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Sample records for ai virus aiv

  1. Selective isolation of Avian influenza virus (AIV) from cloacal samples containing AIV and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Chander, Yogesh; Redig, Patrick T; Abd El Latif, Hemmat K; El Sayed, Mona A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2011-03-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are important zoonotic pathogens whose natural reservoir is waterfowl. In addition to AIV, waterfowl are often coinfected with other viruses, such as the paramyxoviruses, of which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is of particular importance because of the highly virulent nature of certain strains of this virus for domestic poultry. In routine surveillance of waterfowl for AIV, a number of cloacal samples were encountered that were positive for AIV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), but did not yield AIV by inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs. On further testing, these samples were also positive for NDV by conventional RT-PCR. It was hypothesized that if both NDV and AIV are present in a sample, the former may overgrow AIV yielding false-negative AIV results. Such samples were treated with chicken anti-NDV polyclonal antiserum and then inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs. Several samples were found to be positive for different subtypes of AIV, indicating that, in the presence of mixed infection with NDV and AIV, it is imperative to remove the influence of NDV, so a true picture of AIV prevalence emerges. An additional benefit is that information on the circulation of NDV in these birds sheds light on their epidemiologic and ecologic significance.

  2. Differential regulation of human apolipoprotein AI and high-density lipoprotein by fenofibrate in hapoAI and hapoAI-CIII-AIV transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; He, Shirley; Newton, Roger S

    2011-02-01

    Fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, lowers triglycerides (TG) and raises high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) in humans. While fenofibrate is very effective in lowering TG, it does not raise HDL-C in humans to the same extent as seen in human apoAI transgenic (hAI-Tg) mice. We studied the mechanism of this discordance using the following compounds as tools: cholic acid that down-regulates human apoAI, and fenofibrate, that elevates hapoAI and HDL-C in hAI-Tg mice. We hypothesized that additional sequences, including apoCIII and AIV genes on chromosome 11, not present in the hapoAI transgene may be responsible for the dampened effect of fibrates on HDL-C seen in humans. For this, hAI-Tg mice with 11kb DNA segment and hapoAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice with 33kb DNA segment harboring apoCIII and AIV genes were employed. These mice were treated with fenofibrate and cholic acid. Fenofibrate increased apoAI and HDL-C levels, and HDL size in the apoAI-Tg mice via up-regulation of the hapoAI mRNA and increased activity and mRNA of PLTP, respectively. Consistent with earlier findings, cholic acid showed similar effects of lowering HDL-C, and elevating LDL-C in hAI-Tg mice as well as in the hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice. Fenofibrate decreased TG and increased HDL size in hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice as well, but surprisingly, did not elevate serum levels of hapoAI or hepatic AI mRNA, suggesting that additional sequences not present in the hapoAI transgene (11kb) may be partly responsible for the dampened effect on HDL-C seen in hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mice. Since hAI-CIII-AIV-Tg mouse mimics fenofibrate effects seen in humans, this transgenic mouse could serve as a better predictive model for screening HDL-C raising compounds.

  3. Characterization of 10 adjuvants for inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines against challenge with highly pathogenic AIV in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...

  4. Haplotype analysis of Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and lipids level: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, Maryam S; Faam, Bita; Mansournia, Mohamad Ali; Hedayati, Mehdi; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Shojaei, Shahla; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-02-01

    Iranian populations show an increased tendency for abnormal lipid levels and high risk of Coronary artery disease. Considering the important role played by the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in the regulation of the level and metabolism of lipids, this study aimed at elucidating the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Apo11q cluster gene and lipid levels. A cross-sectional study of 823 subjects (340 males and 483 females) from the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) was conducted. Levels of TG, Chol, HDL-C, Apo AI, Apo AIV, Apo B, and Apo CIII were measured, and the selected segments of the APOAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster were amplified by PCR and the polymorphisms were revealed by RFLP using restriction enzymes. The allele frequencies for each SNP between males and females were not significantly different. The distribution of Genotypes and alleles was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for Apo AI (+83C>T). The results showed a significant association between TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B levels and the presence of some alleles in the polymorphisms studied. After haplotype analysis not only did the association between these variables and SNPs remain but also levels of Chol and LDL-C were added. This study demonstrates that the level of lipids such as TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B, maybe regulated partly by genetic factors and their haplotype within the Apo11q gene cluster.

  5. Contribution of polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster to hyperlipidaemia in patients with gout

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, F; Tinahones, F; Collantes, E; Escudero, A; Garcia-Fuentes, E; Soriguer, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that hyperuricaemia is independently related to the insulin resistance syndrome and that polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster are also related to insulin resistance. Objective: To study the prevalence of polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster in persons with gout and to determine whether these polymorphisms contribute to the pathophysiology of gout or to altered lipid concentrations. Methods: Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL triglycerides, cholesterol, and the renal excretion of uric acid were measured in 68 patients with gout with gout and 165 healthy subjects. Polymorphisms were studied by amplification and RFLP in all subjects, using XmnI and MspI in the apolipoprotein AI gene and SstI in the apolipoprotein CIII gene. Results: The A allele at position –75 bp in the apolipoprotein AI gene was more common in patients with gout than in controls (p = 0.01). Levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, basal glycaemia, and HDL cholesterol were higher in the patients (p<0.001). In the patients there was also an interaction between mutations at the two polymorphic loci studied in the apolipoprotein AI gene (p = 0.04). An absence of the mutation at position –75 bp of the apolipoprotein AI gene resulted in increased plasma triglyceride levels. Conclusions: Gouty patients have an altered allelic distribution in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster, which could lead to changes in levels of lipoproteins. This is not caused by a single mutation but rather by a combination of different mutations. PMID:15115711

  6. Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2014-08-26

    Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific "candidate genes", which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed.

  7. Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific “candidate genes”, which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed. PMID:25228954

  8. DNA inversion within the apolipoproteins AI/CIII/AIV-encoding gene cluster of certain patients with premature atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Karathanasis, S.K.; Ferris, E.; Haddad, I.A.

    1987-10-01

    The genes coding for apolipoproteins (apo) AI, CIII, and AIV, designated APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4, respectively, are closely linked and tandemly organized in the long arm of the human chromosome 11. A DNA rearrangement involving the genes encoding apoAI and apoCIII in certain patients with premature atherosclerosis has been associated with deficiency of both apoAI and apoCIII in the plasma of these patients. Structural characterization of the genes for apoAI and apoCIII in one of these patients indicates that this rearrangement consists of a DNA inversion containing portions of the 3' ends of the apoAI and apoCIII genes, including the DNA region between these genes. The breakpoints of this DNA inversion are located within the fourth exon of the apoAI gene and the first intron of the apoCIII gene. Thus, this DNA inversion results in reciprocal fusion of the apoAI and apoCIII gene transcriptional units. Expression of these gene fusions in cultured mammalian cells results in stable mRNA transcripts with sequences representing fusions of the apoAI and apoCIII mRNAs. These results indicate that absence of transcripts with correct apoAI and apoCIII mRNA sequences causes apoAI and apoCIII deficiency in the plasma of these patients and suggest that these apolipoproteins are involved in cholesterol homeostasis and protection against premature atherosclerosis.

  9. The apolipoprotein CIII enhancer regulates both extensive histone modification and intergenic transcription of human apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV genes but not apolipoprotein AV.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Jun; Wei, Yu-Sheng; Fu, Xiang-Hui; Hao, De-Long; Xue, Zheng; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zhu-Qin; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chih-Chuan

    2008-10-17

    The apolipoprotein (apo) AI/CIII/AIV/AV cluster genes are expressed at different levels in the liver and intestine. The apoCIII enhancer, a common regulatory element, regulates the tissue-specific expression of apoAI, apoCIII, and apoAIV but not apoAV. To study this regulation at the chromatin level, the histone modifications and intergenic transcription in the human apoAI/CIII/AIV/AV cluster were investigated in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells and in the livers of transgenic mice carrying the human gene cluster constructs with or without the apoCIII enhancer. We found that both the promoters and the intergenic regions of the apoAI/CIII/AIV genes were hyperacetylated and formed an open subdomain that did not include the apoAV gene. Hepatic and intestinal intergenic transcripts were identified to transcribe bidirectionally with strand preferences along the cluster. The deletion of the apoCIII enhancer influenced both histone modification and intergenic transcription in the apoAI/CIII/AIV gene region. These results demonstrate that the apoCIII enhancer contributes to the maintenance of an active chromatin subdomain of the apoAI/CIII/AIV genes, but not apoAV.

  10. Variation at the hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV loci is a major cause of genetically determined variation in plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J C; Wang, Z; Grundy, S M; Stoesz, M R; Guerra, R

    1994-01-01

    Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in determining interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels, but the specific genetic determinants of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have not been elucidated. In this study, the effects of variation in the genomic regions encoding hepatic lipase, apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV, and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein on plasma HDL-C levels were examined in 73 normotriglyceridemic, Caucasian nuclear families. Genetic factors accounted for 56.5 +/- 13% of the interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. For each candidate gene, adjusted plasma HDL-C levels of sibling pairs who shared zero, one, or two parental alleles identical-by-descent were compared using sibling-pair linkage analysis. Allelic variation in the genes encoding hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV accounted for 25 and 22%, respectively, of the total interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. In contrast, none of the variation in plasma HDL-C levels could be accounted for by allelic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein. These findings indicate that a major fraction of the genetically determined variation in plasma HDL-C levels is conferred by allelic variation at the hepatic lipase and the apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV gene loci. PMID:7989594

  11. The NS segment of H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) enhances the virulence of an H7N1 AIV in chickens.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Busquets, Núria; Ballester, Maria; Chaves, Aida J; Rivas, Raquel; Dolz, Roser; Wang, Zhongfang; Pleschka, Stephan; Majó, Natàlia; Rodríguez, Fernando; Darji, Ayub

    2014-01-01

    Some outbreaks involving highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 were caused by avian-to-human transmissions. In nature, different influenza A viruses can reassort leading to new viruses with new characteristics. We decided to investigate the impact that the NS-segment of H5 HPAIV would have on viral pathogenicity of a classical avian H7 HPAIV in poultry, a natural host. We focussed this study based on our previous work that demonstrated that single reassortment of the NS-segment from an H5 HPAIV into an H7 HPAIV changes the ability of the virus to replicate in mammalian hosts. Our present data show that two different H7-viruses containing an NS-segment from H5-types (FPV NS GD or FPV NS VN) show an overall highly pathogenic phenotype compared with the wild type H7-virus (FPV), as characterized by higher viral shedding and earlier manifestation of clinical signs. Correlating with the latter, higher amounts of IFN-β mRNA were detected in the blood of NS-reassortant infected birds, 48 h post-infection (pi). Although lymphopenia was detected in chickens from all AIV-infected groups, also 48 h pi those animals challenged with NS-reassortant viruses showed an increase of peripheral monocyte/macrophage-like cells expressing high levels of IL-1β, as determined by flow cytometry. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of the NS-segment in viral pathogenicity which is directly involved in triggering antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines found during HPAIV pathogenesis in chickens.

  12. The NS segment of H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) enhances the virulence of an H7N1 AIV in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Some outbreaks involving highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 were caused by avian-to-human transmissions. In nature, different influenza A viruses can reassort leading to new viruses with new characteristics. We decided to investigate the impact that the NS-segment of H5 HPAIV would have on viral pathogenicity of a classical avian H7 HPAIV in poultry, a natural host. We focussed this study based on our previous work that demonstrated that single reassortment of the NS-segment from an H5 HPAIV into an H7 HPAIV changes the ability of the virus to replicate in mammalian hosts. Our present data show that two different H7-viruses containing an NS-segment from H5–types (FPV NS GD or FPV NS VN) show an overall highly pathogenic phenotype compared with the wild type H7–virus (FPV), as characterized by higher viral shedding and earlier manifestation of clinical signs. Correlating with the latter, higher amounts of IFN-β mRNA were detected in the blood of NS-reassortant infected birds, 48 h post-infection (pi). Although lymphopenia was detected in chickens from all AIV-infected groups, also 48 h pi those animals challenged with NS-reassortant viruses showed an increase of peripheral monocyte/macrophage-like cells expressing high levels of IL-1β, as determined by flow cytometry. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of the NS-segment in viral pathogenicity which is directly involved in triggering antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines found during HPAIV pathogenesis in chickens. PMID:24460592

  13. Detection of Aichi virus with antibody targeting of conserved viral protein 1 epitope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.

  14. Muscovy duck retinoic acid-induced gene I (MdRIG-I) functions in innate immunity against H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) infections.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Huang, Qingqing; Ji, Wenhui; Du, Bin; Fu, Qiang; An, Huiting; Li, Jing; Wang, Hengan; Yan, Yaxian; Ding, Chan; Sun, Jianhe

    2015-02-15

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) is a large duck different from other species of ducks, and is more susceptible to some microbial pathogens. In this study, the Muscovy duck RIG-I gene (MdRIG-I) was identified. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that MdRIG-I mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues, especially in those with mucosa. RIG-I null DF-1 cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding MdRIG-I or CARDs domain can activate IRF-3 and NF-κB to up-regulated activity of IFN-β promoter. The components of the signaling pathway downstream of RIG-I in mammalian cells including IRF-3, NF-κB, IFN-β and the IFN-stimulated genes Mx-1, PKR and MDA5 were significantly up-regulated in CARDs-overexpressing-DF-1 cells. Implicating RIG-I in the antiviral response to an infection in vivo, we found that RIG-I expression in brain, spleen, lung and bursa were up-regulated in ducks challenged with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV), whose six internal genes were closely related to the H7N9 and H10N8 AIV. In vitro, DF-1 cells transfected with MdRIG-I plasmid can respond significantly to H9N2 AIV, evident through enhancement of IFN-β promoter activity and decreased virus titer. Altogether, these results indicated that MdRIG-I is a novel member of RLR gene family, engaging in the early stage of antiviral innate immunity.

