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Sample records for ai sander bakkes

  1. The Remand of Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dershowitz, Nathan Z.

    Perspectives on the Supreme Court's decision in Bakke are considered. It is suggested that the decision was like a remand to the nation and especially to the universities to try to devise and work toward affirmative action programs within certain parameters. Justice Powell gives the schools a great degree of latitude but does give guidance for the…

  2. The Bakke Decision: Implications for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John F.

    This paper discusses legal implications for employment as a result of Bakke v. Regents of University of California, a reverse discrimination case that ruled in favor of the plaintiff. It refers to Weber v. Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation, a case that may turn out to be more significant than Bakke because it involves jobs, money, and who…

  3. The Impact of Bakke on Admissions Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Ron; Macklin, Dave

    1980-01-01

    The Bakke decision will cause institutions to strengthen academic support programs, improve admissions procedures, and develop stronger evaluation programs. Institutions will see more "reverse discrimination" cases in the future. (Author)

  4. Observations on Bakke: History, Issues, Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierce, Milfred C.

    1978-01-01

    The historic Plessy vs. Ferguson decision is reviewed along with the 14th Amendment on which the decision was based. The Brown case is discussed. The issues and implications in the Bakke case are also elucidated. (Author/AM)

  5. "Bakke": Its Impact on Public Employment Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakaly, Charles G.; Krischer, Gordon E.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the Bakke case, it may be expected that the use of inflexible goals and quotas based on racial preference will diminish, at least in those cases in which there has been no official finding of past discrimination. Available from Executive Enterprises Publications Co., Inc., 33 West 60th Street, New York, New York 10023; $48.00/year.…

  6. Bakke: Death Knell of "Equal Opportunity"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biles, George Emergy; Mass, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Particular facts of Bakke v. Board of Regents and the California Supreme Court decision are described along with other recent cases that, dealing with the concept of reverse discrimination, will provide the legal environment for the Supreme Court's decision. Some alternative possible decisions the U.S. Supreme Court may make are considered. (LBH)

  7. After Bakke: The Role of the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, James M.

    Factors contributing to the underrepresentation of minority groups in higher education and professional schools are discussed, along with suggestions for state postsecondary education agencies and for state legislative and executive branches in light of the Bakke decision. A 1977 Educational Testing Service study concluded that if admissions…

  8. Bakke: Some Views. Both Sides Won

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Bertram

    1978-01-01

    Those on both sides of the Bakke case have escalated the rhetoric and predictions of doom if the Supreme Court failed to support their particular view. Now that the Court has spoken, in a way that upholds the tradition of the American promise, both sides must come together to make that promise a reality. (Author/MC)

  9. The Road Not Taken: More Reflections on the Bakke Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph R.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that the Court had the opportunity to and grounds for disposing of the "Bakke" litigation in a manner that would accommodate the competing interests. Instead, the Court allowed Bakke to prevail by default. Available from Southern University Law Review, Southern University School of Law, Southern Branch Post Office, Baton Rouge, LA 70813;…

  10. Racism in the Schools. Desegregation--From Brown to Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrikson, Leslie

    Following the desegregationists' victory in "Brown v. Board of Education" in 1954, there came a succession of gains for desegregation, until a new phenomenon developed in "Bakke v. Regents of University of California" in 1973. Since Bakke's grades and test scores were higher than those of some minority applicants admitted to the University's…

  11. Equal Protection in Special Admissions Programs: Forward from Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julius

    1979-01-01

    Bakke's equal protection holding is analyzed and an assessment is offered of what the decisions mean for academic special admissions programs. Discussion focuses on how race may be used as a factor in admissions decisions consistently with the equal protection clause of the Federal Constitution. (Author/MSE)

  12. The Regents of the University of California v. Allan Bakke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Barry S.; Bayuk, Milla

    1978-01-01

    The major social issue involved is reverse discrimination and whether or not it is a legally permissible form of discrimination in light of history. Implications for higher education will remain. This article discusses the background of the DeFunis and Bakke cases. (Author)

  13. The Road Not Taken: More Reflections on the Bakke Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph R.

    1978-01-01

    In a review of the court decision and opinions in the Allan Bakke medical school admissions case, reasons are found for further proceedings on the issue and to dispute counsel's claim of having produced all available information. Available from Southern University School of Law, Southern Branch Post Office, Baton Rouge, LA 70813. (MSE)

  14. The Bakke Case: The Logical Legacy of Atheoretical Protest Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mack H.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the importance of the Bakke case lies in the fact that it could act as a catalytic agent that would force social theoreticians, especially black ones, to face to an important question: what is the role of racism in the U.S. political economy? (Author/AM)

  15. Perspectives on "Bakke": Equal Protection, Procedural Fairness, or Structural Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Laurence H.

    1979-01-01

    The "Bakke" case is examined for what it has to say regarding first the area of equal protection, then the idea of procedural fairness as distinct from accuracy of result, and finally the notion of structural justice. Available from Harvard Law Review, Harvard Law Review Association, Gannett House, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; sc $5.50.…

  16. Correction to sanders (2008).

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Reports an error in "Triple P-Positive Parenting Program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting" by Matthew R. Sanders (Journal of Family Psychology, 2008[Aug], Vol 22[4], 506-517). In the article, a disclaimer was inadvertently omitted from the author note. The disclaimer has been included. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-10898-003.) Parenting programs have considerable potential to improve the mental health and well-being of children, improve family relationships, and benefit the community at large. However, traditional clinical models of service delivery reach relatively few parents. A public health approach is needed to ensure that more parents benefit and that a societal-level impact is achieved. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is a comprehensive, multilevel system of parenting intervention that combines within a single intervention universal and more targeted interventions for high-risk children and their parents. With Triple P, the overarching goal is to enhance the knowledge, skills, and confidence of parents at a whole-of-population level and, in turn, to reduce the prevalence rates of behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents. The distinguishing features of the intervention and variables that influence its effective implementation are discussed. Self-regulation is a unifying concept that is applied throughout the entire system (e.g., to interactions between children, parents, service providers, and agencies involved in delivering the intervention). Challenges and future directions for the development of public health approaches to parenting are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. 49 CFR 230.84 - Sanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.84 Sanders. Steam locomotives shall be equipped with operable...

  18. 49 CFR 230.84 - Sanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.84 Sanders. Steam locomotives shall be equipped with operable...

  19. 49 CFR 230.84 - Sanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.84 Sanders. Steam locomotives shall be equipped with operable...

  20. 49 CFR 230.84 - Sanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.84 Sanders. Steam locomotives shall be equipped with operable...

  1. 49 CFR 230.84 - Sanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.84 Sanders. Steam locomotives shall be equipped with operable...

  2. The Black Press and the Bakke Case: An Analysis of Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Paula M.; Stroman, Carolyn A.

    The content of four black newspapers was analyzed to determine how they covered the "Regents of the University of California v. Bakke" case, in which the Supreme Court ruled against rigid race quota programs such as the one that had prevented Allan Bakke, a white man, from being admitted to medical school. Each issue of the four newspapers--the…

  3. The Bakke Case: Race, Education, & Affirmative Action. Landmark Law Cases and American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Howard

    This book examines the law and politics surrounding the Bakke case ("Regents of the University of California v. Bakke") and discusses the key arguments presented by both sides in the context of the current eroding public support for affirmative action. The goal is to elucidate the dynamics of U.S. Supreme Court decision making and explore the…

  4. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  5. After Caution Comes Red: The Bakke Decision and Its Threat to Black Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms-Brown, R. Jean

    1979-01-01

    The "Bakke" decision should provide a message to Black students, teachers, and administrators to strive for excellence. Available from Southern University Law Review, Southern University School of Law, Southern Branch Post Office, Baton Rouge, LA 70813. (IRT)

  6. 49 CFR 229.131 - Sanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped with operative sanders that deposit sand on each rail in front of the first power operated wheel... initial terminal; (ii) Arrival at a location where it is placed in a facility with a sand delivery system... at a location where it is placed in a facility with a sand delivery system; or (iii) The...

  7. Bakke, DeFunis, and Minority Admissions. The Quest for Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindler, Allan P.

    The public policy and legal issues surrounding preferential admissions of minorities in higher education and the politics and human drama of the controversy are reviewed and analyzed in this book. Focus is on the court cases of Marco DeFunis against the University of Washington law school and Allan Bakke against the University of California…

  8. Organizing for empowerment: an interview with AES's Roger Sant and Dennis Bakke. Interview by Suzy Wetlaufer.

    PubMed

    Sant, R; Bakke, D

    1999-01-01

    The topic of empowerment is receiving a lot of attention, but how many employees are truly empowered? At the global electricity giant AES Corporation, the answer is all 40,000 of them. In this interview, chairman Roger Sant and CEO Dennis Bakke reflect on their trials and triumphs in creating an exceptional company and explain how their employee-run company works. When they founded AES in 1981, Sant and Bakke set out to create a company where people could have engaging experiences on a daily basis--a company that embodied the principles of fairness, integrity, social responsibility, and fun. Putting those principles into action has created something unique--an ecosystem of real empowerment. What does that system look like? Rather than having a traditional hierarchical chain of command, AES is organized around small teams that are responsible for operations and maintenance. Moreover, AES has eliminated functional departments; there's no corporate marketing division or human resources department. For the system to work, every person must become a well-rounded generalist--a mini-CEO. That, in turn, redefines the jobs of the people at headquarters. Instead of setting strategy and making the "the big decisions," Sant and Bakke act as advisers, guardians of the principles, accountability officers, and chief encouragers. Can other companies successfully adopt the mechanics of such a system? Not unless they first adopt the shared principles that have guided AES since its inception. "Empowerment without values isn't empowerment," says Sant. "It's just technique," adds Bakke.

  9. Allan Bakke versus Regents of the University of California. Volumes I-VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Alfred A., Ed.

    The complete record of the litigation in Alan Bakke v. The Regents of the University of California is contained in these six volumes. Included are all the pleadings, briefs, and arguments reproduced in full text except for minor editing of the oral arguments and data pertaining to the proof of service affidavits of truths. Volume One contains the…

  10. Organizing for empowerment: an interview with AES's Roger Sant and Dennis Bakke. Interview by Suzy Wetlaufer.

    PubMed

    Sant, R; Bakke, D

    1999-01-01

    The topic of empowerment is receiving a lot of attention, but how many employees are truly empowered? At the global electricity giant AES Corporation, the answer is all 40,000 of them. In this interview, chairman Roger Sant and CEO Dennis Bakke reflect on their trials and triumphs in creating an exceptional company and explain how their employee-run company works. When they founded AES in 1981, Sant and Bakke set out to create a company where people could have engaging experiences on a daily basis--a company that embodied the principles of fairness, integrity, social responsibility, and fun. Putting those principles into action has created something unique--an ecosystem of real empowerment. What does that system look like? Rather than having a traditional hierarchical chain of command, AES is organized around small teams that are responsible for operations and maintenance. Moreover, AES has eliminated functional departments; there's no corporate marketing division or human resources department. For the system to work, every person must become a well-rounded generalist--a mini-CEO. That, in turn, redefines the jobs of the people at headquarters. Instead of setting strategy and making the "the big decisions," Sant and Bakke act as advisers, guardians of the principles, accountability officers, and chief encouragers. Can other companies successfully adopt the mechanics of such a system? Not unless they first adopt the shared principles that have guided AES since its inception. "Empowerment without values isn't empowerment," says Sant. "It's just technique," adds Bakke. PMID:10345387

  11. Diversity, trust, and patient care: affirmative action in medical education 25 years after Bakke.

    PubMed

    DeVille, Kenneth; Kopelman, Loretta M

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's seminal 1978 Bakke decision, now 25 years old, has an ambiguous and endangered legacy. Justice Lewis Powell's opinion provided a justification that allowed leaders in medical education to pursue some affirmative action policies while at the same time undermining many other potential defenses. Powell asserted that medical schools might have a "compelling interest" in the creation of a diverse student body. But Powell's compromise jeopardized affirmative action since it blocked many justifications for responding to increases in political opposition and legal challenges. The Bakke decision and its moral background and legal legacy are traced and analyzed. Despite recent legal setbacks, the framework sketched by Powell can be used to defend diversity in medical education both morally and legally as a "compelling state interest." Because trust is a central component of the physician-patient relationship and a prerequisite to the profession's ability to provide effective medical care, the state has a compelling interest in training physicians with whom patients can feel comfortable and safe if the population is (1) distrustful; (2) underserved; (3) faces significant discrimination in the allocation of benefits, goods and services and (4) affirmative action programs would be likely to promote their trust in the system. Similar narrowly-tailored arguments could be used in other professions and for other groups. Bakke is an important background for the pending Grutter case. PMID:14610693

  12. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, No. 76-811, in the Supreme Court of the United States. (Special College Admissions Procedures for Disadvantaged Applicants).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Library, Albany. Legislative and Government Services.

    The Regents of the University of California v. Bakke case in the U.S. Supreme Court and background information on the previous cases in California are presented. Allan Bakke is a white male who applied to the Davis medical school in both 1973 and 1974 and was refused admission even though admission slots under the college's special admissions…

  13. The Regents of the University of California, Petitioner, vs. Allan Bakke, Respondent. On Writ of Certiorari to the Supreme Court of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    The main question of this case is whether Allan Bakke was denied the equal protection of the laws in contravention of the 14th Amendment, solely because of his race, as the result of a racial quota admission policy. A statement of the case which reviews pertinent data such as the admission procedure of the medical school, Bakke's interview and…

  14. Bakke v. Regents of University of California: Potential Implications for Income Tax Exemptions and Affirmative Action in Private Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are the position of the Internal Revenue Service on racial discrimination and federal income tax exemptions for private educational organizations and possible impacts of the Bakke decision on the issue. (Journal availability: School of Law, Martin Luther King, Jr. Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.) (MSE)

  15. Development of eighteen microsatellite loci in walleye (Sander vitreus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coykendall, Dolly K.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Stott, Wendy; Springmann, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    A suite of tri- and tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed for walleye (Sander vitreus) from 454 pyrosequencing data. Eighteen of the 50 primer sets tested amplified consistently in 35 walleye from two lakes on Isle Royale, Lake Superior: Chickenbone Lake and Whittlesey Lake. The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 5.5 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 35.8 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and detect phylogeographic structuring as individuals assigned back to their population of origin. Cross-species amplification within S. canadensis (sauger) was successful for 15 loci, and 11 loci were diagnostic to species. The loci characterized here will be useful for detecting fine-scale spatial structuring, resolving the taxonomic status of Sander species and sub-species, and detecting walleye/sauger hybrids.

  16. AIS training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Barancik, J.I.

    1989-05-01

    This Training Manual was developed by the Injury Prevention and Analysis Group (IPAG) as part of a training program in AIS 85 and AIS-EM (Epidemiological Modifications) coding. The IPAG Program is designed primarily to train medical record and other health professionals from diverse backgrounds and experience levels in the use of AIS 85 and AIS 85-EM. The Manual is designed to be used as a reference text after completion of the Program and includes copies of visual projection materials used during the training sessions.

  17. 76 FR 37061 - Lolo and Kootenai National Forests' Sanders County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Forest Service Lolo and Kootenai National Forests' Sanders County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Sanders County Resource Advisory Committee Meetings. SUMMARY... Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393) the Lolo and...

  18. Pharyngeal odontoma in an adult walleye (Sander vitreus).

    PubMed

    Coffee, L L; Bogdanovic, L B; Cushing, T L; Bowser, P R

    2013-05-01

    An adult walleye (Sander vitreus) was submitted to Cornell University for evaluation of a hard pale-tan pharyngeal mass attached to the gill arches. Dozens of hard white conical structures radiated from the surface. Microscopically, conical structures were identified as denticles and rested on plates of dysplastic orthodentine, cementum, and acellular bone. A diagnosis of compound odontoma was made based upon the presence of proliferative epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tissues that recapitulated tooth structures normally present on gill rakers. Odontomas are classified as hamartomas and typically develop in immature diphyodont mammals. The pharyngeal location and lifelong regeneration of teeth in fish, however, both qualify the present diagnosis in the pharyngeal region of an adult teleost. Ontogenic and morphologic differences between mammalian and piscine dentition and differentials for tooth-bearing tumors in fish are presented within the context of a developmental anomaly.

  19. Reevaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Wang, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 % of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed fromobserved cumulative consumption by less than 10 %. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Wang, C.; O'Brien, T. P.; Holuszko, M.J.; Ogilvie, L.M.; Stickel, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important game fish throughout much of North America. We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks during a 126-day experiment. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with the observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model significantly underestimated food consumption by walleye in the laboratory. The degree of underestimation appeared to depend on the feeding rate. For the tank with the lowest feeding rate (1.4% of walleye body weight per day), the agreement between the bioenergetics model prediction of cumulative consumption over the entire 126-day experiment and the observed cumulative consumption was remarkably close, as the prediction was within 0.1% of the observed cumulative consumption. Feeding rates in the other three tanks ranged from 1.6% to 1.7% of walleye body weight per day, and bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment ranged between 11 and 15% less than the observed cumulative consumption. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-10-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  2. Measurements of the effectiveness of dust extraction systems of hand sanders used on wood.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, A; Brown, R C

    1994-06-01

    An investigation has been made of the production of dust by hand sanders when used without dust extraction, with integral dust extraction and with external dust extraction. The apparatus used for the measurement was designed to carry out sanding in a repeatable manner, simulating normal working practice. The geometry of the wood sanded affects the dust concentration critically, whereas the effects of the sandpaper grade and of the filtration efficiency of the collection system are small. Belt sanders produce high dust levels in all situations, but they are very efficient in removing wood, which means that they need to be used for only a short period. The integral systems of orbital sanders give good dust control on flat wood but not on edges. The high air extraction rate of external systems results in much better dust control during the sanding of edges, though the performance of the two extraction systems on flat wood is broadly similar. The size distribution of the dust clouds produced by the sanding is relatively constant, but that produced by rotary sanders tends to be coarser than that produced by orbital sanders, consistent with the smoother finish given by the latter. The electric charge on the dust produced by sanding is high.

  3. Experimental studies of sputtering on zirconium analyzed using modified Roosandaal Sanders theory. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schomber, P.R.

    1995-03-01

    An ion optics system utilizing a wein filter velocity selector has been modeled and characterized for use as an ion source for an instrument to measure high resolution angular distributions of sputtered neutral atoms. Laser induced fluorescence detection techniques are used to measure ground state and first excited state sputtering angular distributions on a polycrystalline zirconium foil using argon and nitrogen sputter gases. The incident ion beam impact angle has been varied from 15 deg to 75 deg as measured from surface normal and the wein filter velocity selector has been used to select N2+ and N+ ion beams from the nitrogen ion beam. The experimental data gathered are compared to Roosandaal Sanders analytical sputtering theory along with data on xenon and neon. Roosandaal Sanders theory reproduces the near surface normal sputtering behavior but rapidly breaks down as the incident ion beam impact angle moves toward the surface. Modifications to the Roosandaal Sanders equation to introduce adjustable fitting parameters and non-linear least squares fitting of the experimental data to these parameters has been accomplished. The results are discussed relating the fitting parameters to physical constants based in Roosandaal Sanders Theory. Discrepancies in the theory are addressed with extensive discussion on ion surface interaction.

  4. Black knight of AI

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, F.

    1985-03-01

    For two decades now, Hubert Dreyfus, an existentialist philosopher at the University of California at Berkeley, has been in the forefront of the controversy over artificial intelligence. He maintains that computers will never be able to think because scientists will never come up with a suitably rigorous set of rules to describe how we think. To many computer scientists, this is like saying the Earth is flat. But so far, none of them have been able to prove him wrong. Even most AI researchers now admit that before they can make computers any smarter, they'll have to come up with an explanation of how intelligence works in people. This realization has coincided with the emergence of cognitive science, a new discipline linking philosophy, psychology, anthroplogy, linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science in an attempt to develop a theory of the way humans think. The guiding principle of most cognitive science research is the notion that the mind, like the computer, is a system for manipulating symbols - for processing information. The task of cognitive science is to discover how this processing occurs.

  5. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  6. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  7. Buckling Analysis for Stiffened Anisotropic Circular Cylinders Based on Sanders Nonlinear Shell Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.

  8. AIS Investigation of Agricultural Monocultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired over an agricultural area in eastern San Joaquin County, California in July, 1984. Cover type information was subsequently collected for all fields along this flight line. The lack of detailed ground data on individual fields, however, limited AIS data analysis to a qualitative comparison of the spectral reflectance curves for a total of nine cover types. Based on this analysis, it appears that cover types with a positive slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region have a higher spectral response in the 1200 to 1300 nm region compared to those cover types with a negative slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region. Within cover type, spectral variability was also found to be greater than that between cover types. Given the lack of additional field data, the reason for these differences is a matter of speculation.

  9. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  10. The AIS-5000 parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, L.A.; Wilson, S.S.

    1988-05-01

    The AIS-5000 is a commercially available massively parallel processor which has been designed to operate in an industrial environment. It has fine-grained parallelism with up to 1024 processing elements arranged in a single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) architecture. The processing elements are arranged in a one-dimensional chain that, for computer vision applications, can be as wide as the image itself. This architecture has superior cost/performance characteristics than two-dimensional mesh-connected systems. The design of the processing elements and their interconnections as well as the software used to program the system allow a wide variety of algorithms and applications to be implemented. In this paper, the overall architecture of the system is described. Various components of the system are discussed, including details of the processing elements, data I/O pathways and parallel memory organization. A virtual two-dimensional model for programming image-based algorithms for the system is presented. This model is supported by the AIS-5000 hardware and software and allows the system to be treated as a full-image-size, two-dimensional, mesh-connected parallel processor. Performance bench marks are given for certain simple and complex functions.

  11. First evidence of egg deposition by walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Allen, J.D.; French, J. R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of fish spawning habitat in channels connecting the Great Lakes to fishery productivity in those lakes is poorly understood and has not been adequately documented. The Detroit River is a reputed spawning and nursery area for many fish, including walleye (Sander vitreus) that migrate between adjacent Lakes Erie and St. Clair. During April–May 2004, near the head of the Detroit River, we collected 136 fish eggs from the bottom of the river on egg mats. We incubated the eggs at the Great Lakes Science Center until they hatched. All eleven larvae that hatched from the eggs were identified as walleye. These eggs and larvae are the first credible scientific evidence that walleye spawn in the Detroit River. Their origin might be a stock of river-spawning walleye. Such a stock of walleye could potentially add resilience to production by walleye stocks that spawn and are harvested in adjacent waters.

  12. JGOMAS: New Approach to AI Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barella, A.; Valero, S.; Carrascosa, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new environment for teaching practical work in AI subjects. The main purpose of this environment is to make AI techniques more appealing to students and to facilitate the use of the toolkits which are currently widely used in research and development. This new environment has a toolkit for developing and executing agents,…

  13. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  14. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.

  15. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity. PMID:26185241

  16. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  17. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  18. A biophysical model of Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreus) explains interannual variations in recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Yingming; Jones, Michael L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2009-01-01

    We used a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model to investigate how lake currents can affect walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment in western Lake Erie. Four years were selected based on a fall recruitment index: two high recruitment years (i.e., 1996 and 1999) and two low recruitment years (i.e., 1995 and 1998). During the low recruitment years, the model predicted that (i) walleye spawning grounds experienced destructive bottom currents capable of dislodging eggs from suitable habitats (reefs) to unsuitable habitats (i.e., muddy bottom), and (ii) the majority of newly hatched larvae were transported away from the known suitable nursery grounds at the start of their first feeding. Conversely, during two high recruitment years, predicted bottom currents at the spawning grounds were relatively weak, and the predicted movement of newly hatched larvae was toward suitable nursery grounds. Thus, low disturbance-based egg mortality and a temporal and spatial match between walleye first feeding larvae and their food resources were predicted for the two high recruitment years, and high egg mortality plus a mismatch of larvae with their food resources was predicted for the two low recruitment years. In general, mild westerly or southwesterly winds during the spawning-nursery period should favour walleye recruitment in the lake.

  19. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Hanchin, Patrick A; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J

    2009-07-15

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  20. In vitro micropropagation of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast: An important indoor ornamental plant.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Junaid; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A protocol has been developed for in vitro plant regeneration from a nodal explant of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast. Nodal explant showed high callus induction potentiality on MS medium supplemented with 6.78 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) followed by 46.5 μM chlorophenoxy acetic acid (CPA). The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (85%) and number of shoots per explant (5.6) were obtained on medium supplemented with 7.84 μM N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA). Rooting was high on MS solid compared to liquid medium when added with 7.38 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Fifty percent of the roots were also directly rooted as microcuttings on soil rite, sand and peat mixture (1:1:1). In vitro and ex vitro raised plantlets were used for acclimatization. More than 90% of the plantlets was successfully acclimatized and established in plastic pots. Ex vitro transferred plantlets were normal without any phenotypic aberrations.

  1. In vitro micropropagation of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast: An important indoor ornamental plant

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Junaid; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad

    2012-01-01

    A protocol has been developed for in vitro plant regeneration from a nodal explant of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast. Nodal explant showed high callus induction potentiality on MS medium supplemented with 6.78 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) followed by 46.5 μM chlorophenoxy acetic acid (CPA). The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (85%) and number of shoots per explant (5.6) were obtained on medium supplemented with 7.84 μM N6-benzylaminopurine (BA). Rooting was high on MS solid compared to liquid medium when added with 7.38 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Fifty percent of the roots were also directly rooted as microcuttings on soil rite, sand and peat mixture (1:1:1). In vitro and ex vitro raised plantlets were used for acclimatization. More than 90% of the plantlets was successfully acclimatized and established in plastic pots. Ex vitro transferred plantlets were normal without any phenotypic aberrations. PMID:23961221

  2. Localization and seasonal variation of blue pigment (sandercyanin) in walleye (Sander vitreus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Wayne; Schmitz, Mark; Blazer, Vicki S.; Ehlinger, Tim; Berges, John

    2015-01-01

    Several fish species, including the walleye (Sander vitreus), have “yellow” and “blue” color morphs. In S. vitreus, one source of the blue color has been identified as a bili-binding protein pigment (sandercyanin), found in surface mucus of the fish. Little is known about the production of the pigment or about its functions. We examined the anatomical localization and seasonal variation of sandercyanin in S. vitreus from a population in McKim Lake, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Skin sections were collected from 20 fish and examined histologically. Mucus was collected from 306 fish over 6 years, and the amount of sandercyanin was quantified spectrophotometrically. Sandercyanin was found solely on dorsal surfaces of the fish and was localized to novel cells in the epidermis, similar in appearance to secretory sacciform cells. Sandercyanin concentrations were significantly higher in fish collected in summer versus other seasons. Yellow and blue morphs did not differ in amounts of sandercyanin, suggesting that the observed blue color, in fact, arises from lack of yellow pigmentation in blue morphs. The function of the sandercyanin remains unclear, but roles in photoprotection and countershading are consistent with available data.

  3. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  4. Competitive interactions between walleye (Sander vitreus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) under various controlled conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wuellner, M.R.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Willis, D.W.; Galster, B.J.; Selch, T.M.; Chipps, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The range of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is expanding northward, creating new interactions with native predators, including walleye (Sander vitreus). We used a series of experiments to investigate competition between walleye (WAE) and smallmouth bass (SMB) at different life stages and light conditions, identified behaviors that allowed one fish to outcompete another, and evaluated whether prey switching mitigated competitive interactions. Juvenile and adult SMB appeared to outcompete WAE when fed during the daytime; neither species dominated when fed near dusk. Attack rates and capture efficiencies of both species were similar with an intra- or interspecific competitor, but SMB often exploited prey before the competitor had a chance to feed (exploitative competition) or displayed agonistic behaviors toward a potential competitor (interference competition). Prey selectivity of WAE or SMB did not differ when by themselves or with a potential competitor. These results indicate that SMB could outcompete WAE under limiting prey conditions due to the aggressive nature of SMB, but resources may be partitioned at least along a temporal scale. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  5. Turbidity characterizes the reproduction areas of pikeperch ( Sander lucioperca (L.)) in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneranta, L.; Urho, L.; Lappalainen, A.; Kallasvuo, M.

    2011-11-01

    The pikeperch ( Sander lucioperca (L.)) is an economically important fish species occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of Europe. To evaluate the distribution and extent of the reproduction areas in the northern Baltic Sea, a field survey was carried out in two separate coastal areas. Presence/absence data were used to develop a geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive spatial distribution model, where high resolution raster maps of the focal environmental variables and a logistic regression equation were used to predict the probability of larval occurrence. The results indicated that the pikeperch reproduction areas are located in the innermost archipelago zone where high water turbidity best explained their presence. Turbidity was related to several other variables such as fetch and depth. Contrary to our preliminary hypothesis, surface water temperatures measured during the survey had no significant effect in the model due to the low spatial variation in the measured values. Since turbidity is possible to determine by remote sensing methods, the probability maps can be cost-effectively extended to more extensive coastal areas with proper validation.

  6. Influence of Physiochemical and watershed characteristics on mercury concentration in walleye, Sander vitreus, M.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, Cari-Ann; Chipps, Steven R.; Stone, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated mercury concentration has been documented in a variety of fish and is a growing concern for human consumption. Here, we explore the influence of physiochemical and watershed attributes on mercury concentration in walleye (Sander vitreus, M.) from natural, glacial lakes in South Dakota. Regression analysis showed that water quality attributes were poor predictors of walleye mercury concentration (R2 = 0.57, p = 0.13). In contrast, models based on watershed features (e.g., lake level changes, watershed slope, agricultural land, wetlands) and local habitat features (i.e., substrate composition, maximum lake depth) explained 81% (p = 0.001) and 80% (p = 0.002) of the variation in walleye mercury concentration. Using an information theoretic approach we evaluated hypotheses related to water quality, physical habitat and watershed features. The best model explaining variation in walleye mercury concentration included local habitat features (Wi = 0.991). These results show that physical habitat and watershed features were better predictors of walleye mercury concentration than water chemistry in glacial lakes of the Northern Great Plains.

  7. Seasonal rationalization of river water quality sampling locations: a comparative study of the modified Sanders and multivariate statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar

    2016-02-01

    The design of surface water quality sampling location is a crucial decision-making process for rationalization of monitoring network. The quantity, quality, and types of available dataset (watershed characteristics and water quality data) may affect the selection of appropriate design methodology. The modified Sanders approach and multivariate statistical techniques [particularly factor analysis (FA)/principal component analysis (PCA)] are well-accepted and widely used techniques for design of sampling locations. However, their performance may vary significantly with quantity, quality, and types of available dataset. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate performance of these techniques by accounting the effect of seasonal variation, under a situation of limited water quality data but extensive watershed characteristics information, as continuous and consistent river water quality data is usually difficult to obtain, whereas watershed information may be made available through application of geospatial techniques. A case study of Kali River, Western Uttar Pradesh, India, is selected for the analysis. The monitoring was carried out at 16 sampling locations. The discrete and diffuse pollution loads at different sampling sites were estimated and accounted using modified Sanders approach, whereas the monitored physical and chemical water quality parameters were utilized as inputs for FA/PCA. The designed optimum number of sampling locations for monsoon and non-monsoon seasons by modified Sanders approach are eight and seven while that for FA/PCA are eleven and nine, respectively. Less variation in the number and locations of designed sampling sites were obtained by both techniques, which shows stability of results. A geospatial analysis has also been carried out to check the significance of designed sampling location with respect to river basin characteristics and land use of the study area. Both methods are equally efficient; however, modified Sanders

  8. Seasonal rationalization of river water quality sampling locations: a comparative study of the modified Sanders and multivariate statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar

    2016-02-01

    The design of surface water quality sampling location is a crucial decision-making process for rationalization of monitoring network. The quantity, quality, and types of available dataset (watershed characteristics and water quality data) may affect the selection of appropriate design methodology. The modified Sanders approach and multivariate statistical techniques [particularly factor analysis (FA)/principal component analysis (PCA)] are well-accepted and widely used techniques for design of sampling locations. However, their performance may vary significantly with quantity, quality, and types of available dataset. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate performance of these techniques by accounting the effect of seasonal variation, under a situation of limited water quality data but extensive watershed characteristics information, as continuous and consistent river water quality data is usually difficult to obtain, whereas watershed information may be made available through application of geospatial techniques. A case study of Kali River, Western Uttar Pradesh, India, is selected for the analysis. The monitoring was carried out at 16 sampling locations. The discrete and diffuse pollution loads at different sampling sites were estimated and accounted using modified Sanders approach, whereas the monitored physical and chemical water quality parameters were utilized as inputs for FA/PCA. The designed optimum number of sampling locations for monsoon and non-monsoon seasons by modified Sanders approach are eight and seven while that for FA/PCA are eleven and nine, respectively. Less variation in the number and locations of designed sampling sites were obtained by both techniques, which shows stability of results. A geospatial analysis has also been carried out to check the significance of designed sampling location with respect to river basin characteristics and land use of the study area. Both methods are equally efficient; however, modified Sanders

  9. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States

    PubMed Central

    Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

  10. Hatch Timing Variations Among Reservoir Gizzard Shad Populations: Implications for Stocked Sander spp. Fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweifela, Richard D.; Bunnell, David B.; Bremiganc, Mary T.; Hale, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Growth and survival of stocked Sander spp. fingerlings can be influenced by timing of stocking in relation to the peak in density of larval gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. However, coordinating stockings to coincide with peaks in gizzard shad density is difficult due to temporal variation in spawn timing among reservoirs. We used weekly estimates of larval gizzard shad density and length distributions to identify dates of peak hatching and peak total density in Ohio reservoirs and to explore the influence of spring water temperature regimes on timing of peak larval density. Gizzard shad density peaked over 21–32 d among reservoirs but generally varied by 12 d or less among years for any given population. Density peaks were driven by hatching, as larvae smaller than 10 mm accounted for a majority of the gizzard shad collected on the peak date. Peaks in gizzard shad density corresponded to water temperatures of 17–22°C and occurred most frequently when water temperatures had been stable or rising. Reservoirs in the southern portion of the state were 2–5°C warmer than northern reservoirs throughout the spring; thus, gizzard shad spawning and date of peak larval density were earliest in southern reservoirs and became progressively later for populations in more northerly reservoirs. Historical stocking dates for fingerling walleyes S. vitreus and saugeyes (sauger S. canadensis × walleye) in Ohio reservoirs indicated that southern reservoirs were often stocked after the expected peak in gizzard shad density and northern reservoirs were stocked before the peak. A statewide approach to stocking that incorporates latitudinal variations in gizzard shad hatch timing whereby southern reservoirs are stocked earliest would better align stockings with peak gizzard shad density, potentially improving survival of fingerling walleyes and saugeyes.

  11. Applying AI to the Writer's Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlette, Forrest

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of current applications of artificial intelligence (AI) to writing focuses on how to represent knowledge of the writing process in a way that links procedural knowledge to other types of knowledge. A model is proposed that integrates the subtasks of writing into the process of writing itself. (15 references) (LRW)

  12. Fish growth rates modulate mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from eastern Canadian lakes.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Garceau, Steve; Laliberté, Denis

    2005-05-01

    The majority of the studies attempting to explain fluctuations of mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from diverse aquatic ecosystems have invoked the influence of physico-chemical or environmental factors but has eluded that of strictly biological factors. In this study, we examine the relationship between Hg concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) muscles and their growth rates in 12 natural lakes located in four different regions of Quebec (Saint Lawrence Valley, Chibougamau, Abitibi, and Temiscamingue). Hg concentrations vs. total lengths of fish were described using polynomial regressions while growth rates (lengths vs. ages) were estimated using the Von Bertalanffy growth model. No significant differences for fish growth rates or for the relation fish length vs. fish Hg concentrations were found among the different regions except for the three lakes of the Abitibi region where fish grow more slowly than in the other lakes. Major differences were observed for growth rates or lengths vs. Hg concentrations in the different walleye populations of each lake. For example, a 5-year-old walleye with the lowest growth rate will reach an average length of 325 mm, whereas the average length for a walleye with the highest growth rate is 550 mm. Predicted values of Hg concentrations in walleyes of a standardized length of 350 mm ranged from 0.17 to 0.79 ppm. When all walleye populations of the 12 lakes were considered together, growth rates were significantly correlated to Hg concentrations (r=0.9244; P<0.001). This suggests that faster-growing walleyes will have lower Hg concentrations than slower-growing fish at a given length. The growth rate as a biological factor dominates all other environmental factors to account for differences in Hg concentrations in walleye populations studied. Nevertheless, the minor differences in Hg concentrations observed in walleye taken from two separate arms of a single lake in the Temiscamingue region, Lake Desjardins, could not be

  13. Differential regulation of human apolipoprotein AI and high-density lipoprotein by fenofibrate in hapoAI and hapoAI-CIII-AIV transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; He, Shirley; Newton, Roger S

    2011-02-01

    Fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, lowers triglycerides (TG) and raises high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) in humans. While fenofibrate is very effective in lowering TG, it does not raise HDL-C in humans to the same extent as seen in human apoAI transgenic (hAI-Tg) mice. We studied the mechanism of this discordance using the following compounds as tools: cholic acid that down-regulates human apoAI, and fenofibrate, that elevates hapoAI and HDL-C in hAI-Tg mice. We hypothesized that additional sequences, including apoCIII and AIV genes on chromosome 11, not present in the hapoAI transgene may be responsible for the dampened effect of fibrates on HDL-C seen in humans. For this, hAI-Tg mice with 11kb DNA segment and hapoAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice with 33kb DNA segment harboring apoCIII and AIV genes were employed. These mice were treated with fenofibrate and cholic acid. Fenofibrate increased apoAI and HDL-C levels, and HDL size in the apoAI-Tg mice via up-regulation of the hapoAI mRNA and increased activity and mRNA of PLTP, respectively. Consistent with earlier findings, cholic acid showed similar effects of lowering HDL-C, and elevating LDL-C in hAI-Tg mice as well as in the hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice. Fenofibrate decreased TG and increased HDL size in hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice as well, but surprisingly, did not elevate serum levels of hapoAI or hepatic AI mRNA, suggesting that additional sequences not present in the hapoAI transgene (11kb) may be partly responsible for the dampened effect on HDL-C seen in hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice. Since hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mouse mimics fenofibrate effects seen in humans, this transgenic mouse could serve as a better predictive model for screening HDL-C raising compounds.

  14. Fertility of holstein dairy heifers after synchronization of ovulation and timed AI or AI after removed tail chalk.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2004-07-01

    Nonlactating Holstein dairy heifers (n=352) 13 mo of age were managed using a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) breeding period in which they received AI after removed tail chalk evaluated once daily. At AI breeding period onset (d 0), heifers were randomly assigned to receive synchronization of ovulation (100 microg of GnRH, d 0; 25 mg of PGF2alpha, d 6; 100 microg of GnRH, d 8) and timed AI (TAI; d 8) and AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (GPG; n=175), or AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (TC; n=177). As expected, 17.7% (31/175) of GPG heifers received AI after removed tail chalk before scheduled TAI. Pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (PR/AI) at approximately 30 d after first AI tended to be greater for TC (46.5%) than for GPG (38.3%) heifers. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected; however, overall PR/AI was low for heifers in both treatments due to variation among the 3 inseminators (24.8, 30.0, and 58.0%). Pregnancy loss from approximately 30 to approximately 75 d after first AI was 10% and did not differ between treatments. Based on survival analysis, days to first AI was greater for TC than for GPG heifers, whereas days to pregnancy across the 42-d AI breeding period did not differ between treatments. Overall, 81.2% of GPG heifers receiving TAI synchronized luteal regression and ovulated within 48 h after the second GnRH injection. We conclude that this synchronization protocol can yield acceptable fertility in dairy heifers if AI to estrus is conducted between treatment with GnRH and PGF2alpha and AI efficiency is optimized. PMID:15328217

  15. AI in space: Past, present, and possible futures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.

    1992-01-01

    While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.

  16. Why Don't Accounting Students like AIS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Aoun, Chadi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The demand for Accounting Information Systems (AIS) knowledge has increased exponentially over the past two decades, but studying AIS has not proved easy for many accounting students. The aim of the study is to understand the challenges accounting students face in studying AIS through investigation of the factors which may be contributing…

  17. 47 CFR 80.393 - Frequencies for AIS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements for non-Federal Government ships. These requirements are codified at 33 CFR 164.46, 401.20. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for AIS stations. 80.393 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ais Stations § 80.393 Frequencies for AIS stations....

  18. The AI Interdisciplinary Context: Single or Multiple Research Bases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1992-01-01

    This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)

  19. In the Wake of Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Denton L.

    1979-01-01

    Several court cases concerning affirmative action programs both in education and in employment are reviewed in light of Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act. Implications of past court decisions are discussed, as are possible future decisions. (MC)

  20. Autonomous vehicle control using AI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keirsey, D.; Mitchell, J.; Bullock, B.; Nussmeier, T.; Tseng, D.

    1983-11-01

    A review of early work on a project for developing autonomous vehicle control technology is presented. The primary goal of this effort is the development of a generic capability that can be specialized to a wide range of DOD applications. Project emphasis is on development of the fundamental AI-based technology required by autonomous systems and the implementation of a testbed environment to evaluate and demonstrate the system capabilities. 10 references.

  1. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  2. Naturalizing semiotics: The triadic sign of Charles Sanders Peirce as a systems property.

    PubMed

    Kilstrup, Mogens

    2015-12-01

    The father of pragmatism, Charles Sanders Peirce, gave in 1903 the following definition of a sign: "A Sign, or Representamen, is a First which stands in such a genuine triadic relation to a Second, called its Object, as to be capable of determining a Third, called its Interpretant, to assume the same triadic relation to its Object in which it stands itself to the same Object. The triadic relation is genuine, that is its three members are bound together by it in a way that does not consist in any complexus of dyadic relations". Despite its cult status and its pragmatic foundation, the Peircean sign has never revealed its true potential by being integrated into a formal system. In the present report, a reconstruction of the sign model is presented, which may at first appear somewhat obvious and superficial. However by use of the reconstructed model, the above statement and the majority of Peirce's other statements about the nature of signs fall into place. Instead of defining three links between Object (O), Representamen (R), and Interpretant (I), the sign is described as having a single three-dimensional link, specifying its location in a three dimensional (O,R,I) linkage space. To understand and explain sign function, the process of sign utilization (semiosis) has to be divided into two temporally separated phases, a sign-establishment phase where a three-dimensional link (Ψ(O,R,I)) is formed between three sign elements, and a later sign-interpretation phase where the established linkage is used for inferring significance to a novel phenomenon, if this satisfies the criteria for being a Representamen for the sign. Numerous statements from Peirce indicate that he used a two-staged semiosis paradigm although he did not state that explicitly. The three-dimensional model was primarily constructed for use in biosemiotics, as an exploratory frame for mapping the evolutionary establishment of sign links, which logically must have preceded the fixation of any regulatory

  3. Naturalizing semiotics: The triadic sign of Charles Sanders Peirce as a systems property.

    PubMed

    Kilstrup, Mogens

    2015-12-01

    The father of pragmatism, Charles Sanders Peirce, gave in 1903 the following definition of a sign: "A Sign, or Representamen, is a First which stands in such a genuine triadic relation to a Second, called its Object, as to be capable of determining a Third, called its Interpretant, to assume the same triadic relation to its Object in which it stands itself to the same Object. The triadic relation is genuine, that is its three members are bound together by it in a way that does not consist in any complexus of dyadic relations". Despite its cult status and its pragmatic foundation, the Peircean sign has never revealed its true potential by being integrated into a formal system. In the present report, a reconstruction of the sign model is presented, which may at first appear somewhat obvious and superficial. However by use of the reconstructed model, the above statement and the majority of Peirce's other statements about the nature of signs fall into place. Instead of defining three links between Object (O), Representamen (R), and Interpretant (I), the sign is described as having a single three-dimensional link, specifying its location in a three dimensional (O,R,I) linkage space. To understand and explain sign function, the process of sign utilization (semiosis) has to be divided into two temporally separated phases, a sign-establishment phase where a three-dimensional link (Ψ(O,R,I)) is formed between three sign elements, and a later sign-interpretation phase where the established linkage is used for inferring significance to a novel phenomenon, if this satisfies the criteria for being a Representamen for the sign. Numerous statements from Peirce indicate that he used a two-staged semiosis paradigm although he did not state that explicitly. The three-dimensional model was primarily constructed for use in biosemiotics, as an exploratory frame for mapping the evolutionary establishment of sign links, which logically must have preceded the fixation of any regulatory

  4. Integrating Vision and AI for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1990-03-01

    The article describes an extension to the well-established AI language Prolog. This allows Prolog to operate both an image processing system and a controller for a variety of electro-mechanical devices. The user can define his/her own pull-down menus and provides an interface to a speech synthesis package. The latter enables the user to follow the flow of a program, easily and in a natural way. The application of the software to food inspection is also discussed

  5. Intelligent control: integrating AI and control theory

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, K.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the requirements placed upon computer-controlled systems is forcing a departure from rigid, predetermined control sequences toward more flexible, intelligent control regimes. The basic premise of this research is that such systems can be developed by exploiting the strengths of both standard control theory and recent developments in artificial intelligence. A framework is described for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with more traditional control theory approaches both at the design stages as well as online control. Its potential is then discussed in the context of several complex navy control problems including automatic tracking systems, autonomous vehicles, and large-scale, flexible space structures. 8 references.

  6. AI Based Personal Learning Environments: Directions for Long Term Research. AI Memo 384.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ira P.; Miller, Mark L.

    The application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to the design of personal learning environments is an enterprise of both theoretical and practical interest. In the short term, the process of developing and testing intelligent tutoring programs serves as a new experimental vehicle for exploring alternative cognitive and pedagogical…

  7. A systems engineering approach to AIS accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.M.; Hunteman, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    The systems engineering model provides the vehicle for communication between the developer and the customer by presenting system facts and demonstrating the system in an organized form. The same model provides implementors with views of the system`s function and capability. The authors contend that the process of obtaining accreditation for a classified Automated Information System (AIS) adheres to the typical systems engineering model. The accreditation process is modeled as a ``roadmap`` with the customer represented by the Designed Accrediting Authority. The ``roadmap`` model reduces the amount of accreditation knowledge required of an AIS developer and maximizes the effectiveness of participation in the accreditation process by making the understanding of accreditation a natural consequence of applying the model. This paper identifies ten ``destinations`` on the ``road`` to accreditation. The significance of each ``destination`` is explained, as are the potential consequences of its exclusion. The ``roadmap,`` which has been applied to a range of information systems throughout the DOE community, establishes a paradigm for the certification and accreditation of classified AISs.

  8. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  9. Quantifying the tracking capability of space-based AIS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has operated three Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in space. Two are on dedicated nano-satellites, AISSat-1 and AISSat-2. The third, the NORAIS Receiver, was installed on the International Space Station. A general method for calculating the upper bound on the tracking capability of a space-based AIS system has been developed and the results from the algorithm applied to AISSat-1 and the NORAIS Receiver individually. In addition, a constellation of AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 is presented. The tracking capability is defined as the probability of re-detecting ships as they move around the globe and is explained to represent and upper bound on a space-based AIS system performance. AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 operates on the nominal AIS1 and AIS2 channels, while the NORAIS Receiver data used are from operations on the dedicated space AIS channels, AIS3 and AIS4. The improved tracking capability of operations on the space AIS channels is presented.

  10. The implementation of AI technologies in computer wargames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, John A.

    2004-08-01

    Computer wargames involve the most in-depth analysis of general game theory. The enumerated turns of a game like chess are dwarfed by the exponentially larger possibilities of even a simple computer wargame. Implementing challenging AI is computer wargames is an important goal in both the commercial and military environments. In the commercial marketplace, customers demand a challenging AI opponent when they play a computer wargame and are frustrated by a lack of competence on the part of the AI. In the military environment, challenging AI opponents are important for several reasons. A challenging AI opponent will force the military professional to avoid routine or set-piece approaches to situations and cause them to think much deeper about military situations before taking action. A good AI opponent would also include national characteristics of the opponent being simulated, thus providing the military professional with even more of a challenge in planning and approach. Implementing current AI technologies in computer wargames is a technological challenge. The goal is to join the needs of AI in computer wargames with the solutions of current AI technologies. This talk will address several of those issues, possible solutions, and currently unsolved problems.

