1987-09-01

    Simulium sanctipauli s.l. and S. yahense are common and widespread in the rain-forest zone of Liberia, but differ with regard to their biting densities and contribution to the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. Although, in a study area on the St. Pauli River, S. sanctipauli s.l. (presumably S. soubrense in the sense of Post) was the predominant ma-biting species (74.3% of 30,855 females examined), S. yahense was shown to be the important vector. While 1000 biting females of S. yahense carried 96 3rd stage larvae indistinguishable from O. volvulus, only 14 were found per 1000 females of S. sanctipauli s.l. Of the parous females (3135 S. sanctipauli s.l./1621 S. yahense) 23.8/39.9% harboured 1st and/or 2nd stage filarial larvae and 1.9/9.4% 3rd stage larvae of O. volvulus. Animal filariae of unknown origin, indicative of zoophily, were very common in S. sanctipauli s.l. (13.8%) but practically absent from S. yahense (0.5%). In spite of its poorer vectorial performance S. sanctipauli s.l. cannot be neglected as a vector because it may occur in high biting densities and contribute considerably to the transmission, in particular in the vicinity of the St. Paul River. The interplay of two vector species, which develop in different types of water-courses explains the overall high endemicity of onchocerciasis in the study area.

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  12. Applying AI systems in the T and D arena. [Artificial Intelligence, Transmission and Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata, S.S.; Liu, Chenching ); Sumic, Z. Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA ); Vadari, S.V.

    1993-04-01

    The power engineering community has capitalized on various computer technologies since the early 1960s, with most successful application to solving well-defined problems that are capable of being modeled. Although computing methods have made notable progress in the power engineering arena, there is still a class of problems that is not easy to define or formulate to apply conventional computerized methods. In addition to being difficult to express in a closed mathematical form, these problems are often characterized by the absence of one or both of the following features: a predetermined decision path from the initial state to goal (ill-structured problem); a well-defined criteria for whether an obtained solution is acceptable (open-ended problem). Power engineers have been investigating the application of AI-based methodologies to power system problems. Most of the work in the past has been geared towards the development of expert systems as an operator's aid in energy control centers for bulk power transmission systems operating under abnormal conditions. Alarm processing, fault diagnosis, system restoration, and voltage/var control are a few key areas where significant research work has progressed to date. Results of this research have effected more than 100 prototype expert systems for power systems throughout the US, Japan, and Europe. The objectives of this article are to: expose engineers to the benefits of using AI methods for a host of transmission and distribution (T and D) problems that need immediate attention; identify problems that could be solved more effectively by applying AI approaches; summarize recent developments and successful AI applications in T and D.

  13. Adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I to biological membranes. A statistical mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Eitan

    2012-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), reduces the risk for atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from the membrane of foam cells. Experiments with model membrane systems have indicated, however, that membrane cholesterol reduces apo A-I binding to the membrane. Foam cells resolve this discrepancy electrostatically by co-inserting negatively charged phospholipids in their membrane. Here we present a statistical mechanical model to account for the effect of cholesterol. Our model is based on the Haugen and May model which takes into account the dipolar nature of the zwitterionic phospholipid head group in the membrane, in which the positive end of the zwitterionic dipole moment can move randomly on a hemispherical surface with a radius equal to the arm of the dipole moment and with the negative end fixed at the hydrocarbon layer. Adsorption of a positively charged apo A-I macroion to the surface of the membrane modifies the electric field within the head group region and induces lateral demixing of phospholipid molecules in the membrane. Results from numerical integration of model equations show that i) as a result of the strong charge-dipole electrostatic coupling, the positive end of the dipoles tilts away from the adsorbed macroion in a cooperative manner; and ii) cholesterol reduces macroion adsorption to the membrane by reducing the surface area of the membrane and restricting the dipoles range of rotation. Model predictions for the change in free energy of adsorption to zwitterionic membrane are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data with liposomes. The model can assist in designing new mimetic peptides.

  14. AIS Spectra for Stressed and Unstressed Plant Communities in the Carolina Slate Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over a number of derelict heavy metal mine sites in the Carolina slate belt of North Carolina. A 32 channel (1156 to 1456 nm) data set was acquired in October, 1983 at the time of peak fall foliage display, and a 128 channel (1220 to 2420) data set was acquired near the end of the spring leaf flush in May, 1984. Spectral curves were extracted from the AIS data for differing ground cover types (e.g., pine forests, mixed deciduous forests, mine sites, and pastures). Variation in the width of an absorption feature located at approximately 1190 nm has been related to differences in forest type. Small differences in the location and shape of features in the near infrared plateau (1156 to 1300 nm) and the region 2000 to 2420 nm have yet to be evaluated. Because these variations were subtle, and because atmospheric effects were apparent in the data, high priority must be assigned to devising a means of removing atmospheric effects from AIS spectra.

  15. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  16. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programming Techniques to Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined in detail and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG versus a version of AML and versus human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify than the updated FORTRAN AML programs.

  17. Use of agroindustrial wastes (açai fiber and glycerol) in the preparation of cookies.

    PubMed

    Lima, Helena; Corrêa, Nádia Cristina Fernandes; Santos, Orquidea; de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding industrial byproducts (açai fiber and glycerol) on the physical, physicochemical, and sensory properties of cookies. The statistical analysis showed that only the parameters of water content and water activity are significantly influenced by the amount of açai fiber added and by the fiber's particle size. Through sensory analysis of crispness and the flavor, it was found that the best percentage of açai fiber and the best particle size added to the cookie formulation were 10 % and +28 mesh, respectively. From this result, another sensory analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of glycerol over the texture of the cookies. Acceptance indices for the crispness and flavor above 70 % were observed, indicating the possibility for industrial exploitation. Cookies with added industrial byproducts may be considered a source of fiber, as they contain 6 g/100 g fiber.