  15. Patterns of association between genetic variability in apolipoprotein (apo) B, apo AI-CIII-AIV, and cholesterol ester transfer protein gene regions and quantitative variation in lipid and lipoprotein traits: influence of gender and exogenous hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Kessling, A; Ouellette, S; Bouffard, O; Chamberland, A; Bétard, C; Selinger, E; Xhignesse, M; Lussier-Cacan, S; Davignon, J

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of RFLP association were studied, to identify gene regions influencing quantitative variation in lipid and lipoprotein traits (coronary artery disease [CAD] risk factors or metabolically related traits). Subjects (118 female and 229 male; age 20-59 years) were selected for health. Multiple RFLPs were used to sample variability in regions around genes for apolipoprotein (apo) B (restriction enzymes HincII, PvuII, EcoRI, and XbaI), apo AI-CIII-AIV (BamHI, XmnI, TaqI, PstI, SstI, and PvuII) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (TaqI). Separate analyses were done by gender. The sample was truncated at mean +/- 4 SD, to remove extreme outliers. There was no significant gender difference in RFLP genotype frequency distribution. After trait-level adjustment to maximize removal of concomitant variability, analysis of variance was used to estimate the percentage trait phenotypic variance explained by measured variability in the gene regions studied. Fewer gene regions were involved in men, with less influence on quantitative trait variation than in women, in whom hormone use affected association patterns. Gender differences imply that pooling genders or adjusting data for gender effects removes genetic information and should be avoided. The association patterns show that variability around the candidate genes modulates trait levels: the genes are contributors to the genetics of CAD risk variables in a healthy sample. PMID:1346081

  16. Aichi Virus Positivity in HIV-1 Seropositive Children Hospitalized with Diarrheal Disease.

    PubMed

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; de Mello Volotao, Eduardo; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Rocha, Monica Simoes; Trindade Pinheiro Xavier, Maria da Penha; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; Rocha, Myrna Santos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Gagliardi Leite, Jose Paulo; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Aichi viruses (AiV) have been detected in patients with diarrheal diseases (DD). The aim of this study was to assess AiV infection rates in hospitalized children with DD, including 123 HIV-1 seropositive and 125 HIV-1 seronegative patients, in two public pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AiV was investigated by nested RT-PCR. The AiV-positive samples were also tested for specie A rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, enteric adenovirus and bocavirus in order to assess co-infections. AiV parcial genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. AiV were detected in 9/123 (7.32%) of the HIV-1 seropositive subjects and 1/125 (0.8%) of the HIV seronegative patients with DD (p = 0.019). The phylogenetic analysis of positive samples disclosed that: i) 13 samples were characterized as genotype A, with one of them being from the HIV-1 seronegative patient; ii) one sample from a HIV-1 seropositive patient was characterized as genotype B. AiV genotype A was grouped into 3 genetic clusters. Data suggest that AiV may be an opportunistic pathogen infecting children with AIDS and DD.

  17. AN RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL FOR SHELLFISH-BORNE VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GPTT virus RNA extraction method, originally developed for extraction of human norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNAs from contaminated shellfish, was evaluated for extraction of RNA from Aichi virus strain A846/88 (AiV), coxsackievirus strains A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5), murine norovirus (strain MNV...

  18. Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus by protein microarray using nucleoprotein expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Xiurong; Chen, Pucheng; Zeng, Xianying; Bao, Hongmei; Wang, Yunhe; Xu, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yongping; Chen, Hualan; Li, Guangxing

    2015-04-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease caused by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) which belong to the influenza virus A group. AI causes tremendous economic losses in poultry industry and pose great threatens to human health. Active serologic surveillance is necessary to prevent and control the spread of AI. In this study, a protein microarray using nucleoprotein (NP) of H5N1 AIV expressed in insect cells was developed to detect antibodies against AIV NP protein. The protein microarray was used to test Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), AIV positive and negative sera. The results indicated that the protein microarray could hybridize specifically with antibodies against AIV with strong signals and without cross-hybridization. Moreover, 76 field serum samples were detected by microarray, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The positive rate was 92.1% (70/76), 93.4% (71/76) and 89.4% (68/76) by protein microarray, ELISA and HI test, respectively. Compared with ELISA, the microarray showed 100% (20/20) agreement ratio in chicken and 98.2% (55/56) in ornamental bird. In conclusion, this method provides an alternative serological diagnosis for influenza antibody screening and will provide a basis for the development of protein microarrays that can be used to respectively detect antibodies of different AIV subtypes and other pathogens. PMID:25650059

  19. Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404

  20. Aichi virus 1: environmental occurrence and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans.

  1. Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-AI Vaccine Virus Replication in Different Species of Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Kovács, Edit Walkóné; Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Felföldi, Balázs; Homonnay, Zalán G; Mató, Tamás; Sato, Takanori; Gardin, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl play a key role in the epidemiology of the H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus; therefore, efficient immunization of domesticated ducks and geese to maximize the impact of other control measures is of great importance. A recombinant (r)HVT-AI, expressing the HA gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain had been developed and proved to be efficient against different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus in chickens after a single vaccination at 1 day old and could provide long-term immunity. We investigated whether rHVT-AI applied at 1 day old is able to replicate in different species and crossbreeds of ducks and in geese with the aim of collecting data on the possible application of rHVT-AI vaccine in different species of waterfowl for the control of H5N1 HPAI. We tested the possible differences among different waterfowl species, i.e., between geese (Anser anser, domesticated greylag goose), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata forma domestica), Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica), and mule ducks (Muscovy duck × Pekin duck), in their susceptibility to support the replication of rHVT-AI. Vaccine virus replication was followed by real-time PCR in spleen, bursa, and feather tip samples. Humoral immune response to vaccination was tested using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and H5-specific commercial ELISA. Significant differences among the different waterfowl species regarding the rate of rHVT-AI replication was detected that were not reflected by the same difference in the immune response to vaccination. Replication of the rHVT-AI vaccine was very limited in Pekin ducks, somewhat better in mule ducks, and the vaccine virus was replicating significantly better in Muscovy ducks and geese, reaching 100% detectability at certain time points after administration at 1 day old. Results indicated that the vaccine virus could establish different levels of persistent infection in these species of waterfowl. No humoral immune response

  2. [The prokaryotic expression and the establishment of the putative indirect ELISA assay for the HA gene for avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 subtype].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi-sheng; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Liu, Hua-lei; Li, Peng; Chen, Pu-yan

    2005-02-01

    Using a pair of specific primers designed according to the relevant nucleotide sequence from GenBank, the HA1 gene of H5N1 subtype AIV was amplified with PCR method. The PCR product was cloned into pET-32a(+) to get a prokaryotic recombinant plasmid pET-HA1. The target gene was successfully expressed in the host cell BL21 (DE3) when induced with IPTG. The expression was optimized with proper inducing conditions of 0.8 mmol/L IPTG and 3 hours induction. The highest expression of the target protein added up to 32.7% of the total bacterial protein. Western blot analysis proved the recombinant protein has good reactive ability against H5N1 subtype AIV positive serum. The optional working circumstances for the iHA-ELISA assay (antigenicity concentration: 4 microg/mL; serum dilution: 1:200) was tried out with chess titration. The positive criterion of this ELISA assay is OD(the tested serum) > 0.5 and OD(the tested serum)/OD(the negative serum) > 2.0.

  3. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  4. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  5. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects. PMID:26892338

  6. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.

  7. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C.; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai’s wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  8. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-08-24

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai's wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments.

  9. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai's wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  10. Construction of recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) lacking the meq oncogene and co-expressing AIV-H9N2 HA and NA genes under control of exogenous promoters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Chen, Wenqing; Ma, Chengtai; Zhao, Peng; Duan, Luntao; Zhang, Fushou; Sun, Aijun; Li, Yanpeng; Su, Hongqin; Li, Sifei; Cui, He; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-07-10

    To develop a recombinant Marek's disease virus (rMDV1) co-expressing the hemagglutinin gene (HA) and neuramidinase gene (NA) from a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H9N2 strain and lacking the meq oncogene that shares homology with the Jun/Fos family of transcriptional factors, a wild strain of MDV GX0101 was used as parental virus, the HA and NA genes co-expression cassette under control of the CMV and SV40 early promoters was inserted at two meq sites of GX0101 to form a new meq knock-out mutant MDV (MZC12HA/NA) through homologous recombination. MZC12HA/NA was reconstituted by transfection of recombinant BAC-MDV DNA into the secondary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. Highly purified MZC12HA/NA was obtained after four rounds of plaque purification and proliferation. In vitro growth properties of recombinant virus were also inspected and concluded that the MZC12HA/NA had the same growth kinetics in CEF cultures as its parental wild type virus GX0101. Southern blot indicated that co-expression cassette was successfully inserted at two copies sites of meq gene, so two meq genes were knocked-out completely. RT-qPCR showed transcription and expression levels of the HA and NA genes were both significantly higher than that of GX0101 own pp38 gene. Indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test, and Western blot analyses indicated that HA and NA genes were co-expressed simultaneously under control of the different promoters but meq genes were not. These results herald a new and effective recombinant meq-deleted MDV-based AIV-H9N2 vaccine may be useful in protecting chickens from very virulent MDV and H9N2 challenges.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of avian influenza virus and incidence of H5 and H9 virus subtypes among poultry in Egypt in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Osman, N; Sultan, S; Ahmed, A I; Ibrahim, R S; El-Wanes, S A Abd; Ibrahim, E M

    2015-03-01

    Egypt has experienced outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) since 2006. A total of 3583 cloacal swabs were collected from chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys from commercial farms, backyards and local bird markets in Qena and Luxor governorates in South Egypt during 2009-2011. These samples were examined for the presence of AI virus (AIV) and positive samples were further subtyped for the H5 and H9 by real time RT-PCR. In this way, 202 (5.64%) samples were found to be AIV-positive of which 186 (92.08%) and 7 (3.46%) belonged to H5 and H9 subtypes, respectively. Higher infection rates were observed in backyard birds and birds from local bird markets in comparison to birds from commercial farms. In conclusion, the predominance of H5 infection indicates a need for continuous monitoring of AIV among avian species and the awareness against public health risk.

  12. Surveillance of influenza viruses in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011-2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8-19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern.

  13. Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl Used As Decoys in Andalusia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011–2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8–19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. PMID:24901946

  14. Construction of recombinant Marek's disease virus (rMDV) co-expressing AIV-H9N2-NA and NDV-F genes under control of MDV's own bi-directional promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Ma, Chengtai; Zhao, Peng; Duan, Luntao; Chen, Wenqing; Zhang, Fushou; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-01-01

    To qualitatively analyze and evaluate a bi-directional promoter transcriptional function in both transient and transgenic systems, several different plasmids were constructed and recombinant MDV type 1 strain GX0101 was developed to co-express a Neuraminidase (NA) gene from Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 strain and a Fusion (F) gene from the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The two foreign genes, NDV-F gene and AIV-NA gene, were inserted in the plasmid driven in each direction by the bi-directional promoter. To test whether the expression of pp38/pp24 heterodimers are the required activators for the expression of the foreign genes, the recombinant plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F containing expression cassette for the two foreign genes was co-transfected with a pp38/pp24 expression plasmid, pBud-pp38-pp24, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. Alternatively, plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F was transfected in GX0101-infected CEFs where the viral endogenous pp38/pp24 were expressed via virus infection. The expression of both foreign genes was activated by pp38/pp24 dimers either via virus infection, or co-expression. The CEFs transfected with pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F alone had no expression. We chose to insert the expression cassette of Ppp38-NA/1.8kb-F in the non-essential region of GX0101ΔMeq US2 gene, and formed a new rMDV named MZC13NA/F through homologous recombination. Indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test, ELISA and Western blot analyses indicated that F and NA genes were expressed simultaneously under control of the bi-directional promoter, but in opposite directions. The data also indicated the activity of the promoter in the 1.8-kb mRNA transcript direction was higher than that in the direction for the pp38 gene. The expression of pp38/pp24 dimers either via co-tranfection of the pBud-pp38-pp24 plasmid, or by GX0101 virus infection were critical to activate the bi-directional promoter for expression of two foreign genes in both directions. Therefore, the confirmed function

  15. Human apolipoprotein A-I is associated with dengue virus and enhances virus infection through SR-BI.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujia; Kakinami, Cherie; Li, Qi; Yang, Baojun; Li, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Diseases caused by dengue virus (DV) infection vary in severity, with symptoms ranging from mild fever to life threatening dengue hemorrhage fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Clinical studies have shown that significant decrease in the level of lipoproteins is correlated with severe illness in DHF/DSS patients. Available evidence also indicates that lipoproteins including high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are able to facilitate cell entry of HCV or other flaviviruses via corresponding lipoprotein receptors. In this study, we found that pre-incubation of DV with human serum leads to an enhanced DV infectivity in various types of cells. Such enhancement could be due to interactions between serum components and DV particles. Through co-immunoprecipitation we revealed that apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), the major protein component in HDL, is associated with DV particles and is able to promote DV infection. Based on that observation, we further found that siRNA knockdown of the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), the cell receptor of ApoA-I, abolished the activity of ApoA-I in enhancement of DV infection. This suggests that ApoA-I bridges DV particles and cell receptor SR-BI and facilitates entry of DV into cells. FACS analysis of cell surface dengue antigen after virus absorption further confirmed that ApoA-I enhances DV infection via promoting initial attachment of the virus to cells. These findings illustrate a novel entry route of DV into cells, which may provide insights into the functional importance of lipoproteins in dengue pathogenesis. PMID:23894648

  16. IACATS AIV: AIV process for a versatile turbulence simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Belenguer-Dávila, Tomás; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Moreno Raso, Javier; Argelaguet, Heribert; Serrano, Javier

    2010-07-01

    IACATS is an atmospheric turbulence, stars and telescope simulator for the evaluation of on ground telescopes instrumentation developed by INTA (optics) and LIDAX (opto-mechanics) for the IAC (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias). Three telescopes have been simulated, matching the f number, focal plane, and optical interface of the actual telescopes. An optical breadboard was designed and built containing the required opto-mechanics for simulating the telescopes, and various levels of turbulence required. In addition to the telescope simulator optics, a set of three phase plates have been procured and conveniently combined in order to reproduce the atmospheric turbulence required by the IAC. A wave front sensor has been also included in order to evaluate the deformation that the phase plates, or the simulated turbulence, produce in the wave front coming from the illumination system and star simulator. Finally, a specific illumination system was developed including different working wavelengths in order to fulfil the requirements. The description of the illumination system itself has been done in a separate publication.. In the following lines, the characteristics of the IACATS instrument as well as the results obtained from the AIV (Assembly and Integration Verification) process are reported on.