  11. Apolipoprotein AI mutation Arg-60 causes autosomal dominant amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Soutar, A K; Hawkins, P N; Vigushin, D M; Tennent, G A; Booth, S E; Hutton, T; Nguyen, O; Totty, N F; Feest, T G; Hsuan, J J

    1992-01-01

    A mutation in the gene for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) was identified in an English family with autosomal dominant non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis. The plasma of all affected individuals contained a variant apoAI with one additional charge, as well as normal apoAI. The propositus was heterozygous; the coding region of his apoAI gene contained both the normal sequence and a single-base substitution changing the codon for residue 60 of the mature protein from CTG (leucine) to CGG (arginine). Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization showed that the other affected individuals were also heterozygotes and that there was concordance of the mutant allele with the presence of variant plasma apoAI. Amyloid fibrils isolated from the spleen of the propositus consisted of proteins that ran as a doublet with an apparent mass of approximately 10 kDa in SDS/PAGE and a trace band at 28 kDa. Electrospray mass spectrometry of the purified 10-kDa material revealed components with mass corresponding to the N-terminal 88, 92, 93, and 94 residues of apoAI each with substitution of arginine for leucine. These observations were confirmed by direct protein sequencing and laser desorption time-of-flight mass analysis. No material with the normal apoAI sequence was detected. The trace band at 28 kDa yielded the N-terminal sequence of mature apoAI, indicating that intact or minimally degraded apoAI was also present in the fibril preparation. Discovery of this mutation and the detailed characterization of the apoAI fragments that form the amyloid fibrils open additional avenues for investigation of amyloidogenesis. Images PMID:1502149

  12. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  13. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  14. Application of AIS Technology to Forest Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.

  15. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  16. Pedagogy and the PC: Trends in the AIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badua, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time,…

  17. An Immune Agent for Web-Based AI Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing

    2006-01-01

    To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…

  18. The Social Stratification of /aI/ in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, L. Ben

    This study is a sociolinguistic analysis of the variant pronunciation of /aI/, a selected phonological variable, by white informants in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 56 informants were interviewed to determine their pronunciation of /aI/. Informants were ranked according to education, income, and occupation to…

  19. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  20. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  1. A Leonard-Sanders-Budiansky-Koiter-Type Nonlinear Shell Theory with a Hierarchy of Transverse-Shearing Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed exposition on a refined nonlinear shell theory suitable for nonlinear buckling analyses of laminated-composite shell structures is presented. This shell theory includes the classical nonlinear shell theory attributed to Leonard, Sanders, Koiter, and Budiansky as an explicit proper subset. This approach is used in order to leverage the exisiting experience base and to make the theory attractive to industry. In addition, the formalism of general tensors is avoided in order to expose the details needed to fully understand and use the theory. The shell theory is based on "small" strains and "moderate" rotations, and no shell-thinness approximations are used. As a result, the strain-displacement relations are exact within the presumptions of "small" strains and "moderate" rotations. The effects of transverse-shearing deformations are included in the theory by using analyst-defined functions to describe the through-the-thickness distributions of transverse-shearing strains. Constitutive equations for laminated-composite shells are derived without using any shell-thinness approximations, and simplified forms and special cases are presented.

  2. Environmental factors regulating the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Koupal, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that regulate fish recruitment is essential for effective management of fisheries. Generally, first-year survival, and therefore recruitment, is inherently less consistent in systems with high intra- and interannual variability. Irrigation reservoirs display sporadic patterns of annual drawdown, which can pose a substantial challenge to recruitment of fishes. We developed species-specific models using an 18-year data set compiled from state and federal agencies to investigate variables that regulate the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs in south-west Nebraska, USA. The candidate model set for walleye included only abiotic variables (water-level elevation, minimum daily air temperature during winter prior to hatching, annual precipitation, spring warming rate and May reservoir discharge), and the candidate model set for white bass included primarily biotic variables (catch per unit effort (CPUE) of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, CPUE of age-0 walleye, CPUE of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and CPUE of age-3 and older white bass), each of which had a greater relative importance than the single abiotic variable (minimum daily air temperature during winter after hatching). Our findings improve the understanding of the recruitment of fishes in irrigation reservoirs and the relative roles of abiotic and biotic factors.

  3. Histological investigation on Ancyrocephalus paradoxus (Dactylogyridea: Ancyrocephalidae) infection causing mortalities in an intensively cultured pikeperch [Sander lucioperca (L.)] stock.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Kálmán; Szilágyi, Gábor; Mosonyi, Gábor; Varga, Ádám; Székely, Csaba

    2016-06-01

    In a cultured pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) stock the monopisthocotylean monogenean gill parasite Ancyrocephalus paradoxus caused heavy infection and mortalities. The gills of the affected fish specimens were infected by 50 to 800 monogenean parasites. Severe pathological changes were found in areas where the worms attached to the gills. At the attachment sites the haptoral discs of the worms formed a deep depression in the epithelium of the filaments, and the anchors pierced into and fixed themselves to the connective tissue of the cartilaginous gill rays. At these attachment sites red blood cells released from injured capillaries were found among the damaged epithelial cells. Around the hooks, anchors and body sections coming into contact with the gill filaments a proliferative tissue developed in which only a remnant of the damaged lamellae was found. Due to the damage caused by the worms the tips of the heavily infected gill filaments fused, formed clubs and were composed of epitheloid-type regeneration tissue lacking respiratory lamellae. In the basal parts of the filaments, where most of the worms attached to the gill, only denuded filaments deprived of lamellae were observed among the cross-sectioned worms in histological sections. PMID:27342091

  4. Spawning by walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in the Detroit River: Implications for spawning habitat enhancement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Boase, J.C.; Allen, J.D.; Roseman, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Few active fish spawning grounds have been found in channels connecting the Great Lakes. Here, we describe one near Belle Isle in the Detroit River, part of the channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie. There, in 2005, we collected 1,573 fish eggs, cultured them, and identified the hatched larvae as walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Walleye spawning peaked during the week of April 12-19; white sucker spawning peaked on May 10. Average areal rate of egg deposition by walleye and white sucker at this spawning ground in 2005 was 346 and 25 eggs/m2, respectively. Our environmental measurements showed that bottom substrates on this spawning ground were largely sand, not optimal for fish reproduction. We hypothesize that reproduction of these fish at this spawning ground could be enhanced by adding rock and gravel substrates for protection of deposited fish eggs and suggest that reproduction by walleye in the Detroit River may add resilience to production of walleye in western Lake Erie. ?? 2010.

  5. Histological investigation on Ancyrocephalus paradoxus (Dactylogyridea: Ancyrocephalidae) infection causing mortalities in an intensively cultured pikeperch [Sander lucioperca (L.)] stock.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Kálmán; Szilágyi, Gábor; Mosonyi, Gábor; Varga, Ádám; Székely, Csaba

    2016-06-01

    In a cultured pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) stock the monopisthocotylean monogenean gill parasite Ancyrocephalus paradoxus caused heavy infection and mortalities. The gills of the affected fish specimens were infected by 50 to 800 monogenean parasites. Severe pathological changes were found in areas where the worms attached to the gills. At the attachment sites the haptoral discs of the worms formed a deep depression in the epithelium of the filaments, and the anchors pierced into and fixed themselves to the connective tissue of the cartilaginous gill rays. At these attachment sites red blood cells released from injured capillaries were found among the damaged epithelial cells. Around the hooks, anchors and body sections coming into contact with the gill filaments a proliferative tissue developed in which only a remnant of the damaged lamellae was found. Due to the damage caused by the worms the tips of the heavily infected gill filaments fused, formed clubs and were composed of epitheloid-type regeneration tissue lacking respiratory lamellae. In the basal parts of the filaments, where most of the worms attached to the gill, only denuded filaments deprived of lamellae were observed among the cross-sectioned worms in histological sections.

  6. Balancing Necessity and Fallibilism: Charles Sanders Peirce on the Status of Mathematics and its Intersection with the Inquiry into Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ronald

    An interest in Charles Sanders Peirce and pragmatist thought in general emerged in the United States in the middle of last century to exert a powerful influence on a generation of American philosophers educated in the 1940s and 1950s, including Abner Shimony, whose thought is the occasion for this paper. Those threads in Peirce's work related to developing a scientifically informed worldview and metaphysics were the natural influences on Abner and this paper will begin by briefly reviewing a number of these threads and their influences in his writings. This sets the scene for the main project of the paper, an earlier historical project on a related aspect of Peirce's thought—his understanding of mathematics and its place in the description of nature. Mathematics was a foundational discipline for Peirce, one with qualities of necessity and certainty, features that stand in interesting contrast and tension to Peirce's view of an evolving nature which is governed by chance and our knowledge of which is always fallible and thus open to revision. Exploring these issues reveals deep background beliefs structuring Peirce's thought. The paper concludes in the contemporary realm with the speculation that due to the scientific developments of the 20th century, aspects of Peirce's work that formed a vision for a scientific metaphysics for earlier generations may be less relevant now. Nevertheless, the naturalistic spirit and orientation of Peirce's work remains compelling and productive.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I variants. Naturally occurring substitutions of proline residues affect plasma concentration of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    von Eckardstein, A; Funke, H; Henke, A; Altland, K; Benninghoven, A; Assmann, G

    1989-01-01

    Six unrelated families with genetically determined structural variants of apo A-I were found in the course of an electrophoretic screening program for apo A-I variants in dried blood samples of newborns. The following structural variations were identified by the combined use of HPLC, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and automated gas phase sequencing: Pro3----Arg (1x), Pro4----Arg (1x), and Pro165----Arg (4x). All variant carriers were heterozygous for their mutant of apo A-I. Subjects heterozygous for apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) (n = 12) were found to exhibit lower mean values for apo A-I (109 +/- 16 mg/dl) and HDL cholesterol (37 +/- 9 mg/dl) than unaffected family members (n = 9): 176 +/- 41 and 64 +/- 18 mg/dl, respectively (P less than 0.001). In 9 of 12 apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) variant carriers the concentrations of apo A-I were below the fifth percentile of sex-matched controls. By two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis as well as by densitometry the relative concentration of the variant apo A-I in heterozygous carriers of apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) was determined to account for only 30% of the total plasma apo A-I mass instead of the expected 50%. Thus, the observed apo A-I deficiency may be largely a consequence of the decreased concentration of the variant apo A-I. In the case of the apo A-I(Pro3----Arg) mutant, densitometry of HDL apolipoproteins demonstrated a distinctly increased concentration of the variant proapo A-I relative to normal proapo A-I. This phenomenon was not observed in the apo A-I(Pro4----Arg) mutant or in other mutants. This suggests that the interspecies conserved proline residue in position 3 of mature apo A-I is functionally important for the regular enzymatic conversion of proapo A-I to mature apo A-I. Images PMID:2512329

  8. Interplay between ecological, behavioural and historical factors in shaping the genetic structure of sympatric walleye populations (Sander vitreus).

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pierre-Philippe; Bourret, Vincent; Bernatchez, Louis

    2007-03-01

    Disentangling ecological, behavioural and evolutionary factors responsible for the presence of stable population structure within wild populations has long been challenging to population geneticists. This study primarily aimed at decoding population structure of wild walleye (Sander vitreus) populations of Mistassini Lake (Québec, Canada) in order to define source populations to be used for the study of spatial partitioning using individual-based multilocus assignment methods, and decipher the dynamics of individual dispersal and resulting patterns of spatial resource partitioning and connectivity among populations. A second objective was to elucidate the relationships between biological characteristics (sex, size, age and population of origin) and an individual's probability to migrate and/or disperse. To do so, a total of 780 spawning individuals caught on five distinct spawning sites, and 1165 postspawning individuals, captured over two sampling seasons (2002-2003) were analysed by means of eight microsatellite loci. Four temporally stable walleye populations associated with distinct reproductive grounds were detected. These populations were differentially distributed among lake sectors during their feeding migration and their spatial distribution was stable over the two sampling seasons. Dispersing individuals were identified (n=61); these revealed asymmetrical patterns of dispersal between populations, which was also confirmed by divergent admixture proportions. Regression models underlined population of origin as the only factor explaining differential dispersal of individuals among populations. An analysis of covariance (ancova) indicated that larger individuals tended to migrate from their river of origin further away in the lake relative to smaller fish. In summary, this study underlined the relevance of using individual-based assignment methods for deciphering dynamics of connectivity among wild populations, especially regarding behavioural mechanisms

  9. Environmental and ecological conditions surrounding the production of large year classes of walleye (Sander vitreus) in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fielder, D.G.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Thomas, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    The Saginaw Bay walleye population (Sander vitreus) has not fully recovered from a collapse that began in the 1940s and has been dependent on stocking with only limited natural reproduction. Beginning in 2003, and through at least 2005, reproductive success of walleye surged to unprecedented levels. The increase was concurrent with ecological changes in Lake Huron and we sought to quantitatively model which factors most influenced this new dynamic. We developed Ricker stock-recruitment models for both wild and stock fish and evaluated them with second-order Akaike's information criterion to find the best model. Independent variables included adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance, spring water temperatures, chlorophyll a levels and total phosphorus levels. In all, 14 models were evaluated for production of wild age-0 walleyes and eight models for stocked age-0 walleyes. For wild walleyes, adult alewife abundance was the dominant factor, accounting for 58% of the variability in age-0 abundance. Production of wild age-0 fish increased when adult alewives were scarce. The only other plausible factor was spring water temperature. Predictably, alewife abundance was not important to stocked fish; instead temperature and adult walleye abundance were more significant variables. The surge in reproductive success for walleyes during 2003–2005 was most likely due to large declines in adult alewives in Lake Huron. While relatively strong year classes (age-1 and up) have been produced as a result of increased age-0 production during 2003–2005, the overall magnitude has not been as great as the initial age-0 abundance originally suggested. It appears that over-winter mortality is higher than in the past and may stem from higher predation or slower growth (lower condition for enduring winter thermal stress). From this it appears that low alewife abundance does not assure strong walleye year classes in Saginaw Bay but may be a prerequisite for them.

  10. Temporal effective size estimates of a managed walleye Sander vitreus population and implications for genetic-based management.

    PubMed

    Franckowiak, R P; Sloss, B L; Bozek, M A; Newman, S P

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this research was to use the long-term fishery data set and DNA from archived scales of walleye Sander vitreus in Escanaba Lake, WI, U.S.A., to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) influencing genetic diversity in naturally recruiting populations. The introduced population of S. vitreus in Escanaba Lake has a low mean effective population size (N(E)) between 124.6 and 185.5 despite a mean census size (N(C)) of 4659 (N(E)/N(C)c. 0.04), suggesting an accelerated rate of genetic drift between 1952 and 2002. These values are smaller than the median N(E) range of several studies suggesting typical N(E)/N(C) ratios of 0.11-0.16 in a wide range of taxa. N(E) increased steadily during the past two sampled decades (1992 and 2002) and was consistent with a lowering of the variance in S. vitreus reproductive success, possibly linked to a large, sustained exploitation (mean 28%) rate. Variance in reproductive success is one of the most important factors influencing N(E) in species, like S. vitreus, which have a potential for large fecundities and large juvenile mortalities (type III survivorship). The N(B) estimates across six sequential cohorts (age classes of S. vitreus, assayed from 1994 to 1999) was consistent with estimates of N(E) reported for 1992-2002. These results, coupled with in-depth census and exploitation data, show that the genetic characteristics of Escanaba Lake S. vitreus have changed substantially and that management activities, such as supplemental stocking and harvest practices, have profoundly influenced the genetic dynamics of S. vitreus in this lake.

  11. Quality measures and assurance for AI (Artificial Intelligence) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.

  12. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  13. Calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.

  14. Preliminary bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle was completed in a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This report provides baseline geologic information that will be useful in future studies of groundwater and surface water resources, geologic hazards, and the distribution of soils and plants. The west half of the Sanders quadrangle encompasses approximately 2,509 km2 (980 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°30' to 35° N., long 109°30' to 110° W. The majority of the land within the map area lies within the Navajo Nation. South of the Navajo Nation, private and State lands form a checkerboard pattern east and west of Petrified Forest National Park. In the west half of the Sanders quadrangle, Mesozoic bedrock is nearly flat lying except near folds. A shallow Cenozoic erosional basin that developed about 20 Ma in the western part of the map area cut across late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that were subsequently filled with flat-lying Miocene and Pliocene mudstone and argillaceous sandstone and fluvial sediments of the Bidahochi Formation and associated volcanic rocks of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field. The Bidahochi rocks are capped by Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene fluvial sediments and Quaternary eolian and alluvial deposits. Erosion along northeast-southwest-oriented drainages have exposed elongated ridges of Bidahochi Formation and basin-fill deposits that are exposed through shallow eolian cover of similarly oriented longitudinal dunes. Stokes (1964) concluded that the accumulation of longitudinal sand bodies and the development of confined parallel drainages are simultaneous processes resulting in parallel sets of drainages and ridges oriented along the prevailing southwest wind direction on the southern Colorado Plateau.

  15. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  16. MOMENTS OF MEETING: THE RELEVANCE OF LOU SANDER'S AND DAN STERN'S CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SOCIAL RELATEDNESS.

    PubMed

    Gaensbauer, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Lou Sander and Dan Stern made seminal contributions to our understanding of early child development, particularly in regard to the moment-to-moment intersubjective exchanges and mutual sensitivity that are at the core of the caregiver-infant relationship. Although their own studies focused primarily on the ways in which children's intersubjective experiences of mutual attunement lead to adaptive social relatedness and validate a healthy sense of self, this article focuses on the applicability of their theoretical conceptions to the development of pathological social relations. It explores the premise that the emotional validation derived from recurrent intersubjective experiences of mutual attunement involving negative affects can be as emotionally compelling from the child's standpoint as that derived from positive exchanges. Children's needs to recreate unhealthy, but affectively meaningful, moments with their caregivers can lead to ingrained, automatically operating pathological patterns of social behavior and affective expression that can take on a life of their own and strongly shape the child's subsequent socioemotional functioning. Following an overview of Sander's and Stern's conceptual thinking, developmental research and clinical case material will be utilized to illustrate how their work can enrich our understanding of developmental processes that can contribute to a number of emotion-specific, early relational disturbances.

  17. Discovering Knowledge from AIS Database for Application in VTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng

    The widespread use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has had a significant impact on maritime technology. AIS enables the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) not only to offer commonly known functions such as identification, tracking and monitoring of vessels, but also to provide rich real-time information that is useful for marine traffic investigation, statistical analysis and theoretical research. However, due to the rapid accumulation of AIS observation data, the VTS platform is often unable quickly and effectively to absorb and analyze it. Traditional observation and analysis methods are becoming less suitable for the modern AIS generation of VTS. In view of this, we applied the same data mining technique used for business intelligence discovery (in Customer Relation Management (CRM) business marketing) to the analysis of AIS observation data. This recasts the marine traffic problem as a business-marketing problem and integrates technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), database management systems, data warehousing and data mining to facilitate the discovery of hidden and valuable information in a huge amount of observation data. Consequently, this provides the marine traffic managers with a useful strategic planning resource.

  18. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  19. Toward detecting California shrubland canopy chemistry with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Westman, Walter E.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS)-2 data of coastal sage scrub vegetation were examined for fine spectral features that might be used to predict concentrations of certain canopy chemical constituents. A Fourier notch filter was applied to the AIS data and the TREE and ROCK mode spectra were ratioed to a flat field. Portions of the resulting spectra resemble spectra for plant cellulose and starch in that both show reduced reflectance at 2100 and 2270 nm. The latter are regions of absorption of energy by organic bonds found in starch and cellulose. Whether the relationship is sufficient to predict the concentration of these chemicals from AIS spectra will require testing of the predictive ability of these wavebands with large field sample sizes.

  20. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  1. Situated, strategic, and AI-Enhanced technology introduction to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bushko, Renata G

    2005-01-01

    We work hard on creating AI-wings for physicians to let them fly higher and faster in diagnosing patients--a task that physicians do not want to automate. What we do not work hard on is determining the ENVIRONMENT in which physicians' AI wings are supposed to function. It seems to be a job for social/business analysts that have their own separate kingdom. For the sake of all of us (potential patients!) social/business consultants and their methodologies should not be treated as a separate kingdom. The most urgent task is to achieve synergy between (1) AI/Fuzzy/Neural research, (2) Applied medical AI, (3) Social/Business research on medical institutions. We need this synergy in order to assure humanistic medical technology; technology flexible and sensitive enough to facilitate healthcare work while leaving space for human pride and creativity. In order to achieve humanistic technology, designers should consider the impact of technological breakthroughs on the organizations in which this technology will function and the nature of work of humans destined to use this technology. Situated (different for each organization), Strategic (based on an in-depth knowledge of Healthcare business), and AI-Enhanced (ended with a dynamic model) method for introducing technology to Healthcare allows identifying areas where technology can make medical work easier. Using this method before automating human work will get us closer to the ideal where there is no discontinuity between design and use of programs; where the technology matches users' needs perfectly--the world with humanistic technology and healthcare workers with AI-wings.

  2. Validation of the ICD/AIS MAP for pediatric use

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, D; Localio, A; MacKenzie, E

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the performance of the ICD/AIS MAP (© E J MacKenzie et al) as a method of classifying injury severity for children. Methods—Data on all children less than 16 years of age admitted to all designated trauma centers in Pennsylvania from January 1994 through October 1996 were obtained from the state trauma registry. The ICD/AIS MAP was used to convert all injury related ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes into abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score and injury severity score (ISS). Agreement between trauma registry AIS and ISS scores and MAP generated scores was assessed using the weighted κ (κw) coefficient for ordered data and the intraclass correlation coefficient for continuous data. Results—Agreement in ISS scores was excellent, both overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 0.89)), and when grouped into three levels of severity (κw= 0.86, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.87). Agreement in AIS scores across all body regions and ages was also excellent, (κw= 0.86 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.87). Agreement increased with age (κw= 0.78 for children <2 years; κw= 0.86 for older children) and varied by body region, though was excellent across all regions. Conclusions—The performance of the ICD/AIS MAP in assessing severity of pediatric injuries was equal to or better than previous assessments of its performance on primarily adult patients. Its performance was excellent across the pediatric age range and across nearly all body regions of injury. PMID:11428572

  3. [The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Options and problems in application].

    PubMed

    Haasper, C; Junge, M; Ernstberger, A; Brehme, H; Hannawald, L; Langer, C; Nehmzow, J; Otte, D; Sander, U; Krettek, C; Zwipp, H

    2010-05-01

    The new AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) was released with an update by the AAAM (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine) in 2008. It is a universal scoring system in the field of trauma applicable in clinic and research. In engineering it is used as a classification system for vehicle safety. The AIS can therefore be considered as an international, interdisciplinary and universal code of injury severity. This review focuses on a historical overview, potential applications and new coding options in the current version and also outlines the associated problems. PMID:20376615

  4. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  5. Rapid prototyping and AI programming environments applied to payload modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1987-01-01

    This effort focused on using artificial intelligence (AI) programming environments and rapid prototyping to aid in both space flight manned and unmanned payload simulation and training. Significant problems addressed are the large amount of development time required to design and implement just one of these payload simulations and the relative inflexibility of the resulting model to accepting future modification. Results of this effort have suggested that both rapid prototyping and AI programming environments can significantly reduce development time and cost when applied to the domain of payload modeling for crew training. The techniques employed are applicable to a variety of domains where models or simulations are required.

  6. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  7. Diverter AI based decision aid, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Bayles, Scott J.; Patterson, Robert W.; Schulke, Duane A.; Williams, Deborah C.

    1989-01-01

    It was determined that a system to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) into airborne flight management computers is feasible. The AI functions that would be most useful to the pilot are to perform situational assessment, evaluate outside influences on the contemplated rerouting, perform flight planning/replanning, and perform maneuver planning. A study of the software architecture and software tools capable of demonstrating Diverter was also made. A skeletal planner known as the Knowledge Acquisition Development Tool (KADET), which is a combination script-based and rule-based system, was used to implement the system. A prototype system was developed which demonstrates advanced in-flight planning/replanning capabilities.

  8. Comparisons of the Outcome Prediction Performance of Injury Severity Scoring Tools Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 90 Update 98 (AIS 98) and 2005 Update 2008 (AIS 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was revised in 2005 and updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to compare the outcome prediction performance of AIS-based injury severity scoring tools by using AIS 2008 and AIS 98. We used all major trauma patients hospitalized to the Royal Perth Hospital between 1994 and 2008. We selected five AIS-based injury severity scoring tools, including Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), modified Anatomic Profile (mAP), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). We selected survival after injury as a target outcome. We used the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC) as a performance measure. First, we compared the five tools using all cases whose records included all variables for the TRISS (complete dataset) using a 10-fold cross-validation. Second, we compared the ISS and NISS for AIS 98 and AIS 2008 using all subjects (whole dataset). We identified 1,269 and 4,174 cases for a complete dataset and a whole dataset, respectively. With the 10-fold cross-validation, there were no clear differences in the AUROCs between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based scores. With the second comparison, the AIS 98-based ISS performed significantly worse than the AIS 2008-based ISS (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based NISSs. Researchers should be aware of these findings when they select an injury severity scoring tool for their studies. PMID:22105401

  9. AIS-2 automated meter for spectra recorded on photographic plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramendik, G.I.; Khromov, A.Yu.; Volkov, V.L.; Astaf'ev, P.N.

    1986-10-01

    The AIS-2 system contains a G-2 microdensitometer, an Elektronika D3-28 microcomputer, an Shch1312 digital voltmeter, and an S1-72 oscilloscope, which serves as a graphics display. The system operates in the interactive mode.

  10. New directions for Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in optimum design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1989-01-01

    Developments and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in the design of structural systems is reviewed. Principal shortcomings in the current approach are emphasized, and the need for some degree of formalism in the development environment for such design tools is underscored. Emphasis is placed on efforts to integrate algorithmic computations in expert systems.

  11. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  12. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  13. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  14. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-04-25

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project.

  15. Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bridget L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans. PMID:27382195

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans.

  18. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  19. AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, F. W.

    1991-03-01

    The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

  20. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  1. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  2. The Bakke Case: Part 1--The Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, B. Jeanne

    1978-01-01

    This article describes the controversy over the legal, political, and moral issues of reverse discrimination, racial justice, and the future of affirmative action programs. Educators must understand the arguments on both sides in order to seek creative solutions to the potential problems raised for higher education. (Author)

  3. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  4. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged frommore » 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.« less

  5. Hereditary apolipoprotein AI-associated renal amyloidosis: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Samillán-Sosa, Kelly Del Rocío; Sención-Martínez, Gloria; Lopes-Martín, Vanessa; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Solé, Manel; Arostegui, Jose Luis; Mesa, Jose; García-Díaz, Juan de Dios; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Martínez-Miguel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary renal amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant condition with considerable overlap with other amyloidosis types. Differential diagnosis is complicated, but is relevant for prognosis and treatment. We describe a patient with nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal failure, who had a mother with renal amiloidosis. Renal biopsy revealed amyloid deposits in glomerular space, with absence of light chains and protein AA. We suspected amyloidosis with fibrinogen A alpha chain deposits, which is the most frequent cause of hereditary amyloidosis in Europe, with a glomerular preferential affectation. However, the genetic study showed a novel mutation in apolipoprotein AI. On reviewing the biopsy of the patient's mother similar glomerular deposits were found, but there were significant deposits in the renal medulla as well, which is typical in APO AI amyloidosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Apo AI amyloidosis is characterized by slowly progressive renal disease and end-stage renal disease occurs aproximately 3 to 15 years from initial diagnosis. Renal transplantation offers an acceptable graft survival and in these patients with hepatorenal involvement simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation could be considered.

  6. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  7. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  8. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  9. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.

  10. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  11. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  12. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG. PMID:25648212

  13. STAR - A computer language for hybrid AI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    Constructing Artificial Intelligence application systems which rely on both symbolic and non-symbolic processing places heavy demands on the communication of data between dissimilar languages. This paper describes STAR (Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning), a computer language for the development of AI application systems which supports the transfer of data structures between a symbolic level and a non-symbolic level defined in languages such as FORTRAN, C and PASCAL. The organization of STAR is presented, followed by the description of an application involving STAR in the interpretation of airborne imaging spectrometer data.

  14. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  15. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  16. Urban, Forest, and Agricultural AIS Data: Fine Spectral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) near Lafayette, IN, Ely, MN, and over the Stanford University campus, CA were analyzed for fine spectral structure using two techniques: the ratio of radiance of a ground target to the radiance of a standard and also the correlation coefficient of radiances at adjacent wavelengths. The results show ramp like features in the ratios. These features are due to the biochemical composition of the leaf and to the optical scattering properties of its cuticle. The size and shape of the ramps vary with ground cover.

  17. A Bayesian assessment of the mercury and PCB temporal trends in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Visha, Ariola; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) are two of the most prevalent contaminants, resulting in restrictive advisories on consuming fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes. The goal of this study is to examine the temporal trends of the two contaminants in walleye (Sander vitreus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) for Lake Ontario. We employed Bayesian inference techniques to parameterize three different strategies of time series analysis: dynamic linear, exponential decay, and mixed-order modeling. Our analysis sheds light on the role of different covariates (length, lipid content) that can potentially hamper the detection of the actual temporal patterns of fish contaminants. Both PCBs and mercury demonstrate decreasing temporal trends in lake trout males and females. Decreasing PCB trends are evident in walleye, but the mean annual mercury levels are characterized by a "wax and wane" pattern, suggesting that specific fish species may not act as bio-indicators for all contaminants. This finding may be attributed to the shifts in energy trophodynamics along with the food web alterations induced from the introduction of non-native species, the intricate nature of the prey-predator interactions, the periodicities of climate factors, and the year-to-year variability of the potentially significant fluxes from atmosphere or sediments. Finally, a meaningful risk assessment exercise will be to elucidate the role of within-lake fish contaminant variability and evaluate the potential bias introduced when drawing inference from pooled datasets.

  18. Including independent estimates and uncertainty to quantify total abundance of fish migrating in a large river system: walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Maumee River, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Weimer, Eric J.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie is a valuable and migratory species that spawns in tributaries. We used hydroacoustic sampling, gill net sampling, and Bayesian state-space modeling to estimate the spawning stock abundance, characterize size and sex structure, and explore environmental factors cuing migration of walleye in the Maumee River for 2011 and 2012. We estimated the spawning stock abundance to be between 431,000 and 1,446,000 individuals in 2011 and between 386,400 and 857,200 individuals in 2012 (95% Bayesian credible intervals). A back-calculation from a concurrent larval fish study produced an estimate of 78,000 to 237,000 spawners for 2011. The sex ratio was skewed towards males early in the spawning season but approached 1:1 later, and larger individuals entered the river earlier in the season than smaller individuals. Walleye migration was greater during low river discharge and intermediate temperatures. Our approach to estimating absolute abundance and uncertainty as well as characterization of the spawning stock could improve assessment and management of this species, and our methodology is applicable to other diadromous populations.

  19. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  20. Comparative study of pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Percidae; Linnaeus, 1758) eggs and larvae from wild females or from captive females fed chopped marine fish.

    PubMed

    Ben Khemis, I; Hamza, N; Ben Messaoud, N; Ben Rached, S; M'Hetli, M

    2014-04-01

    Morphometric characteristics, proximal composition and fatty acids profiles of eggs and larvae at hatching and mouth opening were studied as indicators for assessing the potential differences between spawns obtained from wild or captive females of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). Captive females were acclimated to hatchery conditions and fed to satiation with chopped marine fish for more than a year, guaranteeing that captivity covered the full cycle of gonad maturation. The number of larvae obtained from the spawnings did not differ between captive and wild females, but both mean diameter and mean weight of the eggs collected from the captive females were significantly larger. Proximal compositions were similar in eggs and larvae from both groups, but fatty acids (FA) profiles showed striking differences: polyunsaturated FA consisted mainly of linoleic acid in eggs and larvae from wild females, while they consisted mainly of long chains of n-3 series in eggs and larvae from captive females. The diet of captive females largely modified the FA profiles of eggs and of hatching or mouth opening larvae, but did not affect the growth potential of early larvae, demonstrating that they were able to satisfy their early physiological needs regardless of the striking differences in their FA.

  1. A role for Apolipoprotein A-I in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Lindsay; Groover, Chassidy J; Douglas, Joshua; Lee, Sangmin; Brand, David; Levin, Michael C; Gardner, Lidia A

    2014-12-15

    Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A-I), the most abundant component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is an anti-inflammatory molecule, yet its potential role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully investigated. In this study, Western blot analyses of human plasma showed differential Apo A-I expression in healthy controls compared to MS patients. Further, primary progressive MS patients had less plasma Apo A-I than other forms of MS. Using experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model for MS, Apo A-I deficient mice exhibited worse clinical disease and more neurodegeneration concurrent with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type animals. These data suggest that Apo A-I plays a role in the pathogenesis of EAE, a model for MS, creating the possibility for agents that increase Apo A-I levels as potential therapies for MS.

  2. Building distributed rule-based systems using the AI Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain C.

    1990-01-01

    The AI Bus software architecture was designed to support the construction of large-scale, production-quality applications in areas of high technology flux, running heterogeneous distributed environments, utilizing a mix of knowledge-based and conventional components. These goals led to its current development as a layered, object-oriented library for cooperative systems. This paper describes the concepts and design of the AI Bus and its implementation status as a library of reusable and customizable objects, structured by layers from operating system interfaces up to high-level knowledge-based agents. Each agent is a semi-autonomous process with specialized expertise, and consists of a number of knowledge sources (a knowledge base and inference engine). Inter-agent communication mechanisms are based on blackboards and Actors-style acquaintances. As a conservative first implementation, we used C++ on top of Unix, and wrapped an embedded Clips with methods for the knowledge source class. This involved designing standard protocols for communication and functions which use these protocols in rules. Embedding several CLIPS objects within a single process was an unexpected problem because of global variables, whose solution involved constructing and recompiling a C++ version of CLIPS. We are currently working on a more radical approach to incorporating CLIPS, by separating out its pattern matcher, rule and fact representations and other components as true object oriented modules.

  3. Discrimination of Coastal Vegetation and Biomass Using AIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over a coastal wetlands region near Lewes, Delaware, adjacent to the Delaware Bay on 16 August 1984. Using the AIS data, it was possible to discriminate between four different types of wetland vegetation canopies: (1) trees; (2) broadleaf herbaceous plants (e.g., Acnida cannabina, Hisbiscus moscheutos); (3) the low marsh grass Spartina alterniflora; and (4) the high marsh grasses Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens. The single most useful region of the spectrum was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns, where slopes of portions of the radiance curve and ratios of radiance at particular wavelengths were significantly different for the four canopy types. The ratio between the highest digital number in the 1.40 to 1.90 microns and .84 to .94 microns regions and a similar ratio between the peaks in radiance in the 1.12 to 1.40 microns and .84 to .94 microns spectral regions were also very effective at discriminating between vegetation types. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass.

  4. Using AI to understand key success features in evolving CTSAs.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Jennifer D; Nelson, David A; Simpson, Deborah; Gerrits, Ronald; Glass, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A vital role for Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) evaluators is to first identify and then articulate the necessary change processes that support the research infrastructures and achieve synergies needed to improve health through research. The use of qualitative evaluation strategies to compliment quantitative tracking measures (e.g., number of grants/publications) is an essential but under-utilized approach in CTSA evaluations. The Clinical and Translational Science Institute of Southeast Wisconsin implemented a qualitative evaluation approach using appreciative inquiry (AI) that has revealed three critical features associated with CTSA infrastructure transformation success: developing open communication, creating opportunities for proactive collaboration, and ongoing attainment of milestones at the key function group level. These findings are consistent with Bolman & Deal's four interacting hallmarks of successful organizations: structural (infrastructure), political (power distribution; organizational politics), human resource (facilitating change among humans necessary for continued success), and symbolic (visions and aspirations). Data gathered through this longitudinal AI approach illuminates how these change features progress over time as CTSA funded organizations successfully create the multiinstitutional infrastructures to connect laboratory discoveries with the diagnosis and treatment of human disease.

  5. Sensor assignment to mission in AI-TECD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganger, Robert; de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Rudnicki, Ronald; Schreiber, Yonatan

    2016-05-01

    Sensor-mission assignment involves the allocation of sensors and other information-providing resources to missions in order to cover the information needs of the individual tasks within each mission. The importance of efficient and effective means to find appropriate resources for tasks is exacerbated in the coalition context where the operational environment is dynamic and a multitude of critically important tasks need to achieve their collective goals to meet the objectives of the coalition. The Sensor Assignment to Mission (SAM) framework—a research product of the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Sciences (NIS-ITA) program—provided the first knowledge intensive resource selection approach for the sensor network domain so that contextual information could be used to effectively select resources for tasks in coalition environments. Recently, CUBRC, Inc. was tasked with operationalizing the SAM framework through the use of the I2WD Common Core Ontologies for the Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) sponsored Actionable Intelligence Technology Enabled Capabilities Demonstration (AI-TECD). The demonstration event took place at Fort Dix, New Jersey during July 2015, and this paper discusses the integration and the successful demonstration of the SAM framework within the AI-TECD, lessons learned, and its potential impact in future operations.

  6. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  7. Interpretation of AIS Images of Cuprite, Nevada Using Constraints of Spectral Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is outlined that tests the hypothesis Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image spectra are produced by mixtures of surface materials. This technique allows separation of AIS images into concentration images of spectral endmembers (e.g., surface materials causing spectral variation). Using a spectral reference library it was possible to uniquely identify these spectral endmembers with respect to the reference library and to calibrate the AIS images.

  8. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  9. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event. PMID:10334486

  10. Analysis of AIS data of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired in 1985 over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska for the analysis of canopy characteristics including biochemistry. Concurrent with AIS overflights, foliage from fifteen coniferous and deciduous forest stands were analyzed for a variety of biochemical constituents including nitrogen, lignin, protein, and chlorophyll. Preliminary analysis of AIS spectra indicates that the wavelength region between 1450 to 1800 namometers (nm) displays distinct differences in spectral response for some of the forest stands. A flat field subtraction (forest stand spectra - flat field spectra) of the AIS spectra assisted in the interpretation of features of the spectra that are related to biology.

  11. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  12. Role of thyroid hormones in apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, W; Gorder, N L; Lin-Lee, Y C; Gotto, A M; Patsch, W

    1990-01-01

    To study the regulation of hepatic apo A-I gene expression, we measured synthesis and abundance of cellular apo A-I mRNA and its nuclear precursors in livers of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats. In hypothyroid animals, both synthesis and abundance of apo A-I mRNA was reduced to half of control values. After injection of a receptor-saturating dose of triiodothyronine into euthyroid rats, apo A-I gene transcription increased at 20 min, reached a maximum of 179% of control (P less than 0.01) at 3.5 h, and remained elevated for up to 48 h. The abundance of nuclear and total cellular apo A-I mRNA increased at 1 and 2 h, respectively, and exceeded the levels expected from enhanced transcription more than two fold at 24 h after hormone injection. Upon chronic administration of thyroid hormones, levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic apo A-I mRNA remained elevated but transcription of the apo A-I gene fell to 42% of control (P less than 0.01). Thus, thyroid hormones rapidly stimulate apo A-I gene transcription. Posttranscriptional events leading to increased stability of nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors become the principal mechanism for enhanced gene expression in chronic hyperthyroidism and may cause feedback inhibition of apo A-I gene transcription. Our results furthermore imply that the majority of hepatic nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors are degraded in euthyroid animals. Images PMID:2107206

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, G.W.; Castle, C.K.

    1989-07-01

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD (apo A-I(50 kD)), whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range (apo A-I(LDL)). The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species.

  14. Stock-specific advection of larval walleye (Sander vitreus) in western Lake Erie: Implications for larval growth, mixing, and stock discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael Fraker,; Eric J. Anderson,; Cassandra J. May,; Kuan-Yu Chen,; Jeremiah J. Davis,; Kristen M. DeVanna,; Mark R. DuFour,; Elizabeth A. Marschall,; Christine M. Mayer,; Jeffrey G. Miner,; Kevin L. Pangle,; Jeremy J. Pritt,; Roseman, Edward F.; Jeffrey T. Tyson,; Yingming Zhao,; Stuart Ludsin,

    2015-01-01

    Physical processes can generate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in habitat quality for fish and also influence the overlap of pre-recruit individuals (e.g., larvae) with high-quality habitat through hydrodynamic advection. In turn, individuals from different stocks that are produced in different spawning locations or at different times may experience dissimilar habitat conditions, which can underlie within- and among-stock variability in larval growth and survival. While such physically-mediated variation has been shown to be important in driving intra- and inter-annual patterns in recruitment in marine ecosystems, its role in governing larval advection, growth, survival, and recruitment has received less attention in large lake ecosystems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. Herein, we used a hydrodynamic model linked to a larval walleye (Sander vitreus) individual-based model to explore how the timing and location of larval walleye emergence from several spawning sites in western Lake Erie (Maumee, Sandusky, and Detroit rivers; Ohio reef complex) can influence advection pathways and mixing among these local spawning populations (stocks), and how spatiotemporal variation in thermal habitat can influence stock-specific larval growth. While basin-wide advection patterns were fairly similar during 2011 and 2012, smaller scale advection patterns and the degree of stock mixing varied both within and between years. Additionally, differences in larval growth were evident among stocks and among cohorts within stocks which were attributed to spatiotemporal differences in water temperature. Using these findings, we discuss the value of linked physical–biological models for understanding the recruitment process and addressing fisheries management problems in the world's Great Lakes.

  15. Fall diets of red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) and walleye (Sander vitreus) in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, M.T.; Stapanian, M.A.; Bernhardt, G.; Turner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although published studies indicate the contrary, there is concern among many sport anglers that migrating red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) and other waterbirds pose a competitive threat to sport fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie. We quantified the diet of autumn-migrant mergansers and walleye during 1998-2000 in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie. We hypothesized that the diets of both predators would be similar in species composition, but because of different foraging ecologies their diets would differ markedly in size of prey consumed. In addition to predator samples, we used trawl data from the same general area as an index of prey availability. We found that mergansers fed almost exclusively on fish (nine species). Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Walleye fed exclusively on fish: gizzard shad, alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and emerald shiner were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Diet overlap between mergansers and walleye was 67% by weight and 66% by species frequency. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby found in walleye stomachs exceeded those captured in trawls by 47%, on average. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby were greater in walleye stomachs than in merganser stomachs. Mean total lengths of emerald shiner and round goby were less in merganser stomachs than in trawls. Our results suggest that although the diets of walleye and mergansers overlapped considerably, mergansers generally consumed smaller fish than walleye. Given the abundance and diversity of prey species available, and the transient nature of mergansers on Lake Erie during migration, we conclude that competition for food between these species is minimal.

  16. Effects of fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus on conception rate in smallholder zebu and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double PGF2α administration.

    PubMed

    Gugssa, Tadesse; Ashebir, Gebregiorgis; Yayneshet, Tesfay

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate estrus response, time to the onset of estrus, and conception rate at fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus in local and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double administration of PGF2α. One hundred twenty local (heifers, n = 27; cows, n = 33) and crossbreds (heifers, n = 21; cows, n = 39) were used for the study. About 63 and 85.7 % of the local and crossbred heifers, respectively, exhibited estrus. Similarly, all crossbred cows and 90.9 % of local cows showed estrus. Most heifers came to estrus between 48 and 72 h while cows exhibited behavioral signs of estrus between 72 and 96 h. AI at detected estrus resulted in higher conception rate than fixed time AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination was higher in AI at detected estrus than fixed time AI. Accurate estrus detection followed by insemination are crucial factors in maximizing pregnancy, and this study has demonstrated that conception rate in smallholder heifers and cows should be inseminated following estrus detection to maximize the conception rate of the animals. PMID:27184042

  17. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  18. 78 FR 17232 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ..., victim-centered responses to sexual violence within AI/AN communities. DATES AND LOCATIONS: The meeting... to assist victims of sexual violence within AI/AN communities, and to promote culturally relevant, victim-centered responses to sexual violence within those communities. Webinar Agenda: The agenda...

  19. Macrophage apoAI protects against dyslipidemia-induced dermatitis and atherosclerosis without affecting HDL.

    PubMed

    Tavori, Hagai; Su, Yan Ru; Yancey, Patricia G; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Wilhelm, Ashley J; Blakemore, John L; Zabalawi, Manal; Linton, MacRae F; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Fazio, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Tissue cholesterol accumulation, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation are features of atherosclerosis and some forms of dermatitis. HDL and its main protein, apoAI, are acceptors of excess cholesterol from macrophages; this process inhibits tissue inflammation. Recent epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence questions the role of HDL and its manipulation in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of ectopic macrophage apoAI expression on atherosclerosis and dermatitis induced by the combination of hypercholesterolemia and absence of HDL in mice. Hematopoietic progenitor cells were transduced to express human apoAI and transplanted into lethally irradiated LDL receptor(-/-)/apoAI(-/-) mice, which were then placed on a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Macrophage apoAI expression reduced aortic CD4(+) T-cell levels (-39.8%), lesion size (-25%), and necrotic core area (-31.6%), without affecting serum HDL or aortic macrophage levels. Macrophage apoAI reduced skin cholesterol by 39.8%, restored skin morphology, and reduced skin CD4(+) T-cell levels. Macrophage apoAI also reduced CD4(+) T-cell levels (-32.9%) in skin-draining lymph nodes but had no effect on other T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages compared with control transplanted mice. Thus, macrophage apoAI expression protects against atherosclerosis and dermatitis by reducing cholesterol accumulation and regulating CD4(+) T-cell levels, without affecting serum HDL or tissue macrophage levels.

  20. Health Information in French (français): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) PDF Healthy Roads ...

  1. Teaching AI Search Algorithms in a Web-Based Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grivokostopoulou, Foteini; Hatzilygeroudis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of teaching AI search algorithms in a web-based adaptive educational system. Teaching is based on interactive examples and exercises. Interactive examples, which use visualized animations to present AI search algorithms in a step-by-step way with explanations, are used to make learning more attractive. Practice…

  2. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  3. Reproductive performance of dairy cows resynchronized after pregnancy diagnosis at 31 (±3 days) after artificial insemination (AI) compared with resynchronization at 31 (±3 days) after AI with pregnancy diagnosis at 38 (±3 days) after AI.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Caixeta, L S; Giordano, J O; Guard, C L; Bicalho, R C

    2013-01-01

    An important part of reproductive management programs on dairy farms is identification of nonpregnant cows and early re-insemination to achieve higher pregnancy rates. The objective of this study was to compare the effect on reproductive performance and pregnancy loss of 2 pregnancy diagnosis protocols: (1) pregnancy diagnosis performed 31±3 d after artificial insemination (AI) by ultrasonography (ULTRA), and (2) resynchronization started 31±3 d after AI but with pregnancy diagnosis performed 38±3 d after AI by palpation per rectum (PALP). Cows were randomly allocated into 1 of the 2 management programs. For cows enrolled in ULTRA, the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) was performed by transrectal ultrasonography at 31±3 d after AI, and nonpregnant cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive timed AI (TAI). For cows enrolled in PALP, the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive TAI was initiated at 31±3 d after AI regardless of pregnancy status, with the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) performed by palpation per rectum at 38±3 d after AI. For both groups, reconfirmation of pregnancy was performed by palpation per rectum at 63±3 d after AI (P2). Cows were inseminated after detection of estrus by use of activity monitors at any time during the study. Two levels of activity were used as a reference for cows AI after detection of estrus based on activity: an activity level of ≥2 when a cow was coded in DairyComp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA) as open (nonpregnant) and an activity level of ≥3 when the pregnancy status of the cow was unknown. Our findings showed that the odds of pregnancy loss cows in ULTRA was 2 times higher between P1 and P2 compared with that of cows in PALP. Furthermore, pregnancy diagnosis method (ULTRA vs. PALP) did not have a significant effect on the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy at P2. The occurrence of assisted parturition, metritis, or retained

  4. Novel cross-linked alcohol-insoluble solid (CL-AIS) affinity gel from pea pod for pectinesterase purification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Guan-Hui; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-10-01

    Alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) from pea pod were cross-linked (CL-AIS) and used as an affinity gel matrix to isolate pectin esterases (PEs) from tendril shoots of chayote (TSC) and jelly fig achenes (JFA), and the results were compared with those isolated by ion-exchange chromatography with a commercial resin. CL-AIS gel matrix in a column displayed poor absorption and purification fold of PE; however, highly methoxylated CL-AIS (HM-CL-AIS), by exposing CL-AIS to methanolic sulfuric acid to increase the degree of esterification (DE) to 92%, facilitated the enzyme purification. The purified TSC PE and JFA PE by the HM-CL-AIS column were proofed as a single band on an SDS-PAGE gel, showing that the HM-CL-AIS column was a good matrix for purification of PE, either with alkaline isoelectric point (pI) (TSC PE) or with acidic pI (JFA PE).