  18. The cow as an induced ovulator: timed AI after synchronization of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Wiltbank, Milo C; Pursley, J Richard

    2014-01-01

    Timed-AI after synchronization of ovulation has become one of the most used reproductive technologies developed during the past 40 years. Various adaptations of this technology are now extensively used worldwide, in the beef and dairy cattle industry. Our well-cited report, published in Theriogenology in 1995, presented a method termed Ovsynch, that used GnRH and PGF2α to perform synchronization of ovulation and timed AI in lactating dairy cows. This report introduced Ovsynch, more as a concept of induced ovulation, and demonstrated the ovarian dynamics during the protocol. Validation and improvements on this method were subsequently performed in numerous university studies and on commercial dairies, worldwide. This review will provide a brief historical background, some personal recollections, and certain modifications that have been made in synchronization of ovulation protocols. Each section emphasizes the physiology that underlies the most widely-used synchronization of ovulation protocols and key modifications and some practical application of these protocols on commercial operations. Finally, the effect of timed AI in the US dairy industry and in the Brazilian beef cattle industry are compared. Although numerous studies have been done using these protocols, there is still substantial need for research to improve the synchronization, efficacy, simplicity, and practical application of these protocols. PMID:24274420

  19. Automated electronic systems for the detection of oestrus and timing of AI in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nebel, R L; Dransfield, M G; Jobst, S M; Bame, J H

    2000-07-01

    For the majority of dairy herds where artificial insemination (AI) is practiced, the limiting factor toward obtaining efficient reproductive performance is the failure to detect oestrus in a timely and accurate manner. Periodic visual observation has been the dominant method used to identify cows in oestrus. New approaches are being developed to provide automated systems of detection of oestrus using electronic technology. The goal of an oestrus detection program should be to identify oestrus positively and accurately in all cycling animals and consequently to identify animals not cycling. The ultimate goal should be to predict the time of ovulation, thus allowing for insemination that will maximize the opportunity for conception. Unfortunately, most studies designed to evaluate the optimal time of AI generally contained two technical deficiencies: inadequate numbers of cows for valid statistical comparisons and inaccurate knowledge of the onset of oestrus because of low frequency of visual observations and/or efficiency of methods used for the detection of oestrus. Studies using pedometry and a pressure sensing radiotelemetric system will be reviewed as each have independently obtained an optimal time of AI of 5 to 17 h after either the increase in locomotive activity or following the first standing event associated with the onset of oestrus. PMID:10844237

  20. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  1. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mark A.; Davis, Sonnet S.; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M.; Mitchell, Kylie P.; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y.; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Lamba, Deepak A.; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2′-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice. PMID:27364765

  2. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary history of the Eurasiatic orchid genus Himantoglossum s.l. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sramkó, Gábor; Attila, Molnár V.; Hawkins, Julie A.; Bateman, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Lizard orchids of the genus Himantoglossum include many of Eurasia's most spectacular orchids, producing substantial spikes of showy flowers. However, until recently the genus had received only limited, and entirely traditional, systematic study. The aim of the current work was to provide a more robust molecular phylogeny in order to better understand the evolutionary relationships among species of particular conservation concern. Methods All putative species of Himantoglossum s.l. were sampled across its geographical range. A large subsample of the 153 populations studied contributed to an initial survey of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) ribotypes. Smaller subsets were then sequenced for four plastid regions and the first intron of the low-copy-number nuclear gene LEAFY. Rooted using Steveniella as outgroup, phylogenetic trees were generated using parsimony and Bayesian methods from each of the three datasets, supplemented with a ribotype network. Key Results The resulting trees collectively determined the order of branching of the early divergent taxa as Himantoglossum comperianum > H. robertianum group > H. formosum, events that also involved significant morphological divergence. Relaxed molecular clock dating suggested that these divergences preceded the Pleistocene glaciations (the origin of the H. robertianum group may have coincided with the Messinian salinity crisis) and occurred in Asia Minor and/or the Caucasus. Among more controversial taxa of the H. hircinum-jankae clade, which are only subtly morphologically divergent, topological resolution was poorer and topological incongruence between datasets was consequently greater. Conclusions Plastid sequence divergence is broadly consistent with prior, morphologically circumscribed taxa and indicates a division between H. hircinum–adriaticum to the west of the Carpathians and H. jankae–caprinum (plus local endemics) to the east, a distinction also suggested by nr

  4. Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    PubMed Central

    Dugassa, Sisay; Lindh, Jenny M.; Oyieke, Florence; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective malaria vector control targeting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes has resulted in fewer vectors entering houses in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, with the proportion of vectors outdoors becoming more important in the transmission of this disease. This study aimed to develop a gravid trap for the outdoor collection of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. based on evaluation and modification of commercially available gravid traps. Methods Experiments were implemented in an 80 m2 semi-field system where 200 gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. were released nightly. The efficacy of the Box, CDC and Frommer updraft gravid traps was compared. The Box gravid trap was tested to determine if the presence of the trap over water and the trap’s sound affected catch size. Mosquitoes approaching the treatment were evaluated using electrocuting nets or detergents added to the water in the trap. Based on the results, a new gravid trap (OviART trap) that provided an open, unobstructed oviposition site was developed and evaluated. Results Box and CDC gravid traps collected similar numbers (relative rate (RR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–1.2; p = 0.284), whereas the Frommer trap caught 70% fewer mosquitoes (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.5; p < 0.001). The number of mosquitoes approaching the Box trap was significantly reduced when the trap was positioned over a water-filled basin compared to an open pond (RR 0.7 95% CI 0.6–0.7; p < 0.001). This effect was not due to the sound of the trap. Catch size increased by 60% (RR 1.6, 1.2–2.2; p = 0.001) with the new OviART trap. Conclusion Gravid An. Gambiae s.s. females were visually deterred by the presence of the trapping device directly over the oviposition medium. Based on these investigations, an effective gravid trap was developed that provides open landing space for egg-laying Anopheles. PMID:23861952

  5. Effect of Urtica dioica agglutinin and Arabidopsis thaliana Chia4 chitinase on the protozoan Phytomonas françai.

    PubMed

    Gomes Rocha, Graça Celeste; Nicolich, Rebecca; Romeiro, Alexandre; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Attias, Márcia; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2003-09-12

    The genus Phytomonas is responsible for many diseases in different crop plant species. The finding that chitin is an exposed cell surface polysaccharide in Phytomonas françai and the observation that chitinases can inhibit fungal growth raises expectations about the potential effect of plant chitinases on the P. françai cell membrane surface. The plant chitinases Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) and Arabidopsis thaliana Chia4 (ATCHIT4) proteins were over-expressed in bacteria and the interaction between these proteins and P. françai surface was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. We showed that UDA and ATCHIT4 proteins can interact with surface-exposed chitin from P. françai.