  17. Optimum-AIV: A planning and scheduling system for spacecraft AIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arentoft, M. M.; Fuchs, Jens J.; Parrod, Y.; Gasquet, Andre; Stader, J.; Stokes, I.; Vadon, H.

    1991-01-01

    A project undertaken for the European Space Agency (ESA) is presented. The project is developing a knowledge based software system for planning and scheduling of activities for spacecraft assembly, integration, and verification (AIV). The system extends into the monitoring of plan execution and the plan repair phase. The objectives are to develop an operational kernel of a planning, scheduling, and plan repair tool, called OPTIMUM-AIV, and to provide facilities which will allow individual projects to customize the kernel to suit its specific needs. The kernel shall consist of a set of software functionalities for assistance in initial specification of the AIV plan, in verification and generation of valid plans and schedules for the AIV activities, and in interactive monitoring and execution problem recovery for the detailed AIV plans. Embedded in OPTIMUM-AIV are external interfaces which allow integration with alternative scheduling systems and project databases. The current status of the OPTIMUM-AIV project, as of Jan. 1991, is that a further analysis of the AIV domain has taken place through interviews with satellite AIV experts, a software requirement document (SRD) for the full operational tool was approved, and an architectural design document (ADD) for the kernel excluding external interfaces is ready for review.

  18. A multiplexed immunoassay for detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Watson, Douglas S; Reddy, Sanjay M; Brahmakshatriya, Vinayak; Lupiani, Blanca

    2009-01-30

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease in poultry and outbreaks can have dramatic economic and health implications. For effective disease surveillance, rapid and sensitive assays are needed to detect antibodies against AI virus (AIV) proteins. In this study, we report the development of a multiplexed fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for detection of antibodies against AIV proteins in poultry. Recombinant nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (M1), and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) were expressed using a baculovirus expression system, purified and covalently coupled to fluorescent xMAP microspheres. Using these reagents, a triplex bead assay was developed for the Luminex platform. The assay displayed minimal cross reactivity when screened against a panel of reference sera raised against common avian viruses. For detection of anti-NP antibodies, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were comparable to a commercially available ELISA. The assay was also employed to investigate the early kinetics of antibody response in chickens infected with AIV. Our results suggest that NP should be the protein of choice when detecting AI infections in commercial chickens, as the immune response was higher and persisted longer than that of M1 and NS1 proteins. This report provides a framework from which a more robust assay could be developed to profile exposure to many AIV subtypes in a single test.

  19. Further improvement and validation of MagMAX-96 AI/ND viral RNA isolation for efficient removal of RT-PCR inhibitors from cloacal swabs and tissues for rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus by RT reverse transcription PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) is a high throughput molecular diagnostic test used for rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical samples. However the performance of RRT-PCR can be adversely affected by RT-PCR inhibitors present in the sample. The tested commercial RNA extraction kits ...

  20. Synthesis of C-4-modified zanamivir analogs as neuraminidase inhibitors and their anti-AIV activities.

    PubMed

    Ye, Deju; Shin, Woo-Jin; Li, Ning; Tang, Wei; Feng, Enguang; Li, Jian; He, Pei-Lan; Zuo, Jian-Ping; Kim, Hanjo; Nam, Ky-Youb; Zhu, Weiliang; Seong, Baik-Lin; No, Kyoung Tai; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Hong

    2012-08-01

    With the introduction of bioisosteres of the guanidinium group together with scaffold hopping, 35 zanamivir analogs with C-4-modification were synthesized, and their inhibitory activities against both group-1 and group-2 neuraminidase (H5N1 and H3N2) were determined. Compound D26 exerts the most potency, with IC(50) values of 0.58 and 2.72 μM against N2 and N1, respectively. Further preliminary anti-avian influenza virus (AIV, H5N1) activities against infected MDCK cells were evaluated, and D5 exerts ∼58% protective against AIV infection, which was comparable to zanamivir (∼67%). In a rat pharmacokinetic study, compound D5 showed an increased plasma half-life (t(1/2)) compared to zanamivir following either intravenous or oral administration. This study may represent a new start point for the future development of improved anti-AIV agents.

  1. The Assembly, Integration, and Verification (AIV) team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-06-01

    Assembly, Integration, and Verification (AIV) is the process by which the software and hardware deliveries from the distributed ALMA partners (North America, South America, Europe, and East Asia) are assembled and integrated into a working system, and the initial technical capabilities tested to insure that they will meet the observatories exacting requirements for science.

  2. Structure of human Aichi virus and implications for receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Wang, Xiangxi; Ren, Jingshan; Kotecha, Abhay; Walter, Thomas S; Yuan, Shuai; Yamashita, Teruo; Tuthill, Tobias J; Fry, Elizabeth E; Rao, Zihe; Stuart, David I

    2016-01-01

    Aichi virus (AiV), an unusual and poorly characterized picornavirus, classified in the genus Kobuvirus, can cause severe gastroenteritis and deaths in children below the age of five years, especially in developing countries(1,2). The seroprevalence of AiV is approximately 60% in children under the age of ten years and reaches 90% later in life(3,4). There is no available vaccine or effective antiviral treatment. Here, we describe the structure of AiV at 3.7 Å. This first high-resolution structure for a kobuvirus is intermediate between those of the enteroviruses and cardioviruses, with a shallow, narrow depression bounded by the prominent VP0 CD loops (linking the C and D strands of the β-barrel), replacing the depression known as the canyon, frequently the site of receptor attachment in enteroviruses. VP0 is not cleaved to form VP2 and VP4, so the 'VP2' β-barrel structure is complemented with a unique extended structure on the inside of the capsid. On the outer surface, a polyproline helix structure, not seen previously in picornaviruses is present at the C terminus of VP1, a position where integrin binding motifs are found in some other picornaviruses. A peptide corresponding to this polyproline motif somewhat attenuates virus infectivity, presumably blocking host-cell attachment. This may guide cellular receptor identification. PMID:27595320

  3. Facile fabrication of networked patterns and their superior application to realize the virus immobilized networked pattern circuit.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung Min; Lee, Seok Jae; Choi, Jung Hoon; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Jong Wan; Shin, Weon Ho; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2010-12-01

    A facile route to fabricate a protein-immobilized network pattern circuit for rapid and highly sensitive diagnosis was developed via the evaporation directed impromptu patterning method and selective avian influenza virus (AIV) immobilization. The response to the 10 fg mL(-1) anti-AI antibody demonstrates that this easy and simple circuit has about 1000 times higher sensitivity compared to those of conventional approaches.

  4. AIV procedure for a CHEOPS demonstration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Scuderi, S.; Beck, T.; Buxton, R.; Piazza, D.; Benz, W.; Broeg, C.; Cessa, V.; Piotto, G.

    2014-08-01

    The CHaracterizing ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is an ESA Small Mission whose launch is planned for the end of 2017. It is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 320 mm aperture providing a FoV of 0.32 degrees, which will target nearby bright stars already known to host planets, and measure, through ultrahigh precision photometry, the radius of exo-planets, allowing to determine their composition. This paper will present the details of the AIV plan for a demonstration model of the CHEOPS Telescope with equivalent structure but different CTEs. Alignment procedures, needed GSEs and devised verification tests will be described and a path for the AIV of the flight model, which will take place at industries premises, will be sketched.

  5. Host antiviral defenses induced by a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus prevents infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. To evaluate the dynamics of AIV-NDV co-i...

  6. Isolation and function analysis of apolipoprotein A-I gene response to virus infection in grouper.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingguang; Gao, Pin; Zhang, Ping; Guo, Minglan; Xu, Meng; Wei, Shina; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-04-01

    Apolipoproteins, synthesized mainly in liver and intestine and bounded to lipids, play important roles in lipid transport and uptake through the circulation system. In this study, an apolipoprotein A-I gene homologue was cloned from orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (designed as Ec-ApoA-I) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA of Ec-ApoA-I was comprised of 1278 bp with a 792 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 264 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that Ec-ApoA-I was abundant in liver and intestine, and the expression in liver was significantly (P < 0.01) up-regulated after the stimulation of LPS, Poly(I:C), Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Recombinant Ec-ApoA-I (rEc-ApoA-I) was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system exhibited bacteriolyticactivity against Microcococcus lysodeikticus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Intracellular localization revealed that Ec-ApoA-I distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and predominantly in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of Ec-ApoA-I in grouper Brain (GB) cells could inhibit the replication of SGIV. These results together indicated that Ec-ApoA-I perhaps is involved in the responses to bacterial and viral challenge.

  7. Avian influenza virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase combination H8N8, isolated in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8 isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2....

  8. Avian Influenza Virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination H8N8, Isolated in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sivay, Mariya V; Sharshov, Kirill A; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Muzyka, Vladimir V; Shestopalov, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8, isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low-pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high-pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2.

  9. [Inhibition of proliferation of H5N1 subtype AIV in CEF by chemosynthetic siRNA].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-Shu; Yu, Dan; Luo, Bao-Zheng; Bo, Qing-Ru; Xu, Hai-Nie; Sha, Cai-Hua; Liao, Xiu-Yun

    2013-06-01

    In order to study the proliferation inhibition effect of H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) with small interfere RNA (siRNA), a total of 4 siRNAs were designed in accordance with the NP and PA genes of H5N1 subtype AIV, the siRNAs were then transfected to chicken embryo fibroblast(CEF), CEF was infected with H5N1 subtype AIV after 6 hrs. Virus titer of cell supernatant was tested at 16-56hrs post infection, and pathological changes of the cells was observed; mRNA levels of NP, PA, HA and p13-actin gene were tested at 36hrs post infection. The results showed that these 4 siRNAs could inhibit the prolif-eration of H5N1 subtype AIV in CEF in varying degrees, and one siRNA targeting PA was best per-formed. The experimental results also showed that the inhibition effect was decreased with the time prolonged. This research provides a basis for further studying RNAi on AIV prevention and control.

  10. First isolation of an H1N1 avian influenza virus from wild terrestrial non-migratory birds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Paula; Mattiello, Rosana; Rivailler, Pierre; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, Charles T; Boado, Lorena; D'Ambrosio, Elisa; Aguirre, Sebastian; Espinosa, Cora; La Torre, José; Donis, Ruben; Mattion, Nora

    2010-01-01

    A type A avian influenza (AI) virus was isolated from dead or severely ill red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) found in a hunting ground in April 2008 in Argentina. The subtype of A/red-winged tinamou/Argentina/MP1/2008 was determined as H1N1 by sequence analysis. The cleavage site of the viral hemagglutinin corresponded to a low pathogenic influenza virus, although the clinical presentation and pathological studies suggest that the virus was pathogenic for red-winged tinamous. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome suggested that while the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were related to AIV from North America, the internal genes were most closely related to other South American isolates. These findings support the postulated South American phylogenetic lineage for AIV PB2, PB1, PA, M and NS genes, and suggest that the evolutionary pathways of HA and NA genes involve exchanges between the Northern and Southern hemispheres. PMID:19896684

  11. First isolation of an H1N1 avian influenza virus from wild terrestrial non-migratory birds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Paula; Mattiello, Rosana; Rivailler, Pierre; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, Charles T; Boado, Lorena; D'Ambrosio, Elisa; Aguirre, Sebastian; Espinosa, Cora; La Torre, José; Donis, Ruben; Mattion, Nora

    2010-01-01

    A type A avian influenza (AI) virus was isolated from dead or severely ill red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) found in a hunting ground in April 2008 in Argentina. The subtype of A/red-winged tinamou/Argentina/MP1/2008 was determined as H1N1 by sequence analysis. The cleavage site of the viral hemagglutinin corresponded to a low pathogenic influenza virus, although the clinical presentation and pathological studies suggest that the virus was pathogenic for red-winged tinamous. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome suggested that while the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were related to AIV from North America, the internal genes were most closely related to other South American isolates. These findings support the postulated South American phylogenetic lineage for AIV PB2, PB1, PA, M and NS genes, and suggest that the evolutionary pathways of HA and NA genes involve exchanges between the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  12. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  13. Reference gene selection for normalization of PCR analysis in chicken embryo fibroblast infected with H5N1 AIV.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hua; Lei, Xiao-wen; Yang, Fa-long; Li, Ming-yi; Tang, Cheng

    2010-12-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) are among the most commonly used cells for the study of interactions between chicken hosts and H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV). In this study, the expression of eleven housekeeping genes typically used for the normalization of quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) analysis in mammals were compared in CEFs infected with H5N1 AIV to determine the most reliable reference genes in this system. CEFs cultured from 10-day-old SPF chicken embryos were infected with 100 TCID(50) of H5N1 AIV and harvested at 3, 12, 24 and 30 hours post-infection. The expression levels of the eleven reference genes in infected and uninfected CEFs were determined by real-time PCR. Based on expression stability and expression levels, our data suggest that the ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) are the best reference genes to use in the study of host cell response to H5N1 AIV infection. However, for the study of replication levels of H5N1 AIV in CEFs, the β-actin gene (ACTB) and the ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) gene are the best references.