  5. Comparison of AIS Versus TMS Data Collected over the Virginia Piedmont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Evans, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS, NS001 Thematic Mapper Simlulator (TMS), and Zeiss camera collected remotely sensed data simultaneously on October 27, 1983, at an altitude of 6860 meters (22,500 feet). AIS data were collected in 32 channels covering 1200 to 1500 nm. A simple atmospheric correction was applied to the AIS data, after which spectra for four cover types were plotted. Spectra for these ground cover classes showed a telescoping effect for the wavelength endpoints. Principal components were extracted from the shortwave region of the AIS (1200 to 1280 nm), full spectrum AIS (1200 to 1500 nm) and TMS (450 to 12,500 nm) to create three separate three-component color image composites. A comparison of the TMS band 5 (1000 to 1300 nm) to the six principal components from the shortwave AIS region (1200 to 1280 nm) showed improved visual discrimination of ground cover types. Contrast of color image composites created from principal components showed the AIS composites to exhibit a clearer demarcation between certain ground cover types but subtle differences within other regions of the imagery were not as readily seen.

  6. Consequences of disrupting Salmonella AI-2 signaling on interactions within soft rots.

    PubMed

    Cox, Clayton E; McClelland, Michael; Teplitski, Max

    2013-04-01

    Within soft rots, Salmonella spp. reach population densities 10- to 100-fold higher than within intact plants. The hypothesis that Salmonella spp. exchange AI-2 signals with Pectobacterium carotovorum to increase its competitive fitness was tested using mutants involved in AI-2 production (luxS) or perception (lsrACDBF or lsrG). Co-infections of a wild-type Salmonella sp. and its AI-2 mutants (at ≈3 to 10(4)) were established in green or red tomato ('FL 47' or 'Campari' for 3 or 5 days) as well as tomato co-infected with Pectobacterium (at 10(9)) or its luxS mutant. There were no significant differences in the competitive fitness of Salmonella, indicating that AI-2 signaling is not a major input in the interactions between these organisms under the tested conditions. A Salmonella lsrG::tnpR-lacZ resolvase in vivo expression technology (RIVET) reporter, constructed to monitor AI-2-related gene expression, responded strongly to the luxS deletion but only weakly to external sources of AI-2. Growth in soft rots generally decreased RIVET resolution; however, the effect was not correlated to the luxS genotype of the Pectobacterium sp. The results of this study show that AI-2 signaling offers no significant benefit to Salmonella spp. in this model of colonization of tomato or soft rots. PMID:23324045

  7. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.

  8. Identification of Apolipoprotein A-I as a Retinoic Acid-binding Protein in the Eye.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jody A; Harper, Angelica R; Feasley, Christa L; Van-Der-Wel, Hanke; Byrum, Jennifer N; Hermann, Marcela; West, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid may be an important molecular signal in the postnatal control of eye size. The goal of this study was to identify retinoic acid-binding proteins secreted by the choroid and sclera during visually guided ocular growth. Following photoaffinity labeling with all-trans-[11,12-(3)H]retinoic acid, the most abundant labeled protein detected in the conditioned medium of choroid or sclera had an apparent Mr of 27,000 Da. Following purification and mass spectrometry, the Mr 27,000 band was identified as apolipoprotein A-I. Affinity capture of the radioactive Mr 27,000 band by anti-chick apolipoprotein A-I antibodies confirmed its identity as apolipoprotein A-I. Photoaffinity labeling and fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that binding of retinoic acid to apolipoprotein A-I is 1) concentration-dependent, 2) selective for all-trans-retinoic acid, and 3) requires the presence of apolipoprotein A-I-associated lipids for retinoid binding. Expression of apolipoprotein A-I mRNA and protein synthesis were markedly up-regulated in choroids of chick eyes during the recovery from induced myopia, and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA was significantly increased in choroids following retinoic acid treatment. Together, these data suggest that apolipoprotein A-I may participate in a regulatory feedback mechanism with retinoic acid to control the action of retinoic acid on ocular targets during postnatal ocular growth.

  9. Identification of Apolipoprotein A-I as a Retinoic Acid-binding Protein in the Eye.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jody A; Harper, Angelica R; Feasley, Christa L; Van-Der-Wel, Hanke; Byrum, Jennifer N; Hermann, Marcela; West, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid may be an important molecular signal in the postnatal control of eye size. The goal of this study was to identify retinoic acid-binding proteins secreted by the choroid and sclera during visually guided ocular growth. Following photoaffinity labeling with all-trans-[11,12-(3)H]retinoic acid, the most abundant labeled protein detected in the conditioned medium of choroid or sclera had an apparent Mr of 27,000 Da. Following purification and mass spectrometry, the Mr 27,000 band was identified as apolipoprotein A-I. Affinity capture of the radioactive Mr 27,000 band by anti-chick apolipoprotein A-I antibodies confirmed its identity as apolipoprotein A-I. Photoaffinity labeling and fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that binding of retinoic acid to apolipoprotein A-I is 1) concentration-dependent, 2) selective for all-trans-retinoic acid, and 3) requires the presence of apolipoprotein A-I-associated lipids for retinoid binding. Expression of apolipoprotein A-I mRNA and protein synthesis were markedly up-regulated in choroids of chick eyes during the recovery from induced myopia, and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA was significantly increased in choroids following retinoic acid treatment. Together, these data suggest that apolipoprotein A-I may participate in a regulatory feedback mechanism with retinoic acid to control the action of retinoic acid on ocular targets during postnatal ocular growth. PMID:27402828

  10. Methods for Processing and Interpretation of AIS Signals Corrupted by Noise and Packet Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poļevskis, J.; Krastiņš, M.; Korāts, G.; Skorodumovs, A.; Trokšs, J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors deal with the operation of Automatic Identification System (AIS) used in the marine traffic monitoring to broadcast messages containing information about the vessel: id, payload, size, speed, destination etc., meant primarily for avoidance of ship collisions. To extend the radius of AIS operation, it is envisaged to dispose its receivers on satellites. However, in space, due to a large coverage area, interfering factors are especially pronounced - such as packet collision, Doppler's shift and noise impact on AIS message receiving, pre-processing and decoding. To assess the quality of an AIS receiver's operation, a test was carried out in which, varying automatically frequency, amplitude, noise, and other parameters, the data on the ability of the receiver's ability to decode AIS signals are collected. In the work, both hardware- and software-based AIS decoders were tested. As a result, quite satisfactory statistics has been gathered - both on the common and the differing features of such decoders when operating in space. To obtain reliable data on the software-defined radio AIS receivers, further research is envisaged.

  11. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  12. A Model of Lipid-Free Apolipoprotein A-I Revealed by Iterative Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipid-free apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation. PMID:25793886

  13. Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among Treatment-Seeking Smoker

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.1% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at three time points (Baseline, Quit day, 1 month post-quit) as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor solution, described by inflexibility and avoidance due to smoking related “thoughts/feelings” (9 items) and “somatic sensations” (4 items). Results revealed that the AIS-total and factor scores demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The AIS total and factor scores also displayed high convergent, discriminant, and incremental predictive validity with theoretically-relevant smoking and affective variables. The present data suggest that the AIS measure appears to be a valid and reliable smoking-specific index of experiential avoidance. PMID:25642937

  14. Utilizing AI in Temporal, Spatial, and Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stottler, Richard; Kalton, Annaka; Bell, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Aurora is a software system enabling the rapid, easy solution of complex scheduling problems involving spatial and temporal constraints among operations and scarce resources (such as equipment, workspace, and human experts). Although developed for use in the International Space Station Processing Facility, Aurora is flexible enough that it can be easily customized for application to other scheduling domains and adapted as the requirements change or become more precisely known over time. Aurora s scheduling module utilizes artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques to make scheduling decisions on the basis of domain knowledge, including knowledge of constraints and their relative importance, interdependencies among operations, and possibly frequent changes in governing schedule requirements. Unlike many other scheduling software systems, Aurora focuses on resource requirements and temporal scheduling in combination. For example, Aurora can accommodate a domain requirement to schedule two subsequent operations to locations adjacent to a shared resource. The graphical interface allows the user to quickly visualize the schedule and perform changes reflecting additional knowledge or alterations in the situation. For example, the user might drag the activity corresponding to the start of operations to reflect a late delivery.

  15. Rapid solidification effects in martensitic Cu-Zn-AI Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Jeff

    1982-08-01

    The effects of rapid solidification on martensitic transformations were studied in Cu-Zn-AI samples prepared by the method of melt-spinning, with an estimated cooling rate of about 106 K per second near the freezing point. A diffusionless solidification reaction L → β occurs, and a very fine-grained β structure is obtained, with highly structured grain boundaries. The average β grain diameter (˜5 µm) is about two orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained by conventional solid state solution and quench treatment. The β:β grain boundaries contain extraordinary features such as large steps, and the matrix dislocation density is abnormally high. The Ms temperature is depressed significantly in as-melt-spun ribbon material, but as the martensitic transformation is cycled, it shifts upward in temperature and obtains a more narrow hysteresis loop. The martensite has the usual 9R structure (ABCBCACAB stacking) found in bulk alloys, and while the morphology is similar to that in bulk alloys, it is finer in scale. It is suggested that the β → 9R transformation is affected through the combined influence of rapid solidification on parent β grain size, disorder, β:β grain boundary structure, internal stresses, and dislocation substructure. Shape memory behavior is qualitatively similar in the rapidly solidified alloys.

  16. Computational intelligence from AI to BI to NI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Paul J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives highlights of the history of the neural network field, stressing the fundamental ideas which have been in play. Early neural network research was motivated mainly by the goals of artificial intelligence (AI) and of functional neuroscience (biological intelligence, BI), but the field almost died due to frustrations articulated in the famous book Perceptrons by Minsky and Papert. When I found a way to overcome the difficulties by 1974, the community mindset was very resistant to change; it was not until 1987/1988 that the field was reborn in a spectacular way, leading to the organized communities now in place. Even then, it took many more years to establish crossdisciplinary research in the types of mathematical neural networks needed to really understand the kind of intelligence we see in the brain, and to address the most demanding engineering applications. Only through a new (albeit short-lived) funding initiative, funding crossdisciplinary teams of systems engineers and neuroscientists, were we able to fund the critical empirical demonstrations which put our old basic principle of "deep learning" firmly on the map in computer science. Progress has rightly been inhibited at times by legitimate concerns about the "Terminator threat" and other possible abuses of technology. This year, at SPIE, in the quantum computing track, we outline the next stage ahead of us in breaking out of the box, again and again, and rising to fundamental challenges and opportunities still ahead of us.

  17. Measuring near infrared spectral reflectance changes from water stressed conifer stands with AIS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Running, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) data was acquired over two paired conifer stands for the purpose of detecting differences in spectral reflectance between stressed and natural canopies. Water stress was induced in a stand of Norway spruce and white pine by severing the sapwood near the ground. Water stress during the AIS flights was evaluated through shoot water potential and relative water content measurements. Preliminary analysis with raw AIS-2 data using SPAM indicates that there were small, inconsistent differences in absolute spectral reflectance in the near infrared 0.97 to 1.3 micron between the stressed and natural canopies.

  18. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  19. AI Techniques in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Paolo; Mea, Vincenzo Della; di Gaspero, Luca; Lomuscio, Raffaella; Mischis, Danny; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena; Scagnetto, Ivan; Vassena, Luca

    Nowadays, the mobile computing paradigm and the widespread diffusion of mobile devices are quickly changing and replacing many common assumptions about software architectures and interaction/communication models. The environment, in particular, or more generally, the so-called user context is claiming a central role in everyday’s use of cellular phones, PDAs, etc. This is due to the huge amount of data “suggested” by the surrounding environment that can be helpful in many common tasks. For instance, the current context can help a search engine to refine the set of results in a useful way, providing the user with a more suitable and exploitable information. Moreover, we can take full advantage of this new data source by “pushing” active contents towards mobile devices, empowering the latter with new features (e.g., applications) that can allow the user to fruitfully interact with the current context. Following this vision, mobile devices become dynamic self-adapting tools, according to the user needs and the possibilities offered by the environment. The present work proposes MoBe: an approach for providing a basic infrastructure for pervasive context-aware applications on mobile devices, in which AI techniques (namely a principled combination of rule-based systems, Bayesian networks and ontologies) are applied to context inference. The aim is to devise a general inferential framework to make easier the development of context-aware applications by integrating the information coming from physical and logical sensors (e.g., position, agenda) and reasoning about this information in order to infer new and more abstract contexts.

  20. AIS TLS-ESPRIT feature selection for prostate tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S. S.; Youssef, A. M.; El-Saadany, E. F.; Salama, M. M. A.

    2006-03-01

    The work in this paper aims for analyzing spectral features of the prostate using Trans-Rectal Ultra-Sound images (TRUS) for tissue classification. This research is expected to augment beginner radiologists' decision with the experience of more experienced radiologists. Moreover, Since, in some situations the biopsy results in false negatives due to inaccurate biopsy locations, therefore this research also aims to assist in determining the biopsy locations to decrease the false negative results. In this paper, a new technique for prostate tissue characterization is developed. The proposed system is composed of four stages. The first stage is automatically identifying Regions Of Interest (ROIs). This is achieved using the Gabor multiresolution analysis method, where preliminary regions are identified using the frequency response of the pixels, pixels that have the same response to the same filter are assigned to the same cluster. Next, the radiologist knowledge is integrated to the system to select the most suspicious ROIs among the prelimianry identified regions. The second stage is constructing the spectral features from the identified ROIs. The proposed technique is based on a novel spectral feature set for the TRUS images using the Total Least Square Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (TLS-ESPRIT). Classifier based feature selection is then performed to select the most salient features using the recently proposed Artificial Immune System (AIS) optimization technique. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used as an accuracy measure, our proposed system obtains a classification accuracy of 94.4%, with 100% sensitivity and 83.3% sensetivity.

  1. Automated AI-based designer of electrical distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumic, Zarko

    1992-03-01

    Designing the electrical supply system for new residential developments (plat design) is an everyday task for electric utility engineers. Presently this task is carried out manually resulting in an overdesigned, costly, and nonstandardized solution. As an ill-structured and open-ended problem, plat design is difficult to automate with conventional approaches such as operational research or CAD. Additional complexity in automating plat design is imposed by the need to process spatial data such as circuits' maps, records, and construction plans. The intelligent decision support system for automated electrical plate design (IDSS for AEPD) is an engineering tool aimed at automating plate design. IDSS for AEPD combines the functionality of geographic information systems (GIS) a geographically referenced database, with the sophistication of artificial intelligence (AI) to deal with the complexity inherent in design problems. Blackboard problem solving architecture, concentrated around INGRES relational database and NEXPERT object expert system shell have been chosen to accommodate the diverse knowledge sources and data models. The GIS's principal task it to create, structure, and formalize the real world representation required by the rule based reasoning portion of the AEPD. IDSS's capability to support and enhance the engineer's design, rather than only automate the design process through a prescribed computation, makes it a preferred choice among the possible techniques for AEPD. This paper presents the results of knowledge acquisition and the knowledge engineering process with AEPD tool conceptual design issues. To verify the proposed concept, the comparison of results obtained by the AEPD tool with the design obtained by an experienced human designer is given.

  2. Optimized bacterial expression of human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert O; Forte, Trudy M; Oda, Michael N

    2003-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) serves critical functions in plasma lipoprotein metabolism as a structural component of high density lipoprotein, activator of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and acceptor of cellular cholesterol as part of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. In an effort to facilitate structure:function studies of human apoA-I, we have optimized a plasmid vector for production of recombinant wild type (WT) and mutant apoA-I in bacteria. To facilitate mutagenesis studies, subcloning, and DNA manipulation, numerous silent mutations have been introduced into the apoA-I cDNA, generating 13 unique restriction endonuclease sites. The coding sequence for human apoA-I has been modified by the introduction of additional silent mutations that eliminate 18 separate codons that employ tRNAs that are of low or moderate abundance in Escherichia coli. Yields of recombinant apoA-I achieved using the optimized cDNA were 100+/-20 mg/L bacterial culture, more than fivefold greater than yields routinely obtained with the original cDNA. Site-directed mutagenesis of the apoA-I cDNA was performed to generate a Glu2Asp mutation in the N-terminal sequence of apoA-I. This modification, which creates an acid labile Asp-Pro peptide bond between amino acids 2 and 3, permits specific chemical cleavage of an N-terminal His-Tag fusion peptide used for rapid protein purification. The product protein's primary structure is identical to WT apoA-I in all other respects. Together, these changes in apoA-I cDNA and bacterial expression protocol significantly improve the yield of apoA-I protein without compromising the relative ease of purification.

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I and its mimetics for the treatment of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Although statin treatment leads consistently to a reduction in major adverse coronary events and death in clinical trials, approximately 60 to 70% residual risk of these outcomes still remains. One frontier of investigational drug research is treatment to increase HDL, the ‘good cholesterol’ that is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) are protective against atherosclerosis through several mechanisms, including the ability to mediate reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical findings for two types of therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis: apoAI-containing compounds and apoAI mimetic peptides. Both of these therapies have excellent potential to be useful clinically to promote atherosclerosis regression and stabilize existing plaques, but significant hurdles must be overcome in order to develop these approaches into safe and effective therapies. PMID:20730693

  4. 76 FR 44045 - Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... National Coordination Committee on the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Sexual Assault Response Team... valuable advice about the complex issues that arise when AI/AN law enforcement agencies and their...

  5. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  6. AI-2 biosynthesis module in a magnetic nanofactory alters bacterial response via localized synthesis and delivery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rohan; Bentley, William E

    2009-02-01

    Nanofactories are nano-dimensioned and comprised of modules serving various functions that alter the response of targeted cells when deployed by locally synthesizing and delivering cargo to the surfaces of the targeted cells. In its basic form, a nanofactory consists of a minimum of two functional modules: a cell capture module and a synthesis module. In this work, magnetic nanofactories that alter the response of targeted bacteria by the localized synthesis and delivery of the "universal" bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule autoinducer AI-2 are demonstrated. The magnetic nanofactories consist of a cell capture module (chitosan-mag nanoparticles) and an AI-2 biosynthesis module that contains both AI-2 biosynthetic enzymes Pfs and LuxS on a fusion protein (His-LuxS-Pfs-Tyr, HLPT) assembled together. HLPT is hypothesized to be more efficient than its constituent enzymes (used separately) at conversion of the substrate SAH to product AI-2 on account of the proximity of the two enzymes within the fusion protein. HLPT is demonstrated to be more active than the constituent enzymes, Pfs and LuxS, over a wide range of experimental conditions. The magnetic nanofactories (containing bound HLPT) are also demonstrated to be more active than free, unbound HLPT. They are also shown to elicit an increased response in targeted Escherichia coli cells, due to the localized synthesis and delivery of AI-2, when compared to the response produced by the addition of AI-2 directly to the cells. Studies investigating the universality of AI-2 and unraveling AI-2 based quorum sensing in bacteria using magnetic nanofactories are envisioned. The prospects of using such multi-modular nanofactories in developing the next generation of antimicrobials based on intercepting and interrupting quorum sensing based signaling are discussed.

  7. Asymmetric DNA recognition by the OkrAI endonuclease, an isoschizomer of BamHI

    SciTech Connect

    Vanamee, Éva Scheuring; Viadiu, Hector; Chan, Siu-Hong; Ummat, Ajay; Hartline, Adrian M.; Xu, Shuang-yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2011-11-18

    Restriction enzymes share little or no sequence homology with the exception of isoschizomers, or enzymes that recognize and cleave the same DNA sequence. We present here the structure of a BamHI isoschizomer, OkrAI, bound to the same DNA sequence (TATGGATCCATA) as that cocrystallized with BamHI. We show that OkrAI is a more minimal version of BamHI, lacking not only the N- and C-terminal helices but also an internal 310 helix and containing {beta}-strands that are shorter than those in BamHI. Despite these structural differences, OkrAI recognizes the DNA in a remarkably similar manner to BamHI, including asymmetric contacts via C-terminal 'arms' that appear to 'compete' for the minor groove. However, the arms are shorter than in BamHI. We observe similar DNA-binding affinities between OkrAI and BamHI but OkrAI has higher star activity (at 37 C) compared to BamHI. Together, the OkrAI and BamHI structures offer a rare opportunity to compare two restriction enzymes that work on exactly the same DNA substrate.

  8. Analysis of AIS Data of the Recluse Oil Field, Recluse, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Segal, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were flown over the Recluse, Wyoming oil field on September 9, 1984. Processing software was developed at Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat) for interactive analysis of the AIS data. EarthSat's AIS processing capabilities include destriping, solar irradiance corrections, residual calculations, geometric resampling, equal energy normalization, interactive spectral classifications and a variety of compressive algorithms to reduce the data to 8-bit format with a minimum of information loss. The in-house photolab facilities of EarthSat can routinely produce high-quality color renditions of the enhanced AIS data. A total of 80 lithologic samples were collected under the AIS flight lines. Correlation (within the atmospheric windows) between the laboratory and the AIS spectra of sample sites was generally poor. Reasonable correlation was only possible in large, freshly plowed fields. Mixed pixels and contrast between the natural and sample's surfaces were believed responsible for the poor correlation. Finally, a drift of approximately three channels was observed in the diffraction grating position within the 1.8 to 2.1 micron quadrant.

  9. Concentration and pattern changes of porcine serum apolipoprotein A-I in four different infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Bassols, Anna; Miller, Ingrid

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is a major protein in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and decreased serum levels have been observed in many species in response to inflammatory and infectious challenges. Little is known about the porcine homologue, therefore in this work we have characterized it through biochemical and proteomic techniques. In 2DE, porcine serum Apo A-I is found as three spots, the two more acidic ones corresponding to the mature protein, the more basic spot to the protein precursor. Despite high sequence coverage in LC-MS/MS, we did not find a sequence or PTM difference between the two mature protein species. Besides this biochemical characterization, we measured overall levels and relative species abundance of serum Apo A-I in four different viral and bacterial porcine infectious diseases. Lower overall amounts of Apo A-I were observed in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli infections. In the 2DE protein pattern, an increase of the protein precursor together with a lower level of mature protein species were detected in the porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease and S. typhimurium infection. These results reveal that both the porcine serum Apo A-I concentration and the species pattern are influenced by the nature of the infectious disease.

  10. An AIS-based approach to calculate atmospheric emissions from the UK fishing fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coello, Jonathan; Williams, Ian; Hudson, Dominic A.; Kemp, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The fishing industry is heavily reliant on the use of fossil fuel and emits large quantities of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. Methods used to calculate fishing vessel emissions inventories have traditionally utilised estimates of fuel efficiency per unit of catch. These methods have weaknesses because they do not easily allow temporal and geographical allocation of emissions. A large proportion of fishing and other small commercial vessels are also omitted from global shipping emissions inventories such as the International Maritime Organisation's Greenhouse Gas Studies. This paper demonstrates an activity-based methodology for the production of temporally- and spatially-resolved emissions inventories using data produced by Automatic Identification Systems (AIS). The methodology addresses the issue of how to use AIS data for fleets where not all vessels use AIS technology and how to assign engine load when vessels are towing trawling or dredging gear. The results of this are compared to a fuel-based methodology using publicly available European Commission fisheries data on fuel efficiency and annual catch. The results show relatively good agreement between the two methodologies, with an estimate of 295.7 kilotons of fuel used and 914.4 kilotons of carbon dioxide emitted between May 2012 and May 2013 using the activity-based methodology. Different methods of calculating speed using AIS data are also compared. The results indicate that using the speed data contained directly in the AIS data is preferable to calculating speed from the distance and time interval between consecutive AIS data points.

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency due to a codon 84 nonsense mutation of the apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Yanagi, Hisako; Hattori, Naoko; Yamakawa, Kimiko; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Hamaguchi, Hideo ); Hiasa, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Toshihiro ); Tanaka, Isao; Obara, Takashi )

    1991-04-01

    The molecular genetic defect of a female patient with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency and premature atherosclerosis was examined. Her parents were first cousins. Her plasma density fraction from 1.063 to 1.21 g/ml contained no apoA-I on SDS/PAGE and no measurable high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Southern blot hybridization showed no gross abnormality to be present in the patient's apoA-I gene and homozygosity for a haplotype of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the apoA-I gene region. Sequencing after amplification by PCR revealed a codon 84 nonsense mutation (CAG {r arrow} TAG, Gln {r arrow} stop) of exon 4 and a codon 37 missense mutation (GCC{r arrow} ACC, Ala {r arrow} Thr) of exon 3 in the patient's apoA-I gene. The data from dot-blot hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes indicated that she was homozygous for the apoA-I gene with regard to the two mutations. The codon 37 missense mutation was also detected in the apoA-I gene of 6 out of 60 controls, who all had normal levels of apoA-I and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, suggesting that the missense mutation is polymorphic and not associated with apoA-I deficiency. These finding indicate that homozygosity for the apoA-I gene with codon 84 nonsense mutation causes the deficiency of apoA-I and of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the patient.

  12. Evaluation of AIS-2 (1986) data over hydrothermally altered granitoid rocks of the Singatse Range (Yerington) Nevada and comparison with 1985 AIS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) flights along 2 subparallel lines (bearing 013) were designed to traverse 3 major rock assemblages - the Triassic sedimentary sequence; the granitoid rocks of the Yerington batholith and the Tertiary ignimbritic ash flow and ash fall tuffs. The first 2 sites are hydrothermally altered to a quartz-sericite-tourmaline mineralogy. The first AIS-2 data set showed numerous line dropouts and a considerable number of randomly distributed dark pixels. A second decommutation reduced the dropout essentially to near zero and the dark pixels by about 75 percent. Vertical striping was removed by histogram matching, column by column. A log residual spectrum was calculated which showed the departure of a 2 x 2 pixel area from the spatially and spectrally averaged scene. A 1:1 correlation was found with the log residual AIS-2 data and a large open pit area of gypsum. An area with known sericite agreed with the overflight data, and an area known to be free of any significant amount of O-H bearing materials showed no evidence of any in the AIS-2 log residuals.

  13. DNA inversion within the apolipoproteins AI/CIII/AIV-encoding gene cluster of certain patients with premature atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Karathanasis, S.K.; Ferris, E.; Haddad, I.A.

    1987-10-01

    The genes coding for apolipoproteins (apo) AI, CIII, and AIV, designated APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4, respectively, are closely linked and tandemly organized in the long arm of the human chromosome 11. A DNA rearrangement involving the genes encoding apoAI and apoCIII in certain patients with premature atherosclerosis has been associated with deficiency of both apoAI and apoCIII in the plasma of these patients. Structural characterization of the genes for apoAI and apoCIII in one of these patients indicates that this rearrangement consists of a DNA inversion containing portions of the 3' ends of the apoAI and apoCIII genes, including the DNA region between these genes. The breakpoints of this DNA inversion are located within the fourth exon of the apoAI gene and the first intron of the apoCIII gene. Thus, this DNA inversion results in reciprocal fusion of the apoAI and apoCIII gene transcriptional units. Expression of these gene fusions in cultured mammalian cells results in stable mRNA transcripts with sequences representing fusions of the apoAI and apoCIII mRNAs. These results indicate that absence of transcripts with correct apoAI and apoCIII mRNA sequences causes apoAI and apoCIII deficiency in the plasma of these patients and suggest that these apolipoproteins are involved in cholesterol homeostasis and protection against premature atherosclerosis.

  14. Expression and recovery of biologically active recombinant Apolipoprotein AI(Milano) from transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L; Shen, Yin; Murray, Elizabeth W; Boothe, Joseph G; Busseuil, David; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Reid, Alexandra; Moloney, Maurice M

    2011-02-01

    Apolipoprotein AI Milano (ApoAI(Milano) ) was expressed as a fusion protein in transgenic safflower seeds. High levels of expression corresponding to 7 g of ApoAI(Milano) per kilogram of seed have been identified in a line selected for commercialization. The ApoAI(Milano) fusion protein was extracted from seed using an oilbody-based process and matured in vitro prior to final purification. This yielded a Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) product which was confirmed by biochemical characterization including immunoreactivity against ApoAI antibodies, isoelectric point, N-terminal sequencing and electrospray mass spectrometry. Purified Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) readily associated with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine in clearance assays comparable to Human ApoAI. Its biological activity was assessed by cholesterol efflux assays using Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) :1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine complexes in vitro and in vivo. This study has established that high levels of biologically functional ApoAI(Milano) can be produced using a plant-based expression system.

  15. Do Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Neglect Proprioceptive Information in Sensory Integration of Postural Control?

    PubMed Central

    Assaiante, Christine; Mallau, Sophie; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Bollini, Gérard; Vaugoyeau, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that AIS rely much more on ankle proprioception to control the amplitude of the balance control commands as compared to age-matched healthy adolescents. Our hypothesis was that AIS do not neglect proprioceptive information to control posture probably because of their vestibular deficits. We investigated the proprioceptive contribution to postural control in AIS which expresses spinal deformity during a crucial transitional period of ontogenesis. Methods 10 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate spinal deformity (10° < Cobb Angle >35°) and 10 control adolescents (CA) had to maintain vertical stance while very slow oscillations in the frontal plane (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system) were applied to the support with the eyes open and closed. Postural orientation and segmental stabilisation were analysed at head, shoulder, trunk and pelvis levels. Results Scoliosis did not affect vertical orientation control and segmental stabilization strategies. Vision improves postural control in both CA and AIS, which seem more dependent on visual cues than adults. Conclusions AIS as CA were unable to control efficiently their postural orientation on the basis of the proprioceptive cues, the only sensory information available in the EC situation, whereas in the same condition healthy young adults present no difficulty to achieve the postural control. This suggests that AIS as CA transitory neglect proprioceptive information to control their posture. These results and previous studies suggest the existence of different afferent pathways for proprioceptive information subserving different parts in sensory integration of postural control. We conclude that the static proprioceptive system is not affected by the idiopathic scoliosis, while the dynamic proprioceptive system would be mainly affected. PMID:22815779

  16. Embryonic mortality in buffaloes synchronized and mated by AI during the seasonal decline in reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca; Galiero, Giorgio; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Zicarelli, Luigi

    2005-05-01

    The aim was to determine the factors that contribute to embryonic mortality in buffaloes mated by AI during a period of increasing day length which corresponds to a natural decline in reproductive activity. Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows (n=243) showing regular estrous cycles were synchronized using the Ovsynch-TAI program and mated by AI at 16 and 40 h after the second injection of GnRH. Blood samples were collected on Days 10 and 20 after the first AI and assayed for progesterone (P4). Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken on Days 26 and 40 after the first AI using rectal ultrasonography. Buffaloes with a conceptus on Day 26 but not on Day 40 were judged to have undergone embryonic mortality and for these animals uterine fluid was recovered by flushing and analysed for common infectious agents. Estrus synchronization was achieved in 86% of buffaloes and the pregnancy rate on Day 40 was 34%. Embryonic mortality between Days 26 and 40 occurred in 45% of buffaloes and was associated with the presence of significant infectious agents in only 10 buffaloes (8%). Concentrations of P4 on Day 10 after AI were higher (P<0.05) in buffaloes that established a pregnancy than in buffaloes that showed embryonic mortality that was not associated with infectious agents. Similarly, on Day 20 after AI P4 concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in pregnant buffaloes compared with non-pregnant buffaloes and buffaloes that had embryonic mortality. It is concluded that a reduced capacity for P4 secretion can explain around 50% of embryonic mortalities in buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI during a period of low reproductive activity and that other as yet unidentified factors also have a significant effect on embryonic survival. PMID:15826694

  17. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Kumar, Ramesh; Soertidewi, Lyna; Abu Bakar, Azizi; Laik, Carine; Gan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction NeuroAiD (MLC601, MLC901), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry aims to assess its use and safety in the real-world setting. Methods and analysis The NeST Registry is designed as a product registry that would provide information on the use and safety of NeuroAiD in clinical practice. An online NeST Registry was set up to allow easy entry and retrieval of essential information including demographics, medical conditions, clinical assessments of neurological, functional and cognitive state, compliance, concomitant medications, and side effects, if any, among patients on NeuroAiD. Patients who are taking or have been prescribed NeuroAiD may be included. Participation is voluntary. Data collected are similar to information obtained during standard care and are prospectively entered by the participating physicians at baseline (before initialisation of NeuroAiD) and during subsequent visits. The primary outcome assessed is safety (ie, non-serious and serious adverse event), while compliance and neurological status over time are secondary outcomes. The in-person follow-up assessments are timed with clinical appointments. Anonymised data will be extracted and collectively analysed. Initial target sample size for the registry is 2000. Analysis will be performed after every 500 participants entered with completed follow-up information. Ethics and dissemination Doctors who prescribe NeuroAiD will be introduced to the registry by local partners. The central coordinator of the registry will discuss the protocol and requirements for implementation with doctors who show interest. Currently, the registry has been approved by the Ethics Committees of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia) and National Brain Center (Indonesia). In addition, for other countries, Ethics Committee approval will be obtained in accordance with local requirements. Trial

  18. Probing the Run-On Oligomer of Activated SgrAI Bound to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Santosh; Sanchez, Jonathan; Stewart, Andrew; Piperakis, Michael M.; Cosstick, Richard; Nichols, Claire; Park, Chad K.; Ma, Xin; Wysocki, Vicki; Bitinaite, Jurate; Horton, Nancy C.

    2015-01-01

    SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease with an unusual mechanism of activation involving run-on oligomerization. The run-on oligomer is formed from complexes of SgrAI bound to DNA containing its 8 bp primary recognition sequence (uncleaved or cleaved), and also binds (and thereby activates for DNA cleavage) complexes of SgrAI bound to secondary site DNA sequences which contain a single base substitution in either the 1st/8th or the 2nd/7th position of the primary recognition sequence. This modulation of enzyme activity via run-on oligomerization is a newly appreciated phenomenon that has been shown for a small but increasing number of enzymes. One outstanding question regarding the mechanistic model for SgrAI is whether or not the activating primary site DNA must be cleaved by SgrAI prior to inducing activation. Herein we show that an uncleavable primary site DNA containing a 3’-S-phosphorothiolate is in fact able to induce activation. In addition, we now show that cleavage of secondary site DNA can be activated to nearly the same degree as primary, provided a sufficient number of flanking base pairs are present. We also show differences in activation and cleavage of the two types of secondary site, and that effects of selected single site substitutions in SgrAI, as well as measured collisional cross-sections from previous work, are consistent with the cryo-electron microscopy model for the run-on activated oligomer of SgrAI bound to DNA. PMID:25880668

  19. Expression of human apolipoprotein A-I in transgenic mice results in reduced plasma levels of murine apolipoprotein A-I and the appearance of two new high density lipoprotein size subclasses.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E M; Ishida, B Y; Clift, S M; Krauss, R M

    1991-01-15

    In Western societies high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels correlate inversely with the risk for coronary heart disease. The primary protein component of both human and mouse HDL is apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI), which comprises greater than 70% of HDL protein and 30% of HDL mass. Human HDLs include particles of several distinct size subpopulations, whereas HDLs from inbred C57BL/6 mice contain a single population of particles. To study the regulation of apoAI expression and its role in HDL assembly, we created transgenic C57BL/6 mice containing the human apoAI gene. Two independent lines of transgenic mice with approximately twice the normal plasma levels of total apoAI were studied. The level of mouse apoAI is reduced greater than 4-fold in both transgenic lines, comprising only 4% of total plasma apoAI levels in one transgenic line and 13% in the other. We demonstrate that the mechanism responsible for the decrease in mouse apoAI is posttranscriptional. Parallel to the replacement of mouse with human apoAI, the single HDL species normally present in the plasma of C57BL/6 is replaced by two HDL subclasses similar in size to human HDL2b and HDL3a. The changes in murine apolipoprotein levels and HDL subclass size are inherited by all transgenic offspring of the two founder animals. These results suggest a dominant role of apoAI in determining the HDL particle size distribution and a mechanism involving expression of human apoAI transgenes that alters the plasma levels of mouse apoAI.

  20. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

  1. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli. PMID:27309855

  2. Using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify Computed Tomography (CT) features in the Marshall System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is to code various types of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) based on their anatomical location and severity. The Marshall CT Classification is used to identify those subgroups of brain injured patients at higher risk of deterioration or mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and how AIS coding can be translated to the Marshall Classification Methods Initially, a Marshall Class was allocated to each AIS code through cross-tabulation. This was agreed upon through several discussion meetings with experts from both fields (clinicians and AIS coders). Furthermore, in order to make this translation possible, some necessary assumptions with regards to coding and classification of mass lesions and brain swelling were essential which were all approved and made explicit. Results The proposed method involves two stages: firstly to determine all possible Marshall Classes which a given patient can attract based on allocated AIS codes; via cross-tabulation and secondly to assign one Marshall Class to each patient through an algorithm. Conclusion This method can be easily programmed in computer softwares and it would enable future important TBI research programs using trauma registry data. PMID:20691038

  3. Remote Stratigraphic Analysis: Combined TM and AIS Results in the Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Adams, S.

    1985-01-01

    An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic evolution of a North American, western interior foreland basin. AIS data are used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of mineralogical facies that are diagnostic of specific depositional environments. After wavelength and amplitude calibration using natural ground targets with known spectral characteristics, AIS data identify calcite, dolomite, gypsum and montmorillonite-bearing strata in the Permian-Cretaceous sequence. Combined AIS and TM results illustrate the feasibility of spectral stratigraphy, remote analysis of stratigraphic sequences.

  4. Interactions between lipid-free apolipoprotein-AI and a lipopeptide incorporating the RGDS cell adhesion motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, V.; Hamley, I. W.; Reza, M.; Ruokolainen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of a designed bioactive lipopeptide C16-GGGRGDS, comprising a hexadecyl lipid chain attached to a functional heptapeptide, with the lipid-free apoliprotein, Apo-AI, is examined. This apolipoprotein is a major component of high density lipoprotein and it is involved in lipid metabolism and may serve as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimers' disease. We find via isothermal titration calorimetry that binding between the lipopeptide and Apo-AI occurs up to a saturation condition, just above equimolar for a 10.7 μM concentration of Apo-AI. A similar value is obtained from circular dichroism spectroscopy, which probes the reduction in α-helical secondary structure of Apo-AI upon addition of C16-GGGRGDS. Electron microscopy images show a persistence of fibrillar structures due to self-assembly of C16-GGGRGDS in mixtures with Apo-AI above the saturation binding condition. A small fraction of spheroidal or possibly ``nanodisc'' structures was observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data for Apo-AI can be fitted using a published crystal structure of the Apo-AI dimer. The SAXS data for the lipopeptide/Apo-AI mixtures above the saturation binding conditions can be fitted to the contribution from fibrillar structures coexisting with flat discs corresponding to Apo-AI/lipopeptide aggregates.

  5. Sodium nitroprusside: low price and safe drug to control BP during thrombolysis in AIS.

    PubMed

    Koslyk, Jessyca L; Ducci, Renata D; Nóvak, Edison M; Zétola, Viviane F; Lange, Marcos C

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes the use of sodium nitroprusside (SN) as an option to reduce blood pressure (BP) below 180/105 mmHg during the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients submitted to intravenous thrombolysis.Method The sample was composed by 60 patients who had AIS and were submitted to intravenous rtPA, split in two groups: half in the control group (CG) with BP < 180/105 mmHg and half in SN group with BP > 180/105 mmHg. Outcome variables were any hemorrhagic transformation (HT); the presence of symptomatic HT, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours of treatment; the independence on discharge and death until three months after stroke onset.Results There were no statistical differences between both groups to any of the outcome variables analyzed.Conclusion The SN might be safe for BP control during thrombolysis to AIS. PMID:26352493

  6. Two faces of Thanatos: Broken flowers (2005) and Ai no corrida (1976).

    PubMed

    Minerbo, Marion

    2007-06-01

    Since Freud formulated the death instinct concept, it has received widely diverse interpretations. Even Freud advanced two versions. The concomitant analyses of two films, "Ai no Corrida" (1976) [ In the realm of the senses (1977)] and "Broken Flowers" (2005) evince Thanatos's two faces: the cold death of decathexis of an object, in the case of Don (in "Broken Flowers" ) and the hot death of the subject-object fusion in Sada's case ("Ai no Corrida"). In our analysis, we elaborate two possible vicissitudes of the death instinct: in "Broken Flowers" , the main character finds an 'analyst' and is cured. In "Ai no Corrida", the protagonist meets a complementary object and goes mad. PMID:17537705

  7. AIS wavefront sensor: a robust optical test of exposure tools using localized wavefront curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Zhou, Xibin; Goldstein, Michael; Ashworth, Dominic; Cummings, Kevin; Fan, Yu-Jen; Shroff, Yashesh; Denbeaux, Greg; Kandel, Yudhi; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We present an update of the AIS wavefront sensor, a diagnostic sensor set for insertion in the upgraded 0.5 NA SEMATECH Albany and Berkeley METs. AIS works by using offset monopole illumination to probe localized regions of the test optic pupil. Variations in curvature manifest as focus shifts, which are measured using a photodiode- based grating-on- grating contrast monitor, and the wavefront aberrations are reconstructed using a least-squares approach. We present results from an optical prototype of AIS demonstrating an accuracy of better than λ/30 rms for Zernike polynomials Z4 through Z10. We also discuss integration strategies and requirements as well as specifications on system alignment.

  8. Glomerular autoimmune multicomponents of human lupus nephritis in vivo: α-enolase and annexin AI.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2014-11-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti-α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti-α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti-α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti-α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum.

  9. Role of apolipoprotein A-I in HDL binding to a rat hepatoma cell in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of HDL to rat Fu5AH hepatoma cells at 4/sup 0/, and uptake and degradation at 37/sup 0/, was investigated in monolayer cultures. HDL, free of apo E and apo A-IV, was obtained from the plasma of nephrotic rats (HDLne). /sup 125/I-labeled HDLne bound to the cells in a specific, saturable manner. By Scatchard analysis, two classes of binding sites were obtained: a high affinity binding site (Kd = 1.25 +/- 0.023 ..mu..g/ml, or 5 x 10/sup -9/ M), and a lower affinity site (Kd = 45 +/- 15 ..mu..g/ml, or 1.8 x 10/sup -7/ M). In competitive binding experiments, normal rat HDL was nearly as effective as HDLne, but rat VLDL and human lipoproteins were ineffective. Rat apo A-I/phospholipid complexes also did not complete effectively for HDLne binding, although they were capable of binding to the cells. However, LDL (1.02 < d < 1.063) from nephrotic rat plasma, containing 20% of apo A-I, was as effective as rat HDL in competing for HDLne binding when the competition was expressed as a function of apo A-I content. Control experiments indicated that labeled apo A-I from HDLne did not exchange appreciably with unlabeled apo A-I on the LDLne. When the hepatoma cells were allowed to internalize and degrade HDLne at 37/sup 0/, the acid-soluble products (iodotyrosine and iodide) were derived almost entirely from the breakdown of apo A-I. We conclude that the rat hepatoma cell (Fu5AH) has high affinity HDL binding sites which recognize apo A-I-lipid complexes in which apo A-I an appropriate conformation.

  10. Design of integrated ship monitoring system using SAR, RADAR, and AIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chan-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Hong, Danbee; Ahn, Hyung-Wook

    2013-06-01

    When we talk about for the ship detection, identification and its classification, we need to go for the wide area of monitoring and it may be possible only through satellite based monitoring approach which monitors and covers coastal as well as the oceanic zone. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect targets of interest with the advantage of the operating capability in all weather and luminance free condition (Margarit and Tabasco, 2011). In EU waters, EMSA(European Maritime Safety Agency) is operating the SafeSeaNet and CleanSeaNet systems which provide the current positions of all ships and oil spill monitoring information in and around EU waters in a single picture to Member States using AIS, LRIT and SAR images. In many countries, a similar system has been developed and the key of the matter is to integrate all available data. This abstract describes the preliminary design concept for an integration system of RADAR, AIS and SAR data for vessel traffic monitoring. SAR sensors are used to acquire image data over large coverage area either through the space borne or airborne platforms in UTC. AIS reports should be also obtained on the same date as of the SAR acquisition for the purpose to perform integration test. Land-based RADAR can provide ships positions detected and tracked in near real time. In general, SAR are used to acquire image data over large coverage area, AIS reports are obtained from ship based transmitter, and RADAR can monitor continuously ships for a limited area. In this study, we developed individual ship monitoring algorithms using RADAR(FMCW and Pulse X-band), AIS and SAR(RADARSAT-2 Full-pol Mode). We conducted field experiments two times for displaying the RADAR, AIS and SAR integration over the Pyeongtaek Port, South Korea.

  11. Glomerular Autoimmune Multicomponents of Human Lupus Nephritis In Vivo: α-Enolase and Annexin AI

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Moroni, Gabriella; Pratesi, Federico; Migliorini, Paola; Galetti, Maricla; Murtas, Corrado; Tincani, Angela; Madaio, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Franceschini, Franco; Trezzi, Barbara; Bianchi, Laura; Giallongo, Agata; Gatti, Rita; Tardanico, Regina; Scaloni, Andrea; D’Ambrosio, Chiara; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravani, Pietro; Barbano, Giancarlo; Bianco, Beatrice; Bonanni, Alice; Scolari, Francesco; Martini, Alberto; Candiano, Giovanni; Allegri, Landino

    2014-01-01

    Renal targets of autoimmunity in human lupus nephritis (LN) are unknown. We sought to identify autoantibodies and glomerular target antigens in renal biopsy samples from patients with LN and determine whether the same autoantibodies can be detected in circulation. Glomeruli were microdissected from biopsy samples of 20 patients with LN and characterized by proteomic techniques. Serum samples from large cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without LN and other glomerulonephritides were tested. Glomerular IgGs recognized 11 podocyte antigens, with reactivity varying by LN pathology. Notably, IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI were detected in 11 and 10 of the biopsy samples, respectively, and predominated over other autoantibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of α-enolase or annexin AI with IgG2 in glomeruli. High levels of serum anti–α-enolase (>15 mg/L) IgG2 and/or anti-annexin AI (>2.7 mg/L) IgG2 were detected in most patients with LN but not patients with other glomerulonephritides, and they identified two cohorts: patients with high anti–α-enolase/low anti-annexin AI IgG2 and patients with low anti–α-enolase/high anti-annexin AI IgG2. Serum levels of both autoantibodies decreased significantly after 12 months of therapy for LN. Anti–α-enolase IgG2 recognized specific epitopes of α-enolase and did not cross-react with dsDNA. Furthermore, nephritogenic monoclonal IgG2 (clone H147) derived from lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice recognized human α-enolase, suggesting homology between animal models and human LN. These data show a multiantibody composition in LN, where IgG2 autoantibodies against α-enolase and annexin AI predominate in the glomerulus and can be detected in serum. PMID:24790181

  12. Integration of AI-2 Based Cell-Cell Signaling with Metabolic Cues in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Arindam; Herren, Christopher D.; Patel, Isha R.; Coleman, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The quorum sensing molecule Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is generated as a byproduct of activated methyl cycle by the action of LuxS in Escherichia coli. AI-2 is synthesized, released and later internalized in a cell-density dependent manner. Here, by mutational analysis of the genes, uvrY and csrA, we describe a regulatory circuit of accumulation and uptake of AI-2. We constructed a single-copy chromosomal luxS-lacZ fusion in a luxS + merodiploid strain and evaluated its relative expression in uvrY and csrA mutants. At the entry of stationary phase, the expression of the fusion and AI-2 accumulation was positively regulated by uvrY and negatively regulated by csrA respectively. A deletion of csrA altered message stability of the luxS transcript and CsrA protein exhibited weak binding to 5’ luxS regulatory region. DNA protein interaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed direct interaction of UvrY with the luxS promoter. Additionally, reduced expression of the fusion in hfq deletion mutant suggested involvement of small RNA interactions in luxS regulation. In contrast, the expression of lsrA operon involved in AI-2 uptake, is negatively regulated by uvrY and positively by csrA in a cell-density dependent manner. The dual role of csrA in AI-2 synthesis and uptake suggested a regulatory crosstalk of cell signaling with carbon regulation in Escherichia coli. We found that the cAMP-CRP mediated catabolite repression of luxS expression was uvrY dependent. This study suggests that luxS expression is complex and regulated at the level of transcription and translation. The multifactorial regulation supports the notion that cell-cell communication requires interaction and integration of multiple metabolic signals. PMID:27362507

  13. Synergistic interactions between transcription factors control expression of the apolipoprotein AI gene in liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Widom, R L; Ladias, J A; Kouidou, S; Karathanasis, S K

    1991-01-01

    The gene coding for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), a plasma protein involved in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids in the plasma, is expressed predominantly in liver and intestine. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that different cis-acting elements in the 5'-flanking region of the human apoAI gene control its expression in human hepatoma (HepG2) and colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Hepatocyte-specific expression is mediated by elements within the -256 to -41 DNA region relative to the apoAI gene transcription start site (+1). In this study it was found that the -222 to -110 apoAI gene region is necessary and sufficient for expression in HepG2 cells. It was also found that this DNA region functions as a powerful hepatocyte-specific transcriptional enhancer. Gel retardation and DNase I protection experiments showed that HepG2 cells contain proteins that bind to specific sites, sites A (-214 to -192), B (-169 to -146), and C (-134 to -119), within this enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis that prevents binding of these proteins to individual or different combinations of these sites followed by functional analysis of these mutants in HepG2 cells revealed that protein binding to any one of these sites in the absence of binding to the others was not sufficient for expression. Binding to any two of these sites in any combination was sufficient for only low levels of expression. Binding to all three sites was essential for maximal expression. These results indicate that the transcriptional activity of the apoAI gene in liver cells is dependent on synergistic interactions between transcription factors bound to its enhancer. Images PMID:1846669

  14. A Novel Position Estimation Method Based on Displacement Correction in AIS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shufang; Yang, Dongkai

    2014-01-01

    A new position estimation method by using the signals from two automatic identification system (AIS) stations is proposed in this paper. The time of arrival (TOA) method is enhanced with the displacement correction, so that the vessel's position can be determined even for the situation where it can receive the signals from only two AIS base stations. Its implementation scheme based on the mathematical model is presented. Furthermore, performance analysis is carried out to illustrate the relation between the positioning errors and the displacement vector provided by auxiliary sensors. Finally, the positioning method is verified and its performance is evaluated by simulation. The results show that the positioning accuracy is acceptable. PMID:25232913

  15. Overview of Austrian Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) programme and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected from eight test areas in Austria were evaluated for their usefulness in forest damage assessment, geobotany, alpine vegetation mapping, and land use classification. Difficulties encountered in installing the SPAM spectral analysis software for use on the image display system and the necessity to adapt existing programs for this task impeded and delayed the analysis of the AIS data. Spectral reflectance curves obtained from a geobotanical test site show a marked increase in reflectance across most of the measured spectrum for metal stressed spruce trees compared with nonstressed spruce trees.

