Cole, Ellen; Keller, Reuben P; Garbach, Kelly
Aquatic invasive species (AIS) pose major conservation challenges in freshwater ecosystems. In response, conservation organizations invest considerable resources in outreach to encourage AIS prevention behaviors among recreational boaters. Despite this, remarkably little is known about whether these efforts catalyze significant changes in boaters' perceptions, or whether they cause changes in behaviors that reduce AIS risk. We interviewed managers at the 14 Illinois organizations active in AIS outreach to determine regional priorities for, and investment in, AIS outreach. The results show a network of collaboration that reinforces a limited set of conservation messages. Next, we surveyed 515 recreational boaters to evaluate access to outreach, knowledge of AIS, and consistency of prevention behavior. Boater recognition of prevention slogans and knowledge of AIS and AIS prevention behavior was similar across Illinois regions despite large regional differences in investment in outreach. Most boaters (94%) report never intentionally moving organisms among waterbodies. Fewer reported that they Always perform recommended actions to reduce risk of AIS spread on their boat interior (68%), boat exterior (63%), or fishing tackle (47%). Recognition of prevention slogans and the number of AIS recognized were significantly, positively, associated with Always performing AIS prevention behavior on the vectors of the boat exterior, and fishing tackle, respectively. Our results suggest that increasing knowledge may be a necessary condition for higher adoption of AIS prevention behaviors, but that this alone may not be sufficient. Instead, efforts targeted at boaters who do not currently practice the recommended actions are likely to be necessary.
The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.
Goshorn, Rachel E.; Goshorn, Deborah E.; Goshorn, Joshua L.; Goshorn, Lawrence A.
The application need for distributed artificial intelligence (AI) systems for behavior analysis and prediction is a requirement today versus a luxury of the past. The advent of distributed AI systems with large numbers of sensors and sensor types and unobtainable network bandwidth is also a key driving force. Additionally, the requirement to fuse a large number of sensor types and inputs is required and can now be implemented and automated in the AI hierarchy, and therefore, this will not require human power to observer, fuse, and interpret.
More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458
More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe.
DeLuke, Susan V.; Knoblock, Peter
Teacher behaviors which foster preventive discipline include communicating respect to each student, seeking out diverse sources of information, developing curricula that prevent behavior problems, and implementing instructional procedures that minimize misbehaviors. A learning environment inventory which includes student assessment information and…
Filjar, Renato; Desic, Sasa; Pokrajac, Danijela; Cubic, Ivica
Automatic Identification System (AIS) has recently become the leading issue in maritime navigation and traffic management worldwide. The present AIS solution, based on a VHF data communications scheme, provides AIS functionalities for SOLAS (AIS Class A) vessels only in a limited environment defined by radio propagation properties. Here we present a novel approach in AIS development based on current mobile communication technologies. It utilises existing mobile communications equipment that the majority of targetted end-users own and are familiar with. A novel AIS concept aims to offer a transition of AIS data traffic to mobile Internet. An innovative AIS architecture supports AIS data processing, storing and transferring to authorised parties. This enhances not only the operational area, but also provides the global AIS with data transfer security and an improved aids-for-navigation service, with all legally traceable vessels (both AIS Class A and AIS Class B) included in the system. In order to provide the development framework for Internet AIS, a set of essential four use-cases, a communication protocol and the first Internet AIS prototype have been recently developed and are briefly introduced in this article.
Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Figueroa, Debbie M.; Barochia, Amisha V.; Yao, Xianglan; Levine, Stewart J.
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol eﬄux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of ALI, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:27708582
Stainback, William; And Others
Specific suggestions to help teachers structure the classroom to prevent disruptive behaviors are offered in the areas of physical arrangement and "traffic rules" time management, assignments, grouping practices, classroom atmosphere, and professional demeanor. (DB)
Horan, John J.
This article discusses several principles derived from learning theory which aid in understanding the use and abuse of drugs and illustrates their role in behavioral group counseling, a promising new strategy for drug abuse prevention. (JC)
Mayer, G. Roy
Multiple correlates and determinants of antisocial behavior within the home, community, and school are reviewed. Due to the school's pivotal role in our society, an emphasis is placed on how our schools contribute to antisocial behavior, and what educators can do to prevent anti-social behavior and related attendance problems. A variety of contextual factors and setting events within our schools appear to be major contributors to antisocial behavior, and some of the same factors identified within the schools also have been identified within the home. These setting events, rather than quick restrictive fixes, must be given more attention if we are to provide safe school environments—environments that durably prevent antisocial behavior and related attendance problems. PMID:16795877
Djordjevich, Donna D.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Brannon, Nathan Gregory; Hart, Brian E.; Hart, Derek H.; Little, Charles Quentin; Oppel, Fred John III; Linebarger, John Michael; Parker, Eric Paul
This Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) sought to develop technology that enhances scenario construction speed, entity behavior robustness, and scalability in Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) simulation. We investigated issues in both simulation architecture and behavior modeling. We developed path-planning technology that improves the ability to express intent in the planning task while still permitting an efficient search algorithm. An LVC simulation demonstrated how this enables 'one-click' layout of squad tactical paths, as well as dynamic re-planning for simulated squads and for real and simulated mobile robots. We identified human response latencies that can be exploited in parallel/distributed architectures. We did an experimental study to determine where parallelization would be productive in Umbra-based force-on-force (FOF) simulations. We developed and implemented a data-driven simulation composition approach that solves entity class hierarchy issues and supports assurance of simulation fairness. Finally, we proposed a flexible framework to enable integration of multiple behavior modeling components that model working memory phenomena with different degrees of sophistication.
Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina
Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871
Lapidus, Jodi A.; Bertolli, Jeanne; McGowan, Karen; Sullivan, Patrick
The goal of this study was to describe HIV risk behaviors, perceptions, testing, and prevention exposure among urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Interviewers administered a questionnaire to participants recruited through anonymous peer-referral sampling. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to compare HIV…
Munakata, T; Tajima, K
This study is to identify the risk behaviors of the Japanese that may lead to HIV infection and the behaviors that prevent such infection, as well as their background factors. Two behavioral surveys were conducted for the present study. (1) For international comparison on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) related to HIV/AIDS, we conducted a survey on a sample of 10,000 adults, randomly selected from a nationwide population in Japan; and (2) for sexual partner relation, we conducted a survey on a sample of 10,000 adults randomly selected from a population in five major cities of Japan. Our main findings include: (1) Most of the Japanese adult did not regard AIDS as a major threat in the area where they lived; (2) People in their twenties are too casual about "having sex without using a condom with someone they've met for the first time and know little about"; (3) Thirteen percent (19% male, 8% female) of those with a steady sex partner including a spouse, on average, had sex with 2.4 non-steady partners in the previous year; and (4) Only 25 percent used condoms always when they engaged in casual sex during the previous four weeks. These risk behaviors of the Japanese adults might lead to an explosive rise in the number of HIV-infected in the near future unless steps are taken immediately to prevent it.
Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.
Reviews literature on prevention of child abduction and states shortcomings of traditional versus behavioral approaches to prevention of child abduction. Reveals that behavioral-skills training appears to be a necessary component in effective prevention programs and suggests children undergo such training, with the focus being on self-protective…
Cong, Yan; Sun, Kefu; He, Xueming; Li, Jinxuan; Dong, Yanbin; Zheng, Bin; Tan, Xiao; Song, Xue-Jun
Treating cancer pain continues to possess a major challenge. Here, we report that a traditional Chinese medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong (XAT) can effectively suppress pain and adverse reactions following morphine treatment in patients with bone cancer pain. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used for patient's self-evaluation of pain intensity and evaluating changes of adverse reactions including constipation, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia, respectively, before and after treatment prescriptions. The clinical trials showed that repetitive oral administration of XAT (200 mL, bid, for 7 consecutive days) alone greatly reduced cancer pain. Repetitive treatment with a combination of XAT and morphine (20 mg and 30 mg, resp.) produced significant synergistic analgesic effects. Meanwhile, XAT greatly reduced the adverse reactions associated with cancer and/or morphine treatment. In addition, XAT treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in blood. These findings demonstrate that XAT can effectively reduce bone cancer pain probably mediated by the cytokine mechanisms, facilitate analgesic effect of morphine, and prevent or reduce the associated adverse reactions, supporting a use of XAT, alone or with morphine, in treating bone cancer pain in clinic.
Cong, Yan; Sun, Kefu; He, Xueming; Li, Jinxuan; Dong, Yanbin; Zheng, Bin; Tan, Xiao; Song, Xue-Jun
Treating cancer pain continues to possess a major challenge. Here, we report that a traditional Chinese medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong (XAT) can effectively suppress pain and adverse reactions following morphine treatment in patients with bone cancer pain. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used for patient's self-evaluation of pain intensity and evaluating changes of adverse reactions including constipation, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia, respectively, before and after treatment prescriptions. The clinical trials showed that repetitive oral administration of XAT (200 mL, bid, for 7 consecutive days) alone greatly reduced cancer pain. Repetitive treatment with a combination of XAT and morphine (20 mg and 30 mg, resp.) produced significant synergistic analgesic effects. Meanwhile, XAT greatly reduced the adverse reactions associated with cancer and/or morphine treatment. In addition, XAT treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in blood. These findings demonstrate that XAT can effectively reduce bone cancer pain probably mediated by the cytokine mechanisms, facilitate analgesic effect of morphine, and prevent or reduce the associated adverse reactions, supporting a use of XAT, alone or with morphine, in treating bone cancer pain in clinic. PMID:26617438
Poole, Gary D.
It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…
Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Albin, Richard W.
Twelve practical strategies that can be used by classroom teachers to prevent behavioral escalation are discussed, including reinforce calm, know the triggers, pay attention to anything unusual, do not escalate, intervene early, know the function of problem behavior, use extinction wisely, teach prosocial behavior, and teach academic survival…
Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Albin, Richard W.
In this article, the authors describe 12 practical strategies identified as empirically effective in preventing behavioral escalation in students: (1) Reinforce calm and on-task behaviors; (2) Know the triggers; (3) Pay attention to anything unusual about the student's behavior; (4) Do not escalate along with the student; (5) Offer students…
Hawken, Leanne S.; Johnston, Susan S.
Best practice in preventing severe problem behavior in schools involves implementing a continuum of effective behavior support. This continuum includes primary prevention strategies implemented with all students, secondary prevention strategies for students at-risk, and tertiary interventions for students who engage in the most severe problem…
Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others
Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…
... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this counseling. This fact sheet explains the ... skin looking young and healthy. Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling The main potential benefit of ...
Purvis, Johnny; Leonard, Rex
Discusses strategies that can be used to prevent the five most common behavioral problems in secondary schools: (1) failure to complete assigned work, (2) tardiness, (3) inattentiveness, (4) littering, and (5) failure to bring materials to class. (FL)
Qu, Yang; Xu, Jinyu; Zhou, Haohan; Dong, Rongpeng; Kang, Mingyang; Zhao, Jianwu
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily). The average follow-up was one month, and infection severity and side effects were analyzed. The effects of COS on isolated pathogens were analyzed. SSI rates were 2%, 3% and 8% for spine wounds and 1%, 2% and 7% for iliac wound in CG, EG and PG (p < 0.05), respectively. COS reduces the side effects caused by antibiotics (p < 0.05). COS improved biochemical indexes and reduced the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. COS reduced the antibiotics dose and antibiotics-caused side effects in AIS patients with spinal fusion surgery by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. COS should be developed as potential adjuvant for antibiotics therapies. PMID:28335413
Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…
Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569
Oswald, Karen; Safran, Stephen; Johanson, George
Effective management of disruptive behaviors in schools is a national concern. While substantial resources are often allocated toward individual students who exhibit challenging behavior, less emphasis is placed on preventative interventions in common areas such as hallways, cafeterias and playgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine…
Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Martin, Jason; Flann, Nicholas S.; Moore, Kevin L.
In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) have been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). One among the several out growths of this work has been the development of a grammar-based approach to intelligent behavior generation for commanding autonomous robotic vehicles. In this paper we describe the use of this grammar for enabling autonomous behaviors. A supervisory task controller (STC) sequences high-level action commands (taken from the grammar) to be executed by the robot. It takes as input a set of goals and a partial (static) map of the environment and produces, from the grammar, a flexible script (or sequence) of the high-level commands that are to be executed by the robot. The sequence is derived by a planning function that uses a graph-based heuristic search (A* -algorithm). Each action command has specific exit conditions that are evaluated by the STC following each task completion or interruption (in the case of disturbances or new operator requests). Depending on the system's state at task completion or interruption (including updated environmental and robot sensor information), the STC invokes a reactive response. This can include sequencing the pending tasks or initiating a re-planning event, if necessary. Though applicable to a wide variety of autonomous robots, an application of this approach is demonstrated via simulations of ODIS, an omni-directional inspection system developed for security applications.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...Epstein (1986) has suggested that this version of PROLOG has been used for business and industrial applications in Eastern Europe. The Japanese have...have been in building expert systems in the business analysis area. Expert systems for policy and rate selection for insurance (i.e., risk analysis) and
Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George
The purpose of this report is to compare changes in social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence for kindergarten or first grade students identified as being at risk for serious behavior problems who received primary, secondary, or tertiary level preventive interventions. Of the 93 participants in this study, 73% were male; 86% were…
... you start your first t'ai chi workout, dress comfortably so you can move and stretch easily. ... health problem. Is your schedule jam-packed with school, work, and social activities? Here are a few ...
... chi (pronounced: TY CHEE) is great for improving flexibility and strengthening your legs, abs, and arms. What ... general, though, practicing t'ai chi improves strength, flexibility, and respiratory function (breathing). So where can you ...
Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Montgomery, Ronnie E.; Pohle, George E.; Heard, Astrid E.; Atkinson, David J.; Wedlake, William E.; Anderson, John M.
An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.
Prochaska, James O
Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on one treated behavior increases the odds of effective action on a second targeted behavior. Co-variation can occur when all behaviors received full treatment, when one receives full treatment and the others receive minimal treatment and when only one behavior is treated and others co-vary without treatment. Integrative treatments represent another innovation in which higher order constructs drive change on multiple behaviors related to the construct and treatment has to be only on one higher order behavior. A more integrated approach to research and practice involves new paradigms complementing established paradigms. Multiple behaviors proactively treated in populations at home or work by computer-based and stage-based interventions designed to generate co-variation that produces greater impacts can complement traditional paradigms that treat single behaviors in individual patients in clinics by clinicians with action-oriented modular interventions designed for specific behaviors to produce significant efficacy. More inclusive research to support more inclusive practices can hopefully lead to more inclusive care.
The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.
Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…
McCord, Joan, Ed.; Tremblay, Richard E., Ed.
A variety of approaches to preventing antisocial behavior in children have ranged from infant schools to residential treatment centers, from social training to psychological therapies, with evaluations that have typically been little more than testimonials to current fashions. By introducing experimental approaches to the study of intervention…
Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.
The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…
Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de
The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.
Spring, Bonnie; King, Abby; Pagoto, Sherry; Van Horn, Linda; Fisher, Jeffery
Synopsis The odds of developing cancer are increased by specific lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, excess energy and alcohol intakes, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, risky sexual behaviors, and inadequate sun protection). These behaviors are largely absent in childhood, emerge and tend to cluster over the lifespan, and show an increased prevalence among those disadvantaged by low education or income or minority status. Even though risk behaviors are modifiable, few are diminishing in the population over time. We review the prevalence and population distribution of these behaviors and apply an ecological model to describe effective or promising healthy lifestyle interventions targeted to the individual, the sociocultural context, or environmental and policy influences. We suggest that implementing multiple health behavior change interventions across several ecological levels could substantially reduce the prevalence of cancer and the burden it places on the public and the health care system. We note important still unresolved questions about which behaviors can be intervened upon simultaneously in order to maximize positive behavioral synergies, minimize negative ones, and effectively engage underserved populations. We conclude that interprofessional collaboration is needed to appropriately evaluate and convey the value of primary prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:25730716
Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Hogben, Matthew; Kinsey, Jennine
Background Behavioral counseling for STD prevention is recommended for persons at risk, and the body of evidence yields numerous interventions that have STD preventive efficacy. What is needed is a review of the subset of these interventions that could be feasible in clinical settings, especially settings in STD prevention programs. Methods We reviewed existing systematic reviews of the literature and abstracted from them studies that fit the following criteria in that the interventions: (1) used no more than 60 minutes contact time in 1 to 2 sessions, (2) were individual-level and face to face, (3) took place in a clinical setting, (4) had STD outcomes available, (5) were based in the United States, (6) were peer-reviewed, and (7) had a control group. Results From 6 reviews (published 2006 – 2014) covering 91 studies, we found 13 analyses representing 11 intervention studies that fit the selection criteria. Of these 13, 5 returned lower STD rates in the intervention group at follow-up; one study reported a higher rate of STD in one subset of the intervention group (men who have sex with men: MSM). Studies with effects on STD at follow-up were quite similar to studies across populations, settings and follow-up periods, although successful interventions were more likely to demonstrate behavioral effects as well (5 of 5 versus 2 of 5 among 10 interventions measuring behavior change). Conclusions Counseling is likely to benefit some STD clinic attendees, although unlikely to benefit MSM. The balance of costs and benefits of implementing behavioral counseling in STD programs is unclear, but feasibility would be improved if behavioral counseling were implemented in the context of other prevention efforts. Because populations outside typical STD clinic settings could also benefit, programs may exercise a valuable role through partnerships. PMID:26779681
Albino, J; Tiwari, T
The etiology of dental caries reflects a complex interplay of biochemical, microbial, genetic, social and physical environmental, and health-influencing behavioral factors. This review updates the literature on the efficacy of behavioral approaches to caries prevention for children up to 18 y of age. Included were studies of behavioral interventions implemented at individual, family, and community levels that assessed results in terms of reductions in caries increments. Only those reports published since 2011 were considered. Outcomes were variable, although motivational interviewing, which involves individuals in decisions about oral health within the context of their respective life circumstances, proved effective in 3 of 4 reported studies, and more definitive trials are underway. Recommendations for future research include examinations of the cost-effectiveness of interventions, as well as work focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying oral health behavior change and variables that may mediate or moderate responses to interventions.
involved the development of an environment within the Multiverse virtual world, oriented toward allowing individuals to acquire and reinforce skills via...PetBrain software G2: Creation of a scavenger hunt scenario in the Multiverse virtual world, in which humans and AIs can collaboratively play scavenger...carried out by Novamente LLC for AOARD during June 2008 ? February 2009. It involved the development of an environment within the Multiverse virtual world
Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik
This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903
Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.
AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.
Shepard, Stephanie A.; Dickstein, Susan
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting parents when addressing early childhood behavior problems. We briefly review evidence-based parent management training programs (PMT), focusing on one particular program, the Incredible Years Series (IY). Next, we discuss the barriers to embedding evidence-based practice like IY in community contexts, and demonstrate how early childhood mental health consultation can be used to enhance community capacity to adopt evidence-based practice and improve outcomes for the large number of young children and their families in need. PMID:19486845
Herman; Dirawan, Gufran Darma; Yahya, Muhammad; Taiyeb, Mushawwir
The community diseases prevention behaviors assumed influenced by knowledge of infectious disease, hygiene and health knowledge, motivation and of behaviors of disease prevention than influence by attitude prevention of infectious diseases. This study aimed to examine the effect of variable knowledge infectious disease, hygiene and health…
Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer
Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…
Jakobsson, Lotta; Norin, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y
In order to gain more knowledge of the neck injury scenario in frontal impacts, a statistical study of parameters influencing incidences of AIS 1 neck injuries was performed. The data set consisted of 616 occupants in Volvo cars. Information regarding the crash, the safety systems, occupant characteristics (including prior neck problems), behavior and sitting posture at the time of impact, and neck symptoms (including duration) was collected and analyzed. Occupant characteristics (mainly gender, weight, and age), kinematics (head impacts) and behavior at the time of impact were identified as the most prominent parameter areas with regard to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Specifically, women had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to men, occupants under the age of 50 had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to those above 50 and occupants weighing less than 65 kg have a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than heavier occupants. Drivers stating that they impacted their head against a frontal interior structure had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than those without head impact. Also, occupants who stated they had tensed their neck muscles at the time of impact, had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to occupants who did not. Occupant activities, such as tightly gripping the steering wheel or straightening their arms showed a significantly increased AIS 1 neck injury rate, indicating that occupant behavior at time of impact could be influential with respect to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Also, occupants reporting prior neck problems had a higher rate of persistent symptoms (>1 year) but no difference with respect to passing symptoms (<3 months) as compared to those without prior neck problems. Additionally, there was no distinct pattern for the duration of neck symptoms.
Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia
A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…
For two decades now, Hubert Dreyfus, an existentialist philosopher at the University of California at Berkeley, has been in the forefront of the controversy over artificial intelligence. He maintains that computers will never be able to think because scientists will never come up with a suitably rigorous set of rules to describe how we think. To many computer scientists, this is like saying the Earth is flat. But so far, none of them have been able to prove him wrong. Even most AI researchers now admit that before they can make computers any smarter, they'll have to come up with an explanation of how intelligence works in people. This realization has coincided with the emergence of cognitive science, a new discipline linking philosophy, psychology, anthroplogy, linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science in an attempt to develop a theory of the way humans think. The guiding principle of most cognitive science research is the notion that the mind, like the computer, is a system for manipulating symbols - for processing information. The task of cognitive science is to discover how this processing occurs.
Van Vleet, Phyllis
The general purpose of this project was to initiate, implement and evaluate a program concerned with developing improved and more effective techniques for the reduction or prevention of learning and behavior problems in children. The children included in the PACE I.D. Center Study were an extreme group as far as behavior and learning problems were…
Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice
Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.
Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham
Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.
Sandhu, Daya Singh
The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…
Eaton, Lisa A; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Kalichman, Seth C; Pellowski, Jennifer A; Sagherian, Michael J; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R; Johnson, Blair T
Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55-0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs.
Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Sagherian, Michael J.; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R.; Johnson, Blair T.
Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55–0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs. PMID:22994247
Zak-Place, Jennifer; Stern, Marilyn
Identifying factors predictive of youth's engaging in preventive behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV remains a prominent public health concern. The utility of the Health Belief Model (HBM) continues to be suggested in identifying preventive behaviors. This study sought to examine the full HBM, including self-efficacy,…
... TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Behavioral Health Care To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM Service ... individuals should be involved in their own behavioral health care. These efforts to increase consumer awareness and involvement ...
Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D
AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage.
Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)
The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.
River , WA; and the future Vessel Traffic Service systems being developed under PAWSS. Interfacing the AIS Transmit architecture with agencies that...provides accurate real-time information such as water levels, currents, and other oceanographic and meteorological data. The USACE provide river lock...information and river level and current data on the Inland Waterways. AIS ASM Operational Integration Plan viii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC
Rowlands, Amanda L; Pagán, Oné R
We recently reported that parthenolide and related sesquiterpene lactones are able to prevent and reverse behavioral responses in planarian worms induced by acute cocaine exposure. Previous reports indicate that when planarians are chronically exposed to microM concentrations of cocaine, they display stereotypical withdrawal-like behaviors when the cocaine is removed. Here we report that parthenolide prevents this cocaine-induced expression of planarian withdrawal-like behaviors.
Zhu, Peng; Li, Minyong
Quorum sensing (QS) is a communication procedure that predominates gene expression in response to cell density and fluctuations in the neighboring environment as a result of discerning molecules termed autoinducers (AIs). It has been embroiled that QS can govern bacterial behaviors such as the secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, bioluminescence production, conjugation, sporulation and swarming motility. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a QS signaling molecule brought up to be involved in interspecies communication, exists in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Therefore, novel approaches to interrupt AI-2 quorum sensing are being recognized as next generation antimicrobials. In the present review article, we summarized recent progresses on AI-2 bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors and discussed their potential as the antibacterial agents.
Cabral, Danilo; Coelho, Cideli P.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Martins, Maria F. M.; Bondan, Eduardo F.; Bernardi, Maria M.; Kirsten, Thiago Berti
Recent studies have demonstrated the intimate relationship between depression and immune disturbances. Aware of the efficacy limits of existing antidepressant drugs and the potential anti-inflammatory properties of propentofylline, we sought to evaluate the use of propentofylline as a depression treatment. We used a rat model of depression induced by repetitive lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administrations. We have studied sickness behavior, by assessing daily body weight, open field behavior, and TNF-α plasmatic levels. Anxiety-like behavior (light-dark test), depressive-like behavior (forced swim test), plasmatic levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, depression biomarker), and central glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression (an astrocyte biomarker) were also evaluated. LPS induced body weight loss, open field behavior impairments (decreased locomotion and rearing, and increased immobility), and increased TNF-α levels in rats, compared with control group. Thus, LPS induced sickness behavior. LPS also increased the immobility and reduced climbing in the forced swim test, when compared with the control group, i.e., LPS induced depressive-like behavior in rats. Propentofylline prevented sickness behavior after four days of consecutive treatment, as well as prevented the depressive-like behavior after five days of consecutive treatments. Propentofylline also prevented the increase in GFAP expression induced by LPS. Neither LPS nor propentofylline has influenced the anxiety and BDNF levels of rats. In conclusion, repetitive LPS administrations induced sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior in rats. Propentofylline prevented both sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior via neuroinflammatory pathway. The present findings may contribute to a better understanding and treatment of depression and associated diseases. PMID:28056040
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.
Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…
Good, Chris P.; McIntosh, Kent; Gietz, Carmen
Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against victims who are unable to defend themselves. Children and youth who engage in bullying behavior may have a physical advantage, higher social status, or power in numbers, whereas those who are targeted by bullies are likely to be solitary, smaller in stature,…
This paper discusses linkages between play, healthy social and emotional development, and behavior management in young children. Play is defined as pleasurable, self-motivated, non-goal-directed, and spontaneous behavior, free from adult-imposed rules. Many children have limited time available for play because they are directed by adults in day…
Atienza, Audie A; Serrano, Katrina J; Riley, William T; Moser, Richard P; Klein, William M
The era of "Big Data" presents opportunities to substantively address cancer prevention and control issues by improving health behaviors and refining theoretical models designed to understand and intervene in those behaviors. Yet, the terms "model" and "Big Data" have been used rather loosely, and clarification of these terms is required to advance the science in this area. The objectives of this paper are to discuss conceptual definitions of the terms "model" and "Big Data", as well as examine the promises and challenges of Big Data to advance cancer prevention and control research using behavioral theories. Specific recommendations for harnessing Big Data for cancer prevention and control are offered.
Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura
This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…
... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of behavioral counseling to prevent CVD in overweight ... the end of this document). Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease The ...
Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi
The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.
Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Mead, Sarah C
Although decades of research on functional analysis methodology have identified common contingencies that maintain problem behavior and effective interventions, relatively little research has been conducted on strategies to prevent the initial development of problem behavior. We conducted a 2-part case study, the purposes of which were to illustrate the use of sensitivity tests as the bases for intervention (Study 1) and subsequently to assess the efficacy of a prevention strategy using a single-subject design (Study 2). Results showed that the sensitivity tests identified establishing operations that may set the occasion for the development of problem behavior and that interventions based on differential reinforcement prevented increases in the severity of problem behavior relative to untreated and control baselines. Benefits and limitations to this individualized approach to prevention are discussed.
Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.
Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…
McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.
Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…
Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.
Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…
Hall, Sharon M.; And Others
Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…
Grinstead, Olga A.
Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…
Beardslee, William R; Chien, Peter L; Bell, Carl C
Robust scientific evidence shows that mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders can be prevented before they begin. This article highlights and expands points from a 2009 Institute of Medicine report to provide a concise summary of the literature on preventing mental illness. Because prevention requires intervention before the onset of illness, effective preventive approaches are often interdisciplinary and developmental. Evidence-based preventive strategies are discussed for the different phases of a young person's life. Specific recommendations to focus on parenting, child development, and the prevention of depression are made for a target audience of practicing psychiatrists and mental health professionals. Further systemic recommendations are to prioritize prevention and to coordinate and facilitate research on preventive practices in order to reduce suffering, create healthier families, and save money.
Hendley, R. J.; Jurascheck, N.
Discusses changes in training requirements of commerce and industry in the United Kingdom and describes a project, CASCADE, that was developed to investigate and implement the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques into computer-based training (CBT). An overview of pilot projects in higher education settings is provided. (eight…
Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Guruge, Geethika Rathnawardana; Sujirarat, Dusit
Dengue is an infectious disease prevalent in Sri Lanka. Some factors may influence preventive behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and preventive behaviors associated with dengue and analyzed the factors influencing preventive behaviors among housewives in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The analytical study was designed, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The χ(2) test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze data. The mean age of housewives was 39.41 years, 91% were married, 52% were Buddhist, and 46.5% had a family monthly income of 15 000 to 25 000 rupees. The knowledge of dengue preventive behaviors was 69.2%. The majority (91.5%) had a positive attitude toward dengue prevention. Only 39.3% used a mosquito net, and 89.3% had water storage container covers. Overall, 58.5% were knowledgeable about preventive measures. Age, religion, family income, education, knowledge, and attitude were associated with preventive behaviors. These findings are useful for dengue control in Colombo.
Zeleeva, Vera P.; Shubnikova, Ekaterina G.
The relevance of the study is due to the development of a new stage of prevention and the need to justify new educational goals and objectives of the pedagogical prevention of addictive behavior in the educational environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the totality of the necessary and sufficient individual resources, that are…
Kim, Hye Kyung; Lwin, May O
Although culture is acknowledged as an important factor that influences health, little is known about cultural differences pertaining to cancer-related beliefs and prevention behaviors. This study examines two culturally influenced beliefs-fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention, and optimistic beliefs about cancer risk-to identify reasons for cultural disparity in the engagement of cancer prevention behaviors. We utilized data from national surveys of European Americans in the United States (Health Information National Trends Survey 4, Cycle3; N = 1,139) and Asians in Singapore (N = 1,200) to make cultural comparisons. The odds of an Asian adhering to prevention recommendations were less than half the odds of a European American, with the exception of smoking avoidance. Compared to European Americans, Asians were more optimistic about their cancer risk both in an absolute and a comparative sense, and held stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Mediation analyses revealed that fatalistic beliefs and absolute risk optimism among Asians partially explain their lower engagement in prevention behaviors, whereas comparative risk optimism increases their likelihood of adhering to prevention behaviors. Our findings underscore the need for developing culturally targeted interventions in communicating cancer causes and prevention.