  14. Electronic microarray assays for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, Oliver; Beeston, Anne; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Pasick, John; Hodko, Dalibor; Hughes, Kimberley Burton; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara; Fisher, Mathew; Deregt, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    Microarrays are suitable for multiplexed detection and typing of pathogens. Avian influenza virus (AIV) is currently classified into 16 H (hemagglutinin) and 9 N (neuraminidase) subtypes, whereas Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains differ in virulence and are broadly classified into high and low pathogenicity types. In this study, three assays for detection and typing of poultry viruses were developed on an automated microarray platform: a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of AIV and detection and pathotyping of NDV, and two separate assays for differentiating all AIV H and N subtypes. The AIV-NDV multiplex assay detected all strains in a 63 virus panel, and accurately typed all high pathogenicity NDV strains tested. A limit of detection of 10(1)-10(3) TCID(50)/mL and 200-400 EID(50)/mL was obtained for NDV and AIV, respectively. The AIV typing assays accurately typed all 41 AIV strains and a limit of detection of 4-200 EID(50)/mL was obtained. Assay validation showed that the microarray assays were generally comparable to real-time RT-PCR. However, the AIV typing microarray assays detected more positive clinical samples than the AIV matrix real-time RT-PCR, and also provided information regarding the subtype. The AIV-NDV multiplex and AIV H typing microarray assays detected mixed infections and could be useful for detection and typing of AIV and NDV.

  15. Expert AIV: Study and Prototyping of an Expert System, To Support the Conceptual AIV Phases Of Space Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrina, G.; Basso, V.; Saitta, L.

    2004-08-01

    The effort in optimising the AIV process has been mainly focused in the recent years on the standardisation of approaches and on the application of new methodologies. But the earlier the intervention, the greater the benefits in terms of cost and schedule. Early phases of AIV process relied up to now on standards that need to be tailored through company and personal expertise. A study has then been conducted in order to exploit the possibility to develop an expert system helping in making choices in the early, conceptual phase of Assembly, Integration and Verification, namely the Model Philosophy and the test definition. The work focused on a hybrid approach, allowing interaction between historical data and human expertise. The expert system that has been prototyped exploits both information elicited from domain experts and results of a Data Mining activity on the existent data bases of completed projects verification data. The Data Mining algorithms allow the extraction of past experience resident on ESA/ MATD data base, which contains information in the form of statistical summaries, costs, frequencies of on-ground and in flight failures. Finding non-trivial associations could then be utilised by the experts to manage new decisions in a controlled way (Standards driven) at the beginning or during the AIV Process Moreover, the Expert AIV could allow compilation of a set of feasible AIV schedules to support further programmatic-driven choices.

  16. The Genetic Diversity of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Peru.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Pollett, Simon; Ghersi, Bruno; Silva, Maria; Simons, Mark P; Icochea, Eliana; Gonzalez, Armando E; Segovia, Karen; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Bausch, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and whole-genome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1-H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America.

  17. The Genetic Diversity of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Pollett, Simon; Ghersi, Bruno; Silva, Maria; Simons, Mark P.; Icochea, Eliana; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Segovia, Karen; Kasper, Matthew R.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and whole-genome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1-H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America. PMID:26784331

  18. Search for stable ferromagnets among AIV/Fe digital alloys (AIV= Si, Ge) using first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otrokov, M. M.; Fischer, G.; Buczek, P.; Ernst, A.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2012-11-01

    Using first-principles electronic structure calculations we investigate the existence of stable ferromagnets among the AIV/Fe digital alloys (AIV=Si,Ge), modeled as periodic sequence of Fe monolayers in the AIV host. Total-energy calculations and the magnetic force theorem are exploited for accurate determination of the magnetic ordering. To estimate the critical temperatures, Monte Carlo simulations are employed, while the renormalization-group analytical expressions are applied to assess the impact of the interlayer exchange on the critical temperature values. According to our results, among the systems under consideration only the Ge-based alloys feature a stable ferromagnetic ordering at nonzero temperature. The critical temperatures of these systems were found to be strongly dependent on the underlying crystal structure.

  19. H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

  20. Experimental co-infection of chickens with lentogenic, mesogenic and velogenic strains of Newcastle disease viruses and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from the clinical point of view and diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on t...

  1. Differential Viral Fitness Between H1N1 and H3N8 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Helena Lage; Vangeluwe, Didier; Van Borm, Steven; Poncin, Olivier; Dumont, Nathalie; Ozhelvaci, Orkun; Munir, Muhammad; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Homosubtypic and heterosubtypic immunity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) play an important role in the avian influenza virus (AIV) diversity. The mechanisms of AIV replication among wild birds and the role of immunity in AIV diversity have thus not been completely clarified. During the monitoring of AI circulation among wild waterfowl in 2007-2008, two viruses (H3N8 and H1N1) were isolated from ducks caught in a funnel trap located in La Hulpe wetland in Belgium. H3N8 viruses were revealed to be more prevalent in the mallard population than was H1N1, which might suggest a better adaptation to this species. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we characterized both isolated viruses biologically by experimental inoculation. Virus excretion and humoral response induced by both isolated viruses were evaluated in mallards after a first infection followed by a homo-or heterosubtypic reinfection under controlled experimental conditions. The H1N1 virus had a delayed peak of excretion of 4 days compared to the H3N8, but the virus shedding was more limited, earlier, and shorter after each reinfection. Moreover, the H3N8 virus could spread to all ducks after homo- or heterosubtypic reinfections and during a longer period. Although the humoral response induced by both viruses after infection and reinfection could be detected efficiently by competitive ELISA, only a minimal H1 antibody response and almost no H3-specific antibodies could be detected by the HI test. Our results suggest that the H3N8 isolate replicates better in mallards under experimental controlled conditions. PMID:27309085

  2. Simultaneous detection of avian influenza virus NP and H5 antibodies in chicken sera using a fluorescence microsphere immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lupiani, Blanca; Mozisek, Blayne; Mason, Peter W; Lamichhane, Chinta; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2010-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) surveillance in commercial poultry is accomplished by detecting the presence of antibodies to two group-specific antigens, NP and M1, using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. In order to determine the viral subtype responsible for the infection, positive samples must be further subtyped using the hemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition tests. These tests are labor intensive and may take up to 4 days, thus slowing down responses to outbreaks. To expedite the subtyping of chicken sera we have developed a multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA), which allows for the simultaneous detection and subtyping of chicken sera to H5 influenza viruses. The FMIA was developed using NP (full length) and H5 (HA1 region) proteins expressed in baby hamster kidney cells using a Venezuela equine encephalitis virus replicon system. Both proteins were tagged with 6xHis at the carboxy-end and purified using cobalt-coated agarose beads. Purified H5 protein showed minimal cross-reactivity with anti-H2 serum, while no cross-reactivity was observed with sera to other AI virus (AIV) subtypes and other important poultry viral pathogens. In addition, and as expected, all the AIV sera tested reacted strongly with purified NP protein. Our results indicate that FMIA can be used for rapid subtyping of chicken sera.

  3. Validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for the detection of H7 avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedersen, J.; Killian, M.L.; Hines, N.; Senne, D.; Panigrahy, B.; Ip, H.S.; Spackman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the validation of an avian influenza virus (AIV) H7 subtype-specific real-time reverse transcriptasePCR (rRT-PCR) assay developed at the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) for the detection of H7 AI in North and South American wild aquatic birds and poultry. The validation was a collaborative effort by the SEPRL and the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The 2008 H7 rRT-PCR assay detects 101 50% embryo infectious doses per reaction, or 103104 copies of transcribed H7 RNA. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated to be 97.5% and 82.4%, respectively; the assay was shown to be specific for H7 AI when tested with >270 wild birds and poultry viruses. Following validation, the 2008 H7 rRT-PCR procedure was adopted as an official U.S. Department of Agriculture procedure for the detection of H7 AIV. The 2008 H7 assay replaced the previously used (2002) assay, which does not detect H7 viruses currently circulating in wild birds in North and South America. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  4. Experimental co-infection of SPF chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes H9N2, H5N2 and H7N9, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are two of the most important respiratory viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the effect of co-infection of these two viruses in poultry. Low pathogenicity (LP) AIV can produce from mild to moderate upper r...

  5. Accumulation and inactivation of avian influenza virus by the filter feeding invertebrate daphnia magna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principle mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals contract the virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for periods of months to years in w...

  6. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high-pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870s, and avian influenza has been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of poultry production. Approaches to control vary widely, but elimination of the disease in poultry is a common goal. The basics of AIV biology, clinical disease, molecular aspects, and AIV detection are briefly reviewed. PMID:24899420

  7. Apolipoprotein A-IV protein polymorphism: frequency and effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins among Mexican-Americans in Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Hanis, C L; Douglas, T C; Hewett-Emmett, D

    1991-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV phenotypes were determined by reprobing immunoblots initially typed for the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on a representative sample of Mexican-Americans from South Texas. Typings on 331 individuals gave frequency estimates of 0.928, 0.066, 0.003, and 0.003 for alleles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. To evaluate the effects of this polymorphic variability on lipid-related measures, mean levels between phenotypes were tested for equality following adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Analyses of levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, total high density lipoprotein, and its subfractions, low density lipoprotein, alpha and beta lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, and E demonstrate that the A-IV genetic variability contributes minimally to normal variation of these quantitative factors in the population. Examination of the rare types, however, indicates the possibility of large metabolic effects whose follow-up may be useful for elucidating the metabolic roles of apolipoprotein A-IV. PMID:1997391

  8. Apolipoprotein A-IV regulates chylomicron metabolism–mechanism and function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Bradshaw, Suzanne; Yang, Qing; Caldwell, Jody L.; Bullock, Tera M.; Tso, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fat is an important mediator of atherosclerosis and obesity. Despite its importance in mediating metabolic disease, there is still much unknown about dietary fat absorption in the intestine and especially the detailed biological roles of intestinal apolipoproteins involved in that process. We were specifically interested in determining the physiological role of the intestinal apolipoprotein A-IV (A-IV) using A-IV knockout (KO) mice. A-IV is stimulated by fat absorption in the intestine and is secreted on nascent chylomicrons into intestinal lymph. We found that A-IV KO mice had reduced plasma triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels and that this hypolipidemia persisted on a high-fat diet. A-IV KO did not cause abnormal intestinal lipid absorption, food intake, or adiposity. Additionally, A-IV KO did not cause abnormal liver TG and cholesterol metabolism, as assessed by measuring hepatic lipid content, lipogenic and cholesterol synthetic gene expression, and in vivo VLDL secretion. Instead, A-IV KO resulted in the secretion of larger chylomicrons from the intestine into the lymph, and those chylomicrons were cleared from the plasma more slowly than wild-type chylomicrons. These data suggest that A-IV has a previously unknown role in mediating the metabolism of chylomicrons, and therefore may be important in regulating plasma lipid metabolism. PMID:22207575

  9. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    PubMed

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  10. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    PubMed

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  11. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  12. Efficient capture of infectious H5 avian influenza virus utilizing magnetic beads coated with anionic polymer.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2008-12-01

    The possible emergence of a pandemic influenza virus from the avian influenza virus (AIV) has become a serious threat. The isolation of viruses will be crucial for further virological analysis and the development of vaccines. However, currently, there is no simple method for facilitating the isolation of infectious AIV. Here, we have developed a simple method of capturing AIV using anionic magnetic beads. The method employed the capture of AIV (H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3) from liquid samples such as allantoic fluid (AF) and cell culture medium (CM) using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride). After their incubation with AIV-containing samples, the magnetic beads were separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. The absorption of AIV on the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which indicated the presence of hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleoprotein of AIV. Furthermore, the infectivity in chicken eggs of AIV captured by magnetic beads was similar to that of the starting materials. The capture of AIV using magnetic beads coated with anionic polymers will contribute to the sufficient recovery of infectious AIV and approach for potential pandemic influenza viruses.

  13. Genomic Selection for the Improvement of Antibody Response to Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chenglong; Li, Xuewei; Shu, Dingming; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV) and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV) in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP) and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP). Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV) in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising. PMID:25401767

  14. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  15. Apolipoprotein AIV requires cholecystokinin and vagal nerves to suppress food intake.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chunmin C; Langhans, Wolfgang; Georgievsky, Maria; Arnold, Myrtha; Caldwell, Jody L; Cheng, Stacy; Liu, Min; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are gastrointestinal satiation signals that are stimulated by fat consumption. Previous studies have demonstrated that peripheral apo AIV cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, we hypothesized that peripheral apo AIV uses a CCK-dependent system and intact vagal nerves to relay its satiation signal to the hindbrain. To test this hypothesis, CCK-knockout (CCK-KO) mice and Long-Evan rats that had undergone subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) were used. Intraperitoneal administration of apo AIV at 100 or 200 μg/kg suppressed food intake of wild-type (WT) mice at 30, 60, and 90 min. In contrast, the same dose did not reduce food intake in the CCK-KO mice. Blockade of the CCK 1 receptor by lorglumide, a CCK 1 receptor antagonist, attenuated apo AIV-induced satiation. Apo AIV at 100 μg/kg reduced food intake in SHAM rats but not in SDA rats. Furthermore, apo AIV elicited an increase in c-Fos-positive cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), area postrema, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and adjacent areas of WT mice but elicited only an attenuated increase in these same regions in CCK-KO mice. Apo AIV-induced c-Fos positive cells in the NTS and area postrema of WT mice were reduced by lorglumide. Lastly, apo AIV increased c-Fos positive cells in the NTS of SHAM rats but not in SDA rats. These observations imply that peripheral apo AIV requires an intact CCK system and vagal afferents to activate neurons in the hindbrain to reduce food intake.

  16. Effect of Infection with a Mesogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus on Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinic...

  17. AIV Platform for the Galileo Message Generation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oving, B. A.; Zwartbol, T.; Denham, S.; Rennie, M.

    2007-08-01

    The Message Generation Facility (MGF) is an element of the Galileo Mission Segment (GMS) and is responsible for real-time distribution of the navigation, integrity and SAR messages from the processing facilities (OSPF, IPF, ERIS, RLSP) to the Up-Link Stations (ULS). The main objective is to route a message to the correct ULS in time for on-board update of navigation data and integrity data for dissemination to users. The MGF element is being developed by Deimos Space S.L. (Spain). To perform the Assembly, Integration and Verification (AIV) activities of the MGF, a dedicated test platform, MGF-AIVP, is developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR (the Netherlands). The MGF-AIVP simulates other Elements in the GMS that are connected to the MGF, in real-time. Its focus is to verify the main objective of the MGF.