  16. Hikiokoshins A-I, diterpenes from the leaves of Isodon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuji, Eri; Sakai, Kanae; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-06-01

    Diterpenes, hikiokoshins A-I, and twelve known diterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonicus (Burm. f.) H. Hara (Lamiaceae). The hikiokoshins A-I possess various skeletons such as ternifonane {hikiokoshin A}, ent-6,7:8,15-diseco-6,8-cyclokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin B}, ent-6,7-secokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin C}, and ent-7,20-epoxykaurane {hikiokoshins D-I}. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial activities of hikiokoshins A and B were evaluated. PMID:24702849

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of AIS Spectra Along a Topographic/moisture Gradient in the Nebraska Sandhills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runquist, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Six spectral plots, each summarizing single-pixel reflectance for 128 channels of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, were examined. The six sample pixels were located along a topographic/moisture gradient from lake surface to dune top in the Nebraska Sandhills. AIS spectra for various moisture regimes/vegetative zones appear quite logical, with a general positive relationship between increasing elevation (i.e., decreasing access of plant roots to water) and increasing reflectance in the spectral regions diagnostic of leaf-water content (i.e., bands centered on 1.65 and 2.20 microns).

  18. 75 FR 29811 - 21st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 21st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and... Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76...

  19. 76 FR 11846 - 24th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 24th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and... Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76...

  20. 75 FR 55847 - 22nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 22nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and... Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76...

  1. 78 FR 63494 - Meeting of the National Coordination Committee on the AI/AN SANE-SART Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... (OVC) to promote culturally relevant, victim-centered responses to sexual violence within AI/AN... victims of sexual violence within AI/AN communities, and to promote culturally relevant, victim-centered responses to sexual violence within those communities. Webinar Agenda: The agenda will include:...

  2. ai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, gstD1 and mtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  3. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  4. ai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging.

  5. AI at Ames: Artificial Intelligence research and application at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, February 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Charts are given that illustrate function versus domain for artificial intelligence (AI) applications and interests and research area versus project number for AI research. A list is given of project titles with associated project numbers and page numbers. Also, project descriptions, including title, participants, and status are given.

  6. Purification and Characterization of BmooAi: A New Toxin from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom That Inhibits Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro de Queiroz, Mayara; Mamede, Carla Cristine N.; de Morais, Nadia Cristina G.; Cortes Fonseca, Kelly; Barbosa de Sousa, Bruna; Migliorini, Thaís M.; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda C.; Stanziola, Leonilda; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Martins Soares, Andreimar; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the purification/characterization of BmooAi, a new toxin from Bothrops moojeni that inhibits platelet aggregation. The purification of BmooAi was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on a DEAE-Sephacel column, molecular exclusion on a Sephadex G-75 column, and reverse-phase HPLC chromatography on a C2/C18 column). BmooAi was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and shown to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da. BmooAi was analysed by MALDI-TOF Spectrometry and revealed two major components with molecular masses 7824.4 and 7409.2 as well as a trace of protein with a molecular mass of 15,237.4 Da. Sequencing of BmooAi by Edman degradation showed two amino acid sequences: IRDFDPLTNAPENTA and ETEEGAEEGTQ, which revealed no homology to any known toxin from snake venom. BmooAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, or epinephrine in human platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin. The effect on platelet aggregation induced by BmooAi remained active even when heated to 100°C. BmooAi could be of medical interest as a new tool for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. PMID:24971359

  7. Appreciative Inquiry and Autonomy-Supportive Classes in Business Education: A Semilongitudinal Study of AI in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Thomas A.; Hartman, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe 10 separate classroom experiences where an appreciative inquiry (AI) exercise was used for course creation. Post-exercise surveys of students showed that the AI exercise was perceived to be a successful practice. Students indicated putting effort toward reaching their peak learning experience and were satisfied with…

  8. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma.

  9. [To the history of Tretiyakov almshouse of the A.I. Vishnevskiy Institute of Surgery].

    PubMed

    Kuzybayeva, M P

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with reconstruction of history of building and functioning of Tretiyakov almshouse in the A.I. Vishnevskiy institute of surgery. The archive documents were used for exploration. The input of architect S.I. Soloviyev into formation of architectural complex is demonstrated. The significance of this object in the history of national architecture is established.

  10. Preliminary geological investigation of AIS data at Mary Kathleen, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. F.; Green, A. A.; Craig, M. D.; Cocks, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over granitic, volcanic, and calc-silicate terrain around the Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine in Queensland, in a test of its mineralocial mapping capabilities. An analysis strategy and restoration and enhancement techniques were developed to process the 128 band AIS data. A preliminary analysis of one of three AIS flight lines shows that the data contains considerable spectral variation but that it is also contaminated by second-order leakage of radiation from the near-infrared region. This makes the recognition of expected spectral absorption shapes very difficult. The effect appears worst in terrains containing considerable vegetation. Techniques that try to predict this supplementary radiation coupled with the log residual analytical technique show that expected mineral absorption spectra can be derived. The techniques suggest that with additional refinement correction procedures, the Australian AIS data may be revised. Application of the log residual analysis method has proved very successful on the cuprite, Nevada data set, and for highlighting the alunite, linite, and SiOH mineralogy.

  11. Autonomously generating operations sequences for a Mars Rover using AI-based planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Mishkin, Andrew; Estlin, Tara; Chien, Steve; Backes, Paul; Cooper, Brian; Maxwell, Scott; Rabideau, Gregg

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from highlevel science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules.

  12. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-02-15

    Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray ionization (HESI) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) were used to determine the composition of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanin content was 0.57±0.39mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g fresh weight (FW) and TPC was 6.07±2.17mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g FW. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was 3.1±1.3μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/100g FW, whereas the DPPH value was 2693.1±332.8μmol TE/100g FW. Overall, results show that Colombian açai has a more diverse polyphenolic profile and higher antioxidant activity than Brazilian açai. This information could be useful in authentification procedures to differentiate Brazilian açai from Colombian açai when used as an alternative for the supply of this fruit during the time of shortage in Brazil. PMID:27664647

  13. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  14. Advances in Breeding Management and Use of Ovulation Induction for Fixed-time AI.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, R N; Kauffold, J

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the breeding herd is the predictable and consistent production of high quality pigs. To achieve this objective, an appropriate number of females need to be mated in each breeding week and they should maintain their pregnancy and deliver large litters. Many factors can impact achievement of optimal sow productivity, particularly breeding management. Most matings will involve artificial insemination (AI), and successful AI requires deposition into the cervix (or beyond) of sufficient viable high quality sperm at an appropriate time relative to ovulation. This is facilitated by improved knowledge of the sow's ovarian function prior to and during her oestrous period. Realization of the importance of establishing an adequate sperm reservoir in the oviduct at an appropriate time relative to ovulation has led to advances in the management of AI. The future of AI will likely involve insemination of single doses of high genetic merit semen, potentially having a reduced sperm concentration which is made possible by knowledge of the effect of site of sperm deposition on sow fertility. In particular, knowledge of when a sow is likely to ovulate during a natural or induced oestrous period will prove invaluable in the maintenance of herd productivity. This review will examine options for breeding management, including the control of oestrus and ovulation, on sow herd reproductive performance.

  15. Can novel Apo A-I polymorphisms be responsible for low HDL in South Asian immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Dodani, Sunita; Dong, Yanbin; Zhu, Haidong; George, Varghese

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the world. Even though its rates have decreased worldwide over the past 30 years, event rates are still high in South Asians. South Asians are known to have low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. The objective of this study was to identify Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) polymorphisms, the main protein component of HDL and explore its association with low HDL levels in South Asians. A pilot study on 30 South Asians was conducted and 12-h fasting samples for C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, Lipoprotein (a), Insulin, glucose levels, DNA extraction, and sequencing of Apo A-I gene were done. DNA sequencing revealed six novel Apo A-I single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in South Asians, one of which (rs 35293760, C938T) was significantly associated with low (<40 mg/dl) HDL levels (P = 0.004). The association was also seen with total cholesterol (P = 0.026) and LDL levels (P = 0.032). This pilot work has highlighted some of the gene-environment associations that could be responsible for low HDL and may be excess CAD in South Asians. Further larger studies are required to explore and uncover these associations that could be responsible for excess CAD risk in South Asians. PMID:20300285

  16. Impact of initiating a fixed-time AI program on herd calving date and weaning weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved reproductive efficiency is critical for profitability in cow-calf operations. Cows that give birth early wean more pounds of calf and stay in the herd longer. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the impact of implementing a fixed time AI protocol in a herd that had a defined 6...

  17. Progress towards an AIS early detection monitoring network for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the lower St. Louis River system (SLR) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates f...

  18. Finished genome assembly of warm spring isolate Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Teshima, Hazuki; Coyne, Susan R.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James G.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-09-17

    We sequenced the complete genome of Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS to closed and finished status. This is a warm spring isolate recovered from Hobo Warm Spring (Utah, USA). The last assembly is available in NCBI under accession number CP012037.

  19. Evaluation of new techniques to enhance the use of A.I. on farm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination (AI) has played a seminal role in facilitating genetic improvement in dairy, beef and swine industries. The technology has not been routinely employed by the sheep industry and as a result genetic improvement has not been fully realized. The University of Wyoming and the US...

  20. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  1. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  2. 77 FR 68150 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee AGENCY: Office for Victims of Crime, Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Coordination Committee on the...

  3. Prediction of shipboard electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems using artificial intelligence (AI) technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

  4. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  5. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  6. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  7. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  8. Test de Français Laval-Montreal: Does It Measure What It Should Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Romain; Saif, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted as part of a larger investigation of the predictive validity of the Test de Français Laval-Montreal (TFLM), a high-stakes French language test used for admission and placement purposes for Teacher-Training Programs (TTPs) in major francophone universities in Canada (Schmitt, 2015). The objective of this…

  9. Pregnancy rates following AI with sexed semen in Mediterranean Italian buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L

    2011-08-01

    The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy

  10. AI-related BMD variation in actual practice conditions: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Garrigos, Laia; Rodriguez-Morera, Jaime; Albanell, Joan; Martínez-García, Maria; González, Iria; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of bone mineral density (BMD) during 3 years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) therapy in actual practice conditions. This prospective, clinical cohort study of Barcelona-Aromatase induced Bone Loss in Early breast cancer (B-ABLE) assessed BMD changes during 3 years of AI treatment in women with breast cancer. Patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 or T score ≤ -2.0) and a major risk factor and/or prevalent fragility fractures were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). Of 685 women recruited, 179 (26.1%) received BP treatment. By the third year of AI therapy, this group exhibited increased BMD in the lumbar spine (LS; 2.59%) and femoral neck (FN; 2.50%), although the increase was significant only within the first year (LS: 1.99% and FN: 2.04%). Despite BP therapy, however, approximately 15% of these patients lost more than 3% of their baseline bone mass. At 3 years, patients without BP experienced BMD decreases in the LS (-3.10%) and FN (-2.79%). In this group, BMD changes occurred during the first (LS: -1.33% and FN: -1.25%), second (LS: -1.19% and FN: -0.82%), and third (LS: -0.57% and FN: -0.65%) years of AI treatment. Increased BMD (>3%) was observed in just 7.6% and 10.8% of these patients at the LS and FN, respectively. Our data confirm a clinically relevant bone loss associated with AI therapy amongst nonusers of preventative BPs. We further report on the importance of BMD monitoring as well as calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D supplementation in these patients. PMID:26911377

  11. Processing the Interspecies Quorum-sensing Signal Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    SciTech Connect

    J Marques; P Lamosa; C Russell; R Ventura; C Maycock; M Semmelhack; S Miller; K Xavier

    2011-12-31

    The molecule (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is produced by many different species of bacteria and is the precursor of the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). AI-2 mediates interspecies communication and facilitates regulation of bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation and virulence. A variety of bacterial species have the ability to sequester and process the AI-2 present in their environment, thereby interfering with the cell-cell communication of other bacteria. This process involves the AI-2-regulated lsr operon, comprised of the Lsr transport system that facilitates uptake of the signal, a kinase that phosphorylates the signal to phospho-DPD (P-DPD), and enzymes (like LsrG) that are responsible for processing the phosphorylated signal. Because P-DPD is the intracellular inducer of the lsr operon, enzymes involved in P-DPD processing impact the levels of Lsr expression. Here we show that LsrG catalyzes isomerization of P-DPD into 3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-pentanone-5-phosphate. We present the crystal structure of LsrG, identify potential catalytic residues, and determine which of these residues affects P-DPD processing in vivo and in vitro. We also show that an lsrG deletion mutant accumulates at least 10 times more P-DPD than wild type cells. Consistent with this result, we find that the lsrG mutant has increased expression of the lsr operon and an altered profile of AI-2 accumulation and removal. Understanding of the biochemical mechanisms employed by bacteria to quench signaling of other species can be of great utility in the development of therapies to control bacterial behavior.

  12. Deletion of the propeptide of apolipoprotein A-I impairs exit of nascent apolipoprotein A-I from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, R S; Robbins, C; Burns, A; Yao, Z; Pritchard, P H

    1994-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is secreted as a proprotein of 249 amino acids and is processed extracellularly to the mature form (243 amino acids) by removal of a six-residue propeptide segment. We have examined the role of the apoA-I propeptide in intracellular transport and secretion using transfected baby hamster kidney cells that secreted either proapoA-I (from the wild-type cDNA, A-Iwt) or mature-form apoA-I (from A-I delta pro, a cDNA in which the propeptide sequence was deleted). Deletion of the propeptide from the apoA-I sequence did not affect the rate of apoA-I synthesis, nor did it affect the fidelity of proteolytic removal of the prepeptide. However, the propeptide deletion caused mature-form apoA-I to accumulate within the cells as determined by pulse-chase experiments; the intracellular retention times for the mature-form apoA-I in which the propeptide was prematurely removed was three times longer than that of proapoA-I (t1/2 > 3 h compared with approximately 50 min). There was no detectable degradation of either form of newly synthesized apoA-I. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that, whereas the proapoA-I was located predominantly in the Golgi apparatus, large quantities of the mature-form apoA-I were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and very little was in the Golgi apparatus of A-I delta pro-transfected cells. These findings suggest that the propeptide sequence may be involved in the intracellular transport of apoA-I from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. We propose that the function of the propeptide sequence is to facilitate efficient transport of apoA-I through the secretory pathway. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7945187

  13. Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-AI Vaccine Virus Replication in Different Species of Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Kovács, Edit Walkóné; Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Felföldi, Balázs; Homonnay, Zalán G; Mató, Tamás; Sato, Takanori; Gardin, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl play a key role in the epidemiology of the H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus; therefore, efficient immunization of domesticated ducks and geese to maximize the impact of other control measures is of great importance. A recombinant (r)HVT-AI, expressing the HA gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain had been developed and proved to be efficient against different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus in chickens after a single vaccination at 1 day old and could provide long-term immunity. We investigated whether rHVT-AI applied at 1 day old is able to replicate in different species and crossbreeds of ducks and in geese with the aim of collecting data on the possible application of rHVT-AI vaccine in different species of waterfowl for the control of H5N1 HPAI. We tested the possible differences among different waterfowl species, i.e., between geese (Anser anser, domesticated greylag goose), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata forma domestica), Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica), and mule ducks (Muscovy duck × Pekin duck), in their susceptibility to support the replication of rHVT-AI. Vaccine virus replication was followed by real-time PCR in spleen, bursa, and feather tip samples. Humoral immune response to vaccination was tested using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and H5-specific commercial ELISA. Significant differences among the different waterfowl species regarding the rate of rHVT-AI replication was detected that were not reflected by the same difference in the immune response to vaccination. Replication of the rHVT-AI vaccine was very limited in Pekin ducks, somewhat better in mule ducks, and the vaccine virus was replicating significantly better in Muscovy ducks and geese, reaching 100% detectability at certain time points after administration at 1 day old. Results indicated that the vaccine virus could establish different levels of persistent infection in these species of waterfowl. No humoral immune response

  14. Apo A-I inhibits foam cell formation in apo E–deficient mice after monocyte adherence to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Dansky, Hayes M.; Charlton, Sherri A.; Barlow, Courtenay B.; Tamminen, Minna; Smith, Jonathan D.; Frank, Joy S.; Breslow, Jan L.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously shown that expression of the human apo A-I transgene on the apo E–deficient background increases HDL cholesterol and greatly diminishes fatty streak lesion formation. To examine the mechanism, prelesional events in atherosclerotic plaque development were examined in 6- to 8-week-old apo E–deficient and apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. A quantitative assessment of subendothelial lipid deposition by freeze-fracture and deep-etch electron microscopy indicated that elevated apo A-I did not affect the distribution or amount of aortic arch subendothelial lipid deposits. Immunohistochemical staining for VCAM-1 demonstrated similar expression on endothelial cells at prelesional aortic branch sites from both apo E–deficient and apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. Transmission electron microscopy revealed monocytes bound to the aortic arch in mice of both genotypes, and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the area occupied by bound mononuclear cells was unchanged. Serum paraoxonase and aryl esterase activity did not differ between apo E–deficient and apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice. These data suggest that increases in apo A-I and HDL cholesterol inhibit foam cell formation in apo E–deficient/human apo A-I transgenic mice at a stage following lipid deposition, endothelial activation, and monocyte adherence, without increases in HDL-associated paraoxonase. PMID:10393696

  15. Investigation of the conserved glutamate immediately following the DEAD box in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AI.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishnaben; Shah, Grishma K; Kommaraju, Sai Shilpa; Low, Woon-Kai

    2014-02-01

    The DExD-box family (DEAD-box) of proteins was surveyed for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-specific sequences surrounding the DEAD box. An eIF4A-unique glutamate residue (E186 in eIF4AI) was identified immediately following the D-E-A-D sequence in eIF4AI, II, and III that was found to be conserved from yeast to Man. Mutation to a selection of alternative amino acids was performed within recombinant eIF4AI expressed in Escherichia coli and mutant proteins were surveyed for RNA-dependent ATPase activity. The mutants were also investigated for changes in activity in the presence of the two eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI as well as for co-purification ability to these two domains. The E186 residue was found to be of significance for RNA-dependent ATPase activity for eIF4AI alone and in the presence of eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI through point-mutation analysis. Furthermore, binding interactions between eIF4AI and eIF4GI domains were also significantly influenced by mutation of E186, as observed through co-purification assays. Thus, this residue appears to be of functional significance for eIF4A. PMID:24471916

  16. Characterization and functional properties of the alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Le Berre-Anton, V; Bompard-Gilles, C; Payan, F; Rougé, P

    1997-11-14

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Tendergreen) seeds has been purified to homogeneity by heat treatment in acidic medium, ammonium sulphate fractionation, chromatofocusing and gel filtration. Two isoforms, alpha-AI1 and alpha-AI1', of 43 kDa have been isolated which differ from each other by their isoelectric points and neutral sugar contents. The major isoform alpha-AI1 inhibited human and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylases (PPA) but was devoid of activity on alpha-amylases of bacterial or fungal origins. As shown on the Lineweaver-Burk plots, the nature of the inhibition is explained by a mixed non-competitive inhibition mechanism. Alpha-AI1 formed a 1:2 stoichiometric complex with PPA which showed an optimum pH of 4.5 at 30 degrees C. Owing to the low optimum pH found for alpha-AI activity, inhibitor-containing diets such as beans or transgenic plants expressing alpha-AI should be devoid of any harmful effect on human health. PMID:9428656

  17. Investigation of the conserved glutamate immediately following the DEAD box in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AI.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishnaben; Shah, Grishma K; Kommaraju, Sai Shilpa; Low, Woon-Kai

    2014-02-01

    The DExD-box family (DEAD-box) of proteins was surveyed for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-specific sequences surrounding the DEAD box. An eIF4A-unique glutamate residue (E186 in eIF4AI) was identified immediately following the D-E-A-D sequence in eIF4AI, II, and III that was found to be conserved from yeast to Man. Mutation to a selection of alternative amino acids was performed within recombinant eIF4AI expressed in Escherichia coli and mutant proteins were surveyed for RNA-dependent ATPase activity. The mutants were also investigated for changes in activity in the presence of the two eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI as well as for co-purification ability to these two domains. The E186 residue was found to be of significance for RNA-dependent ATPase activity for eIF4AI alone and in the presence of eIF4AI-binding domains of eIF4GI through point-mutation analysis. Furthermore, binding interactions between eIF4AI and eIF4GI domains were also significantly influenced by mutation of E186, as observed through co-purification assays. Thus, this residue appears to be of functional significance for eIF4A.

  18. The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2014-09-01

    Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and α-amylase StAmy23, β-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both α-amylase and β-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers.

  19. Interaction of apolipoprotein A-I with lecithin-cholesterol vesicles in the presence of phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Gudheti, Manasa V; Gonzalez, Yamaira I; Lee, Sum P; Wrenn, Steven P

    2003-12-30

    Here we study the anti-nucleating mechanism of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) on model biliary vesicles in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC) utilizing dynamic light scattering (DLS), steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and UV/Vis spectroscopy. PLC induces aggregation of cholesterol-free lecithin vesicles from an initial, average size of 100 nm to a maximal size of 600 nm. The presence of apo A-I likely inhibits vesicle aggregation by shielding the PLC-generated hydrophobic moieties, which results in vesicles of an average size of 200 nm. A similar phenomenon is observed in cholesterol-enriched lecithin vesicles. Whereas PLC alone produces aggregates of 300 nm, no aggregation is observed when apo A-I is present along with PLC. However, the ability of apo A-I to inhibit aggregation is temporary, and after 8 h, a broad particle size distribution with sizes as high as 800 nm is observed. Apo A-I possibly induces the formation of small apo A-I/lecithin/cholesterol complexes of about 5-20 nm similar to the discoidal pre-HDL complexes found in blood when it can no longer effectively shield all the DAG molecules. Concomitant with formation of complexes, DAG molecules coalesce into large oil droplets, which account for the large particles observed by light scattering. Thus, apo A-I acts as an anti-nucleating agent by two mechanisms, anti-aggregation and microstructural transition. The mode of protection is dependent on the cholesterol content and the relative amounts of DAG and apo A-I present. This study supports the possibility of apo A-I solubilizing lipids in bile in a similar fashion as it does in blood and also delineates the mechanism of formation of the complexes.

  20. On the mechanism of cholesterol interaction with apolipoproteins A-I and E.

    PubMed

    Klimov, A N; Kozhevnikova, K A; Klueva, N N; Belova, E V

    1992-10-01

    It is shown that cholesterol may interact with some substances containing the guanidine group (guanidine itself, arginine, metformin and dodecylguanidine bromide) and with arginine-rich proteins--apoproteins A-I and E. In the latter case the interaction produces the formation of cholesterol-apoprotein complexes. Analysis of such complexes has shown that one apo A-I molecule binds 17-22 and one apo E molecule binds 30-35 sterol molecules, which approximately corresponds to the amount of arginine residues in these proteins. Formation of cholesterol-apoprotein complexes has been suggested to occur due to: (1) formation of hydrogen bond and/or ion-dipole interaction between cholesterol hydroxyl and guanidine groups of the apoprotein arginine residues and (2) hydrophobic interaction of the cholesterol aliphatic chain with nonpolar side chains of the amino acids occupying the third position from arginine in the protein molecule. PMID:1468123

  1. The use of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data to differentiate marsh vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) is a high spectral resolution (9.6-nm-wide bands between 0.9 and 2.4 microns) instrument. Analysis of AIS data revealed significant differences in characteristics of the spectral radiance curves of four types of wetland vegetation canopies (trees, broadleaf herbaceous, Spartina alterniflora, and S. patens/Distichlis spicata) in Delaware, enabling them to be distinguished. The single most useful spectral region was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass. Thus, high spectral resolution spectrometry appears to have significant value for remote sensing studies of wetland vegetation.

  2. Mission activities planning for a Hermes mission by means of AI-technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, U.; Hajen, G.; Schielow, N.; Mitschdoerfer, P.; Allard, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Activities Planning is a complex task to be performed by mission control centers. AI technology can offer attractive solutions to the planning problem. This paper presents the use of a new AI-based Mission Planning System for crew activity planning. Based on a HERMES servicing mission to the COLUMBUS Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) with complex time and resource constraints, approximately 2000 activities with 50 different resources have been generated, processed, and planned with parametric variation of operationally sensitive parameters. The architecture, as well as the performance of the mission planning system, is discussed. An outlook to future planning scenarios, the requirements, and how a system like MARS can fulfill those requirements is given.

  3. S&T converging trends in dealing with disaster: A review on AI tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Abu Bakar; Isa, Mohd. Hafez Mohd.

    2016-01-01

    Science and Technology (S&T) has been able to help mankind to solve or minimize problems when arise. Different methodologies, techniques and tools were developed or used for specific cases by researchers, engineers, scientists throughout the world, and numerous papers and articles have been written by them. Nine selected cases such as flash flood, earthquakes, workplace accident, fault in aircraft industry, seismic vulnerability, disaster mitigation and management, and early fault detection in nuclear industry have been studied. This paper looked at those cases, and their results showed nearly 60% uses artificial intelligence (AI) as a tool. This paper also did some review that will help young researchers in deciding the types of AI tools to be selected; thus proving the future trends in S&T.

  4. Robots with AI: A retrospective on the AAAI robot competitions and exhibitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonasso, P.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    There have been five years of robot competitions and exhibitions since the inception of this annual event in 1992. Since that first show we have seen 30 different teams compete and almost that many more exhibit their robots. These teams ranged from universities to industry and government research labs to one or two inventors working out of garages. Their composition ranged from seasoned AI researchers to eager undergraduates, and they hailed from the United States, Canada, Europe and the Far East. Despite the concerns of some about the relevance and even the appropriateness of such an event, the robots have become a key attraction of the national and international conferences. In this talk, we look back on the form and function of the five years of exhibitions and competitions and attempt to draw some lessons in retrospect as well as future implications for the AI community and our society at large.

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG against a version of AML and against human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements.

  6. [Effects of a programme of aquatic Ai Chi exercise in patients with fibromyalgia. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Perez-De la Cruz, Sagrario; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. La fibromialgia es un trastorno reumatico que presenta sintomatologia fisica, psicologica y social. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los beneficios de un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico sobre la calidad de vida, depresion y dolor en pacientes con fibromialgia. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio experimental con 20 pacientes diagnosticadas de fibromialgia de dos localidades distintas. Las dimensiones del estudio fueron la capacidad funcional (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), la valoracion del dolor (escala analogica visual) y la salud fisica y mental (Short Form-36). Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en el momento basal y al finalizar las 20 sesiones. Resultados. Finalizadas las diez semanas de tratamiento, se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) en practicamente todas las variables valoradas. Conclusion. Un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico contribuye a mejorar la salud fisica y mental, el dolor y la calidad de vida de pacientes con fibromialgia.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  8. Applying AI systems in the T and D arena. [Artificial Intelligence, Transmission and Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata, S.S.; Liu, Chenching ); Sumic, Z. Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA ); Vadari, S.V.

    1993-04-01

    The power engineering community has capitalized on various computer technologies since the early 1960s, with most successful application to solving well-defined problems that are capable of being modeled. Although computing methods have made notable progress in the power engineering arena, there is still a class of problems that is not easy to define or formulate to apply conventional computerized methods. In addition to being difficult to express in a closed mathematical form, these problems are often characterized by the absence of one or both of the following features: a predetermined decision path from the initial state to goal (ill-structured problem); a well-defined criteria for whether an obtained solution is acceptable (open-ended problem). Power engineers have been investigating the application of AI-based methodologies to power system problems. Most of the work in the past has been geared towards the development of expert systems as an operator's aid in energy control centers for bulk power transmission systems operating under abnormal conditions. Alarm processing, fault diagnosis, system restoration, and voltage/var control are a few key areas where significant research work has progressed to date. Results of this research have effected more than 100 prototype expert systems for power systems throughout the US, Japan, and Europe. The objectives of this article are to: expose engineers to the benefits of using AI methods for a host of transmission and distribution (T and D) problems that need immediate attention; identify problems that could be solved more effectively by applying AI approaches; summarize recent developments and successful AI applications in T and D.

  9. Adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I to biological membranes. A statistical mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Eitan

    2012-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), reduces the risk for atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from the membrane of foam cells. Experiments with model membrane systems have indicated, however, that membrane cholesterol reduces apo A-I binding to the membrane. Foam cells resolve this discrepancy electrostatically by co-inserting negatively charged phospholipids in their membrane. Here we present a statistical mechanical model to account for the effect of cholesterol. Our model is based on the Haugen and May model which takes into account the dipolar nature of the zwitterionic phospholipid head group in the membrane, in which the positive end of the zwitterionic dipole moment can move randomly on a hemispherical surface with a radius equal to the arm of the dipole moment and with the negative end fixed at the hydrocarbon layer. Adsorption of a positively charged apo A-I macroion to the surface of the membrane modifies the electric field within the head group region and induces lateral demixing of phospholipid molecules in the membrane. Results from numerical integration of model equations show that i) as a result of the strong charge-dipole electrostatic coupling, the positive end of the dipoles tilts away from the adsorbed macroion in a cooperative manner; and ii) cholesterol reduces macroion adsorption to the membrane by reducing the surface area of the membrane and restricting the dipoles range of rotation. Model predictions for the change in free energy of adsorption to zwitterionic membrane are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data with liposomes. The model can assist in designing new mimetic peptides.

  10. AIS Spectra for Stressed and Unstressed Plant Communities in the Carolina Slate Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over a number of derelict heavy metal mine sites in the Carolina slate belt of North Carolina. A 32 channel (1156 to 1456 nm) data set was acquired in October, 1983 at the time of peak fall foliage display, and a 128 channel (1220 to 2420) data set was acquired near the end of the spring leaf flush in May, 1984. Spectral curves were extracted from the AIS data for differing ground cover types (e.g., pine forests, mixed deciduous forests, mine sites, and pastures). Variation in the width of an absorption feature located at approximately 1190 nm has been related to differences in forest type. Small differences in the location and shape of features in the near infrared plateau (1156 to 1300 nm) and the region 2000 to 2420 nm have yet to be evaluated. Because these variations were subtle, and because atmospheric effects were apparent in the data, high priority must be assigned to devising a means of removing atmospheric effects from AIS spectra.

  11. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  12. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programming Techniques to Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined in detail and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG versus a version of AML and versus human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify than the updated FORTRAN AML programs.

  13. Use of agroindustrial wastes (açai fiber and glycerol) in the preparation of cookies.

    PubMed

    Lima, Helena; Corrêa, Nádia Cristina Fernandes; Santos, Orquidea; de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding industrial byproducts (açai fiber and glycerol) on the physical, physicochemical, and sensory properties of cookies. The statistical analysis showed that only the parameters of water content and water activity are significantly influenced by the amount of açai fiber added and by the fiber's particle size. Through sensory analysis of crispness and the flavor, it was found that the best percentage of açai fiber and the best particle size added to the cookie formulation were 10 % and +28 mesh, respectively. From this result, another sensory analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of glycerol over the texture of the cookies. Acceptance indices for the crispness and flavor above 70 % were observed, indicating the possibility for industrial exploitation. Cookies with added industrial byproducts may be considered a source of fiber, as they contain 6 g/100 g fiber.

  14. The cow as an induced ovulator: timed AI after synchronization of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Wiltbank, Milo C; Pursley, J Richard

    2014-01-01

    Timed-AI after synchronization of ovulation has become one of the most used reproductive technologies developed during the past 40 years. Various adaptations of this technology are now extensively used worldwide, in the beef and dairy cattle industry. Our well-cited report, published in Theriogenology in 1995, presented a method termed Ovsynch, that used GnRH and PGF2α to perform synchronization of ovulation and timed AI in lactating dairy cows. This report introduced Ovsynch, more as a concept of induced ovulation, and demonstrated the ovarian dynamics during the protocol. Validation and improvements on this method were subsequently performed in numerous university studies and on commercial dairies, worldwide. This review will provide a brief historical background, some personal recollections, and certain modifications that have been made in synchronization of ovulation protocols. Each section emphasizes the physiology that underlies the most widely-used synchronization of ovulation protocols and key modifications and some practical application of these protocols on commercial operations. Finally, the effect of timed AI in the US dairy industry and in the Brazilian beef cattle industry are compared. Although numerous studies have been done using these protocols, there is still substantial need for research to improve the synchronization, efficacy, simplicity, and practical application of these protocols. PMID:24274420

  15. Automated electronic systems for the detection of oestrus and timing of AI in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nebel, R L; Dransfield, M G; Jobst, S M; Bame, J H

    2000-07-01

    For the majority of dairy herds where artificial insemination (AI) is practiced, the limiting factor toward obtaining efficient reproductive performance is the failure to detect oestrus in a timely and accurate manner. Periodic visual observation has been the dominant method used to identify cows in oestrus. New approaches are being developed to provide automated systems of detection of oestrus using electronic technology. The goal of an oestrus detection program should be to identify oestrus positively and accurately in all cycling animals and consequently to identify animals not cycling. The ultimate goal should be to predict the time of ovulation, thus allowing for insemination that will maximize the opportunity for conception. Unfortunately, most studies designed to evaluate the optimal time of AI generally contained two technical deficiencies: inadequate numbers of cows for valid statistical comparisons and inaccurate knowledge of the onset of oestrus because of low frequency of visual observations and/or efficiency of methods used for the detection of oestrus. Studies using pedometry and a pressure sensing radiotelemetric system will be reviewed as each have independently obtained an optimal time of AI of 5 to 17 h after either the increase in locomotive activity or following the first standing event associated with the onset of oestrus. PMID:10844237

  16. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  17. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mark A.; Davis, Sonnet S.; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M.; Mitchell, Kylie P.; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y.; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Lamba, Deepak A.; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2′-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice. PMID:27364765

  18. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  19. The Impact and Implications of DeFunis and Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Iredell

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that rationales justifying privileged admission to educational programs contain seeds of racial divisiveness and that they are undermining the integrity of the legal order and reducing courts to arenas of social, political, and personal conflict. (Journal availability: "American Journal of Jurisprudence," Law Building, Notre Dame, IN…

  20. Some Post-"Bakke"-and-"Weber" Reflections on "Reverse Discrimination."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Henry J.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines what reverse discrimination is and is not, and argues that the constitution is color-blind. Available from University of Richmond Law Review, School of Law, University of Richmond, VA 23173. (IRT)

  1. Effect of Urtica dioica agglutinin and Arabidopsis thaliana Chia4 chitinase on the protozoan Phytomonas françai.

    PubMed

    Gomes Rocha, Graça Celeste; Nicolich, Rebecca; Romeiro, Alexandre; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Attias, Márcia; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2003-09-12

    The genus Phytomonas is responsible for many diseases in different crop plant species. The finding that chitin is an exposed cell surface polysaccharide in Phytomonas françai and the observation that chitinases can inhibit fungal growth raises expectations about the potential effect of plant chitinases on the P. françai cell membrane surface. The plant chitinases Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) and Arabidopsis thaliana Chia4 (ATCHIT4) proteins were over-expressed in bacteria and the interaction between these proteins and P. françai surface was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. We showed that UDA and ATCHIT4 proteins can interact with surface-exposed chitin from P. françai.

  2. Surface-induced assembly of apolipoprotein A-I: Implications for symmetry-driven non-cooperative clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winford, Sidney; Tobin, Moriah; Gross, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    In condensed matter physics the geometry of a crystal is determined by the mechanism of condensation. In biology, the link between clustering mechanisms and the shape of a protein crystal is not well defined. To gain more insight into the problem, we studied clustering of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) on a solid surface using AFM. The amyloidogenic protein apo A-I is the main protein component of high density lipoprotein and thus reduces the risk of atherosclerosis. We found that apo A-I clustered to form nano-scale, symmetrical clusters on mica. Statistical analysis of size distribution for several thousand clusters suggested that the clustering reaction followed a non-cooperative kinetic scheme characterized by a single equilibrium constant of 0.92·106 M-1 and a change in free energy (ΔG) of -0.03 kJ mole-1/residue. This is close to ΔG of-0.04 kJ mole-1/residue for apo A-I binding to phospholipid membrane; and 30-fold smaller than ΔG for β-amyloid formation by apo A-I. The high symmetry of the clusters is consistent with an isotropic diffusion coefficient of protein monomers on the surface of the substrate. This previously unrecognized link between protein clustering mechanism and the symmetry of the growth pattern may have important implications in medicine, pharmaceutics and polymer science.

  3. Localization of the structural gene for human apolipoprotein A-I on the long arm of human chromosome 11.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, P; Kao, F T; Law, M L; Jones, C; Puck, T T; Chan, L

    1984-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major apolipoprotein in human high density lipoproteins, is involved in the disease atherosclerosis. Cloned apo A-I cDNA (pA1-3) was used as a probe in chromosome mapping studies to detect the human apo A-I structural gene sequence in human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids. Southern blot analysis of 13 hybrids localized the gene to human chromosome 11. Confirmation of the chromosomal assignment was obtained by analysis of a hybrid (J1) containing a single human chromosome, no. 11. Regional mapping was achieved by using deletion subclones of J1 that localized the human apo A-I structural gene to the region 11q13 leads to qter. Since the human apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) structural gene is closely linked to apo A-I, it can be assigned to the same region on the long arm of chromosome 11. By extension of methods previously described, it now appears possible to carry out fine-structure analysis of this and related gene regions on chromosome 11 and to study the biochemical concomitants of these genes and of genes on other chromosomes for analysis of their role in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:6420790

  4. Francisella tularensis Subtype A.II Genomic Plasticity in Comparison with Subtype A.I

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Marilynn A.; Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Sayood, Khalid; Zentz, Emily B.; Bartling, Amanda M.; Francesconi, Stephen C.; Fey, Paul D.; Dempsey, Michael P.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Although Francisella tularensis is considered a monomorphic intracellular pathogen, molecular genotyping and virulence studies have demonstrated important differences within the tularensis subspecies (type A). To evaluate genetic variation within type A strains, sequencing and assembly of a new subtype A.II genome was achieved for comparison to other completed F. tularensis type A genomes. In contrast with the F. tularensis A.I strains (SCHU S4, FSC198, NE061598, and TI0902), substantial genomic variation was observed between the newly sequenced F. tularensis A.II strain (WY-00W4114) and the only other publically available A.II strain (WY96-3418). Genome differences between WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 included three major chromosomal translocations, 1580 indels, and 286 nucleotide substitutions of which 159 were observed in predicted open reading frames and 127 were located in intergenic regions. The majority of WY-00W4114 nucleotide deletions occurred in intergenic regions, whereas most of the insertions and substitutions occurred in predicted genes. Of the nucleotide substitutions, 48 (30%) were synonymous and 111 (70%) were nonsynonymous. WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 nucleotide polymorphisms were predominantly G/C to A/T allelic mutations, with WY-00W4114 having more A+T enrichment. In addition, the A.II genomes contained a considerably higher number of intact genes and longer repetitive sequences, including transposon remnants than the A.I genomes. Together these findings support the premise that F. tularensis A.II may have a fitness advantage compared to the A.I subtype due to the higher abundance of functional genes and repeated chromosomal sequences. A better understanding of the selective forces driving F. tularensis genetic diversity and plasticity is needed. PMID:25918839

  5. Highly Effective Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by the First Metagenome-Derived AI-2 Quenching Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Kisch, Martin J.; Pinnow, Nicole; Liese, Andreas; Schmitz, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell–cell communication (quorum sensing, QS) represents a fundamental process crucial for biofilm formation, pathogenicity, and virulence allowing coordinated, concerted actions of bacteria depending on their cell density. With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistance of biofilms, there is an increasing need for novel strategies to control harmful biofilms. One attractive and most likely effective approach is to target bacterial communication systems for novel drug design in biotechnological and medical applications. In this study, metagenomic large-insert libraries were constructed and screened for QS interfering activities (quorum quenching, QQ) using recently established reporter strains. Overall, 142 out of 46,400 metagenomic clones were identified to interfere with acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), 13 with autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Five cosmid clones with highest simultaneous interfering activities were further analyzed and the respective open reading frames conferring QQ activities identified. Those showed homologies to bacterial oxidoreductases, proteases, amidases and aminotransferases. Evaluating the ability of the respective purified QQ-proteins to prevent biofilm formation of several model systems demonstrated highest inhibitory effects of QQ-2 using the crystal violet biofilm assay. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of the respective QQ proteins in Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 and monitoring biofilm formation in a continuous flow cell system. Moreover, QQ-2 chemically immobilized to the glass surface of the flow cell effectively inhibited biofilm formation of K. oxytoca as well as clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from patients with urinary tract infections. Indications were obtained by molecular and biochemical characterizations that QQ-2 represents an oxidoreductase most likely reducing the signaling molecules AHL and AI-2 to QS-inactive hydroxy-derivatives. Overall, we propose that the identified novel QQ-2 protein

  6. AI in medical education--another grand challenge for medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Lillehaug, S I; Lajoie, S P

    1998-03-01

    The potential benefits of artificial intelligence in medicine (AIM) were never realized as anticipated. This paper addresses ways in which such potential can be achieved. Recent discussions of this topic have proposed a stronger integration between AIM applications and health information systems, and emphasize computer guidelines to support the new health care paradigms of evidence-based medicine and cost-effectiveness. These proposals, however, promote the initial definition of AIM applications as being AI systems that can perform or aid in diagnoses. We challenge this traditional philosophy of AIM and propose a new approach aiming at empowering health care workers to become independent self-sufficient problem solvers and decision makers. Our philosophy is based on findings from a review of empirical research that examines the relationship between the health care personnel's level of knowledge and skills, their job satisfaction, and the quality of the health care they provide. This review supports addressing the quality of health care by empowering health care workers to reach their full potential. As an aid in this empowerment process we argue for reviving a long forgotten AIM research area, namely, AI based applications for medical education and training. There is a growing body of research in artificial intelligence in education that demonstrates that the use of artificial intelligence can enhance learning in numerous domains. By examining the strengths of these educational applications and the results from previous AIM research we derive a framework for empowering medical personnel and consequently raising the quality of health care through the use of advanced AI based technology.

  7. Global Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.

    2011-12-01

    All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how communities of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of marine resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.

  8. Highly Effective Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by the First Metagenome-Derived AI-2 Quenching Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Kisch, Martin J; Pinnow, Nicole; Liese, Andreas; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell-cell communication (quorum sensing, QS) represents a fundamental process crucial for biofilm formation, pathogenicity, and virulence allowing coordinated, concerted actions of bacteria depending on their cell density. With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistance of biofilms, there is an increasing need for novel strategies to control harmful biofilms. One attractive and most likely effective approach is to target bacterial communication systems for novel drug design in biotechnological and medical applications. In this study, metagenomic large-insert libraries were constructed and screened for QS interfering activities (quorum quenching, QQ) using recently established reporter strains. Overall, 142 out of 46,400 metagenomic clones were identified to interfere with acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), 13 with autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Five cosmid clones with highest simultaneous interfering activities were further analyzed and the respective open reading frames conferring QQ activities identified. Those showed homologies to bacterial oxidoreductases, proteases, amidases and aminotransferases. Evaluating the ability of the respective purified QQ-proteins to prevent biofilm formation of several model systems demonstrated highest inhibitory effects of QQ-2 using the crystal violet biofilm assay. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of the respective QQ proteins in Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 and monitoring biofilm formation in a continuous flow cell system. Moreover, QQ-2 chemically immobilized to the glass surface of the flow cell effectively inhibited biofilm formation of K. oxytoca as well as clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from patients with urinary tract infections. Indications were obtained by molecular and biochemical characterizations that QQ-2 represents an oxidoreductase most likely reducing the signaling molecules AHL and AI-2 to QS-inactive hydroxy-derivatives. Overall, we propose that the identified novel QQ-2 protein

  9. Use of intravaginal progesterone-releasing inserts in a synchronization protocol before timed AI and for synchronizing return to estrus in Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2005-03-01

    Holstein heifers (n = 189) were submitted to a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) period in which they underwent AI after once-daily evaluation of rubbed tail chalk. At the onset of the AI period (d 0), heifers were assigned randomly to receive synchronization of ovulation and timed AI (TAI; d 0: 100 mug of GnRH; d 6: 25 mg of PGF(2alpha); d 8: 100 mug of GnRH + TAI) either without (GPG; n = 95), or with inclusion of a CIDR insert (CIDR; n = 94) from d 0 to 6. No CIDR heifers received AI before d 8 compared with 24% of GPG heifers, and pregnancy rate per AI (PR/AI) at 30 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. To synchronize return to estrus for heifers failing to conceive after TAI, heifers (n = 166) receiving TAI to first service were randomly assigned to receive no further treatment (control; n = 85) or receive a new CIDR insert between 14 and 20 d after TAI (Resynch; n = 81). No Resynch heifers received AI during CIDR treatment compared with 35% of control heifers, and the proportion of heifers receiving AI within 72 h after the day of CIDR removal was 78 vs. 50% for Resynch vs. control heifers, respectively. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected at first or second AI; however, overall PR/AI was modest for heifers throughout the experiment due to poor performance of 2 of the 3 herd inseminators (14, 6, and 58% PR/AI, respectively). Inclusion of CIDR inserts suppressed estrus during the TAI protocol with no reduction in PR/ AI. Resynchronization of estrus using CIDR inserts resulted in tighter synchrony of estrus among nonpregnant heifers compared with untreated controls. PMID:15738230

  10. RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server: A Progressing Testbed for AI Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darab, Mohammad Ali Darvish; Ebrahimi, Mosalam

    RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation is a growing domain that makes a wide variety of AI and Multi-Agent researches possible. The RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server is a Multi-Agent environment that supports 22 independent agents to play a soccer match within a real-time and complex environment. Many researchers from all over the world have been using this simulator to pursue their researches in a wide variety of areas such as multiagent learning, cooperative actions and multiagent planning. This paper illustrates the current organization of RoboCup 3D Soccer Simulation Server.

  11. DAISY-DAMP: A distributed AI system for the dynamic allocation and management of power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steven B.; Ohler, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    One of the critical parameters that must be addressed when designing a loosely coupled Distributed AI SYstem (DAISY) has to do with the degree to which authority is centralized or decentralized. The decision to implement the Dynamic Allocation and Management of Power (DAMP) system as a network of cooperating agents mandated this study. The DAISY-DAMP problem is described; the component agents of the system are characterized; and the communication protocols system elucidated. The motivations and advantages in designing the system with authority decentralized is discussed. Progress in the area of Speech Act theory is proposed as playing a role in constructing decentralized systems.