  6. Surface-induced assembly of apolipoprotein A-I: Implications for symmetry-driven non-cooperative clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winford, Sidney; Tobin, Moriah; Gross, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    In condensed matter physics the geometry of a crystal is determined by the mechanism of condensation. In biology, the link between clustering mechanisms and the shape of a protein crystal is not well defined. To gain more insight into the problem, we studied clustering of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) on a solid surface using AFM. The amyloidogenic protein apo A-I is the main protein component of high density lipoprotein and thus reduces the risk of atherosclerosis. We found that apo A-I clustered to form nano-scale, symmetrical clusters on mica. Statistical analysis of size distribution for several thousand clusters suggested that the clustering reaction followed a non-cooperative kinetic scheme characterized by a single equilibrium constant of 0.92·106 M-1 and a change in free energy (ΔG) of -0.03 kJ mole-1/residue. This is close to ΔG of-0.04 kJ mole-1/residue for apo A-I binding to phospholipid membrane; and 30-fold smaller than ΔG for β-amyloid formation by apo A-I. The high symmetry of the clusters is consistent with an isotropic diffusion coefficient of protein monomers on the surface of the substrate. This previously unrecognized link between protein clustering mechanism and the symmetry of the growth pattern may have important implications in medicine, pharmaceutics and polymer science.

  7. Localization of the structural gene for human apolipoprotein A-I on the long arm of human chromosome 11.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, P; Kao, F T; Law, M L; Jones, C; Puck, T T; Chan, L

    1984-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major apolipoprotein in human high density lipoproteins, is involved in the disease atherosclerosis. Cloned apo A-I cDNA (pA1-3) was used as a probe in chromosome mapping studies to detect the human apo A-I structural gene sequence in human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids. Southern blot analysis of 13 hybrids localized the gene to human chromosome 11. Confirmation of the chromosomal assignment was obtained by analysis of a hybrid (J1) containing a single human chromosome, no. 11. Regional mapping was achieved by using deletion subclones of J1 that localized the human apo A-I structural gene to the region 11q13 leads to qter. Since the human apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) structural gene is closely linked to apo A-I, it can be assigned to the same region on the long arm of chromosome 11. By extension of methods previously described, it now appears possible to carry out fine-structure analysis of this and related gene regions on chromosome 11 and to study the biochemical concomitants of these genes and of genes on other chromosomes for analysis of their role in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:6420790

  8. Fruit-Surface Flavonoid Accumulation in Tomato Is Controlled by a SlMYB12-Regulated Transcriptional Network

    PubMed Central

    Mintz-Oron, Shira; Venger, Ilya; Levy, Dorit; Yativ, Merav; Domínguez, Eva; Wang, Zhonghua; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Jetter, Reinhard; Schreiber, Lukas; Heredia, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2009-01-01

    The cuticle covering plants' aerial surfaces is a unique structure that plays a key role in organ development and protection against diverse stress conditions. A detailed analysis of the tomato colorless-peel y mutant was carried out in the framework of studying the outer surface of reproductive organs. The y mutant peel lacks the yellow flavonoid pigment naringenin chalcone, which has been suggested to influence the characteristics and function of the cuticular layer. Large-scale metabolic and transcript profiling revealed broad effects on both primary and secondary metabolism, related mostly to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, particularly flavonoids. These were not restricted to the fruit or to a specific stage of its development and indicated that the y mutant phenotype is due to a mutation in a regulatory gene. Indeed, expression analyses specified three R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors that were significantly down-regulated in the y mutant fruit peel. One of these, SlMYB12, was mapped to the genomic region on tomato chromosome 1 previously shown to harbor the y mutation. Identification of an additional mutant allele that co-segregates with the colorless-peel trait, specific down-regulation of SlMYB12 and rescue of the y phenotype by overexpression of SlMYB12 on the mutant background, confirmed that a lesion in this regulator underlies the y phenotype. Hence, this work provides novel insight to the study of fleshy fruit cuticular structure and paves the way for the elucidation of the regulatory network that controls flavonoid accumulation in tomato fruit cuticle. PMID:20019811

  9. STS-55 German payload specialist Schlegel and MS3 Harris work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Ulrich Walter, wearing special head gear, finds plenty of room to 'spread out' (head to the floor, feet at the ceiling) while conducting Tissue Thickness and Compliance Along Body Axis salt-water balance experiment in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR). In the background, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr monitors an experiment in Rack 11, an experiment rack.

  10. Combining strong lensing and dynamics in galaxy clusters: integrating MAMPOSSt within LENSTOOL. I. Application on SL2S J02140-0535

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, T.; Limousin, M.; Motta, V.; Mamon, G. A.; Foëx, G.; Gastaldello, F.; Jullo, E.; Biviano, A.; Rojas, K.; Muñoz, R. P.; Cabanac, R.; Magaña, J.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Adame, L.; De Leo, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The mass distribution in galaxy clusters and groups is an important cosmological probe. It has become clear in recent years that mass profiles are best recovered when combining complementary probes of the gravitational potential. Strong lensing (SL) is very accurate in the inner regions, but other probes are required to constrain the mass distribution in the outer regions, such as weak lensing or studies of dynamics. Aims: We constrain the mass distribution of a cluster showing gravitational arcs by combining a strong lensing method with a dynamical method using the velocities of its 24 member galaxies. Methods: We present a new framework in which we simultaneously fit SL and dynamical data. The SL analysis is based on the LENSTOOL software and the dynamical analysis uses the MAMPOSSt code, which we integrated into LENSTOOL. After describing the implementation of this new tool, we applied it to the galaxy group SL2S J02140-0535 (zspec = 0.44), which we had previously studied. We used new VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy of multiple images and group members, as well as shallow X-ray data from XMM. Results: We confirm that the observed lensing features in SL2S J02140-0535 belong to different background sources. One of these sources is located at zspec = 1.017 ± 0.001, whereas the other source is located at zspec = 1.628 ± 0.001. With the analysis of our new and our previously reported spectroscopic data, we find 24 secure members for SL2S J02140-0535. Both data sets are well reproduced by a single NFW mass profile; the dark matter halo coincides with the peak of the light distribution, with scale radius, concentration, and mass equal to rs = 82+44-17 kpc, c200 = 10.0+1.7-2.5, and M200 = 1.0+0.5-0.2 × 1014 M⊙ respectively. These parameters are better constrained when we fit SL and dynamical information simultaneously. The mass contours of our best model agrees with the direction defined by the luminosity contours and the X-ray emission of SL2S J02140-0535. The