  18. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2005, 2006 and 2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for avian influenza virus (AIV) as part of a wild bird AIV monitoring program conducted in Mongolia. Samples collected in 2005 were tested by virus isolation directly, samples from 2006 and 2007...

  19. Transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Mateman, A Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards.

  20. Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Mateman, A. Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

  1. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8(+) T Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8(+) T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed.

  2. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8+ T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8+ T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed. PMID:26973644

  3. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  4. Continuing Reassortant of H5N6 Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Guangdong.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Runyu; Wang, Zheng; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    First identified in May 2014 in China's Sichuan Province, initial cases of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans raised great concerns about the virus's prevalence, origin, and development. To evaluate both AIV contamination in live poultry markets (LPMs) and the risk of AIV infection in humans, we have conducted surveillance of LPMs in Guangdong Province since 2013 as part of environmental sampling programs. With environmental samples associated with these LPMs, we performed genetic and phylogenetic analyses of 10 H5N6 AIVs isolated from different cities of Guangdong Province from different years. Results revealed that the H5N6 viruses were reassortants with hemagglutinin (HA) genes derived from clade 2.3.4.4 of H5-subtype AIV, yet neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from H6N6 AIV. Unlike the other seven H5N6 viruses isolated in first 7 months of 2014, all of which shared remarkable sequence similarity with the H5N1 AIV in all internal genes, the PB2 genes of GZ693, GZ670, and ZS558 more closely related to H6N6 AIV and the PB1 gene of GZ693 to the H3-subtype AIV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the environmental H5N6 AIV related closely to human H5N6 AIVs isolated in Guangdong. These results thus suggest that continued reassortment has enabled the emergence of a novel H5N6 virus in Guangdong, as well as highlight the potential risk of highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs in the province.

  5. Continuing Reassortant of H5N6 Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Guangdong

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Wang, Zheng; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    First identified in May 2014 in China's Sichuan Province, initial cases of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans raised great concerns about the virus's prevalence, origin, and development. To evaluate both AIV contamination in live poultry markets (LPMs) and the risk of AIV infection in humans, we have conducted surveillance of LPMs in Guangdong Province since 2013 as part of environmental sampling programs. With environmental samples associated with these LPMs, we performed genetic and phylogenetic analyses of 10 H5N6 AIVs isolated from different cities of Guangdong Province from different years. Results revealed that the H5N6 viruses were reassortants with hemagglutinin (HA) genes derived from clade 2.3.4.4 of H5-subtype AIV, yet neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from H6N6 AIV. Unlike the other seven H5N6 viruses isolated in first 7 months of 2014, all of which shared remarkable sequence similarity with the H5N1 AIV in all internal genes, the PB2 genes of GZ693, GZ670, and ZS558 more closely related to H6N6 AIV and the PB1 gene of GZ693 to the H3-subtype AIV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the environmental H5N6 AIV related closely to human H5N6 AIVs isolated in Guangdong. These results thus suggest that continued reassortment has enabled the emergence of a novel H5N6 virus in Guangdong, as well as highlight the potential risk of highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs in the province. PMID:27148209

  6. AIS training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Barancik, J.I.

    1989-05-01

    This Training Manual was developed by the Injury Prevention and Analysis Group (IPAG) as part of a training program in AIS 85 and AIS-EM (Epidemiological Modifications) coding. The IPAG Program is designed primarily to train medical record and other health professionals from diverse backgrounds and experience levels in the use of AIS 85 and AIS 85-EM. The Manual is designed to be used as a reference text after completion of the Program and includes copies of visual projection materials used during the training sessions.

  7. Pathogenesis and pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in birds.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, M J; Swayne, D E

    2009-04-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological effect in chickens, AI viruses (AIV) are categorised as low pathogenic (LPAIV) or highly pathogenic (HPAIV). Typically, LPAIV cause asymptomatic infections in wild aquatic birds, but when introduced into domesticated poultry, infections may be asymptomatic or produce clinical signs and lesions reflecting pathophysiological damage to the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems. The HPAIV have primarily been seen in gallinaceous poultry, producing high morbidity and mortality, and systemic disease with necrosis and inflammation in multiple visceral organs, nervous and cardiovascular systems, and the integument. Although HPAIV have rarely infected domestic waterfowl or wild birds, the Eurasian-African H5N1 HPAIV have evolved over the past decade with the unique capacity to infect and cause disease in domestic ducks and wild birds, producing a range of syndromes including asymptomatic respiratory and digestive tract infections; systemic disease limited to two or three critical organs, usually the brain, heart and pancreas; and severe disseminated infection and death as seen in gallinaceous poultry. Although experimental studies using intranasal inoculation have produced infection in a variety of wild bird species, the inefficiency of contact transmission in some of them, for example, passerines and Columbiformes, suggests they are unlikely to be a reservoir for the viruses, while others such as some wild Anseriformes, can be severely affected and could serve as a dissemination host over intermediate distances.

  8. An Immune Agent for Web-Based AI Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing

    2006-01-01

    To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…

  9. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) are among the most prominent emerging viruses affecting animal and public health. This report was designed to explore the genetic variation, which has occurred among AIVs of the H7N3 subtype in the Northeast, Central and Southern Regions of Pakistan during the last dec...

  10. Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

  11. AIV Platform for the Galileo Precise Timing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oving, B. A.; Kroon, E.

    2008-08-01

    The Precise Timing Facility (PTF) is an element of the Galileo Ground Mission Segment (GMS) and is responsible for maintaining and distributing the Galileo System Time (GST). The PTF is based on a set of Caesium clocks and Active Hydrogen Maser clocks, the combination of which should be able to provide the required precision and stability of the GST. As the PTF is a critical element within the GMS, diversity is applied in that two PTFs are made by two different companies. The subject of this paper is the PTF that is being developed by Kayser-Threde. To perform the Assembly, Integration and Verification (AIV) activities of the PTF, a dedicated test platform, PTF-AIVP, is developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR (the Netherlands) and the Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMi). The PTF-AIVP will be used to measure and analyse the (physical) output of the PTF, so that the stringent precision and stability requirements can be verified. Furthermore, it will simulate other Elements in the GMS that are connected to the PTF.

  12. SIMATB: Numerical Simulation in Support to Spacecraft AIT/AIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier, F.

    2007-08-01

    Astrium Satellites, as major integrator of Space vehicles for Earth observation, Navigation, Science and Telecommunications is facing a continuous challenge to improve its operational excellence and industrial processes for reducing time cycles and costs while maintaining high quality standards. A contributor to this constant improvement is the increased use of full software simulations in support to sub-systems / system integration and validation, up to in-orbit operations and exploitation. To achieve this objective, Astrium is deploying through the company the so-called Model-Based Development and Verification (MDV) approach, which implements optimised industrial processes supported by dedicated simulation tools and test facilities. This MDV approach takes benefit from Astrium past experience in the use of full numerical simulation for on-board software validation. MDV approach is now extended to a wider range of spacecraft AIT/AIV processes that allows reducing the amount of hardware (onboard equipment models and EGSE) necessary to support these tasks by ensuring proper representativeness of the simulation models.

  13. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  14. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  15. Prior infection of pigs with swine influenza viruses is a barrier to infection with avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2010-12-15

    Although pigs are susceptible to avian influenza viruses (AIV) of different subtypes, the incidence of AIV infections in the field appears to be low. Swine H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza viruses (SIV) are enzootic worldwide and most pigs have antibodies to 1 or more SIV subtypes. This study aimed to examine whether infection-immunity to H1N1 or H3N2 SIV may (1) protect pigs against subsequent infections with AIV of various haemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase subtypes and/or (2) interfere with the serological diagnosis of AIV infection by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) or virus neutralization (VN) tests. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with an H1N1 or H3N2 SIV or left uninoculated. Four or 6 weeks later all pigs were challenged intranasally with 1 of 3 AIV subtypes (H4N6, H5N2 or H7N1). Fifteen out of 17 challenge control pigs shed the respective AIV for 4-6 days post-inoculation and 16 developed HI and VN antibodies. In contrast, 28 of the 29 SIV-immune pigs did not have detectable AIV shedding. Only 12 SIV-immune pigs developed HI antibodies to the AIV used for challenge and 14 had VN antibodies. Antibody titres to the AIV were low in both control and SIV-immune pigs. Our data show that prior infection of pigs with SIV is a barrier to infection with AIV of unrelated subtypes. Serological screening in regions where SIV is enzootic is only useful when the AIV strain for which the pigs need to be tested is known.

  16. North Atlantic Migratory Bird Flyways Provide Routes for Intercontinental Movement of Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America. PMID:24647410

  17. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  18. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Atanasova, Kalina; Van Borm, Steven; van den Berg, Thierry; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Ase; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2009-01-01

    Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal) to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.

  19. Development of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies for detecting H6 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Tung; Tsao, Zak; Chang, Shu-Ting; Juang, Ron-Huay; Wang, Lih-Chiann; Chang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2012-06-01

    The H6 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) infection occurs frequently in wild and domestic birds. AIV antigen detection is preferred for controlling AIV as birds are infected before they produce antibodies. The purpose of this study was to develop an early diagnostic method for AIV detection. Six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) developed from a field H6N1 AIV strain were tested for their ability to bind to viruses. The two that showed the greatest binding ability to AIVs were used for antigen detection. An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect H6 AIVs was developed using these mAbs. One mAb was coated onto an ELISA plate as the capture antibody. The other mAb was used as the detector antibody after labeling with horseradish peroxidase. The antigen-capture ELISA detected H6N1 AIVs but not H5 AIVs, human H1N1, H3N2 influenza or other viruses. This antigen-capture ELISA could be used to specifically detect H6N1 AIV.

  20. A sensitive one-step real-time PCR for detection of avian influenza viruses using a MGB probe and an internal positive control

    PubMed Central

    Di Trani, Livia; Bedini, Barbara; Donatelli, Isabella; Campitelli, Laura; Chiappini, Barbara; De Marco, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Mauro; Buonavoglia, Canio; Vaccari, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Background Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and their introduction and conversion to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry is a cause of serious economic losses as well as a risk for potential transmission to humans. The ability to rapidly recognise AIVs in biological specimens is critical for limiting further spread of the disease in poultry. The advent of molecular methods such as real time polymerase chain reaction has allowed improvement of detection methods currently used in laboratories, although not all of these methods include an Internal Positive Control (IPC) to monitor for false negative results. Therefore we developed a one-step reverse transcription real time PCR (RRT-PCR) with a Minor Groove Binder (MGB) probe for the detection of different subtypes of AIVs. This technique also includes an IPC. Methods RRT-PCR was developed using an improved TaqMan technology with a MGB probe to detect AI from reference viruses. Primers and probe were designed based on the matrix gene sequences from most animal and human A influenza virus subtypes. The specificity of RRT-PCR was assessed by detecting influenza A virus isolates belonging to subtypes from H1–H13 isolated in avian, human, swine and equine hosts. The analytical sensitivity of the RRT-PCR assay was determined using serial dilutions of in vitro transcribed matrix gene RNA. The use of a rodent RNA as an IPC in order not to reduce the efficiency of the assay was adopted. Results The RRT-PCR assay is capable to detect all tested influenza A viruses. The detection limit of the assay was shown to be between 5 and 50 RNA copies per reaction and the standard curve demonstrated a linear range from 5 to 5 × 108 copies as well as excellent reproducibility. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 10–100 times higher than conventional RT-PCR. Conclusion The high sensitivity, rapidity, reproducibility and specificity of the AIV RRT-PCR with the use of IPC to monitor

  1. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

  2. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  3. [An overview of surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Shi, Jing-Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds (mainly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes) are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The long-term surveillance of AIVs in wild birds has been conducted in North America and Europe since 1970s. More and more surveillance data revealed that all the HA and NA subtypes of AIVs were identified in the wild ducks, shorebirds, and gulls, and the AIVs circulating in wild birds were implicated in the outbreaks of AIVs in poultry and humans. Therefore, the AIVs in wild birds pose huge threat to poultry industry and human health. To gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in wild birds, we summarize the transmission of AIVs between wild birds, poultry, and humans, the main results of surveillance of AIVs in wild birds worldwide and methods for surveillance, and the types of samples and detection methods for AIVs in wild birds, which would be vital for the effective control of avian influenza and response to possible influenza pandemic.

  4. Molecular characterization of novel reassortant H6N2 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Eastern China, in 2014.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Wu, Nanping

    2015-12-01

    During the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets in Eastern China, in 2014, seven H6N2 AIVs were isolated from poultry. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains received their genes from H6, H3, and H9 AIVs of poultry in China. These strains were found to demonstrate moderate pathogenicity in mice, and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that novel reassorted H6N2 viruses were isolated from poultry in this study, it is possible that these chickens and ducks play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H6N2 AIVs.

  5. Molecular characterization of a reassortant H11N9 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from a domestic duck in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Nanping

    2015-10-01

    During surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live-poultry markets in Eastern China in 2013, an H11N9 AIV was isolated from a domestic duck. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain received its genes from H11, H3, H10, and H7 AIVs of poultry in China. This strain was found to be minimally pathogenic in mice and was able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that the reassorted H11N9 viruses were isolated from domestic ducks in this study, it is possible that these ducks play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H11 AIVs.

  6. Efficacy of scallop shell powders and slaked lime for inactivating avian influenza virus under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Tsujimura, Misato; Satoh, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Tamura, Miho; Kawamura, Akinobu; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy and stability of scallop shell powder (SSP) were investigated, in terms of its capacity to inactivate avian influenza virus (AIV), and compared with slaked lime (SL). An environmental simulation was conducted by emulating sunlight and wet-dry conditions. The powders were collected at consecutive 2-week intervals under sunlight and upon every resuspension. These materials were tested by mixing them with AIV and incubating the mixture for 3 min or 20 h, followed by AIV titration. At the same time, a pH buffering test was conducted by neutralization with Tris-HCl. The results revealed that SSP and SL have high alkalinity and excellent ability to inactivate AIV. In a simulated harsh environment, SSP and SL retained a satisfactory ability to inactivate AIV within 20 h throughout the experimental procedure. However, SSP was able to inactivate AIV during a short contact period (3 min), even under harsh conditions, and it was more resistant than SL to neutralization.