  12. The Negative Mode Proteome with Activated Ion Negative Electron Transfer Dissociation (AI-NETD)*

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Rush, Matthew J. P.; Rose, Christopher M.; Richards, Alicia L.; Kwiecien, Nicholas W.; Bailey, Derek J.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    The field of proteomics almost uniformly relies on peptide cation analysis, leading to an underrepresentation of acidic portions of proteomes, including relevant acidic posttranslational modifications. Despite the many benefits negative mode proteomics can offer, peptide anion analysis remains in its infancy due mainly to challenges with high-pH reversed-phase separations and a lack of robust fragmentation methods suitable for peptide anion characterization. Here, we report the first implementation of activated ion negative electron transfer dissociation (AI-NETD) on the chromatographic timescale, generating 7,601 unique peptide identifications from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in single-shot nLC-MS/MS analyses of tryptic peptides—a greater than 5-fold increase over previous results with NETD alone. These improvements translate to identification of 1,106 proteins, making this work the first negative mode study to identify more than 1,000 proteins in any system. We then compare the performance of AI-NETD for analysis of peptides generated by five proteases (trypsin, LysC, GluC, chymotrypsin, and AspN) for negative mode analyses, identifying as many as 5,356 peptides (1,045 proteins) with LysC and 4,213 peptides (857 proteins) with GluC in yeast—characterizing 1,359 proteins in total. Finally, we present the first deep-sequencing approach for negative mode proteomics, leveraging offline low-pH reversed-phase fractionation prior to online high-pH separations and peptide fragmentation with AI-NETD. With this platform, we identified 3,467 proteins in yeast with trypsin alone and characterized a total of 3,730 proteins using multiple proteases, or nearly 83% of the expressed yeast proteome. This work represents the most extensive negative mode proteomics study to date, establishing AI-NETD as a robust tool for large-scale peptide anion characterization and making the negative mode approach a more viable platform for future proteomic studies. PMID:26193884

  13. The Use of AIS Data for Identifying and Mapping Calcareous Soils in Western Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The identification of calcareous soils, through unique spectral responses of the vegetation to the chemical nature of calcareous soils, can improve the accuracy of delineating the boundaries of soil mapping units over conventional field techniques. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the use of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) in the identification and delineation of calcareous soils in the western Sandhills of Nebraska. Based upon statistical differences found in separating the spectral curves below 1.3 microns, calcareous and non-calcareous soils may be identified by differences in species of vegetation. Additional work is needed to identify biogeochemical differences between the two soils.

  14. Contribution of polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster to hyperlipidaemia in patients with gout

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, F; Tinahones, F; Collantes, E; Escudero, A; Garcia-Fuentes, E; Soriguer, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that hyperuricaemia is independently related to the insulin resistance syndrome and that polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster are also related to insulin resistance. Objective: To study the prevalence of polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster in persons with gout and to determine whether these polymorphisms contribute to the pathophysiology of gout or to altered lipid concentrations. Methods: Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL triglycerides, cholesterol, and the renal excretion of uric acid were measured in 68 patients with gout with gout and 165 healthy subjects. Polymorphisms were studied by amplification and RFLP in all subjects, using XmnI and MspI in the apolipoprotein AI gene and SstI in the apolipoprotein CIII gene. Results: The A allele at position –75 bp in the apolipoprotein AI gene was more common in patients with gout than in controls (p = 0.01). Levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, basal glycaemia, and HDL cholesterol were higher in the patients (p<0.001). In the patients there was also an interaction between mutations at the two polymorphic loci studied in the apolipoprotein AI gene (p = 0.04). An absence of the mutation at position –75 bp of the apolipoprotein AI gene resulted in increased plasma triglyceride levels. Conclusions: Gouty patients have an altered allelic distribution in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster, which could lead to changes in levels of lipoproteins. This is not caused by a single mutation but rather by a combination of different mutations. PMID:15115711

  15. Contribution of Estrone Sulfate to Cell Proliferation in Aromatase Inhibitor (AI) -Resistant, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, Toru; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Niwa, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Horiguchi, Jun; Hayashi, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) effectively treat hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer, but some patients do not respond to treatment or experience recurrence. Mechanisms of AI resistance include ligand-independent activation of the estrogen receptor (ER) and signaling via other growth factor receptors; however, these do not account for all forms of resistance. Here we present an alternative mechanism of AI resistance. We ectopically expressed aromatase in MCF-7 cells expressing green fluorescent protein as an index of ER activity. Aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells were cultured in estrogen-depleted medium supplemented with testosterone and the AI, letrozole, to establish letrozole-resistant (LR) cell lines. Compared with parental cells, LR cells had higher mRNA levels of steroid sulfatase (STS), which converts estrone sulfate (E1S) to estrone, and the organic anion transporter peptides (OATPs), which mediate the uptake of E1S into cells. LR cells proliferated more in E1S-supplemented medium than did parental cells, and LR proliferation was effectively inhibited by an STS inhibitor in combination with letrozole and by ER-targeting drugs. Analysis of ER-positive primary breast cancer tissues showed a significant correlation between the increases in the mRNA levels of STS and the OATPs in the LR cell lines, which supports the validity of this AI-resistant model. This is the first study to demonstrate the contribution of STS and OATPs in E1S metabolism to the proliferation of AI-resistant breast cancer cells. We suggest that E1S metabolism represents a new target in AI-resistant breast cancer treatment. PMID:27228187

  16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening

  17. Influence of season on corpus luteum structure and function and AI outcome in the Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, S; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Rossi, P; Russo, M; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction

  18. AI vibration control of high-speed rotor systems using electrorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seungchul; Park, Sang-Min; Kim, Kab-Il

    2005-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and application of an electrorheological (ER) fluid damper to semiactive vibration control of rotor systems. In particular, the system under the present study is constructed structurally flexible in order to explore the behavior of a high-speed spindle system traversing multiple critical speeds within motor capacity. To seek a way of suppressing the rotor vibration, dynamic models for the proposed ER damper and its associated amplifier are derived. Subsequently, they are assembled with the other relevant spindle components by means of the finite element method, enabling predictions as to free and forced vibration characteristics of the entire rotor system. Next, an artificial intelligent (AI) feedback controller is synthesized based on the system model, taking into account the stiffening effect of the point damper in flexible rotor applications. Finally, computational and experimental results are presented regarding model validation and control performances. In practice, such an AI control scheme proves effective and robust whether the spin rate is either below or above the critical speeds.

  19. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  20. Usability of EFBs for Viewing NOTAMs and AIS/MET Data Link Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Emory T.; Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Tammi S.; Myer, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) are increasingly integral to flight deck information management. A piloted simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center, one aspect of which was to evaluate the usability and acceptability of EFBs for viewing and managing Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) and data linked aeronautical information services (AIS) and meteorological information (MET). The study simulated approaches and landings at Memphis International Airport (KMEM) using various flight scenarios and weather conditions. Ten two-pilot commercial airline crews participated, utilizing the Cockpit Motion Facility's Research Flight Deck (CMF/RFD) simulator. Each crew completed approximately two dozen flights over a two day period. Two EFBs were installed, one for each pilot. Study data were collected in the form of questionnaire/interview responses, audio/video recordings, oculometer recordings, and aircraft/system state data. Preliminary usability results are reported primarily based on pilot interviews and responses to questions focused on ease of learning, ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction, and acceptability. Analysis of the data from the other objective measures (e.g., oculometer) is ongoing and will be reported in a future publication. This paper covers how the EFB functionality was set up for the study; the NOTAM, AIS/MET data link, and weather messages that were presented; questionnaire results; selected pilot observations; and conclusions.

  1. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed. PMID:25082993

  2. GSC 7672 2238: a new eclipsing binary system near the delta scuti star AI Vel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Pereira, P. C. R.; Cruz, W. S.; Andrade-Pilling, D. P.

    2003-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new eclipsing binary star in the field of the Delta Scuti variable star AI Vel. Initially used as a check star during a monitoring of AI Vel, GSC 7672: 2238 turned out to be variable as soon as we started the project. Time series CCD photometry were performed during 2002 and 2003 using the Meade LX200 (25cm) telescope of Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. The observed times of primary minima provided an orbital period of 0.97188 day. The depth of the primary and secondary minima is about 0m.5 and 0m.2 respectively. The amount of data and the behavior of the light curve led us to interpret this modulation as related to the orbital motion of a short-period Algol. The light curves show discrepances around phases 0.1-0.2, just after the primary minimum. This behavior may be well explained in terms of mass transfer from the lobe-filling secundary star. In addition, we made spectroscopic observation at Perkin-Elmer 1.6m telescope on the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofí sica. The optical spectrum shows clearly the absorption Ha line, typical of short-period Algols with transient or absent disks.

  3. Soil types and forest canopy structures in southern Missouri: A first look with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance properties of deciduous oak-hickory forests covering the eastern half of the Rolla Quadrangle were examined using Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in August and December, 1982 and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in August, 1985. For the TM data distinctly high relative reflectance values (greater than 0.3) in the near infrared (Band 4, 0.73 to 0.94 micrometers) correspond to regions characterized by xeric (dry) forests that overlie soils with low water retention capacities. These soils are derived primarily from rhyolites. More mesic forests characterized by lower TM band 4 relative reflectances are associated with soils of higher retention capacities derived predominately from non-cherty carbonates. The major factors affecting canopy reflectance appear to be the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf optical properties. The Suits canopy reflectance model predicts the relative reflectance values for the xeric canopies. The mesic canopy reflectance is less well matched and incorporation of canopy shadowing caused by the irregular nature of the mesic canopy may be necessary. Preliminary examination of high spectral resolution AIS data acquired in August of 1985 reveals no more information than found in the broad band TM data.

  4. Haplotype analysis of Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and lipids level: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, Maryam S; Faam, Bita; Mansournia, Mohamad Ali; Hedayati, Mehdi; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Shojaei, Shahla; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-02-01

    Iranian populations show an increased tendency for abnormal lipid levels and high risk of Coronary artery disease. Considering the important role played by the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in the regulation of the level and metabolism of lipids, this study aimed at elucidating the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Apo11q cluster gene and lipid levels. A cross-sectional study of 823 subjects (340 males and 483 females) from the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) was conducted. Levels of TG, Chol, HDL-C, Apo AI, Apo AIV, Apo B, and Apo CIII were measured, and the selected segments of the APOAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster were amplified by PCR and the polymorphisms were revealed by RFLP using restriction enzymes. The allele frequencies for each SNP between males and females were not significantly different. The distribution of Genotypes and alleles was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for Apo AI (+83C>T). The results showed a significant association between TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B levels and the presence of some alleles in the polymorphisms studied. After haplotype analysis not only did the association between these variables and SNPs remain but also levels of Chol and LDL-C were added. This study demonstrates that the level of lipids such as TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B, maybe regulated partly by genetic factors and their haplotype within the Apo11q gene cluster.

  5. Effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on apolipoprotein AI kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on HDL and apoAI metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Subjects (19 men with MetS [NCEP-ATPIII]) were fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks (all foods provided). Participants then underwent a 20-week free-living period during which they were counseled to restrict energy intake, after which they were again fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks. At the end of the two controlled diets, participants received a single bolus of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)] (L)-leucine, and fasting blood samples were collected over a 96 h period. ApoAI kinetic was assessed using multicompartmental modeling of the tracer enrichment data. Participants achieved a 9.1 ± 2.8% reduction in body weight (P < 0.001). Weight loss resulted in an increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations of 6.0% (P = 0.059) and HDL(3)-C of 7.9% (P = 0.045), attributable to a reduction in apoAI fractional catabolic rate (-7.8%; P = 0.046) with no change in apoAI production rate (2.2%; P = 0.58). These data indicate that weight loss, independent of variation in diet composition, increases plasma HDL primarily by delaying the catabolism of apoAI.

  6. Regulation of Yersina pestis Virulence by AI-2 Mediated Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Segelke, B; Hok, S; Lao, V; Corzett, M; Garcia, E

    2010-03-29

    The proposed research was motivated by an interest in understanding Y. pestis virulence mechanisms and bacteria cell-cell communication. It is expected that a greater understanding of virulence mechanisms will ultimately lead to biothreat countermeasures and novel therapeutics. Y. pestis is the etiological agent of plague, the most devastating disease in human history. Y. pestis infection has a high mortality rate and a short incubation before mortality. There is no widely available and effective vaccine for Y. pestis and multi-drug resistant strains are emerging. Y. pestis is a recognized biothreat agent based on the wide distribution of the bacteria in research laboratories around the world and on the knowledge that methods exist to produce and aerosolize large amounts of bacteria. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication via signaling molecules, or quorum sensing, by Y. pestis is important for the regulation of virulence factor gene expression during host invasion, though a causative link had never been established. Quorum sensing is a mode of intercellular communication which enables orchestration of gene expression for many bacteria as a function of population density and available evidence suggests there may be a link between quorum sensing and regulation of Y. pesits virulence. Several pathogenic bacteria have been shown to regulate expression of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding type III secretion, via quorum sensing. The Y. pestis genome encodes several cell-cell signaling pathways and the interaction of at least three of these are thought to be involved in one or more modes of host invasion. Furthermore, Y. pestis gene expression array studies carried out at LLNL have established a correlation between expression of known virulence factors and genes involved in processing of the AI-2 quorum sensing signal. This was a basic research project that was intended to provide new insights into bacterial intercellular communication and how it is

  7. A novel mutation of the apolipoprotein A-I gene in a family with familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Livia; Fasano, Tommaso; Calabresi, Laura; Bellocchio, Antonella; Fresa, Raffaele; Borrini, Claudia; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano

    2008-05-01

    We report a large family in which four members showed a plasma lipid profile consistent with the clinical diagnosis of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). One of these patients was found to have markedly reduced HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) (0.72 mmol/l) and Apo A-I (72 mg/dl) levels, a condition suggestive of the presence of a mutation in one of the HDL-related genes. The analysis of APOA1 gene revealed that this patient was heterozygous for a cytosine insertion in exon 3 (c.49-50 ins C), resulting in a frame-shift and premature stop codon at position 26 of pro-Apo A-I (Q17PFsX10). This novel mutation, which prevents the synthesis of Apo A-I, was also found in four family members, including three siblings and the daughter of the proband. Carriers of Apo A-I mutation had significantly lower HDL-C and Apo A-I than non-carriers family members (0.77+/-0.15 mmol/l vs. 1.15+/-0.20 mmol/l, P<0.005; 71.4+/-9.1mg/dl vs. 134.0+/-14.7 mg/dl, P<0.005, respectively). Two of the APOA1 mutation carriers, who were also heavy smokers, had fibrous plaques in the carotid arteries causing mild stenosis (20%). The intimal-media thickness in the two other adult carriers was within the normal range. The other non-carriers family members with FCHL had either overt vascular disease or carotid atherosclerosis at ultrasound examination. This observation suggests that the low HDL-C/low Apo A-I phenotype may result from a genetic defect directly affecting HDL metabolism, even in the context of a dyslipidemia which, like FCHL, is associated with low plasma HDL-C. PMID:17950741

  8. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-tumorigenic Effects of Açai Berry in Helicobacter felis-infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Lee, Seonmin; Ham, Min Hee; Suh, Ji Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic effect of açai berry after chronic Helicobacter felis colonization in the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice. Methods: A total of 57 four-week-old female C57BL/6 mice (18 control mice and 39 experimental mice) were used. The mice were administered orogastrically with vehicle only or vehicle containing H. felis, 5 times every other day. After inoculation of H. felis, mice were fed either a standard or an açai-containing diet and then sacrificed at 4, 24, and 52 weeks. The infection status and degree of inflammation were determined by culture and histopathology. The level of gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by ELISA. Results: At 24 weeks after inoculation, mucosal atrophy and mucous metaplasia appeared in all infected mice. At 52 weeks after inoculation, dysplastic change was noted in 10%, 25%, and 50% of mice in the H. felis-control, H. felis-açai 5%, and H. felis-açai 10% groups, respectively. The neutrophil, monocyte, atrophy, and metaplasia grades of infected mice showed no significant difference among the H. felis-infected groups. H. felis-infected mice fed with açai berry showed no significant difference compared with H. felis-infected control mice in gastric mucosal MPO, TNF-α, and IL-1β levels. Conclusions: H. felis that colonized the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice provoked inflammation, and induced mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia. However, açai berry did not effectively prohibit the gastric carcinogenesis which was induced by chronic H. felis infection. PMID:27051649

  9. Photoperiod length and the estrus synchronization protocol used before AI affect the twin pregnancy rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vázquez, C; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses potential management risk factors affecting the incidence of twin pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Special attention was paid to the estrus synchronization protocol used before the AI resulting in pregnancy. Possible factors affecting the twin pregnancy rate were analyzed through binary logistic regression procedures on 2015 pregnant cows from July 2010 to July 2011. Twin pregnancy was recorded in 361 of the 2015 pregnancy diagnoses made (17.9%). Twin pregnancy rates differed among herds (P < 0.001) and ranged from 12.4% to 23.9%. Based on the odds ratios, the risk of twin pregnancy was reduced by factors of 0.65 or 0.71 when AI was performed during the warm season or an increasing photoperiod, respectively and increased by a factor of 1.11 for each unit increase in lactation number; by factors of 4.57 or 6.33 in cows that received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) plus 500 or 750 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 28 days before the pregnancy AI, respectively; by a factor of 2.39 in cows with an ovarian cyst diagnosed in the 14 days prior to AI and treated with prostaglandins (PG); by factors of 1.94 or 3.91 in cows that received two PG doses during the 14 days prior to AI or cows that following failed PRID treatment had received PG started over the 28 days prior to AI, respectively; and by a factor of 2.58 in cows that had previously delivered twins compared to cows delivering singletons. Our results indicate that cow factors, such as lactation number and previous twining, as well as environmental factors, such as photoperiod and season and management related to synchronization protocols affect significantly the incidence of twin pregnancies.

  10. Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage using thematic mapper simulator (TMS) and airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    An interpretation of TMS and AIS data sets collected from Lost River, West Virginia, are presented, along with a brief review of the supervised vegetation classification approach to vegetation mapping used at Lost River. A preliminary study of AIS data suggests that contiguous high-spectral resolution data from a very limited portion of the spectrum (1.2-1.5 micron) provide a greater discriminatory capability than do broad-band sensors such as the TMS covering of wider spectral range (0.45-2.35 microns).

  11. The assessment of the impact of socio-economic factors in accepting cancer using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS)

    PubMed Central

    Bilińska, Magdalena; Deptała, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The paper presents the results of examining the level of acceptance of the illness in cancer patients using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). Material and methods The study involved cancer patients treated at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry the Interior in Warsaw in 2014. The questionnaire comprised basic demographic questions (socio-economic factors) and the AIS test estimating the level of illness acceptance in patients. Results For the group of patients in the research group, the arithmetic mean amounted to 27.56 points. The period of time that elapsed between the first cancer diagnosis and the start of the study did not influence the score of accepting illness. The acceptance of illness in patients diagnosed with metastases differed from the acceptance of illness by patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer. Females obtained the average of 29.59 in the AIS test, whereas the average in male patients was 26.17. The patients’ age did not impact the AIS test. There were no differences in the AIS test results between a group of people with secondary education and a group of people with higher education. There were no differences in the AIS test results between employed individuals versus pensioners. The inhabitants of cities were characterized by the highest degree of acceptance of their health condition. The lowest degree of acceptance of illness was observed in the group with the lowest average incomes. In the group of married individuals the average degree of acceptance of illness amounted to 27.37 points. The average degree of acceptance of illness in patients that declared themselves as single amounted to 25.75. Conclusions The average degree of acceptance of illness in the study group was 27.56 points, which is a relatively high level of acceptance of cancer. The main socio-economic factor, which influenced the AIS test results was whether metastases were diagnosed or not. There were no differences between patients in

  12. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39

  13. Effects of deep-horn AI on fertilization and embryo production in superovulated cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Sartori, R; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Baruselli, P S; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of site of semen deposition on fertilization rate and embryo quality in superovulated cows. The hypothesis was that deposition of semen into the uterine horns would increase the fertilization rate compared with deposition of semen into the uterine body. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of uterine environment on fertilization rate and embryo quality. It was hypothesized that subclinical endometritis at the onset of superstimulation would decrease the fertilization rates and embryo quality. In experiment 1, 17 superovulated heifers were randomly assigned to receive artificial insemination (AI) into the uterine body or uterine horns. The total number of fertilized structures and fertilization rate from superovulated heifers was increased (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively) when semen was deposited into the uterine horns compared with the uterine body. Other embryo characteristics did not differ based on the site of semen deposition. In experiment 2, 14 lactating dairy cows were superovulated twice and were randomly assigned to receive AI into the uterine body or deep into the uterine horns using a crossover design. Neither fertilization rate nor any other embryo characteristics were improved when semen was placed deep into the uterine horns compared with the uterine body. In experiment 3, 72 superovulated lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned to receive AI into the uterine body or uterine horns. Before initiation of superstimulatory treatments, an endometrial cytology sample was collected from each cow. Ova/embryos were collected by a nonsurgical technique at 70 ± 3 days in milk. Similar to experiment 2, neither fertilization rate nor any other embryo characteristics differed based on the site of semen deposition in experiment 3. The percentage of cows with subclinical endometritis did not differ between treatments. Interestingly, there was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a reduction

  14. Polluter identification with spaceborne radar imagery, AIS and forward drift modeling.

    PubMed

    Longépé, N; Mouche, A A; Goacolou, M; Granier, N; Carrere, L; Lebras, J Y; Lozach, P; Besnard, S

    2015-12-30

    This study defines and assesses a new operational concept to identify the origin of pollution at sea, based on Synthetic Aperture Radar, Automatic Identification System, and a forward drift model. As opposed to traditional methodologies where the SAR detected pollution is backtracked in the past, our approach assumes that all the vessels pollute all along their way. Based on all the AIS data flows, the forward-tracked simulated pollutions are then compared to the detected pollution, and the potential polluter can be finally identified. Case studies are presented to showcase its usefulness in a variety of maritime situations with a focus on orphan pollutions in a dense traffic area. Out of the identification of the suspected polluters, the age and eventually the type of the pollution can be retrieved.

  15. Using AI/expert system technology to automate planning and replanning for the HST servicing missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogovich, L.; Johnson, J; Tuchman, A.; Mclean, D.; Page, B.; Kispert, A.; Burkhardt, C.; Littlefield, R.; Potter, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a knowledge-based system that has been developed to automate planning and scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Missions. This new system is the Servicing Mission Planning and Replanning Tool (SM/PART). SM/PART has been delivered to the HST Flight Operations Team (FOT) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) where it is being used to build integrated time lines and command plans to control the activities of the HST, Shuttle, Crew and ground systems for the next HST Servicing Mission. SM/PART reuses and extends AI/expert system technology from Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) systems to build or rebuild time lines and command plans more rapidly than was possible for previous missions where they were built manually. This capability provides an important safety factor for the HST, Shuttle and Crew in case unexpected events occur during the mission.

  16. Ship Detection Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Space-Based AIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannevik, Tonje Nanette; Skauen, Andreas N.; Olsen, R. B.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a trial carried out in the Malangen area close to Tromsø city in the north of Norway in September 2010. High resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from RADARSAT-2 were used to analyse how SAR images and cooperative reporting can be combined. Data from the Automatic Identification System, both land-based and space-based, have been used to identify detected vessels in the SAR images. The paper presents results of ship detection in high resolution RADARSAT-2 Standard Quad-Pol images, and how these results together with land-based and space-based AIS can be used. Some examples of tracking of vessels are also shown.

  17. Spike: AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope after 18 months of orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on the Spike scheduling system, developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for long-term scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Spike is an activity-based scheduler which exploits artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for constraint representation and for scheduling search. The system has been in operational use since shortly after HST launch in April 1990. Spike was adopted for several other satellite scheduling problems; of particular interest was the demonstration that the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. We describe the recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, and the application of Spike to other problem domains. We also describe plans for the future evolution of the system.

  18. Membrane effects of N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I: a fluorescent probe study.

    PubMed

    Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Girych, Mykhailo; Adachi, Emi; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The binding of monomeric and aggregated variants of 1-83 N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I with substitution mutations G26R, G26R/W@8, G26R/W@50 and G26R/W@72 to the model lipid membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and its mixture with cholesterol has been investigated using fluorescent probes pyrene and Laurdan. Examination of pyrene spectral behavior did not reveal any marked influence of apoA-I mutants on the hydrocarbon region of lipid bilayer. In contrast, probing the membrane effects by Laurdan revealed decrease in the probe generalized polarization in the presence of aggregated proteins. suggesting that oligomeric and fibrillar apoA-I species induce increase in hydration degree and reduction of lipid packing density in the membrane interfacial region. These findings may shed light on molecular details of amyloid cytotoxicity.

  19. Production and Analysis of Biological Properties of Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Ryabchenko, A V; Kotova, M V; Tverdohleb, N V; Knyazev, R A; Polyakov, L M

    2015-11-01

    Production of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in E. coli cells is described and its biological properties are compared with those of natural protein. Recombinant apoA-I was isolated as a chimeric polypeptide and then processed to a mature form apoA-I (rapo-I). We studied the ability of the resulting protein to penetrate into hepatocyte nuclei and regulate the rate of DNA biosynthesis in complex with estriol. Penetration of rapoA-I conjugated with FITC into hepatocyte nuclei was demonstrated. rapoA-I-estriol and apoA-I-estriol complexes induced similar increase in DNA biosynthesis rate in isolated hepatocytes, which confi rms functional similarity of the obtained recombinant mature protein (rapoA-I) and native human apoA-I.

  20. Eucarobustols A-I, Conjugates of Sesquiterpenoids and Acylphloroglucinols from Eucalyptus robusta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Gan, Li-She; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Sheng, Li; Liu, Qun-Fang; Chen, Shao-Nong; Li, Jia; Yue, Jian-Min

    2016-05-27

    Nine new conjugates of sesquiterpenoids and acylphloroglucinols, named eucarobustols A-I (1-9), as well as 11 known analogues were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus robusta. The sesquiterpenoid motifs furnishing the new conjugates included four structural types of aristolane (1 and 2), guaiane (3), eudesmane (4), and aromadendrane (5-9) moieties. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to represent the first examples of conjugates of aristolane and acylphloroglucinol units. In turn, compound 3 features a new coupling model of guaiane and acylphloroglucinol via the C-4-C-7' bond. Compounds 1, 7, and 9 showed inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 1.3, 1.8, and 1.6 μM, respectively.

  1. Translating an AI application from Lisp to Ada: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria J.

    1991-01-01

    A set of benchmarks was developed to test the performance of a newly designed computer executing both Lisp and Ada. Among these was AutoClassII -- a large Artificial Intelligence (AI) application written in Common Lisp. The extraction of a representative subset of this complex application was aided by a Lisp Code Analyzer (LCA). The LCA enabled rapid analysis of the code, putting it in a concise and functionally readable form. An equivalent benchmark was created in Ada through manual translation of the Lisp version. A comparison of the execution results of both programs across a variety of compiler-machine combinations indicate that line-by-line translation coupled with analysis of the initial code can produce relatively efficient and reusable target code.

  2. Using AI and Semantic Web Technologies to attack Process Complexity in Open Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Simon; Giles, Nick; Li, Yang; Gharib, Hamid; Nguyen, Thuc Duong

    Recently many vendors and groups have advocated using BPEL and WS-BPEL as a workflow language to encapsulate business logic. While encapsulating workflow and process logic in one place is a sensible architectural decision the implementation of complex workflows suffers from the same problems that made managing and maintaining hierarchical procedural programs difficult. BPEL lacks constructs for logical modularity such as the requirements construct from the STL [12] or the ability to adapt constructs like pure abstract classes for the same purpose. We describe a system that uses semantic web and agent concepts to implement an abstraction layer for BPEL based on the notion of Goals and service typing. AI planning was used to enable process engineers to create and validate systems that used services and goals as first class concepts and compiled processes at run time for execution.

  3. AI applications to the command and control of future aerospaceplane vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, R. C.

    1987-10-01

    Future low-cost aerospace-plane launch vehicles will place a premium on minimizing operations costs. At the same time such vehicles may be required to carry out most flights as unmanned, automatic systems. As a consequence, there will be a high reliance on automatic control systems and data interpretation. The need for successful vehicle recovery even when the launch itself is aborted extends these requirements into the safety-critical area of flight control. AI techniques appear to be the key to achieving cost-effective automatic recoverable launch systems, but the applications will have to be carefully evaluated against the techniques available. Key features required for such systems will be transparency to a human operator remote from the vehicle itself (but having to make rapid and effective decisions throughout the vehicle operational cycle) and educability (to extend the system as operational experience accrues).

  4. Polluter identification with spaceborne radar imagery, AIS and forward drift modeling.

    PubMed

    Longépé, N; Mouche, A A; Goacolou, M; Granier, N; Carrere, L; Lebras, J Y; Lozach, P; Besnard, S

    2015-12-30

    This study defines and assesses a new operational concept to identify the origin of pollution at sea, based on Synthetic Aperture Radar, Automatic Identification System, and a forward drift model. As opposed to traditional methodologies where the SAR detected pollution is backtracked in the past, our approach assumes that all the vessels pollute all along their way. Based on all the AIS data flows, the forward-tracked simulated pollutions are then compared to the detected pollution, and the potential polluter can be finally identified. Case studies are presented to showcase its usefulness in a variety of maritime situations with a focus on orphan pollutions in a dense traffic area. Out of the identification of the suspected polluters, the age and eventually the type of the pollution can be retrieved. PMID:26490412

  5. Calibration of AIS Data Using Ground-based Spectral Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Present methods of correcting airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data for instrumental and atmospheric effects include the flat- or curved-field correction and a deviation-from-the-average adjustment performed on a line-by-line basis throughout the image. Both methods eliminate the atmospheric absorptions, but remove the possibility of studying the atmosphere for its own sake, or of using the atmospheric information present as a possible basis for theoretical modeling. The method discussed here relies on use of ground-based measurements of the surface spectral reflectance in comparison with scanner data to fix in a least-squares sense parameters in a simplified model of the atmosphere on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. The model parameters (for optically thin conditions) are interpretable in terms of optical depth and scattering phase function, and thus, in principle, provide an approximate description of the atmosphere as a homogeneous body intervening between the sensor and the ground.

  6. Terpecurcumins A-I from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa: absolute configuration and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghao; Ji, Shuai; Li, Rui; Dong, Yinhui; Qiao, Xue; Hu, Hongbo; Yang, Wenzhi; Guo, Dean; Tu, Pengfei; Ye, Min

    2012-12-28

    Terpecurcumins A-I (1-9), together with three known analogues (10-12), were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric). They were derived from the hybridization of curcuminoids and bisabolanes. The structures and absolute configurations of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR and electronic circular dichroism spectra. The configuration of 10 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. A plausible biogenetic relationship for 1-12 is proposed. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, and 11 showed higher cytotoxic activities (IC(50), 10.3-19.4 μM) than curcumin (IC(50), 31.3-49.2 μM) against human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231).

  7. Improving Fishing Pattern Detection from Satellite AIS Using Data Mining and Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Erico N; Boerder, Kristina; Matwin, Stan; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in contemporary ecology and conservation is the accurate tracking of the spatial distribution of various human impacts, such as fishing. While coastal fisheries in national waters are closely monitored in some countries, existing maps of fishing effort elsewhere are fraught with uncertainty, especially in remote areas and the High Seas. Better understanding of the behavior of the global fishing fleets is required in order to prioritize and enforce fisheries management and conservation measures worldwide. Satellite-based Automatic Information Systems (S-AIS) are now commonly installed on most ocean-going vessels and have been proposed as a novel tool to explore the movements of fishing fleets in near real time. Here we present approaches to identify fishing activity from S-AIS data for three dominant fishing gear types: trawl, longline and purse seine. Using a large dataset containing worldwide fishing vessel tracks from 2011-2015, we developed three methods to detect and map fishing activities: for trawlers we produced a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) using vessel speed as observation variable. For longliners we have designed a Data Mining (DM) approach using an algorithm inspired from studies on animal movement. For purse seiners a multi-layered filtering strategy based on vessel speed and operation time was implemented. Validation against expert-labeled datasets showed average detection accuracies of 83% for trawler and longliner, and 97% for purse seiner. Our study represents the first comprehensive approach to detect and identify potential fishing behavior for three major gear types operating on a global scale. We hope that this work will enable new efforts to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of global fishing effort and make global fisheries activities transparent to ocean scientists, managers and the public. PMID:27367425

  8. Improving Fishing Pattern Detection from Satellite AIS Using Data Mining and Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Erico N; Boerder, Kristina; Matwin, Stan; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in contemporary ecology and conservation is the accurate tracking of the spatial distribution of various human impacts, such as fishing. While coastal fisheries in national waters are closely monitored in some countries, existing maps of fishing effort elsewhere are fraught with uncertainty, especially in remote areas and the High Seas. Better understanding of the behavior of the global fishing fleets is required in order to prioritize and enforce fisheries management and conservation measures worldwide. Satellite-based Automatic Information Systems (S-AIS) are now commonly installed on most ocean-going vessels and have been proposed as a novel tool to explore the movements of fishing fleets in near real time. Here we present approaches to identify fishing activity from S-AIS data for three dominant fishing gear types: trawl, longline and purse seine. Using a large dataset containing worldwide fishing vessel tracks from 2011-2015, we developed three methods to detect and map fishing activities: for trawlers we produced a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) using vessel speed as observation variable. For longliners we have designed a Data Mining (DM) approach using an algorithm inspired from studies on animal movement. For purse seiners a multi-layered filtering strategy based on vessel speed and operation time was implemented. Validation against expert-labeled datasets showed average detection accuracies of 83% for trawler and longliner, and 97% for purse seiner. Our study represents the first comprehensive approach to detect and identify potential fishing behavior for three major gear types operating on a global scale. We hope that this work will enable new efforts to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of global fishing effort and make global fisheries activities transparent to ocean scientists, managers and the public.

  9. FreshAiR and Field Studies—Augmenting Geological Reality with Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Crompton, H.; Dunleavy, M.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decade, mobile devices have fomented a revolution in geological mapping. Present Clinton set the stage for this revolution in the year 2000 when he ordered a cessation to Selective Availability, making reliable GPS available for civilian use. Geologists began using personal digital assistants and ruggedized tablet PCs for geolocation and data recording and the pace of change accelerated with the development of mobile apps such as Google Maps, digital notebooks, and digital compass-clinometers. Despite these changes in map-making technologies, most students continue to learn geology in the field the old-fashioned way, by following a field trip leader as a group and trying to hear and understand lecturettes at the outcrop. In this presentation, we demonstrate the potential of a new Augment Reality (AR) mobile app called "FreshAiR" to change fundamentally the way content-knowledge and learning objectives are delivered to students in the field. FreshAiR, which was developed by co-author and ODU alumnus M.D., triggers content delivery to mobile devices based on proximity. Students holding their mobile devices to the horizon see trigger points superimposed on the field of view of the device's built-in camera. When they walk towards the trigger, information about the location pops up. This can include text, images, movies, and quiz questions (multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank). Students can use the app to reinforce the field trip leader's presentations or they can visit outcrops individuals at different times. This creates the possibility for asynchronous field class, a concept that has profound implications for distance education in the geosciences.

  10. Improving Fishing Pattern Detection from Satellite AIS Using Data Mining and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Matwin, Stan; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in contemporary ecology and conservation is the accurate tracking of the spatial distribution of various human impacts, such as fishing. While coastal fisheries in national waters are closely monitored in some countries, existing maps of fishing effort elsewhere are fraught with uncertainty, especially in remote areas and the High Seas. Better understanding of the behavior of the global fishing fleets is required in order to prioritize and enforce fisheries management and conservation measures worldwide. Satellite-based Automatic Information Systems (S-AIS) are now commonly installed on most ocean-going vessels and have been proposed as a novel tool to explore the movements of fishing fleets in near real time. Here we present approaches to identify fishing activity from S-AIS data for three dominant fishing gear types: trawl, longline and purse seine. Using a large dataset containing worldwide fishing vessel tracks from 2011–2015, we developed three methods to detect and map fishing activities: for trawlers we produced a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) using vessel speed as observation variable. For longliners we have designed a Data Mining (DM) approach using an algorithm inspired from studies on animal movement. For purse seiners a multi-layered filtering strategy based on vessel speed and operation time was implemented. Validation against expert-labeled datasets showed average detection accuracies of 83% for trawler and longliner, and 97% for purse seiner. Our study represents the first comprehensive approach to detect and identify potential fishing behavior for three major gear types operating on a global scale. We hope that this work will enable new efforts to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of global fishing effort and make global fisheries activities transparent to ocean scientists, managers and the public. PMID:27367425

  11. The reverse transcriptase encoded by ai1 intron is active in trans in the retro-deletion of yeast mitochondrial introns.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Ali

    2005-06-01

    Genomic mitochondrial intron deletion occurs frequently during the reversion of mitochondrial intronic mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The multiplicity as well as the apparent polarity of intron deletion led us to propose the implication of reverse transcription in this process. The two first introns of the COX1 (cytochrome oxidase I) gene, ai1 and ai2, are known to be homologous to viral reverse transcriptase and to encode such activity. We have tested the involvement of these introns in the deletion process by constructing three isogenic strains. They contain the same reporter mutation in the second intron of the CYTb (cytochrome b) gene but differ from each other by the presence or the absence of the ai1 and/or ai2 introns in the other gene encoding the COX1 subunit. Only the strain lacking ai1 and ai2 introns is no more able to revert by intron deletion. The strain retaining only the ai1 intron was able to revert by intron deletion. We conclude that the reverse transcriptase activity, even when encoded by only ai1 intron, can act in trans in the intron deletion process, during the reversion of intronic mutations.

  12. ai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    ai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 Manufacturer Subject lines BMW MINI....

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Dodge Magnum (2008). Ford Motor Co Escape. Explorer.1 Ford Five-Hundred (2007). Ford Focus. Lincoln Town... From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the...

  15. Proteomic analysis to identify the role of luxS/AI-2 mediated protein expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Autoinducer molecules are used by several microorganisms to control various bacterial 5 processes including virulence expression, biofilm and bioluminescence. The universal 6 autoinducer molecule AI-2 is hypothesized to mediate cell signaling in E. coli O157:H7. We investigated the role of AI-2 on...

  16. ai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    ai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  17. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  18. ai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata Rebeca; de Abreu, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; Silva, Maísa; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    ai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  19. Impact of αAI-1 expressed in genetically modified cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests.

  20. Relationship of follicle size and concentrations of estradiol among cows exhibiting or not exhibiting estrus during a fixed-time AI protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows exhibiting estrus near the time of fixed-time AI had greater pregnancy success than cows showing no estrus. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between follicle size and peak estradiol concentration between cows that did or did not exhibit estrus during a fixed-time AI...

  1. Impact of αAI-1 Expressed in Genetically Modified Cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Its Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests. PMID:23840776

  2. Relationship between ovarian reserve and preovulatory estradiol during a fixed-time AI protocol in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estradiol production is essential for reproductive efficiency. This study compared numbers of follicles in beef cows that did or did not have elevated preovulatory estradiol during a fixed-time AI (FTAI) protocol. In experiment 1, 5 low estradiol (LowE2) and 5 high estradiol (HighE2) cows were slaug...

  3. Human-centered automation and AI - Ideas, insights, and issues from the Intelligent Cockpit Aids research effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the NASA-Langley Intelligent Cockpit Aids research program, which encompasses AI, human/machine interfaces, and conventional automation. Attention is being given to decision-aiding concepts for human-centered automation, with emphasis on inflight subsystem fault management, inflight mission replanning, and communications management. The cockpit envisioned is for advanced commercial transport aircraft.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis Strain AI06, an Endophyte of the Amazonian Açaí Palm

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Viviane Matoso; de Almeida Pina, André Vicioli; Pérez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; de Almeida, Lara Mendes; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Daisy Elaine Andrade; Rogez, Hervé Louis Ghislain; Cretenet, Marina; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    We report the genome, in a single chromosome, of Lactococcus lactis strain AI06, isolated from the mesocarp of the açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea) in eastern Amazonia, Brazil. This strain is an endophyte of the açaí palm and also a component of the microbiota of the edible food product. PMID:25414513

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis Strain AI06, an Endophyte of the Amazonian Açaí Palm.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, John Anthony; de Oliveira, Viviane Matoso; de Almeida Pina, André Vicioli; Pérez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; de Almeida, Lara Mendes; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Daisy Elaine Andrade; Rogez, Hervé Louis Ghislain; Cretenet, Marina; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira

    2014-11-20

    We report the genome, in a single chromosome, of Lactococcus lactis strain AI06, isolated from the mesocarp of the açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea) in eastern Amazonia, Brazil. This strain is an endophyte of the açaí palm and also a component of the microbiota of the edible food product.

  6. Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS): A Study of Stakeholders and Their Relations in System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchiradipta, Bhattacharjee; Raj, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies the stakeholders of System of Rice Intensification (SRI), their roles and actions and the supporting and enabling environment of innovation in the state as the elements of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) in SRI in Tripura state of India and studies the relationship matrix among the stakeholders.…

  7. A case report of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis associated with a novel APOA1 mutation and variable phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Birgitte G; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Krag, Søren Rasmus; Gilbertson, Janet A; Rowczenio, Dorota; Gillmore, Julian D; Birn, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) amyloidosis is a non-AL, non-AA, and non-transthyretin type of amyloidosis associated with mutations in the APOA1 gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is a form of systemic amyloidosis, but at presentation, can also mimic localized amyloidosis. The renal presentation generally involves interstitial and medullary deposition of apo A-I amyloid protein. We describe the identification of apo A-I amyloidosis by mass spectrometry in a 52-year old male, with no family history of amyloidosis, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and associated with heterozygosity for a novel APOA1 mutation (c.220 T > A) which encodes the known amyloidogenic Trp50Arg variant. Renal amyloid deposits in this case were confined to the glomeruli alone, and the patient developed progressive renal impairment. One year after diagnosis, the patient had a successful kidney transplant from an unrelated donor. Pathogenic mutations in the APOA1 gene are generally associated with symptoms of amyloidosis. In this family however, genotyping of family members identified several unaffected carriers suggesting a variable disease penetrance, which has not been described before in this form of amyloidosis and has implications when counselling those with APOA1 mutations. PMID:27240838

  8. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  9. Finished genome assembly of warm spring isolate Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Teshima, Hazuki; Coyne, Susan R.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James G.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-09-17

    We sequenced the complete genome of Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS to closed and finished status. This is a warm spring isolate recovered from Hobo Warm Spring (Utah, USA). The last assembly is available in NCBI under accession number CP012037.

  10. A case report of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis associated with a novel APOA1 mutation and variable phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Birgitte G; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Krag, Søren Rasmus; Gilbertson, Janet A; Rowczenio, Dorota; Gillmore, Julian D; Birn, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) amyloidosis is a non-AL, non-AA, and non-transthyretin type of amyloidosis associated with mutations in the APOA1 gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is a form of systemic amyloidosis, but at presentation, can also mimic localized amyloidosis. The renal presentation generally involves interstitial and medullary deposition of apo A-I amyloid protein. We describe the identification of apo A-I amyloidosis by mass spectrometry in a 52-year old male, with no family history of amyloidosis, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and associated with heterozygosity for a novel APOA1 mutation (c.220 T > A) which encodes the known amyloidogenic Trp50Arg variant. Renal amyloid deposits in this case were confined to the glomeruli alone, and the patient developed progressive renal impairment. One year after diagnosis, the patient had a successful kidney transplant from an unrelated donor. Pathogenic mutations in the APOA1 gene are generally associated with symptoms of amyloidosis. In this family however, genotyping of family members identified several unaffected carriers suggesting a variable disease penetrance, which has not been described before in this form of amyloidosis and has implications when counselling those with APOA1 mutations.

  11. 75 FR 71183 - 23rd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Services and a revised Terms of Reference (TOR) for SC-206 has been approved by the RTCA Program Management Committee. A brief description of the document deliverables called out in the revised SC-206 TOR is provided... Architecture Recommendations are included in the TOR deliverables. The Concept of Use for AIS and MET Data...

  12. Identification of poultry meat-derived fatty acids functioning as quorum sensing signal inhibitors of autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a compound that plays a key role in bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing). Previous research has shown certain food matrices inhibit this signaling compound. Using the reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, quorum sensing inhibitors contained in poultry meat...

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I configuration and cell cholesterol efflux activity of discoidal lipoproteins depend on the reconstitution process.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Luz Ángela; Prieto, Eduardo Daniel; Cabaleiro, Laura Virginia; Garda, Horacio Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Discoidal high-density lipoproteins (D-HDL) are critical intermediates in reverse cholesterol transport. Most of the present knowledge of D-HDL is based on studies with reconstituted lipoprotein complexes of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) obtained by cholate dialysis (CD). D-HDL can also be generated by the direct microsolubilization (DM) of phospholipid vesicles at the gel/fluid phase transition temperature, a process mechanistically similar to the "in vivo" apoAI lipidation via ABCA1. We compared the apoA-I configuration in D-HDL reconstituted with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine by both procedures using fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements with apoA-I tryptophan mutants and fluorescently labeled cysteine mutants. Results indicate that apoA-I configuration in D-HDL depends on the reconstitution process and are consistent with a "double belt" molecular arrangement with different helix registry. As reported by others, a configuration with juxtaposition of helices 5 of each apoAI monomer (5/5 registry) predominates in D-HDL obtained by CD. However, a configuration with helix 5 of one monomer juxtaposed with helix 2 of the other (5/2 registry) would predominate in D-HDL generated by DM. Moreover, we also show that the kinetics of cholesterol efflux from macrophage cultures depends on the reconstitution process, suggesting that apoAI configuration is important for this HDL function. PMID:24201377

  14. Effect of an isoenergetic traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoprotein A-I kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics has not been studied to date. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of the MedDiet in the absence of changes in body weight on apolipoprotein (apo) A-I kinetic in men with metaboli...

  15. Linking 'White Oppression' and HIV/AIDS in American Indian Etiology: Conspiracy Beliefs among AI MSMs and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Brian Joseph; Keesee, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the use of conspiracy beliefs by American Indian (AI) men who have sex with men and their peers to explain the origins of HIV/AIDS. We found that one-third (N = 15) of the individuals surveyed believed that HIV/AIDS was intentionally created by "Whites, White Christians, or the Federal…

  16. Cholesterol efflux potential of sera from mice expressing human cholesteryl ester transfer protein and/or human apolipoprotein AI.