  11. Francisella tularensis Subtype A.II Genomic Plasticity in Comparison with Subtype A.I

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Marilynn A.; Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Sayood, Khalid; Zentz, Emily B.; Bartling, Amanda M.; Francesconi, Stephen C.; Fey, Paul D.; Dempsey, Michael P.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Although Francisella tularensis is considered a monomorphic intracellular pathogen, molecular genotyping and virulence studies have demonstrated important differences within the tularensis subspecies (type A). To evaluate genetic variation within type A strains, sequencing and assembly of a new subtype A.II genome was achieved for comparison to other completed F. tularensis type A genomes. In contrast with the F. tularensis A.I strains (SCHU S4, FSC198, NE061598, and TI0902), substantial genomic variation was observed between the newly sequenced F. tularensis A.II strain (WY-00W4114) and the only other publically available A.II strain (WY96-3418). Genome differences between WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 included three major chromosomal translocations, 1580 indels, and 286 nucleotide substitutions of which 159 were observed in predicted open reading frames and 127 were located in intergenic regions. The majority of WY-00W4114 nucleotide deletions occurred in intergenic regions, whereas most of the insertions and substitutions occurred in predicted genes. Of the nucleotide substitutions, 48 (30%) were synonymous and 111 (70%) were nonsynonymous. WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 nucleotide polymorphisms were predominantly G/C to A/T allelic mutations, with WY-00W4114 having more A+T enrichment. In addition, the A.II genomes contained a considerably higher number of intact genes and longer repetitive sequences, including transposon remnants than the A.I genomes. Together these findings support the premise that F. tularensis A.II may have a fitness advantage compared to the A.I subtype due to the higher abundance of functional genes and repeated chromosomal sequences. A better understanding of the selective forces driving F. tularensis genetic diversity and plasticity is needed. PMID:25918839

  12. Highly Effective Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by the First Metagenome-Derived AI-2 Quenching Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Kisch, Martin J.; Pinnow, Nicole; Liese, Andreas; Schmitz, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell–cell communication (quorum sensing, QS) represents a fundamental process crucial for biofilm formation, pathogenicity, and virulence allowing coordinated, concerted actions of bacteria depending on their cell density. With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistance of biofilms, there is an increasing need for novel strategies to control harmful biofilms. One attractive and most likely effective approach is to target bacterial communication systems for novel drug design in biotechnological and medical applications. In this study, metagenomic large-insert libraries were constructed and screened for QS interfering activities (quorum quenching, QQ) using recently established reporter strains. Overall, 142 out of 46,400 metagenomic clones were identified to interfere with acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), 13 with autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Five cosmid clones with highest simultaneous interfering activities were further analyzed and the respective open reading frames conferring QQ activities identified. Those showed homologies to bacterial oxidoreductases, proteases, amidases and aminotransferases. Evaluating the ability of the respective purified QQ-proteins to prevent biofilm formation of several model systems demonstrated highest inhibitory effects of QQ-2 using the crystal violet biofilm assay. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of the respective QQ proteins in Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 and monitoring biofilm formation in a continuous flow cell system. Moreover, QQ-2 chemically immobilized to the glass surface of the flow cell effectively inhibited biofilm formation of K. oxytoca as well as clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from patients with urinary tract infections. Indications were obtained by molecular and biochemical characterizations that QQ-2 represents an oxidoreductase most likely reducing the signaling molecules AHL and AI-2 to QS-inactive hydroxy-derivatives. Overall, we propose that the identified novel QQ-2 protein

  13. AI in medical education--another grand challenge for medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Lillehaug, S I; Lajoie, S P

    1998-03-01

    The potential benefits of artificial intelligence in medicine (AIM) were never realized as anticipated. This paper addresses ways in which such potential can be achieved. Recent discussions of this topic have proposed a stronger integration between AIM applications and health information systems, and emphasize computer guidelines to support the new health care paradigms of evidence-based medicine and cost-effectiveness. These proposals, however, promote the initial definition of AIM applications as being AI systems that can perform or aid in diagnoses. We challenge this traditional philosophy of AIM and propose a new approach aiming at empowering health care workers to become independent self-sufficient problem solvers and decision makers. Our philosophy is based on findings from a review of empirical research that examines the relationship between the health care personnel's level of knowledge and skills, their job satisfaction, and the quality of the health care they provide. This review supports addressing the quality of health care by empowering health care workers to reach their full potential. As an aid in this empowerment process we argue for reviving a long forgotten AIM research area, namely, AI based applications for medical education and training. There is a growing body of research in artificial intelligence in education that demonstrates that the use of artificial intelligence can enhance learning in numerous domains. By examining the strengths of these educational applications and the results from previous AIM research we derive a framework for empowering medical personnel and consequently raising the quality of health care through the use of advanced AI based technology.

  14. Global Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.

    2011-12-01

    All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how communities of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of marine resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.