  7. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Bi, Yuhai; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C; Gao, George F; Li, Shoujun

    2015-09-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics.

  8. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C.; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. PMID:26063419

  9. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  10. Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important. PMID:24171570

  11. Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important.

  12. Accumulation and inactivation of avian influenza virus by the filter-feeding invertebrate Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meixell, Brandt W; Borchardt, Mark A; Spencer, Susan K

    2013-12-01

    The principal mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the ability of an aquatic filter-feeding invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to accumulate virus from AIV-dosed water under the hypothesis that they represent a potential vector of AIV to waterfowl hosts. We placed live daphnids in test tubes dosed with low-pathogenicity AIV (H3N8 subtype isolated from a wild duck) and sampled Daphnia tissue and the surrounding water using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) at 3- to 120-min intervals for up to 960 min following dosing. Concentrations of viral RNA averaged 3 times higher in Daphnia tissue than the surrounding water shortly after viral exposure, but concentrations decreased exponentially through time for both. Extracts from Daphnia tissue were negative for AIV by cell culture, whereas AIV remained viable in water without Daphnia present. Our results suggest daphnids can accumulate AIV RNA and effectively remove virus particles from water. Although concentrations of viral RNA were consistently higher in Daphnia tissue than the water, additional research is needed on the time scale of AIV inactivation after Daphnia ingestion to fully elucidate Daphnia's role as a potential vector of AIV infection to aquatic birds.

  13. Accumulation and Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus by the Filter-Feeding Invertebrate Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    The principal mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the ability of an aquatic filter-feeding invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to accumulate virus from AIV-dosed water under the hypothesis that they represent a potential vector of AIV to waterfowl hosts. We placed live daphnids in test tubes dosed with low-pathogenicity AIV (H3N8 subtype isolated from a wild duck) and sampled Daphnia tissue and the surrounding water using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) at 3- to 120-min intervals for up to 960 min following dosing. Concentrations of viral RNA averaged 3 times higher in Daphnia tissue than the surrounding water shortly after viral exposure, but concentrations decreased exponentially through time for both. Extracts from Daphnia tissue were negative for AIV by cell culture, whereas AIV remained viable in water without Daphnia present. Our results suggest daphnids can accumulate AIV RNA and effectively remove virus particles from water. Although concentrations of viral RNA were consistently higher in Daphnia tissue than the water, additional research is needed on the time scale of AIV inactivation after Daphnia ingestion to fully elucidate Daphnia's role as a potential vector of AIV infection to aquatic birds. PMID:24038705

  14. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang Province in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Wu, Nanping; Peng, Xiaorong; Jin, Changzhong; Lu, Xiangyun; Cheng, Linfang; Yao, Hangping; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, 15 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H3N2 (n = 7), H3N3 (n = 3), H3N6 (n = 3), and H3N8 (n = 2), were isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang Province in China. These strains were characterized by whole genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that these strains clustered in the AIV Eurasian lineage. Analysis of the neuraminidase (NA) gene indicates that a re-assortment event between H3 and H9N2 AIV occurred in these ducks. The molecular markers analyzed over the genome of all viruses indicated that these strains were low-pathogenic AIVs. Although there was no evidence of re-assortment in subtype H3 AIVs among the avian species' and mammalian hosts in this study, continued surveillance is needed considering the important role of domestic ducks in AIV re-assortment.

  15. A robust tool highlights the influence of bird migration on influenza A virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Vivien G

    2012-12-01

    One of the fundamental unknowns in the field of influenza biology is a panoramic understanding of the role wild birds play in the global maintenance and spread of influenza A viruses. Wild aquatic birds are considered a reservoir host for all lowly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV) and thus serve as a potential source of zoonotic AIV, such as Australasian-origin H5N1 responsible for morbidity and mortality in both poultry and humans, as well as genes that may contribute to the emergence of pandemic viruses. Years of broad, in-depth wild bird AIV surveillance have helped to decipher key observations and ideas regarding AIV evolution and viral ecology including the trending of viral lineages, patterns of gene flow within and between migratory flyways and the role of geographic boundaries in shaping viral evolution (Bahl et al. 2009; Lam et al. 2012). While these generally 'virus-centric' studies have ultimately advanced our broader understanding of AIV dynamics, recent studies have been more host-focused, directed at determining the potential impact of host behaviour on AIV, specifically, the influence of bird migration upon AIV maintenance and transmission. A large number of surveillance studies have taken place in Alaska, United States-a region where several global flyways overlap-with the aim of detecting the introduction of novel, Australasian-origin highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV into North America. By targeting bird species with known migration habits, long-distance migrators were determined to be involved in the intercontinental movement of individual AIV gene segments, but not entire viruses, between the Australasian and North American flyways (Koehler et al. 2008; Pearce et al. 2010). Yet, bird movement is not solely limited to long-distance migration, and the relationship of resident or nonmigratory and intermediate-distance migrant populations with AIV ecology has only recently been explored by Hill et al. (2012) in this issue of Molecular Ecology

  16. Antigenic and genetic evolution of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses of subtype H7N3 following heterologous vaccination.

    PubMed

    Beato, Maria Serena; Xu, Yifei; Long, Li-Ping; Capua, Ilaria; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Outbreaks of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of the H7N3 subtype were first detected in Italy in October 2002, and the virus continued to circulate between 2002 and 2004 in a densely populated poultry area in the northeast portion of that country. This virus circulated in unvaccinated and vaccinated poultry farms, and the infection was controlled in August 2003 by culling, control of movements, improved biosecurity, and heterologous vaccination. In 2004, H7N3 reoccurred in vaccinated poultry farms in which infection had been successfully controlled by the vaccination program. To shed light on this occurrence and the temporal pattern and genetic basis of antigenic drift for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the absence and presence of heterologous vaccination, a collection of H7N3 viruses isolated in 2002 and 2004 were characterized genetically and antigenically. Molecular analysis showed that viruses isolated in the 2004 outbreaks after the implementation of vaccination had acquired specific amino acid signatures, most of which were located at reported antibody binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Antigenic characterization of these 2004 isolates showed that they were antigenically different from those isolated prior to the implementation of vaccination. This is the first report on antigenic and genetic evolution of H7 LPAI viruses following the application of heterologous vaccination in poultry. These findings may have an impact on control strategies to combat AI infections in poultry based on vaccination.

  17. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are...

  18. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  19. Experimental co-infection studies with avian influenza viruses and Newcastle Disease viruses in chickens, turkeys and domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-infections of poultry with Newcastle Disease viruses (NDVs) and Avian Influenza viruses (AIVs) present a problem both from the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. Little has been done to understand the interactions between these two viruses when infecting poultry. Exposur...

  20. Isolation and characterization of a novel H10N2 avian influenza virus from a domestic duck in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Lu, Rufeng; Wu, Xiaoxin; Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Lihua; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    During the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets (LPMs) in Eastern China, in 2013, an H10N2 AIV was isolated from a domestic duck. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain received its genes from H10, H1 and H7 AIVs of wild birds in China. The virulence of this strain was examined in chickens and mice, and was found to be low pathogenic in chickens but demonstrated moderate pathogenicity in mice. These results suggest that active surveillance of AIVs in LPMs should be used in an early warning system for avian influenza outbreaks.

  1. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs.

  2. A 4-year study of avian influenza virus prevalence and subtype diversity in ducks of Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Dobbin, Ashley; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The island of Newfoundland, Canada, is at the eastern edge of North America and has migratory bird connections with the continental mainland as well as across the North Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report a 4-year avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemiological study in ducks in the St. John's region of Newfoundland. The overall prevalence of AIV detection in ducks during this study was 7.2%, with American Black Ducks contributing the vast majority of the collected samples and the AIV positives. The juvenile ducks showed a significantly higher AIV detection rate (10.6%) compared with adults (3.4%). Seasonally, AIV prevalence rates were higher in the autumn (8.4%), but positives were still detected in the winter (4.6%). Preliminary serology tests showed a high incidence of previous AIV infection (20/38, 52.6%). A total of 43 viruses were characterized for their HA-NA or HA subtypes, which revealed a large diversity of AIV subtypes and little recurrence of subtypes from year to year. Investigation of the movement patterns of ducks in this region showed that it is a largely non-migratory duck population, which may contribute to the observed pattern of high AIV subtype turnover. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 H1N1 and one H5N4 AIVs showed these viruses were highly similar to other low pathogenic AIV sequences from waterfowl in North America and assigned all gene segments into American-avian clades. Notably, the H1N1 viruses, which were identified in consecutive years, possessed homologous genomes. Such detection of homologous AIV genomes across years is rare, but indicates the role of the environmental reservoir in viral perpetuation.

  3. Lack of antigenic diversity in contemporary H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Understanding the antigenic diversity and genetic evolution of H7 AIVs is critical for developing effective strategies for disease prev...

  4. Reassortment of Avian Influenza A/H6N6 Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Zou, Lirong; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Liao, Ming; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2013, H7N9-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused human infection in eastern China. To evaluate AIV contamination and the public risk of infection, we systematically implemented environmental sampling from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and next-generation sequencing, we generated full nucleotide sequences of all 10 H6N6 AIVs isolated during sampling. Focusing on sequence analyses of hemagglutinin genes of the 10 H6N6 AIVs revealed that the viruses were low pathogenic AIVs with the typical hemagglutinin cleavage site of P-Q-I-E-T-R-G. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsid genes of nine AIVs were of ST2853-like (H6-subtype) lineage, ST192-like (N6-subtype) lineage, and HN573-like (H6-subtype) lineage, respectively; whereas the other five genes were of ST339-like (H6-subtype) lineage. However, the polymerase PB2 and nucleocapsid genes of one strain (HZ057) were of GS/GD-like (H5N1-subtype) and ST339-like lineages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that all eight genes of the 10 viruses belonged to Eurasian avian lineage. Altogether, the 10 AIVs were reassortants of different genetic groups of exchanges with the same virus subtype, thus illustrating the genetic diversity and complexity of H6N6-subtype AIVs in Guangdong Province. PMID:26903958

  5. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus in Ruddy ducks and Lesser Scaup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV) has not been characterized in numerous duck species, especially diving ducks, some of which migrate across the continental U.S. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N2 AIV was characterized in two diving duck species, Ruddy ...

  6. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  7. IMaX opto-mechanical integration: the AIV process for a magnetograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; González Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Álvarez-Herrero, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    IMaX current status is reported on. IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment developed for a Spanish consortium for the SUNRISE Mission, is a payload that will work simultaneously as a high sensitivity polarimeter, a high resolving spectral power, and a near diffraction limited imager. Once every mechanical element has been purchased, the assembly, integration, alignment and verification processes (AIV process) has been carried out successfully. After a brief description of the IMaX opto-mechanical elements that have been received, the integration sequence as well as the main results obtained during the AIV process are presented. Basically, AIV process consists on the opto-mechanical components assembly on the Optical Bench (OB), the optical elements assembly on the previously integrated optomechanics, the alignment and orientation of the opto-mechanical components, and the two-channels quality evaluation that allows to leave the opto-mechanical components ready for the cameras integration and IMaX performance tests characterization. Actually, the most relevant results related to the AIV process as well as the IMaX performance firsts tests are presented.

  8. Evidence for the Introduction, Reassortment, and Persistence of Diverse Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yvonne C. F.; Aban, Malet; Peck, Heidi; Lau, Hilda; Baas, Chantal; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Ellström, Patrik; Hernandez, Jorge; Olsen, Bjorn; Barr, Ian G.; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in Antarctica during 2013 revealed the prevalence of evolutionarily distinct influenza viruses of the H11N2 subtype in Adélie penguins. Here we present results from the continued surveillance of AIV on the Antarctic Peninsula during 2014 and 2015. In addition to the continued detection of H11 subtype viruses in a snowy sheathbill during 2014, we isolated a novel H5N5 subtype virus from a chinstrap penguin during 2015. Gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H11 virus detected in 2014 had a >99.1% nucleotide similarity to the H11N2 viruses isolated in 2013, suggesting the continued prevalence of this virus in Antarctica over multiple years. However, phylogenetic analysis of the H5N5 virus showed that the genome segments were recently introduced to the continent, except for the NP gene, which was similar to that in the endemic H11N2 viruses. Our analysis indicates geographically diverse origins for the H5N5 virus genes, with the majority of its genome segments derived from North American lineage viruses but the neuraminidase gene derived from a Eurasian lineage virus. In summary, we show the persistence of AIV lineages in Antarctica over multiple years, the recent introduction of gene segments from diverse regions, and reassortment between different AIV lineages in Antarctica, which together significantly increase our understanding of AIV ecology in this fragile and pristine environment. IMPORTANCE Analysis of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) detected in Antarctica reveals both the relatively recent introduction of an H5N5 AIV, predominantly of North American-like origin, and the persistence of an evolutionarily divergent H11 AIV. These data demonstrate that the flow of viruses from North America may be more common than initially thought and that, once introduced, these AIVs have the potential to be maintained within Antarctica. The future introduction of AIVs from North America into the Antarctic

  9. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  10. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-10-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of reassortant H11N3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang Province in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Nanping

    2016-10-01

    In July 2013, six H11N3 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. These strains were characterized by whole genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that these strains clustered in the AIV Eurasian lineage, and these strains received their genes from H11, H7, and H1 AIVs in Eastern China. These strains were found to be minimally pathogenic in mice, and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Continued surveillance is needed considering the important role of domestic ducks in AIV reassortment.

  12. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model.

  13. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model. PMID:26552719

  14. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model. PMID:26552719

  15. Characterization of the Whole-Genome Sequence of an H3N6 Avian Influenza Virus, Isolated from a Domestic Duck in Guangxi, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Xie, Zhixun; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqing; Huang, Li; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A field strain of H3N6 avian influenza virus (AIV), A/duck/Guangxi/175D12/2014(H3N6), was isolated from a native duck in Guangxi Province, southern China, in 2014. All of the eight AIV gene segments were sequenced, and sequence results revealed that there were 11 amino acid deletions at the NA stalk region. The NA, PB2, and NP genes showed highest homology to H5N6 AIV, and the PA gene showed highest homology to H7N2 AIV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the eight AIV gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage. These findings provide scientific evidence of possible or potential mutations of H3N6 AIV circulating in waterfowl in southern China.