    PubMed Central

    Atger, V; de la Llera Moya, M; Bamberger, M; Francone, O; Cosgrove, P; Tall, A; Walsh, A; Moatti, N; Rothblat, G

    1995-01-01

    The ability of whole serum to promote cell cholesterol efflux and the relationships between apoprotein and lipoprotein components of human serum efflux have been investigated previously (de la Llera Moya, M., V. Atger, J.L. Paul, N. Fournier, N. Moatti, P. Giral, K.E. Friday, and G.H. Rothblat. 1994. Arterioscler. Thromb. 14:1056-1065). We have now used this experimental system to study the selective effects of two human lipoprotein-related proteins, apoprotein AI (apo AI) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) on cell cholesterol efflux, when these proteins are expressed in transgenic mice. The percent efflux values for cholesterol released in 4 h from Fu5AH donor cells to 5% sera from the different groups of mice were in the order: background = human apo AI transgenic (HuAITg) > human CETP transgenic (HuCETPTg) > human apo AI and CETP transgenic (HuAICETPTg) >> apo AI knockout mice. In each group of mice a strong, positive correlation (r2 ranging from 0.64 to 0.76) was found between efflux and HDL cholesterol concentrations. The slopes of these regression lines differed between groups of mice, indicating that the cholesterol acceptor efficiencies of the sera differed among groups. These differences in relative efficiencies can explain why cholesterol efflux was not proportional to the different HDL levels in the various groups of mice. We can conclude that: (a) HDL particles from HuAITg mice are less efficient as cholesterol acceptors than HDL from the background mice; (b) despite a lower average efflux due to lower HDL cholesterol concentrations, HDL particles are more efficient in the HuCETPTg mice than in the background mice; and (c) the coexpression of both human apo AI and CETP improves the efficiency of HDL particles in the HuAICETPTg mice when compared with the HuAITg mice. We also demonstrated that the esterification of the free cholesterol released from the cells by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase in the serum was reduced in the HuAITg and AI

  17. Role of urea on recombinant Apo A-I stability and its utilization in anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Angarita, Monica; Arosio, Paolo; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Baur, Daniel; Falkenstein, Roberto; Kuhne, Wolfgang; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is an important lipid-binding protein involved in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol. High protein purity, in particular with respect to endotoxins is required for therapeutic applications. The use of urea during the purification process of recombinant Apo A-I produced in Escherichia coli has been suggested so as to provide high endotoxin clearance. In this work, we show that urea can be used as a sole modifier during the ion exchange chromatographic purification of Apo A-I and we investigate the molecular mechanism of elution by correlating the effect of urea on self-association, conformation and adsorption equilibrium properties of a modified model Apo A-I. In the absence of urea the protein was found to be present as a population of oligomers represented mainly by trimers, hexamers and nonamers. The addition of urea induced oligomer dissociation and protein structure unfolding. We correlated the changes in protein association and conformation with variations of the adsorption equilibrium of the protein on a strong anion exchanger. It was confirmed that the adsorption isotherms, described by a Langmuir model, were dependent on both protein and urea concentrations. Monomers, observed at low urea concentration (0.5M), were characterized by larger binding affinity and adsorption capacity compared to both protein oligomers (0M) and unfolded monomers (2-8M). The reduction of both the binding strength and maximum adsorption capacity at urea concentrations larger than 0.5M explains the ability of urea of inducing elution of the protein from the ion exchange resin. The dissociation of the protein complexes occurring during the elution could likely be the origin of the effective clearance of endotoxins originally trapped inside the oligomers.

  18. Google Earth Visualizations of the Marine Automatic Identification System (AIS): Monitoring Ship Traffic in National Marine Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K.; Hatch, L.; Thompson, M.; Wiley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that provides ship position reports with location, time, and identity information without human intervention from ships carrying the transponders to any receiver listening to the broadcasts. In collaboration with the USCG's Research and Development Center, NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) has installed 3 AIS receivers around Massachusetts Bay to monitor ship traffic transiting the sanctuary and surrounding waters. The SBNMS and the USCG also worked together propose the shifting the shipping lanes (termed the traffic separation scheme; TSS) that transit the sanctuary slightly to the north to reduce the probability of ship strikes of whales that frequent the sanctuary. Following approval by the United Nation's International Maritime Organization, AIS provided a means for NOAA to assess changes in the distribution of shipping traffic caused by formal change in the TSS effective July 1, 2007. However, there was no easy way to visualize this type of time series data. We have created a software package called noaadata-py to process the AIS ship reports and produce KML files for viewing in Google Earth. Ship tracks can be shown changing over time to allow the viewer to feel the motion of traffic through the sanctuary. The ship tracks can also be gridded to create ship traffic density reports for specified periods of time. The density is displayed as map draped on the sea surface or as vertical histogram columns. Additional visualizations such as bathymetry images, S57 nautical charts, and USCG Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) can be combined with the ship traffic visualizations to give a more complete picture of the maritime environment. AIS traffic analyses have the potential to give managers throughout NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries an improved ability to assess the impacts of ship traffic on the marine resources they seek to protect. Viewing ship traffic

  19. A botanical containing freeze dried açai pulp promotes healthy aging and reduces oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies.

    PubMed

    Laslo, Mara; Sun, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Zou, Sige

    2013-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a critical enzyme against oxidative stress, is implicated in aging and degenerative diseases. We previously showed that a nutraceutical containing freeze-dried açai pulp promotes survival of flies fed a high-fat diet or sod1 knockdown flies fed a standard diet. Here, we investigated the effect of açai supplementation initiated at the early or late young adulthood on lifespan, physiological function, and oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies. We found that Açai supplementation extended lifespan even when started at the age of 10 days, which is the time shortly before the mortality rate of flies accelerated. Life-long açai supplementation increased lifetime reproductive output in sod1 knockdown flies. Our molecular studies indicate that açai supplementation reduced the protein levels of genes involved in oxidative stress response, cellular growth, and nutrient metabolism. Açai supplementation also affected the protein levels of ribosomal proteins. In addition, açai supplementation decreased the transcript levels of genes involved in oxidative stress response and gluconeogenesis, while increasing the transcript levels of mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Moreover, açai supplementation reduced the level of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, a lipid peroxidation marker. Our findings suggest that açai supplementation promotes healthy aging in sod1-deficient flies partly through reducing oxidative damage, and modulating nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress response pathways. Our findings provide a foundation to further evaluate the viability of using açai as an effective dietary intervention to promote healthy aging and alleviate symptoms of diseases with a high level of oxidative stress. PMID:22639178

  20. A population genetic window into the past and future of the walleye Sander vitreus: relation to historic walleye and the extinct “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conserving genetic diversity and local adaptations are management priorities for wild populations of exploited species, which increasingly are subject to climate change, habitat loss, and pollution. These constitute growing concerns for the walleye Sander vitreus, an ecologically and economically valuable North American temperate fish with large Laurentian Great Lakes' fisheries. This study compares genetic diversity and divergence patterns across its widespread native range using mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite (μsat) loci, examining historic and contemporary influences. We analyze the genetic and morphological characters of a putative endemic variant– “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus” –described from Lakes Erie and Ontario, which became extinct. Walleye with turquoise-colored mucus also are evaluated, since some have questioned whether these are related to the “blue pike”. Results Walleye populations are distinguished by considerable genetic divergence (mean FST mtDNA = 0.32 ± 0.01, μsat = 0.13 ± 0.00) and substantial diversity across their range (mean heterozygosity mtDNA = 0.53 ± 0.02, μsat = 0.68 ± 0.03). Southern populations markedly differ, possessing unique haplotypes and alleles, especially the Ohio/New River population that houses the oldest haplotype and has the most pronounced divergence. Northern formerly glaciated populations have greatest diversity in Lake Erie (mean heterozygosity mtDNA = 0.79 ± 0.00, μsat = 0.72 ± 0.01). Genetic diversity was much less in the historic Lake Erie samples from 1923–1949 (mean heterozygosity mtDNA = 0.05 ± 0.01, μsat = 0.47 ± 0.06) than today. The historic “blue pike” had no unique haplotypes/alleles and there is no evidence that it comprised a separate taxon from walleye. Turquoise mucus walleye also show no genetic differentiation from other sympatric walleye and

  1. A frameshift mutation in the human apolipoprotein A-I gene causes high density lipoprotein deficiency, partial lecithin: cholesterol-acyltransferase deficiency, and corneal opacities.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, H; von Eckardstein, A; Pritchard, P H; Karas, M; Albers, J J; Assmann, G

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic data of recent years have identified an important role of HDL deficiency in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Biochemical data suggest that some of these deficiencies may be a consequence of defects in the structural genes of HDL apolipoproteins or of plasma enzymes that modify HDL. We analyzed the genetic defect in a 42-yr-old patient suffering from corneal opacities and complete absence of HDL cholesterol but not of coronary artery disease, thus clinically resembling fish eye disease. The observation of an abnormal immunoblot banding pattern of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and of reduced lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in plasma led to sequence analysis of the genes for apo A-I and LCAT in this patient and his family. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified DNA segments containing the exons of the candidate genes, resulted in the identification of a frameshift mutation in apo A-I while the LCAT sequence was identical to the wild type. The apo A-I mutation was predictive for an extensive alteration of the COOH-terminal sequence of the encoded protein. Evidence for the release of this mutant protein into the plasma compartment and for the absence of normal apo A-I was derived from ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Our results suggest that a defective apo A-I is the causative defect in this case of HDL deficiency with corneal opacities. Images PMID:1898657

  2. Human Apolipoprotein A-I Natural Variants: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Amyloidogenic Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Ramella, Nahuel A.; Schinella, Guillermo R.; Ferreira, Sergio T.; Prieto, Eduardo D.; Vela, María E.; Ríos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-derived amyloidosis can present with either wild-type (Wt) protein deposits in atherosclerotic plaques or as a hereditary form in which apoA-I variants deposit causing multiple organ failure. More than 15 single amino acid replacement amyloidogenic apoA-I variants have been described, but the molecular mechanisms involved in amyloid-associated pathology remain largely unknown. Here, we have investigated by fluorescence and biochemical approaches the stabilities and propensities to aggregate of two disease-associated apoA-I variants, apoA-IGly26Arg, associated with polyneuropathy and kidney dysfunction, and apoA-ILys107-0, implicated in amyloidosis in severe atherosclerosis. Results showed that both variants share common structural properties including decreased stability compared to Wt apoA-I and a more flexible structure that gives rise to formation of partially folded states. Interestingly, however, distinct features appear to determine their pathogenic mechanisms. ApoA-ILys107-0 has an increased propensity to aggregate at physiological pH and in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment than Wt apoA-I, whereas apoA-IGly26Arg elicited macrophage activation, thus stimulating local chronic inflammation. Our results strongly suggest that some natural mutations in apoA-I variants elicit protein tendency to aggregate, but in addition the specific interaction of different variants with macrophages may contribute to cellular stress and toxicity in hereditary amyloidosis. PMID:22952757

  3. Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2014-08-26

    Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific "candidate genes", which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed.

  4. Inhibition of early atherogenesis in transgenic mice by human apolipoprotein AI.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E M; Krauss, R M; Spangler, E A; Verstuyft, J G; Clift, S M

    1991-09-19

    Epidemiological surveys have identified a strong inverse relationship between the amount in the plasma of high density lipoproteins (HDL), apolipoprotein AI (ApoA-I), the major protein component of HDL, and the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. It is not known if this relationship arises from a direct antiatherogenic effect of these plasma components or if it is the result of other factors also associated with increases in ApoA-I and HDL levels. Because some strains of mice are susceptible to diet-induced formation of preatherosclerotic fatty streak lesions, and because of available techniques for the genetic manipulation of this organism, the murine system offers a unique setting in which to investigate the process of early atherogenesis. To test the hypothesis that induction of a high plasma concentration of ApoA-I and HDL would inhibit this process, we studied the effects of atherogenic diets on transgenic mice expressing high amounts of human ApoA-I. We report that transgenic mice with high plasma ApoA-I and HDL levels were significantly protected from the development of fatty streak lesions.

  5. Hereditary nephropathic systemic amyloidosis caused by a novel variant apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Persey, M R; Booth, D R; Booth, S E; van Zyl-Smit, R; Adams, B K; Fattaar, A B; Tennent, G A; Hawkins, P N; Pepys, M B

    1998-02-01

    We report a family with autosomal-dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis in three generations, presenting with renal involvement. Two members of the current generation received renal transplants for end-stage renal failure 16 and 18 years ago, and remain very well clinically despite massive visceral amyloidosis. Two other members of this generation, aged 32 and 47 years, have massive systemic amyloid but no clinical disability. Individuals known to be affected in previous generations died of renal failure in early adult life. Amyloid deposits in the proband, one of the transplanted individuals, were composed of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and among living family members there was complete concordance between amyloidosis and the presence of a novel 9 base pair in-frame deletion mutation in exon 4 of the apoA-I gene, causing a loss of residues Glu70Phe71Trp72. This predicts the acquisition of a single extra positive charge by mature apoA-I, and this variant was detected in the plasma of all carriers. All the previously reported amyloidogenic variants of apoA-I also carry an extra positive charge, indicating that this electrostatic change is likely to be relevant to the amyloidogenicity of apoA-I. PMID:9461086

  6. Evolutionary analysis suggests that AMTN is enamel-specific and a candidate for AI.

    PubMed

    Gasse, B; Silvent, J; Sire, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    Molecular evolutionary analysis is an efficient method to predict and/or validate amino acid substitutions that could lead to a genetic disease and to highlight residues and motifs that could play an important role in the protein structure and/or function. We have applied such analysis to amelotin (AMTN), a recently identified enamel protein in the rat, mouse, and humans. An in silico search for AMTN provided 42 new mammalian sequences that were added to the 3 published sequences with which we performed the analysis using a dataset representative of all lineages (circa 220 million years of evolution), including 2 enamel-less species, sloth and armadillo. During evolution, of the 209 residues of human AMTN, 17 were unchanged and 34 had conserved their chemical properties. Substituting these important residues could lead to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Also, AMTN possesses a well-conserved signal peptide, 2 conserved motifs whose function is certainly important but unknown, and a putative phosphorylation site (SXE). In addition, the sequences of the 2 enamel-less species display mutations revealing that AMTN underwent pseudogenization, which suggests that AMTN is an enamel-specific protein. PMID:22968158

  7. Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific “candidate genes”, which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed. PMID:25228954

  8. Estimating ship emissions based on AIS data for port of Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Yuehua; Nelson, Peter; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhou, Ying; Lang, Jianlei; Guo, Xiurui

    2016-11-01

    A detailed exhaust emission inventory of ships by using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data was developed for Tianjin Port, one of the top 10 world container ports and the largest port in North China. It was found that in 2014, ship emissions are 2.93 × 104, 4.13 × 104, 4.03 × 103, 3.72 × 103, 1.72 × 103 and 3.57 × 103 tonnes of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC and CO respectively, which are equivalent to 11.07%, 9.40%, 2.43%, 3.10%, 0.43% and 0.16% respectively of the non-ship anthropogenic totals in Tianjin. The total CO2 emissions is approximately 1.97 × 106 tonnes. The container ships and dry bulk cargo ships contributed about 70% of the total ship emissions of NOx, SO2 and PM10. Pollutants were mainly emitted during cruise and hotelling modes, and the highest intensities of emissions located in the vicinity of fairways, berth and anchorage areas in Tianjin Port. Distinctive difference between the lowest (February) and the highest (September) monthly emissions is due to the adjustment of freight volume during the Chinese New Year and the months before and after it.

  9. Evolutionary analysis suggests that AMTN is enamel-specific and a candidate for AI.

    PubMed

    Gasse, B; Silvent, J; Sire, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    Molecular evolutionary analysis is an efficient method to predict and/or validate amino acid substitutions that could lead to a genetic disease and to highlight residues and motifs that could play an important role in the protein structure and/or function. We have applied such analysis to amelotin (AMTN), a recently identified enamel protein in the rat, mouse, and humans. An in silico search for AMTN provided 42 new mammalian sequences that were added to the 3 published sequences with which we performed the analysis using a dataset representative of all lineages (circa 220 million years of evolution), including 2 enamel-less species, sloth and armadillo. During evolution, of the 209 residues of human AMTN, 17 were unchanged and 34 had conserved their chemical properties. Substituting these important residues could lead to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Also, AMTN possesses a well-conserved signal peptide, 2 conserved motifs whose function is certainly important but unknown, and a putative phosphorylation site (SXE). In addition, the sequences of the 2 enamel-less species display mutations revealing that AMTN underwent pseudogenization, which suggests that AMTN is an enamel-specific protein.

  10. Combining FDI and AI approaches within causal-model-based diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Sylviane; Montmain, Jacky; Combastel, Christophe

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a model-based diagnostic method designed in the context of process supervision. It has been inspired by both artificial intelligence and control theory. AI contributes tools for qualitative modeling, including causal modeling, whose aim is to split a complex process into elementary submodels. Control theory, within the framework of fault detection and isolation (FDI), provides numerical models for generating and testing residuals, and for taking into account inaccuracies in the model, unknown disturbances and noise. Consistency-based reasoning provides a logical foundation for diagnostic reasoning and clarifies fundamental assumptions, such as single fault and exoneration. The diagnostic method presented in the paper benefits from the advantages of all these approaches. Causal modeling enables the method to focus on sufficient relations for fault isolation, which avoids combinatorial explosion. Moreover, it allows the model to be modified easily without changing any aspect of the diagnostic algorithm. The numerical submodels that are used to detect inconsistency benefit from the precise quantitative analysis of the FDI approach. The FDI models are studied in order to link this method with DX component-oriented reasoning. The recursive on-line use of this algorithm is explained and the concept of local exoneration is introduced.

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) demonstrates antibacterial activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L Danielle; Brown, Gwynne; Gauthier, David; Reece, Kimberly; Kator, Howard; Van Veld, Peter

    2008-10-01

    HDL and apolipoprotein A-I from teleostean fishes demonstrate in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we purified ApoA-1 from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) plasma and examined its in vitro antibacterial activity against Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium marinum. In addition, we obtained sequence for a putative striped bass ApoA-1 gene, which when translated contained the identical sequence generated from N-terminal sequencing of the purified ApoA-1. The predicted secondary and tertiary structures contained the characteristic proline residues and high alpha-helical content conserved between mammals and fishes. Purified ApoA-1 exhibited antibacterial activity against the bacteria assayed. Concentrations of 125 microg/mL for E. coli, 250 microg/mL for Streptococcus sp., and 250 microg/mL for M. marinum, inhibited bacterial growth by 50% compared to control. ApoA-1 plasma concentrations in experimental and wild fish ranged from undetectable levels to greater than 5 mg/mL, indicating that striped bass ApoA-1 is an effective antibacterial agent at concentrations below the range of physiological concentrations in striped bass plasma. We therefore conclude that ApoA-1 could play a role in innate defense against bacterial pathogens in striped bass.

  12. Isolation and function analysis of apolipoprotein A-I gene response to virus infection in grouper.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingguang; Gao, Pin; Zhang, Ping; Guo, Minglan; Xu, Meng; Wei, Shina; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-04-01

    Apolipoproteins, synthesized mainly in liver and intestine and bounded to lipids, play important roles in lipid transport and uptake through the circulation system. In this study, an apolipoprotein A-I gene homologue was cloned from orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (designed as Ec-ApoA-I) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA of Ec-ApoA-I was comprised of 1278 bp with a 792 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 264 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that Ec-ApoA-I was abundant in liver and intestine, and the expression in liver was significantly (P < 0.01) up-regulated after the stimulation of LPS, Poly(I:C), Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Recombinant Ec-ApoA-I (rEc-ApoA-I) was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system exhibited bacteriolyticactivity against Microcococcus lysodeikticus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Intracellular localization revealed that Ec-ApoA-I distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and predominantly in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of Ec-ApoA-I in grouper Brain (GB) cells could inhibit the replication of SGIV. These results together indicated that Ec-ApoA-I perhaps is involved in the responses to bacterial and viral challenge.

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I expression suppresses COX-2 expression by reducing reactive oxygen species in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jing; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yutong

    2014-11-21

    Abnormal lipid metabolism may contribute to the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) accepts cellular cholesterol and phospholipids transported by ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 to generate nascent high density lipoprotein particles. Previous studies revealed that the overexpression of ABCA1 or apoA-I alleviated hepatic lipid levels by modifying lipid transport. Here, we examined the effect of apoA-I overexpression on ROS and genes involved in inflammation in both BEL-7402 hepatocytes and mice. Human apoA-I was overexpressed by transfection in BEL-7402 hepatocytes and by an adenoviral vector in C57BL/6J mice fed a methionine choline-deficient diet. The overexpression of apoA-I in both models resulted in decreased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as a reduced MAPK phosphorylation and decreased expression levels of c-Fos and COX-2. These results suggest that apoA-I overexpression can reduce steatosis by decreasing ROS levels and suppressing COX-2-induced inflammation in hepatocytes. MAPK and c-Fos are involved in this regulatory process.

  14. Bioenergetic programming of macrophages by the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F.

    PubMed

    Datta, Geeta; Kramer, Philip A; Johnson, Michelle S; Sawada, Hirotaka; Smythies, Lesley E; Crossman, David K; Chacko, Balu; Ballinger, Scott W; Westbrook, David G; Mayakonda, Palgunachari; Anantharamaiah, G M; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; White, C Roger

    2015-05-01

    The apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mimetic peptide 4F favours the differentiation of human monocytes to an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. The goal of the present study was to test whether the 4F-mediated differentiation of MDMs (monocyte-derived macrophages) requires the induction of an oxidative metabolic programme. 4F treatment induced several genes in MDMs that play an important role in lipid metabolism, including PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) and CD36. Addition of 4F was associated with a significant increase in FA (fatty acid) uptake and oxidation compared with vehicle treatment. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by measurement of the OCR (oxygen-consumption rate). 4F increased basal and ATP-linked OCR as well as maximal uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. These changes were associated with a significant increase in ΔΨm (mitochondrial membrane potential). The increase in metabolic activity in 4F-treated MDMs was attenuated by etomoxir, an inhibitor of mitochondrial FA uptake. Finally, addition of the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 to 4F-treated MDMs reduced the expression of CD163 and CD36, cell-surface markers for M2 macrophages, and reduced basal and ATP-linked OCR. These results support our hypothesis that the 4F-mediated differentiation of MDMs to an anti-inflammatory phenotype is due, in part, to an increase in FA uptake and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase 8 degrades apolipoprotein A-I and reduces its cholesterol efflux capacity.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Aino; Åström, Pirjo; Metso, Jari; Soliymani, Rabah; Salo, Tuula; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pussinen, Pirkko J; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Various cell types in atherosclerotic lesions express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8. We investigated whether MMP-8 affects the structure and antiatherogenic function of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the main protein component of HDL particles. Furthermore, we studied serum lipid profiles and cholesterol efflux capacity in MMP-8-deficient mouse model. Incubation of apoA-I (28 kDa) with activated MMP-8 yielded 22 kDa and 25 kDa apoA-I fragments. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that apoA-I was cleaved at its carboxyl-terminal part. Treatment of apoA-I and HDL with MMP-8 resulted in significant reduction (up to 84%, P < 0.001) in their ability to facilitate cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded THP-1 macrophages. The cleavage of apoA-I by MMP-8 and the reduction in its cholesterol efflux capacity was inhibited by doxycycline. MMP-8-deficient mice had significantly lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels (P = 0.003) and larger HDL particles compared with wild-type (WT) mice. However, no differences were observed in the apoA-I levels or serum cholesterol efflux capacities between the mouse groups. Proteolytic modification of apoA-I by MMP-8 may impair the first steps of reverse cholesterol transport, leading to increased accumulation of cholesterol in the vessel walls. Eventually, inhibition of MMPs by doxycycline may reduce the risk for atherosclerotic vascular diseases.

  16. Formation of stable nanodiscs by bihelical apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Kariyazono, Hirokazu; Nadai, Ryo; Miyajima, Rin; Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Nanodiscs are composed of scaffold protein or peptide such as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and phospholipids. Although peptide-based nanodiscs have an advantage to modulate the size of nanodiscs by changing phospholipid/peptide ratios, they are usually less stable than apoA-I-based nanodiscs. In this study, we designed a novel nanodisc scaffold peptide (NSP) that has proline-punctuated bihelical amphipathic structure based on apoA-I mimetic peptides. NSP formed α-helical structure on 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) nanodiscs prepared by cholate dialysis method. Dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that diameters of NSP nanodiscs vary depending upon POPC/NSP ratios. Comparison of thermal unfolding of nanodiscs monitored by circular dichroism measurements demonstrated that NSP forms much more stable nanodiscs with POPC than monohelical peptide, 4F, exhibiting comparable stability to apoA-I-POPC nanodiscs. Intrinsic Trp fluorescence measurements showed that Trp residues of NSP exhibit more hydrophobic environment than that of 4 F on nanodiscs, suggesting the stronger interaction of NSP with phospholipids. Thus, the bihelical structure of NSP appears to increase the stability of nanodiscs because of the enhanced interaction of peptides with phospholipids. In addition, NSP as well as 4F spontaneously solubilized POPC vesicles into nanodiscs without using detergent. These results indicate that bihelical NSP forms nanodiscs with comparable stability to apoA-I and has an ability to control the size of nanodiscs simply by changing phospholipid/peptide ratios.

  17. Iowa Mutant Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-IIowa) Fibrils Target Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mikawa, Shiho; Uchimura, Kenji; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Saito, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The single amino acid mutation G26R in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-IIowa) is the first mutation that was associated with familial AApoA1 amyloidosis. The N-terminal fragments (amino acid residues 1-83) of apoA-I containing this mutation deposit as amyloid fibrils in patients' tissues and organs, but the mechanisms of cellular degradation and cytotoxicity have not yet been clarified. In this study, we demonstrated degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils via the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ApoA-IIowa fibrils induced an increase in lysosomal pH and the cytosolic release of the toxic lysosomal protease cathepsin B. The mitochondrial dysfunction caused by apoA-IIowa fibrils depended on cathepsin B and was ameliorated by increasing the degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils. Thus, although apoA-IIowa fibril transport to lysosomes and fibril degradation in lysosomes may have occurred, the presence of an excess number of apoA-IIowa fibrils, more than the lysosomes could degrade, may be detrimental to cells. Our results thus provide evidence that the target of apoA-IIowa fibrils is lysosomes, and we thereby gained a novel insight into the mechanism of AApoA1 amyloidosis.

  18. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a dominant feature of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, Gina; Izzi, Claudia; Ravani, Pietro; Obici, Laura; Dallera, Nadia; Del Barba, Andrea; Negrinelli, Alessandro; Tardanico, Regina; Nardi, Matilde; Biasi, Luciano; Scalvini, Tiziano; Merlini, Giampaolo; Scolari, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I is the main protein of high-density lipoprotein particles, and is encoded by the APOA1 gene. Several APOA1 mutations have been found, either affecting the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, determining familial HDL deficiency, or resulting in amyloid formation with prevalent deposits in the kidney and liver. Evaluation of familial tubulointerstitial nephritis in patients with the Leu75Pro APOA-I amyloidosis mutation resulted in the identification of 253 carriers belonging to 50 families from Brescia, Italy. A total of 219 mutation carriers underwent clinical, laboratory, and instrumental tests. Of these, 62% had renal, hepatic, and testicular disease; 38% were asymptomatic. The disease showed an age-dependent penetrance. Tubulointerstitial nephritis was diagnosed in 49% of the carriers, 13% of whom progressed to kidney failure requiring dialysis. Hepatic involvement with elevation of cholestasis indices was diagnosed in 30% of the carriers, 38% of whom developed portal hypertension. Impaired spermatogenesis and hypogonadism was found in 68% of male carriers. The cholesterol levels were lower than normal in 80% of the mutation carriers. Thus, tubulointerstitial nephritis was highly prevalent in this large series of patients with Leu75Pro apoA-I amyloidosis. Persistent elevation of alkaline phosphatase, reduced HDL cholesterol plasma levels, and hypogonadism in men are key diagnostic features of this form of amyloidosis.

  19. Cyberwar XXI: quantifying the unquantifiable: adaptive AI for next-generation conflict simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Joseph; von Kleinsmid, Peter; Zalewski, Tony

    2004-08-01

    The era of the "Revolution in Military Affairs," "4th Generation Warfare" and "Asymmetric War" requires novel approaches to modeling warfare at the operational and strategic level of modern conflict. For example, "What if, in response to our planned actions, the adversary reacts in such-and-such a manner? What will our response be? What are the possible unintended consequences?" Next generation conflict simulation tools are required to help create and test novel courses of action (COA's) in support of real-world operations. Conflict simulations allow non-lethal and cost-effective exploration of the "what-if" of COA development. The challenge has been to develop an automated decision-support software tool which allows competing COA"s to be compared in simulated dynamic environments. Principal Investigator Joseph Miranda's research is based on modeling an integrated military, economic, social, infrastructure and information (PMESII) environment. The main effort was to develop an adaptive AI engine which models agents operating within an operational-strategic conflict environment. This was implemented in Cyberwar XXI - a simulation which models COA selection in a PMESII environment. Within this framework, agents simulate decision-making processes and provide predictive capability of the potential behavior of Command Entities. The 2003 Iraq is the first scenario ready for V&V testing.

  20. Iowa Mutant Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-IIowa) Fibrils Target Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mikawa, Shiho; Uchimura, Kenji; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Saito, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The single amino acid mutation G26R in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-IIowa) is the first mutation that was associated with familial AApoA1 amyloidosis. The N-terminal fragments (amino acid residues 1–83) of apoA-I containing this mutation deposit as amyloid fibrils in patients’ tissues and organs, but the mechanisms of cellular degradation and cytotoxicity have not yet been clarified. In this study, we demonstrated degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils via the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ApoA-IIowa fibrils induced an increase in lysosomal pH and the cytosolic release of the toxic lysosomal protease cathepsin B. The mitochondrial dysfunction caused by apoA-IIowa fibrils depended on cathepsin B and was ameliorated by increasing the degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils. Thus, although apoA-IIowa fibril transport to lysosomes and fibril degradation in lysosomes may have occurred, the presence of an excess number of apoA-IIowa fibrils, more than the lysosomes could degrade, may be detrimental to cells. Our results thus provide evidence that the target of apoA-IIowa fibrils is lysosomes, and we thereby gained a novel insight into the mechanism of AApoA1 amyloidosis. PMID:27464946

  1. AIonAI: a humanitarian law of artificial intelligence and robotics.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2015-02-01

    The enduring progression of artificial intelligence and cybernetics offers an ever-closer possibility of rational and sentient robots. The ethics and morals deriving from this technological prospect have been considered in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, the design of automatons with roboethics and the contemplation of machine ethics through the concept of artificial moral agents. Across these categories, the robotics laws first proposed by Isaac Asimov in the twentieth century remain well-recognised and esteemed due to their specification of preventing human harm, stipulating obedience to humans and incorporating robotic self-protection. However the overwhelming predominance in the study of this field has focussed on human-robot interactions without fully considering the ethical inevitability of future artificial intelligences communicating together and has not addressed the moral nature of robot-robot interactions. A new robotic law is proposed and termed AIonAI or artificial intelligence-on-artificial intelligence. This law tackles the overlooked area where future artificial intelligences will likely interact amongst themselves, potentially leading to exploitation. As such, they would benefit from adopting a universal law of rights to recognise inherent dignity and the inalienable rights of artificial intelligences. Such a consideration can help prevent exploitation and abuse of rational and sentient beings, but would also importantly reflect on our moral code of ethics and the humanity of our civilisation.

  2. The role of biochemical risk factors in the etiology of AIS in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kopyta, Ilona; Zimny, Mikołaj; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is an abrupt onset of both focal and global neurological deficits secondary to a vascular event lasting more than 24 h and with a vascular background as its only cause. It can be triggered by a rupture of a blood vessel, aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke, HS), thrombosis or embolisms (ischemic stroke, IS). In developed countries, it is the third most common cause of death in the adult population. Stroke in children is a rare disorder with a reported frequency of about 3 cases per 100,000 children per year. The history of acute brain ischemia is burdened with neurological complications such as motor impairment, speech impairment and intellectual delay. Moreover, in children after AIS seizures and epilepsy are also quite common. Stroke is a heterogeneous disorder; its risk factors in adults are well known, however, in pediatrics, in more than 20% cases, the cause of stroke is impossible to determine. Due to the fact that stroke usually arises as a consequence of the cerebral thrombosis, many of the mechanisms responsible for its occurrence can be considered as risk factors. We have reviewed the recent case-control studies conducted on pediatric patients regarding biochemical risk factors such as elevated levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lipoprotein(a), cholesterol and its fractions, and compared them with the results obtained from adult patients. PMID:25428197

  3. AI techniques for optimizing multi-objective reservoir operation upon human and riverine ecosystem demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Herricks, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    Flow regime is the key driver of the riverine ecology. This study proposes a novel hybrid methodology based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for quantifying riverine ecosystems requirements and delivering suitable flow regimes that sustain river and floodplain ecology through optimizing reservoir operation. This approach addresses issues to better fit riverine ecosystem requirements with existing human demands. We first explored and characterized the relationship between flow regimes and fish communities through a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN). Then the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan. The ecosystem requirement took the form of maximizing fish diversity, which could be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement was to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology could offer a number of diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operational strategies producing downstream flows that could meet both human and ecosystem needs. Applications that make this methodology attractive to water resources managers benefit from the wide spread of Pareto-front (optimal) solutions allowing decision makers to easily determine the best compromise through the trade-off between reservoir operational strategies for human and ecosystem needs.

  4. [The society "Santé en Français": a successful Canadian model for partnership].

    PubMed

    Schofield, Aurel; Gauthier, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Francophone Canadians living in a context where French is a minority language have poor access to health services in their native language. To remedy this situation, the Canadian Government has adopted a networking model inspired from the strategy "Towards Unity For Health" (TUFH) elaborated by the World Health Organization (WHO). This model, used since 2001, has given rise to a large number of partnership networks covering the entire regions where minority Francophones live. In this model five key stakeholders in health are being involved: health professionals, communities, managers of health care institutions, educational institutions and governments. The Canadian Federal Government, in close collaboration with communities, directed the project through two non-for-profit agencies: the Sociéte Santé en Français (SSF) and the Consortium National de Formation en Santé (CNFS), sharing a common vision and aiming at improving access to health services and hence health status of minority Francophones. The networking following the TUFH model created a lot of opportunities as well as many challenges to overcome.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of AIS Spectral Data Acquired from Semi-arid Shrub Communities in the Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of semic-arid plant communities using 128 channel airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data acquired on October 30, 1984. Both field and AIS spectra of vegetation were relatively featureless and differed from substrate spectra primarily in albedo. Unvegetated sand dunes were examined to assess spectral variation resulting from topographic irregularity. Although shrub cover as low as 10% could be detected on relatively flat surfaces, such differences were obscured in more heterogeneous terrain. Sagebrush-covered fans which had been scarred by fire were studied to determine the effect of changes in plant density on reflectance. Despite noise in the atmospherically corrected spectra, these provide better resolution of differences in plant density than spectra which are solar-corrected only. A high negative correlation was found between reflectance and plant cover in areas which had uniform substrates and vegetation types. A lower correlation was found where vegetation and substrates were more diverse.

  6. Assessing sound exposure from shipping in coastal waters using a single hydrophone and Automatic Identification System (AIS) data.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Godley, Brendan J; Smith, George H

    2012-07-01

    Underwater noise from shipping is a growing presence throughout the world's oceans, and may be subjecting marine fauna to chronic noise exposure with potentially severe long-term consequences. The coincidence of dense shipping activity and sensitive marine ecosystems in coastal environments is of particular concern, and noise assessment methodologies which describe the high temporal variability of sound exposure in these areas are needed. We present a method of characterising sound exposure from shipping using continuous passive acoustic monitoring combined with Automatic Identification System (AIS) shipping data. The method is applied to data recorded in Falmouth Bay, UK. Absolute and relative levels of intermittent ship noise contributions to the 24-h sound exposure level are determined using an adaptive threshold, and the spatial distribution of potential ship sources is then analysed using AIS data. This technique can be used to prioritize shipping noise mitigation strategies in coastal marine environments. PMID:22658576

  7. [Structure of the interaction sites of eukaryotic DNA with steroid hormone-apolipoprotein A-I complexes].

    PubMed

    Panin, L E; Gimautdinova, O I; Kuznetsov, P A; Velichko, E Iu; Bazaluk, V V

    2007-01-01

    A high affinity of apolipoprotein A-I for DNA and synthetic oligonucleotides was found using the affinity chromatography, affinity modification, and enzyme analysis. The competitive inhibition and Southern hybridization allowed disclosing the specificity of the interaction of the tetrahydrocortisol-apolipoprotein A-I complex (THC-ApoA-I) with high molecular weight DNA in regions contained GCC/CGG-sequences. The S1 nuclease sensitivity of the duplex CC(GCC)3 x GG(CGG)3 was found to occur under the action of THC-ApoA-I complex. The role of the interaction sites of eukaryotic DNA with steroid (THC, androsterone)-ApoA-I complexes in the initiation of the copy reaction in vitro was revealed. PMID:17936984

  8. Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on high-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein AI kinetics in type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Frénais, R; Ouguerram, K; Maugeais, C; Mahot, P; Charbonnel, B; Magot, T; Krempf, M

    2001-07-01

    The effect of a dietary fish oil supplementation on metabolism of HDL was studied in type II diabetes mellitus. Endogenous labeling of HDL-apo AI was performed using a 14 h primed infusion of D3-leucine in five diabetic patients before and 2 months after treatment with maxEPA(R). Isotopic enrichment curves were analyzed using a monoexponential function. After treatment, plasma cholesterol level remained unchanged (205.4+/-41.9 vs. 206.8+/-30.7 mg/dl, NS), whereas plasma triglycerides were decreased (155.4+/-67.9 vs. 202.6+/-32.2 mg/dl, P=0.06). Plasma apo AI was similar under maxEPA(R) (116.0+/-25.6 vs. 111.8+/-25.4 mg/dl, NS), and HDL-cholesterol and HDL-triglycerides were also not markedly changed (30.2+/-10.0 vs. 27.1+/-10 mg/dl, and 15.3+/-9.8 vs. 19.2+/-10.4 mg/dl, NS). HDL-apo AI fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and absolute production rate (APR) were significantly decreased after treatment with maxEPA(R) (0.27+/-0.09 vs. 0.37+/-0.08 pool day, P<0.05, and 12.1+/-2.8 vs. 16.1+/-3.3 mg/kg per day, P<0.05). These findings showed an effect of maxEPA(R) on kinetics of apolipoprotein AI in type II diabetes mellitus, probably linked to changes in plasma triglyceride level.

  9. Macrophage metalloproteinases degrade high-density-lipoprotein-associated apolipoprotein A-I at both the N- and C-termini.

    PubMed Central

    Eberini, Ivano; Calabresi, Laura; Wait, Robin; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Pirillo, Angela; Puglisi, Lina; Sirtori, Cesare R; Gianazza, Elisabetta

    2002-01-01

    Atheromatous plaques contain various cell types, including macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth-muscle cells. To investigate the possible interactions between secreted matrix metalloproteinases and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) components, we tested the above cell types by culturing them for 24 h. HDL(3) (HDL subfractions with average sizes of between 8.44 nm for HDL(3A) and 7.62 nm for HDL(3C)) were then incubated in their cell-free conditioned media. Proteolytic degradation of apolipoprotein A-I was observed with macrophages, but not with endothelial-cell- or muscle-cell-conditioned supernatant. Absence of calcium or addition of EDTA to incubation media prevented all proteolytic processes. The identified apolipoprotein A-I fragments had sizes of 26, 22, 14 and 9 kDa. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS resolved the 26 and the 22 kDa components and identified peptides resulting from both N- and C-terminal cleavage of apolipoprotein A-I. The higher abundance of C- than N-terminally cleaved peptides agrees with data in the literature for a fully structured alpha-helix around Tyr(18) compared with an unstructured region around Gly(185) and Gly(186). The flexibility in the latter region of apolipoprotein A-I may explain its susceptibility to proteolysis. In our experimental set-up, HDL(3C) was more extensively degraded than the other HDL(3) subclasses (HDL(3A) and HDL(3B)). Proteolytic fragments produced by metalloproteinase action were shown by gel filtration and electrophoresis to be neither associated with lipids nor self-associated. PMID:11879189

  10. AI's Philosophical Underpinnings: A Thinking Person's Walk through the Twists and Turns of Artificial Intelligence's Meandering Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Few human endeavors can be viewed both as extremely successful and unsuccessful at the same time. This is typically the case when goals have not been well defined or have been shifting in time. This has certainly been true of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The nature of intelligence has been the object of much thought and speculation throughout the history of philosophy. It is in the nature of philosophy that real headway is sometimes made only when appropriate tools become available. Similarly the computer, coupled with the ability to program (at least in principle) any function, appeared to be the tool that could tackle the notion of intelligence. To suit the tool, the problem of the nature of intelligence was soon sidestepped in favor of this notion: If a probing conversation with a computer could not be distinguished from a conversation with a human, then AI had been achieved. This notion became known as the Turing test, after the mathematician Alan Turing who proposed it in 1950. Conceptually rich and interesting, these early efforts gave rise to a large portion of the field's framework. Key to AI, rather than the 'number crunching' typical of computers until then, was viewed as the ability to manipulate symbols and make logical inferences. To facilitate these tasks, AI languages such as LISP and Prolog were invented and used widely in the field. One idea that emerged and enabled some success with real world problems was the notion that 'most intelligence' really resided in knowledge. A phrase attributed to Feigenbaum, one of the pioneers, was 'knowledge is the power.' With this premise, the problem is shifted from 'how do we solve problems' to 'how do we represent knowledge.' A good knowledge representation scheme could allow one to draw conclusions from given premises. Such schemes took forms such as rules,frames and scripts. It allowed the building of what became known as expert systems or knowledge based systems (KBS).

  11. Interactions of Apolipoproteins AI, AII, B and HDL, LDL, VLDL with Polyurethane and Polyurethane-PEO Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, R M; Macri, J; Cornelius, K M; Brash, J L

    2015-11-10

    The lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL) are important components of blood present in high concentration. Surprisingly, their role in blood-biomaterial interactions has been largely ignored. In previous work apolipoprotein AI (the main protein component of HDL) was identified as a major constituent of protein layers adsorbed from plasma to biomaterials having a wide range of surface properties, and quantitative data on the adsorption of apo AI to a biomedical grade polyurethane were reported. In the present communication quantitative data on the adsorption of apo AI, apo AII and apoB (the latter being a constituent of LDL and VLDL), as well as the lipoprotein particles themselves (HDL, LDL, VLDL), to a biomedical segmented polyurethane (PU) with and without an additive containing poly(ethylene oxide) (material referred to as PEO) are reported. Using radiolabeled apo AI, apo AII, and apoB, adsorption levels on PU from buffer at a protein concentration of 50 μg/mL were found to be 0.34, 0.40, and 0.14 μg/cm(2) (12, 23, and 0.25 nmol/cm(2)) respectively. Adsorption to the PEO surface was <0.02 μg/cm(2) for all three apolipoproteins demonstrating the strong protein resistance of this material. In contrast to the apolipoproteins, significant amounts of the lipoproteins were found to adsorb to the PEO as well as to the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectra, following exposure of the surfaces to the lipoproteins, showed a strong phosphorus signal, confirming that adsorption had occurred. It therefore appears that a PEO-containing surface that is resistant to apolipoproteins may be less resistant to the corresponding lipoproteins.

  12. Impact of genomic selection of AI dairy sires on their likely utilization and methods to estimate fertility: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Amann, R P; DeJarnette, J M

    2012-03-15

    Breeding of dairy cattle is undergoing a paradigm shift to genomic selection of potential sires and dams. This undoubtedly will affect how bulls are managed in an artificial insemination (AI) center and impact methods to estimate their 'fertility'. Our goal is to help decision-makers understand the contents of a straw of semen, current estimates of sire fertility, and how estimates might evolve in a genomic era. Sire fertility is estimated from outcome (pregnant or not) after 300 to > 2,000 inseminations and reported in units (U) as a sire's deviation from a population (> 500 bulls) average pregnancy rate (PR). Too often users do not recognize that imprecision of an estimate encompasses a 3-U range, or more. 'True fertility' of the sire whose semen is inseminated influences outcome far less than 'true fertility' of each female and a myriad of microenvironment and management factors. Further, AI centers discard substandard collections and intentionally adjust number of sperm per straw so that differences in pregnancy rates achieved by different sires are minimized! For > 80% of Holstein bulls, estimated 'sire conception rates' are within a 5.4-U range. In the future, most sires will be 15 to 40 mo old and services will accumulate at > 1,000/mo. Estimated sire conception rates still will be a deviation from the population mean, but should be based on records for the most recent 6 or 12 mo, rather than 48 or 60 mo. Repeated 'snap shots' every 2 mo would allow AI centers to adjust number of sperm per AI straw from genomic-sires in a timely manner, to maintain high pregnancy rates, and to meet market demands with sires producing ∼40% as many sperm as mature 'proven sires' of yesteryear. PMID:22153268

  13. The luxS gene is involved in AI-2 production, pathogenicity, and some phenotypes in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Song, Junxian; Hu, Baishi; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Fengquan

    2009-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight of apple, pear, and other members of the Rosaceae family. The enzyme LuxS catalyzes the last step in the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a molecule implicated with quorum sensing in many bacterial species. It is now well recognized that LuxS also plays a central role in sulfur metabolism and in the activated methyl cycle, which is responsible for the generation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A research paper has reported that luxS is not involved with quorum sensing in Er. amylovora, but in our study, Er. amylovora strain NCPPB1665 (Ea1665) produced luxS-dependent extracellular AI-2 activity. Additionally, the maximal AI-2 activity occurred during late-exponential and early-stationary growth phases and diminished during the stationary phase. The luxS mutant of Ea1665 was constructed, and the phenotypes of a defined luxS mutant have been characterized. Inactivation of luxS in Ea1665 impaired motility, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, and tolerance for hydrogen peroxide, and reduced virulence on pear leaves.

  14. Apolipoprotein A-I and platelet factor 4 are biomarkers for infliximab response in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Trocmé, Candice; Marotte, Hubert; Baillet, Athan; Pallot-Prades, Béatrice; Garin, Jérome; Grange, Laurent; Miossec, Pierre; Tebib, Jacques; Berger, François; Nissen, Michael J.; Juvin, Robert; Morel, Françoise; Gaudin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The use of biologics such as infliximab has dramatically improved the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, factors predictive of therapeutic response need to be identified. A proteomic study was performed prior to infliximab therapy to identify a panel of candidate protein biomarkers of RA predictive of treatment response. Methods Plasma profiles of 60 RA patients (28 non-responders ACR 20 negative and 32 responders ACR 70 positive to infliximab) were studied by SELDI-TOF-MS technology on two types of arrays, an anion exchange array (SAX2) and a nickel affinity array (IMAC3-Ni). Biomarker characterization was carried out using classical biochemical methods (purification by ammonium sulfate precipitation or metal affinity chromatography) and identification by MALDI-TOF analysis. Results Two distinct protein profiles were observed on both arrays and several proteins were differentially expressed in both patient populations. Five proteins at 3.86, 7.77, 7.97, 8.14 and 74.07 kDa were overexpressed in the non-responder group, whereas one at 28 kDa was increased in the responder population (sensitivity > 56%, specificity > 77.5%). Moreover combination of several biomarkers improved both the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of patient response to over 97%. The 28 kDa protein was characterized as apolipoprotein A-I and the 7.77 kDa biomarker was identified as platelet factor 4. Conclusions We characterized six plasma biomarkers, enabling the detection of patient response to infliximab with high sensitivity and specificity. Apolipoprotein A-1 was predictive of a good response to infliximab, whereas platelet factor 4 was associated with non-responders. PMID:18664547

  15. Activation of immobilized, biotinylated choleragen AI protein by a 19-kilodalton guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Bobak, D A; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1989-09-19

    Cholera toxin catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation that results in activation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein of the adenylyl cyclase system, known as Gs. The toxin also ADP-ribosylates other proteins and simple guanidino compounds and auto-ADP-ribosylates its AI protein (CTA1). All of the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of CTAI are enhanced by 19-21-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors, or ARFs. CTAI contains a single cysteine located near the carboxy terminus. CTAI was immobilized through this cysteine by reaction with iodoacetyl-N-biotinyl-hexylenediamine and binding of the resulting biotinylated protein to avidin-agarose. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed the ARF-stimulated ADP-ribosylation of agmatine. The reaction was enhanced by detergents and phospholipid, but the fold stimulation by purified sARF-II from bovine brain was considerably less than that observed with free CTA. ADP-ribosylation of Gsa by immobilized CTAI, which was somewhat enhanced by sARF-II, was much less than predicted on the basis of the NAD:agmatine ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed its own auto-ADP-ribosylation as well as the ADP-ribosylation of the immobilized avidin and CTA2, with relatively little stimulation by sARF-II. ADP-ribosylation of CTA2 by free CTAI is minimal. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the cysteine near the carboxy terminus of the toxin is not critical for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity or for its regulation by sARF-II. Biotinylation and immobilization of the toxin through this cysteine may, however, limit accessibility to Gsa or SARF-II, or perhaps otherwise reduce interaction with these proteins whether as substrates or activator.