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan
Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…
Calitz, Chris; Pollack, Keshia M; Millard, Chris; Yach, Derek
Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause the majority of premature deaths, disability, and healthcare expenditures in the U.S. Six largely modifiable risk behaviors and factors (tobacco use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and poor mental health) account for more than 50% of premature mortality and considerably more morbidity and disability. The IOM proposed that population burden of disease and preventability should be major determinants of the amount of research funding provided by the U.S. NIH. Data on NIH prevention funding between fiscal years 2010 and 2012 for human behavioral interventions that target the modifiable risk factors of NCDs were analyzed during 2013-2014. The NIH prevention portfolio comprises approximately 37% human behavioral studies and 63% basic biomedical, genetic, and animal studies. Approximately 65% of studies were secondary prevention versus 23% for primary prevention, and 71% of studies intervened at the individual and family levels. Diet and exercise were the most-studied risk factors (41%), and few studies conducted economic analyses (12%). NIH spends an estimated $2.2-$2.6 billion annually (7%-9% of the total of $30 billion) on human behavioral interventions to prevent NCDs. Although NIH prevention funding broadly aligns with the current burden of disease, overall funding remains low compared to funding for treatment, which suggests funding misalignment with the preventability of chronic diseases.
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…
Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.
The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…
Embry, Dennis D.
In March of 2009, the Institute of Medicine issued a new report on the Prevention of Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People.1 Fundamentally, the report calls for ending the rationing of prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders (MEBs) among America’s children, youth and young adults. Continued rationing of access to scientifically proven prevention causes a serious threat to the country’s national security2 and to our economic competitiveness compared to 22 other rich countries.3 Such MEBs are also the leading preventable cost center for local, state and the federal governments.1, 4 These preventable MEBs cause health-care costs to continue to spiral up. The IOM Report calls for a public-health approach to MEBs—basically like how America and Canada dealt with the polio epidemic, measles, mumps, car passenger injuries to children, and accidental poisoning from medications and toxic chemicals. Why is this necessary? America’s rates of some of these mental, emotional and behavioral problems are worse than other developed countries,5, 6 and rates of some of these problems have objectively increased over the past 20-50 years in America.7 The attributes of a public-health approach for MEBs are defined in the article. The article discusses multiple examples of how public health approaches might reduce or prevent MEBs using low-cost evidence based kernels, which are fundamental units of behavior. Such kernels can be used repeatedly, which then act as “behavioral vaccines” to reduce morbidity or mortality and/or improve human wellbeing. This document calls for six key policy actions to improve mental, emotional and behavioral health in young people—with resulting wellbeing and economic competiveness of North America and reducing health-care costs. PMID:21333837
McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie
Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…
Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.
This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…
Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie
To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children…
Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks
In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…
Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Kincaid, Donald; Wilson, Kelly; Christiansen, Kathy; Strain, Phillip; English, Carie
Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by…
Vist, Natalya V.
This article focuses on such a highly relevant subject as the prevention and correction of deviant behavior in the adolescent environment. The study revealed the main vectors for the development of the modern science of deviant behavior, identified the main causes of deviations and carried out a comparative analysis of the work on the prevention…
Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.
Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…
DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.
This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…
Lequerica, M.; Hermosa, B.
Maternal reports on the health, behavioral, and educational characteristics of Hispanic low-income preschoolers were gathered from a pediatric clinic to conduct appropriate consultation and teaching of behavioral issues to pediatric residents. Fifty-two Hispanic mothers attending an urban hospital clinic were given a questionnaire. Interviews provided data on family demographics, children's health status, behavior problems (65 items adapted from Achenbach's 1981 and 1987 Child Behavior Checklists [CBCL]), maternal depression, family life stressful events, and discipline methods. Thirteen externalizing and five internalizing high frequency behaviors were identified. Behavior problem scores were significantly related to the use of yelling and hitting/spanking as methods of discipline. Precarious health status and low enrollment in preschool programs also were reported. A broader preventive role for pediatricians in that pediatric setting was recommended and pursued. Results suggest a broad preventive role for pediatricians and pediatric clinics servicing low-income preschoolers. PMID:8558617
Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R
The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.
Capaldi, Deborah M; Kerr, David C R; Eddy, J Mark; Tiberio, Stacey S
Recent theoretical advances related to the development and course, including persistence and desistance, of antisocial behaviors and conduct problems, violent behaviors, and related problem behaviors are discussed. Integrative theoretical models, including the Dynamic Developmental Systems (DDS), are discussed. Aspects of the DDS model regarding the development of and change in antisocial behavior and violence across adolescence and early adulthood are illustrated with findings from the Oregon Youth Study, an ongoing, long-term examination of the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior for a community-based sample of men (and their romantic partners) who were raised in neighborhoods with high delinquency rates. Preventive implications of the model are discussed.
Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi
Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, p<.001). In general, exposure to prevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum. PMID:26595267
William, D C
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has promoted the emergence of a new sexual ethic among homosexual men in the US. Gay men have been encouraged to significantly and dramatically limit their number of sexual partners. This has given rise to a pattern of creative sexuality that includes dating, serial monogamous relationships, mutual masturbation, condom use, massage, and nonsexual leisure time activities. Friendships, social groups, and gym workouts have increased in importance in many gay communities and sexuality has become a delayed gratification. Dating and courtship have begun to emerge as part of the new behavior pattern. Encouraging is the decline in the proportion of AIDS cases reported from New York City from 46% to 39% of the national total in the past year. This trend is believed to reflect decreased levels of promiscuous sexual behavior.
St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.
examine the association of sociodemographic, sexual health behaviors, contraceptive and condom use and a history of unintended pregnancy in soldiers... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with...effective contraceptive (birth control) methods used by young adult men and women. Since data analyses were still underway, the abstract only reflects the
behavior, it will also support operational commanders in diagnosing problems, making critical decisions, fostering learning, adjusting strategies , and...the area where Netflix continues to dominate…Blockbuster is doomed.” 11 While bottom line figures such as monthly earnings are important, unless...how to adapt and manage its metrics to better support its strategy . The reality of a measurement failure has grave consequences for the military
De Cremer, David; Mayer, David M; van Dijke, Marius; Bardes, Mary; Schouten, Barbara C
In the present set of studies, the authors examine the idea that self-sacrificial leadership motivates follower prosocial behavior, particularly among followers with a prevention focus. Drawing on the self-sacrificial leadership literature and regulatory focus theory, the authors provide results from 4 studies (1 laboratory and 3 field studies) that support the research hypothesis. Specifically, the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and prosocial behavior (i.e., cooperation, organizational citizenship behavior) is stronger among followers who are high in prevention focus. Implications for the importance of taking a follower-centered approach to leadership are discussed.
Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera
Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625
Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Although bullying continues to be a growing public health concern in schools across the United States, there are considerable gaps in the American understanding of effective prevention approaches for addressing this seemingly intractable issue. This article applies a public health approach to addressing bullying through the multitiered Positive…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; LaChapelle, Alicia
The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a multiple risky behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The noncurriculum prevention program was created based upon the key elements of effective prevention programming and the need to address the growing variety of risky behaviors that the youth face today. Results (n = 469 to 614) indicated that 7 out of 15 risky behaviors statistically significantly decreased throughout the 4-year study, with 6 behaviors involving alcohol and drugs. However, many of the targeted non-substance-use risky behaviors displayed inconsistent prevalence rate patterns without statistically significant changes. These findings indicate that the frequency and intensity of programming for non-substance-use behaviors should be increased to a value at least equal to that of the substance-use behaviors. Implications for schools, prevention specialists, and future program development and research are discussed. PMID:27672475
Wood, B. L.; Wrigley, R. C.
Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired over an agricultural area in eastern San Joaquin County, California in July, 1984. Cover type information was subsequently collected for all fields along this flight line. The lack of detailed ground data on individual fields, however, limited AIS data analysis to a qualitative comparison of the spectral reflectance curves for a total of nine cover types. Based on this analysis, it appears that cover types with a positive slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region have a higher spectral response in the 1200 to 1300 nm region compared to those cover types with a negative slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region. Within cover type, spectral variability was also found to be greater than that between cover types. Given the lack of additional field data, the reason for these differences is a matter of speculation.
Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan
The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.
Foubert, J D
Rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and sexually coercive behavior of 145 fraternity men randomly assigned to a control group or a rape-prevention program were surveyed. One third of 23 fraternities on a mid-Atlantic public university campus volunteered to participate in the study. The rape-prevention intervention consisted of "the men's program," a victim empathy-based presentation titled "How to help a sexual assault survivor: What men can do." Although no evidence of change in sexually coercive behavior was found, significant 7-month declines in rape myth acceptance and the likelihood of committing rape were shown among program participants. In the case of rape myth acceptance, the 7-month decrement remained lower in the participant group than in the control group. Implications of using these initial findings from the men's program for rape-prevention programming are discussed.
Bellg, Albert J
Long-term health behavior maintenance remains a challenge for patients and health behavior interventionists. Resource-intensive systems of external reinforcement and behavioral cues can support behavior maintenance; an alternative approach is to promote patient internalization and self-regulation of health behaviors. Based in part on organismic internalization theory, self-determination theory, and the experience of patients successful at maintaining health behaviors, the health behavior internalization model (HBIM) is proposed to describe motivational factors associated with internalization processes and hypothesizes that integrated internalization may be associated with long-term health behavior maintenance. The HBIM identifies four self-needs (ownership, self-determination, security, and support) and four behavior-related needs (preference, context, competence, and coping) as motivating health behavior internalization. Behavior change strategies promoting integrated internalization are identified from self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and transtheoretical model interventions. Other health behavior change constructs are reviewed in relation to internalization processes, and potential limits to the model are discussed.
Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott
Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.
Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Sanza, Megan; Johnston, Lindsay; Petinaux, Bruno
Abstract Background: When H1N1 emerged in 2009, institutions of higher education were immediately faced with questions about how best to protect their community from the virus, yet limited information existed to help predict student preventive behaviors. Methods: The authors surveyed students at a large urban university in November 2009 to better understand how students perceived their susceptibility to and the severity of H1N1, which preventive behaviors they engaged in, and if policies impacted their preventive health decisions. Results: Preventive health behavior messaging had a mixed impact on students. Students made simple behavior changes to protect themselves from H1N1, especially if they perceived a high personal risk of contracting H1N1. Although policies were instituted to enable students to avoid classes when ill, almost no student self-isolated for the entire duration of their illness. Conclusions: These findings can help inform future decision making in a university setting to best influence preventive health behaviors. PMID:22171729
Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12) and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care. PMID:22272659
Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N.; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel
In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues
Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel
In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues
Coubard, Olivier A.
As society ages and frequency of falls increases in older adults, counteracting motor decline is a challenging issue for developed countries. Physical activity based on aerobic and strength training as well as motor activity based on skill learning both help benefit balance and reduce the risk of falls, as assessed by clinical or laboratory measures. However, how such programs influence motor control is a neglected issue. This study examined the effects of fall prevention (FP) training on saccadic control in older adults. Saccades were recorded in 12 participants aged 64–91 years before and after 2.5 months training in FP. Traditional analysis of saccade timing and dynamics was performed together with a quantitative analysis using the LATER model, enabling us to examine the underlying motor control processes. Results indicated that FP reduced the rate of anticipatory and express saccades in inappropriate directions and enhanced that of express saccades in the appropriate direction, resulting in decreased latency and higher left-right symmetry of motor responses. FP reduced within-participant variability of saccade duration, amplitude, and peak velocity. LATER analysis suggested that FP modulates decisional thresholds, extending our knowledge of motor training influence on central motor control. We introduce the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER) model to account for the results. PMID:22807914
Doheny, Margaret O; Sedlak, Carol A; Hall, Rosalie J; Estok, Patricia J
This longitudinal study evaluates the effect of bone mineral density screening on calcium intake and daily exercise of 196 healthy men older than 50 years over a period of 1 year. In this randomized clinical trial, the experimental group received personal bone density information via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The men completed measures addressing knowledge, health beliefs, calcium intake, and exercise behaviors. Outcome measures were collected by a questionnaire at three time points: initial (Time 1 [T1]; pre-DXA), 6 months (Time 2 [T2]), and 12 months (Time 3 [T3]). Using structural equation modeling for data analysis, results indicated that men in the experimental group had a significantly higher T2 calcium intake than the control group, with no additional direct effect at T3. T1 daily calcium intake was significantly predicted by T1 health beliefs. Men with higher levels of health motivation tended to have higher initial levels of daily calcium intake. Personal knowledge of DXA results relate significantly to increased calcium intake.
Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Background Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. Purpose We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches: microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and an HIV vaccination, review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods, and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. Methods A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. Results To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Conclusions Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25216985
Atienza, Audie A.; Serrano, Katrina J.; Riley, William T.; Moser, Richard P.; Klein, William M.
The era of “Big Data” presents opportunities to substantively address cancer prevention and control issues by improving health behaviors and refining theoretical models designed to understand and intervene in those behaviors. Yet, the terms “model” and “Big Data” have been used rather loosely, and clarification of these terms is required to advance the science in this area. The objectives of this paper are to discuss conceptual definitions of the terms “model” and “Big Data”, as well as examine the promises and challenges of Big Data to advance cancer prevention and control research using behavioral theories. Specific recommendations for harnessing Big Data for cancer prevention and control are offered. PMID:27722147
Prochaska, Judith J; Prochaska, James O
Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet.
Salim, Samina; Sarraj, Nada; Taneja, Manish; Saha, Kaustuv; Tejada-Simon, Maria Victoria; Chugh, Gaurav
Recent work has suggested correlation of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior. There also is evidence for anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. However, a direct role of oxidative stress in anxiety is not clear and a protective role of physical exercise in oxidative stress-mediated anxiety has never been addressed. In this study, we have utilized rats to test direct involvement of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior and have identified oxidative stress mechanisms likely involved in anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. Intraperitoneal injections at non-toxic dose of l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an agent that increases oxidative stress markers, increased anxiety-like behavior of rats compared to vehicle-treated control rats. Prior 2 weeks treatment with the antioxidant, tempol attenuated BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats suggesting a role of oxidative stress in this phenomenon. Moreover, moderate treadmill exercise prevented BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats and also prevented BSO-mediated increase in oxidative stress markers in serum, urine and brain tissue homogenates from hippocampus, amygdala and locus coeruleus. Thus increasing oxidative stress increases anxiety-like behavior of rats. Moreover, antioxidant or treadmill exercise training both reduce oxidative stress in the rat brain regions implicated in anxiety response and prevent anxiety-like behavior of rats.
Prochaska, Judith J.; Prochaska, James O.
Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet. PMID:24358034
Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)
Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.
Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K
The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care.
Raghupathi, Viju; Raghupathi, Wullianallur
The research aims to explore the association between behavioral habits and chronic diseases, and to identify a portfolio of risk factors for preventive healthcare. The data is taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for the year 2012. Using SPSS Modeler, we deploy neural networks to identify strong positive and negative associations between certain chronic diseases and behavioral habits. The data for 475,687 records from BRFS database included behavioral habit variables of consumption of soda and fruits/vegetables, alcohol, smoking, weekly working hours, and exercise; chronic disease variables of heart attack, stroke, asthma, and diabetes; and demographic variables of marital status, income, and age. Our findings indicate that with chronic conditions, behavioral habits of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption are negatively associated; soda, alcohol, and smoking are positively associated; and income and age are positively associated. We contribute to individual and national preventive healthcare by offering a portfolio of significant behavioral risk factors that enable individuals to make lifestyle changes and governments to frame campaigns and policies countering chronic conditions and promoting public health. PMID:28178194
Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Isenor, Anthony W.
Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an unattended vessel reporting system developed for collision avoidance. Shipboard AIS equipment automatically broadcasts vessel positional data at regular intervals. The real-time position and identity data from a vessel is received by other vessels in the area thereby assisting with local navigation. As well, AIS broadcasts are beneficial to those concerned with coastal and harbour security. Land-based AIS receiving stations can also collect the AIS broadcasts. However, reception at the land station is dependent upon the ship's position relative to the receiving station. For AIS to be used as a trusted surveillance system, the characteristics of the AIS coverage area in the vicinity of the station (or stations) should be understood. This paper presents some results of a method being investigated at DRDC Atlantic, Canada) to map the AIS coverage characteristics of a dynamic AIS reception network. The method is shown to clearly distinguish AIS reception edges from those edges caused by vessel traffic patterns. The method can also be used to identify temporal changes in the coverage area, an important characteristic for local maritime security surveillance activities. Future research using the coverage estimate technique is also proposed to support surveillance activities.
Woodend, Ashleigh; Schölmerich, Vera; Denktaş, Semiha
Major depressive disorder-colloquially called "depression"-is a primary global cause of disability. Current preventive interventions, such as problem-solving therapy, are effective but also expensive. "Nudges" are easy and cheap interventions for altering behavior. We have explored how nudging can reduce three behavioral risk factors of depression: low levels of physical activity, inappropriate coping mechanisms, and inadequate maintenance of social ties. These nudges use cognitive biases associated with these behavioral risks, such as valuing the present more than the future, following the herd or the norm, making different choices in light of equivalent conditions, and deciding on the basis of salience or attachment to status quo.
Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Donahue, Greg A.
First-year men (261) saw a rape prevention program and were asked to give their reactions to what they saw by answering four open-ended questions, requesting information about whether participants experience either attitude or behavior change resulting from the program, particularly in relation to situations involving alcohol and sexually intimate…
Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.
This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…
PELEGRINO, DONALD A.; AND OTHERS
THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING GUIDE FOR YOUTH SERVICES PERSONNEL WAS DESIGNED TO AID PERSONNEL IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL YOUTH BEHAVIOR. THIS PRACTICAL GUIDE AND TRAINING MANUAL PRESENTS A COMPENDIUM OF IDEAS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TECHNIQUES. THE INTRODUCTION PRESENTS THE BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES OF THE GUIDE'S PUBLICATION AND…
This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…
Heppner, Mary J.; And Others
Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…
Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer
Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…
Wheatcroft, David J
A series of recent studies on nest parasitism shows that, in addition to rejection of foreign eggs, host birds also use mobbing behavior to prevent cuckoos from laying eggs in the first place, which has likely led to two interrelated co-evolutionary arms races between cuckoos and their hosts.
Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.
A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…
Bamberg, Richard; And Others
Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)
Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…
In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP) on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using…
Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner
To support students' academic, behavioral, and social needs, many schools have adopted multitiered models of prevention. Because Tier 3 interventions are costly in terms of time and resources, schools must find efficient and effective Tier 2 interventions prior to providing such intense supports. In this article, we review the literature base on…
Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.; Tatum, Jerry
First-year men at a midsized public university either saw a rape prevention program or were in a control group and were asked to complete attitude and behavior surveys at the beginning and end of an academic year. Participants were also asked whether they joined fraternities during that year. With 90% of first-year men participating throughout the…
Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Jostad, Candice M.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian
This study examined the effectiveness of individual behavioral skills training in conjunction with in situ training in teaching 13 preschool children abduction prevention skills. Children's performance was measured during baseline, training, and at 2-week, 1-month, and 3-month follow-ups using in situ assessments in which abduction prevention…
Corso, Robert M.
Many challenging behaviors can be prevented by designing environments that promote children's engagement and teaching children new social skills (Lawry, Danko, & Strain, 1999; Neilsen, Olive, Donovan, & McEvoy, 1999; Strain & Hemmeter, 1999). Fox, Dunlap, Hemmeter, Joseph, and Strain (2003) have described a framework for promoting children's…
Zlot, Amy I; Silvey, Kerry; Newell, Nanette; Coates, Ralph J; Leman, Richard
Few population-based studies have addressed the role that family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) plays in clinician decision making or patient health choices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history of CRC on clinician practice, patient CRC screening, and patient preventive behavior. We analyzed 2008 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of CRC and 1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, 2) perceived risk of developing CRC, 3) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and 4) CRC risk factors among 1,795 respondents without CRC. A family history of CRC was positively associated with a higher likelihood of respondents reporting that their clinicians discussed colorectal cancer screening (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4-7.4) and of respondents having colorectal screening within the recommended time period (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9). A family history of CRC was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent CRC (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). A family history of CRC may prompt clinicians to recommend screening and preventive behavior changes and motivate patients to adopt such strategies.
Fruth, Jason D.
This quantitative study addresses the problem of reading and behavioral performance in elementary school by examining the impact of a universal preventive intervention on both the proximal and distal outcomes of students in the fourth grade at a mid-western elementary school. These proximal outcomes (disruptions per student per hour) were measured…
Embregts, Petri J C M; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie
To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children attending schools for special education. Data were collected from the children, their parents, and their teachers. The instruments used are the Dutch version of the Parenting Stress Index, the Nijmegen Child-Rearing Situation Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents, teachers and children. On the basis of the results of parents on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the research sample was divided into one group of children with behavior problems and one group without behavior problems. Parents of the children with behavior problems were found to feel less competent, more socially isolated, less satisfied about their relationship with their partner, and indicate more negative life occurrences than the parents of the children without behavior problems. Characteristics in the area of adaptability, mood, distractibility/hyperactivity, demandingness, reinforcement of parents, and acceptability were found to contribute to the total stress in the child-parent relationship for those children with behavior problems and their parents. On the basis of these results prevention activities will be developed and tested on their effectiveness.
Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan
Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178
Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.
Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert
A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.
Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid
This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed.
Dodge, Kenneth A; Godwin, Jennifer
In the study reported here, we tested the hypothesis that the Fast Track preventive intervention's positive impact on antisocial behavior in adolescence is mediated by its impact on social-cognitive processes during elementary school. Fast Track is the largest and longest federally funded preventive intervention trial for children showing aggressive behavior at an early age. Participants were 891 high-risk kindergarten children (69% male, 31% female; 49% ethnic minority, 51% ethnic majority) who were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group by school cluster. Multiyear intervention addressed social-cognitive processes through social-skill training groups, parent groups, classroom curricula, peer coaching, and tutoring. Assigning children to the intervention decreased their mean antisocial-behavior score after Grade 9 by 0.16 standardized units (p < .01). Structural equation models indicated that 27% of the intervention's impact on antisocial behavior was mediated by its impact on three social-cognitive processes: reducing hostile-attribution biases, increasing competent response generation to social problems, and devaluing aggression. These findings support a model of antisocial behavioral development mediated by social-cognitive processes, and they guide prevention planners to focus on these processes.
O'Dell, Brennan L; Rosser, B R Simon; Miner, Michael H; Jacoby, Scott M
An understanding of men's motivations to avoid risk behavior is needed to create efficacious HIV prevention programs for HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigates the relationship between sexual risk behavior and HIV prevention altruism, which is defined as the values, motivations, and practices of caretaking towards one's sexual partners to prevent the transmission of HIV. In a sample of 637 HIV-positive MSM, HIV prevention altruism significantly protects against serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI) in crude analysis, but not after adjustment for drug use and compulsive sexual behavior. HIV prevention altruism is also related to not engaging in anal intercourse, but is not related to serodisclosure to secondary partners. Lack of altruism appears related to sexual risk behavior in HIV-positive MSM, although other psychological and contextual factors play significant roles. The promotion of HIV prevention altruism may provide a formidable new direction for HIV prevention programs.
USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...September 2014 Report No. CD-D-09-15 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al. Public...States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report
Koep, TH; Jenkins, S; M Hammerlund, ME; Clemens, C; Fracica, E; Ekker, SC; Enders, FT; Huskins, WC; Pierret, C
Background School-based campaigns to improve student health have demonstrated short-term success across various health topics. However, evidence of the effectiveness of programs in promoting healthy beliefs and behaviors is limited. We hypothesized that educational curricula teaching the science behind health promotion would increase student knowledge, beliefs and adherence to healthy behaviors, in this case related to influenza. Methods Integrated Science Education Outreach is a successful education intervention in Rochester, Minnesota public schools that has demonstrated improvements in student learning. Within this program, we designed novel curricula and assessments to determine if gains in knowledge extended to influenza prevention. Further, we coupled InSciEd Out programming with a clinical intervention, Influenza Prevention Prescription Education (IPPE), to compare students' attitudes, intentions and healthy behaviors utilizing surveys and hand hygiene monitoring equipment. Results 95 students participated in (IPPE) in the intervention school. Talking drawings captured improvement in influenza prevention understanding related to hand washing [pre n=17(43%); post n=30(77%)] and vaccination [pre n=2(5%); post n=15(38%)]. Findings from 1024 surveys from 566 students revealed strong baseline understanding and attitudes related to hand washing and cough etiquette (74% or greater positive responses). Automated hand hygiene monitoring in school bathrooms and classrooms estimated compliance for both soap (overall median 63%, IQR 38% to 100%) and hand sanitizer use (0.04 to 0.24 uses per student per day) but did not show significant pre/ post IPPE differences. Conclusions Student understanding of principles of influenza prevention was reasonably high. Even with this baseline, InSciEd Out and IPPE improved students’ unprompted knowledge of behaviors to prevent influenza, as reflected by talking drawings. This novel metric may be more sensitive in capturing knowledge
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee
This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent. PMID:20926170
McMahon, Sarah; Palmer, Jane E; Banyard, Victoria; Murphy, Megan; Gidycz, Christine A
Bystander intervention is receiving increased attention as a potential sexual violence prevention strategy, especially to address campus sexual assault. Rather than focusing on potential perpetrators or victims, the bystander approach engages all members of a community to take action. A growing body of evaluative work demonstrates that bystander intervention education programs yield increased positive attitudes and behaviors related to sexual violence and greater willingness to intervene in pro-social ways. Future program outcome studies, however, would benefit from more refined measures of bystander action as it is a key variable that prevention education programs attempt to influence. The purpose of the current article is to present key issues, identified by four different research teams, on the measurement of bystander behavior related to sexual violence in the context of college campuses. Comparisons among the methods are made to suggest both lessons learned and new directions for bystander behavior measurement using self-report surveys in program evaluation.
Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U
Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed.
Schindler, Holly S; Kholoptseva, Jenya; Oh, Soojin S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine A; Shonkoff, Jack P
Early childhood education (ECE) programs offer a promising mechanism for preventing early externalizing behavior problems and later antisocial behavior; yet, questions remain about how to best maximize ECE's potential. Using a meta-analytic database of 31 studies, we examined the overall effect of ECE on externalizing behavior problems and the differential effects of 3 levels of practice, each with increasing specificity and intensity aimed at children's social and emotional development. In short, we found that each successive level of programs did a better job than the prior level at reducing externalizing behavior problems. Level 1 programs, or those without a clear focus on social and emotional development, had no significant effects on externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=.13 SD, p<.10). On the other hand, level 2 programs, or those with a clear but broad focus on social and emotional development, were significantly associated with modest decreases in externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=-.10 SD, p<.05). Hence, level 2 programs were significantly better at reducing externalizing behavior problems than level 1 programs (ES=-.23 SD, p<.01). Level 3 programs, or those that more intensively targeted children's social and emotional development, were associated with additional significant reductions in externalizing behavior problems relative to level 2 programs (ES=-.26 SD, p<.05). The most promising effects came from level 3 child social skills training programs, which reduced externalizing behavior problems half of a standard deviation more than level 2 programs (ES=-.50 SD, p<.05).
Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E
Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.
Venditti, Elizabeth M
Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice. They have made seminal contributions to the evidence-based science of health behavior change with the National Institutes of Health funded Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial and subsequent translation and dissemination efforts as exemplars. Beginning with social-cognitive learning theory and behavior modification for obesity, research psychologists have elucidated the critical elements associated with treatment efficacy and have demonstrated the benefits of identifying individuals at elevated risk and providing early intervention. Most often, the psychologist's role has been to design and evaluate programs based on behavioral principles, or supervise, train, and facilitate adherence to interventions, rather than function as the primary provider. Lifestyle interventions have made a strong public health impact, but pressing challenges remain. Issues include difficulties with long-term weight loss maintenance, heterogeneity of treatment response, pragmatic translation and dissemination concerns such as optimal training and delivery formats, scalability of lifestyle intervention programs, reimbursement, and a need for environmental and policy approaches that promote healthy lifestyle norms and behaviors for all communities. Health psychology should be at the forefront in addressing all of these concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record
McIntosh, Kent; Filter, Kevin J.; Bennett, Joanna L.; Ryan, Charlotte; Sugai, George
In this article, we provide an overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), an approach to building protective school cultures and preventing the development of problem behavior through instruction, environmental redesign, and attention to systems-level variables. We define the critical features of SWPBS within a prevention science…
Caputi, Theodore L.
The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…
Takahashi, Noriko; Nakao, Rieko; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Kondo, Masahide; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro
This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs), to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW), HHW and water delivery (HHW+W), and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047), water intake (p = 0.003), cooling body (p = 0.002) and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047) compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008). An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067) and cooling body (p = 0.095) behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly. PMID:25789456
Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.
This paper presents a response to five commentaries on our article An Analysis of Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior (Drash & Tudor, 2004). One of the principal objectives of that article is to provide the behavior analysis community and the autism community with a conceptual basis for analyzing autism as a behavioral disorder rather than a neurological disorder. This analysis provides a logical and testable behavioral answer to the question of the etiology of autism, a question that has baffled scientists and researchers for more than half a century. Elements of the original article with which reviewers expressed concern include: need for more data, need for greater emphasis on neurological and epidemiological factors in autism, the relative importance of verbal behavior as a core deficit of autism, and disruptive and avoidant behavior as a primary variable in the etiology of autism. We provide a behavioral response to each of these concerns. We also show how our analysis will provide a conceptual foundation for behavior analysis to begin developing urgently needed programs for prevention and earlier intervention in autism. PMID:22477289
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary
In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028
van Lier, Pol A C; Muthén, Bengt O; van der Sar, Ria M; Crijnen, Alfons A M
A population-based, randomized universal classroom intervention trial for the prevention of disruptive behavior (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems, oppositional defiant problems, and conduct problems) is described. Impact on developmental trajectories in young elementary schoolchildren was studied. Three trajectories were identified in children with high, intermediate, or low levels of problems on all 3 disruptive behaviors at baseline. The intervention had a positive impact on the development of all disruptive behavior problems in children with intermediate levels of these problems at baseline. Effect sizes of mean difference at outcome were medium or small. In children with the highest levels of disruptive behavior at baseline, a positive impact of the intervention was found for conduct problems.
Albarracín, Dolores; McNatt, Penny S.; Klein, Cynthia T. F.; Ho, Ringo M.; Mitchell, Amy L.; Kumkale, G. Tarcan
This meta-analysis examined the validity of various theoretical assumptions about cognitive and behavioral change following a communication recommending condom use. The synthesis comprised 82 treatment and 29 control groups included in 46 longitudinal reports with measures of perceived severity and susceptibility, attitudes and expectancies, norms, perceptions of control, intentions, knowledge, behavioral skills, or condom use. Results indicated that across the sample of studies, communications taught recipients about facts related to HIV and also induced favorable attitudes and expectancies, greater control perceptions, and stronger intentions to use condoms in the future. Moreover, messages that presented attitudinal information and modeled behavioral skills led to increased condom use. Results are discussed in the context of theories of human behavior and change and in reference to HIV-prevention interventions. PMID:12683737
Barella, A.; Valero, S.; Carrascosa, C.
This paper presents a new environment for teaching practical work in AI subjects. The main purpose of this environment is to make AI techniques more appealing to students and to facilitate the use of the toolkits which are currently widely used in research and development. This new environment has a toolkit for developing and executing agents,…
Kearsley, Greg P.