  15. Highly Effective Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by the First Metagenome-Derived AI-2 Quenching Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Kisch, Martin J; Pinnow, Nicole; Liese, Andreas; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell-cell communication (quorum sensing, QS) represents a fundamental process crucial for biofilm formation, pathogenicity, and virulence allowing coordinated, concerted actions of bacteria depending on their cell density. With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistance of biofilms, there is an increasing need for novel strategies to control harmful biofilms. One attractive and most likely effective approach is to target bacterial communication systems for novel drug design in biotechnological and medical applications. In this study, metagenomic large-insert libraries were constructed and screened for QS interfering activities (quorum quenching, QQ) using recently established reporter strains. Overall, 142 out of 46,400 metagenomic clones were identified to interfere with acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), 13 with autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Five cosmid clones with highest simultaneous interfering activities were further analyzed and the respective open reading frames conferring QQ activities identified. Those showed homologies to bacterial oxidoreductases, proteases, amidases and aminotransferases. Evaluating the ability of the respective purified QQ-proteins to prevent biofilm formation of several model systems demonstrated highest inhibitory effects of QQ-2 using the crystal violet biofilm assay. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of the respective QQ proteins in Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 and monitoring biofilm formation in a continuous flow cell system. Moreover, QQ-2 chemically immobilized to the glass surface of the flow cell effectively inhibited biofilm formation of K. oxytoca as well as clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from patients with urinary tract infections. Indications were obtained by molecular and biochemical characterizations that QQ-2 represents an oxidoreductase most likely reducing the signaling molecules AHL and AI-2 to QS-inactive hydroxy-derivatives. Overall, we propose that the identified novel QQ-2 protein

  16. Effectiveness of imidacloprid (ProAgro 100 SL) in the control of glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) on tomato under cover.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz Jodki, J; Nawrocka, B; Swietosławski, J

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a glasshouse experiments were carried out on the effectiveness of ProAgro 100 SL in the control of glasshouse whitefly and western flower thrips on tomato cv. Perkoz. Strict observation of the basic prophylactic rules such as introducing in to glasshouse only healthy seedlings, uninfected by whitefly and thrips as well as isolation of tomato plants, especially the seedlings from ornamental plants are important to the limit of the pest population. During the vegetation period the population of whitefly and thrips may be limited by the insecticide application. The glasshouse experiments on the performance of ProAgro 100 SL in the control of mentioned above pest species were carried out at the Research Institute of Vegetable Crops in Skierniewice. The ProAgro 100 SL was applied in the concentration of 0,1%. The standard treatment was Juventox 040 SL (acetamiprid) in the concentration of 0.05%. The obtained results allow to find that ProAgro 100 SL in the rates of 0.1% performed well in the limiting population of whitefly and western flower thrips on glasshouse tomato.

  17. [Effects of SL-1010 (sodium hyaluronate with high molecular weight) on experimental osteoarthritis induced by intra-articularly applied papain in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Kitoh, Y; Katsuramaki, T; Tanaka, M; Kitabayashi, N; Fujimori, S; Umemoto, J; Namba, K

    1992-07-01

    Effects of SL-1010 on the experimental osteoarthritis (OA) produced by intra-articular injection of papain, proteolytic enzyme, in the knee joint of the guinea pigs were histologically and biochemically investigated. In addition, experimental conditions to produce OA in guinea pig knee joint were also examined, since papain-induced OA has been mainly studied in rabbits. Six weeks after intra-articular injection of papain (1%, 0.1 ml), there were inflammatory reactions of the synovial membrane, degenerative changes in chondrocytes and the matrix of the articular cartilage, a decrease in the Safranin-O staining intensity and lowering of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Electronmicroscopic observations revealed that the amorphous layer had disappeared and large bundles of unit collagen fibers and larger collagen fibers had appeared in the cartilage matrix. In the OA model, SL-1010 reduced the inflammatory reactions of the synovial membrane, inhibited development of degenerative changes in chondrocytes and the matrix of the articular cartilage and recovered the Safranin-O staining intensity. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan contents in the cartilage was significantly increased in the SL-1010-treated group, compared with the control group. The electromicroscopically observed charges in the papain-injected knee joint of the control group were rarely detected in the SL-1010-treated group. These results suggest that SL-1010 inhibits degenerative changes in the chondrocytes and the matrix probably by reducing synovial inflammation and protection of the cartilage in the OA model of guinea pigs.

  18. A stress-associated NAC transcription factor (SlNAC35) from tomato plays a positive role in biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Song; Ma, Xiaocui; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fanying; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-09-01

    The NAC transcription factor family participates in responses to various kinds of environmental stimuli in plants. Responses of NAC genes to abiotic stresses have been widely studied, but their functions in response to biotic stress are little reported in plants, especially in crops. In the present study, we examined the functions of a novel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC protein (SlNAC35) in abiotic and biotic stress resistance by using transgenic tobacco. Expression analysis found that SlNAC35 expression was induced by drought stress, salt stress, bacterial pathogen, and signaling molecules, suggesting its involvement in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. Moreover, transgenic lines exhibited a greater number of lateral roots and longer root length compared with Vec lines (empty vector lines) after drought and salt treatment. These results indicate that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted root growth and development under drought and salt stresses. Higher expressions of NtARF1, NtARF2 and NtARF8 were observed under drought and salt stresses in transgenic lines, suggesting that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted growth and development of roots in transgenic lines possibly by involving auxin signaling and by regulating NtARF expression. In addition, SlNAC35 overexpression improved resistance to bacterial pathogen in transgenic tobacco, and reactive oxygen species may be in the upstream of salicylic acid (SA) signaling in transgenic tobacco during defense response.

  19. Use of intravaginal progesterone-releasing inserts in a synchronization protocol before timed AI and for synchronizing return to estrus in Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2005-03-01

    Holstein heifers (n = 189) were submitted to a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) period in which they underwent AI after once-daily evaluation of rubbed tail chalk. At the onset of the AI period (d 0), heifers were assigned randomly to receive synchronization of ovulation and timed AI (TAI; d 0: 100 mug of GnRH; d 6: 25 mg of PGF(2alpha); d 8: 100 mug of GnRH + TAI) either without (GPG; n = 95), or with inclusion of a CIDR insert (CIDR; n = 94) from d 0 to 6. No CIDR heifers received AI before d 8 compared with 24% of GPG heifers, and pregnancy rate per AI (PR/AI) at 30 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. To synchronize return to estrus for heifers failing to conceive after TAI, heifers (n = 166) receiving TAI to first service were randomly assigned to receive no further treatment (control; n = 85) or receive a new CIDR insert between 14 and 20 d after TAI (Resynch; n = 81). No Resynch heifers received AI during CIDR treatment compared with 35% of control heifers, and the proportion of heifers receiving AI within 72 h after the day of CIDR removal was 78 vs. 50% for Resynch vs. control heifers, respectively. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected at first or second AI; however, overall PR/AI was modest for heifers throughout the experiment due to poor performance of 2 of the 3 herd inseminators (14, 6, and 58% PR/AI, respectively). Inclusion of CIDR inserts suppressed estrus during the TAI protocol with no reduction in PR/ AI. Resynchronization of estrus using CIDR inserts resulted in tighter synchrony of estrus among nonpregnant heifers compared with untreated controls. PMID:15738230