  16. Detection method for avian influenza viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Rönnqvist, Maria; Ziegler, Thedi; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Recent events have shown that humans may become infected with some pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). Since soil and water, including lakes, rivers, and seashores, may be contaminated by AIV excreted by birds, effective methods are needed for monitoring water for emerging viruses. Combining water filtration with molecular methods such as PCR is a fast and effective way for detecting viruses. The objective of this study was to apply a convenient method for the detection of AIV in natural water samples. Distilled water and lake, river, and seawater were artificially contaminated with AIV (H5N3) and passed through a filter system. AIV was detected from filter membrane by real-time RT-PCR. The performance of Zetapor, SMWP, and Sartobind D5F membranes in recovering influenza viruses was first evaluated using contaminated distilled water. SWMP, which gave the highest virus recoveries, was then compared with a pre-filter combined GF/F filter membrane in a trial using natural water samples. In this study, the cellulose membrane SMWP was found to be practical for recovery of AIVs in water. Viral yields varied between 62.1 and 65.9% in distilled water and between 1 and 16.7% in natural water samples. The borosilicate glass membrane GF/F combined with pre-filter was also feasible in filtering natural water samples with viral yields from 1.98 to 7.33%. The methods described can be used for monitoring fresh and seawater samples for the presence of AIV and to determine the source of AIV transmission in an outbreak situation. PMID:23412765

  17. Detection method for avian influenza viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Rönnqvist, Maria; Ziegler, Thedi; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Recent events have shown that humans may become infected with some pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). Since soil and water, including lakes, rivers, and seashores, may be contaminated by AIV excreted by birds, effective methods are needed for monitoring water for emerging viruses. Combining water filtration with molecular methods such as PCR is a fast and effective way for detecting viruses. The objective of this study was to apply a convenient method for the detection of AIV in natural water samples. Distilled water and lake, river, and seawater were artificially contaminated with AIV (H5N3) and passed through a filter system. AIV was detected from filter membrane by real-time RT-PCR. The performance of Zetapor, SMWP, and Sartobind D5F membranes in recovering influenza viruses was first evaluated using contaminated distilled water. SWMP, which gave the highest virus recoveries, was then compared with a pre-filter combined GF/F filter membrane in a trial using natural water samples. In this study, the cellulose membrane SMWP was found to be practical for recovery of AIVs in water. Viral yields varied between 62.1 and 65.9% in distilled water and between 1 and 16.7% in natural water samples. The borosilicate glass membrane GF/F combined with pre-filter was also feasible in filtering natural water samples with viral yields from 1.98 to 7.33%. The methods described can be used for monitoring fresh and seawater samples for the presence of AIV and to determine the source of AIV transmission in an outbreak situation.

  18. Isolation and genetic characterization of novel reassortant H6N6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Lu, Rufeng; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Lu, Xiangyun; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2016-07-01

    H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect mammals and pose a threat to human health. From June 2014 to July 2015, 12 H6N6 AIVs were isolated from chickens in live-poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates received their genes from H6 and H9N2 subtype AIVs of poultry in China. These novel reassortant viruses showed moderate pathogenicity in mice and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that novel reassorted H6N6 viruses were isolated from chickens in this study, it is possible that these chickens play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H6N6 AIVs, and these results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of the H6N6 AIVs circulating in poultry. PMID:27101069

  19. Characterization of a novel H3N2 influenza virus isolated from domestic ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Yu, Meng; Liu, Litao; Sun, Honglei

    2016-08-01

    Cases of human infection with a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) were first reported in March 2013, which caused 115 deaths within a single year. Beyond that, other subtypes of H7 AIV were isolated from poultry in eastern China during the same period, including H7N7 and H7N2 AIV. In the present study, a subtype H3N2 AIV was isolated from ducks from Anhui Province, China. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that seven gene segments of this virus showed the highest sequence homology with that of the H7 subtype influenza virus, which is presumed to be the reassortants of the H3 and H7 subtypes AIV. The present study also reconfirmed that the reassortment between the H7 subtype and waterfowl-originating AIVs universally occurred in waterfowl. Animal inoculation tests showed that the virus has low pathogenicity in chickens; however, it could be replicated in the lungs of mice. The emergence of this H3N2 isolate emphasizes the importance of enhancing the surveillance of waterfowl-originating AIVs, the identification of novel reassortant strains, and characterization of their biological properties.

  20. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  1. High genetic diversity and frequent genetic reassortment of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses along the East Asian-Australian migratory flyway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiming; Zhang, Zhenjie; Chen, Zhanqiang; Zhang, Yanru; Lv, Qiang; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Carr, Michael J; Sun, Shuhong; Shi, Weifeng

    2016-04-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIV) along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway, we collected faecal samples (n=2859) between November 2014 and March 2015 from poultry, environmental sources and wild birds in Dongying, Shandong province and Yancheng, Jiangsu province in eastern China. The presence of AIV RNA was evaluated by real-time PCR and the positivity rate ranged from 0 to 29.3%. In both Dongying and Yancheng, samples collected from live poultry markets had the highest positivity rate for AIV RNA. AIV whole genomes were generated and phylogenetically analysed. Our results demonstrate that most of the viruses belonged to the H9N2 subtype, and could be classified into nine novel genotypes based on the phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments of the AIV genomes. This revealed a high genetic diversity of H9N2 in this region and suggested that they might have undergone frequent genetic reassortment. In addition, the internal genes (PB2, etc.) of two viruses from wild birds and several viruses from poultry belonged to the same gene constellation, suggesting a potential inter-host transmission of AIV between wild birds and poultry in live markets along routes of migratory flyways. Our results highlight the high genetic diversity of AIV along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway and the need for more extensive AIV surveillance in eastern China.

  2. Protection of chickens to antigenically variant avian influenza virus challenge after immunization with two antigenically unrelated strains of the same subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antigenic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) within a subtype has been well established and is believed to be driven by the selection of immunologic escape mutants. In regions where vaccination against AIV has been implemented for prolonged periods (e.g. Vietnam and Egypt), vaccines which...

  3. Molecular identification and comparative transcriptional analysis of myxovirus resistance GTPase (Mx) gene in goose (Anser cygnoide) after H9N2 AIV infection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Miao; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-08-01

    Interferon (IFN)-induced myxovirus resistance (Mx) GTPases belong to the family of dynamin-like GTPases and control a diverse range of viruses. In this study, the identified goose Mx (goMx) mRNA is 2009bp long, shares partially conserved exons with other homologues, and shares highly conserved domains in its primary structure. The amino acid position 629 (629aa) of the goMx protein was identified as serine (Ser), in contrast to the Ser located at 631aa in chicken Mx, which is considered to be responsible for the lack of chicken Mx antiviral activity. In addition, the goMx 142aa residue in the dynamin family signature differs from that of other functional Mx proteins. Transcriptional analysis revealed that goMx was mainly expressed in the digestive, respiratory and immune systems in an age-specific manner. GoMx transcript levels in goose peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were found to be significantly up-regulated by various agonists and avian viruses. Furthermore, a time course study of the effects of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) on goMx expression in infected goslings suggested that H9N2 AIV affected goMx expression. However, significant changes in goMx expression were observed in the trachea, lung and small intestine of infected birds. Altogether, these results indicate that goMx protein may have acquired its broad antiviral activity by changing only a few amino acids at select sites, even as it shares a conserved architectures with species.

  4. Molecular identification and comparative transcriptional analysis of myxovirus resistance GTPase (Mx) gene in goose (Anser cygnoide) after H9N2 AIV infection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Miao; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-08-01

    Interferon (IFN)-induced myxovirus resistance (Mx) GTPases belong to the family of dynamin-like GTPases and control a diverse range of viruses. In this study, the identified goose Mx (goMx) mRNA is 2009bp long, shares partially conserved exons with other homologues, and shares highly conserved domains in its primary structure. The amino acid position 629 (629aa) of the goMx protein was identified as serine (Ser), in contrast to the Ser located at 631aa in chicken Mx, which is considered to be responsible for the lack of chicken Mx antiviral activity. In addition, the goMx 142aa residue in the dynamin family signature differs from that of other functional Mx proteins. Transcriptional analysis revealed that goMx was mainly expressed in the digestive, respiratory and immune systems in an age-specific manner. GoMx transcript levels in goose peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were found to be significantly up-regulated by various agonists and avian viruses. Furthermore, a time course study of the effects of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) on goMx expression in infected goslings suggested that H9N2 AIV affected goMx expression. However, significant changes in goMx expression were observed in the trachea, lung and small intestine of infected birds. Altogether, these results indicate that goMx protein may have acquired its broad antiviral activity by changing only a few amino acids at select sites, even as it shares a conserved architectures with species. PMID:27477505

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H2N7 avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Haibo; Jin, Changzhong; Yao, Hangping; Lu, Xiangyun; Cheng, Linfang; Wu, Nanping

    2014-04-01

    Two H2N7 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from domestic ducks in live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China, 2013. All viruses were characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of AIVs and originated from genes reassortment among different viruses co-circulating in domestic ducks in Eastern China. The hemagglutinin cleavage site of all viruses indicated that the two strains were low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Considering the important role of the domestic ducks in the dissemination and reassortment of AIVs, continued surveillance of circulating H2 subtype AIVs in domestic ducks in live poultry markets is needed.

  6. Genetic and molecular characterization of H9N2 and H5 avian influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-12-02

    Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a key source of reassorted avian influenza viruses (AIVs) because of the density of terrestrial and aquatic poultry and the frequency of AIV infection. H9N2 viruses are prevalent in terrestrial poultry throughout Asia and have been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. They infect both avian and mammalian species and may be significant donors of genetic material to emerging human pathogens. LPMs in Zhejiang Province were surveyed from 2013-2014 for AIVs. Three hundred seventy-four (374) AIV strains were isolated from 3,328 samples. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. We identified a novel H9N2 virus genotype that had undergone reassortment with gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97-like, Ck/BJ/1/94-like, and Dk/HK/Y439/97-like viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the H9N2 viruses had undergone reassortments with other AIV subtypes. The results also suggested that two different clades (2.3.2 and 2.3.4.6) of H5 viruses were co-circulating in Zhejiang Province. Given that reassorted H5 AIVs were detected in geese and ducks, it is possible that apparently healthy birds contribute to emerging H5 AIVs. Continued surveillance is required in poultry in eastern China.

  7. Genetic and molecular characterization of H9N2 and H5 avian influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a key source of reassorted avian influenza viruses (AIVs) because of the density of terrestrial and aquatic poultry and the frequency of AIV infection. H9N2 viruses are prevalent in terrestrial poultry throughout Asia and have been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. They infect both avian and mammalian species and may be significant donors of genetic material to emerging human pathogens. LPMs in Zhejiang Province were surveyed from 2013-2014 for AIVs. Three hundred seventy-four (374) AIV strains were isolated from 3,328 samples. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. We identified a novel H9N2 virus genotype that had undergone reassortment with gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97-like, Ck/BJ/1/94-like, and Dk/HK/Y439/97-like viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the H9N2 viruses had undergone reassortments with other AIV subtypes. The results also suggested that two different clades (2.3.2 and 2.3.4.6) of H5 viruses were co-circulating in Zhejiang Province. Given that reassorted H5 AIVs were detected in geese and ducks, it is possible that apparently healthy birds contribute to emerging H5 AIVs. Continued surveillance is required in poultry in eastern China. PMID:26627108

  8. Characterization and Sequencing of an H6N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Sansui Sheldrake Ducks in Guizhou, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiaqi; Ji, Xinqin; Xu, Houqiang; Ruan, Yong; Zhao, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an H6N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from Sansui Sheldrake ducks in Guizhou Province, China, in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H6N6 virus was a reassortant virus derived from three different H6 subtype lineages. The finding of this study will help us understand the epidemiology and the evolutionary characteristics of H6 subtypes of AIV in ducks in southwestern China. PMID:27174267

  9. Circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption by apolipoprotein AIV involves forkhead transcription factors A2 and O1 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Munshi, Mohamed Khalid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Queiroz, Joyce; Sirwi, Alaa Ahmed; Shah, Shrenik; Younus, Abdullah; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2013-07-12

    We have shown previously that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in apoAIV(-/-) mice showed diurnal variations similar to apoAIV(+/+) mice; however, the increases in plasma triglyceride at night were significantly lower in these mice. ApoAIV(-/-) mice absorbed fewer lipids at night and showed blunted response to daytime feeding. To explain reasons for these lower responses, we measured MTP expression; intestinal MTP was low at night, and its induction after food entrainment was less in apoAIV(-/-) mice. Conversely, apoAIV overexpression increased MTP mRNA in hepatoma cells, indicating transcriptional regulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that sequences between -204/-775 bp in the MTP promoter respond to apoAIV and that apoAIV enhances expression of FoxA2 and FoxO1 transcription factors and their binding to the identified cis elements in the MTP promoter at night. Knockdown of FoxA2 and FoxO1 abolished apoAIV-mediated MTP induction. Similarly, knockdown of apoAIV in differentiated Caco-2 cells reduced MTP, FoxA2, and FoxO1 mRNA levels, cellular MTP activity, and media apoB. Moreover, FoxA2 and FoxO1 expression showed diurnal variations, and their expression was significantly lower in apoAIV(-/-) mice. These data indicate that apoAIV modulates diurnal changes in lipid absorption by regulating forkhead transcription factors and MTP and that inhibition of apoAIV expression might reduce plasma lipids.