This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…
Patki, Gaurav; Ali, Quaisar; Pokkunuri, Indira; Asghar, Mohammad; Salim, Samina
Earlier, we have reported that grape powder (GP) treatment prevented pharmacologic and psychological stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats. Protective effects of GP were attributed to its antioxidant effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that age-associated behavioral and cognitive deficits such as anxiety and memory impairment will be ameliorated with GP treatment. Using a National Institute of Aging recommended rodent model of aging, we examined a potentially protective role of antioxidant-rich GP in age-associated anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: young rats (3 months old) provided with tap water or with 15 g/L GP dissolved in tap water for 3 weeks, aged rats (21 months old) provided with tap water or with GP-treated tap water for 3 weeks (AG-GP). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in aged rats compared with young rats, GP-treated young rats, or aged control rats (P < .05). Also, GP treatment prevented age-induced anxiety-like behavior in AG-GP rats (P < .05). Neither short-term nor long-term age-associated memory deficits improved with GP treatment in AG-GP rats. Furthermore, aged rats showed increased level of physiological stress (corticosterone) and increased oxidative stress in the plasma (8-isoprostane) as well as in selected brain areas (protein carbonylation). Grape powder treatment prevented age-induced increase in corticosterone levels and plasma 8-isoprostane levels in aged rats (P < .05), whereas protein carbonylation was recovered in the amygdala region only (P < .05). Grape powder by regulating oxidative stress ameliorates age-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats, whereas age-associated memory deficits seem unaffected with GP treatment.
Vitaro, Frank; And Others
This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…
Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang
The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114
Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth
Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided.
Shi, Zhe; Ren, Huixia; Huang, Zhijian; Peng, Yu; He, Baixuan; Yao, Xiaoli; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Su, Huanxing
Depression is associated with somatic immune changes, and neuroinflammation is now recognized as hallmark for depressive disorders. N-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well known to suppress neuroinflammation, reduce oxidative stress, and protect neuron from injury. We pretreated animals with fish oil and induced acute depression-like behaviors with systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The levels of cytokines and stress hormones were determined from plasma and different brain areas. The results showed that fish oil treatment prevent LPS-induce depressive behavior by suppression of neuroinflammation. LPS induced acute neuroinflammation in different brain regions, which were prevented in fish oil fed mice. However, neither LPS administration nor fish oil treatment has strong effect on stress hormone secretion in the hypothalamus and adrenal. Fish oil might provide a useful therapy against inflammation-associated depression.
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Croft, Janet B.; Wheaton, Anne G.; Kanny, Dafna; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Lu, Hua; Onufrak, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann M.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Giles, Wayne H.
Introduction Five key health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention are never smoking, getting regular physical activity, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body weight, and obtaining daily sufficient sleep. The objective of this study was to estimate the clustering of these 5 health-related behaviors among adults aged 21 years or older in each state and the District of Columbia and to assess geographic variation in clustering. Methods We used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess the clustering of the 5 behaviors among 395,343 BRFSS respondents aged 21 years or older. The 5 behaviors were defined as currently not smoking cigarettes, meeting the aerobic physical activity recommendation, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body mass index (BMI), and sleeping at least 7 hours per 24-hour period. Prevalence of having 4 or 5 of these behaviors, by state, was also examined. Results Among US adults, 81.6% were current nonsmokers, 63.9% obtained 7 hours or more sleep per day, 63.1% reported moderate or no alcohol consumption, 50.4% met physical activity recommendations, and 32.5% had a normal BMI. Only 1.4% of respondents engaged in none of the 5 behaviors; 8.4%, 1 behavior; 24.3%, 2 behaviors; 35.4%, 3 behaviors; and 24.3%, 4 behaviors; only 6.3% reported engaging in all 5 behaviors. The highest prevalence of engaging in 4 or 5 behaviors was clustered in the Pacific and Rocky Mountain states. Lowest prevalence was in the southern states and along the Ohio River. Conclusion Additional efforts are needed to increase the proportion of the population that engages in all 5 health-related behaviors and to eliminate geographic variation. Collaborative efforts in health care systems, communities, work sites, and schools can promote all 5 behaviors and produce population-wide changes, especially among the socioeconomically disadvantaged. PMID:27236381
Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186
Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Bimbi, David S
Because of its ability to reduce inhibitions and increase sexual drive, an emerging body of research has repeatedly identified crystal methamphetamine as a key variable in explaining new HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM). The implications of which have included the development of HIV prevention policies and public health campaigns centered on curbing methamphetamine use in urban gay centers throughout the United States. Data collected from a diverse sample of gay and bisexual men attending large-scale gay, lesbian, and bisexual community events in New York City (n=738) indicated that 10.2% of men used methamphetamine recently (i.e., <90 days) and that 29.9% of the sample had experienced a recent episode of unprotected anal intercourse. The majority, 81.1%, of those men reporting unsafe sex had not used methamphetamine recently. This analysis identified a bivariate relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk, but also highlights other variables that were significantly related to risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses indicated that recent GHB use, temptation for unsafe sex, being younger in age, and identification as a barebacker were better indicators of risky sexual behavior than methamphetamine use. Policies focused on methamphetamine prevention may help to curb risky sexual behavior among select groups of individuals; however, these will not adequately address the sexual health of the many gay and bisexual men who, in the shadows of anti-methamphetamine policies and prevention programs, continue to engage in unsafe sex but are nonusers of methamphetamine.
Unprotected anal sex has long been recognized as a risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). In Africa, however, general denial of MSM existence and associated stigma discouraged research. To address this gap in the literature, partners conducted the first behavioral surveys of MSM in Kenya. The first study was to assess HIV risk among MSM in Nairobi, and the second study a pre-post intervention study of male sex workers in Mombasa. The 2004 behavioral survey of 500 men in Mombasa revealed that MSM were having multiple sexual partners and failed to access appropriate prevention counseling and care at Kenya clinics. A 2006 capture-recapture enumeration in Mombasa estimated that over 700 male sex workers were active, after which a pre-intervention baseline survey of 425 male sex workers was conducted. Awareness of unprotected anal sex as an HIV risk behavior and consistent condom use with clients was low, and use of oil-based lubricants high. Based on this information, peer educators were trained in HIV prevention, basic counseling skills, and distribution of condoms and lubricants. To assess impact of the interventions, a follow-up survey of 442 male sex workers was implemented in 2008. Exposure to peer educators was significantly associated with increased consistent condom use, improved HIV knowledge, and increased use of water-based lubricants. These results have provided needed information to the Government of Kenya and have informed HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24753921
Burton, Jennifer; Darbes, Lynae A.; Operario, Don
HIV is frequently transmitted in the context of partners in a committed relationship, thus couples-focused HIV prevention interventions are a potentially promising modality for reducing infection. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether couples-focused behavioral prevention interventions reduce HIV transmission and risk behavior. We included studies using randomized controlled trial designs, quasi-randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled studies. We searched five electronic databases and screened 7628 records. Six studies enrolling 1,084 couples met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results across studies consistently indicated that couples-focused programs reduced unprotected sexual intercourse and increased condom use compared with control groups. However, studies were heterogeneous in population, type of intervention, comparison groups, and outcomes measures, and so meta-analysis to calculate pooled effects was inappropriate. Although couples-based approaches to HIV prevention appear initially promising, additional research is necessary to build a stronger theoretical and methodological basis for couples-based HIV prevention, and future interventions must pay closer attention to homosexual couples, adolescents and young people in relationships. PMID:18843530
Çelik, Seçil; Arikan, Azru; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Aksoy, Funda; Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde
Preventing antisocial behaviors appearing at an early age--before they become chronic--through effective early intervention programs, has become an important issue in recent years. In Turkey, the increase in the number of children at risk of antisocial behavior makes it necessary to get these behaviors under control at an early age through some…
Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia
Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…
Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee
Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Kirsten, Thiago B.; Galvão, Marcella C.; Reis-Silva, Thiago M.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M.
Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS), an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations. PMID:25775356
Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Letcher, Amber
Research efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk behavior among street living youth have shown disappointing outcomes, with few studies reporting reduced risk behaviors. The current study tested the impact of an integrated HIV prevention intervention, and predictors of change, for youth (N=270) between the ages of 14 to 20 years receiving substance use treatment through a drop-in center. Condom use, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners and behaviors associated with an overall HIV risk index were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Findings suggest that HIV prevention integrated with substance use treatment is associated with increased condom use and reduced sex partners. However, the effects on condom use were short lived and dissipated by 12 months post-baseline. Higher treatment attendance and baseline substance use predicted increased condom use. Although no significant change was observed in the overall HIV risk index, increases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in the index score, as well as more sexual partners. Future research should determine whether successful intervention requires reinforcement of risk reduction behaviors while youth remain homeless.
Klein, William M P; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W; McDonald, Paige G; Nebeling, Linda; O'Connell, Mary E; Riley, William T; Taplin, Stephen H; Tesauro, Gina
Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer control continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work.
Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John
From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.
Barbosa, Rodrigo Labello; Pereira, Karen Signori; Dias, Viviane Liotti; Schmidt, Flávio Luis; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Passos, Luiz Augusto Corrêa
Outbreaks of acute Chagas disease (ACD) in northern Brazil can be caused by the ingestion of unprocessed açai pulp contaminated with Trypanosoma cruzi . The aim of this study was to determine the minimum thermal process required to inactivate T. cruzi in açai pulp. Trypomastigotes (100,000) of T. cruzi Y strain were added to 0.15 M NaCl or açai pulp and continuously mixed while being heat treated at 37 to 49°C for up to 1 h. When necessary, parasites were separated from açai pulp by forced sieving. Inocula were administrated intraperitoneally in inbred immunodeficient C.B-17-Prkdc(scid)/Pas Unib mice, and the recipients were monitored for parasitemia and mortality. Mice received prophylactic antibiotic therapy by using cephalexin to prevent bacterial infection from the açai pulp. T. cruzi retained its virulence in 0.15 M NaCl and açai pulp at 44 ± 0.1°C for 10 min and at 43 ± 0.1°C for 20 min, respectively, causing ACD and death in mice up to 24 days after infection. Incubation of açai pulp inoculum above 43°C for 20 min neutralized T. cruzi virulence, thereby preventing ACD and death in murine recipients. The heating of açai pulp above 43°C for 20 min is a practical and effective measure to prevent foodborne ACD caused by T. cruzi .
Kemper, Alex R; Mabry-Hernandez, Iris R; Grossman, David C
An important component of routine preventive care for children is the monitoring of growth and development. Although cognitive, affective, and behavioral health problems are commonly encountered in pediatric primary care, there is debate around issues related to early detection of significant problems of this type, including the accuracy of screening and the benefits and harms of early diagnosis and treatment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force makes recommendations regarding clinical preventive services for primary care clinicians based on the best available scientific evidence. The Task Force has found important gaps related to the validity of commonly used screening tools and significant gaps related to the evidence regarding early treatment. This review describes the meaning of the grades used by the Task Force, how these grades are determined, and the grades assigned to childhood cognitive, affective, and behavioral health recommendations. The review summarizes common themes in the evidence gaps and the future research necessary to advance the field and improve child health outcomes.
Portnoy, David B; Leach, Corinne R; Kaufman, Annette R; Moser, Richard P; Alfano, Catherine M
The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services.
Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos
The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.
On the basis of a representative survey carried out in 2007 of the Portuguese population aged between 18 and 65, this study investigates the impact of factors during the course of sexual life on risk-taking behavior and perceptions among 3055 heterosexual men and women. A number of sexual biography profiles were identified through cluster analysis of indicators related to the identity, number and sequence of partners throughout life. We discovered different profiles, from systematic occasional partnerships and use of paid sex, more frequent among men, to the single partner profile, which is more prevalent among women. By carrying out several linear regression analyses, we were able to evaluate the predictive impact of biographical factors on condom use and prevention behavior. Our results indicate that sexual biographies are more important in explaining the prevalence of condom use with different sexual partners. On the other hand, fear of infection and information on HIV transmission seem to influence the cognitive mobilization of prevention strategies and change of sexual behavior. However, condom use is still more dependent on sexual life pattern and interaction with sexual partners.
Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L
Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders.
Soper, Ana C; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N
Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9 to 12, the current study tested mechanisms by which the intervention reduced substance use and risky sexual behavior in mid to late adolescence (15-19 years old). Mechanisms tested included parental monitoring, adaptive coping, and negative errors. Parental monitoring at 6-year follow-up mediated program effects to reduce alcohol and marijuana use, polydrug use, and other drug use for those with high pretest risk for maladjustment. In the condition that included a program for mothers only, increases in youth adaptive coping at 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on risky sexual behavior for those with high pretest risk for maladjustment. Contrary to expectation, program participation increased negative errors and decreased adaptive coping among low-risk youth in some of the analyses. Ways in which this study furthers our understanding of pathways through which evidence-based preventive interventions affect health risk behaviors are discussed.
Gallagher, Patrick; King, Heather A; Haga, Susanne B; Orlando, Lori A; Joy, Scott V; Trujillo, Gloria M; Scott, William Michael; Bembe, Marylou; Creighton, Dana L; Cho, Alex H; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Vorderstrasse, Allison
Type 2 diabetes is a major health burden in the United States, and population trends suggest this burden will increase. High interest in, and increased availability of, testing for genetic risk of type 2 diabetes presents a new opportunity for reducing type 2 diabetes risk for many patients; however, to date, there is little evidence that genetic testing positively affects type 2 diabetes prevention. Genetic information may not fit patients' illness representations, which may reduce the chances of risk-reducing behavior changes. The present study aimed to examine illness representations in a clinical sample who are at risk for type 2 diabetes and interested in genetic testing. The authors used the Common Sense Model to analyze survey responses of 409 patients with type 2 diabetes risk factors. Patients were interested in genetic testing for type 2 diabetes risk and believed in its importance. Most patients believed that genetic factors are important to developing type 2 diabetes (67%), that diet and exercise are effective in preventing type 2 diabetes (95%), and that lifestyle changes are more effective than drugs (86%). Belief in genetic causality was not related to poorer self-reported health behaviors. These results suggest that patients' interest in genetic testing for type 2 diabetes might produce a teachable moment that clinicians can use to counsel behavior change.
Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10–24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed. PMID:21814869
Cross, Wendi F; Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10-24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed.
Galavotti, C; Saltzman, L E; Sauter, S L; Sumartojo, E
Behavioral research and surveillance activities are conducted across the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This article highlights activities in 4 program areas: violence against women, tuberculosis elimination, HIV prevention, and occupational health. The unique constraints and opportunities of each organization and program focus have shaped the way research has developed in each of these areas. Behavioral scientists also face many common challenges at CDC. Despite the difficulties of integrating behavioral research into an institution that historically has focused on biomedical and epidemiological research, behavioral scientists have made important contributions to public health. Many opportunities remain for psychologists to translate theory and operationalize constructs for use in solving important public health problems.
Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L
This article describes a small efficacy trial of the Living in 2 Worlds (L2W) substance use prevention curriculum, a culturally adapted version of keepin' it REAL (kiR) redesigned for urban American Indian (AI) middle school students. Focused on strengthening resiliency and AI cultural engagement, L2W teaches drug resistance skills, decision making, and culturally grounded prevention messages. Using cluster random assignment, the research team randomized three urban middle schools with enrichment classes for AI students. AI teachers of these classes delivered the L2W curriculum in two schools; the remaining school implemented kiR, unadapted, and became the comparison group. AI students (N = 107) completed a pretest questionnaire before they received the manualized curriculum lessons, and a posttest (85% completion) 1 month after the final lesson. We assessed the adapted L2W intervention, compared to kiR, with paired t tests, baseline adjusted general linear models, and effect size estimates (Cohen's d). Differences between the L2W and kiR groups reached statistically significant thresholds for four outcomes. Youth receiving L2W, compared to kiR, reported less growth in cigarette use from pretest to posttest, less frequent use of the Leave drug resistance strategy, and less loss of connections to AI spirituality and cultural traditions. For other substance use behaviors and antecedents, the direction of the non-significant effects in small sample tests was toward more positive outcomes in L2W and small to medium effect sizes. Results suggest that evidence-based substance use prevention programs that are culturally adapted for urban AI adolescents, like L2W, can be a foundation for prevention approaches to help delay initiation and slow increases in substance use. In addition to study limitations, we discuss implementation challenges in delivering school-based interventions for urban AI populations.
Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton
Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430
Daffern, Michael; Day, Andrew; Cookson, Amy
Although interpersonal style is a defining feature of personality and personality disorder and is commonly identified as an important influence on aggressive behavior, treatment completion, and the development of an effective therapeutic alliance, it is rarely considered in practice guidelines for preventing, engaging, and managing patients at risk of aggression. In this article, the authors consider three potential applications of interpersonal theory to the care and management of patients at risk of aggression during hospitalization: (a) preventing aggression through theoretically grounded limit setting and de-escalation techniques, (b) developing and using interventions to alter problematic interpersonal styles, and (c) understanding therapeutic ruptures and difficulties establishing a therapeutic alliance. Interpersonal theory is proposed to offer a unifying framework that may assist development of intervention and management strategies that can help to reduce the occurrence of aggression in institutional settings.
Osofsky, H J; Osofsky, J D
Aggressive behavior and violence leading to disciplinary and legal difficulties have reached epidemic proportions among our youth. The severity of problems and social and economic costs to society have increased markedly. In this article, the authors review the risk factors, situational concerns, and warning signs that are important in predicting school violence and in designing effective prevention and early intervention efforts. They then describe programs with which they are involved as mental health professionals that appear to be extremely promising and applicable to other communities. The prevention and intervention programs are distinctive in that they involve collaborations with law enforcement, including the police and criminal sheriff, and the juvenile court as well as parents and schools in their efforts to promote positive development. These clinical, educational, and public policy approaches offer mental health professionals increased opportunities to be of help in this critical area.
Skouteris, Helen; Morris, Heather; Nagle, Cate; Nankervis, Alison
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity is increasing in developed countries, presenting significant challenges to acute care and public health. The aim of this study is to systematically review published controlled trials evaluating behavior modification interventions to prevent the development of GDM. Nine studies were identified involving such techniques as repetition of information, use of verbal and written educational information, goal setting, and planning, in addition to group and individual counseling sessions. Of the 3 trials with GDM incidence as a primary outcome, only 1 showed a significant reduction. GDM was a secondary outcome in 6 studies where the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain was the primary outcome and only 1 trial study determined an effective intervention. The small number of effective interventions highlights a significant gap in evidence to inform maternity health policy and practice.
Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B
This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described.
Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B.; Avsukevich, Natalya A.; Chaika, Nikolay A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.
Background Although the dire life circumstances of labor migrants working in Russia are well-known, their HIV risk vulnerability and prevention needs are understudied. Low socioeconomic status, lack of access to services, separation from family, and limited risk awareness all contribute to migrants’ HIV vulnerability. Methods Male labor migrants in St. Petersburg (n=499) were administered assessments of their sexual behavior practices, substance use, and psychosocial characteristics related to risk and well-being. Results Thirty percent of migrants reported multiple female partners in the past 3 months. Condom use was low, ranging from 35% with permanent to 52% with casual partners. Central Asian migrants had very low AIDS knowledge, low levels of substance use, moderate sexual risk, high depression, and poor social supports. Eastern European migrants had higher AIDS knowledge, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk. Discussion Improved HIV prevention efforts are needed to reduce the risk vulnerability of migrants who relocate to high disease prevalence areas. PMID:20690041
Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.
A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9–15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at postintervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6 months), and at 12-month follow-up. Children were assessed by child reports on depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems; by parent reports on internalizing and externalizing problems; and by child and parent reports on a standardized diagnostic interview. Parent depressive symptoms and parent episodes of major depression also were assessed. Evidence emerged for significant differences favoring the family group intervention on both child and parent outcomes; strongest effects for child outcomes were found at the 12-month assessment with medium effect sizes on most measures. Implications for the prevention of adverse outcomes in children of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:19968378
Compas, Bruce E; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M; Colletti, Christina J M; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K; Cole, David A
A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at postintervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6 months), and at 12-month follow-up. Children were assessed by child reports on depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems; by parent reports on internalizing and externalizing problems; and by child and parent reports on a standardized diagnostic interview. Parent depressive symptoms and parent episodes of major depression also were assessed. Evidence emerged for significant differences favoring the family group intervention on both child and parent outcomes; strongest effects for child outcomes were found at the 12-month assessment with medium effect sizes on most measures. Implications for the prevention of adverse outcomes in children of depressed parents are highlighted.
Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.
Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among special populations, and the role of sleep and fatigue on pediatric pedestrian safety. The second section of the review considers child pedestrian injury prevention strategies. Categorized by mode of presentation, we discuss parent instruction strategies, school-based instruction strategies (including crossing guards), and streetside training techniques. Technology-based training strategies using video, internet, and virtual reality are reviewed. We conclude the section on prevention with discussion of community-based interventions. PMID:23066380
Feinberg, Mark E.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M.
Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings’ engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. PMID:23000632
Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred
Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah
Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people.
International Telecommunications Union? • ITU 2007 World Radio Conference – Authorized AIS 1 & AIS 2 as satellite uplink frequencies, on secondary basis...Collision Rate “AIS as is” How do results correlate with predictions? Satellite Detection Statistics with Correlation Processing – ITU -R Rep M.2084 (JSC...Status of AIS Frequencies Nationally and Internationally: Improving satellite detection of AIS CG‐622 | Joe Hersey Chief, Spectrum Mgt Div USCG
Rettig, Eleni; Kiess, Ana Ponce; Fakhry, Carole
HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-OSCC) is associated with oral sexual behaviors. The sharp rise in incidence of HPV-OSCC in the USA has been attributed to changes in sexual norms over the past five decades, with lower age at sexual debut and higher numbers of sexual partners per individual. In addition, variations in HPV-OSCC prevalence by race, age cohort and gender may be attributable to differences in oral sexual behaviors among these groups. Oral HPV infection is the putative precursor to HPV-OSCC. Risk factors for oral HPV incidence, prevalence, clearance and persistence are crucial to understanding how, and in whom, oral HPV infection progresses to malignancy. Future investigation should focus on elucidating the natural history of oral HPV infection persistence and malignant transformation, developing effective screening tools and exploring opportunities for prevention such as vaccination and public health education.
Johnson, Norah L; Lashley, Joel; Stonek, Alice V; Bonjour, Annette
Children with developmental disabilities may get frustrated in unpredictable hospital environments. Frustration may escalate to challenging behaviors, which are a safety concern and may contribute to staff and patient injuries, use of restraints, and procedure delay or cancelations. The purpose of this article was to describe a pilot staff education program on preventing and managing challenging behaviors of children with developmental disabilities at a pediatric hospital. The 2-hour-long education (1 hour on-line and 1 hour instructor led) content focused on family-centered care and communication skills, including verbal judo™ modified for use in the health care setting. Participants in the instructor-led sessions reported improved knowledge and decreased fear about caring for children with developmental disabilities. Relationships of the education and fewer staff injuries, fewer canceled procedures, and decreased use of restraints merit further study.
McCarty, Shane; Teie, Sophia; McCutchen, Jenna; Geller, E Scott
This field study evaluated the impact of an intervention designed to prevent bullying among elementary-school students by prompting and rewarding prosocial behavior. More specifically, teachers of 404 second-, third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students from an elementary school in northeast Virginia asked their students to look out for other students' prosocial behaviors (termed "actively caring") and to submit their stories about actively caring. At the start of every class day, the teachers read three of these stories and recognized one story and the two associated students (i.e., the observer and the performer) by providing each with a wristband engraved with "Actively Caring for People." For six consecutive Fridays, students reported their observations of bullying and completed a single item estimate of self-esteem. Weekly surveys revealed reductions in "being bullied" and "bullying others," as well as an increase in self-esteem.
... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Prevention Recommend on ...
The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394
There has been much progress made over the past 50 years in developing and applying the behavioral medicine evidence base to improve the health of individuals and populations. In particular, there has been progress made in applying behavioral and social science research and theories to the challenge of promoting health and disease prevention. These gains notwithstanding, not all sections of the population have benefited equally, either within or between countries. The disparities in social, mental, and physical health between the most advantaged and the most disadvantaged population groups are in the main, as great as, if not greater, than ever. This represents a tremendous challenge to all of us as behavioral medicine practitioners, teachers, and researchers. Although understanding more about the so-called upstream determinants of health that generate such health disparities is clearly very important, this knowledge will only make a difference if it is used to generate appropriate multilevel intervention strategies over a long and sustained period of time. However, such outcomes will also be affected by diverse aspects of the global natural ecological environment, and by striving for what has been described as a health-sustaining environment. With the increasing impact of globalization on most aspects of our lives, including health, it is important to consider the implications of this for preventing disease and promoting health across traditional national borders. This should challenge us to think about the importance of appropriate dissemination and diffusion of effective interventions at an institutional or policy level not only within a single country, but also between countries. Given the rapid economic and social changes occurring globally, and the tremendous impact of global environmental change on health, there is a need to broaden the scope and practice of behavioral medicine.
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi
Background: Many researchers believe that adolescents’ problem behaviors are indicators of a deficiency in social skills. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a prevention program on reducing problem behaviors in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: In a preposttest design with randomized control group, 49 students received social skills training (SST). Follow-up assessment of outcomes took place 5 months post baseline. The SST program was administered over the course of 10 weeks (10 sessions of 1 h). The main tools were multiple problem behaviors index (MPBI) and Social Skills Rating System – student form (SSRS-S). The control group (57 students) did not receive any intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated with t-test, univariate ANCOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Significant difference between groups founded on SSRS at posttest (t = 2.5, P = 0.014) by univariate ANCOVA. In addition, the findings indicated that variation trend of mean scores of SSRS in the intervention group was significant (F = 225.3, P < 0.0001). The intervention group reported Lower levels of MPBI at posttest and follow-up compared to the control group. Significant difference between the two groups did not achieved on MPBI scores in the posttest after adjusting for the pretest scores; however, this difference was significant at the follow up (F = 5.3, P = 0.020). Conclusion: The results suggest that SST was effective in improving social competence and preventing problem behaviors among male adolescent. Future researches must be examined the role of peer and family. PMID:25884000
The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.
Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally.
Collins, Linda M.; Kugler, Kari C.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally. PMID:26238037
Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Raymond, H Fisher; Lansky, Amy; Mermin, Jonathan
The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system (NHBS) was designed to monitor HIV prevalence and risk factors for infection among higher-risk individuals, i.e., sexually active men who have sex with men who attend venues, injection drug users who injected in the past 12 months, and heterosexuals living in low socioeconomic urban areas. These groups were selected as priorities for behavioral surveillance since they represent the major HIV transmission routes and the populations with the highest HIV burden. NHBS contributes to the nation's program of HIV surveillance by being the only multi-site population-based system that provides estimates on key HIV prevention measures among high-risk HIV-negative individuals, HIV-positive individuals unaware of their infection, and HIV-positive individuals aware of their infection who are in and out of care. Accurate and precise data on the behaviors in these populations are critical for tracking the epidemic, planning effective responses, and monitoring and evaluating those responses. Reports in this supplement illustrate the uses of NHBS data at the national and local level and reflect ongoing efforts to improve the system and remains essential for characterizing and monitoring the burden of HIV infection and sexual and behavioral risks.
Davis, Jenna L; Rivers, Brian M; Rivers, Desiree; Tucker, Carolyn M; Desmond, Frederic F; Arthur, Tya M; Wippold, Guillermo M; Green, B Lee
There are significant gender disparities in health outcomes and health care utilization in the United States, with men experiencing more of these disparities. It is critical to ascertain the interplay between societal conditions, health behaviors, and access to services and the impact of these factors on health outcomes and utilization of health care. The present study is part of a larger initiative titled, The Men's Health Study: Addressing Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors, which has two purposes-to annually assess the motivators of and barriers to health-promoting behaviors among culturally diverse men attending the Men's Health Forum (MHF) and to use this information to develop an intervention program that facilitates healthy lifestyle behaviors among men. The MHF is a community-driven initiative for medically underserved men in Tampa, Florida that offers free health screenings and wellness exhibitors in order to empower men to lead a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this article is to identify barriers to engaging in health-smart behaviors (e.g., cancer screenings, physical activity) among culturally diverse men who participated in the MHF and to detect any demographic differences among these barriers. A total of 254 men participated in the study. Findings identify that age was the only demographic variable that had a statistically significant association with any of the cancer-screening barriers. Some cancer-screening barriers appear to exist among all demographic groups since no statistical demographic differences were discovered. Income and education were significantly associated with barriers to engaging in health-smart behaviors. This may give researchers, health educators, and providers information needed to customize interventions to promote health and preventive health care among culturally diverse men.
Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel
Introduction Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. Methods AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. Results The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Conclusion Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures. PMID:23467840
Curry, Susan J; Grossman, David C; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Cantu, Adelita
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations on which preventive services to routinely incorporate into primary care for specific populations. Behavioral counseling interventions are preventive services designed to help persons engage in healthy behaviors and limit unhealthy ones. The USPSTF's evaluation of behavioral counseling interventions asks 2 primary questions: Do interventions in the clinical setting influence persons to change their behavior, and does changing health behavior improve health outcomes with minimal harms?This article discusses challenges encountered by the USPSTF in aggregating the behavioral counseling intervention literature to develop guidelines. The challenges relate broadly to study populations, intervention protocols, assessment of outcomes, and linking behavior changes to health outcomes. Recommendations to address these challenges include use of the PRECIS (Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary) tool as a guide for the development of feasible, replicable, and generalizable behavioral counseling interventions; improved reporting of study methods and results; consensus measures for key behavioral outcomes; and use of existing data sets to link behavior change and clinical outcomes.
Ramirez, Karol; Niraula, Anzela; Sheridan, John F.
Objective Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immunity, anxiety, and depression. Repeated social defeat (RSD), a model of social stress, triggers egress of inflammatory myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs; CD11b+ /Ly6Chi) that traffic to the brain, promoting anxiety-like behavior. In parallel, RSD enhances neuroinflammatory signaling and long-lasting social avoidant behavior. Lorazepam and clonazepam are routinely prescribed anxiolytics that act by enhancing GABAergic activity in the brain. Besides binding to the central benzodiazepine binding site (CBBS) in the central nervous system (CNS), lorazepam binds to the translocator protein (TSPO) with high affinity causing immunomodulation. Clonazepam targets the CBBS and has low affinity for the TSPO. Here the aims were to determine if lorazepam and clonazepam would: 1) prevent stress-induced peripheral and central inflammatory responses, and 2) block anxiety and social avoidance behavior in mice subjected to RSD. Methods C57/BL6 mice were divided into experimental groups, and treated with either lorazepam (0.10mg/kg), clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.9%NaCl). Behavioral data and tissues were collected the morning after the last cycle of RSD. Results Lorazepam and clonazepam were effective in attenuating mRNA expression of CRH in the hypothalamus and corticosterone in plasma in mice subjected to RSD. Both drugs blocked stress-induced levels of IL-6 in plasma. Lorazepam and clonazepam had different effects on stress-induced enhancement of myelopoiesis and inhibited trafficking of monocytes and granulocytes in circulation. Furthermore, lorazepam, but not clonazepam, inhibited splenomegaly and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spleen following RSD. Additionally, lorazepam and clonazepam, blocked stress-induced accumulation of macrophages (CD11b+/CD45high) in the CNS. In a similar manner, both lorazepam and clonazepam prevented neuroinflammatory signaling and reversed anxiety-like and
Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.