  20. Identification of an essential Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA homologous to the 7SL component of signal recognition particle

    SciTech Connect

    Brennwald, P.; Liao, X.; Holm, K.; Porter, G.; Wise, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    The authors have cloned the gene encoding a novel small cytoplasmic RNA from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Four lines of evidence support the idea that this RNA is a homolog of the 7SL RNA component of mammalian signal recognition particle (SRP), which targets presecretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. First, it shares limited but significant primary sequence homology with previously identified 7SL RNAs and can be folded into a similar secondary structure. Second, it possesses the 5' triphosphate characteristic of unprocessed RNA polymerase III transcripts, and moreover, it is the only fission yeast RNA in this size range with such a terminus. Third, its behavior in cell fractionation experiments suggests that it is part of a small ribonucleoprotein which forms salt-labile contacts with larger structures. Fourth, the particle containing S.pombe 7SLRNA resembles mammalian SRP in both size (11S) and affinity for DEAE-Sepharose. Disruption of the single-copy gene, designated slrl/sup +/, reveals that the RNA is indispensable for growth in fission yeast. This result is not surprising, since secretion is an essential cellular process.

  1. RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server: A Progressing Testbed for AI Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darab, Mohammad Ali Darvish; Ebrahimi, Mosalam

    RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation is a growing domain that makes a wide variety of AI and Multi-Agent researches possible. The RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server is a Multi-Agent environment that supports 22 independent agents to play a soccer match within a real-time and complex environment. Many researchers from all over the world have been using this simulator to pursue their researches in a wide variety of areas such as multiagent learning, cooperative actions and multiagent planning. This paper illustrates the current organization of RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server.

  2. DAISY-DAMP: A distributed AI system for the dynamic allocation and management of power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steven B.; Ohler, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    One of the critical parameters that must be addressed when designing a loosely coupled Distributed AI SYstem (DAISY) has to do with the degree to which authority is centralized or decentralized. The decision to implement the Dynamic Allocation and Management of Power (DAMP) system as a network of cooperating agents mandated this study. The DAISY-DAMP problem is described; the component agents of the system are characterized; and the communication protocols system elucidated. The motivations and advantages in designing the system with authority decentralized is discussed. Progress in the area of Speech Act theory is proposed as playing a role in constructing decentralized systems.

  3. The Negative Mode Proteome with Activated Ion Negative Electron Transfer Dissociation (AI-NETD)*

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Rush, Matthew J. P.; Rose, Christopher M.; Richards, Alicia L.; Kwiecien, Nicholas W.; Bailey, Derek J.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    The field of proteomics almost uniformly relies on peptide cation analysis, leading to an underrepresentation of acidic portions of proteomes, including relevant acidic posttranslational modifications. Despite the many benefits negative mode proteomics can offer, peptide anion analysis remains in its infancy due mainly to challenges with high-pH reversed-phase separations and a lack of robust fragmentation methods suitable for peptide anion characterization. Here, we report the first implementation of activated ion negative electron transfer dissociation (AI-NETD) on the chromatographic timescale, generating 7,601 unique peptide identifications from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in single-shot nLC-MS/MS analyses of tryptic peptides—a greater than 5-fold increase over previous results with NETD alone. These improvements translate to identification of 1,106 proteins, making this work the first negative mode study to identify more than 1,000 proteins in any system. We then compare the performance of AI-NETD for analysis of peptides generated by five proteases (trypsin, LysC, GluC, chymotrypsin, and AspN) for negative mode analyses, identifying as many as 5,356 peptides (1,045 proteins) with LysC and 4,213 peptides (857 proteins) with GluC in yeast—characterizing 1,359 proteins in total. Finally, we present the first deep-sequencing approach for negative mode proteomics, leveraging offline low-pH reversed-phase fractionation prior to online high-pH separations and peptide fragmentation with AI-NETD. With this platform, we identified 3,467 proteins in yeast with trypsin alone and characterized a total of 3,730 proteins using multiple proteases, or nearly 83% of the expressed yeast proteome. This work represents the most extensive negative mode proteomics study to date, establishing AI-NETD as a robust tool for large-scale peptide anion characterization and making the negative mode approach a more viable platform for future proteomic studies. PMID:26193884

  4. The Use of AIS Data for Identifying and Mapping Calcareous Soils in Western Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The identification of calcareous soils, through unique spectral responses of the vegetation to the chemical nature of calcareous soils, can improve the accuracy of delineating the boundaries of soil mapping units over conventional field techniques. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the use of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) in the identification and delineation of calcareous soils in the western Sandhills of Nebraska. Based upon statistical differences found in separating the spectral curves below 1.3 microns, calcareous and non-calcareous soils may be identified by differences in species of vegetation. Additional work is needed to identify biogeochemical differences between the two soils.

  5. Contribution of polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster to hyperlipidaemia in patients with gout

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, F; Tinahones, F; Collantes, E; Escudero, A; Garcia-Fuentes, E; Soriguer, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that hyperuricaemia is independently related to the insulin resistance syndrome and that polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster are also related to insulin resistance. Objective: To study the prevalence of polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster in persons with gout and to determine whether these polymorphisms contribute to the pathophysiology of gout or to altered lipid concentrations. Methods: Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL triglycerides, cholesterol, and the renal excretion of uric acid were measured in 68 patients with gout with gout and 165 healthy subjects. Polymorphisms were studied by amplification and RFLP in all subjects, using XmnI and MspI in the apolipoprotein AI gene and SstI in the apolipoprotein CIII gene. Results: The A allele at position –75 bp in the apolipoprotein AI gene was more common in patients with gout than in controls (p = 0.01). Levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, basal glycaemia, and HDL cholesterol were higher in the patients (p<0.001). In the patients there was also an interaction between mutations at the two polymorphic loci studied in the apolipoprotein AI gene (p = 0.04). An absence of the mutation at position –75 bp of the apolipoprotein AI gene resulted in increased plasma triglyceride levels. Conclusions: Gouty patients have an altered allelic distribution in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster, which could lead to changes in levels of lipoproteins. This is not caused by a single mutation but rather by a combination of different mutations. PMID:15115711