  16. The Conformation of Lipid-Free Human Apolipoprotein A-I in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Ricquita D.; Fulp, Brian; Samuel, Michael P.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Thomas, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) is the principal acceptor of lipids from ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, a process that yields nascent high density lipoproteins. Analysis of lipidated apoA-I conformation yields a belt or twisted belt in which two strands of apoA-I lie antiparallel to one another. In contrast, biophysical studies have suggested that a part of lipid-free apoA-I was arranged in a 4-helix bundle. To understand how lipid-free apoA-I opens from a bundle to a belt while accepting lipid it was necessary to have a more refined model for the conformation of lipid-free apoA-I. This study reports the conformation of lipid-free human apoA-I using lysine-to-lysine chemical cross-linking in conjunction with disulfide cross-linking achieved using selective cysteine mutations. After proteolysis cross-linked peptides were verified by sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry. The resulting structure is compact with roughly 4 helical regions, amino acids 44 through 186, bundled together. C- and N-terminal ends, amino acids 1-43 and 187-243, respectively, are folded such that they lie close to one another. An unusual feature of the molecule is the high degree of connectivity of lysine40 with 6 other lysines, lysines that are close, e.g., lysine59, to distant lysines, e.g., lysine239, that are at the opposite end of the primary sequence. These results are compared and contrasted with other reported conformations for lipid-free human apoA-I and an NMR study of mouse apoA-I. PMID:24308268

  17. Myeloperoxidase-mediated Methionine Oxidation Promotes an Amyloidogenic Outcome for Apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Chan, Gary K L; Witkowski, Andrzej; Gantz, Donald L; Zhang, Tianqi O; Zanni, Martin T; Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2015-04-24

    High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in atherosclerotic plaques. Likely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by activated macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions is the promoter of such apoA-I oxidation. We hypothesized that apoA-I oxidation by MPO levels similar to those present in the artery walls in atherosclerosis can promote apoA-I structural changes and amyloid fibril formation. ApoA-I was exposed to exhaustive chemical (H2O2) oxidation or physiological levels of enzymatic (MPO) oxidation and incubated at 37 °C and pH 6.0 to induce fibril formation. Both chemically and enzymatically oxidized apoA-I produced fibrillar amyloids after a few hours of incubation. The amyloid fibrils were composed of full-length apoA-I with differential oxidation of the three methionines. Met to Leu apoA-I variants were used to establish the predominant role of oxidation of Met-86 and Met-148 in the fibril formation process. Importantly, a small amount of preformed apoA-I fibrils was able to seed amyloid formation in oxidized apoA-I at pH 7.0. In contrast to hereditary amyloidosis, wherein specific mutations of apoA-I cause protein destabilization and amyloid deposition, oxidative conditions similar to those promoted by local inflammation in atherosclerosis are sufficient to transform full-length wild-type apoA-I into an amyloidogenic protein. Thus, MPO-mediated oxidation may be implicated in the mechanism that leads to amyloid deposition in the atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.

  18. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits experimental colitis and colitis-propelled carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gkouskou, K K; Ioannou, M; Pavlopoulos, G A; Georgila, K; Siganou, A; Nikolaidis, G; Kanellis, D C; Moore, S; Papadakis, K A; Kardassis, D; Iliopoulos, I; McDyer, F A; Drakos, E; Eliopoulos, A G

    2016-05-12

    In both humans with long-standing ulcerative colitis and mouse models of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC), tumors develop predominantly in the distal part of the large intestine but the biological basis of this intriguing pathology remains unknown. Herein we report intrinsic differences in gene expression between proximal and distal colon in the mouse, which are augmented during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)/azoxymethane (AOM)-induced CAC. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes identified discrete biological pathways operating in proximal vs distal intestine and revealed a cluster of genes involved in lipid metabolism to be associated with the disease-resistant proximal colon. Guided by this finding, we have further interrogated the expression and function of one of these genes, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein. We show that ApoA-I is expressed at higher levels in the proximal compared with the distal part of the colon and its ablation in mice results in exaggerated DSS-induced colitis and disruption of epithelial architecture in larger areas of the large intestine. Conversely, treatment with an ApoA-I mimetic peptide ameliorated the phenotypic, histopathological and inflammatory manifestations of the disease. Genetic interference with ApoA-I levels in vivo impacted on the number, size and distribution of AOM/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mechanistically, ApoA-I was found to modulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-κB activation in response to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide with concomitant impairment in the production of the pathogenic cytokine interleukin-6. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel protective role for ApoA-I in colitis and CAC and unravel an unprecedented link between lipid metabolic processes and intestinal pathologies.

  19. Multimedia abstract generation of intensive care data: the automation of clinical processes through AI methodologies.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Desmond; Rose, Sydney E

    2010-04-01

    Medical errors from communication failures are enormous during the perioperative period of cardiac surgical patients. As caregivers change shifts or surgical patients change location within the hospital, key information is lost or misconstrued. After a baseline cognitive study of information need and caregiver workflow, we implemented an advanced clinical decision support tool of intelligent agents, medical logic modules, and text generators called the "Inference Engine" to summarize individual patient's raw medical data elements into procedural milestones, illness severity, and care therapies. The system generates two displays: 1) the continuum of care, multimedia abstract generation of intensive care data (MAGIC)-an expert system that would automatically generate a physician briefing of a cardiac patient's operative course in a multimodal format; and 2) the isolated point in time, "Inference Engine"-a system that provides a real-time, high-level, summarized depiction of a patient's clinical status. In our studies, system accuracy and efficacy was judged against clinician performance in the workplace. To test the automated physician briefing, "MAGIC," the patient's intraoperative course, was reviewed in the intensive care unit before patient arrival. It was then judged against the actual physician briefing and that given in a cohort of patients where the system was not used. To test the real-time representation of the patient's clinical status, system inferences were judged against clinician decisions. Changes in workflow and situational awareness were assessed by questionnaires and process evaluation. MAGIC provides 200% more information, twice the accuracy, and enhances situational awareness. This study demonstrates that the automation of clinical processes through AI methodologies yields positive results. PMID:20012610

  20. Protein supplementation during a short-interval prostaglandin-based protocol for timed AI in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fierro, S; Gil, J; Viñoles, C; Soca, F; Banchero, G; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to improve the reproductive performance of a short-interval prostaglandin (PG)-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in sheep, using a short-term nutritional treatment. During the breeding season (March-April), 132 multiparous and 61 nulliparous Corriedale ewes grazing natural pastures (600 kg DM/ha, 8.5% CP), were allocated to two groups: 1, Control group (n=100) two injections of D-Cloprostenol (75 μg per dose, 7d apart: Synchrovine(®) protocol); and 2, Supplemented group (n=93) ewes in which stage of the oestrous cycle was synchronised with Synchrovine(®) protocol plus focus feeding of a protein supplement (33.8% CP) between PG doses (Day -7 to -2). Cervical AI was performed at fixed time (Day 0), 46 ± 1.0 h after the second PG injection using 150 million sperm per ewe. Ovulation rate (Day 10), pregnancy rate, prolificacy and fecundity at Day 69 were evaluated by ultrasonography. Ovulation rate at Day 10 (1.20 ± 0.05 vs. 1.22 ± 0.05), pregnancy (46 ± 0.05 vs. 56 ± 0.05), prolificacy (1.09 ± 0.04 vs. 1.06 ± 0.05), and fecundity (0.49 ± 0.06 vs. 0.59 ± 0.06) at Day 69, were similar between groups (P>0.05; Control and Supplemented group respectively). It is concluded that focus feeding for 6d with protein supplementation during a short-interval PG-based protocol (Synchrovine(®)) did not improve the reproductive outcome associated with this protocol.

  1. Surface behavior of apolipoprotein A-I and its deletion mutants at model lipoprotein interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libo; Mei, Xiaohu; Atkinson, David; Small, Donald M

    2014-03-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has a great conformational flexibility to exist in lipid-free, lipid-poor, and lipid-bound states during lipid metabolism. To address the lipid binding and the dynamic desorption behavior of apoA-I at lipoprotein surfaces, apoA-I, Δ(185-243)apoA-I, and Δ(1-59)(185-243)apoA-I were studied at triolein/water and phosphatidylcholine/triolein/water interfaces with special attention to surface pressure. All three proteins are surface active to both interfaces lowering the interfacial tension and thus increasing the surface pressure to modify the interfaces. Δ(185-243)apoA-I adsorbs much more slowly and lowers the interfacial tension less than full-length apoA-I, confirming that the C-terminal domain (residues 185-243) initiates the lipid binding. Δ(1-59)(185-243)apoA-I binds more rapidly and lowers the interfacial tension more than Δ(185-243)apoA-I, suggesting that destabilizing the N-terminal α-helical bundle (residues 1-185) restores lipid binding. The three proteins desorb from both interfaces at different surface pressures revealing that different domains of apoA-I possess different lipid affinity. Δ(1-59)(185-243)apoA-I desorbs at lower pressures compared with apoA-I and Δ(185-243)apoA-I indicating that it is missing a strong lipid association motif. We propose that during lipoprotein remodeling, surface pressure mediates the adsorption and partial or full desorption of apoA-I allowing it to exchange among different lipoproteins and adopt various conformations to facilitate its multiple functions.

  2. Leptospiral LruA Is Required for Virulence and Modulates an Interaction with Mammalian Apolipoprotein AI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kunkun; Murray, Gerald L.; Seemann, Torsten; Srikram, Amporn; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Sermswan, Rasana W.; Hoke, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. While understanding of pathogenesis remains limited, the development of mutagenesis in Leptospira has provided a powerful tool for identifying novel virulence factors. LruA is a lipoprotein that has been implicated in leptospiral uveitis as a target of the immune response. In this study, two lruA mutants, M754 and M765, generated by transposon mutagenesis from Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae, were characterized. In M754, the transposon inserted in the middle of lruA, resulting in no detectable expression of LruA. In M765, the transposon inserted toward the 3′ end of the gene, resulting in expression of a truncated protein. LruA was demonstrated to be on the cell surface in M765 and the wild type (WT). M754, but not M765, was attenuated in a hamster model of acute infection. A search for differential binding to human serum proteins identified a serum protein of around 30 kDa bound to the wild type and the LruA deletion mutant (M754), but not to the LruA truncation mutant (M765). Two-dimensional separation of proteins from leptospiral cells incubated with guinea pig serum identified the 28-kDa apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) as a major mammalian serum protein that binds Leptospira in vitro. Interestingly, M754 (with no detectable LruA) bound more ApoA-I than did the LruA-expressing strains Manilae wild type and M765. Our data thus identify LruA as a surface-exposed leptospiral virulence factor that contributes to leptospiral pathogenesis, possibly by modulating cellular interactions with serum protein ApoA-I. PMID:23918777

  3. "Fast" Is Not "Real-Time": Designing Effective Real-Time AI Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Cindy A.; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1985-04-01

    Realistic practical problem domains (such as robotics, process control, and certain kinds of signal processing) stand to benefit greatly from the application of artificial intelligence techniques. These problem domains are of special interest because they are typified by complex dynamic environments in which the ability to select and initiate a proper response to environmental events in real time is a strict prerequisite to effective environmental interaction. Artificial intelligence systems developed to date have been sheltered from this real-time requirement, however, largely by virtue of their use of simplified problem domains or problem representations. The plethora of colloquial and (in general) mutually inconsistent interpretations of the term "real-time" employed by workers in each of these domains further exacerbates the difficul-ties in effectively applying state-of-the-art problem solving tech-niques to time-critical problems. Indeed, the intellectual waters are by now sufficiently muddied that the pursuit of a rigorous treatment of intelligent real-time performance mandates the redevelopment of proper problem perspective on what "real-time" means, starting from first principles. We present a simple but nonetheless formal definition of real-time performance. We then undertake an analysis of both conventional techniques and AI technology with respect to their ability to meet substantive real-time performance criteria. This analysis provides a basis for specification of problem-independent design requirements for systems that would claim real-time performance. Finally, we discuss the application of these design principles to a pragmatic problem in real-time signal understanding.

  4. Protein supplementation during a short-interval prostaglandin-based protocol for timed AI in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fierro, S; Gil, J; Viñoles, C; Soca, F; Banchero, G; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to improve the reproductive performance of a short-interval prostaglandin (PG)-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in sheep, using a short-term nutritional treatment. During the breeding season (March-April), 132 multiparous and 61 nulliparous Corriedale ewes grazing natural pastures (600 kg DM/ha, 8.5% CP), were allocated to two groups: 1, Control group (n=100) two injections of D-Cloprostenol (75 μg per dose, 7d apart: Synchrovine(®) protocol); and 2, Supplemented group (n=93) ewes in which stage of the oestrous cycle was synchronised with Synchrovine(®) protocol plus focus feeding of a protein supplement (33.8% CP) between PG doses (Day -7 to -2). Cervical AI was performed at fixed time (Day 0), 46 ± 1.0 h after the second PG injection using 150 million sperm per ewe. Ovulation rate (Day 10), pregnancy rate, prolificacy and fecundity at Day 69 were evaluated by ultrasonography. Ovulation rate at Day 10 (1.20 ± 0.05 vs. 1.22 ± 0.05), pregnancy (46 ± 0.05 vs. 56 ± 0.05), prolificacy (1.09 ± 0.04 vs. 1.06 ± 0.05), and fecundity (0.49 ± 0.06 vs. 0.59 ± 0.06) at Day 69, were similar between groups (P>0.05; Control and Supplemented group respectively). It is concluded that focus feeding for 6d with protein supplementation during a short-interval PG-based protocol (Synchrovine(®)) did not improve the reproductive outcome associated with this protocol. PMID:25129637

  5. Myeloperoxidase-mediated Methionine Oxidation Promotes an Amyloidogenic Outcome for Apolipoprotein A-I*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gary K. L.; Witkowski, Andrzej; Gantz, Donald L.; Zhang, Tianqi O.; Zanni, Martin T.; Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in atherosclerotic plaques. Likely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by activated macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions is the promoter of such apoA-I oxidation. We hypothesized that apoA-I oxidation by MPO levels similar to those present in the artery walls in atherosclerosis can promote apoA-I structural changes and amyloid fibril formation. ApoA-I was exposed to exhaustive chemical (H2O2) oxidation or physiological levels of enzymatic (MPO) oxidation and incubated at 37 °C and pH 6.0 to induce fibril formation. Both chemically and enzymatically oxidized apoA-I produced fibrillar amyloids after a few hours of incubation. The amyloid fibrils were composed of full-length apoA-I with differential oxidation of the three methionines. Met to Leu apoA-I variants were used to establish the predominant role of oxidation of Met-86 and Met-148 in the fibril formation process. Importantly, a small amount of preformed apoA-I fibrils was able to seed amyloid formation in oxidized apoA-I at pH 7.0. In contrast to hereditary amyloidosis, wherein specific mutations of apoA-I cause protein destabilization and amyloid deposition, oxidative conditions similar to those promoted by local inflammation in atherosclerosis are sufficient to transform full-length wild-type apoA-I into an amyloidogenic protein. Thus, MPO-mediated oxidation may be implicated in the mechanism that leads to amyloid deposition in the atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:25759391

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Edge. Escape. Explorer. Fiesta.1 Focus. Fusion. Lincoln Town Car. Mustang. Mercury Mariner. Mercury... CFR part 1.95. ... From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to...

  7. Short communication: The role of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) on antibiotic resistance regulation in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Yu, Lumin; Shang, Fei; Li, Wenchang; Zhang, Ming; Ni, Jingtian; Chen, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli is a major etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing system is widely present in many species of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and has been proposed to be involved in interspecies communication. In E. coli model strains, the functional mechanisms of AI-2 have been well studied; however, in clinical antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, whether AI-2 affects the expression of antibiotic resistance genes has not been reported. In this study, we report that exogenous AI-2 increased the antibiotic resistance of a clinical E. coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis by upregulating the expression of TEM-type enzyme in an LsrR (LuxS regulated repressor)-dependent manner.

  8. The soluble pyocins S2 and S4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bind to the same FpvAI receptor.

    PubMed

    Elfarash, Ameer; Wei, Qing; Cornelis, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Soluble (S-type) pyocins are Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriocins that kill nonimmune P. aeruginosa cells by gaining entry via a specific receptor, which, in the case of pyocin S2, is the siderophore pyoverdine receptor FpvAI, and in the case of pyocin S3, FpvAII. The nucleic acid sequence at the positions 4327697-4327359 of P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome was not annotated, but it was predicted to encode the immunity gene of the flanking pyocin S4 gene (PA3866) based on our analysis of the genome sequence. Using RT-PCR, the expression of the immunity gene was detected, confirming the existence of an immunity gene overlapping the S4 pyocin gene. The PA3866 coding for pyocin S4 and the downstream gene coding for the immunity protein were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the His-tagged S4 pyocin was obtained in pure form. Forty-three P. aeruginosa strains were typed via PCR to identify their ferripyoverdine receptor gene (fpvAI-III) and were tested for their sensitivity to pyocin S4. All S4-sensitive strains had the type I ferripyoverdine receptor fpvA gene. Some S4-resistant type I fpvA-positive strains were detected, but all of them had the S4 immunity gene, and, following the deletion of the immunity gene, became S4-sensitive. The fpvAI receptor gene was deleted in a S4-sensitive strain, and, as expected, the mutant became resistant to S4. The N-terminal receptor binding domain (RBD) of pyocin S2, which also uses the FpvAI receptor to enter the cell, was cloned in the pET-15b vector, and expressed in E. coli. When the purified RBD was mixed with pyocin S4 at different ratios, an inhibition of killing was observed, indicating that S2 RBD competes with the pyocin S4 for the binding to the FpvAI receptor. The S2 RBD was also shown to enhance the expression of the pvdA pyoverdine gene, suggesting that it, like pyoverdine, works via the known siderophore-mediated signalization pathway.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 ER12AP11.002 ER12AP11.003...

  10. Physical activities of Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): preliminary longitudinal case-control study historical evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Marianne E; Lee, Amanda Jane; Burwell, R Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there are no publications that have evaluated physical activities in relation to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) other than sports scolioses. In a preliminary longitudinal case-control study, mother and child were questioned and the children examined by one observer. The aim of the study was to examine possible risk factors for AIS. Two study groups were assessed for physical activities: 79 children diagnosed as having progressive AIS at one spinal deformity centre (66 girls, 13 boys) and a Control Group of 77 school children (66 girls, 11 boys), the selection involving six criteria. A structured history of physical activities was obtained, every child allocated to a socioeconomic group and examined for toe touching. Unlike the Patients, the Controls were not X-rayed and were examined for surface vertical spinous process asymmetry (VSPA). Statistical analyses showed progressive AIS to be positively associated with social deprivation, early introduction to indoor heated swimming pools and ability to toe touch. AIS is negatively associated with participation in dance, skating, gymnastics or karate and football or hockey classes, which might suggest preventive possibilities. There is a significantly increased independent odds of AIS in children who went to an indoor heated swimming pool within the first year of life (odds ratio 3.88, 95% CI 1.77-8.48; p = 0·001). Furthermore fourteen (61%) Controls with VSPA compared with 9 (17%) Controls without VSPA had been introduced to the swimming pool within their first year of life (P < 0.001). Early exposure to indoor heated swimming pools for both AIS and VSPA, suggests that the AIS findings do not result from sample selection. PMID:25866554

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenolics from açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in intestinal myofibroblasts CCD-18Co cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Manoela Maciel dos Santos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Noratto, Giuliana; Roque-Andrade, Andrea; Stringheta, Paulo César; Talcott, Stephen; Ramos, Afonso Mota; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-10-01

    The demand for tropical fruits high in polyphenolics including açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been increasing based on ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of açai polyphenolics in human colon myofibroblastic CCD-18Co cells to investigate the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory proteins. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of açai extract, 1-5 mg gallic acid equivalent L(-1), were selected. The generation of ROS was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and açai extract partially reversed this effect to 0.53-fold of the LPS-control. Açai extract (5 mg GAE L(-1)) down-regulated LPS-induced mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α (to 0.42-fold), cyclooxygenase 2, COX-2 (to 0.61-fold), toll-like receptor-4, TLR-4 (to 0.52-fold), TNF receptor-associated factor 6, TRAF-6 (to 0.64-fold), nuclear factor kappa-B, NF-κB (to 0.76-fold), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, VCAM-1 (to 0.71-fold) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1 (to 0.68-fold). The protein levels of COX-2, TLR-4, p-NF-κB and ICAM-1 were induced by LPS and the açai extract partially reversed this effect in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the anti-inflammatory effect of açai polyphenolic extract in intestinal cells are at least in part mediated through the inhibition of ROS and the expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB. Results indicate the potential for açai polyphenolics in the prevention of intestinal inflammation. PMID:26243669

  12. The apolipoprotein CIII enhancer regulates both extensive histone modification and intergenic transcription of human apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV genes but not apolipoprotein AV.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Jun; Wei, Yu-Sheng; Fu, Xiang-Hui; Hao, De-Long; Xue, Zheng; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zhu-Qin; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chih-Chuan

    2008-10-17

    The apolipoprotein (apo) AI/CIII/AIV/AV cluster genes are expressed at different levels in the liver and intestine. The apoCIII enhancer, a common regulatory element, regulates the tissue-specific expression of apoAI, apoCIII, and apoAIV but not apoAV. To study this regulation at the chromatin level, the histone modifications and intergenic transcription in the human apoAI/CIII/AIV/AV cluster were investigated in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells and in the livers of transgenic mice carrying the human gene cluster constructs with or without the apoCIII enhancer. We found that both the promoters and the intergenic regions of the apoAI/CIII/AIV genes were hyperacetylated and formed an open subdomain that did not include the apoAV gene. Hepatic and intestinal intergenic transcripts were identified to transcribe bidirectionally with strand preferences along the cluster. The deletion of the apoCIII enhancer influenced both histone modification and intergenic transcription in the apoAI/CIII/AIV gene region. These results demonstrate that the apoCIII enhancer contributes to the maintenance of an active chromatin subdomain of the apoAI/CIII/AIV genes, but not apoAV.

  13. Resistance of αAI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Dry grain legume seeds possessing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing αAI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to αAI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The αAI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control αAI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to αAI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.

  14. Emission inventories for ships in the arctic based on satellite sampled AIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Christensen, Jesper H.; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Ravn, Erik S.; Eriksson, Ómar F.; Kristensen, Hans Otto

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed BC, NOx and SO2 emission inventory for ships in the Arctic in 2012 based on satellite AIS data, ship engine power functions and technology stratified emission factors. Emission projections are presented for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050. Furthermore, the BC, SO2 and O3 concentrations and the deposition of BC are calculated for 2012 and for two arctic shipping scenarios - with or without arctic diversion routes due to a possible polar sea ice extent in the future. In 2012, the largest shares of Arctic ships emissions are calculated for fishing ships (45% for BC, 38% for NOx, 23% for SO2) followed by passenger ships (20%, 17%, 25%), tankers (9%, 13%, 15%), general cargo (8%, 11%, 12%) and container ships (5%, 7%, 8%). In 2050, without arctic diversion routes, the total emissions of BC, NOx and SO2 are expected to change by +16%, -32% and -63%, respectively, compared to 2012. The results for fishing ships are the least certain, caused by a less precise engine power - sailing speed relation. The calculated BC, SO2, and O3 surface concentrations and BC deposition contributions from ships are low as a mean for the whole Arctic in 2012, but locally BC additional contributions reach up to 20% around Iceland, and high additional contributions (100-300%) are calculated in some sea areas for SO2. In 2050, the arctic diversion routes highly influence the calculated surface concentrations and the deposition of BC in the Arctic. During summertime navigation contributions become very visible for BC (>80%) and SO2 (>1000%) along the arctic diversion routes, while the O3 (>10%) and BC deposition (>5%) additional contributions, respectively, get highest over the ocean east of Greenland and in the High Arctic. The geospatial ship type specific emission results presented in this paper have increased the accuracy of the emission inventories for ships in the Arctic. The methodology can be used to estimate shipping emissions in other regions of the world

  15. Emission inventories for ships in the Arctic based on satellite sampled AIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. H.; Winther, M.; Plejdrup, M. S.; Ravn, E. S.; Eriksson, O. M.; Kristensen, H. O.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from ships inside Arctic are an important source of the Arctic pollution as e.g. SO2, NOx and Black Carbon (BC). This paper presents a detailed BC, NOx and SO2 emission inventory for ships in the Arctic for the year 2012 based on satellite AIS data, ship engine power functions and technology stratified emission factors. Emission projections are presented for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 combined with emission from polar diversion routes as given by Corbett et al. (2010). Furthermore the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (Christensen, 1997; Brandt et al., 2012), which is 3-d Chemical Transport Model covering the Northern hemisphere was use to study the transport of BC, SO2 and O3 and estimate BC deposition results in order to study then current and future contribution from Arctic ship traffics to atmospheric concentrations and deposition of pollutants in the Arctic. In 2012, the largest emission contributions of Artic ships emissions are from fishing ships (45% for BC, 38% for NOx and 23% for SO2) followed by passenger ships (20%, 17%, 25%), tankers (9%, 13%, 15%), general cargo (8%, 11%, 12%) and container ships (5%, 7%, 8%). Without diverted traffic from 2012 to 2050 the total BC, NOx and SO2 emissions are expected to change by 16 %, -32 % and -63 %, respectively. For the year 2012 the average calculated contributions for ships of BC, SO, and O3 concentrations and BC deposition become low and similar for the emissions projections without diverted traffic of the years 2020, 2030 and 2050, but with diverted traffic the contributions for ships to the BC, SO, and O3 concentrations and BC deposition becomes significantly higher especially for the year 2050 and especially during the summer season over the areas, where the diverted traffic are assumed to occur. These high forecasted values for BC sea-ice deposition close to the Polar routes are of main concern due to decreases in the albedo which in turn enhances the melting of sea-ice.

  16. The Effect of Preoperative Apolipoprotein A-I on the Prognosis of Surgical Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shengjie; He, Xiaobo; Chen, Qian; Yang, Guangwei; Yao, Kai; Dong, Pei; Ye, Yunlin; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Zhiling; Qin, Zike; Liu, Zhuowei; Li, Zaishang; Xue, Yunfei; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Ruiwu; Zhou, Fangjian; Han, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prognostic value of serum lipid-profile in renal cell cancer (RCC) remains unknown. The purpose of the study is to explore the association between the serum lipid-profile and RCC patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid-profile (including cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoA-I], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) were retrospectively performed in 786 patients with RCC. The cutoff values of the lipids were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic value of serum lipids in RCC. Combined ROC analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, for overall survival (OS), revealed patients with low ApoA-I (<1.04) had significantly lower OS than the high ApoA-I (≥1.04) group (multivariate Cox regression analyses, hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; P = 0.003). Not only in the whole RCC cohort but also in the subgroups stratified according to the pT1-2 (P = 0.002), pN0 (P < 0.001), and pM0 (P = 0.001) status, respectively. Moreover, in the 755 patients with nonmetastasis, the low ApoA-I group was also associated with shortened disease-free survival (DFS) time compared to the high ApoA-I group (multivariate Cox regression analyses, HR, 0.65; P = 0.033). However, the other lipids were not independent prognostic factors for surgical RCC. An elevated level of preoperative ApoA-I was demonstrated to be related with better survival in patients with surgical RCC. Measuring the preoperative ApoA-I might be a simple way for finding the poor prognostic patients who should enrolled in further clinical trials and management. PMID:27015197

  17. Lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I Structure: Insights into HDL Formation and Atherosclerosis Development.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xiaohu; Atkinson, David

    2015-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I is the major protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays an important role during the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Knowledge of the high-resolution structure of full-length apoA-I is vital for a molecular understanding of the function of HDL at the various steps of the RCT pathway. Due to the flexible nature of apoA-I and aggregation properties, the structure of full-length lipid-free apoA-I has evaded description for over three decades. Sequence analysis of apoA-I suggested that the amphipathic α-helix is the structural motif of exchangeable apolipoprotein, and NMR, X-ray and MD simulation studies have confirmed this. Different laboratories have used different methods to probe the secondary structure distribution and organization of both the lipid-free and lipid-bound apoA-I structure. Mutation analysis, synthetic peptide models, surface chemistry and crystal structures have converged on the lipid-free apoA-I domain structure and function: the N-terminal domain [1-184] forms a helix bundle while the C-terminal domain [185-243] mostly lacks defined structure and is responsible for initiating lipid-binding, aggregation and is also involved in cholesterol efflux. The first 43 residues of apoA-I are essential to stabilize the lipid-free structure. In addition, the crystal structure of C-terminally truncated apoA-I suggests a monomer-dimer conversation mechanism mediated through helix 5 reorganization and dimerization during the formation of HDL. Based on previous research, we have proposed a structural model for full-length monomeric apoA-I in solution and updated the HDL formation mechanism through three states. Mapping the known natural mutations on the full-length monomeric apoA-I model provides insight into atherosclerosis development through disruption of the N-terminal helix bundle or deletion of the C-terminal lipid-binding domain.

  18. High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis: Defining the Domains Involved in Human Apolipoprotein A-I Lipidation.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Ricquita D; Fulp, Brian; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    The first step in removing cholesterol from a cell is the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1)-driven transfer of cholesterol to lipid-free or lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which yields cholesterol-rich nascent high-density lipoprotein (nHDL) that then matures in plasma to spherical, cholesteryl ester-rich HDL. However, lipid-free apoA-I has a three-dimensional (3D) conformation that is significantly different from that of lipidated apoA-I on nHDL. By comparing the lipid-free apoA-I 3D conformation of apoA-I to that of 9-14 nm diameter nHDL, we formulated the hypothetical helical domain transitions that might drive particle formation. To test the hypothesis, ten apoA-I mutants were prepared that contained two strategically placed cysteines several of which could form intramolecular disulfide bonds and others that could not form these bonds. Mass spectrometry was used to identify amino acid sequence and intramolecular disulfide bond formation. Recombinant HDL (rHDL) formation was assessed with this group of apoA-I mutants. ABCA1-driven nHDL formation was measured in four mutants and wild-type apoA-I. The mutants contained cysteine substitutions in one of three regions: the N-terminus, amino acids 34 and 55 (E34C to S55C), central domain amino acids 104 and 162 (F104C to H162C), and the C-terminus, amino acids 200 and 233 (L200C to L233C). Mutants were studied in the locked form, with an intramolecular disulfide bond present, or unlocked form, with the cysteine thiol blocked by alkylation. Only small amounts of rHDL or nHDL were formed upon locking the central domain. We conclude that both the N- and C-terminal ends assist in the initial steps in lipid acquisition, but that opening of the central domain was essential for particle formation.

  19. Discussion of ``effects of tensile stress on microstructural change of eutectoid Zn-AI alloy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Elizabeth; Montemayor-Aldrete, J.; Muñoz-Andrade, D.; Torres-Villaseñor, G.

    1996-10-01

    In a recent contribution,[1] Zhu and Orozco presented a phase transformation of the ternary alloy Zn-20.2 wt pct Al-1.8 wt pct Cu, studied under tensile stress by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The authors report the existence of three phases in the alloy at room temperature after furnace cooling, α, ɛ, and a new η {'/T}instead of the zinc-rich solid solution η, as appears in the phase diagrams. The reported parameters for this hcp metastable phase are[1,2] a = 0.2663 and c = 0.4873 nm; these values are close to the parameters of pure zinc,[3] with a = 0.2664 nm and c = 0.4946 nm. The difference between η {'/T}and zinc in the a parameter is around 0.03 pct, and it is 1.47 pet for the c parameter. When zinc is saturated with aluminum in the Zn-AI alloys, the a parameter shrinks[3] to 0.2660 nm. It is possible to see that the value of a of the η {'/T}phase lies in-between the values of pure zinc and zinc-aluminum solid solution. The solubility of Al and Cu in Zn[4] at 100 °C is 0.3 wt pct Cu and 0.06 wt pct Al. The covalent radius of Cu (0.117 nm) is smaller than the covalent radius of Al (0.118 nm) and Zn (0.125 nm), so the introduction of Cu in the zinc structure can result in a reduction of the c parameter. These values suggest that the metastable phase η {'/T} could be the hcp zincrich solid solution with low aluminum and copper contents. The article of Zhu and Goodwin,[5] cited by Zhu and Orozco in their Reference 14, is related not to the eutectoid alloy, as they argue, but to an alloy with 27 wt pct Al, and no reports about the transformation of ɛ into T' were found. The presence of the metastable e phase (CuZn4, sometimes called CuZn5) at room temperature and its transformation to the stable phase T' (rhombohedral intermetallic phase, Al4Cu3Zn) have been observed by other authors.[6,7

  20. Xiao-Ai-Ping, a TCM Injection, Enhances the Antigrowth Effects of Cisplatin on Lewis Lung Cancer Cells through Promoting the Infiltration and Function of CD8(+) T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanshuai; Yang, Yang; Ouyang, Zijun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Tao, Feifei; Shu, Yongqian; Gu, Yanhong; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate how Xiao-Ai-Ping injection, a traditional Chinese medicine and an ancillary drug in tumor treatment, enhances the antitumor effects of cisplatin on Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells. Methods. LLC-bearing mice were daily intraperitoneally injected with various doses of cisplatin, Xiao-Ai-Ping, or cisplatin plus Xiao-Ai-Ping, respectively. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days. Results. Combination of Xiao-Ai-Ping and cisplatin yielded significantly better antigrowth and proapoptotic effects on LLC xenografts than sole drug treatment did. In addition, we found that Xiao-Ai-Ping triggered the infiltration of CD8(+) T cells, a group of cytotoxic T cells, to LLC xenografts. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of interferon- γ (ifn- γ ), perforin-1 (prf-1), and granzyme B (gzmb) in CD8(+) T cells were significantly increased after combination treatment of Xiao-Ai-Ping and cisplatin. In vitro studies showed that Xiao-Ai-Ping markedly upregulated the mRNA levels of ifn- γ , prf-1, and gzmb in CD8(+) T cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that Xiao-Ai-Ping augments the function of CD8(+) T cells. Conclusions. Xiao-Ai-Ping promotes the infiltration and function of CD8(+) T cells and thus enhances the antigrowth effects of cisplatin on LLC xenografts, which provides new evidence for the combination of Xiao-Ai-Ping and cisplatin in clinic in China.

  1. Pelvis Morphology, Trunk Posture and Standing Imbalance and Their Relations to the Cobb Angle in Moderate and Severe Untreated AIS

    PubMed Central

    Dalleau, Georges; Leroyer, Pierre; Beaulieu, Marlène; Verkindt, Chantal; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of scoliosis and usually affects young girls. Studies mostly describe the differences between scoliotic and non-scoliotic girls and focus primarily on a single set of parameters derived from spinal and pelvis morphology, posture or standing imbalance. No study addressed all these three biomechanical aspects simultaneously in pre-braced AIS girls of different scoliosis severity but with similar curve type and their interaction with scoliosis progression. The first objective of this study was to test if there are differences in these parameters between pre-braced AIS girls with a right thoracic scoliosis of moderate (less than 27°) and severe (more than 27°) deformity. The second objective was to identify which of these parameters are related to the Cobb angle progression either individually or in combination of thereof. Forty-five scoliotic girls, randomly selected by an orthopedic surgeon from the hospital scoliosis clinic, participated in this study. Parameters related to pelvis morphology, pelvis orientation, trunk posture and quiet standing balance were measured. Generally moderate pre-brace idiopathic scoliosis patients displayed lower values than the severe group characterized by a Cobb angle greater than 27°. Only pelvis morphology and trunk posture were statistically different between the groups while pelvis orientation and standing imbalance were similar in both groups. Statistically significant Pearson coefficients of correlation between individual parameters and Cobb angle ranged between 0.32 and 0.53. Collectively trunk posture, pelvis morphology and standing balance parameters are correlated with Cobb angle at 0.82. The results suggest that spinal deformity progression is not only a question of trunk morphology distortion by itself but is also related to pelvis asymmetrical bone growth and standing neuromuscular imbalance. PMID:22792155

  2. A Pilot Study Exploring the Effects of a 12-Week T'ai Chi Intervention on Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tsuang, Ming; Rusiewicz, Anna; Pandzic, Ines; Cammarata, Stephanie; Rutledge, Thomas; Hong, Suzi; Linke, Sarah; Mills, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and with elevated depression symptoms are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Somatic symptoms of depression are particularly prevalent in HF and are related to worse disease prognosis. T'ai chi practice is related to increased emotional well-being in various clinical populations; however, relatively little is known about t'ai chi's effects on somatic versus cognitive symptom dimensions of depression in HF. Purpose The objective of the study was to measure whether a t'ai chi intervention effectively reduces somatic and/or cognitive symptoms of depression in patients with HF. Methods Patients with HF were assigned to either t'ai chi training (n=16) or a usual-care group (n=12). At baseline and after the 12-week intervention period, participants were evaluated for changes in depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) total scores (BDI-t) and subcategorized scores of BDI-somatic (BDI-s) and BDI-cognitive (BDI-c), and for symptoms of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory–Short Form. Results Patients with HF in the t'ai chi group compared to the usual-care group had reduced BDI-s (p≤0.017), but not BDI-c (p=0.50) scores from pre- to postintervention. Although t'ai chi did not significantly reduce fatigue, changes in physical fatigue (p≤0.05) were independently associated with changes in BDI-t scores. Conclusions T'ai chi practice reduced somatic symptoms of depression, which have been linked to worse prognosis in HF. Reductions in fatigue appear to explain some but not all of the reductions in somatic symptoms of depression. PMID:22845485

  3. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  4. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  5. Influence of temperament score and handling facility on stress, reproductive hormone concentrations, and fixed time AI pregnancy rates in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Assay, M; Kasimanickam, V; Moore, D A; Gay, J M; Whittier, W D

    2014-10-01

    The objectives were (i) to evaluate the effect of temperament, determined by modified 2-point chute exit and gait score, on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers following fixed time AI and (ii) to determine the effect of temperament on cortisol, substance-P, prolactin and progesterone at initiation of synchronization and at the time of AI. Angus beef heifers (n = 967) at eight locations were included in this study. At the initiation of synchronization (Day 0 = initiation of synchronization), all heifers received a body condition score (BCS), and temperament score (0 = calm; slow exit and walk or 1 = excitable; fast exit or jump or trot or run). Blood samples were collected from a sub-population of heifers (n = 86) at both synchronization initiation and the time of AI to determine the differences in serum progesterone, cortisol, prolactin and substance-P concentrations between temperament groups. Heifers were synchronized with 5-day CO-Synch+ controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and were inseminated at 56 h after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy by ultrasound 70 days after AI to determine AI pregnancy. Controlling for synchronization treatment (p = 0.03), facility design (p = 0.05), and cattle handling facility design by temperament score interaction (p = 0.02), the AI pregnancy differed between heifers with excitable and calm temperament (51.9% vs 60.3%; p = 0.01). The alley-way with acute bends and turns, and long straight alley-way had lower AI pregnancy rate than did the semicircular alley-way (53.5%, 56.3% and 67.0% respectively; p = 0.05). The serum hormone concentrations differed significantly between different types of cattle handling facility (p < 0.05). The cattle handling facility design by temperament group interactions significantly influenced progesterone (p = 0.01), cortisol (p = 0.01), prolactin (p = 0.02) and substance-P (p = 0.04) both at the initiation of

  6. Expression of the human apolipoprotein A-I gene in transgenic mice alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size distribution and diminishes selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Chajekshaul, T.; Hayek, T.; Walsh, A.; Breslow, J.L. )

    1991-08-01

    Transgenic mice carrying the human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene (HuAITg mice) were used to examine the effects of overexpression of the human gene on high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size distribution and metabolism. On a chow diet, control mice had HDL cholesterol and apo A-I levels of 49 {plus minus} 2 and 137 {plus minus} 12 mg/dl of plasma, respectively. HuAITg mice had HDL cholesterol, human apo A-I, and mouse apo A-I levels of 88 {plus minus} 2, 255 {plus minus} 19, and 16 {plus minus} 2 mg/dl, respectively. Nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed control mouse plasma HDL to be primarily monodisperse with a particle diameter of 10.2 nm, whereas HuAITg mouse plasma HDL was polydisperse with particles of diameter 11.4, 10.2, and 8.7 nm, which correspond in size to human HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3, respectively. In vivo turnover studies of HDL labeled with (3H)cholesteryl linoleyl ether and 125I-apo A-I were performed. In control animals, the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) for HDL cholesteryl ester was significantly more than the apo A-I FCR. In the HuAITg mice, the HDL cholesteryl ester FCR was the same as the apo A-I FCR. There were no significant differences between control and HuAITg animals in the sites of tissue removal of HDL cholesteryl ester, with the liver extracting most of the injected radioactivity. Control and HuAITg animals had comparable liver and intestinal cholesterol synthesis and LDL FCR. In conclusion, HuAITg mice have principally human and not mouse apo A-I in their plasma. This apparently causes a change in HDL particle size distribution in the transgenic mice to one resembling the human pattern. The replacement of mouse by human apo A-I also apparently causes the loss of the selective uptake pathway of HDL cholesteryl esters present in control mice.

  7. Intraperitoneal injection (IP), Intravenous injection (IV) or anal injection (AI)? Best way for mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Liang, Cong; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Bing; Wang, Xin; Han, Ying; Nie, Yongzhan; Jia, Shuyun; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation showed promising results in IBD management. However, the therapeutic impacts of cell delivery route that is critical for clinical translation are currently poorly understood. Here, three different MSCs delivery routes: intraperitoneal (IP), intravenous (IV), and anal injection (AI) were compared on DSS-induced colitic mice model. The overall therapeutic factors, MSCs migration and targeting as well as local immunomodulatory cytokines and FoxP3+ cells infiltration were analyzed. Colitis showed varying degrees of alleviation after three ways of MSCs transplantation, and the IP injection showed the highest survival rate of 87.5% and displayed the less weight loss and quick weight gain. The fecal occult blood test on the day 3 also showed nearly complete absence of occult blood in IP group. The fluorescence imaging disclosed higher intensity of engrafted cells in inflamed colon and the corresponding mesentery lymph nodes (MLNs) in IP and AI groups than the IV group. Real time-PCR and ELISA also demonstrate lower TNF-α and higher IL-10, TSG-6 levels in IP group. The immunohistochemistry indicated higher repair proliferation (Ki-67) and more FoxP3+ cells accumulation of IP group. IP showed better colitis recovery and might be the optimum MSCs delivery route for the treatment of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:27488951

  8. High yield of recombinant human Apolipoprotein A-I expressed in Pichia pastoris by using mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan Janakiraman, Vignesh; Noubhani, Abdelmajid; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran; Santarelli, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    A vast majority of the cardioprotective properties exhibited by High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is mediated by its major protein component Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1). In order to develop a simplified bioprocess for producing recombinant human Apolipoprotein A-I (rhApoA1) in its near-native form, rhApoA1was expressed without the use of an affinity tag in view of its potential therapeutic applications. Expressed in Pichia pastoris at expression levels of 58.2 mg ApoA1 per litre of culture in a reproducible manner, the target protein was purified by mixed-mode chromatography using Capto™ MMC ligand with a purity and recovery of 84% and 68%, respectively. ApoA1 purification was scaled up to Mixed-mode Expanded Bed Adsorption chromatography to establish an 'on-line' process for the efficient capture of rhApoA1 directly from the P. pastoris expression broth. A polishing step using anion exchange chromatography enabled the recovery of ApoA1 up to 96% purity. Purified ApoA1 was identified and verified by RPLC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry. This two-step process would reduce processing times and therefore costs in comparison to the twelve-step procedure currently used for recovering rhApoA1 from P. pastoris.

  9. Evaluation of AIS Data for Agronomic and Rangeland Vegetation: Preliminary Results for August 1984 Flight over Nebraska Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, B. L.; Starks, P. J.; Hays, C.; Gardner, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1978 scientists from the Center for Agricultural Meteorology and Climatology at the University of Nebraska have been conducting research at the Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory on the effects of water stress on crop growth, development and yield using remote sensing techniques. We have been working to develop techniques, both remote and ground-based, to monitor water stress, phenological development, leaf area, phytomass production and grain yields of corn, soybeans and sorghum. Because of the sandy soils and relatively low rainfall at the site it is an excellent location to study water stress without the necessity of installing expensive rainout shelters. The primary objectives of research with the airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data collected during an August 1984 flight over the Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory are to evaluate the potential of using AIS to: (1) discriminate crop type; (2) to detect subtle architectural differences that exist among different cultivars or hybrids of agronomic crops; (3) to detect and quantify, if possible, the level of water stress imposed on the crops; and (4) to evaluate leaf area and biomass differences for different crops.

  10. A Study of AIS1 Neck Injury Parameters in 168 Frontal Collisions Using a Restrained Hybrid III Dummy.

    PubMed

    Bohman, K; Boström, O; H Land, Y; Kullgren, A

    2000-11-01

    The research of AIS1 neck injuries has focused on rearend collisions, but a great portion of these injuries occur in frontal impacts. AIS1 neck injuries in frontal impacts can be associated with seat belt use and it can be hypothesized that the seat belt may transfer injurious loads to the neck. This study investigates the influence of the restraint system on the neck loads by using mechanical as well as mathematical (MADYMO) models of the HIII 50(th) percentile dummy. The mathematical simulations were based on 168 frontal crash pulses collected from crash recorders, installed in passenger cars in Sweden. The neck loads were evaluated by a new neck injury criterion NIC(protraction), the upper neck flexion moment and the Nij criterion. It was found that a pretensioner, a load limiter or an airbag have the potential to reduce the neck loads below recently suggested reference values for long-term neck injuries only as well as short- plus long-term neck injuries. Moreover, the interaction between the pretensioner, the load limiter and the airbag was of great importance in order to minimize the neck loads.

  11. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  12. Preliminary results from an investigation of AIS-1 data over an area of epithermal alteration: Plateau, Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Steve; Munday, Tim; Hook, Simon

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were flown over undifferentiated sequences of acid to intermediate volcanics and intrusives; meta-sediments; and a series of partially lateritized sedimentary rocks. The area exhibits a considerable spectral variability, after the suppression of striping effects. Log residual, and Internal Average Relative Reflectance (IARR) analytical techniques were used to enhance mineralogically related spectral features. Both methods produce similar results, but did not visually highlight mineral absorption features due to processing artifacts in areas of significant vegetation cover. The enhancement of mineral related absorption features was achieved using a hybrid processing approach based on the relative reflectance differences between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces at 1.2 and 2.1 micron. The result is an image with little overall contrast, but which enhances the more subtle spectral features believed to be associated with clays and epidote. The AIS data was subject to interactive analysis using SPAM. Clear separation of clay and epidote related absorption features was apparent, and the identification of kaolinite was possible despite detrimental spectral effects.

  13. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins.

  14. Inhibition of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, α-amylases by α-amylase inhibitors (T-αAI) from Triticale.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R; Saadati, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    The effect of triticale α-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps α-amylases. The effects of the triticale α-amylase inhibitor (T-αAI) on α-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the K(m) remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (V(max)) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T(50)) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps α-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-αAI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut α-amylase.

  15. 'We usually just start dancing our Indian dances': urban American Indian (AI) female youths' negotiation of identity, health and the body.