The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…
Griffin, Kenneth W.; Samuolis, Jessica; Williams, Christopher
A growing body of literature suggests that parenting practices characterized by careful monitoring, firm and consistent limit setting, and nurturing communication patterns with children are protective against adolescent substance use and other problem behaviors. Family-based prevention programs that promote these behaviors can be an effective way…
Curry, Susan J; Whitlock, Evelyn P
The importance of behavioral counseling as a clinical preventive service derives from the social and economic burden of preventable disease in the U.S., the central role behavioral risk factors play as leading causes of premature morbidity and mortality, and the promise of the healthcare visit as a teachable moment for behavioral counseling support. In November 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force convened an expert forum on behavioral counseling interventions. The forum brought together NIH, CDC, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality leaders, leading behavioral counseling researchers, and members of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to discuss issues related to optimizing evidence-based behavioral counseling recommendations. This paper provides an overview of the methods used by the Task Force to develop counseling recommendations. Special focus is on the development and evaluation of evidence from systematic reviews. Assessment of the net benefit of a behavioral counseling intervention, based on the evidence review, determines the recommendation statement and accompanying letter grade. A recent Task Force recommendation on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse provides a brief example.
Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann
Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…
Demontis, Francesca; Falconi, Marcella; Canu, Desirèe; Serra, Gino
A great deal of evidence suggests that virtually all antidepressant treatments induce a dopaminergic behavioral supersensitivity. We have suggested that this effect may play a key role not only in the antidepressant effect of these treatments, but also in their ability to induce a switch from depression to mania. In 2003-4 we found that the sensitization of dopamine receptors induced by imipramine is followed, after imipramine withdrawal, by a desensitization of these receptors associated with a depressive-like behavior assessed in the forced swimming test. The dopamine receptor sensitization can be prevented by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, but not by currently used mood stabilizers (lithium, carbamazepine, valproate). These observations led us to suggest - and later confirm - with preliminary clinical observations that memantine may have an acute antimanic and a long-lasting mood-stabilizing effect in treatment-resistant bipolar disorder patients. Here we present data showing that memantine prevents not only the dopamine receptor sensitization induced by imipramine, as observed with MK-801, but also the ensuing desensitization and the associated depressive-like behaviorq observed after antidepressant withdrawal.
Wolff, Lisa S; Massett, Holly A; Maibach, Edward W; Weber, Deanne; Hassmiller, Susan; Mockenhaupt, Robin E
While researchers typically have segmented audiences by demographic or behavioral characteristics, psychobehavioral segmentation schemes may be more useful for developing targeted health information and programs. Previous research described a four segment psychobehavioral segmentation scheme-and a 10-item screening instrument used to identify the segments-based predominantly on people's orientation to their health (active vs. passive) and their degree of independence in health care decision making (independent vs. dependent). This study builds on this prior research by assessing the screening instrument's validity with an independent dataset and exploring whether people with distinct psychobehavioral orientations have different disease prevention attitudes and preferences for receiving information in the primary care setting. Data come from 1,650 respondents to a national mail panel survey. Using the screening instrument, respondents were segmented into four groups-independent actives, doctor-dependent actives, independent passives, and doctor-dependent passives. Consistent with the earlier research, there were clear differences in health-related attitudes and behaviors among the four segments. Members of three segments appear quite receptive to receiving disease prevention information and assistance from professionals in the primary care setting. Our findings provide further indication that the screening instrument and corresponding segmentation strategy may offer a simple, effective tool for targeting and tailoring information and other health programming to the unique characteristics of distinct audience segments.
Ruby, Eugene; Sher, Leo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior among adolescents. Suicide is one of the top three causes of adolescent deaths worldwide. Despite the strong relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior, precise causal pathways linking PTSD to suicide in adolescents remains unclear. A slew of mediating factors and variables commonly present themselves with both suicide and PTSD, including co-morbid psychiatric disorders, exposure to different forms of trauma and stressful life events, core neurobiological changes, and mental, emotional, and physiological states such as hyperarousal, impulsivity, and aggression. Because youth is such a critical stage of development, it is very important that at-risk adolescents are identified and referred for treatment. With many treatment challenges in these populations, effective implementation and use of prevention methods are of increasing importance. The most proven prevention methods include physician education, means restriction, and gatekeeper training. Other strategies that have received empirical support are public education campaigns and implementing guidelines for the media, including those for television, print media, and the Internet.
Paunesku, David; Ellis, Justin; Fogel, Joshua; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Gollan, Jackie; Gladstone, Tracy; Reinecke, Mark; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.
OBJECTIVE Risk factors for various disorders are known to cluster. However, the factor structure for behaviors and beliefs predicting depressive disorder in adolescents is not known. Knowledge of this structure can facilitate prevention planning. METHODS We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) data set to conduct an exploratory factor analysis to identify clusters of behaviors/experiences predicting the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) at 1-year follow-up (N=4,791). RESULTS Four factors were identified: family/interpersonal relations, self-emancipation, avoidant problem solving/low self-worth, and religious activity. Strong family/interpersonal relations were the most significantly protective against depression at one year follow-up. Avoidant problem solving/low self-worth was not predictive of MDD on its own, but significantly amplified the risks associated with delinquency. CONCLUSION Depression prevention interventions should consider giving family relationships a more central role in their efforts. Programs teaching problem solving skills may be most appropriate for reducing MDD risk in delinquent youth. PMID:20502621
Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W
There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility of modifying exposure response prevention, an evidence-based strategy for obsessive-compulsive disorder, to treat the repetitive behaviors found in autism. Five school-aged participants (ages 5-11) diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Our preliminary findings suggest it is feasible, and potentially efficacious, to modify standard exposure response prevention to treat the specific forms of repetitive behaviors found in individuals with autism and comorbid intellectual disabilities. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these preliminary findings.
Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride
A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…
Hadar, R; Bikovski, L; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Schimke, J; Maier, P; Ewing, S; Voget, M; Wieske, F; Götz, T; Desco, M; Hamani, C; Pascau, J; Weiner, I; Winter, C
The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood. We found that mPFC-DBS successfully prevented the emergence of deficits in sensorimotor gating, attentional selectivity and executive function in adulthood, as well as the enlargement of lateral ventricle volumes and mal-development of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission. These data suggest that the mPFC may be a valuable target for effective preventive treatments. This may have significant translational value, suggesting that targeting the mPFC before the onset of psychosis via less invasive neuromodulation approaches may be a viable preventive strategy.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.52.
Lieu, Christopher A; Dewey, Colleen M; Chinta, Shankar J; Rane, Anand; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Batir, Sean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Andersen, Julie K
Lithium has long been used as a treatment for the psychiatric disease bipolar disorder. However, previous studies suggest that lithium provides neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. The exact mechanism by which lithium exerts these effects still remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose lithium treatment in an aged mouse model expressing a parkin mutation within dopaminergic neurons. We found that low-dose lithium treatment prevented motor impairment as demonstrated by the open field test, pole test, and rearing behavior. Furthermore, lithium prevented dopaminergic striatal degeneration in parkin animals. We also found that parkin-induced striatal astrogliosis and microglial activation were prevented by lithium treatment. Our results further corroborate the use of this parkin mutant transgenic mouse line as a model for PD for testing novel therapeutics. The findings of the present study also provide further validation that lithium could be re-purposed as a therapy for PD and suggest that anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to its neuroprotective mechanisms.
Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B
Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the
Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon
The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).
PREVENTION IN ZAMBIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF OBSTACLES TO BEHAVIOR CHANGE IN THE COPPERBELT by Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges June 2006 Thesis Co...A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt 6. AUTHOR(S) Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING... Copperbelt region in Zambia, finding significant evidence that both social and economic factors operate as fundamental obstacles to behavior change
Ayode, Desta; McBride, Colleen M; de Heer, Hendrik; Watanabe, Emi; Gebreyesus, Tsega; Tadele, Getnet; Tora, Abebayehu; Davey, Gail
Little is known about how beliefs about heredity as a cause of health conditions might influence preventive and interpersonal behaviors among those individuals with low genetic and health literacy. We explored causal beliefs about podoconiosis, a neglected tropical disease (NTD) endemic in Ethiopia. Podoconiosis clusters in families but can be prevented if individuals at genetically high risk wear shoes consistently. Adults (N = 242) from four rural Ethiopian communities participated in qualitative assessments of beliefs about the causes of podoconiosis. Heredity was commonly mentioned, with heredity being perceived as (1) the sole cause of podoconiosis, (2) not a causal factor, or (3) one of multiple causes. These beliefs influenced the perceived controllability of podoconiosis and in turn, whether individuals endorsed preventive and interpersonal stigmatizing behaviors. Culturally informed education programs that increase the perceived controllability of stigmatized hereditary health conditions like podoconiosis have promise for increasing preventive behaviors and reducing interpersonal stigma.
The Role of Children's On-Task Behavior in the Prevention of Aggressive Behavior Development and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Study of the Good Behavior Game in Belgian Elementary Classrooms
Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
The role of children's on-task behavior in the prevention of aggressive behavior was assessed among 570 Dutch speaking children followed from second- to third-grade elementary school in Flanders, Belgium. A first objective was to investigate whether individual level variation of on-task behavior moderated the impact of a universal preventive…
Barnard, Ryan T; Loftis, Kathryn L; Martin, R Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D
Motor vehicle crashes result in millions of injuries and thousands of deaths each year in the United States. While most crash research datasets use Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to identify injuries, most hospital datasets use the International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) codes. The objective of this research was to establish a one-to-one mapping between AIS and ICD-9 codes for use with motor vehicle crash injury research. This paper presents results from investigating different mapping approaches using the most common AIS 2+ injuries from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). The mapping approaches were generated from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) (428,637 code pairs), ICDMAP (2500 code pairs), and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) (4125 code pairs). Each approach may pair given AIS code with more than one ICD-9 code (mean number of pairs per AIS code: NTDB=211, ICDMAP=7, CIREN=5), and some of the potential pairs are unrelated. The mappings were evaluated using two comparative metrics coupled with qualitative inspection by an expert physician. Based on the number of false mappings and correct pairs, the best mapping was derived from CIREN. AIS and ICD-9 codes in CIREN are both manually coded, leading to more proper mappings between the two. Using the mapping presented herein, data from crash and hospital datasets can be used together to better understand and prevent motor vehicle crash injuries in the future.
van Lier, Pol A C; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia
Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG) intervention, a universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior, and facilitating positive prosocial peer interactions. Friends' disruptive behavior was assessed from age 7-10 years. Participants' experimentation with tobacco was assessed annually from age 10-13. Reduced rates in tobacco experimentation and friends' disruptive behavior were found among GBG children, as compared to controls. Support for friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator in the link between intervention status and tobacco experimentation was found. These results remained after controlling for friends' and parental smoking status, and child ADHD symptoms. The results support the role of friends' disruptive behavior in preadolescents' tobacco experimentation.
Greenlund, Kurt J; Denny, Clark H; Mokdad, Ali H; Watkins, Nancy; Croft, Janet B; Mensah, George A
An effective state heart disease and stroke prevention program must be able to monitor changes in heart disease and stroke risk factors of the state population. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state-based telephone survey, has been an important source for monitoring health-related factors and evaluating the success of programs. The BRFSS currently includes modules on hypertension and cholesterol screening and awareness, cardiovascular disease preventive practices, and recognition of the signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke as well as relevant modules on fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, tobacco use, and diabetes. Publication topics included monitoring risk factors and clinical services, assessing progress toward national goals, assessing health disparities, and health status and health-related quality of life issues. States have used the BRFSS data for monitoring health risks in the state, assessing state and national health objectives, determining and providing data for public health campaigns, providing information for legislative proposals, and providing information that helps to initiate collaboration. Major methodologic issues involve validating self-reported data against direct measurement and assessing the effects of changes in telecommunications. As Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) national heart disease and stroke prevention program and each state health department program develop, state and even local level data will become more important to measure the burden of disease and program impact. State heart disease and stroke prevention programs are encouraged to work closely with state BRFSS coordinators to obtain vital information to measure the burden of heart disease and stroke in their state and to be able to measure program impact on addressing the first and third leading causes of death in the U.S.
Islas-Preciado, D; López-Rubalcava, C; González-Olvera, J; Gallardo-Tenorio, A; Estrada-Camarena, E
Stress vulnerability could influence the treatment response to anxiety associated with abrupt hormonal suppression. The present study explored the effects of different treatments on experimental anxiety induced by progesterone withdrawal (PW) in a stress-sensitive rat strain, Wistar Kyoto (WKY), in the burying behavior test (BBT). The following experimental series was conducted using independent groups of Wistar (control strain) and WKY ovariectomized rats: Experiment 1: Rats were treated for 5days with oil, a constant dose of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c) or a combination of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c) plus fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p); on day 6, all rats were subjected to BBT. Experiment 2: Rats received corn oil or decreasing doses of progesterone (0.84, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33 and 0.17mg/rat; one dose daily); on day 6, the rats were subjected to BBT. Experiment 3: Rats were divided into two groups that were subjected to 30days of standard conditions or environmental enrichment (EE); from days 25 to 30, all rats received a fixed dose of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c.) or vehicle. On day 31, the rats were tested with BBT. Results showed that PW increased anxiety in both strains, and fluoxetine prevented anxiety in WKY rats. In contrast, a gradual reduction of progesterone prevents the anxiety in Wistar but not in WKY. EE was preventive against the anxiety induced by PW in both strains of rats. Thus, the results suggest that anxiety induced by PW is prevented by EE while the anxiolytic effect of pharmacological treatments depends on stress vulnerability.
Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment. PMID:25918206
Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment.
Green, Edward C.; Nantulya, Vinand; Hogle, Janice A.
There has been considerable interest in understanding what may have led to Uganda's dramatic decline in HIV prevalence, one of the world's earliest and most compelling AIDS prevention successes. Survey and other data suggest that a decline in multi-partner sexual behavior is the behavioral change most likely associated with HIV decline. It appears that behavior change programs, particularly involving extensive promotion of “zero grazing” (faithfulness and partner reduction), largely developed by the Ugandan government and local NGOs including faith-based, women’s, people-living-with-AIDS and other community-based groups, contributed to the early declines in casual/multiple sexual partnerships and HIV incidence and, along with other factors including condom use, to the subsequent sharp decline in HIV prevalence. Yet the debate over “what happened in Uganda” continues, often involving divisive abstinence-versus-condoms rhetoric, which appears more related to the culture wars in the USA than to African social reality. PMID:16688475
Ustundag, Yasemin; Bulut, Funda; Demir, Caner Feyzi; Bal, Ali
Introduction Tinnitus is defined as a phantom auditory sensation, the perception of sound in the absence of external acoustic stimulation. Given that flufenamic acid (FFA) blocks TRPM2 cation channels, resulting in reduced neuronal excitability, we aimed to investigate whether FFA suppresses the behavioral manifestation of sodium salicylate (SSA)-induced tinnitus in rats. Material and methods Tinnitus was evaluated using a conditioned lick suppression model of behavioral testing. Thirty-one Wistar rats, randomly divided into four treatment groups, were trained and tested in the behavioral experiment: (1) control group: DMSO + saline (n = 6), (2) SSA group: DMSO + SSA (n = 6), (3) FFA group: FFA (66 mg/kg bw) + saline (n = 9), (4) FFA + SSA group: FFA (66 mg/kg bw) + SSA (400 mg/kg bw) (n = 10). Localization of TRPM2 to the plasma membrane of cochlear nucleus neurons was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Results Pavlovian training resulted in strong suppression of licking, having a mean value of 0.05 ±0.03 on extinction day 1, which is below the suppression training criterion level of 0.20 in control tinnitus animals. The suppression rate for rats having both FFA (66 mg/kg bw) and SSA (400 mg/kg bw) injections was significantly lower than that for the rats having SSA injections (p < 0.01). Conclusions We suggest that SSA-induced tinnitus could possibly be prevented by administration of a TRPM2 ion channel antagonist, FFA at 66 mg/kg bw. PMID:26925138
Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…
de Queiroz, Mayara Ribeiro; Mamede, Carla Cristine N; de Morais, Nadia Cristina G; Fonseca, Kelly Cortes; de Sousa, Bruna Barbosa; Migliorini, Thaís M; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda C; Stanziola, Leonilda; Calderon, Leonardo A; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Soares, Andreimar Martins; de Oliveira, Fábio
In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column). BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders.
Ribeiro de Queiroz, Mayara; Mamede, Carla Cristine N.; de Morais, Nadia Cristina G.; Cortes Fonseca, Kelly; Barbosa de Sousa, Bruna; Migliorini, Thaís M.; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda C.; Stanziola, Leonilda; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Martins Soares, Andreimar; de Oliveira, Fábio
In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column). BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. PMID:24971359
Petrenko, Christie L. M.
Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided. PMID:24222982
The dominant preventive discourse imposed on sexual minorities is one that orders and prescribes condom use and an adjusted lifestyle. High-risk sexual behaviors seem to express, in part, the rejection of this dominant discourse. The objective of this study is to better understand the links between the risky sexual behaviors of gays and the socio-cultural context that leads to the rejection of preventive practices. An ethnological study was carried out in Portugal This study included seven gay men aged between 19 and 64 years old. The study also included accounts from interviews of three lesbian and bisexual women. The results show that the social pressure of a hetero-normative environment can result in the refusal or denial of prevention practices. Thus, risky sexual behaviors can reflect desire and aspirations for more rights and freedoms. New and alternative spaces for meeting gays, namely on the Internet, also seem to create more opportunities for sexual liberation and open the way for relaxed prevention practices and engaging in risky sexual behavior. However, preventive practices are not entirely absent; the reduction of risks is being expressed by the choice of sexual partners and the avoidance of certain sexual practices when a condom is not used. Through this study, the importance of peer groups in the acceptance and internalization of the preventive discourse is re-affirmed.
Talke, Kurt; Kelley, Leah; Longhini, Patrick; Catron, Garret
Skid-steer teleoperated robots are commonly used by military and civilian crews to perform high-risk, dangerous and critical tasks such as bomb disposal. Their missions are often performed in unstructured environments with irregular terrain, such as inside collapsed buildings or on rough terrain covered with a variety of media, such as sand, brush, mud, rocks and debris. During such missions, it is often impractical if not impossible to send another robot or a human operator to right a toppled robot. As a consequence, a robot tip-over event usually results in mission failure. To make matters more complicated, such robots are often equipped with heavy payloads that raise their centers of mass and hence increase their instability. Should the robot be equipped with a manipulator arm or flippers, it may have a way to self-right. The majority of manipulator arms are not designed for and are likely to be damaged during self-righting procedures, however, which typically have a low success rate. Furthermore, those robots not equipped with manipulator arms or flippers have no self-righting capabilities. Additionally, due to the on-board camera frame of reference, the video feed may cause the robot to appear to be on at level ground, when it actually may be on a slope nearing tip-over. Finally, robot operators are often so focused on the mission at hand they are oblivious to their surroundings, similar to a kid playing a video game. While this may not be an issue in the living room, it is not a good scenario to experience on the battlefield. Our research seeks to remove tip-over monitoring from the already large list of tasks an operator must perform. An autonomous tip-over prevention behavior for a mobile robot with a static payload has been developed, implemented and experimentally validated on two different teleoperated robotic platforms. Suitable for use with both teleoperated and autonomous robots, the prevention behavior uses the force-angle stability measure
Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Harrop, Erin N; Douglas, Haley; Enkema, Matthew; Sedgwick, Carly
Mindfulness-based treatments are growing in popularity among addiction treatment providers, and several studies suggest the efficacy of incorporating mindfulness practices into the treatment of addiction, including the treatment of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling). The current paper provides a review of theoretical models of mindfulness in the treatment of addiction and several hypothesized mechanisms of change. We provide an overview of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), including session content, treatment targets, and client feedback from participants who have received MBRP in the context of empirical studies. Future research directions regarding operationalization and measurement, identifying factors that moderate treatment effects, and protocol adaptations for specific populations are discussed.
Kaestner, Robert; Darden, Michael; Lakdawalla, Darius
We obtain estimates of associations between statin use and health behaviors. Statin use is associated with a small increase in BMI and moderate (20-33%) increases in the probability of being obese. Statin use was also associated with a significant (e.g., 15% of mean) increase in moderate alcohol use among men. There was no consistent evidence of a decrease in smoking associated with statin use, and exercise worsened somewhat for females. Statin use was associated with increased physical activity among males. Finally, there was evidence that statin use increased the use of blood pressure medication and aspirin for both males and females, although estimates varied considerably in magnitude. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that healthy diet is a strong substitute for statins, but there is only uneven evidence for the hypothesis that investments in disease prevention are complementary.
Kaestner, Robert; Darden, Michael; Lakdawalla, Darius
We obtain estimates of associations between statin use and health behaviors. Statin use is associated with a small increase in BMI and moderate (20% to 33%) increases in the probability of being obese. Statin use was also associated with a significant (e.g., 15% of mean) increase in moderate alcohol use among men. There was no consistent evidence of a decrease in smoking associated with statin use, and exercise worsened somewhat for females. Statin use was associated with increased physical activity among males. Finally, there was evidence that statin use increased the use of blood pressure medication and aspirin for both males and females, although estimates varied considerably in magnitude. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that healthy diet is a strong substitute for statins, but there is only uneven evidence for the hypothesis that investments in disease prevention are complementary. PMID:24814322
Gobshtis, Nikolai; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Fride, Ester
Antidepressant pharmacotherapy has dramatically improved the quality of life for many patients. However, prolonged use may induce weight gain, resulting in enhanced risk for treatment noncompliance. Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists decrease food intake and body weight, but may also affect mood. We investigated in female Sabra mice first, whether acute treatment with the cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide, SR141716, 5 mg/kg) interfered with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (15 mg/kg) or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) in the Porsolt forced swimming test. Second, whether chronic treatment (3 months) with desipramine (5 mg/kg) enhanced weight gain and whether cotreatment with rimonabant (2 mg/kg), prevented the excessive weight gain, while retaining antidepressant effectiveness. Motor activity and anxiety-like behavior were also investigated. The acute studies indicated that rimonabant did not influence 'antidepressant' activity of desipramine or fluoxetine. In the chronic studies, desipramine enhanced weight gain, despite the observation that the injection procedure reduced weight gain. The enhanced weight gain continued at least 35 days after treatment ended. Rimonabant reduced weight gain to which no tolerance developed and which persisted at least 30 days beyond treatment. Mice cotreated with rimonabant and desipramine had body weights closer to controls or to those receiving rimonabant alone than to those treated with desipramine alone. The antidepressant effects of desipramine were maintained throughout treatment; this was not altered by the chronic rimonabant treatment at any time, although rimonabant together with desipramine transiently enhanced anxiety-like behavior. These observations suggest that combined treatment with antidepressants and cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist to prevent undesirable weight
Woods, William J; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A; Binson, Diane
Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention.
Gazal, Marta; Kaufmann, Fernanda N; Acosta, Bruna A; Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Valente, Matheus R; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Sturbelle, Régis; Lencina, Claiton L; Stefanello, Francieli M; Kaster, Manuella P; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Ghisleni, Gabriele
Cecropia species are widely used in traditional medicine by its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of the crude aqueous extract from Cecropia pachystachya leaves in a rat model of mania induced by ketamine. The results indicated that ketamine treatment (25 mg/kg i.p., for 8 days) induced hyperlocomotion in the open-field test and oxidative damage in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, evaluated by increased lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein formation and decreased total thiol content. Moreover, ketamine treatment reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in hippocampus. Pretreatment of rats with C. pachystachya aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o., for 14 days) or with lithium chloride (45 mg/kg p.o., for 14 days, used as a positive control) prevented both behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of ketamine. These findings suggest that C. pachystachya might be a useful tool for preventive intervention in bipolar disorder, reducing the episode relapse and the oxidative damage associated with the manic phase of this disorder .
Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.
The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.
Peterson, Caryn E; Dykens, J Andrew; Brewer, Noel T; Buscemi, Joanna; Watson, Karriem; Comer-Hagans, DeLawnia; Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Fitzgibbon, Marian
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage remains low in the USA. The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports the goals outlined by Healthy People 2020, the President's Cancer Panel, and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee to increase vaccination coverage among both males and females. SBM makes the following recommendations in support of efforts to reduce structural and other barriers to HPV vaccination services in order to increase rates of series completion. We encourage legislators and other policymakers to improve administration authority, insurance coverage, and reimbursement rates to healthcare providers who make the HPV vaccine available to adolescents; provide instrumental support to fund the development of school curricula on HPV vaccination; and increase public awareness that HPV vaccination can prevent cancer. We urge healthcare providers and healthcare systems to increase the strength, quality, and consistency of HPV vaccination recommendations for all eligible patients; to treat HPV vaccination as a routine preventive service; employ culturally appropriate communication strategies in clinical settings to educate eligible patients, parents, and guardians about the importance, effectiveness, and safety of HPV vaccination; and to strengthen and better coordinate the use of electronic medical records and immunization information systems.
Jalilian, Farzad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas
Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adverse physical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. This study was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency among gym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panel study to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about side effects of AAS (P<0.001), attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally after intervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group. Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescences would be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them not to use AAS. PMID:24688897
Harawa, Nina T.; Obregon, Nora B.; McCuller, William J.
Although an estimated 87% of new HIV infections in Black/African American women are attributed to sex with men, many women are unaware of their male partners’ HIV risk factors. Research on women who are aware of a high-risk male partner may inform HIV prevention. We analyzed transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 20 Black women who reported sex with at least one man who had sex with men and women (MSMW) in the prior 5 years. We applied Choice and Sexual Network theories to the interpretation. The majority described their partnerships as committed and involving emotional or instrumental support. Substance abuse was a common component of the relationships and very few involved consistent condom use. Although nearly all respondents described it as alarming to learn of their partners’ involvement with other men and several ended the relationships, many continued the relationships without protective changes in their sex behavior. These narratives indicate that although many leave, many other women remain in relationships after learning of a male partners’ high-risk activity. Substance abuse, financial instability, and a desire to remain in intimate partnerships may discourage preventive actions in these women. PMID:25422580
Woods, William J.; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A.; Binson, Diane
Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention. PMID:24044008
Macapagal, Kathryn; Greene, George J; Andrews, Rebecca; Mustanski, Brian
Most HIV infections among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) occur within primary partnerships. Research on YMSM's knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills regarding relationship-related HIV prevention, and how these correspond to HIV risk and partnership characteristics, is limited. We examined links among the Relationship-Oriented Information- Motivation-Behavioral Skills (RELO-IMB) model, relationship characteristics, and HIV risk in 96 YMSM. Condomless sex with a primary partner was associated with low relationship-related HIV preventive information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Lack of HIV testing and alcohol use before sex were associated with low behavioral skills. In multivariate analyses, behavioral skills were the only consistent predictor of these outcomes. Regarding relationship characteristics, feeling trapped in the relationship or being physically abused by a partner was associated with low motivation and behavioral skills. The RELO-IMB model can be used to understand HIV risk in relationships and points to targets for relationship-specific HIV prevention education for YMSM.
Bryan, Christopher J; Adams, Gabrielle S; Monin, Benoît
In 3 experiments using 2 different paradigms, people were less likely to cheat for personal gain when a subtle change in phrasing framed such behavior as diagnostic of an undesirable identity. Participants were given the opportunity to claim money they were not entitled to at the experimenters' expense; instructions referred to cheating with either language that was designed to highlight the implications of cheating for the actor's identity (e.g., "Please don't be a cheater") or language that focused on the action (e.g., "Please don't cheat"). Participants in the "cheating" condition claimed significantly more money than did participants in the "cheater" condition, who showed no evidence of having cheated at all. This difference occurred both in a face-to-face interaction (Experiment 1) and in a private online setting (Experiments 2 and 3). These results demonstrate the power of a subtle linguistic difference to prevent even private unethical behavior by invoking people's desire to maintain a self-image as good and honest.
Hikida, Takatoshi; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Pastan, Ira; Nakanishi, Shigetada
Drug addiction poses serious social, medical, and economic problems, but effective treatments for drug addiction are still limited. Cocaine and morphine elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and the overwhelming actions of dopamine are implicated in reinforcement and addiction of abusive drugs. In our previous studies, we reported the regulatory role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc function by selectively ablating the NAc cholinergic neurons with use of immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting. These studies indicated that ACh and dopamine acted convergently but oppositely on the NAc circuit and that cholinergic cell ablation enhanced long-lasting behavioral changes of cocaine addiction. In this investigation, we showed that immunotoxin-mediated ablation of the NAc cholinergic neurons enhanced not only the sensitivity to morphine in conditioned place preference but also negative reinforcement of morphine withdrawal in conditioned place aversion. Remarkably, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that act on the brain AChE suppressed both cocaine- and morphine-induced conditioned place preference and blocked the induction and persistence of cocaine-evoked hyperlocomotion. Importantly, this inhibition was abolished by ablation of the NAc cholinergic neurons. These results demonstrate that centrally active AChE inhibitors prevent long-lasting behavioral abnormalities associated with cocaine and morphine addictions by potentiating the actions of ACh released from the NAc cholinergic neurons. Centrally active AChE inhibitors could thus be approached as novel and potential therapeutic agents for drug addiction.
Santollo, Jessica; Whalen, Philip E.; Speth, Robert C.; Clark, Stewart D.
Previous studies show that the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is susceptible to rapid desensitization, but that more chronic treatments that stimulate ANG II lead to sensitization of several responses. It is unclear, however, if the processes of desensitization and sensitization interact. To test for differences in AT1R expression associated with single or repeated injections of ANG II, we measured AT1R mRNA in nuclei that control fluid intake of rats given ANG II either in a single injection or divided into three injections spaced 20 min apart. Rats given a single injection of ANG II had more AT1R mRNA in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) than did controls. The effect was not observed, however, when the same cumulative dose of ANG II was divided into multiple injections. Behavioral tests found that single daily injections of ANG II sensitized the dipsogenic response to ANG II, but a daily regimen of four injections did not cause sensitization. Analysis of 125I-Sar1-ANG II binding revealed a paradoxical decrease in binding in the caudal AV3V and dorsal median preoptic nucleus after 5 days of single daily injections of ANG II; however, this effect was absent in rats treated for 5 days with four daily ANG II injections. Taken together, these data suggest that a desensitizing treatment regimen prevents behavior- and receptor-level effects of repeated daily ANG II. PMID:25354729
Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai
Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540
Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai
Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis.
Lawrence, Maggie; Pringle, Jan; Kerr, Susan; Booth, Joanne; Govan, Lindsay; Roberts, Nicola J.