  6. Contribution of Estrone Sulfate to Cell Proliferation in Aromatase Inhibitor (AI) -Resistant, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, Toru; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Niwa, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Horiguchi, Jun; Hayashi, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) effectively treat hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer, but some patients do not respond to treatment or experience recurrence. Mechanisms of AI resistance include ligand-independent activation of the estrogen receptor (ER) and signaling via other growth factor receptors; however, these do not account for all forms of resistance. Here we present an alternative mechanism of AI resistance. We ectopically expressed aromatase in MCF-7 cells expressing green fluorescent protein as an index of ER activity. Aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells were cultured in estrogen-depleted medium supplemented with testosterone and the AI, letrozole, to establish letrozole-resistant (LR) cell lines. Compared with parental cells, LR cells had higher mRNA levels of steroid sulfatase (STS), which converts estrone sulfate (E1S) to estrone, and the organic anion transporter peptides (OATPs), which mediate the uptake of E1S into cells. LR cells proliferated more in E1S-supplemented medium than did parental cells, and LR proliferation was effectively inhibited by an STS inhibitor in combination with letrozole and by ER-targeting drugs. Analysis of ER-positive primary breast cancer tissues showed a significant correlation between the increases in the mRNA levels of STS and the OATPs in the LR cell lines, which supports the validity of this AI-resistant model. This is the first study to demonstrate the contribution of STS and OATPs in E1S metabolism to the proliferation of AI-resistant breast cancer cells. We suggest that E1S metabolism represents a new target in AI-resistant breast cancer treatment. PMID:27228187

  7. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening

  8. Influence of season on corpus luteum structure and function and AI outcome in the Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, S; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Rossi, P; Russo, M; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction

  9. AI vibration control of high-speed rotor systems using electrorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seungchul; Park, Sang-Min; Kim, Kab-Il

    2005-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and application of an electrorheological (ER) fluid damper to semiactive vibration control of rotor systems. In particular, the system under the present study is constructed structurally flexible in order to explore the behavior of a high-speed spindle system traversing multiple critical speeds within motor capacity. To seek a way of suppressing the rotor vibration, dynamic models for the proposed ER damper and its associated amplifier are derived. Subsequently, they are assembled with the other relevant spindle components by means of the finite element method, enabling predictions as to free and forced vibration characteristics of the entire rotor system. Next, an artificial intelligent (AI) feedback controller is synthesized based on the system model, taking into account the stiffening effect of the point damper in flexible rotor applications. Finally, computational and experimental results are presented regarding model validation and control performances. In practice, such an AI control scheme proves effective and robust whether the spin rate is either below or above the critical speeds.

  10. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  11. Usability of EFBs for Viewing NOTAMs and AIS/MET Data Link Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Emory T.; Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Tammi S.; Myer, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) are increasingly integral to flight deck information management. A piloted simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center, one aspect of which was to evaluate the usability and acceptability of EFBs for viewing and managing Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) and data linked aeronautical information services (AIS) and meteorological information (MET). The study simulated approaches and landings at Memphis International Airport (KMEM) using various flight scenarios and weather conditions. Ten two-pilot commercial airline crews participated, utilizing the Cockpit Motion Facility's Research Flight Deck (CMF/RFD) simulator. Each crew completed approximately two dozen flights over a two day period. Two EFBs were installed, one for each pilot. Study data were collected in the form of questionnaire/interview responses, audio/video recordings, oculometer recordings, and aircraft/system state data. Preliminary usability results are reported primarily based on pilot interviews and responses to questions focused on ease of learning, ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction, and acceptability. Analysis of the data from the other objective measures (e.g., oculometer) is ongoing and will be reported in a future publication. This paper covers how the EFB functionality was set up for the study; the NOTAM, AIS/MET data link, and weather messages that were presented; questionnaire results; selected pilot observations; and conclusions.

  12. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed. PMID:25082993

  13. GSC 7672 2238: a new eclipsing binary system near the delta scuti star AI Vel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Pereira, P. C. R.; Cruz, W. S.; Andrade-Pilling, D. P.

    2003-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new eclipsing binary star in the field of the Delta Scuti variable star AI Vel. Initially used as a check star during a monitoring of AI Vel, GSC 7672: 2238 turned out to be variable as soon as we started the project. Time series CCD photometry were performed during 2002 and 2003 using the Meade LX200 (25cm) telescope of Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. The observed times of primary minima provided an orbital period of 0.97188 day. The depth of the primary and secondary minima is about 0m.5 and 0m.2 respectively. The amount of data and the behavior of the light curve led us to interpret this modulation as related to the orbital motion of a short-period Algol. The light curves show discrepances around phases 0.1-0.2, just after the primary minimum. This behavior may be well explained in terms of mass transfer from the lobe-filling secundary star. In addition, we made spectroscopic observation at Perkin-Elmer 1.6m telescope on the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofí sica. The optical spectrum shows clearly the absorption Ha line, typical of short-period Algols with transient or absent disks.

  14. Soil types and forest canopy structures in southern Missouri: A first look with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance properties of deciduous oak-hickory forests covering the eastern half of the Rolla Quadrangle were examined using Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in August and December, 1982 and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in August, 1985. For the TM data distinctly high relative reflectance values (greater than 0.3) in the near infrared (Band 4, 0.73 to 0.94 micrometers) correspond to regions characterized by xeric (dry) forests that overlie soils with low water retention capacities. These soils are derived primarily from rhyolites. More mesic forests characterized by lower TM band 4 relative reflectances are associated with soils of higher retention capacities derived predominately from non-cherty carbonates. The major factors affecting canopy reflectance appear to be the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf optical properties. The Suits canopy reflectance model predicts the relative reflectance values for the xeric canopies. The mesic canopy reflectance is less well matched and incorporation of canopy shadowing caused by the irregular nature of the mesic canopy may be necessary. Preliminary examination of high spectral resolution AIS data acquired in August of 1985 reveals no more information than found in the broad band TM data.