    PubMed

    Jette, Shannon; Roberts, Erica Blue

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we utilise qualitative research techniques to explore how 14 urban American Indian (AI) females (aged 11-17) living in the state of Maryland discursively construct and experience health and the body, as well as how/if traditional culture shapes their understandings. In doing so, we address a significant gap in the knowledge base concerning the health beliefs of urban AI youth, and build upon research utilising a decolonising approach. Using a two-step process of thematic analysis and poststructuralist discourse analysis, we arrived at three key findings: (1) while youths are taught (and learn) mainstream lessons about health and bodily norms (mostly at school), they negotiate these lessons in complex and at times contradictory ways; (2) they do not view their AI status as conferring more or less risk upon them or their community; and (3) AI identity appears to be fluid in nature, becoming more salient, even a resource, in certain situations. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of spaces within the urban context in shaping youths' embodied subjectivities, and in particular, contrast the space of the school with that of the urban AI community centre. PMID:26416430

  16. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in the presence of Apo-AI-derived peptides exposed to disorder-order conformational transitions.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Espinosa, S L; Mendoza-Espinosa, P; Delgado-Coello, B; Mas-Oliva, J

    2013-10-25

    Although the association of Apo AI with HDLs has been proposed to activate LCAT activity, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the process are not known. Therefore, in this study we have investigated how conformational changes in several exposed regions of Apo-AI might cause LCAT activation and for this purpose, designed a strategy to investigate three Apo AI-derived peptides. Since these peptides present the ability to adopt several secondary structure conformations, they were used to determine whether LCAT activity could be modulated in the presence of a particular conformation. Circular dichroism experiments showed that Apo AI-derived peptides in PBS displayed a disordered arrangement, with a strong tendency to adopt β-sheet and random conformational structures as a function of concentration. However, in the presence of Lyso-C12PC, maximal percentages of α-helical structures were observed. Performed in human plasma, time-course experiments of LCAT activity under control conditions reached the highest level of (3)H-cholesteryl esters after 2.5 h incubation. In the presence of Apo AI-derived peptides, a significant increase in the production of (3)H-cholesteryl esters was observed. The present study provides an important insight into the potential interactions between LCAT and lipoproteins and also suggests that peptides, initially present in a disordered conformation, are able to sense the lipid environment provided by lipoproteins of plasma and following a disorder-to-order transition, change their conformation to an ordered α-helix. PMID:24513206

  17. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in the presence of Apo-AI-derived peptides exposed to disorder-order conformational transitions.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Espinosa, S L; Mendoza-Espinosa, P; Delgado-Coello, B; Mas-Oliva, J

    2013-11-15

    Although the association of Apo AI with HDLs has been proposed to activate LCAT activity, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the process are not known. Therefore, in this study we have investigated how conformational changes in several exposed regions of Apo-AI might cause LCAT activation and for this purpose, designed a strategy to investigate three Apo AI-derived peptides. Since these peptides present the ability to adopt several secondary structure conformations, they were used to determine whether LCAT activity could be modulated in the presence of a particular conformation. Circular dichroism experiments showed that Apo AI-derived peptides in PBS displayed a disordered arrangement, with a strong tendency to adopt β-sheet and random conformational structures as a function of concentration. However, in the presence of Lyso-C12PC, maximal percentages of α-helical structures were observed. Performed in human plasma, time-course experiments of LCAT activity under control conditions reached the highest level of (3)H-cholesteryl esters after 2.5 h incubation. In the presence of Apo AI-derived peptides, a significant increase in the production of (3)H-cholesteryl esters was observed. The present study provides an important insight into the potential interactions between LCAT and lipoproteins and also suggests that peptides, initially present in a disordered conformation, are able to sense the lipid environment provided by lipoproteins of plasma and following a disorder-to-order transition, change their conformation to an ordered α-helix. PMID:24383078

  18. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII) is functionally distinct from eIF4AI and eIF4AII.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Imataka, H; Morino, S; Rogers, G W; Richter-Cook, N J; Merrick, W C; Sonenberg, N

    1999-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is an RNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is thought to melt the 5' proximal secondary structure of eukaryotic mRNAs to facilitate attachment of the 40S ribosomal subunit. eIF4A functions in a complex termed eIF4F with two other initiation factors (eIF4E and eIF4G). Two isoforms of eIF4A, eIF4AI and eIF4AII, which are encoded by two different genes, are functionally indistinguishable. A third member of the eIF4A family, eIF4AIII, whose human homolog exhibits 65% amino acid identity to human eIF4AI, has also been cloned from Xenopus and tobacco, but its function in translation has not been characterized. In this study, human eIF4AIII was characterized biochemically. While eIF4AIII, like eIF4AI, exhibits RNA-dependent ATPase activity and ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity, it fails to substitute for eIF4AI in an in vitro-reconstituted 40S ribosome binding assay. Instead, eIF4AIII inhibits translation in a reticulocyte lysate system. In addition, whereas eIF4AI binds independently to the middle and carboxy-terminal fragments of eIF4G, eIF4AIII binds to the middle fragment only. These functional differences between eIF4AI and eIF4AIII suggest that eIF4AIII might play an inhibitory role in translation under physiological conditions.

  19. The effects of t’ai chi on muscle activity, pain, and balance in females in their 20s with acute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jee-Hun; Cho, Tae-Yong; Cho, Yong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of t’ai chi on females in their 20s with acute low back pain. The subjects were 30 females in their 20s with acute low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] They were equally and randomly divided into a t’ai chi group and a stretching group. The intervention was applied three times per week, one hour each time, for a total of eight weeks. During the one hour, the subjects conducted warm-up exercises for 10 min, primary exercises for 40 min, and cool-down exercises for 10 min. In order to examine changes in low back pain in the patients according to the intervention method, muscle activity, pain, and balance elements (left and right side movement distance, forward and backward movement distance) were measured. [Results] Muscle activity and the visual analog scale score significantly decreased in both the t’ai chi group and the stretching group. Regarding changes in balance elements, the t’ai chi group’s left and right side movement distance decreased, which was statistically significant. However, the t’ai chi group’s forward and backward movement distance and the stretching group’s forward and backward movement distance and left and right side movement distance did not change. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, t’ai chi is considered an appropriate exercise program to reduce acute low back pain in females in their 20s. This is because when compared with stretching, it enables posture maintenance with lesser force due to decreased muscle activity, it is more helpful for improvements in balance ability, and it is effective in decreasing pain. PMID:25931717

  20. The effects of t'ai chi on muscle activity, pain, and balance in females in their 20s with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jee-Hun; Cho, Tae-Yong; Cho, Yong-Ho

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of t'ai chi on females in their 20s with acute low back pain. The subjects were 30 females in their 20s with acute low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] They were equally and randomly divided into a t'ai chi group and a stretching group. The intervention was applied three times per week, one hour each time, for a total of eight weeks. During the one hour, the subjects conducted warm-up exercises for 10 min, primary exercises for 40 min, and cool-down exercises for 10 min. In order to examine changes in low back pain in the patients according to the intervention method, muscle activity, pain, and balance elements (left and right side movement distance, forward and backward movement distance) were measured. [Results] Muscle activity and the visual analog scale score significantly decreased in both the t'ai chi group and the stretching group. Regarding changes in balance elements, the t'ai chi group's left and right side movement distance decreased, which was statistically significant. However, the t'ai chi group's forward and backward movement distance and the stretching group's forward and backward movement distance and left and right side movement distance did not change. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, t'ai chi is considered an appropriate exercise program to reduce acute low back pain in females in their 20s. This is because when compared with stretching, it enables posture maintenance with lesser force due to decreased muscle activity, it is more helpful for improvements in balance ability, and it is effective in decreasing pain. PMID:25931717

  1. A Rare Co-occurrence of Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) and Various Non-Enamel Manifestations In Siblings-Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, A.J. Sai; Samatha, Y; Suneela, S; Ankineedu Babu, D

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary enamel defect which is characterized by developmental abnormalities in the quantity and/ or quality of enamel. This condition has been associated with dental anomalies, including taurodontism, congenitally missing teeth, delayed eruption, crown resorption, pulpal calcifications and odontogenic fibromas. This paper presents two cases of AI which were associated with multiple impacted permanent teeth in both the cases; and pulpal calcifications and pericoronal odontogenic fibromas of W.H.O type additionally, in one of the cases. PMID:24596797

  2. Serum cholesterol and expression of ApoAI, LXRbeta and SREBP2 in vitamin D receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Huan; Keisala, Tiina; Solakivi, Tiina; Minasyan, Anna; Kalueff, Allan V; Tuohimaa, Pentti

    2009-02-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency has been reported to be associated with increased blood cholesterol concentrations. Here we used two strains of VDR knock-out (VDR-KO) mice to study whether a lack of vitamin D action has any effect on cholesterol metabolism. In 129S1 mice, both in male and female VDR-KO mice serum total cholesterol levels were significantly higher than those in wild type (WT) mice (20.7% (P=0.05) and 22.2% (P=0.03), respectively). In addition, the serum high-density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 22% (P=0.03), respectively higher in male VDR-KO mice than in WT mice. The mRNA expression levels of five cholesterol metabolism related genes in livers of 129S1 mice were studied using quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR): ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), regulatory element binding protein (SREBP2), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoAI), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and liver X receptor beta (LXRbeta). In the mutant male mice, the mRNA level of ApoAI and LXRbeta were 49.2% (P=0.005) and 38.8% (P=0.034) higher than in the WT mice. These changes were not observed in mutant female mice, but the female mutant mice showed 52.5% (P=0.006) decrease of SREBP2 mRNA expression compared to WT mice. Because the mutant mice were fed with a special rescue diet, we wanted to test whether the increased cholesterol levels in mutant mice were due to the diet. Both the WT and mutant NMRI mice were given the same diet for 3 weeks before the blood sampling. No difference in cholesterol or in HDL-C between WT and mutant mice was found. The results suggest that the food, gender and genetic background have an effect on the cholesterol metabolism. Although VDR seems to regulate some of the genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, its role in the regulation of serum cholesterol seems to be minimal.

  3. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south. PMID:27698577

  4. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  5. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Gang; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.

    2006-02-27

    Photoemission electron microscopy, in conjunction with photoemission spectroscopy, reflectivity, and surface roughness measurements, is used to study the thermally-induced martensitic transformation in a CuZnAI shape memory alloy. Real-time phase transformation is observed as a nearly instantaneous change of photoelectron intensity, accompanied by microstructural deformation and displacement due to the shape memory effect. The difference in the photoelectron intensity before and after the phase transformation is attributed to the concomitant change of work function as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoemission electron microscopy is shown to be a valuable new technique facilitating the study of phase transformations in shape memory alloys, and provides real-time information on microstructural changes and phase-dependent electronic properties.

  6. Regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in Hep G2 cells depleted of Cu by cupruretic tetramine.

    PubMed

    Wu, J Y; Zhang, J J; Wang, Y; Reaves, S K; Wang, Y R; Lei, P P; Lei, K Y

    1997-10-01

    Studies were designed to examine the regulation of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene expression in Cu-depleted Hep G2 cells. The cupruretic chelator N,N'-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine 4 HCl (2,3,2-tetramine or TETA) was used to maintain a 77% reduction in cellular Cu in Hep G2 cells. After two passages of TETA treatment, the relative abundance of apoA-I mRNA was elevated 52%. In TETA-treated cells, the rate of apoA-I mRNA decay measured by an actinomycin D chase study was accelerated 108%, and the synthesis of apoA-I mRNA determined by a nuclear runoff assay was enhanced 2.5-fold in TETA-treated cells. All of those changes could be reverted toward the control values with Cu supplementation for only 2 days. In transient transfection assays, a 26.7% increase in chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase (CAT) activity for the reporter construct -256AI-CAT was observed in the treated cells. However, the ability of apoA-I regulatory protein 1 (ARP-1) to repress the CAT activity was not affected by the depressed Cu status. In addition, gel retardation experiments demonstrated that Cu depletion enhanced the binding of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) and other undefined nuclear factors to oligonucleotides containing site A, one of three regulatory sites of the apoA-I gene promoter. Moreover, the relative abundance of HNF-4 mRNA was increased 58% in the Cu-depleted cells. Thus the observed increase in apoA-I gene transcription may be mediated mostly by an elevated level of the regulatory factor, HNF-4. In summary, the present findings established the mechanism by which a depressed cellular Cu status can enhance apoA-I mRNA production and subsequently increase apoA-I synthesis. PMID:9357782

  7. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Sergey V.; Mogilenko, Denis A.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  8. Inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Afroza; Cochran, Blake J; Tabet, Fatiha; Patel, Mili; Torres, Luisa Cuesta; Barter, Philip J; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2016-06-01

    Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways links obesity with metabolic disorders. TLR4-mediated activation of MAPKs and NF-κB are 2 such pathways implicated in obesity-induced inflammation. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) exerts anti-inflammatory effects on adipocytes by effluxing cholesterol from the cells via the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). It is not known if these effects involve inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways by apoA-I. This study asks if apoA-I inhibits activation of MAPKs and NF-κB in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether this inhibition is ABCA1 dependent. Incubation of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with apoA-I decreased cell surface expression of TLR4 by 16 ± 2% and synthesis of the TLR4 adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation primary response 88, by 24 ± 4% in an ABCA1-dependent manner. ApoA-I also inhibited downstream activation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and JNK, as well as expression of proinflammatory adipokines in bacterial LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in an ABCA1-dependent manner. ApoA-I, by contrast, suppressed nuclear localization of the p65 subunit of NF-κB by 30 ± 3% in LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in an ABCA1-independent manner. In conclusion, apoA-I inhibits TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathways in adipocytes by preventing MAPK and NF-κB activation.-Sultana, A., Cochran, B. J., Tabet, F., Patel, M., Cuesta Torres, L., Barter, P. J., Rye, K.-A. Inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by apolipoprotein A-I.

  9. Demographics, Velocity Distributions, and Impact Type as Predictors of AIS 4+ Head Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Fitzharris, Michael; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Rinaldi, James; Maiman, Dennis J.; Fildes, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine differences between the United States-based NASS and CIREN and Australia-based ANCIS databases in occupant-, crash-, and vehicle-related parameters for AIS 4+ head injuries in motor vehicle crashes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine roles of the change in velocity (DV), crash type (frontal, far-side, nearside, rear impact), seatbelt use, and occupant position, gender, age, stature, and body mass in cranial traumas. Belted and unbelted non-ejected occupant (age >16 years) data from 1997–2006 were used for the NASS and CIREN datasets, and 2000–2010 for ANCIS. Vehicle model year, and occupant position and demographics including body mass index (BMI) data were obtained. Injuries were coded using AIS 1990–1998 update. Similarities were apparent across all databases: mean demographics were close to the mid-size anthropometry, mean BMI was in the normal to overweight range, and representations of extreme variations were uncommon. Side impacts contributed to over one-half of the ensemble, implying susceptibility to head trauma in this mode. Odds of sustaining head injury increased by 4% per unit increase in DV (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03–1.04, p<0.001; adjusted for other variables); one-half for belted compared to unbelted occupants (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.37–0.61, p<0.001); nearside, then far-side had significantly higher odds than frontal, and no difference by gender or position (front-left, front-right). Similar crash- and occupant-related outcomes from the two continents indicate a worldwide need to revise the translation acceleration-based head injury criterion to include the angular component in an appropriate format for improved injury assessment and mitigation. PMID:22105402

  10. Potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alpha-AI-1 to inhibit alpha-amylase activity in true bugs(Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    True bugs (Hemiptera) are an important pest complex not controlled by Bt crops. An alternative source of resistance includes inhibitors of digestive enzymes. aAI-1, an a-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, has been shown to inhibit a-amylases of bruchid pests of grain legumes. Here we quantify t...

  11. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of the repellents deet, CIC-4, and AI3-37220 against Anopheles farauti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Cooper, R D; Sweeney, A W

    1998-09-01

    Laboratory and field tests of the repellents diethyl methylbenzamide (deet), 1-(3-cyclohexen-1-yl-carbonyl)-2-methylpiperidine (AI3-37220), and (2-hydroxymethylcyclohexyl) acetic acid lactone (CIC-4) were conducted against Anopheles farauti s.s. Laveran, an important malaria vector in the southwest Pacific region. In the laboratory, An. farauti was tolerant of all 3 repellents, but deet and CIC-4 provided significantly better protection than AI3-37220. The field study was conducted in rain forest located near Innisfail, northern Queensland, and tested 25% (vol:vol) ethanol solutions of each repellent against An. farauti. All 3 repellents provided > 95% protection against An. farauti for 5 h after application. In contrast to the laboratory tests, protection provided by AI3-37220 was significantly better than that by either deet or CIC-4, and there was no difference between protection by deet and CIC-4. The protection by deet and CIC-4 declined 8 h after application and provided < or = 50% protection at 9 h. In contrast, AI3-37220 provided > or = 94% protection for 9 h.

  13. Pro-apoptotic activities of polyphenolics from açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in human SW-480 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Manoela Maciel dos Santos; Noratto, Giuliana; Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte; Arbizu, Shirley; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Talcott, Stephen; Ramos, Afonso Mota; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cell growth inhibition activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) polyphenolic extract against colon cancer HT-29 and SW-480 cells and the nonmalignant CCD-18Co colon fibroblast cells. Results showed that açai polyphenolic extract (5-20 mg/L) inhibited preferentially the growth of SW-480 cells with no toxicity in CCD-18Co cells, and this was accompanied by reduction of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The mechanisms involved in SW-480 cell growth-inhibition by açai polyphenolic extract included the downregulation of NF-κB proinflammatory transcription factor and the nuclear factor-kappa B targets intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, prooncogenic specificity proteins (Sp) were downregulated as well as Sp-targets Bcl-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and survivin. This was accompanied by activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathway involving increase of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-3, and decrease of PARP-1. Results strongly suggest that açai polyphenolic extract has antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities in colon cancer cells and can be effective as natural colon cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:25329001

  14. Lack of genomic evidence of AI-2 receptors suggests a non-quorum sensing role for luxS in most bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion

    2008-01-01

    Background Great excitement accompanied discoveries over the last decade in several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the LuxS protein, which catalyzes production of the AI-2 autoinducer molecule for a second quorum sensing system (QS-2). Since the luxS gene was found to be widespread among the most diverse bacterial taxa, it was hypothesized that AI-2 may constitute the basis of a universal microbial language, a kind of bacterial Esperanto. Many of the studies published in this field have drawn a direct correlation between the occurrence of the luxS gene in a given organism and the presence and functionality of a QS-2 therein. However, rarely hathe existence of potential AI-2 receptors been examined. This is important, since it is now well recognized that LuxS also holds a central role as a metabolic enzyme in the activated methyl cycle which is responsible for the generation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, the major methyl donor in the cell. Results In order to assess whether the role of LuxS in these bacteria is indeed related to AI-2 mediated quorum sensing we analyzed genomic databases searching for established AI-2 receptors (i.e., LuxPQ-receptor of Vibrio harveyi and Lsr ABC-transporter of Salmonella typhimurium) and other presumed QS-related proteins and compared the outcome with published results about the role of QS-2 in these organisms. An unequivocal AI-2 related behavior was restricted primarily to organisms bearing known AI-2 receptor genes, while phenotypes of luxS mutant bacteria lacking these genes could often be explained simply by assuming deficiencies in sulfur metabolism. Conclusion Genomic analysis shows that while LuxPQ is restricted to Vibrionales, the Lsr-receptor complex is mainly present in pathogenic bacteria associated with endotherms. This suggests that QS-2 may play an important role in interactions with animal hosts. In most other species, however, the role of LuxS appears to be limited to metabolism, although in a few cases

  15. Increased HDL Size and Enhanced Apo A-I Catabolic Rates Are Associated With Doxorubicin-Induced Proteinuria in New Zealand White Rabbits.

    PubMed

    López-Olmos, Victoria; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Luna-Luna, María; Flores-Castillo, Cristobal; Martínez-Ramírez, Miriam; Bautista-Pérez, Rocío; Franco, Martha; Sandoval-Zárate, Julio; Roldán, Francisco-Javier; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Vega, Mónica; Fragoso, José-Manuel; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar

    2016-03-01

    The catabolism and structure of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) may be the determining factor of their atheroprotective properties. To better understand the role of the kidney in HDL catabolism, here we characterized HDL subclasses and the catabolic rates of apo A-I in a rabbit model of proteinuria. Proteinuria was induced by intravenous administration of doxorubicin in New Zealand white rabbits (n = 10). HDL size and HDL subclass lipids were assessed by electrophoresis of the isolated lipoproteins. The catabolic rate of HDL-apo A-I was evaluated by exogenous radiolabelling with iodine-131. Doxorubicin induced significant proteinuria after 4 weeks (4.47 ± 0.55 vs. 0.30 ± 0.02 g/L of protein in urine, P < 0.001) associated with increased uremia, creatininemia, and cardiotoxicity. Large HDL2b augmented significantly during proteinuria, whereas small HDL3b and HDL3c decreased compared to basal conditions. HDL2b, HDL2a, and HDL3a subclasses were enriched with triacylglycerols in proteinuric animals as determined by the triacylglycerol-to-phospholipid ratio; the cholesterol content in HDL subclasses remained unchanged. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of [(131)I]-apo A-I in the proteinuric rabbits was faster (FCR = 0.036 h(-1)) compared to control rabbits group (FCR = 0.026 h(-1), P < 0.05). Apo E increased and apo A-I decreased in HDL, whereas PON-1 activity increased in proteinuric rabbits. Proteinuria was associated with an increased number of large HDL2b particles and a decreased number of small HDL3b and 3c. Proteinuria was also connected to an alteration in HDL subclass lipids, apolipoprotein content of HDL, high paraoxonase-1 activity, and a rise in the fractional catabolic rate of the [(131)I]-apo A-I.

  16. Proto-Examples of Data Access and Visualization Components of a Potential Cloud-Based GEOSS-AI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Lynnes, C.

    2014-12-01

    Once a research or application problem has been identified, one logical next step is to search for available relevant data products. Thus, an early component of a potential GEOSS-AI system, in the continuum between observations and end point research, applications, and decision making, would be one that enables transparent data discovery and access by users. Such a component might be effected via the system's "data agents." Presumably, some kind of data cataloging has already been implemented, e.g., in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). Both the agents and cataloging could also leverage existing resources external to the system. The system would have some means to accept and integrate user-contributed agents. The need or desirability for some data format internal to the system should be evaluated. Another early component would be one that facilitates browsing/visualization of the data, as well as some basic analyses. Three ongoing projects at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provide possible proto-examples of potential data access and visualization components of a cloud-based GEOSS-AI system. Reorganizing data archived as time-step arrays to point-time series ("data rods"), as well as leveraging the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), to significantly increase the number of data products available, at multiple NASA data centers, for production as on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. SSW's data discovery is based on OpenSearch. Both pre-generated and virtual data rods are accessible via Web services. Developing Web Feature Services to publish the metadata, and expose the locations, of pre-generated and virtual data rods in the GEOSS Portal and enable direct access of the data via Web services. SSW is also leveraged to increase the availability of both NASA and non-NASA data. Federating NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface), for multi-sensor data exploration, that would allow each

  17. Proto-Examples of Data Access and Visualization Components of a Potential Cloud-Based GEOSS-AI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Once a research or application problem has been identified, one logical next step is to search for available relevant data products. Thus, an early component of a potential GEOSS-AI system, in the continuum between observations and end point research, applications, and decision making, would be one that enables transparent data discovery and access by users. Such a component might be effected via the systems data agents. Presumably, some kind of data cataloging has already been implemented, e.g., in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). Both the agents and cataloging could also leverage existing resources external to the system. The system would have some means to accept and integrate user-contributed agents. The need or desirability for some data format internal to the system should be evaluated. Another early component would be one that facilitates browsing visualization of the data, as well as some basic analyses.Three ongoing projects at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provide possible proto-examples of potential data access and visualization components of a cloud-based GEOSS-AI system. 1. Reorganizing data archived as time-step arrays to point-time series (data rods), as well as leveraging the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), to significantly increase the number of data products available, at multiple NASA data centers, for production as on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. SSWs data discovery is based on OpenSearch. Both pre-generated and virtual data rods are accessible via Web services. 2. Developing Web Feature Services to publish the metadata, and expose the locations, of pre-generated and virtual data rods in the GEOSS Portal and enable direct access of the data via Web services. SSW is also leveraged to increase the availability of both NASA and non-NASA data.3.Federating NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface), for multi-sensor data exploration, that would allow each

  18. The forgotten dispute: A.I. Oparin and H.J. Muller on the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael; Lazcano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The debate between A.I. Oparin's heterotrophic proposal of the origin of life and H.J. Muller's suggestion that what may be considered a posteriori the beginning of life, was an autocatalytic, replicative gene, is analyzed. Although both recognized that what was needed was an interacting system contiguous in space and time, it is now rarely mentioned that this scientific confrontation went on for several decades against the background of intense ideological issues, political tensions, and scientific developments that include the rise and demise of Lysenkoism, on the one hand, and, on the other, the establishment of neoDarwinism and the birth of molecular biology. Whereas for Oparin life was the outcome of the step-wise slow process of precellular evolution in which membrane-bounded polymolecular systems played a key role, Muller argued that life started with the appearance of the first nucleic-acid (DNA) molecule in the primitive oceans. Oparin and Muller came from different scientific backgrounds and almost opposite intellectual traditions, so their common interest in the origin of life did nothing to assuage their opposing views, which as argued soon became part of the debates that took place within the framework of intense ideological confrontations.

  19. High-density Lipoproteins and Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential New Players in the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Figueroa, Debbie M.; Barochia, Amisha V.; Yao, Xianglan; Levine, Stewart J.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of ALI, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:27708582

  20. Kinetic modeling of anthocyanin degradation and microorganism growth during postharvest storage of açai fruits (Euterpe oleracea).

    PubMed

    Rogez, Hervé; Akwie, Santuscha N L T; Moura, Fábio G; Larondelle, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    The unavoidable damage of açai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits (AF) during picking leads to microbial contamination and anthocyanin degradation, which prejudice the consumed fruit drink. Thirteen lots of AF (24 kg) from different municipal districts of the Pará State (Brazil) were monitored during a 75-h-long storage in the dark at 30 °C for microbial growth, and 7 lots for anthocyanin degradation. On arrival at the laboratory, anthocyanins presented a mean concentration of 828 mg kg(-1) fruits with a standard deviation of 323 mg kg(-1) fruits whereas mean microbial contamination was 2.64 10(6) CFU g(-1) of dry matter for total mesophilic bacteria, 1.98 10(3) MPN g(-1) DM for fecal coliforms, and 1.11 10(5) CFU g(-1) DM for moulds and yeasts. Kinetic growth of the microbes could be fitted to a quadratic equation with an unusual rapid growth during the 1st 24 h. The kinetics of anthocyanin degradation fitted a 1st-order equation. The mean velocity constant of the reaction (k(1)) was of 0.0137 h(-1) and the mean half-life (t(½)) of the anthocyanins was 50 h. These results indicate that the AF simultaneously suffer extensive anthocyanin degradation and explosive microbial growth during the postharvest period needing a special care.

  1. Amyloidogenic propensity of a natural variant of human apolipoprotein A-I: stability and interaction with ligands.

    PubMed

    Rosú, Silvana A; Rimoldi, Omar J; Prieto, Eduardo D; Curto, Lucrecia M; Delfino, José M; Ramella, Nahuel A; Tricerri, M Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    A number of naturally occurring mutations of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been associated with hereditary amyloidoses. The molecular mechanisms involved in amyloid-associated pathology remain largely unknown. Here we examined the effects of the Arg173Pro point mutation in apoA-I on the structure, stability, and aggregation propensity, as well as on the ability to bind to putative ligands. Our results indicate that the mutation induces a drastic loss of stability, and a lower efficiency to bind to phospholipid vesicles at physiological pH, which could determine the observed higher tendency to aggregate as pro-amyloidogenic complexes. Incubation under acidic conditions does not seem to induce significant desestabilization or aggregation tendency, neither does it contribute to the binding of the mutant to sodium dodecyl sulfate. While the binding to this detergent is higher for the mutant as compared to wt apoA-I, the interaction of the Arg173Pro variant with heparin depends on pH, being lower at pH 5.0 and higher than wt under physiological pH conditions. We suggest that binding to ligands as heparin or other glycosaminoglycans could be key events tuning the fine details of the interaction of apoA-I variants with the micro-environment, and probably eliciting the toxicity of these variants in hereditary amyloidoses. PMID:25950566

  2. Amyloidogenic Propensity of a Natural Variant of Human Apolipoprotein A-I: Stability and Interaction with Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Rosú, Silvana A.; Rimoldi, Omar J.; Prieto, Eduardo D.; Curto, Lucrecia M.; Delfino, José M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of naturally occurring mutations of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been associated with hereditary amyloidoses. The molecular mechanisms involved in amyloid-associated pathology remain largely unknown. Here we examined the effects of the Arg173Pro point mutation in apoA-I on the structure, stability, and aggregation propensity, as well as on the ability to bind to putative ligands. Our results indicate that the mutation induces a drastic loss of stability, and a lower efficiency to bind to phospholipid vesicles at physiological pH, which could determine the observed higher tendency to aggregate as pro-amyloidogenic complexes. Incubation under acidic conditions does not seem to induce significant desestabilization or aggregation tendency, neither does it contribute to the binding of the mutant to sodium dodecyl sulfate. While the binding to this detergent is higher for the mutant as compared to wt apoA-I, the interaction of the Arg173Pro variant with heparin depends on pH, being lower at pH 5.0 and higher than wt under physiological pH conditions. We suggest that binding to ligands as heparin or other glycosaminoglycans could be key events tuning the fine details of the interaction of apoA-I variants with the micro-environment, and probably eliciting the toxicity of these variants in hereditary amyloidoses. PMID:25950566

  3. [Louis-Marie Rousseau and the "Chocolat rationnel des pharmaciens français" (Rational Chocolate of French pharmacists)].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-03-01

    In 1883, the chemist Louis-Marie Rousseau (1849-1930) creats the "Compagnie hygiénique française" (French Hygienic Company). The company manufactures and sells the "Poudre de viande Rousseau" (Rousseau meat powder) and the "Chocolat Rousseau" (Rousseau Chocolate) by methods developed and patented by the pharmacist. Ten years after a successful collaboration, L.-M. Rousseau separates from his associates and founds the "Chocolaterie spéciale d'Ermont" (Special Chocolate factory of Ermont) in the village of Ermont near Paris. Here is manufactured the "Chocolat Rationnel des pharmaciens français" (Rational Chocolate of French pharmacists), hygienic chocolate sold only in pharmacies. The factory is also a pharmaceutical laboratory where is extracted theobromine from waste vegetable substances of cocoa. It then produces the "Théobromine Rousseau cristallisée" (crystallized Rousseau's Theobromine) sold as tablets, then the "Théosol" that will be commercialized until the middle of 1930s.

  4. Policy change driven by an AIS-assisted marine emission inventory in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Simon K. W.; Loh, Christine; Lin, Chubin; Booth, Veronica; Chan, Jimmy W. M.; Yip, Agnes C. K.; Li, Ying; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    A new exhaust emission inventory of ocean-going vessels (OGVs) was compiled for Hong Kong by using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data for the first time to determine typical main engine load factors, through vessel speed and operation mode characterization. It was found that in 2007, container vessel was the top emitting vessel type, contributing 9,886, 11,480, 1,173, 521 and 1166 tonnes of SO2, NOx, PM10, VOC and CO, respectively, or about 80%-82% of the emissions. The top five, which also included ocean cruise, oil tanker, conventional cargo vessel and dry bulk carrier, accounted for about 98% of emissions. Emission maps, which add a new spatial dimension to the inventory, show the key emission hot spots in Hong Kong and suggest that a significant portion of emissions were emitted at berth. Scientific evidence about the scale and distribution of ship emissions has contributed in raising public awareness and facilitating stakeholder engagement about the issue. Fair Winds Charter, the world's first industry-led voluntary emissions reduction initiative, is a perfect example of how careful scientific research can be used in public engagement and policy deliberation to help drive voluntary industry actions and then government proposals to control and regulate marine emissions in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region.

  5. Definition of human apolipoprotein A-I epitopes recognized by autoantibodies present in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Ducret, Axel; Ferber, Philippe; Gaertner, Hubert; Hartley, Oliver; Pagano, Sabrina; Butterfield, Michelle; Langen, Hanno; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Cutler, Paul

    2014-10-10

    Autoantibodies to apolipoprotein A-I (anti-apoA-I IgG) have been shown to be both markers and mediators of cardiovascular disease, promoting atherogenesis and unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Previous studies have shown that high levels of anti-apoA-I IgGs are independently associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction. Autoantibody responses to apoA-I can be polyclonal and it is likely that more than one epitope may exist. To identify the specific immunoreactive peptides in apoA-I, we have developed a set of methodologies and procedures to isolate, purify, and identify novel apoA-I endogenous epitopes. First, we generated high purity apoA-I from human plasma, using thiophilic interaction chromatography followed by enzymatic digestion specifically at lysine or arginine residues. Immunoreactivity to the different peptides generated was tested by ELISA using serum obtained from patients with acute myocardial infarction and high titers of autoantibodies to native apoA-I. The immunoreactive peptides were further sequenced by mass spectrometry. Our approach successfully identified two novel immunoreactive peptides, recognized by autoantibodies from patients suffering from myocardial infarction, who contain a high titer of anti-apoA-I IgG. The discovery of these epitopes may open innovative prognostic and therapeutic opportunities potentially suitable to improve current cardiovascular risk stratification.

  6. Apolipoprotein AI tertiary structures determine stability and phospholipid-binding activity of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles of different sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Ren, Xuefeng; Neville, Tracey; Jerome, W. Gray; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Ren, Gang; Wang, Jianjun

    2009-05-18

    Human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway that delivers excess cholesterol back to the liver for clearance. In vivo, HDL particles vary in size, shape and biological function. The discoidal HDL is a 140-240 kDa, disk-shaped intermediate of mature HDL. During mature spherical HDL formation, discoidal HDLs play a key role in loading cholesterol ester onto the HDL particles by activating the enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). One of the major problems for high-resolution structural studies of discoidal HDL is the difficulty in obtaining pure and, foremost, homogenous sample. We demonstrate here that the commonly used cholate dialysis method for discoidal HDL preparation usually contains 5-10% lipid-poor apoAI that significantly interferes with the high-resolution structural analysis of discoidal HDL using biophysical methods. Using an ultracentrifugation method, we quickly removed lipid-poor apoAI. We also purified discoidal reconstituted HDL (rHDL) into two pure discoidal HDL species of different sizes that are amendable for high-resolution structural studies. A small rHDL has a diameter of 7.6 nm, and a large rHDL has a diameter of 9.8 nm. We show that these two different sizes of discoidal HDL particles display different stability and phospholipid-binding activity. Interestingly, these property/functional differences are independent from the apoAI -helical secondary structure, but are determined by the tertiary structural difference of apoAI on different discoidal rHDL particles, as evidenced by two-dimensional NMR and negative stain electron microscopy data. Our result further provides the first high-resolution NMR data, demonstrating a promise of structural determination of discoidal HDL at atomic resolution using a combination of NMR and other biophysical techniques.

  7. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P<0.0001). Also, apoB was significantly increased after RGj consumption (149.0 ± 22.35 and 157.19 ± 18.60 mg/dl; P<0.002). But apoAI levels were not changed significantly before and after of RGj consumption (154.27 ± 21.55 and 155.35 ± 21.07 mg/dl; P>0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals. PMID:21633724

  8. Concomitant Effects of Ramadan Fasting and Time-Of-Day on Apolipoprotein AI, B, Lp-a and Homocysteine Responses during Aerobic Exercise in Tunisian Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chahed, Henda; Kallel, Choumous; Miled, Abdelhedi; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the time-of-day and Ramadan fasting (RF) effects on serum apolipoprotein-AI (Apo-AI) and B (Apo-B), lipoprotein particles-a (Lp-a), high-sensitive C-reactive-protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine (Hcy) during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). Design Performance and biochemical measures were completed at two times-of-day (07:00 and 17:00 h), 1-week before RF (BR), the second week of RF (SWR), and the fourth week of RF (ER). Setting For each session, subjects performed the YYIRT, and blood samples were taken before and 3-min after the test for biochemical measures. Participants Fifteen soccer players. Main Outcome Measures Total distance during the YYIRT, core temperature, body composition, dietary intakes, lipid (HDL-C, LDL-C, Apo-AI, B and Lp-a) and inflammatory (hs-CRP and Hcy) profiles. Results Performances during the YYIRT were higher in the evening than the morning BR (P < 0.05), but this fluctuation was not observed during RF. Moreover, LDL-C, ApoB, and Lp-a were stable throughout the daytime BR. However, during RF, they decreased at 17:00 h (P < 0.05). Likewise, HDL-C and Apo-AI increased after the exercise and were higher at 17:00 h BR (P < 0.001). Moreover, these parameters increased during RF (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Hcy and hs-CRP increased during the exercise (P < 0.01) with higher evening levels BR. During ER, the diurnal pattern of Hcy was inversed (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study concluded that caloric restriction induced by RF seems to ameliorate lipid and inflammatory markers of cardiovascular health during intermittent exercise performed in the evening. PMID:24244572

  9. Variation at the hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV loci is a major cause of genetically determined variation in plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J C; Wang, Z; Grundy, S M; Stoesz, M R; Guerra, R

    1994-01-01

    Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in determining interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels, but the specific genetic determinants of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have not been elucidated. In this study, the effects of variation in the genomic regions encoding hepatic lipase, apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV, and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein on plasma HDL-C levels were examined in 73 normotriglyceridemic, Caucasian nuclear families. Genetic factors accounted for 56.5 +/- 13% of the interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. For each candidate gene, adjusted plasma HDL-C levels of sibling pairs who shared zero, one, or two parental alleles identical-by-descent were compared using sibling-pair linkage analysis. Allelic variation in the genes encoding hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV accounted for 25 and 22%, respectively, of the total interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. In contrast, none of the variation in plasma HDL-C levels could be accounted for by allelic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein. These findings indicate that a major fraction of the genetically determined variation in plasma HDL-C levels is conferred by allelic variation at the hepatic lipase and the apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV gene loci. PMID:7989594

  10. Comparing the Effects of Age, BMI and Gender on Severe Injury (AIS 3+) in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5

  11. From Brown to Bakke and Back: Race, Law, and Social Change in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Haywood

    1981-01-01

    Evaluates the impact of major court cases on racial justice and social change in the United States. Topics discussed include the legislative response to social problems, the Nixon Court, affirmative action, and the unredeemed promise. Journal available from Daedalus Subscription Department, 1172 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02134.…

  12. Meritocracy and Diversity in Higher Education: Discrimination against Asian Americans in the Post-Bakke Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, L. Ling-Chi

    1988-01-01

    Examines recent changes in admission patterns and policies of some of the most prestigious American institutions of higher education, with particular reference to the University of California-Berkeley. Assesses the impact of these changes on Asian Americans and the principle of meritocracy. (FMW)

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide helix number and helix linker influence potentially anti-atherogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Geoffrey D.; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesize that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides better mimicking the punctuated α-helical repeats of full-length apoA-I are more anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic. This study compares a monomeric apoA-I mimetic helix to three different tandem helix peptides in vitro: 4F (18 mer), 4F-proline-4F (37 mer, Pro), 4F-alanine-4F (37 mer, Ala), and 4F-KVEPLRA-4F [the human apoA-I 4/5 interhelical sequence (IHS), 43 mer]. All peptides cleared turbid lipid suspensions, with 4F being most effective. In contrast to lipid clearance, tandem peptides were more effective at remodeling mouse HDL. All four peptides displaced apoA-I and apoE from the HDL, leaving a larger particle containing apoA-II and peptide. Peptide-remodeled HDL particles show no deficit in ABCG1 cholesterol efflux despite the loss of the majority of apoA-I. Tandem peptides show greater ability to efflux cholesterol from lipid-loaded murine macrophages, compared with 4F. Although 4F inhibited oxidation of purified mouse LDL, the Ala tandem peptide increased oxidation. We compared several tandem 4F-based peptides with monomeric 4F in assays that correlated with suggested anti-inflammatory/anti-atherogenic pathways. Tandem 4F-based peptides, which better mimic full-length apoA-I, exceed monomeric 4F in HDL remodeling and cholesterol efflux but not LDL oxidation protection. In addition, apoA-I mimetic peptides may increase reverse cholesterol transport through both ABCA1 as well as ABCG1 pathways. PMID:18323574

  14. Human apolipoprotein A-I is associated with dengue virus and enhances virus infection through SR-BI.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujia; Kakinami, Cherie; Li, Qi; Yang, Baojun; Li, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Diseases caused by dengue virus (DV) infection vary in severity, with symptoms ranging from mild fever to life threatening dengue hemorrhage fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Clinical studies have shown that significant decrease in the level of lipoproteins is correlated with severe illness in DHF/DSS patients. Available evidence also indicates that lipoproteins including high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are able to facilitate cell entry of HCV or other flaviviruses via corresponding lipoprotein receptors. In this study, we found that pre-incubation of DV with human serum leads to an enhanced DV infectivity in various types of cells. Such enhancement could be due to interactions between serum components and DV particles. Through co-immunoprecipitation we revealed that apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), the major protein component in HDL, is associated with DV particles and is able to promote DV infection. Based on that observation, we further found that siRNA knockdown of the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), the cell receptor of ApoA-I, abolished the activity of ApoA-I in enhancement of DV infection. This suggests that ApoA-I bridges DV particles and cell receptor SR-BI and facilitates entry of DV into cells. FACS analysis of cell surface dengue antigen after virus absorption further confirmed that ApoA-I enhances DV infection via promoting initial attachment of the virus to cells. These findings illustrate a novel entry route of DV into cells, which may provide insights into the functional importance of lipoproteins in dengue pathogenesis. PMID:23894648

  15. Depth of Small Scale Landslide in Slate Area : Case of 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Ai-Liao River, South Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. C.; Yen, H. Y.; Zhou, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the depth and magnitude of the small scale landslide in slate area in Ai-Liao-Shi catchment, South Taiwan. Landslide inventory of 2009 Typhoon Morakot, 5×5 m DEM, and aero photo have been interpreted by GIS software to assess the slope type and the scale of landslide events. The research database includes 276 landslides which orthographic projection areas are smaller than 1 ha. The slopes were also classified into dip, orthoclinical-dip, escarpment, and orthoclinical- escarpment 4 types of slope based on the slope aspect to the bedding orientation. The sliding plane, or so call the failure plane, was identified by aero photo, field reconnaissance and verification, and DEM before and after the typhoon event. Colluvium material deposited on the slip plane was removed based on the scarp and foot position, mass movement pattern, weak plane orientation, and the micro topography of a landslide to achieve the reasonable sliding plane. The maximum depth of sliding surface is explored through the slope type and sliding plane in total of 276 landslide cases. Results demonstrate that the average maximum depth, Dam, of dip slope is 4.6 m, Dam of orthoclinical-dip, escarpment, and orthoclinical-escarpment slopes are 5.8, 6.0, and 6.3 m respectively. In general, Dam is creasing with the average slope of landslide, the relationship of both factor is achieved in the study. Meanwhile, the orthographic projection area of landslide is increasing with the slope angle till the angle up to 40 degree then decreasing. The depth also varies with landslide magnitude. Finally, the relation of the depth normal to slope surface and the depth in gravity direction of landslides in four types slope are proposed, the R square values are 0.862 to 0.891 showing a good correlation between two types of depth.

  16. Amyloidogenic Mutation Promotes Fibril Formation of the N-terminal Apolipoprotein A-I on Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Ogata, Fuka; Mikawa, Shiho; Tsuji, Kohei; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal amino acid 1–83 fragment of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has a strong propensity to form amyloid fibrils at physiological neutral pH. Because apoA-I has an ability to bind to lipid membranes, we examined the effects of the lipid environment on fibril-forming properties of the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay as well as fluorescence and transmission microscopies revealed that upon lipid binding, fibril formation by apoA-I 1–83 is strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R mutant still retains the ability to form fibrils. Such distinct effects of lipid binding on fibril formation were also observed for the amyloidogenic prone region-containing peptides, apoA-I 8–33 and 8–33/G26R. This amyloidogenic region shifts from random coil to α-helical structure upon lipid binding. The G26R mutation appears to prevent this helix transition because lower helical propensity and more solvent-exposed conformation of the G26R variant upon lipid binding were observed in the apoA-I 1–83 fragment and 8–33 peptide. With a partially α-helical conformation induced by the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, fibril formation by apoA-I 1–83 was strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R variant can form amyloid fibrils. These findings suggest a new possible pathway for amyloid fibril formation by the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants: the amyloidogenic mutations partially destabilize the α-helical structure formed upon association with lipid membranes, resulting in physiologically relevant conformations that allow fibril formation. PMID:26175149

  17. Expression of human hepatic lipase negatively impacts apolipoprotein A-I production in primary hepatocytes from Lipc-null mice.

    PubMed

    Bamji-Mirza, Michelle; Zhang, Wandong; Yao, Zemin

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether expression of human hepatic lipase (hHL) exerted an intracellular effect on hepatic production of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The levels of secreted and cell-associated apoA-I were contrasted between primary hepatocytes isolated from Lipc-null and C57BL/6 mice, and between Lipc-null hepatocytes transfected with either hHL-encoding or control adenovirus. An HSPG-binding deficient hHL protein (hHLmt) was used to determine the impact of cell surface binding on HL action. Accumulation of apoA-I in conditioned media of primary hepatocytes isolated from Lipc-null mice was increased as compared to that from C57BL/6 mice. Metabolic labeling experiments showed that secretion of (35)S-apoA-I from Lipc-null cells was significantly higher than that from C57BL/6 cells. Expression of hHL in Lipc-null hepatocytes, through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, resulted in decreased synthesis and secretion of (35)S-apoA-I, but not (35)S-apoE, as compared with cells transfected with control adenovirus. Expression of HSPG-binding deficient hHLmt in Lipc-null cells also exerted an inhibitory effect on apoA-I production, even though hHLmt displayed impaired exit from the endoplasmic reticulum as compared with hHL. Subcellular fractionation revealed that expression of hHL or hHLmt led to increased microsome-association of apoA-I relative to non-transfected control. Expression of hHL negatively impacts hepatic production of apoA-I.

  18. Amyloidogenic Mutation Promotes Fibril Formation of the N-terminal Apolipoprotein A-I on Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Ogata, Fuka; Mikawa, Shiho; Tsuji, Kohei; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-21

    The N-terminal amino acid 1-83 fragment of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has a strong propensity to form amyloid fibrils at physiological neutral pH. Because apoA-I has an ability to bind to lipid membranes, we examined the effects of the lipid environment on fibril-forming properties of the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay as well as fluorescence and transmission microscopies revealed that upon lipid binding, fibril formation by apoA-I 1-83 is strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R mutant still retains the ability to form fibrils. Such distinct effects of lipid binding on fibril formation were also observed for the amyloidogenic prone region-containing peptides, apoA-I 8-33 and 8-33/G26R. This amyloidogenic region shifts from random coil to α-helical structure upon lipid binding. The G26R mutation appears to prevent this helix transition because lower helical propensity and more solvent-exposed conformation of the G26R variant upon lipid binding were observed in the apoA-I 1-83 fragment and 8-33 peptide. With a partially α-helical conformation induced by the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, fibril formation by apoA-I 1-83 was strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R variant can form amyloid fibrils. These findings suggest a new possible pathway for amyloid fibril formation by the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants: the amyloidogenic mutations partially destabilize the α-helical structure formed upon association with lipid membranes, resulting in physiologically relevant conformations that allow fibril formation.

  19. Molecular characterization and developmental expression patterns of apolipoprotein A-I in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup).

    PubMed

    Román-Padilla, J; Rodríguez-Rúa, A; Manchado, M; Hachero-Cruzado, I

    2016-05-01

    The apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is an essential component of the high density lipoproteins (HDL). In this study, the cDNA and genomic sequences of this apolipoprotein were characterized for first time in Solea senegalensis. The predicted polypeptide revealed conserved structural features including ten repeats in the lipid-binding domain and some residues involved in cholesterol interaction and binding. The gene structure analysis identified four exons and three introns. Moreover, the synteny analysis revealed that apoA-I did not localize with other apolipoproteins indicating a divergent evolution with respect to the apoA-IV and apoE cluster. The phylogenetic analyses identified two distinct apoA-I paralogs in Ostariophysi (referred to as Ia and Ib) and only one (Ib) in Acanthopterygii. Whole-mount in situ hybridization located the apoA-I signal mainly in the yolk syncytial layer in lecitotrophic larval stages. Later at mouth opening, the mRNA signals were detected mainly in liver and intestine compatible with its role in the HDL formation. Moreover, a clear signal was detected in some regions of the brain, retina and neural cord suggesting a role in local regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. After metamorphosis, apoA-I was also detected in other tissues such as gills, head kidney and spleen suggesting a putative role in immunity. Expression analyses in larvae fed two diets with different triacylglycerol levels indicated that apoA-I mRNA levels were more associated to larval size and development than dietary lipid levels. Finally, qPCR analyses of immature and mature transcripts revealed distinct expression profiles suggesting a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism.

  20. The A's Have It: Developing Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides Into a Novel Treatment for Asthma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xianglan; Gordon, Elizabeth M; Barochia, Amisha V; Remaley, Alan T; Levine, Stewart J

    2016-08-01

    New treatments are needed for patients with asthma who are refractory to standard therapies, such as individuals with a phenotype of "type 2-low" inflammation. This important clinical problem could potentially be addressed by the development of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides. ApoA-I interacts with its cellular receptor, the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1), to facilitate cholesterol efflux out of cells to form nascent high-density lipoprotein particles. The ability of the apoA-I/ABCA1 pathway to promote cholesterol efflux from cells that mediate adaptive immunity, such as antigen-presenting cells, can attenuate their function. Data from experimental murine models have shown that the apoA-I/ABCA1 pathway can reduce neutrophilic airway inflammation, primarily by suppressing the production of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Furthermore, administration of apoA-I mimetic peptides to experimental murine models of allergic asthma has decreased both neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous cell metaplasia. Higher serum levels of apoA-I have also been associated with less severe airflow obstruction in patients with asthma. Collectively, these results suggest that the apoA-I/ABCA1 pathway may have a protective effect in asthma, and support the concept of advancing inhaled apoA-I mimetic peptides to clinical trials that can assess their safety and effectiveness. Thus, we propose that the development of inhaled apoA-I mimetic peptides as a new treatment could represent a clinical advance for patients with severe asthma who are unresponsive to other therapies.