Background Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions. Strategy Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines. Results Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants) of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean) (−6.24 to −2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants); diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean) (−3.19 to −0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants). No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (−6.69 cm, −11.44 to −1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants). There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants) and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants); however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (−1.20, −1.77 to −0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants). Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in
Napolitano, Fabio; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caroprese, Mariangela; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Taibi, Luigi; Sevi, Agostino
The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of either maternal deprivation or prevented suckling on lambs. Thirty Comisana lambs were assigned to a control dam-suckled group (DS) and two test groups of 10 each. Test lambs were maintained with their mothers 24 to 30 h after parturition and subsequently offered ewe milk from buckets: EM lambs were separated from their mothers, while EM+D animals were reared with their dams but suckling was denied by covering ewe udders with juta bags. Behavioral, immune and cortisol responses of lambs were assessed throughout the experiment. EM+D lambs spent less time (P<.001) on investigative behavior compared to the two other groups. When isolated in a novel environment, EM+D lambs exhibited a shorter duration of movement (P<.01) and a longer latency time compared to DS and EM lambs (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively) as well as a higher number of bleats (P<.01) than EM lambs. EM+D lambs also displayed higher (P<.001) plasma cortisol levels than the other two groups when isolated at 4 days of age. When subjected to discrimination tests, EM+D lambs spent less time near their companions (P<.01) than EM lambs and took a longer time to reach their pen mates (P<.01) than DS and EM lambs. EM+D lambs displayed reduced growth (P<.001) compared to DS animals during the 0-7 and 8-14-day periods. We conclude that frustration arising from maternal feeding deprivation results in altered endocrine and behavioral responses and reduced growth suggesting emotional disturbances of lambs.
Safren, Steven A.; Perry, Nicholas S.; Blashill, Aaron J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Recently, behavioral prevention interventions for HIV have been criticized as being ineffective, costly, or inefficient. In this commentary, using HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) as an illustrative high-risk population, we argue that the opposite is true – that behavioral interventions for HIV prevention, if implemented with the populations who need them, are affordable and critical for future prevention efforts. We base this argument on recent evidence showing that 1) adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) for prevention purposes is necessary to suppress HIV replication and reduce transmissibility, 2) individuals living with HIV have multiple psychosocial concerns that impact self-care and moderate the potential effectiveness of health behavior interventions, and 3) intensive interventions targeting both concerns together (psychosocial and HIV care) can show clinically significant improvement. We follow by comparing the cost of these types of interventions to the cost of standard clinical treatment for HIV with ART, and demonstrate a cost-savings of potential intensive behavioral interventions for, in this case, HIV-positive MSM who have uncontrolled virus. Keeping this evidence in mind, we conclude that individual intervention must remain a mainstay of HIV prevention for certain critical populations. PMID:26223385
Tan, Ming Yeong
This study aimed to identify the relationship of health beliefs and complication prevention behaviors among Chinese individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia. A correlation study using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework was undertaken with 128 Chinese subjects with Type 2 Diabetes of both gender, mean age 60.5 +/- 8.42 years from one urban hospital and four rural health centers. Research tool was a 60-item questionnaire with responses recorded on 5-point Likert scale. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, Spearmen correlation and Mann-Whitney U-test. The majority of the subjects had less than 6 years of education. Seventy-two percent of them were aware of diabetes complications and its risk factors. However, few subjects practiced complication preventive measures because of lack of perceived seriousness of diabetes and lack of perceived susceptibility to diabetes complications. There were significant correlations between complication prevention behaviors and perceived severity (P < 0.05), perceived susceptibility (P < 0.05 ) and perceived barrier (P < 0.05 ); subjects' education level and perceived severity (P < 0.05), perceived susceptibility (P < 0.05) and complication prevention behavior (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between health beliefs and settings; genders; disease duration and treatment mode. In conclusion, poor complication preventive behavior among the subjects was associated with lack of perceived seriousness of diabetes and lack of perceived susceptibility to diabetes complications.
Shankar, S.; Kofie, V. Y.; Helzlsouer, K.; Rivo, M. L.; Bonney, G.
A telephone survey of knowledge, attitude, and health practices regarding cancer was undertaken in wards 7 and 8, Washington, DC in 1988. These wards have the highest cancer rates in the city and are predominantly African American. Of the 670 randomly selected persons over 18 years of age, 243 were males and 427 were females. Among females, 84% believed cigarette smoking causes cancer, and 48% thought alcohol causes cancer; 31% smoked cigarettes and 38% consumed alcoholic beverages. Among males, 91% and 52% thought cigarettes and alcohol causes cancer respectively; 41% smoked and 54% consumed alcoholic beverages. Only 6% of the males over age 40 practiced all eight recommended cancer prevention behaviors, while 2% of the females over age 40 practiced all preventive health behaviors. Cancer preventive behavior was examined in relation to socioeconomic status. This study indicates that preventive health behaviors were not associated with socioeconomic status. Data suggest that cancer prevention and control programs and services targeted to this Washington, DC population should be increased and intensified. PMID:7869405
Messiah, A; Mouret-Fourme, E
The French National Survey on Sexual Behavior was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior of bisexually active men, as distinct from both homosexually and heterosexually active men. In regard to number of partners and frequency of unprotected vaginal sex, bisexuals were similar to multipartnered heterosexuals. On sociodemographic criteria, they differed from both homosexuals and heterosexuals. Bisexual men reported fewer partners than homosexuals but seemed more likely to engage in risk behavior related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and they were less likely to have ever had a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test. These results justify prevention efforts specially adapted for bisexuals. PMID:7485668
Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of
Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of
A bio-behavioral approach to drug addiction treatment is outlined. The presented treatment model uses dual representation theory as a guiding framework for understanding the bio-behavioral processes activated during the application of expressive therapeutic methods. Specifically, the treatment model explains how visual processing techniques can supplement traditional relapse prevention therapy protocols, to help clients better manage cravings and control triggers in hard-to-treat populations such as chronic substance-dependent persons.
Quorum sensing, or cell-to-cell communication, is made possible by the production and sensing of small, extracellular chemical signals called autoinducers (AI). These autoinducers accumulate as the population density increases, and thereby help bacteria to regulate their behavior by promoting or rep...
OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the relationship between community residents’ infection sensitivity and their levels of preventive behaviors during the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea. METHODS Seven thousands two hundreds eighty one participants from nine areas in Gyeonggi-do including Pyeongtaek, the origin of the outbreak in 2015 agreed to participate in the survey and the data from 6,739 participants were included in the final analysis. The data on the perceived infection sensitivity were subjected to cluster analysis. The levels of stress, reliability/practice of preventive behaviors, hand washing practice and policy credibility during the outbreak period were analyzed for each cluster. RESULTS Cluster analysis of infection sensitivity due to the MERS outbreak resulted in classification of participants into four groups: the non-sensitive group (14.5%), social concern group (17.4%), neutral group (29.1%), and overall sensitive group (39.0%). A logistic regression analysis found that the overall sensitive group with high sensitivity had higher stress levels (17.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.77 to 23.00), higher reliability on preventive behaviors (5.81; 95% CI, 4.84 to 6.98), higher practice of preventive behaviors (4.53; 95% CI, 3.83 to 5.37) and higher practice of hand washing (2.71; 95% CI, 2.13 to 3.43) during the outbreak period, compared to the non-sensitive group. CONCLUSIONS Infection sensitivity of community residents during the MERS outbreak correlated with gender, age, occupation, and health behaviors. When there is an outbreak in the community, there is need to maintain a certain level of sensitivity while reducing excessive stress, as well as promote the practice of preventive behaviors among local residents. In particular, target groups need to be notified and policies need to be established with a consideration of the socio-demographic characteristics of the community. PMID:28092927
Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.
While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.
Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Harris, Shana; Berbesi, Dedsy; Segura Cardona, Ángela María; Montoya Vélez, Liliana Patricia; Mejía Motta, Inés Elvira; Jessell, Lauren; Guarino, Honoria; Friedman, Samuel R.
Background Heroin production in Colombia has increased dramatically in recent decades, and some studies point to an increase in local heroin use since the mid-1990s. Despite this rapid increase, little is known about the effects of these activities on heroin injection within Colombia. One of the biggest concerns surrounding heroin injection is the potential spread of HIV through drug user networks. Objectives This article examines injection risk behaviors among heroin injectors in the Colombian cities of Medellín and Pereira to explore the implications for possible increased HIV transmission within this group. Methods A cross-sectional study used respondent-driving sampling to recruit a sample of 540 people who inject drugs (PWID) over 18 years of age (Medellín: n = 242, Pereira: n = 298). Structured interviews with each participant were conducted using the World Health Organization Drug Injection Study Phase II Survey. An HIV test was also administered. Results Information regarding the socio-demographics, injection drug use, HIV risk and transmission behaviors, injection risk management, and HIV knowledge and prevalence of participants are reported. The study identified many young, newly initiated injectors who engage in risky injection practices. The study also found that HIV prevalence is fairly low among participants (2.7%). Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate a potential risk for the spread of HIV among PWID in Colombia given their widespread sharing practices, high rate of new injector initiation, and unsafe syringe cleaning practices. Colombia has a possibly time-limited opportunity to prevent an HIV epidemic by implementing harm reduction interventions among young, newly initiated PWID. PMID:26800352
Latkin, Carl; Donnell, Deborah; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Celentano, David; Metzger, David
Aims Social norms are a key source of influence on health behaviors. This study examined changes in social norms and relationships between HIV injection risk behaviors and social norms among injection drug users (IDUs) involved in an experimental intervention. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting An HIV Prevention Trials Network study, Philadelphia, USA. Participants IDUs, called indexes, and their social network members, who were drug or sex partners, were recruited for an HIV prevention intervention and followed for up to 30 months (N=652). Indexes were randomized into a peer education intervention or control condition. Measurements Outcomes of injection related HIV risk behaviors (sharing needles, sharing cookers, sharing cotton, front/back-loaded) were measured every 6 months and social norm of these 4 risk behaviors were assessed every 12 months. Findings There was a statistically significant intervention effect on all four social norms of injection behaviors, with participants in the intervention reporting less risky social norms compared with controls (changes in mean score: needles, -0.24, p.<01; cookers, -0.33, p.<01; cottons, -0.28, p.<05; front/back loading, -0.23, p.<01). There was also a statistically significant bidirectional association with social norms predicting injection risk behaviors at the next assessment and risk behaviors predicting social norms at the subsequent visit. Conclusions Through social network interventions it is feasible to change both injection risk behaviors and associated social norms. However, it is critical that social network interventions focus on publically highlighting behavior changes since changing social norms without awareness of behaviors change may lead to relapse of risk behaviors. PMID:23362861
Burden, David J. H.
The last two years have seen the start of commercial activity within virtual worlds. Unlike computer games where Non-Player-Character avatars are common, in most virtual worlds they are the exception — and until recently in Second Life they were non-existent. However there is real commercial scope for Als in these worlds — in roles from virtual sales staff and tutors to personal assistants. Deploying an embodied AI into a virtual world offers a unique opportunity to evaluate embodied Als, and to develop them within an environment where human and computer are on almost equal terms. This paper presents an architecture being used for the deployment of chatbot driven avatars within the Second Life virtual world, looks at the challenges of deploying an AI within such a virtual world, the possible implications for the Turing Test, and identifies research directions for the future.
Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo
The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.
Ross, Scott W.; Horner, Robert H.
The current pilot study demonstrates the potential of adding simple and efficient bully prevention strategies to already established School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. The self-report surveys of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students from three elementary schools evaluated the relationship between the implementation of…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…
McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.
Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…
Foubert, John D.; Cowell, Edwin A.
The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to determine fraternity men and student athletes' perceptions of a commonly used rape-prevention program. Participants saw "The Men's Program" and then participated in 60-90 minute focus groups assessing whether their attitudes and behavior would change, what about the program led to that change, and…
Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Whittier, David K.; Jones, Patricia L.; Smith, Bryce D.; Uhl, Gary; Fisher, Holly H.
The concept of core elements was developed to denote characteristics of an intervention, such as activities or delivery methods, presumed to be responsible for the efficacy of evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) for HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of core elements based on a literature review of…
Dunlap, Glen; Lee, Janice K.; Joseph, Jaclyn D.; Strain, Phillip
A need exists for intervention strategies that are both effective in reducing challenging behaviors and practical for use by typical practitioners of early childhood care and education. In this article, we describe a model, "Prevent-Teach-Reinforce for Young Children," which is based on extensive research and includes features designed…
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.
This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…
Mejia, Anilena; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R.
Many children in developing countries are at risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties, which are likely to be elevated due to the effects of poverty. Parenting programs have shown to be effective preventative strategies in high-income countries, but to date the research on their effectiveness in lower-income countries is limited.…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Hayward, R. Anna; DePanfilis, Diane
Objective: This study examines the impact of the Family Connections (FC) intervention on preventing behavioral problems among urban, predominantly African American children at risk of neglect. Method: Secondary data analyses using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to examine gender differences in child…
Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Godin, Eric E.
Seven months after seeing The Men's Program, a commonly used rape prevention program, 248 first-year college men responded to four open-ended questions concerning whether or not the program impacted their attitudes or behavior, particularly regarding alcohol related sexual assault. Two thirds of participants reported either attitude or behavior…
Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Kash-MacDonald, V. Megan; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We…
Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632
Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Knudson, Peter; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Kelso, Pamela; Jostad, Candice; Langley, Linda
Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not…
Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer C.; Keller, Gary; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Cole, David A.; Potts, Jennifer; H. Watson, Kelly; Rakow, Aaron; Colletti, Christina; Reeslund, Kristen; Fear, Jessica; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Merchant, M. J.; Roberts, Lorinda
Objective: In a long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (Compas et al., 2009) to examine the effects at 18- and 24-month follow-ups of a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) preventive intervention for mental health outcomes for children and parents from families (N = 111) of parents with a history of major depressive disorder…
Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Aoun, Chadi
Purpose: The demand for Accounting Information Systems (AIS) knowledge has increased exponentially over the past two decades, but studying AIS has not proved easy for many accounting students. The aim of the study is to understand the challenges accounting students face in studying AIS through investigation of the factors which may be contributing…
Khawam, Yves J.
This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for AIS stations. 80.393 Section 80.393 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ais Stations § 80.393 Frequencies for AIS stations....
evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in this tactical decision making problem allows an AI agent to make fast , effective solutions that do not require modification...ranged attacks. The terran army operates most similarly to Warcraft. The player must still balance food (supply depots), and two other resources (minerals...types of methods analyze the current status of enemy units and makes a decision based on a single metric. These techniques are very fast , but are open to
Wölfer, Ralf; Scheithauer, Herbert
Bullying is a social phenomenon and although preventive interventions consequently address social mechanisms, evaluations hardly consider the complexity of peer processes. Therefore, the present study analyzes the efficacy of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program from a social network perspective. Within a pretest-posttest control group design, longitudinal data were available from 328 middle-school students (MAge = 13.7 years; 51% girls), who provided information on bullying behavior and interaction patterns. The revealed network parameters were utilized to examine the network change (MANCOVA) and the network dynamics (SIENA). Across both forms of analyses, findings revealed the hypothesized intervention-based decrease of bullies' social influence. Hence the present bullying prevention program, as one example of programs that successfully addresses both individual skills and social mechanisms, demonstrates the desired effect of reducing contextual opportunities for the exhibition of bullying behavior.
Fiala, Harvey E.
The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.
Babazadeh, Towhid; Kamran, Aziz; Dargahi, Abdollah; Moradi, Fatemeh; Shariat, Fariba; Rezakhani Moghaddam, Hamed
Background: Skin cancer is a serious public health problem in the world. Its prevalence in many countries has been increased in recent years. This study aimed to assess the effects of a theory-based educational intervention to promote skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers in Chalderan County, Iran. Methods: This was a quasi-randomized controlled field trial study conducted on 238 rural farmers. The data were collected by a questionnaire containing the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as well as the items of SCPBs. The differences between the groups before and 3 months after the intervention were determined by independent t-test, paired t-test, and chi-square applying SPSS software. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found in the scores of the PMT constructs between the two groups (p>0.05). However, significant differences were found between the scores of all the variables, as well as SCPBs, in the two groups after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusion: The PMT was found to be an appropriate framework for designing educational interventions aiming at promoting SCPBs among rural farmers. It was concluded that designing an educational program with a focus on promoting perceived susceptibility increased the level of performing SCPBs among the rural farmers. PMID:28210609
Brunet, Alain; Des Groseilliers, Isabeau Bousquet; Cordova, Matthew J.; Ruzek, Josef I.
Background There is a dearth of effective interventions to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method We evaluated the efficacy of a brief dyadic two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention through a controlled trial involving trauma-exposed individuals recruited at the hospital's emergency room. Participants were randomly assigned to either the dyadic intervention group (n=37) or to a waiting list (assessment only) group (n=37). Results In an intent-to-treat analysis, a time-by-group interaction was found, whereby the treated participants had less PTSD symptoms at the post-treatment but not at the pre-treatment compared to controls. Controlling for the improvement observed in the control participants, the intervention yielded a net effect size of d=0.39. Conclusions A brief, early, and effective intervention can be provided by nurses or social workers in hospital settings, at a fairly low cost to individuals presenting to the emergency room as the result of trauma exposure. PMID:23986816
Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua
Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.
Gardner, Frances; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Burton, Jennifer; Supplee, Lauren
Despite knowledge of early pathways to conduct problems, few preventive interventions are specifically designed to modify disruptive behavior in toddlerhood. One potential prevention target is proactive and positive parenting, which is associated with reduced risk of conduct problems in preschoolers. This randomized trial with 120 low-income 2-year-old boys examined whether a brief family-centered intervention that reduces disruptive behavior (D. Shaw, T. Dishion, L. Supplee, F. Gardner, & K. Arnds, 2006) also leads to increases in proactive and positive parenting. It also explored whether change in parenting predicts change in disruptive behavior. In the intervention group, proactive and positive parenting skills increased among parents of 3-year-olds. Change in proactive and positive parenting of 2- to 3-year-old toddlers correlated with change in child disruptive behavior, although the mediation effect of positive parenting was of only borderline significance. Findings suggest that even within a brief and multifaceted preventive intervention, change in proactive parenting skills contributes modestly but significantly to change in child problem behavior.
Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein
Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response costs, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and malaria preventive behaviors. After the intervention, however, a significant increase was observed in the intervention group's mean scores of all the constructs of the protection motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: According to the findings of the study, educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors. PMID:24829734
Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health problem in Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), endemic among human populations in northeast and north Thailand where raw fish containing fluke metacercariae are frequently consumed. Recently, Thailand public health authorities have been organized to reduce morbidity and mortality particularly in the northeast through O. viverrini and CCA screening projects. Health modfication is one of activities included in this campaign, but systemic guidelines of modifying and developing health behavior for liver flukes and CCA prevention in communities towards health belief and social support theory are still various and unclear. Here we review the guidelines for modifying and developing health behavior among populations in rural communities to strengthen understanding regarding perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to liver fluke and CCA prevention. This model may be useful for public health of cancers and related organizations to further health behavior change in endemic areas.
Fishbein, Diana H; Ridenour, Ty A; Stahl, Mindy; Sussman, Steve
A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum.
Chen, Xinguang; Lunn, Sonja; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Deveaux, Lynette; Marshall, Sharon; Cottrell, Leslie; Stanton, Bonita
Behavioral research and prevention intervention science efforts have largely been based on hypotheses of linear or rational behavior change. Additional advances in the field may result from the integration of quantum behavior change and catastrophe models. Longitudinal data from a randomized trial for 1241 pre-adolescents 9-12 years old who self-described as virgin were analyzed. Data for 469 virgins in the control group were included for linear and cusp catastrophe models to describe sexual initiation; data for the rest in the intervention group were added for program effect assessment. Self-reported likelihood to have sex was positively associated with actual initiation of sex (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.43-2.06, R² = 0.13). Receipt of a behavioral prevention intervention based on a cognitive model prevented 15.6% (33.0% vs. 48.6%, OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.24-1.11) of the participants from initiating sex among only those who reported 'very likely to have sex.' The beta coefficients for the cubic term of the usp assessing three bifurcating variables (planning to have sex, intrinsic rewards from sex and self-efficacy for abstinence) were 0.0726, 0.1116 and 0.1069 respectively; R² varied from 0.49 to 0.54 (p < 0.001 for all). Although an intervention based on a model of continuous behavior change did produce a modest impact on sexual initiation, quantum change has contributed more than continuous change in describing sexual initiation among young adolescents, suggesting the need for quantum change and chaotic models to advance behavioral prevention of HIV/AIDS.
Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R
Although experimental behavioral interventions to prevent HIV are generally designed to correct undesirable epidemiological trends, it is presently unknown whether the resulting body of behavioral interventions is adequate to correct the social disparities in HIV-prevalence and incidence present in the United States. Two large, diverse-population meta-analytic databases were reanalyzed to estimate potential perpetuation and change in demographic and behavioral gaps as a result of introducing the available behavioral interventions advocating condom use. This review suggested that, if uniformly applied across populations, the analyzed set of experimental (i.e. under testing) interventions is well poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among males (vs. females) and African-Americans and Latinos (vs. other groups), but ill poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among younger (vs. older) people, as well as men who have sex with men, injection-drug users, and multiple partner heterosexuals (vs. other behavioral groups). Importantly, when the characteristics of the interventions most efficacious for each population were included in the analyses of behavior change, results replicated with three exceptions. Specifically, after accounting for interactions of intervention and facilitator features with characteristics of the recipient population (e.g. gender), there was no behavior change bias for men who have sex with men, younger individuals changed their behavior more than older individuals, and African-Americans changed their behavior less than other groups.
Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.
Although experimental behavioral interventions to prevent HIV are generally designed to correct undesirable epidemiological trends, it is presently unknown whether the resulting body of behavioral interventions is adequate to correct the social disparities in HIV-prevalence and incidence present in the United States. Two large, diverse-population meta-analytic databases were reanalyzed to estimate potential perpetuation and change in demographic and behavioral gaps as a result of introducing the available behavioral interventions advocating condom use. This review suggested that, if uniformly applied across populations, the analyzed set of experimental (i.e. under testing) interventions is well poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among males (vs. females) and African-Americans and Latinos (vs. other groups), but ill poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among younger (vs. older) people, as well as men who have sex with men, injection-drug users, and multiple partner heterosexuals (vs. other behavioral groups). Importantly, when the characteristics of the interventions most efficacious for each population were included in the analyses of behavior change, results replicated with three exceptions. Specifically, after accounting for interactions of intervention and facilitator features with characteristics of the recipient population (e.g. gender), there was no behavior change bias for men who have sex with men, younger individuals changed their behavior more than older individuals, and African-Americans changed their behavior less than other groups. PMID:21154022
Hornik, Robert; Parvanta, Sarah; Mello, Susan; Freres, Derek; Kelly, Bridget; Schwartz, J. Sanford
Research on health information exposure focuses primarily on deliberate information seeking behavior and its effects on health. By contrast, this study explores the complementary and perhaps more influential role of health information acquired through exposure to routinely used sources, called scanning. We hypothesized that scanning from non-medical sources, both mediated and interpersonal, affects cancer screening and prevention decisions. A nationally representative longitudinal survey of adults 40 to 70 years (N=2,489) was used to analyze the effects of scanning on three cancer screening behaviors (mammography, PSA, colonoscopy) and three prevention behaviors (exercising, eating fruits and vegetables, dieting to lose weight). After adjustment for baseline behaviors and covariates, scanning at baseline predicted one year later weekly exercise days overall, as well as daily fruits and vegetables servings for those already higher on baseline consumption. Also among those reporting timely screening mammogram behavior at baseline, scanning predicted repeat mammography. Scanning was marginally predictive of PSA uptake among those not reporting a PSA at baseline. While there were strong cross-sectional associations, scanning did not predict dieting or colonoscopy uptake in longitudinal analyses. These analyses provide substantial support for a claim that routine exposure to health content from non-medical sources affects specific health behaviors. PMID:24083417
Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N
In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression.
Benitez, Juan L.; Fernandez, Maria; Justicia, Fernando; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Ana
The present study is the result of implementing an antisocial behavior prevention program in preschool education. The intervention goal was to prevent the emergence of antisocial behaviors through developing social competence in the participants. The program, called "Aprender a Convivir", is divided into four modules by topic: rules and…
Mejia, Anilena; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R
Many children in developing countries are at risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties, which are likely to be elevated due to the effects of poverty. Parenting programs have shown to be effective preventative strategies in high-income countries, but to date the research on their effectiveness in lower-income countries is limited. International organizations such as the World Health Organization have called for the implementation of programs to prevent behavioral difficulties through the development of stable relationships between children and their parents. The aim of the present paper was to review the literature on parenting programs in developing countries in order to identify challenges, opportunities and directions for further research. First, reports of international organizations were reviewed in order to gain a preliminary overview of the field. In a second stage, a non-systematic review was carried out. Databases were searched in order to identify empirical evaluations of parenting programs in low-income countries. Finally, a systematic review was carried out to specifically identify evaluations of programs targeting emotional or behavioral outcomes. Only one study had a strong methodology among those designed to prevent emotional and behavioral outcomes. Opportunities for further program development and research are identified.
Background Food-borne Salmonella infections are a worldwide concern. During a large-scale outbreak, it is important that the public follows preventive advice. To increase compliance, insight in how the public gathers its knowledge and which factors determine whether or not an individual complies with preventive advice is crucial. Methods In 2012, contaminated salmon caused a large Salmonella Thompson outbreak in the Netherlands. During the outbreak, we conducted an online survey (n = 1,057) to assess the general public’s perceptions, knowledge, preventive behavior and sources of information. Results Respondents perceived Salmonella infections and the 2012 outbreak as severe (m = 4.21; five-point scale with 5 as severe). Their knowledge regarding common food sources, the incubation period and regular treatment of Salmonella (gastro-enteritis) was relatively low (e.g., only 28.7% knew that Salmonella is not normally treated with antibiotics). Preventive behavior differed widely, and the majority (64.7%) did not check for contaminated salmon at home. Most information about the outbreak was gathered through traditional media and news and newspaper websites. This was mostly determined by time spent on the medium. Social media played a marginal role. Wikipedia seemed a potentially important source of information. Conclusions To persuade the public to take preventive actions, public health organizations should deliver their message primarily through mass media. Wikipedia seems a promising instrument for educating the public about food-borne Salmonella. PMID:24479614
Champagne, Nicole; Jacobs, Molly; Massey, Rachael I
Background Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of mobile phones in smoking cessation, promoting healthy diet, nutrition, and physical activity, sun safety, and cancer screening. Although many apps relating to the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases are available from major mobile phone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their efficacy. Objective In this paper, we discuss issues related to the development and testing of new apps for preventing cancer through smoking cessation, sun safety, and other healthy behaviors, including key methodologic issues and outstanding challenges. Methods An exploratory literature review was conducted using bibliographic searches in PubMed and CINAHL with relevant search terms (eg, smartphones, smoking cessation, cancer prevention, cancer screening, and carcinogens) to identify papers published in English through October 2015. Results Only 4 randomized controlled trials of the use of mobile phone apps for smoking cessation and 2 trials of apps for sun safety were identified, indicating that it is premature to conduct a systematic search and meta-analysis of the published literature on this topic. Conclusions Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to better establish the cancer prevention and control capabilities of mobile phone apps. In developing new and refined apps for cancer prevention and control, both health literacy and eHealth literacy should be taken into account. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as smoking cessation, cancer screening, and sun safety. Mobile phone apps are likely to be a useful and low-cost intervention for preventing cancer through behavioral changes. PMID:27242162
Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Knaus, Megan; Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Heisler, Michele
Background Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. Methods We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors. We interviewed 40 of these employees to identify the facilitators of and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors. Results 3 months after screening, 54% of employees with pre-diabetes reported attempting to lose weight and getting recommended levels of physical activity, had asked their primary care provider about metformin for diabetes prevention, or had attended a Diabetes Prevention Program. These employees had higher median levels of motivation to prevent type 2 diabetes (9/10 vs 7/10, p<0.001) and lower median estimations of their risk for type 2 diabetes (40% vs 60%, p=0.02). Key facilitators of engagement were high motivation and social and external supports. Key barriers were lack of motivation and resources, and competing demands. Conclusions Most employees found to have pre-diabetes through a workplace screening were engaged in a recommended preventive behavior 3 months after the screening. This engagement could be enhanced by optimizing motivation and risk perception as well as leveraging social networks and external supports. PMID:27738513
Andrade, Vivian Strassburger; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Oliveira, Lenise; Nunes, Mychely Lopes; de Castro, Fernanda Luz; Garcia, Cristina; Gemelli, Tanise; de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval
It is known that the accumulation of tryptophan and its metabolites is related to brain damage associated with both hypertryptophanemia and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of tryptophan administration on various parameters of behavior in the open-field task and oxidative stress, and the effects of creatine and pyruvate, on the effect of tryptophan. Forty, 60-day-old male Wistar rats, were randomly divided into four groups: saline, tryptophan, pyruvate + creatine, tryptophan + pyruvate + creatine. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of tryptophan (2 μmol/g body weight each one at 3 h of intervals) and/or pyruvate (200 μg/g body weight 1 h before tryptophan), and/or creatine (400 μg/g body weight twice a day for 5 days before tryptophan twice a day for 5 days before training); controls received saline solution (NaCl 0.85%) at the same volumes (30 μl/g body weight) than the other substances. Results showed that tryptophan increased the activity of the animals, suggesting a reduction in the ability of habituation to the environment. Tryptophan induced increase of TBA-RS and total sulfhydryls. The effects of tryptophan in the open field, and in oxidative stress were fully prevented by the combination of creatine plus pyruvate. In case these findings also occur in humans affected by hypertryptophanemia or other neurodegenerative disease in which tryptophan accumulates, it is feasible that oxidative stress may be involved in the mechanisms leading to the brain injury, suggesting that creatine and pyruvate supplementation could benefit patients affected by these disorders.
Schneider, Ricardo; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Clarimundo, Vanessa; Dalmaz, Carla; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Gomez, Rosane
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutamate-modulating agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been considered as a potential anti-addictive drug. Beneficial effects were reported for cocaine, cannabis, and tobacco addicts, but the effect of NAC in alcoholics or in alcohol animal models is unknown. The aggravation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, has been associated with increased levels of serum corticosterone and leptin. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of NAC on anxiety, as well as corticosterone and leptin serum levels, after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with 2 g/kg ethanol, twice daily, by gavage for 30 days; control animals received an appropriate dose of glucose to balance caloric intake. Rats were treated for 4 days with NAC (60 and 90 mg/kg, intra-peritoneally [i.p.]) or saline after alcohol cessation. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, rats were exposed to a 5-min session in the open-field test (OF). Corticosterone and leptin serum levels were determined by ELISA in samples collected within 30 min after the OF. Results showed that rats were hypoactive (decreased rearing, peripheral, and total crossings), and that corticosterone and leptin levels were increased 5 days after alcohol cessation. Four days of NAC prevented the behavioral and biochemical changes brought about by alcohol cessation. We suggest that, in addition to the anti-addictive properties reported for other drugs of abuse, NAC is potentially useful in the management of alcohol withdrawal.