  15. Haplotype analysis of Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and lipids level: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, Maryam S; Faam, Bita; Mansournia, Mohamad Ali; Hedayati, Mehdi; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Shojaei, Shahla; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-02-01

    Iranian populations show an increased tendency for abnormal lipid levels and high risk of Coronary artery disease. Considering the important role played by the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in the regulation of the level and metabolism of lipids, this study aimed at elucidating the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Apo11q cluster gene and lipid levels. A cross-sectional study of 823 subjects (340 males and 483 females) from the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) was conducted. Levels of TG, Chol, HDL-C, Apo AI, Apo AIV, Apo B, and Apo CIII were measured, and the selected segments of the APOAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster were amplified by PCR and the polymorphisms were revealed by RFLP using restriction enzymes. The allele frequencies for each SNP between males and females were not significantly different. The distribution of Genotypes and alleles was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for Apo AI (+83C>T). The results showed a significant association between TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B levels and the presence of some alleles in the polymorphisms studied. After haplotype analysis not only did the association between these variables and SNPs remain but also levels of Chol and LDL-C were added. This study demonstrates that the level of lipids such as TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B, maybe regulated partly by genetic factors and their haplotype within the Apo11q gene cluster.

  16. Effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on apolipoprotein AI kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on HDL and apoAI metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Subjects (19 men with MetS [NCEP-ATPIII]) were fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks (all foods provided). Participants then underwent a 20-week free-living period during which they were counseled to restrict energy intake, after which they were again fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks. At the end of the two controlled diets, participants received a single bolus of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)] (L)-leucine, and fasting blood samples were collected over a 96 h period. ApoAI kinetic was assessed using multicompartmental modeling of the tracer enrichment data. Participants achieved a 9.1 ± 2.8% reduction in body weight (P < 0.001). Weight loss resulted in an increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations of 6.0% (P = 0.059) and HDL(3)-C of 7.9% (P = 0.045), attributable to a reduction in apoAI fractional catabolic rate (-7.8%; P = 0.046) with no change in apoAI production rate (2.2%; P = 0.58). These data indicate that weight loss, independent of variation in diet composition, increases plasma HDL primarily by delaying the catabolism of apoAI.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of enterocins from Enterococcus faecalis SL-5 against Propionibacterium acnes, the causative agent in acne vulgaris, and its therapeutic effect.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Seon; Seo, Jae-Gu; Lee, Gwa-Su; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Sei Yeon; Han, Ye Won; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Rhee, Ji Hwan; Chung, Myung-Jun; Park, Young Min

    2009-02-01

    A lactic acid bacterial strain was isolated from human fecal specimen and identified as Enterococcus faecalis SL-5. The isolated strain showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens assayed, especially the highest activity against Propionibacterium acnes. The antimicrobial substance was purified and verified as a bacteriocin (named ESL5) of E. faecalis SL-5 by activity-staining using P. acnes as an indicator. N-terminal sequence of ESL5 was determined (MGAIAKLVAK) and sequence analysis revealed that it is almost identical to the some of enterocins including L50A/B of E. faecium L50 and MR10A/B of E. faecalis MRR 10-3. From the sequencing data of L50A/B structural genes, the nucleotide sequence showed 100% identity with that of the MR10A/B structural genes, implying that ESL5 is an equivalent of enterocin MR10. Meanwhile, we also tested the therapeutic effect of anti-P. acnes activity in patients with mild to moderate acne because of its pathogenic role to acne vulgaris. For this purpose, a concentrated powder of CBT SL-5 was prepared using cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of E. faecalis SL-5 and included in a lotion for application in the patients. The study showed that CBT SL-5 lotion significantly reduced the inflammatory lesions like pustules compared to the placebo lotion. Therefore our results indicate that the anti-P. acnes activity produced by E. faecalis SL-5 has potential role to the treatment of acne as an alternative to topical antibiotics.

  18. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-03-02

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace /sup 3/H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting /sup 3/H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit /sup 3/H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Regulation of Yersina pestis Virulence by AI-2 Mediated Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Segelke, B; Hok, S; Lao, V; Corzett, M; Garcia, E

    2010-03-29

    The proposed research was motivated by an interest in understanding Y. pestis virulence mechanisms and bacteria cell-cell communication. It is expected that a greater understanding of virulence mechanisms will ultimately lead to biothreat countermeasures and novel therapeutics. Y. pestis is the etiological agent of plague, the most devastating disease in human history. Y. pestis infection has a high mortality rate and a short incubation before mortality. There is no widely available and effective vaccine for Y. pestis and multi-drug resistant strains are emerging. Y. pestis is a recognized biothreat agent based on the wide distribution of the bacteria in research laboratories around the world and on the knowledge that methods exist to produce and aerosolize large amounts of bacteria. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication via signaling molecules, or quorum sensing, by Y. pestis is important for the regulation of virulence factor gene expression during host invasion, though a causative link had never been established. Quorum sensing is a mode of intercellular communication which enables orchestration of gene expression for many bacteria as a function of population density and available evidence suggests there may be a link between quorum sensing and regulation of Y. pesits virulence. Several pathogenic bacteria have been shown to regulate expression of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding type III secretion, via quorum sensing. The Y. pestis genome encodes several cell-cell signaling pathways and the interaction of at least three of these are thought to be involved in one or more modes of host invasion. Furthermore, Y. pestis gene expression array studies carried out at LLNL have established a correlation between expression of known virulence factors and genes involved in processing of the AI-2 quorum sensing signal. This was a basic research project that was intended to provide new insights into bacterial intercellular communication and how it is

  20. An alternative approach to systems of second-order ordinary differential equations with maximal symmetry. Realizations of sl(n + 2 , R) by special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.

    2016-08-01

    Using the general solution of the differential equation x¨(t) +g1(t) x˙ +g2(t) x = 0 , a generic basis of the point-symmetry algebra sl(3 , R) is constructed. Deriving the equation from a time-dependent Lagrangian, the basis elements corresponding to Noether symmetries are deduced. The generalized Lewis invariant is constructed explicitly using a linear combination of Noether symmetries. The procedure is generalized to the case of systems of second-order ordinary differential equations with maximal sl(n + 2 , R) -symmetry, and its possible adaptation to the inhomogeneous non-linear case illustrated by an example.