Raingruber, Bonnie; Uwazie, Ernest; Bowie, Sylvester
Attitudes and behaviors of sex workers have a pivotal influence on the spread of AIDS. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to elicit Ghanaian female sex workers' perspectives regarding effective methods of HIV prevention, sources of AIDS-related stigma, and challenges associated with sex work. Women described that: (1) sex work is hard; (2) they felt God would protect their health; (3) staying safe is both a gift and a priority; (4) sex work allows for autonomy; and (5) AIDS-related stigma is very real. To design effective prevention programs it is necessary to consider the culture and perspectives of those who will be served.
de Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Vital, Claude; Ostler, Dominique; Fernandes, Rui; Pouget-Abadie, Jean; Carles, Dominique; Saraiva, Maria João
We found a new C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), Leu178His in a French kindred, associated with cardiac and larynx amyloidosis and skin lesions with onset during the fourth decade. This single-point mutation in exon 4 of the apoAI gene was detected by DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified material and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in two siblings. Blood, larynx, and skin biopsies were available from one sibling. Anti-apoAI immunoblotting of isoelectric focusing of plasma showed a +1 alteration in the charge of the protein. Extraction of fibrils from the skin biopsy revealed both full-length and N-terminal fragments of apoAI and transthyretin (TTR). ApoAI and TTR co-localized in amyloid deposits as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The present report, together with the first recently described C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apoAI, Arg173Pro, shows that amyloidogenicity of apoAI is not a feature exclusive to N-terminal variants. The most striking characteristic of amyloid fibrils in Leu178His is that wild-type TTR is co-localized with apoAI in the fibrils. We have previously determined that a fraction of plasma TTR circulates in plasma bound to high-density lipoprotein and that this interaction occurs through binding to apoAI. Therefore we hypothesize that nonmutated TTR might influence deposition of apoAI as amyloid. PMID:10854214
de Sousa, M M; Vital, C; Ostler, D; Fernandes, R; Pouget-Abadie, J; Carles, D; Saraiva, M J
We found a new C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), Leu178His in a French kindred, associated with cardiac and larynx amyloidosis and skin lesions with onset during the fourth decade. This single-point mutation in exon 4 of the apoAI gene was detected by DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified material and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in two siblings. Blood, larynx, and skin biopsies were available from one sibling. Anti-apoAI immunoblotting of isoelectric focusing of plasma showed a +1 alteration in the charge of the protein. Extraction of fibrils from the skin biopsy revealed both full-length and N-terminal fragments of apoAI and transthyretin (TTR). ApoAI and TTR co-localized in amyloid deposits as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The present report, together with the first recently described C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apoAI, Arg173Pro, shows that amyloidogenicity of apoAI is not a feature exclusive to N-terminal variants. The most striking characteristic of amyloid fibrils in Leu178His is that wild-type TTR is co-localized with apoAI in the fibrils. We have previously determined that a fraction of plasma TTR circulates in plasma bound to high-density lipoprotein and that this interaction occurs through binding to apoAI. Therefore we hypothesize that nonmutated TTR might influence deposition of apoAI as amyloid.
Li, Minyong; Ni, Nanting; Chou, Han-Ting; Lu, Chung-Dar; Tai, Phang C; Wang, Binghe
Quorum sensing has been implicated in the control of pathologically relevant bacterial behavior such as secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and swarming motility. The AI-2 quorum sensing pathway is found in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, antagonizing AI-2 quorum sensing is a possible approach to modifying bacterial behaviour. However, efforts in developing inhibitors of AI-2-mediated quorum sensing are especially lacking. High-throughput virtual screening using the V. harveyi LuxP crystal structure identified two compounds that were found to antagonize AI-2-mediated quorum sensing in V. harveyi without cytotoxicity. The sulfone functionality of these inhibitors was identified as critical to their ability to mimic the natural ligand in their interactions with Arg 215 and Arg 310 of the active site.
Hosek, Sybil G.; Green, Keith R.; Siberry, George; Lally, Michelle; Balthazar, Christopher; Serrano, Pedro A.; Kapogiannis, Bill
On the heels of several trials demonstrating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and the recent approval by the FDA of the supplemental indication for Truvada as PrEP, researchers, advocates, and community providers are calling for the investigation of implementation strategies that combine behavioral interventions with biomedical prevention. This paper describes the modification and integration of an evidence-based group-level intervention into a small PrEP pilot trial with young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The behavioral intervention as well as ongoing risk reduction counseling sessions were found to be highly acceptable among a sample of racially diverse YMSM. PMID:24223514
Greer-Chase, Marlene; Rhodes, Warren A.; Kellam, Sheppard G.
Suggests that the course and malleability of maladaptive behaviors are partly rooted in early aggressive behaviors occurring in poorly managed classrooms. Encourages teacher education training programs incorporate classroom management training. Concludes that the nature and severity of aggressive behaviors in middle school depend on effective…
McCurdy, Barry L.; Kunsch, Catherine; Reibstein, Sally
Urban school officials face the challenge of a growing number of students with or at-risk for developing antisocial behavior. The school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) model provides a comprehensive structure for schools to address antisocial behavior more effectively. In this article, the authors document, in case study format, the…
Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas
Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…
Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel
The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…
Garvin, Royce B.; And Others
Randomly assigned 60 fraternity pledges to behavioral self-management, alcohol education, self-monitoring of drinking behavior, or no-treatment control. Found no differences among treatment conditions on four self-reported dependent variables of drinking behavior. Found significant differences on self-report measures of alcohol consumption at…
Post, Michal; Haymes, Linda; Storey, Keith; Loughrey, Tamara; Campbell, Camille
Stalking behavior among some students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is of concern both for the individual being stalked as well as the student with ASDs. This manuscript reviews effective interventions based upon functional assessment and appropriate positive behavior supports. Specific interventions for addressing staking behavior by…
Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara
This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…
Aung, Tin; McFarland, Willi; Paw, Ehthi; Hetherington, John
To estimate risk behavior and HIV program reach among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Myanmar, we conducted cross-sectional surveys in four cities (Yangon, Mandalay, Pathein, Monywa) using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Prevention response indicators across the cities ranged from 56 to 70 % testing for HIV and receiving results last year, 89-100 % identifying ways of preventing transmission, 50-95 % rejecting misconceptions about HIV, and 82-94 % using a condom at last anal sex. MSM in smaller cities had similar or higher use of programs compared those in larger cities. MSM classified as Ah Chawk Ma (broadly feminine gender presentation) reported having more sex partners, less consistent condom use, and more frequent history of sexually transmitted infections compared to those described as Tha Ngwe (broadly masculine gender presentation). Our behavioral survey data help advocate for appropriate services and form a baseline to gauge future impact of the HIV response for this marginalized population.
Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee
In recent years, several high-profile cases related with misconduct by doctors and medical students have led to increased media interest and public concern regarding doctors who fail to maintain the expected professional standards. In response to these concerns and the increasing awareness of the social responsibility of medicine, the importance of professionalism in medical school is receiving renewed attention in our medical society. Many studies in other countries have stressed the early detection and intervention of unprofessional behaviors in medical students using an adequate evaluation system. The authors intended to explore strategies that reinforce professionalism education and prevent misconduct in medical students. We conducted an extensive literature review to identify patterns and categorize issues of misconduct and unprofessional behavior by medical students; existing evidence to determine why early detection and intervention of are crucial to prevent future misbehavior and disciplinary action by doctors; and education and evaluation systems to enhance professionalism for medical students.
Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.
Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.
This review deals with how geomagnetic storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict geomagnetic storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of geomagnetic storms.
Castro, Felipe González; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector
The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Focus group information is presented as an exemplar to illustrate how thematic content from focus groups was used to inform the development of this parent education curriculum. A step by step description is given to facilitate replication of this process by other prevention researchers who are interested in applying this CBPR approach to develop a culturally responsive parent education intervention. PMID:21107693
Embry, Dennis D.
A paradox exists in community prevention of violence and drugs. Good research now exists on evidence-based programs, yet extensive expenditures on prevention have not produced community-level results. Various multiproblems are quite prevalent in the United States, such as violence, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), conduct problems,…
Broderick, Patricia C.; Jennings, Patricia A.
This article reviews the contextual and neuropsychological challenges of the adolescent period with particular attention to the role that universal prevention can play in moderating the harmful effects of stress. The centrality of emotion regulation skills to long-term health and wellness suggests their importance in prevention and intervention…
Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. This paper uses the Mediating Variable Model (MVM) as a conceptual framework for examining why obesity prevention interventions have not worked. Problems were identified in measurement of...
Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate
The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…
Cross, Wendi F.; Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10-24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper…
Serna, Loretta; Lamros, Katina; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Forness, Steven R.
Evaluation of the Early Screening Project in a Head Start classroom-wide mental health identification and intervention over a 12- week period found that eight children identified as being at high risk for emotional/behavioral disorders prior to intervention either significantly improved or maintained their pre-intervention functioning. No…
Bhatnagar, Tarun; Saravanamurthy, P. Sakthivel; Detels, Roger
It is important to know about patterns of sexual behaviors among married couples in order to develop effective HIV prevention strategies for them. Herein we describe the sexual behaviors, estimate prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) among truck drivers (‘‘truckers’’) and their wives, and determine partner-specific demographic and behavioral correlates of AI. We carried out a cluster-sampled cross-sectional survey among 18–49 year-old wives and their trucker husbands in a south Indian district. Data were collected by same-gender research team members with color-coded computer-assisted interviews. We used random intercept logistic regression to identify the independent correlates of AI. Thirteen percent of 475 wives and 467 truckers reported ever having AI with their spouse. Of those who responded, 55 % of 40 wives and 47 % of 36 truckers never used condoms during AI. Of those who responded, 22 of 32 wives and 24 of 32 husbands felt that condoms were unnecessary during AI. Reporting ever having AI was associated with younger age and higher education of both husband and wife. AI reported by wives was associated with having sexual partner(s) other than husband (adjusted OR 8.8 [95 % CI 3.2–24.0]), correctly answering all HIV knowledge items (adjusted OR 4.9 [95 % CI 1.9–12.5]), husband’s sexual debut occurring before marriage (adjusted OR 1.9 [95 % CI 1.0–3.5]), and husband’s high HIV risk perception (adjusted OR 2.5 [95 % CI 1.2–5.4]). AI reported by truckers was associated with having sex with a male or transgender (adjusted OR 4.0 [95 % CI 1.2–13.3]). Reported prevalence of AI was high considering that in India anal sex is non-normative, heavily stigmatized and, criminal. Indian heterosexual mobile populations need to be informed about the greater risk of HIV infection consequent to unprotected AI. PMID:25252610
Smith, Stephen W; Daunic, Ann P; Barber, Brian R; Aydin, Burak; Van Loan, Christopher L; Taylor, Gregory G
Efficient and effective social-emotional learning programs increase the likelihood of success in school for all students, and particularly for those who may develop emotional or behavior problems. In this study, we followed a sub-sample of students 1 year after their participation in a randomized controlled trial of the effects of the Tools for Getting Along (TFGA) curriculum. TFGA is a universally delivered, preventive cognitive-behavioral curricular intervention designed to improve upper elementary school students' emotional and behavioral self-regulation. To determine effects at 1-year follow-up, we assessed 720 out of the 1,296 original students across TFGA and control conditions on measures of curricular knowledge, teacher-rated executive function and behavior, and student-reported anger and social problem solving. Findings indicated a continued positive effect on curricular knowledge for students taught TFGA relative to controls. We also found significant pretest by condition interaction effects on teacher reports of skills associated with executive function, including inhibitory control and shift (cognitive flexibility), and on teacher reported internalizing and externalizing behavior. Specifically, students with poorer scores on these measures at pretest benefited from TFGA at follow-up relative to comparable students in the control condition. Finally, we found marginally significant pretest by condition interaction effects on proactive aggression, outward expressions of anger, and the executive function related skills of initiating activities and using working memory. Counter to expectations, we found negative TFGA effects on student-reported trait anger and anger control.
Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J
Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex.
Background As silent and preventable in nature, postmenopausal osteoporosis awareness should be raised among young women prior to an irreversible period of declining bone mass. We therefore decided to assess the inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women around the age of peak bone mass. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 430 women aged 20–35 years. The participants’ knowledge, attitude and behaviors concerning osteoporosis prevention were assessed along with demographic data using a four-part questionnaire. The items in this questionnaire were established by extensive literature review, including the Guideline for Management of Osteoporosis of the Thai Osteoporosis Foundation (TOPF) 2010. The content was validated by experts in osteoporosis and reliability was obtained with a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.83. Results The mean age of women in this study was 29.4 ± 4.6 years. Half of the participants (49.5%) had heard about osteoporosis, mostly from television (95.3%, n = 203/213) and the internet (72.8%, n = 155/213). Most women had certain knowledge (85.2%) and positive attitude towards osteoporosis (53.3%). Nevertheless, 80% of the studied population did not have appropriate osteoporosis behaviors. We found significant correlation between the level of attitudes and osteoporosis behaviors (adjusted odd ratio = 3.3 with 95% confidence interval of 1.9-5.7); attitude and educational level (adjusted odd ratio = 2.2 with 95% confidence interval of 1.4-3.4); and attitude and knowledge (adjusted odd ratio = 3.5 with 95% confidence interval of 1.8-6.8). Conclusion Despite having certain knowledge about osteoporosis, the young women did not seem to have appropriate osteoporosis preventive behaviors. Developing a right attitude towards osteoporosis may be a key determinant to improving health practices in order to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:24588970
Norris, F H
A sample of 831 adults were interviewed by researchers using a 72-item inventory about their precautionary behaviors and attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted on random halves of the sample provided evidence of consistency and structure in precautionary behavior both within and across domains of concern. Hazard preparedness activities clustered into having basic supplies on hand, advance planning, and hazard alertness. Crime prevention acts organized according to person protection, neighborly cooperation, and professional guidance. Vehicular safety factored into auto care, responsible driving, and seat belt use. Health maintenance activities entailed healthy habits (diet and exercise), risk monitoring, and avoiding tobacco and alcohol. Higher order factor analyses evidenced intra-individual consistency in the use of Disciplined, Vigilant, and Proactive Behaviors across precautionary domains. At all levels, perceptions of the usefulness of precautionary measures were related strongly to the frequency of self-protective acts.
Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A
Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.
Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk; Parrish, Danielle E
CHOICES is an integrated behavioral intervention for prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure in women at high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. The intervention uses motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral strategies, and targets adoption of effective contraception and reduction of alcohol use. The CHOICES intervention includes four manual-guided counseling sessions delivered by behavioral health counselors and one contraceptive session with a family planning clinician. CHOICES's efficacy has been established through a series of randomized controlled trials in settings including primary care, university hospital-based obstetrical/gynecology practices, urban jails, substance abuse treatment settings, and a media-recruited sample in three large cities. This article describes the CHOICES line of research including the epidemiology, feasibility, and efficacy studies. It also details the CHOICES intervention and the components of each session. In addition, the authors describe current studies testing modifications of the CHOICES intervention, the dissemination efforts to date, and implications for social work practice.
Post, Michal; Haymes, Linda; Storey, Keith; Loughrey, Tamara; Campbell, Camille
Stalking behavior among some students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is of concern both for the individual being stalked as well as the student with ASDs. This manuscript reviews effective interventions based upon functional assessment and appropriate positive behavior supports. Specific interventions for addressing staking behavior by students with ASDs are analyzed and evaluated with suggestions for best practice for instructional procedures. Interventions covered are social skills groups, video modeling, self-management, video feedback, rule governed behavior, scripts, visual supports, counseling, psychopharmacology and reducing the amount of isolating interests and activities while increasing more opportunities for integration. Recommendations for future research are discussed.
Berthou, L; Duverger, N; Emmanuel, F; Langouët, S; Auwerx, J; Guillouzo, A; Fruchart, J C; Rubin, E; Denèfle, P; Staels, B; Branellec, D
The regulation of liver apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene expression by fibrates was studied in human apo A-I transgenic mice containing a human genomic DNA fragment driving apo A-I expression in liver. Treatment with fenofibrate (0.5% wt/wt) for 7 d increased plasma human apo A-I levels up to 750% and HDL-cholesterol levels up to 200% with a shift to larger particles. The increase in human apo A-I plasma levels was time and dose dependent and was already evident after 3 d at the highest dose (0.5% wt/wt) of fenofibrate. In contrast, plasma mouse apo A-I concentration was decreased after fenofibrate in nontransgenic mice. The increase in plasma human apo A-I levels after fenofibrate treatment was associated with a 97% increase in hepatic human apo A-I mRNA, whereas mouse apo A-I mRNA levels decreased to 51%. In nontransgenic mice, a similar down-regulation of hepatic apo A-I mRNA levels was observed. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that the increase in human apo A-I and the decrease in mouse apo A-I gene expression after fenofibrate occurred at the transcriptional level. Since part of the effects of fibrates are mediated through the nuclear receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), the expression of the acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) gene was measured as a control of PPAR activation. Both in transgenic and nontransgenic mice, fenofibrate induced ACO mRNA levels up to sixfold. When transgenic mice were treated with gemfibrozil (0.5% wt/wt) plasma human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels increased 32 and 73%, respectively, above control levels. The weaker effect of this compound on human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels correlated with a less pronounced impact on ACO mRNA levels (a threefold increase) suggesting that the level of induction of human apo A-I gene is related to the PPAR activating potency of the fibrate used. Treatment of human primary hepatocytes with fenofibric acid (500 microM) provoked an 83 and 50% increase in apo A-I secretion and
Tiller, John A.
Computer wargames involve the most in-depth analysis of general game theory. The enumerated turns of a game like chess are dwarfed by the exponentially larger possibilities of even a simple computer wargame. Implementing challenging AI is computer wargames is an important goal in both the commercial and military environments. In the commercial marketplace, customers demand a challenging AI opponent when they play a computer wargame and are frustrated by a lack of competence on the part of the AI. In the military environment, challenging AI opponents are important for several reasons. A challenging AI opponent will force the military professional to avoid routine or set-piece approaches to situations and cause them to think much deeper about military situations before taking action. A good AI opponent would also include national characteristics of the opponent being simulated, thus providing the military professional with even more of a challenge in planning and approach. Implementing current AI technologies in computer wargames is a technological challenge. The goal is to join the needs of AI in computer wargames with the solutions of current AI technologies. This talk will address several of those issues, possible solutions, and currently unsolved problems.
Skauen, Andreas Nordmo
The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has operated three Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in space. Two are on dedicated nano-satellites, AISSat-1 and AISSat-2. The third, the NORAIS Receiver, was installed on the International Space Station. A general method for calculating the upper bound on the tracking capability of a space-based AIS system has been developed and the results from the algorithm applied to AISSat-1 and the NORAIS Receiver individually. In addition, a constellation of AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 is presented. The tracking capability is defined as the probability of re-detecting ships as they move around the globe and is explained to represent and upper bound on a space-based AIS system performance. AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 operates on the nominal AIS1 and AIS2 channels, while the NORAIS Receiver data used are from operations on the dedicated space AIS channels, AIS3 and AIS4. The improved tracking capability of operations on the space AIS channels is presented.
J Marques; P Lamosa; C Russell; R Ventura; C Maycock; M Semmelhack; S Miller; K Xavier
The molecule (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is produced by many different species of bacteria and is the precursor of the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). AI-2 mediates interspecies communication and facilitates regulation of bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation and virulence. A variety of bacterial species have the ability to sequester and process the AI-2 present in their environment, thereby interfering with the cell-cell communication of other bacteria. This process involves the AI-2-regulated lsr operon, comprised of the Lsr transport system that facilitates uptake of the signal, a kinase that phosphorylates the signal to phospho-DPD (P-DPD), and enzymes (like LsrG) that are responsible for processing the phosphorylated signal. Because P-DPD is the intracellular inducer of the lsr operon, enzymes involved in P-DPD processing impact the levels of Lsr expression. Here we show that LsrG catalyzes isomerization of P-DPD into 3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-pentanone-5-phosphate. We present the crystal structure of LsrG, identify potential catalytic residues, and determine which of these residues affects P-DPD processing in vivo and in vitro. We also show that an lsrG deletion mutant accumulates at least 10 times more P-DPD than wild type cells. Consistent with this result, we find that the lsrG mutant has increased expression of the lsr operon and an altered profile of AI-2 accumulation and removal. Understanding of the biochemical mechanisms employed by bacteria to quench signaling of other species can be of great utility in the development of therapies to control bacterial behavior.
Marques, João C.; Lamosa, Pedro; Russell, Caitlin; Ventura, Rita; Maycock, Christopher; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Miller, Stephen T.; Xavier, Karina B.
The molecule (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is produced by many different species of bacteria and is the precursor of the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). AI-2 mediates interspecies communication and facilitates regulation of bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation and virulence. A variety of bacterial species have the ability to sequester and process the AI-2 present in their environment, thereby interfering with the cell-cell communication of other bacteria. This process involves the AI-2-regulated lsr operon, comprised of the Lsr transport system that facilitates uptake of the signal, a kinase that phosphorylates the signal to phospho-DPD (P-DPD), and enzymes (like LsrG) that are responsible for processing the phosphorylated signal. Because P-DPD is the intracellular inducer of the lsr operon, enzymes involved in P-DPD processing impact the levels of Lsr expression. Here we show that LsrG catalyzes isomerization of P-DPD into 3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-pentanone-5-phosphate. We present the crystal structure of LsrG, identify potential catalytic residues, and determine which of these residues affects P-DPD processing in vivo and in vitro. We also show that an lsrG deletion mutant accumulates at least 10 times more P-DPD than wild type cells. Consistent with this result, we find that the lsrG mutant has increased expression of the lsr operon and an altered profile of AI-2 accumulation and removal. Understanding of the biochemical mechanisms employed by bacteria to quench signaling of other species can be of great utility in the development of therapies to control bacterial behavior. PMID:21454635
Trifiletti, L. B.; Gielen, A. C.; Sleet, D. A.; Hopkins, K.
Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury…
Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven
Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…
Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…
Harn, Beth; Basaraba, Deni; Chard, David; Fritz, Ronda
Great progress has been made in learning how to provide more responsive instructional and behavioral supports to students through efforts in Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior and Intervention Supports. This article presents information and data on a longitudinal study designed to accelerate first graders at-risk for reading…
This paper reviews the research on factors that contribute to or protect from the development of antisocial behavior in children, especially those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). It also presents a model to promote prosocial behavior. General risk factors that put all children at risk for…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin
Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…
Borsky, Amanda E.
The objective of this dissertation was to evaluate a bystander behavior program at the Jefferson College of Health Sciences (JCHS) in Roanoke, Virginia. Specifically, this dissertation examined the: (1) preliminary measurement properties of a newly developed bystander behavior intention scale; (2) impact of the bystander intervention at JCHS; and…
Williams, Don E.; McAdam, David
Pica is a dangerous form of self-injurious behavior that occurs in people with developmental disabilities who are institutionalized. Studies also indicate that pica has led to the death of people with developmental disabilities. While a number of published studies have demonstrated that pica behavior can be decreased substantially with behavioral…
Beane, Arthur J.
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.
Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.
Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo
Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496
Pereira, Renata Rebeca; de Abreu, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; Silva, Maísa; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia
Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.
Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman
It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress.
Thompson, Trevor D.; Richards, Thomas B.; Steele, C. Brooke
Introduction Little is known about how health behaviors and receipt of preventive health care differ by race and ethnicity among prostate cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the prevalence of 7 modifiable factors related to prostate cancer: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, weight, colorectal cancer screening, influenza vaccination, and pneumococcal vaccination. Methods We used data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to calculate the racial/ethnic prevalence of sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, health behaviors, and preventive health care among prostate cancer survivors. Adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated by using multivariable logistic regression. Results We identified 8,016 men with a history of prostate cancer. Multivariable analyses indicated that more black men reported being obese (29.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.5%–35.9%) than white men (22.8%; 95% CI, 21.1%–24.6%). More white men (3.6%; 95% CI, 2.9%–4.5%) reported consuming more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day than black men (0.9%; 95% CI, 0.4%–2.0%). More white men aged 65 or older reported receiving pneumococcal vaccine (74.2%; 95% CI, 72.2%–76.1%) than black men of the same age (63.2%; 95% CI, 54.8%–70.8%).We did not observe any differences in the prevalence of health behaviors and preventive health care between white men and men in Hispanic or other race categories. Conclusion Differences in alcohol consumption, obesity, and receipt of pneumococcal vaccination existed only between black and white prostate cancer survivors. These differences underscore the need to develop culturally appropriate, evidence-based interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption, maintain a healthy weight, and promote pneumococcal vaccination among prostate cancer survivors. PMID:27442995
Kowalewski, M R; Henson, K D; Longshore, D
Perceived risk of infection, one factor influencing HIV-related behavior decisions, has been the focus of expanding research efforts. A body of research now exists examining factors related to risk perceptions and the relationship between risk perceptions and behavioral decision making. This article examines 60 quantitative studies of HIV-related risk perceptions, identifies methodological and theoretical limitations or gaps in current knowledge, and suggests ways future research might better assess the role of risk perceptions and facilitate the adoption and maintenance of HIV-related health protective behaviors. The authors argue that mixed findings in the quantitative literature are due to (1) cross-sectional study designs that constrain or confound the interpretation of findings, (2) construct confusion and measurement inconsistencies. (3) insufficient consideration of specific subgroup or behavioral differences, and (4) inattention to situational norms and other contextual factors that influence risk perceptions and behavior.
Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar
The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended.
A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)
Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M
Background Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. Objective This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Methods Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Results Students remained weight stable (HW: −0.48+1.9 kg; control: −0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs −1
Sagar, Vikram; Zhao, Yi
In the present work, the effect of personal behavior induced preventive measures is studied on the spread of epidemics over scale free networks that are characterized by the differential rate of disease transmission. The role of personal behavior induced preventive measures is parameterized in terms of variable λ, which modulates the number of concurrent contacts a node makes with the fraction of its neighboring nodes. The dynamics of the disease is described by a non-linear Susceptible Infected Susceptible model based upon the discrete time Markov Chain method. The network mean field approach is generalized to account for the effect of non-linear coupling between the aforementioned factors on the collective dynamics of nodes. The upper bound estimates of the disease outbreak threshold obtained from the mean field theory are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding non-linear stochastic model. From the results of parametric study, it is shown that the epidemic size has inverse dependence on the preventive measures (λ). It has also been shown that the increase in the average degree of the nodes lowers the time of spread and enhances the size of epidemics.
Joseph, Galen; Burke, Nancy J.; Tuason, Noe; Barker, Judith C.; Pasick, Rena J.
This article describes how the social context of transculturation (cultural change processes) and transmigration (migration in which relationships are sustained across national boundaries) can directly influence use of mammography screening. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with Latino and Filipino academics and social service providers and with U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas and Filipinas to explore direct and indirect influences of social context on health behavior (Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening study). Iterative analyses identified themes of the transcultural domain: colonialism, immigration, discrimination, and therapeutic engagement. In this domain, the authors examine two key behavioral theory constructs, perceptions of susceptibility to illness and perceptions of benefits of preventive medical care. The findings raise concerns about interventions to promote mammography screening primarily based on provision of scientific information. The authors conclude that social context affects behavior directly rather than exclusively through beliefs as behavioral theory implies and that understanding contextual influences, such as transculturation, points to different forms of intervention. PMID:19805792
O'Leary, K Daniel; Slep, Amy M Smith
Historically, the political context of partner physical aggression policy and research has focused on protection of physically victimized women and mandated interventions for male batterers. This emphasis is understandable when one considers the injuries and deaths of women by men. However, physical aggression against partners among teens is a very different phenomenon than battering. Intimate partner violence (IPV) in the form of physical aggression, the focus of this review, often starts in junior high school, and approximately 35% of male and female senior high school students report engaging in IPV. The specific trajectory of IPV varies by sample, but IPV appears to decrease in the late teens or early 20s. IPV is generally reported by both males and females, and not attributable to self-defense. IPV is significantly stable in couples who remain together, but stability appears lower if partners change. Given the importance of physical aggression by both males and females, prevention and early intervention programs need to address relationship factors, and targeted prevention and early intervention would be prudent with young high-risk couples. Decades of intervention programs for batterers have not proven very successful, and IPV appears easier to prevent than treat. Thus, emphasis on prevention of IPV seems both timely and promising. This review is intended for diverse audiences including educational administrators, policy makers, and researchers. It reviews issues such as who and when to target for IPV prevention programs, and it summarizes data relevant to these issues.
Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O
Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P < 0.001). Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time.
Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre
The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.
The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time,…
Kohlmeyer, James M., III
While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…
Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing
To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…
Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela
Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.
Miller, Kimberly A.; Huh, Jimi; Unger, Jennifer B.; Richardson, Jean L.; Allen, Martin W.; Peng, David H.; Cockburn, Myles G.
Invasive melanoma is becoming more common in U.S. Hispanics, yet little is known about the sun protection behaviors in this population, particularly children and adolescents who incur high UV exposures. We used latent class analysis to examine patterns of sun protective behaviors in a cross-sectional survey of Hispanic elementary students participating in a sun safety intervention in Los Angeles from 2013–2014 (N=972). Five behavior indicators in two environments (school and home) representing multiple methods of sun protection were selected for the model. Results suggested a four-class model best fit the data. Classes were labeled in order of increasing risk as multiple protective behaviors (28%), clothing and shade (32%), pants only (15%), and low/inconsistent protective behaviors (25%). Children who reported high parental engagement with sun protection were significantly more likely to be classified in high overall protective categories (OR=4.77). Girls were more likely than boys to be classified in the highest protecting class (OR=3.46), but were also more likely to be in the “pants only” class (OR=2.65). Sensitivity to sunburn was associated with less likelihood of being in the “clothing and shade” class (OR=0.53). The differences amongst these classes and their predictors reveal the heterogeneity and complexity of Hispanic children’s sun protective behaviors. These findings have implications for the design and delivery of future sun protection interventions targeting Hispanic children, as strategies tailored to specific subgroups may be more effective in achieving meaningful behavioral changes. PMID:26436682
Choi, Edward; Bahadori, Mohammad Taha; Schuetz, Andy; Stewart, Walter F.; Sun, Jimeng
Leveraging large historical data in electronic health record (EHR), we developed Doctor AI, a generic predictive model that covers observed medical conditions and medication uses. Doctor AI is a temporal model using recurrent neural networks (RNN) and was developed and applied to longitudinal time stamped EHR data from 260K patients over 8 years. Encounter records (e.g. diagnosis codes, medication codes or procedure codes) were input to RNN to predict (all) the diagnosis and medication categories for a subsequent visit. Doctor AI assesses the history of patients to make multilabel predictions (one label for each diagnosis or medication category). Based on separate blind test set evaluation, Doctor AI can perform differential diagnosis with up to 79% recall@30, significantly higher than several baselines. Moreover, we demonstrate great generalizability of Doctor AI by adapting the resulting models from one institution to another without losing substantial accuracy. PMID:28286600
Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.
This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…
Al Khayyal, Hatem; El Geneidy, Moshera; El Shazly, Somaya Abdel Moneim
Coronary heart disease is the most frequent single cause of death among persons over 65 years of age and it seems to continue to be a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of the elderly population all over the world, yet the condition is largely preventable. The aims of this study to assess and determine the relations among elder's…
Jones, Paul R.; Sheppard, Monique A.; Snowden, Cecelia B.; Miller, Ted R.; Nelkin, Valerie S.; Nguyen, Denise D.; Tominack, Ivy; Dunlap, Hallie Chillag
Background: Unintentional poisoning is an important public health issue that exacts a heavy toll on our nation's seniors. However, relatively few empirical studies have examined the efficacy of poison prevention education programs on this cohort. Purpose: This study assessed the impact of a poison education program on the knowledge, perceptions,…
Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Kim, Annie; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Burns, Barbara J.
We conducted a review of empirically based prevention programs to identify prevalence and types of family support services within these programs. A total of 238 articles published between 1990 and 2011 that included a family support component were identified; 37 met criteria for inclusion. Following the Institute of Medicine's typology, prevention…
Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Eicher, Peggy S.
Although eating is considered an automatic physiologic process, many children experience feeding difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for assessment, treatment and prevention of feeding difficulties in children. Identification and treatment of any factors actively interfering with feeding success is a critical…
Iverson, Donald C.
The underlying philosophical and practical problems encountered when designing drug education/prevention programs are reviewed. The Health Belief Model is described and its most relevant components are outlined. The drug education material and teaching methodology which complement the model are reviewed as well. (Author)
Simon, Thomas R.; Sussman, Steve; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Dent, Clyde W.
Examined the impact of a school-based substance abuse prevention program on alternative high school students' risk for violence. Analysis of students followed over 12 months indicated that there was a higher risk for victimization among male control students. No intervention effect was observed for female students or for perpetration among males.…
This study examined the effectiveness of a multicomponent psychoeducational prevention program ("EQUIP for Educators") Two aspects were examined: (1) if there was a significant relationship among the three psychometric measures: Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), Children's Inventory of Anger (ChIA), Sociomoral Reflection and…
Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber
Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…
Pearl, Erica S.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.
The present study examined the effectiveness of a bullying prevention program. The responses of 270 fifth grade students on the Peer Relations Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Pro-social Tendencies Scale were examined before and after participating in the program. Students in the Bully, Bully-Victim, and Neither…
Burish, Thomas G.; And Others
Studied cancer patients (N=24) in order to determine whether conditioned nausea and vomiting could be delayed or prevented. Indicated that patients receiving progressive muscle relaxation training and guided imagery had significantly less nausea and vomiting and significanty lower blood pressures, pulse rates, and dysphoria, especially anxiety,…
Himle, Michael B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
Unintentional firearm injury in children is a problem in the United States that warrants attention. Recent research has identified several risk factors for such injuries and has developed prevention strategies for reducing their occurrence. Many of these programs, however, have not been evaluated or have been shown to be ineffective. Research on…
Winett, R A; Moore, J F; Anderson, E S
A broader definition of social validity is proposed wherein a socially valid behavior-change intervention is directed to a problem of verifiable importance, the intervention is valued and used appropriately by designated target groups, and the intervention as used has sufficient behavioral impact to substantially reduce the probability of the problem's occurrence in target populations. The verifiable importance of a problem is based on epidemiological data, and the value and appropriate use of an intervention are enhanced through the use of conceptual frameworks for social marketing and behavior change and considerable formative and pilot research. Behavioral impact is assessed through efficacy and effectiveness studies. Thus, the social validity of a behavior-change intervention is established through a number of interactive, a priori steps. This approach to defining social validity is related to critical analysis and intervention issues including individual and population perspectives and "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches to intervention design. This broader definition of social validity is illustrated by a project to reduce the risk of HIV infection among adolescents. Although the various steps involved in creating socially valid interventions can be complicated, time-consuming, and expensive, following all the steps can result in interventions capable of improving a nation's health. PMID:1890042
Brooks, Ronald A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N; Barkley, Thomas W
We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18-26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the following behaviors were more likely to report UVI: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.66), received money or drugs for sex (AOR = 5.05), or had sex with someone who had a sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 4.99). Participants with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI (AOR = 0.82). Our findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino male gang members.
Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis; Eisner, Manuel P
This article reports the effectiveness of two universal prevention programs in reducing externalizing behavior in elementary school children. A sample of 1,675 first graders in 56 Swiss elementary schools was randomly assigned to a school-based social competence intervention, a parental training intervention, both, or control. Externalizing psychopathology and social competence ratings were provided by the children, primary caregivers, and teachers at the beginning and end of the 2-year program, with a follow-up 2 years later. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that long-term effects on teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior were greater for the social competence intervention than for the control. However, for most outcomes, no statistically significant positive effects were observed.
Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.
We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18–26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the following behaviors were more likely to report UVI: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.66), received money or drugs for sex (AOR = 5.05), or had sex with someone who had a sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 4.99). Participants with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI (AOR = 0.82). Our findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino male gang members. PMID:19824836
Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Finnegan, Lorna; Hagan, Holly; Golub, Elizabeth; Latka, Mary; Wagner, Karla; Garfein, Richard S
We analyzed data from a large randomized HIV/HCV prevention intervention trial with young injection drug users (IDUs). Using categorical latent variable analysis, we identified distinct classes of sexual behavior for men and women. We conducted a latent transition analysis to test the effect of the intervention on transitions from higher to lower risk classes. Men who were in a high-risk class at baseline who received the intervention were 86 % more likely to be in a low-risk class at follow-up compared to those in the control group (p = 0.025). High-risk intervention participants were significantly more likely to transition to the class characterized by unprotected sex with a main partner only, while low-risk intervention participants were significantly less likely to transition to that class. No intervention effect was detected on the sexual risk behavior of women, or of men who at baseline were having unprotected sex with a main partner only.
SteelFisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Kang, Minah; Ward, Johanna R M; Kahn, Emily B; Maddox, Kathryn EW; Lubell, Keri M; Tucker, Myra; Ben-Porath, Eran N
Background As public health leaders prepare for possible future influenza pandemics, the rapid spread of 2009 H1N1 influenza highlights the need to focus on measures the public can adopt to help slow disease transmission. Such measures may relate to hygiene (e.g., hand washing), social distancing (e.g., avoiding places where many people gather), and pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., vaccination). Given the disproportionate impact of public health emergencies on minority communities in the United States, it is important to understand whether there are differences in acceptance across racial/ethnic groups that could lead to targeted and more effective policies and communications. Objectives This study explores racial/ethnic differences in the adoption of preventive behaviors during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Patients/Methods Data are from a national telephone poll conducted March 17 to April 11, 2010, among a representative sample of 1123 white, 330 African American, 317 Hispanic, 268 Asian, and 262 American Indian/Alaska Native adults in the USA. Results People in at least one racial/ethnic minority group were more likely than whites to adopt several behaviors related to hygiene, social distancing, and healthcare access, including increased hand washing and talking with a healthcare provider (P-values <0·05). Exceptions included avoiding others with influenza-like illnesses and receiving 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccinations. After we controlled the data for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, healthcare access, and illness- and vaccine-related attitudes, nearly all racial/ethnic differences in behaviors persisted. Conclusions Minority groups appear to be receptive to several preventive behaviors, but barriers to vaccination are more pervasive. PMID:25688806
The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors.
Sheridan, Kathryn; Haight, Wendy L.; Cleeland, Leah
Preventive interventions are urgently needed for children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families, who are at risk for the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavioral problems. This mixed method study explored naturally occurring sources of protection and considers the implications for targeted interventions. Participants were 41 children aged six to 14 years from rural families involved with methamphetamine and the public child welfare system, their primary caregivers, and 19 parents recovering from methamphetamine addiction. When invited during semi-structured interviews to talk about their families, 48% of children spontaneously described socially and emotionally supportive relationships with healthy grandparents. Children’s reports of support from grandparents were associated with lower scores on CBCL Social Problems, [t(37)= 2.23, p<.05 ]; externalizing behaviors, [t(37)= 2.07, p<.05]; and aggressive behaviors, [t(37)= 2.75, p<.01]. When asked to talk about their families, 58% of parents spontaneously described the support their children received from grandparents, and 26% also described the support that they had received from their own grandparents. Children’s and parents’ descriptions of grandparent support suggest how grandparents may protect children from the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems. First, grandparents may prevent obstacles to healthy development by providing their grandchildren with safe shelter and basic child care when parents are incapacitated from substance misuse. Second, they may promote their grandchildren’s positive social-emotional development through supportive relationships. Third, they may promote social competence through enjoyable leisure activities with healthy adults and non-delinquent peers. Understanding naturally occurring sources of protection for children can inform the development of interventions by identifying strengths on which to build, and suggesting
Palermo, Mark T; Di Luigi, Massimo; Dal Forno, Gloria; Dominici, Cinzia; Vicomandi, David; Sambucioni, Augusto; Proietti, Luca; Pasqualetti, Patrizio
Childhood disruptive behaviors can be precursors to later deviance. To verify the efficacy of karate, a complex psychomotor activity that enhances self-regulation and executive skills, as an intervention for externalizing behaviors, 16 children, ranging in age from 8 to 10 years, and meeting diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder were studied. Eight were randomly assigned to a 10-month Wa Do Ryu karate program, whereas 8 children received no intervention. The children were assigned to a larger karate class, composed of typically developing youngsters. Three domains of temperament--intensity, adaptability, and mood regulation--were measured at the beginning and the end of the training period in all 16 participants. A significant improvement in temperament scale scores was measured in the karate group for all tested items compared to controls. Karate, when properly taught, can be a useful adjunct in multimodal programs aimed at externalizing behavior reduction.
Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda; Briones, Ervin; Schwartz, Seth J.; Feaster, Daniel; Huang, Shi; Sullivan, Summer; Tapia, Maria I.; Sabillon, Eduardo; Lopez, Barbara; Szapocznik, Jose
The present study evaluated the efficacy of Familias Unidas + Parent-Preadolescent Training for HIV Prevention (PATH), a Hispanic-specific, parent-centered intervention, in preventing adolescent substance use and unsafe sexual behavior. Two hundred sixty-six 8th-grade Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of…
Albarracin, Dolores; Gillette, Jeffrey C.; Earl, Allison N.; Glasman, Laura R.; Durantini, Marta R.; Ho, Moon-Ho
This meta-analysis tested the major theoretical assumptions about behavior change by examining the outcomes and mediating mechanisms of different preventive strategies in a sample of 354 HIV-prevention interventions and 99 control groups, spanning the past 17 years. There were 2 main conclusions from this extensive review. First, the most…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Strong, Kathryn A.; Parks, Serena L.; Anderson, Eileen; Winett, Richard; Davy, Brenda M.
Young adults attending college are more vulnerable to weight gain than the general population. We sought to identify health behavior change targets related to weight management in college students. Based on the social cognitive theory model for health behavior change, we investigated the health-related lifestyle behaviors and physiological characteristics of this population. Forty-three college students (18.3±0.1 years) completed a series of quantitative assessments (body weight and composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, diet and activity habits) and structured qualitative assessments (structured interview or focus group). Participants were predominantly normal-weight (mean BMI=22.2±0.4 kg/m2) and fit (VO2max = 50.5±1.5 ml/kg/min). However, healthy eating and physical activity were not considered high priorities, despite having ample free time, high exercise self-efficacy, positive outcome expectations for exercise, and a desire to exercise more. Participants reported that regularly engaging in exercise was difficult. This may have been due to poor planning/time management, satisfaction with body image, lack of accountability and feelings of laziness. Dietary patterns generally met recommendations but were low in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Social support for exercise and healthy dietary habits were important factors associated with health behaviors. Students reported a decline in exercise and dietary habits relative to high school, which may contribute to college weight gain. Our results suggest that this population may not have adequate self-regulatory skills, such as planning and self-monitoring, to maintain healthy behaviors in the college environment. Dietitians working with young adults attending college may use these findings to guide the behavioral therapy component of their weight management medical nutrition therapy goals and outcomes. PMID:18926139
Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent
Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders.
Gass, Justin T; Osborne, Megan P H; Watson, Noreen L; Brown, Jordan L; Olive, M Foster
Addiction to methamphetamine is a significant public health problem, and there are currently no pharmacological agents that are approved for the treatment of addiction to this powerful psychostimulant. Chronic methamphetamine use leads to cognitive dysfunction as well as numerous psychiatric, neurological, and cardiovascular complications. There is a growing body of literature implicating an important role for glutamate neurotransmission in psychostimulant addiction. In the present study, we examined the effects of the selective type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) antagonist 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) on intravenous self-administration of methamphetamine and reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for intravenous methamphetamine (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg per infusion) or food pellets and were subsequently administered vehicle or MTEP (0.3-3 mg/kg) before drug or food self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement or a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. We also examined the effects of vehicle or MTEP (0.3-3 mg/kg) on cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior as well as cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Our results show that MTEP dose dependently reduced the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine under FR1 and PR schedules of reinforcement without altering overall responding for food. MTEP also dose dependently prevented cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior, but did not alter cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Together, these results indicate that mGluR5 receptors mediate methamphetamine reinforcement and methamphetamine-seeking behavior, and that pharmacological inhibitors of mGluR5 receptor function may represent a novel class of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction.
Rohrbach, Barton W; Lutzy, Amanda; Patton, Sharon
The Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) has cited an increasing number of reports of failure of heartworm prophylaxis in dogs. Failures may be due to resistance of L(3)-L(4) stage Dirofilaria immitis to the macrocyclic lactone class of compounds used for prophylaxis, lack of compliance with and understanding of administration of prophylactics, individual differences in drug absorption or metabolism, or a combination of these factors. Using the latest scientific information, the American Heartworm Society (AHS) and Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of heartworm infection in dogs. This study summarizes the knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors relating to prevention of heartworm among members of a national hunting dog club, visitors to the club website, and attendees at club-sponsored events. These factors can have a direct effect on the success of heartworm prophylaxis. Results suggest that the dog owners lack confidence in the accuracy of the heartworm test to identify infection, the efficacy of products sold for prevention of heartworm, and the effectiveness of treatment to eliminate adult heartworms from infected dogs. Knowledge about when to begin heartworm preventive medication in a new puppy and the timing of heartworm tests was also lacking among a substantial number of respondents. In order to increase acceptance of prophylaxis and reduce the likelihood of a false conclusion of prophylactic failure, education of dog owners should focus on the need for an appropriately timed annual heartworm test and the importance of administering the last dose of monthly heartworm preventative after the last possible day of potential transmission.
Debom, Gabriela; Gazal, Marta; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; do Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares; Mattos, Bruna; Lencina, Claiton; Kaster, Manuella Pinto; Ghisleni, Gabriele Codenonzi; Tavares, Rejane; Braganhol, Elizandra; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli; Spanevello, Roselia Maria
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of blueberry extract on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Male rats were pretreated with blueberry extract (200mg/kg, once a day for 14days), lithium chloride (45mg/kg, mood stabilizer used as a positive control, twice a day for 14days), or vehicle. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received an injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) or vehicle. In the 15th day, thirty minutes after ketamine administration the hyperlocomotion of the animals was assessed in the open - field apparatus. Immediately after the behavioral analysis brain and blood were collected for biochemical determinations. ketamine treatment induced hyperlocomotion and oxidative damage in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum such as an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase e glutatione peroxidase). Ketamine administration also increased the IL-6 levels in serum in rats. Pretreatment of rats with blueberry extract or lithium prevented the hyperlocomotion, pro - oxidant effects and inflammation induced by ketamine. Our findings suggest that blueberry consumption has a neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced in a preclinical model that mimic some aspects of the manic behavior.
Scheminske, Megan; Henninger, Michelle; Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Williams, Jenny; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah W.; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Naleway, Allison L.
Objectives: Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are poorly…
Pierce, John P.; James, Lisa E.; Messer, Karen; Myers, Mark G.; Williams, Rebecca E.; Trinidad, Dennis R.
There is considerable suggestive evidence that parents can protect their adolescents from developing problem behaviors if they implement recommended best parenting practices. These include providing appropriate limits on adolescent free time, maintaining a close personal relationship with the adolescent, and negotiating and providing incentives for positive behavior patterns. However, retention of the study samples has limited conclusions that can be drawn from published studies. This randomized controlled trial recruited and randomized a national population sample of 1036 families to an intensive parenting intervention using telephone counseling or to a no-contact control group. At enrollment, eligible families had an eldest child between the ages of 10–13 years. The intervention included an initial training program using a self-help manual with telephone counselor support. Implementation of best parenting practices was encouraged using quarterly telephone contacts and a family management check-up questionnaire. A computer-assisted structured counseling protocol was used to aid parents who needed additional assistance to implement best practices. This, along with a centralized service, enabled implementation of quality control procedures. Assessment of problem behavior is undertaken with repeated telephone interviews of the target adolescents. The study is powered to test whether the intervention encouraging parents to maintain best parenting practices is associated with a reduction of 25% in the incidence of problem behaviors prior to age 18 years and will be tested through a maximum likelihood framework. PMID:17964223
Cooper, Sara L.; Lezotte, Dennis; Jacobellis, Jillian; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn
This study examines whether availability of mental health resources in the county of residence is associated with subsequent suicidal behavior after a previous suicide attempt. Among 10,922 individuals who attempted suicide in Colorado between 1998 and 2002, residence in a county that offered a minimum safety-net of mental health services…
Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.
This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…
Miltenberger, Raymond G; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin
This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ training. PMID:15669410
Haynes, Carion R.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is steadily increasing among the baby boom population. Among this population, there is a gap between knowledge and behavioral choices. HIV risk perception is multifaceted and shaped by different sociodemographic factors. Baby boomers' perception of risk and sociocognitive determinates that impact their decision…
Van Acker, Richard
The display of antisocial behavior by children and youths in America is recognized as one of the most pressing concerns facing educators today. To meet the educational needs of these students while maintaining safe school environments, school districts across the nation have increasingly looked toward alternative educational programs.…
Te Brinke, Lysanne W; Deković, Maja; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Over time, developmental theories and empirical studies have gradually started to adopt a bidirectional viewpoint. The area of intervention research is, however, lagging behind in this respect. This longitudinal study examined whether bidirectional associations between (changes in) parenting and (changes in) aggressive child behavior over time differed in three conditions: a child intervention condition, a child + parent intervention condition and a control condition. Participants were 267 children (74 % boys, 26 % girls) with elevated levels of aggression, their mothers and their teachers. Reactive aggression, proactive aggression and perceived parenting were measured at four measurement times from pretest to one-year after intervention termination. Results showed that associations between aggressive child behavior and perceived parenting are different in an intervention context, compared to a general developmental context. Aggressive behavior and perceived parenting were unrelated over time for children who did not receive an intervention. In an intervention context, however, decreases in aggressive child behavior were related to increases in perceived positive parenting and decreases in perceived overreactivity. These findings underscore the importance of addressing child-driven processes in interventions aimed at children, but also in interventions aimed at both children and their parents.
Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin
This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ…
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…
Dunlap, Glen; Strain, Philip S.; Fox, Lise; Carta, Judith J.; Conroy, Maureen; Smith, Barbara J.; Kern, Lee; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Timm, Matthew A.; McCart, Amy; Sailor, Wayne; Markey, Ursula; Markey, D. J.; Lardieri, Sharon; Sowell, Cathy
Challenging behavior exhibited by young children is becoming recognized as a serious impediment to social-emotional development and a harbinger of severe maladjustment in school and adult life. Consequently, professionals and advocates from many disciplines have been seeking to define, elaborate, and improve on existing knowledge related to the…
Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.
We evaluated the effects of the preschool life skills program (PLS; Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) on the acquisition and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills, as well as its effect on problem behavior, of small groups of preschoolers at risk for school failure. Six children were taught to request teacher…
... maternal rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suicide attempts, and substance abuse... abuse, depression, PTSD and suicidality--making the reproductive health, behavioral health and primary... immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), depression and substance use disorders can be problematic for...
Brown, William J.
Reports on the effect of AIDS education on college students. Lists reasons for underestimating personal risk: illusions of invulnerability, the long incubation period of AIDS, drugs and sexual experimentation, underestimating partners' risky sexual behaviors, and acquaintance rape. Concludes that increasing knowledge will not necessarily promote…
A nomothetic assessment of the drive-by shooting in inter-barrio gang violence was conducted. Available data on drive-by shootings were organized using the model of behavioral assessment suggested by Kanfer and Saslow (1969). The model included seven areas of analysis: initial assessment, clarification of the problem, motivation, development,…
Sitges, María; Aldana, Blanca I; Gómez, Carlos D; Nekrassov, Vladimir
In order to investigate a potential anticonvulsive action of sertraline (i.p.), its effects on seizures, EEG epileptiform activity and EEG amplitude increases induced by two convulsive agents were evaluated and compared with the effects of carbamazepine. Around 20 min following 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), tonic-clonic seizures and epileptiform activity were observed in control animals. A single sertraline pre-injection of 2.5 mg/kg, but not of 0.75 mg/kg, prevented these changes to 4-AP. Repeated daily administration of 0.75 mg/kg for one week, however, effectively inhibited the changes induced by 4-AP. The first generalized tonic-clonic seizure and EEG changes in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 50 mg/kg, i.p.) were observed near the first minute in control animals. Single sertraline doses above 5 mg/kg prevented the PTZ-induced changes. Moreover, a single carbamazepine dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.), but not of 15 mg/kg, prevented the changes induced by the above convulsive agents. An anti-seizure action of the antidepressant sertraline is strongly suggested by these findings.
Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand.
Durantini, Marta R.; Albarracin, Dolores; Mitchell, Amy L.; Earl, Allison N.; Gillette, Jeffrey C.
A meta-analysis of 166 HIV-prevention interventions tested theoretical predictions about the effects of experts, lay community members, and similar and dissimilar others, as agents of change. In general, expert interventionists produced greater behavior change than lay community members, and the demographic and behavioral similarity between the…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Splett, Joni D.; Robeson, Elise N.; Offutt, Cheryl A.
The prevention or reduction of early aggressive and disruptive behavior has important educational and mental health implications. Disruptive behavior problems contribute to loss of instruction time in the classroom, frustration for children and families, and considerable societal burden associated with antisocial acts, including delinquency and…
This study assesses the correlations of participation in a prevention program, Men Creating Attitudes for Rape-free Environments (Men CARE), and participants' attitudes and behavior toward sexual violence. The t-tests were used to determine the association, either by the intervention or the cohort, on attitudes and behaviors between the groups,…
Moshki, Mahdi; Dehnoalian, Atefeh; Alami, Ali
This study sought to assess the effect of precede-proceed model on preventive behaviors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in high-risk individuals. In this semi-experimental study, 164 high-risk individuals for type 2 DM were selected and were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control ( n = 85). Educational intervention was performed as a single session face-to-face instruction for 1.5 hr for the intervention group participants. Data were collected before (baseline) and immediately and 1 month after the intervention in the two groups. The mean score of predisposing (knowledge) factors ( p = .001), reinforcing factors ( p = .001), and enabling factors ( p = .02) were significantly different at baseline and 1 month after the intervention in the intervention group compared with the control group ( p < .05). A significant improvement occurred in the nutritional habits of high-risk participants in the intervention group at 1 month after the intervention compared with controls ( p = .001). The precede-proceed model can be effective for promoting the preventive behaviors for type 2 DM in high-risk individuals.
Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng
In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.
Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng
In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000
Bentefour, Yassine; Rakibi, Youness; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Garcia, René
Clinical studies have shown that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remission, induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, is associated with increased prefrontal activation during post-treatment symptom provocation. Other studies have shown that continuation SSRI treatment after remitting from PTSD reduces the rate of relapse. The aim of the present preclinical study was to investigate the relationship between post-treatment prefrontal changes and PTSD relapse prevention. Avoidance conditioning (with a 1.5-mA foot-shock), avoidance extinction and a trauma priming exposure (with a 0.3-mA foot-shock) were used in mice to induce, suppress and reactivate PTSD-like symptoms (including avoidance, fear sensitization, enhanced contextual fear, and anxiety-like behavior), respectively. Paroxetine, injected at 8 mg/kg/day (7 days), was used as SSRI treatment. PTSD-like symptoms were present for at least 30 days and resistant to paroxetine treatment. However, after extinction training (suppressing all PTSD-like symptoms), paroxetine treatment prevented symptom reactivation. Paroxetine treatment also induced infralimbic neuronal activation. However, infralimbic functional tetrodotoxin inactivation abolished the preventive effect of paroxetine treatment on symptom reactivation. The data reveal a potential ability of treatments inducing infralimbic activation to provide prophylactic protection against PTSD relapse.
Colombano, Silvano P.
Simulation and Artificial Intelligence share a fertile common ground both from a practical and from a conceptual point of view. Strengths and weaknesses of both Knowledge Based System and Modeling and Simulation are examined and three types of systems that combine the strengths of both technologies are discussed. These types of systems are a practical starting point, however, the real strengths of both technologies will be exploited only when they are combined in a common knowledge representation paradigm. From an even deeper conceptual point of view, one might even argue that the ability to reason from a set of facts (i.e., Expert System) is less representative of human reasoning than the ability to make a model of the world, change it as required, and derive conclusions about the expected behavior of world entities. This is a fundamental problem in AI, and Modeling Theory can contribute to its solution. The application of Knowledge Engineering technology to a Distributed Processing Network Simulator (DPNS) is discussed.
Riggs, Nathaniel R; Greenberg, Mark T; Kusché, Carol A; Pentz, Mary Ann
Neuropsychology is one field that holds promise in the construction of comprehensive, developmental models for the promotion of social competence and prevention of problem behavior. Neuropsychological models of behavior suggest that children's neurological functioning affects the regulation of strong emotions, as well as performance in social, cognitive, and behavioral spheres. The current study examines the underlying neurocognitive conceptual theory of action of one social-emotional development program. Hypothesized was that inhibitory control and verbal fluency would mediate the relationship between program condition and teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Participants were 318 regular education students enrolled in the second or third grade. A series of regression analyses provided empirical support for (a) the effectiveness of the PATHS Curriculum in promoting inhibitory control and verbal fluency and (b) a partial mediating role for inhibitory control in the relation between prevention condition and behavioral outcomes. Implications are that programs designed to promote social and emotional development should consider comprehensive models that attend to neurocognitive functioning and development. Lack of consideration of neurocognitive pathways to the promotion of social competence may ignore important mechanisms through which prevention affects youth outcomes. Furthermore, the findings suggest that developers of social-emotional preventions should design curricula to explicitly promote the developmental integration of executive functioning, verbal processing, and emotional awareness. Doing so may enhance prevention outcomes particularly if those preventions are implemented during a time of peak neurocognitive development.
Malekshahi, Farideh; Hidarnia, Alireza; Niknami, Shamseddin; Aminshokravi, Frakhondeh
Osteoporosis is a major public health priority in Iran and throughout the world. The prevention of osteoporosis has recently become the ultimate goal of many health professionals. Behavior change is one of the most powerful strategies to prevent osteoporosis. This study aimed to determine the predictive construct of physical preventive behavior of osteoporosis in women aged 30-50 in Khorramabad, west of Iran. This study included 269 women selected from all the health centers of Khorramabad city according to the inclusion criteria of the study and through random cluster and systematic sampling. The data gathering tools were valid and reliable questionnaires of demographic information, stages of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and physical activity. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean of the subjects’ age was 38.72±7.003, and the mean of light weekly physical activity was 38.83±56.400. The results showed that the construct of self-efficacy had the highest predictive power of the preventive behavior. The results also showed that self-efficacy among the constructs of the Trans-theoretical Model was the only predictive construct for osteoporosis prevention behavior. Therefore, the findings of this study can serve as a base for educational interventions in behavioral changes to prevent of osteoporosis by health authorities. PMID:26493413
Santaweesuk, Sapsatree; Chapman, Robert S; Siriwong, Wattasit
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP) program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1) health education, 2) safety inspection, 3) safety communication, and 4) health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up). We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some methods, such as effective risk communication, could be added to increase risk perception.
Wu, Ting-Ching; Chen, Han-Ting; Chang, Han-Ying; Yang, Ching-Yao; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Chen, Jin-Chung
High level of serum corticosteroid is frequently associated with depression, in which a notable HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis hyperactivity is often observed. There are two types of corticosteroid receptors expressed in the hippocampus that provide potent negative feedback regulation on the HPA axis but dysfunction during depression, i.e. the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The balance between hippocampal MR and GR during chronic stress plays an important role in the occurrence of depression. The aim of this study is to explore if chronic corticosterone administration would induce depression-like behavior and affect the expression and function of hippocampal MR and GR, in addition to assess whether manipulation of corticosteroid receptors would modulate depressive behaviors. Hence, mice were treated with corticosterone (40 mg/kg) for 21 days followed by assessment in a battery of depression-like behaviors. The results show that chronic corticosterone-treated animals displayed an increased immobility time in a forced-swimming test, decreased preference to sucrose solution and novel object recognition performance, and enhanced hippocampal serotonin but decreased MR expression in both hippocampus and hypothalamus. On the other hand, co-administration of MR antagonist, spironolactone (25mg/kg, i.p. × 7 days) in corticosteroid-treated animals reduced immobility time in a forced-swimming test and improved performance in a novel object recognition test. In conclusion, we demonstrate that chronic corticosterone treatment triggers several depression-like behaviors, and in parallel, down-regulates MR expression in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Administration of an MR antagonist confers an anti-depressant effect in chronic corticosterone-treated animals.
Ahmed, Nibras A; Petersen, Fernanda C; Scheie, Anne A
Bacteria utilize quorum-sensing communication to organize their behavior by monitoring the concentration of bacterial signals, referred to as autoinducers (AIs). The widespread detection of AI-2 signals and its enzymatic synthase (LuxS) in bacteria suggests that AI-2 is an inter- and intraspecies communication signal. We have previously shown that antibiotic susceptibility is affected by AI-2 signaling in Streptococcus anginosus. Since chronic infections involve persistent biofilms resilient to antibiotic treatment, we explored the role of AI-2/LuxS in Streptococcus intermedius biofilm formation and cell viability when the organism was exposed to sub-MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, or tetracycline. The S. intermedius wild type (WT) and its isogenic luxS mutant, strain SI006, were exposed to sub-MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, or tetracycline. Biofilms were formed on polystyrene discs in microtiter plates. To assess planktonic cell viability, the ATP microbial viability assay was performed and the numbers of CFU were determined. For complementation assays, the AI-2 precursor dihydroxy pentanedione (DPD) was used as a supplement for SI006. Relative luxS expression was quantified by real-time PCR. The sub-MICs of all three antibiotics increased biofilm formation in S. intermedius WT. However, biofilm formation by SI006 was either unaffected or reduced (P < or = 0.05). Bacterial viability tests of biofilm and planktonic cell cultures indicated that SI006 was more susceptible to antibiotics than the WT. DPD complemented the luxS mutant phenotype. Real-time PCR revealed modest yet significant changes in luxS expression in the presence of antibiotic concentrations that increased biofilm formation. In conclusion, in S. intermedius, AI-2/LuxS was involved in antibiotic susceptibility and increased biofilm formation at sub-MICs of antibiotic.
Cochran, S D; Mays, V M; Bowen, D; Gage, S; Bybee, D; Roberts, S J; Goldstein, R S; Robison, A; Rankow, E J; White, J
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether lesbians are at increased risk for certain cancers as a result of an accumulation of behavioral risk factors and difficulties in accessing health care. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of behavioral risk factors (nulliparity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol use), cancer screening behaviors, and self-reported breast cancer histories derived from 7 independently conducted surveys of lesbians/bisexual women (n = 11,876) were compared with national estimates for women. RESULTS: In comparison with adjusted estimates for the US female population, lesbians/bisexual women exhibited greater prevalence rates of obesity, alcohol use, and tobacco use and lower rates of parity and birth control pill use. These women were also less likely to have health insurance coverage or to have had a recent pelvic examination or mammogram. Self-reported histories of breast cancer, however, did not differ from adjusted US female population estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Lesbians and bisexual women differ from heterosexual women in patterns of health risk. These women would be expected to be at especially greater risk for chronic diseases linked to smoking and obesity. PMID:11291371
Shi, Wangpeng; Guo, Yang; Xu, Chuan; Tan, Shuqian; Miao, Jing; Feng, Yanjie; Zhao, Hong; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Fang, Weiguo
Locusts are infamous for their ability to aggregate into gregarious migratory swarms that pose a major threat to food security. Aggregation is elicited by an interplay of visual, tactile, and chemical stimuli, but the aggregation pheromone in feces is particularly important. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Paranosema (Nosema) locustae is known to inhibit aggregation of solitary Locusta migratoria manilensis and to induce gregarious locusts to shift back to solitary behavior. Here we suggest that P. locustae achieves this effect by acidifying the hindgut and modulating the locust immune response, which suppresses the growth of the hindgut bacteria that produce aggregation pheromones. This in turn reduces production of the neurotransmitter serotonin that initiates gregarious behavior. Healthy L. migratoria manilensis exposed to olfactory stimuli from parasite-infected locusts also produced significantly less serotonin, reducing gregarization. P. locustae also suppresses biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine that maintains gregarization. Our findings reveal the mechanisms by which P. locustae reduces production of aggregation pheromone and blocks the initiation and maintainence of gregarious behavior. PMID:24474758
Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George
Behavior problems among preschool children are common. They are important targets for intervention because early externalizing problems and self-regulation issues tend to persist without appropriate attention, and can affect later mental health and school achievement outcomes. However, few preschool curricula addressing social and emotional development exist, and evidence for effects are mixed. In this study, the Second Step Pre/Kindergarten Social and Emotional Learning curriculum was adapted and tested in a small cluster randomized pilot study of community preschool classrooms to determine if it could improve outcomes in: (1) individual children's teacher-rated behavior problems and prosocial skills; (2) classroom climate (classroom interactions and two measures of disruptive behavior); and (3) teacher interaction skills. Year 1 outcomes were modest and were accounted for by baseline differences. In Year 2, classroom climate, measured by independent observers, differed significantly in intervention classrooms, largely because of declines in control classrooms, and there was some evidence for better teacher interaction skills in intervention classrooms. The pattern of effects suggests important impacts on classroom quality worth investigating in a larger study. Both fidelity and implementation rates, as well as positive teacher responses to the curriculum, indicate potential for widespread adoption.
Dunker, K L L; Philippi, S T; Ikeda, J P
During a four month scholarly leave in United States of America, researchers designed a culturally appropriate prevention program for eating disorders (ED) for Brazilian adolescent girls. The program "Se Liga na Nutrição" was modeled on other effective programs identified in a research literature review and was carried out over eleven interactive sessions. It was positively received by the adolescents who suggested that it be part of school curricula. The girls reported that it helped them to develop critical thinking skills with regards to sociocultural norms about body image, food and eating practices.
Shapiro, Cheri J; Kilburn, Janice; Hardin, James W
Because young children with disabilities are at elevated risk for development of challenging behaviors, and caregivers of these children typically lack access to evidence-based parenting interventions, two randomized trials were conducted to examine the impact of an evidence-based parenting intervention, Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP), as a selective preventive intervention. Both studies targeted parents of children under two with a variety of disabilities who were enrolled in the IDEA Part C Early Intervention (EI) system in one state. SSTP was delivered in family homes. In Study One, 49 families were randomly assigned to EI services as usual, with or without SSTP; a 52% attrition rate from treatment was seen. No significant between-group differences were seen aside from a trend toward reduced symptoms of parental depression at follow-up. Intervention group children demonstrated significant decline in behavior problems from post treatment to follow-up, and there was a trend toward improved parenting style in the intervention group during this same time frame. Study Two incorporated a separate workforce intervention for EI service coordinators; 40 families on their caseloads were then randomly assigned to receive EI services as usual with or without SSTP. Attrition from treatment was limited to 20%. No differential impact was seen on child behavior; a trend was noted post-treatment on parent symptoms of depression and on the observed parent-child relationship. At 12-month follow-up, there was a trend favoring improvement in the intervention group in parenting style; statistically significant impact was also seen on the observed quality of the parent-child relationship. SSTP shows promise as a selective preventive intervention for an early intervention population. Reasons for the differential findings between the two studies are explored and suggestions for future research are provided.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688
Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S
This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.
Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Ulibarri, M; Baquero, B; Sleeth, C; Harig, H; Rhodes, S D
Compared to White women, Latinas are 4 times more likely to contract HIV. In an effort to determine the overall state of the science meant to address this disparity, we reviewed the current HIV prevention intervention literature for U.S. Latinas. We searched 5 online electronic databases from their inception through July, 2014, for HIV prevention interventions including a majority sample of Latinas. Of 1041 articles identified, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. We documented study designs, participant characteristics, outcomes, theories used, and other intervention characteristics. Overall, HIV knowledge and attitudes were the predominant outcome; a small minority of studies included self-reported condom use or STD incidence. Strategies used to address cultural factors specific to Latinas and HIV included; lay health advisors, using ethnographic narratives, or using the Theory of Gender and Power, however few of the interventions adopted these strategies. This study identified several gaps in the intervention literature that need to be addressed. In addition to including more direct measures of decreased HIV risk (ex. condom use), more systematic use of strategies meant to address gender and cultural factors that may place Latinas at increased risk (e.g., gender inequity, traditional gender role norms such as machismo and marianismo, and relationship power dynamics).
Zugno, A I; Chipindo, H L; Volpato, A M; Budni, J; Steckert, A V; de Oliveira, M B; Heylmann, A S; da Rosa Silveira, F; Mastella, G A; Maravai, S G; Wessler, P G; Binatti, A R; Panizzutti, B; Schuck, P F; Quevedo, J; Gama, C S
Supplementation with omega-3 has been identified as an adjunctive alternative for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, in order to minimize symptoms. Considering the lack of understanding concerning the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the present study hypothesized that omega 3 prevents the onset of symptoms similar to schizophrenia in young Wistar rats submitted to ketamine treatment. Moreover, the role of oxidative stress in this model was assessed. Omega-3 (0.8g/kg) or vehicle was given by orogastric gavage once daily. Both treatments were performed during 21days, starting at the 30th day of life in young rats. After 14days of treatment with omega-3 or vehicle, a concomitant treatment with saline or ketamine (25mg/kg ip daily) was started and maintained until the last day of the experiment. We evaluated the pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex, activity of antioxidant systems and damage to proteins and lipids. Our results demonstrate that supplementation of omega-3 prevented: decreased inhibition of startle reflex, damage to lipids in the hippocampus and striatum and damage to proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, these changes are associated with decreased GPx in brain tissues evaluated. Together, our results suggest the prophylactic role of omega-3 against the outcome of symptoms associated with schizophrenia.
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students
McLaughlin, Laura Pierce
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…
Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents.
Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Wang, Bo; Du, Hongfei; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Stanton, Bonita
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a cultural adaptation of a social cognitive theory-based HIV behavioral prevention program among young rural-to-urban migrants in China. The intervention design and assessment were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The intervention was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary behavioral outcome was the use of condoms. Other outcome measures include HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, HIV-related perceptions (PMT constructs), and intention to use condom. The mixed-effects regression models for condom use with regular partners indicated that overall frequency of condom use, condom use in last three sexual acts and proper condom use increased over time for the participants but the increases were significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects models for HIV-related perceptions indicated that extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response costs decreased while vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy increased over time for the intervention group. The increases in HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, and intention to use condom were also significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group. The data in the current study suggested efficacy of a social cognitive theory-based behavioral intervention in increasing condom use among young migrants in China. The intervention also increased protective perceptions and decreased risk perception posited by the theory (i.e., PMT).
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hadley, Wendy; Curby, Timothy W; Brown, Larry K
Adolescents with mental health conditions represent a high-risk group for substance use, deliberate self-harm (DSH), and risky sexual behavior. Mental health treatment does not uniformly decrease these risks. Effective prevention efforts are needed to offset the developmental trajectory from mental health problems to these behaviors. This study tested an adjunctive cognitive-behavioral family-based alcohol, DSH, and HIV prevention program (ASH-P) for adolescents in mental healthcare. A two group randomized design was used to compare ASH-P to an assessment only control (AO-C). Participants included 81 adolescents and a parent. Assessments were completed at pre-intervention as well as 1, 6, and 12-months post-enrollment, and included measures of family-based mechanisms and high-risk behaviors. ASH-P relative to AO-C was associated with greater improvements in most family process variables (perceptions of communication and parental disapproval of alcohol use and sexual behavior) as well as less DSH and greater refusal of sex to avoid a sexually transmitted infection. It also had a moderate (but non-significant) effect on odds of binge drinking. No differences were found in suicidal ideation, alcohol use, or sexual intercourse. ASH-P showed initial promise in preventing multiple high-risk behaviors. Further testing of prevention protocols that target multiple high-risk behaviors in clinical samples is warranted.
Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.
BACKGROUND Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. METHODS A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. RESULTS Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class. PMID:27789957
Teixeira, Cátia M; Martín, Eduardo D; Sahún, Ignasi; Masachs, Nuria; Pujadas, Lluís; Corvelo, André; Bosch, Carles; Rossi, Daniela; Martinez, Albert; Maldonado, Rafael; Dierssen, Mara; Soriano, Eduardo
Despite the impact of schizophrenia and mood disorders, which in extreme cases can lead to death, recent decades have brought little progress in the development of new treatments. Recent studies have shown that Reelin, an extracellular protein that is critical for neuronal development, is reduced in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. However, data on a causal or protective role of Reelin in psychiatric diseases is scarce. In order to study the direct influence of Reelin's levels on behavior, we subjected two mouse lines, in which Reelin levels are either reduced (Reelin heterozygous mice) or increased (Reelin overexpressing mice), to a battery of behavioral tests: open-field, black-white box, novelty-suppressed-feeding, forced-swim-test, chronic corticosterone treatment followed by forced-swim-test, cocaine sensitization and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists. These tests were designed to model some aspects of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood, and anxiety disorders. We found no differences between Reeler heterozygous mice and their wild-type littermates. However, Reelin overexpression in the mouse forebrain reduced the time spent floating in the forced-swim-test in mice subjected to chronic corticosterone treatment, reduced behavioral sensitization to cocaine, and reduced PPI deficits induced by a NMDA antagonist. In addition, we demonstrate that while stress increased NMDA NR2B-mediated synaptic transmission, known to be implicated in depression, Reelin overexpression significantly reduced it. Together, these results point to the Reelin signaling pathway as a relevant drug target for the treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders.
Al-Shatnawi, Samah F.; Perri, Matthew; Young, Henry N.; Norton, Merrill
This review describes and summarizes student pharmacists’ substance use behavior in the United States. Current literature indicates that there are problems with alcohol and other drug use among student pharmacists. Although researchers have found variations in the type and rate of reported substance use, significant proportions of student pharmacists were identified as being at high risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). Findings from this review suggest that pharmacy schools should encourage and stimulate more research in order to implement effective screening and early intervention programs in an effort to address this important student health issue. PMID:28090109
Pagán, Oné R; Rowlands, Amanda L; Fattore, Angela L; Coudron, Tamara; Urban, Kimberly R; Bidja, Apurva H; Eterović, Vesna A
Using an adaptation of published behavioral protocols, we determined that acute exposure to the cholinergic compounds nicotine and carbamylcholine decreased planarian motility in a concentration-dependent manner. A tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R-cembranoid), also decreased planarian motility. Experiments in the presence of 1 microM 4R-cembranoid did increase the IC50 for nicotine- but not carbamylcholine-induced decrease in planarian motility. When planarians were exposed for 24 h to either nicotine or carbamylcholine at concentrations near their respective IC50 values and then transferred to plain media, nicotine-exposed, but not carbamylcholine- or cembranoid-exposed worms displayed withdrawal-like distress behaviors. In experiments where planarians were pre-exposed to 100 microM nicotine for 24 h in the presence of 1 microM 4R-cembranoid, the withdrawal-like effects were significantly reduced. These results indicate that the 4R-cembranoid might have valuable applications for tobacco abuse research. This experimental approach using planarians is useful for the initial screening of compounds relevant to drug abuse and dependence.
Aidala, Angela; Cross, Jay E; Stall, Ron; Harre, David; Sumartojo, Esther
This paper examines housing as a contextual factor affecting drug and sexual risk behaviors among HIV positive people using pooled interview data from 2149 clients presenting for services at 16 medical and social service agencies participating in a multi-site evaluation study. The odds of recent drug use, needle use or sex exchange at the baseline interview was 2-4 times as high among the homeless and unstably housed compared to persons with stable housing. Follow-up data collected 6-9 months after baseline showed that change in housing status was associated with change in risk behaviors. Persons whose housing status improved between baseline and follow-up significantly reduced their risks of drug use, needle use, needle sharing and unprotected sex by half in comparison to individuals whose housing status did not change. In addition, for clients whose housing status worsened between baseline and follow-up, their odds of recently exchanging sex was over five times higher than for clients whose housing status did not change. The provision of housing is a promising structural intervention to reduce the spread of HIV.
Salazar-Juárez, Alberto; Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Jurado, Noe; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Leff, Philippe; Antón, Benito
Cocaine abuse is a major health problem worldwide. Treatment based on both 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists attenuate not only the effects of cocaine abuse but also the incentive/motivational effect related to cocaine-paired cues. Mirtazapine, an antagonist of postsynaptic α2-adrenergic, 5-HT2A/C and 5HT3 receptors and inverse agonist of the 5-HT2C receptor, has been shown to effectively modify, at the preclinical and clinical levels, various behavioral alterations induced by drugs abuse. Therefore, it is important to assess whether chronic dosing of mirtazapine alters locomotor effects of cocaine as well as induction and expression of cocaine sensitization. Our results reveal that a daily mirtazapine regimen administered for 30days effectively induces a significant attenuation of cocaine-dependent locomotor activity and as well as the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization. These results suggest that mirtazapine may be used as a potentially effective therapy to attenuate induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization.
Sartorius, Tina; Ketterer, Caroline; Kullmann, Stephanie; Balzer, Michelle; Rotermund, Carola; Binder, Sonja; Hallschmid, Manfred; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Somoza, Veronika; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M
Fat and physical inactivity are the most evident factors in the pathogenesis of obesity, and fat quality seems to play a crucial role for measures of glucose homeostasis. However, the impact of dietary fat quality on brain function, behavior, and sleep is basically unknown. In this study, mice were fed a diet supplemented with either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their impact on glucose homeostasis, locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior was evaluated. MUFAs and SFAs led to a significant increase in fat mass but only feeding of SFAs was accompanied by glucose intolerance in mice. Radiotelemetry revealed a significant decrease in cortical activity in SFA-mice whereas MUFAs even improved activity. SFAs decreased wakefulness and increased non-rapid eye movement sleep. An intracerebroventricular application of insulin promoted locomotor activity in MUFA-fed mice, whereas SFA-mice were resistant. In humans, SFA-enriched diet led to a decrease in hippocampal and cortical activity determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Together, dietary intake of MUFAs promoted insulin action in the brain with its beneficial effects for cortical activity, locomotion, and sleep, whereas a comparable intake of SFAs acted as a negative modulator of brain activity in mice and humans.
This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.
Pendry, Patricia; Carr, Alexa M; Smith, Annelise N; Roeter, Stephanie M
There is growing evidence that promoting social competence in youth is an effective strategy to prevent mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in adulthood. Research suggests that programs delivered in collaboration with schools are particularly effective when they target social and emotional skill building, utilize an interactive instructional style, provide opportunities for youth participation and self-direction, and include explicit attempts to enhance youth social competence. A relatively new but popular approach that incorporates these characteristics is human animal interaction, which can be implemented in educational settings. We report the results from a randomized clinical trial examining the effects of an 11-week equine facilitated learning (EFL) program on the social competence and behavior of 5th-8th grade children. Children (N = 131) were recruited through referral by school counselors and school-based recruitment and then screened for low social competence. Researchers randomly assigned children to an experimental (n = 53) or waitlisted control group (n = 60). Children in the experimental group participated in an 11-week EFL program consisting of once-weekly, 90-min sessions of individual and team-focused activities, whereas children in the control group served as a wait-listed control and participated 16 weeks later. Parents of children in both groups rated child social competence at pretest and posttest. Three independent raters observed and reported children's positive and negative behavior using a validated checklist during each weekly session. Results indicated that program participation had a moderate treatment effect (d = .55) on social competence (p = .02) that was independent of pretest levels, age, gender, and referral status. Results showed that higher levels of program attendance predicted children's trajectories of observed positive (β = .500; p = .003) and negative behavior (β = -.062; p < .001) over the 11-week program.
Sahlén, Veronica; Friebe, Andrea; Sæbø, Solve; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole-Gunnar
Encounters between Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and humans that result in human injuries and fatalities typically coincide with den entry in October and November, and commonly occur near a den. Our aim was to determine when bears arrive at their dens, identify potential predictors of this event, document behavior and activity associated with this period, and attempt to explain the increased risk of bear-caused human injuries in this period. We analyzed global positioning system (GPS) location and activity data from brown bears in south-central Sweden, using generalized linear mixed models, statistical process control, and activity analyses. Bears arrived at their den sites between 6 October and 1 December. Timing varied by reproductive category, bear age, and year. Half of all bears significantly reduced their activity before arriving at the den area: on average 2,169 m away from the den and 1.8 days before arrival. The other half reduced their activity after arriving at the den area. The latter bears took longer time to reach hibernation activity levels, but we did not find a difference in the start date of hibernation between the 2 groups. Bears also appeared to be sensitive to disturbance in this period, with higher den abandonment rates than later in winter, particularly for males and for bears that had not visited their den sites previously. Den entry occurred from October to December, with high variability and poor predictability of its timing. Therefore, restricting hunting or other recreation activities to reduce risk of injury by bears and disturbing bears probably would be both impractical and ineffective. Our findings can be used to educate hunters about bear behavior at this time of year. Many people associate dens with an increased risk of a bear responding aggressively to disturbance to defend its den, but our results indicate that other behavioral, and possibly physiological, changes in this period also may be involved. © 2014 The
Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.
Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.
Bachtiar, Endang W; Bachtiar, Boy M; Jarosz, Lucja M; Amir, Lisa R; Sunarto, Hari; Ganin, Hadas; Meijler, Michael M; Krom, Bastiaan P
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2), synthesized by LuxS, that plays an important role in expression of virulence factors, in intra- but also in interspecies communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AI-2 based signaling in the interactions between C. albicans and A. actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans adhered to C. albicans and inhibited biofilm formation by means of a molecule that was secreted during growth. C. albicans biofilm formation increased significantly when co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS, lacking AI-2 production. Addition of wild-type-derived spent medium or synthetic AI-2 to spent medium of the luxS strain, restored inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Addition of synthetic AI-2 significantly inhibited hypha formation of C. albicans possibly explaining the inhibition of biofilm formation. AI-2 of A. actinomycetemcomitans is synthesized by LuxS, accumulates during growth and inhibits C. albicans hypha- and biofilm formation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between bacteria and fungi may provide important insight into the balance within complex oral microbial communities.
Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.
A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.
Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway
SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057
Xu, Kun; Xu, Guo-Qing; Zheng, Chun-Hua
The wheel-rail adhesion control for regenerative braking systems of high speed electric multiple unit trains is crucial to maintaining the stability, improving the adhesion utilization, and achieving deep energy recovery. There remain technical challenges mainly because of the nonlinear, uncertain, and varying features of wheel-rail contact conditions. This research analyzes the torque transmitting behavior during regenerative braking, and proposes a novel methodology to detect the wheel-rail adhesion stability. Then, applications to the wheel slip prevention during braking are investigated, and the optimal slip ratio control scheme is proposed, which is based on a novel optimal reference generation of the slip ratio and a robust sliding mode control. The proposed methodology achieves the optimal braking performance without the wheel-rail contact information. Numerical simulation results for uncertain slippery rails verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Dayan, Nivi; Shvartzman, Pesach
Immigrants differ in morbidity and mortality characteristics, as well as health services and preventative medicine utilization, compared with the non-immigrant population. As the Length of stay in the host country increases, these patterns become similar to the Local population, due to the acculturation process. Immigrant women's prenatal care is often partial and inadequate, usually occurring late in pregnancy, their contraceptive use is lower and the rate of abortions is higher. They have less screening tests for cancer detection, are diagnosed at advanced stages and their survival and cure probabilities are lower Facilitators and barriers to immigrant women's health behaviors include cultural beliefs and perceptions, length of stay in the host country, degree of acculturation, Language barriers, accessibility, primary physician involvement, role burdens, knowledge and awareness. Ethiopian women experienced a sharp transition in a variety of life aspects following their immigration to Israel. Studies show that Ethiopian women's health and health behavior are typical to those encountered among immigrant women. Their birth patterns are becoming similar to local women as their years in Israel increase, and veteran's patterns are closer to the local population. Data regarding contraceptive use is lacking; the abortion rate is four times higher in comparison with Israeli-born Jewish women, and preventive medicine, referral and early detection rates for cancer are lower. Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are at high risk regarding their health. Understanding the underlying causes, the changes that occur as time in Israel increases, and identifying the accessibility barriers to services experienced by these women, will assist in planning cultural and needs sensitive services, including health promotion programs.
Jennings, Larissa; Pettifor, Audrey; Hamilton, Erica; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Xavier Gómez-Olivé, F; MacPhail, Catherine; Hughes, James; Selin, Amanda; Kahn, Kathleen
Individual economic resources may have greater influence on school-enrolled young women's sexual decision-making than household wealth measures. However, few studies have investigated the effects of personal income, employment, and other financial assets on young women's sexual behaviors. Using baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 study, we examined the association of ever having sex and adopting sexually-protective practices with individual-level economic resources among school-enrolled women, aged 13-20 years (n = 2533). Age-adjusted results showed that among all women employment was associated with ever having sex (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.28-1.90). Among sexually-experienced women, paid work was associated with changes in partner selection practices (OR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.58-3.58) and periodic sexual abstinence to avoid HIV (OR 1.71, 95 % CI 1.07-2.75). Having money to spend on oneself was associated with reducing the number of sexual partners (OR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.08-3.46), discussing HIV testing (OR 2.15, 95 % CI 1.13-4.06), and discussing condom use (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.04-3.80). Having a bank account was associated with condom use (OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.01-2.19). Economic hardship was positively associated with ever having sex, but not with sexually-protective behaviors. Maximizing women's individual economic resources may complement future prevention initiatives.
Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime
While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted U.S born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin’it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N=267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning of 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared to youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use. PMID:26103920
Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer; Hardcastle, Emily; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Keller, Gary; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Rakow, Aaron; Bettis, Alexandra; Reising, Michelle; Cole, David; Sterba, Sonya
Building on an earlier study (Compas et al., 2011), tests of main effects and potential moderators of a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) preventive intervention for children of parents with a history of depression are reported in a sample of 180 families (242 children ages 9-15 years) in a randomized controlled trial assessed at 2-, 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-months after baseline. Significant effects favoring the FGCB intervention over a written information (WI) comparison condition were found on measures of children's symptoms of depression, mixed anxiety/depression, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems, with multiple effects maintained at 18- and 24-months, and on incidence of child episodes of major depressive disorder over the 24-months. Effects were stronger for child self-reports than for parent-reports. Minimal evidence was found for child age, child gender, parental education, parental depressive symptoms, or presence of a current parental depressive episode at baseline as moderators of the FGCB intervention. The findings provide support for sustained and robust effects of this preventive intervention. PMID:26009786
Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baldwin-White, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime
While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted US born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin'it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N = 267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning at 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared with youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use.
Teixeira, N A; Pereira, D G; Hermini, A H
The effect of lithium administration on the learned helplessness model of depression was investigated. Female Wistar rats (190-210 g) received either tap water alone (N = 156) or 20 mM LiCL provided chronically (30 days; N = 127) or acutely (5 days; N = 22) in the drinking water. Three days before the end of treatment, each group was divided into two subgroups which received either inescapable shock (IS) or no shock (NS) treatment in shuttle boxes. All groups were subsequently submitted to an escape test on the following day and then sacrificed one day after the escape test, when blood samples were taken to measure serum Li+, Na+ and K+ concentrations by flame photometry. There were no significant differences in serum Na+ amongst the 4 groups. Chronically treated NS and IS rats both presented an increase in serum K+ compared to the control rats. The IS and not the NS chronically treated rats presented increased serum Li+ levels which cannot be accounted for in terms of differences in Li+ intake. The IS group treated chronically with lithium had a better escape performance than the IS group receiving either tap water or acute Li+ administration. We conclude that chronic but not acute Li+ treatment at a serum level within the prophylactic range (0.5 mEq/l) is able to prevent learned helplessness in the rat. These results agree with the data obtained in clinical practice indicating that Li+ is only effective after chronic administration and that Li(+)-induced hyperkalemia is a side effect.
Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.
This paper reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get “high”. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers themselves about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products and less than 7% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (1) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer focused environmental strategies and (2) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior. PMID:18660467
Kleiboer, Annet; Sorbi, Marjolijn; Mérelle, Saskia; Passchier, Jan; van Doornen, Lorenz
There were two objectives of this research. First was to establish the utility of online digital assistance (ODA), a generic software-based method designed to support behavioral training (BT) in migraine. The second was to test whether ODA can produce additional effects in BT. Utility (feasibility and acceptability) was based on 44 patients with migraine who received ODA as an adjuvant to BT delivered to small groups by lay trainers with migraine at home. ODA tracking files were used to determine ODA feasibility. Acceptability was assessed by a structured interview. To examine ODA effects, 31 patients with migraine who received ODA during BT and at 6 months' follow-up were compared with a matched group of 31 participants who received BT only. Feasibility was established based on minimal technical problems, good compliance, and successful execution of ODA. Acceptability was confirmed by positive participant responses concerning usefulness, supportiveness, and low burden. Finally, ODA participants did not mark better improvements considering migraine attack frequency, internal control, and migraine-specific quality of life compared to those that underwent BT only. ODA is feasible, well-accepted, and perceived to support self-care in 44 patients with migraine. The method is currently designed for these patients, but it can be easily adapted for other health settings. Whether ODA can induce higher gains remains to be established.
Des Jarlais, D C; Arasteh, K; McKnight, C; Feelemyer, J; Hagan, H; Cooper, H L F; Perlman, D C
Examine long term sexual risk behaviors among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City following implementation of "combined" prevention programming, including condom social marketing. Quantitative interviews and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing were conducted among PWID entering Beth Israel Medical Center drug treatment programs 1990-2012. Data were analyzed by four time periods corresponding to the cumulative implementation of HIV prevention interventions. 7,132 subjects were recruited from 1990 to 2012; little change in sexual behavior occurred among HIV seronegative subjects, while HIV seropositive subjects reported significant decreases in being sexually active and significant increases in consistent condom use. HIV transmission risk (being HIV positive and engaging in unprotected sex) declined from 14 % in 1990-1995 to 2 % in 2007-2012 for primary sexual partners and from 6 to 1 % for casual partners. Cumulative implementation of combined prevention programming for PWID was associated with substantial decreases in sexual risk behavior among HIV seropositives.
Albarracín, Dolores; Gillette, Jeffrey C.; Earl, Allison N.; Glasman, Laura R.; Durantini, Marta R.; Ho, Moon-Ho
This meta-analysis tested the major theoretical assumptions about behavior change by examining the outcomes and mediating mechanisms of different preventive strategies in a sample of 354 HIV-prevention interventions and 99 control groups, spanning the past 17 years. There were 2 main conclusions from this extensive review. First, the most effective interventions were those that contained attitudinal arguments, educational information, behavioral skills arguments, and behavioral skills training, whereas the least effective ones were those that attempted to induce fear of HIV. Second, the impact of the interventions and the different strategies behind them was contingent on the gender, age, ethnicity, risk group, and past condom use of the target audience in ways that illuminate the direction of future preventive efforts. PMID:16351327
Background The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a crucial role: it is the site where neurons initiate their electrical outputs. Its composition in terms of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, as well as its length and localization determine the neuron's spiking properties. Some neurons are able to modulate their AIS length or distance from the soma in order to adapt their excitability properties to their activity level. It is therefore crucial to characterize all these parameters and determine where the myelin sheath begins in order to assess a neuron's excitability properties and ability to display such plasticity mechanisms. If the myelin sheath starts immediately after the AIS, another question then arises as to how would the axon be organized at its first myelin attachment site; since AISs are different from nodes of Ranvier, would this particular axonal region resemble a hemi-node of Ranvier? Results We have characterized the AIS of mouse somatic motor neurons. In addition to constant determinants of excitability properties, we found heterogeneities, in terms of AIS localization and Nav composition. We also identified in all α motor neurons a hemi-node-type organization, with a contactin-associated protein (Caspr)+ paranode-type, as well as a Caspr2+ and Kv1+ juxtaparanode-type compartment, referred to as a para-AIS and a juxtapara (JXP)-AIS, adjacent to the AIS, where the myelin sheath begins. We found that Kv1 channels appear in the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS concomitantly with myelination and are progressively excluded from the para-AIS. Their expression in the AIS and JXP-AIS is independent from transient axonal glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1)/Caspr2, in contrast to juxtaparanodes, and independent from PSD-93. Data from mice lacking the cytoskeletal linker protein 4.1B show that this protein is necessary to form the Caspr+ para-AIS barrier, ensuring the compartmentalization of Kv1 channels and the segregation of the AIS, para-AIS