  10. The mechanical ground support equipment for the AIV and calibration of the AGILE integrated payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Traci, Alessandro; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Di Cocco, Guido; Labanti, Claudio; Celesti, Enrico; Mauri, Alessandro

    2004-10-01

    AGILE is an ASI (Italian Space Agency) Small Space Mission for high energy astrophysics in the range 30 MeV - 50 GeV which is planned to be launched in 2005. Mechanical equipments are required for the Assembly, Integration and Verification (AIV) of the various subsystems together, forming the Payload complement. Furthermore, the calibration of the AGILE's performances requires to test with a beam line and with discrete X and γ ray sources the instrument response as a function of the energy of the incoming photons and particles and of their inclination with respect to the instrument axis. These AIV and Calibration activities lead to require an ad hoc Mechanical Ground Support Equipment (MGSE) which is able to move the instrument up and down, left and right as well as to rotate the instrument around the vertical axes and to tilt it by an angle between 0 and 180° with reference to the direction of the beam. We present here the MGSE we have designed in order to provide these functionalities with the required performances, and taking into account the working environment of the AIV and calibration sites.

  11. Spread and Persistence of Influenza A Viruses in Waterfowl Hosts in the North American Mississippi Migratory Flyway

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Bowman, Andrew S.; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Wester, Eric; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Das, Suman R.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Slemons, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT While geographic distance often restricts the spread of pathogens via hosts, this barrier may be compromised when host species are mobile. Migratory waterfowl in the order Anseriformes are important reservoir hosts for diverse populations of avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) and are assumed to spread AIVs during their annual continental-scale migrations. However, support for this hypothesis is limited, and it is rarely tested using data from comprehensive surveillance efforts incorporating both the temporal and spatial aspects of host migratory patterns. We conducted intensive AIV surveillance of waterfowl using the North American Mississippi Migratory Flyway (MMF) over three autumn migratory seasons. Viral isolates (n = 297) from multiple host species were sequenced and analyzed for patterns of gene dispersal between northern staging and southern wintering locations. Using a phylogenetic and nucleotide identity framework, we observed a larger amount of gene dispersal within this flyway rather than between the other three longitudinally identified North American flyways. Across seasons, we observed patterns of regional persistence of diversity for each genomic segment, along with limited survival of dispersed AIV gene lineages. Reassortment increased with both time and distance, resulting in transient AIV constellations. This study shows that within the MMF, AIV gene flow favors spread along the migratory corridor within a season, and also that intensive surveillance during bird migration is important for identifying virus dispersal on time scales relevant to pandemic responsiveness. In addition, this study indicates that comprehensive monitoring programs to capture AIV diversity are critical for providing insight into AIV evolution and ecology in a major natural reservoir. IMPORTANCE Migratory birds are a reservoir for antigenic and genetic diversity of influenza A viruses (AIVs) and are implicated in the spread of virus diversity that has

  12. Perpetuation of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in natural water bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Ze

    2014-07-01

    Water bodies are an important route for the spread and transmission of avian influenza virus (AIV). The determining factor for an AIV to transmit through diffusion in water is the term of viability of the virus in the water body. To better understand the perpetuation of AIV in natural water bodies, and thus the risks of AIV spread and transmission via such bodies, we systematically studied the inactivation dynamics of two AIV strains (H5N1 and H9N2) at different temperatures in water bodies of important migratory bird habitats within China (Dongting Lake, Poyang Lake, the Hubei segment of the Yangtze River and Qinghai Lake). We also studied the impact of water-borne micro-organisms on the perpetuation of AIV. Our findings indicated that water is very likely an important route for the epidemic spread of AIV, especially during the autumn and winter seasons. In addition, water-borne micro-organisms might antagonize the persistence of AIV.

  13. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  14. An immuno-biosensor system based on quartz crystal microbalance for avian influenza virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengping; Chen, Guoming; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yunlong

    2007-12-01

    For the quick detection of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), a biosensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was fabricated according to the specific bonding principle between antibody and antigen. Staphylococcal Protein A (SPA) was extracted from Staphylococcus and purified. Then SPA was coated on the surface of QCM for immobilizing AIV monoclonal antibodies. The use of AIV monoclonal antibody could enhance the specificity of the immuno-biosensor. A multi-channel piezoelectricity detection system for the immuno-biosensor was developed. The system can work for the quick detection of AIV antigen in the case of the entirely aqueous status owe to one special oscillating circuit designed in this work. The optimum conditions of SPA coating and AIV monoclonal antibody immobilization were investigated utilizing the multi-channel detection system. The preliminary application of the immuno-biosensor system for detection of AIV was evaluated. Results indicate that the immuno-biosensor system can detect the AIV antigens with a linear range of 3-200ng/ml. The system can accomplish the detection of AIV antigens around 40 minutes.

  15. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics. PMID:27309070

  16. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  17. Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frédéric; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, François; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J.; Thomas, Frédéric; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only. PMID:19802387

  18. Full genome sequence of a recombinant H5N1 influenza virus from a condor in southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Yuan, Runyu; Song, Yafen; Wei, Liangmeng; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming; Luo, Kaijian

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report the first genomic information on an H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from a condor in Guangdong Province in southern China in 2003. Full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses show that it is a recombinant virus containing genome segments derived from the Eurasia and North America gene pools. This will be useful for analyses of the evolution of H5N1 AIV in southern China.

  19. Full genome sequence of a recombinant H5N1 influenza virus from a condor in southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Yuan, Runyu; Song, Yafen; Wei, Liangmeng; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming; Luo, Kaijian

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report the first genomic information on an H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from a condor in Guangdong Province in southern China in 2003. Full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses show that it is a recombinant virus containing genome segments derived from the Eurasia and North America gene pools. This will be useful for analyses of the evolution of H5N1 AIV in southern China. PMID:22733885

  20. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  1. Proliferation and teratogenicity of Aino virus in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Y; Ohzono, H; Shimizu, T

    1996-01-01

    Aino virus (AIV; JaNAr 28 strain) 10(3) TCID50/0.2 ml was inoculated in the yolk sac of 8-day-old chick embryos. Recovery and titration of the virus from various organs including the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscle were performed at 2, 4, 7, 10 and 13 days after inoculation (PI). AIV was systematically disseminated and proliferated even 2 days PI. The titers of the recovered virus from the CNS and from skeletal muscle was the highest at 4 days PI and declined with time, whereas hydranencephaly, arthrogryposis and cerebellar hypoplasia developed at 7 days PI and gradually progressed until 13 days PI.

  2. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lam, T. T. -Y.; Ip, H. S.; Ghedin, E.; Wentworth, D. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Stockwell, T. B.; Spiro, D. J.; Dusek, R. J.; Bortner, J. B.; Hoskins, J.; Bales, B. D.; Yparraguirre, D. R.; Holmes, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Ip, Hon S.; Ghedin, Elodie; Wentworth, David E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Spiro, David J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bortner, James B.; Hoskins, Jenny; Bales, Bradley D.; Yparraguirre, Dan R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway.

  4. Black knight of AI

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, F.

    1985-03-01

    For two decades now, Hubert Dreyfus, an existentialist philosopher at the University of California at Berkeley, has been in the forefront of the controversy over artificial intelligence. He maintains that computers will never be able to think because scientists will never come up with a suitably rigorous set of rules to describe how we think. To many computer scientists, this is like saying the Earth is flat. But so far, none of them have been able to prove him wrong. Even most AI researchers now admit that before they can make computers any smarter, they'll have to come up with an explanation of how intelligence works in people. This realization has coincided with the emergence of cognitive science, a new discipline linking philosophy, psychology, anthroplogy, linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science in an attempt to develop a theory of the way humans think. The guiding principle of most cognitive science research is the notion that the mind, like the computer, is a system for manipulating symbols - for processing information. The task of cognitive science is to discover how this processing occurs.

  5. Genetic and antigenic characteristics of H4 subtype avian influenza viruses in Korea and their pathogenicity in quails, domestic ducks and mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Choi, Jun-Gu; Kim, Kwang-Il; Park, Ha-Young; Park, Choi-Kyu; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, a nationwide surveillance programme was implemented in 2003 to identify highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs). AIVs belonging to one of the most common haemagglutinin subtypes, H4, were isolated from two domestic ducks and 52 wild birds between 2004 and 2010. These H4 AIVs could be further classified into three neuraminidase subtypes: H4N6 (94.4%), H4N2 (3.7%) and H4N3 (1.9%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H4 AIVs had a variety of genetic constellations, with at least nine different genotypes represented. The pathogenicity of these H4 viruses was assessed in quails, domestic ducks and mice. None of the H4 AIVs induced clinical signs in quails or domestic ducks. Viral shedding in quails was relatively high, and virus was recovered up to 5-7 days post-inoculation (p.i.) in oropharyngeal swabs, but the viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. Quails may act as an intermediate host in which AIVs are amplified and transmitted to other species. In mice, all of the AIVs were recovered efficiently at relatively high titres from the lungs up to 7 days p.i., demonstrating the potential for AIVs to infect mice directly without prior adaptation. None of the AIVs induced clinical signs nor was any lethal to infected mice. However, there was significant loss of body weight in mice infected with viruses of duck origin. It is suggested that the active surveillance of influenza viruses needs to be enhanced in domestic poultry as well as in wild birds, and that it should include assessment of pathogenicity in animal models.

  6. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  7. High Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza Viruses among Wild Waterfowl in Alaska: Implications for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics. PMID:23472177

  8. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  9. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses. PMID:26910902

  10. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the ...

  11. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance. PMID:26758561

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Hemagglutinin Genes of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Chickens in Shandong, China, between 1998 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuxin; Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Tang, Yujing; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2015-01-01

    Since H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) was first isolated in Guangdong province of China, the virus has been circulating in chicken flocks in mainland China. However, a systematic phylogenetic analysis of H9N2 AIV from chickens in Shandong of China has not been conducted. Based on hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of H9N2 AIVs isolated from chickens in Shandong of China between 1998 and 2013, genetic evolution of 35 HA gene sequences was systematically analyzed in this study. Our findings showed that the majority of H9N2 AIVs (21 out of 35) belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5. Most of isolates (33 out of 35) had a PSRSSR↓GLF motif in HA cleavage site. Importantly, 29 out of these 35 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor-binding site. The substitution showed that H9N2 AIVs had the potential affinity to bind to human-like receptor. The currently prevalent H9N2 AIVs in Shandong belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5 which are different from the vaccine strain SS/94 clade h9.4.2.3. Therefore, the long-term surveillance of H9N2 AIVs is of significance to combat the possible H9N2 AIV outbreaks. PMID:26609523

  13. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance.

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of Hemagglutinin Genes of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Chickens in Shandong, China, between 1998 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuxin; Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Tang, Yujing; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2015-01-01

    Since H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) was first isolated in Guangdong province of China, the virus has been circulating in chicken flocks in mainland China. However, a systematic phylogenetic analysis of H9N2 AIV from chickens in Shandong of China has not been conducted. Based on hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of H9N2 AIVs isolated from chickens in Shandong of China between 1998 and 2013, genetic evolution of 35 HA gene sequences was systematically analyzed in this study. Our findings showed that the majority of H9N2 AIVs (21 out of 35) belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5. Most of isolates (33 out of 35) had a PSRSSR↓GLF motif in HA cleavage site. Importantly, 29 out of these 35 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor-binding site. The substitution showed that H9N2 AIVs had the potential affinity to bind to human-like receptor. The currently prevalent H9N2 AIVs in Shandong belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5 which are different from the vaccine strain SS/94 clade h9.4.2.3. Therefore, the long-term surveillance of H9N2 AIVs is of significance to combat the possible H9N2 AIV outbreaks. PMID:26609523

  15. Role of apolipoprotein A-I in HDL binding to a rat hepatoma cell in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of HDL to rat Fu5AH hepatoma cells at 4/sup 0/, and uptake and degradation at 37/sup 0/, was investigated in monolayer cultures. HDL, free of apo E and apo A-IV, was obtained from the plasma of nephrotic rats (HDLne). /sup 125/I-labeled HDLne bound to the cells in a specific, saturable manner. By Scatchard analysis, two classes of binding sites were obtained: a high affinity binding site (Kd = 1.25 +/- 0.023 ..mu..g/ml, or 5 x 10/sup -9/ M), and a lower affinity site (Kd = 45 +/- 15 ..mu..g/ml, or 1.8 x 10/sup -7/ M). In competitive binding experiments, normal rat HDL was nearly as effective as HDLne, but rat VLDL and human lipoproteins were ineffective. Rat apo A-I/phospholipid complexes also did not complete effectively for HDLne binding, although they were capable of binding to the cells. However, LDL (1.02 < d < 1.063) from nephrotic rat plasma, containing 20% of apo A-I, was as effective as rat HDL in competing for HDLne binding when the competition was expressed as a function of apo A-I content. Control experiments indicated that labeled apo A-I from HDLne did not exchange appreciably with unlabeled apo A-I on the LDLne. When the hepatoma cells were allowed to internalize and degrade HDLne at 37/sup 0/, the acid-soluble products (iodotyrosine and iodide) were derived almost entirely from the breakdown of apo A-I. We conclude that the rat hepatoma cell (Fu5AH) has high affinity HDL binding sites which recognize apo A-I-lipid complexes in which apo A-I an appropriate conformation.

  16. Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5) and cotton swabs (n = 24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

  17. Apolipoprotein A-IV-2 allele: association of its worldwide distribution with adult persistence of lactase and speculation on its function and origin.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, R B

    1999-11-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) is a 46-Kd plasma glycoprotein that may play a major role in intestinal lipid absorption. A genetic polymorphism in the apo A-IV gene, apo A-IV-2, encodes a His-->Gln substitution at codon 360 that alters the biological function of this apolipoprotein. As the worldwide distribution of the apo A-IV-2 allele appeared similar to the frequency of a genetic polymorphism that determines the persistence of lactase into adulthood, we examined the relationship between the apo A-IV-2 and lactase persistence polymorphisms by compiling the prevalence of adult lactase persistence in all populations in which the frequency of the apo A-IV-2 allele has been determined. Across 29 groups, there was an extremely strong correlation (4 = 0.937, P < 0.000001) between apo A-IV-2 allele frequency and the prevalence of adult lactase persistence. Apo A-IV-2 allele frequency was highest in Iceland, an ancient Viking colony, and decreased across Europe in a north-to-south and west-to-east gradient, generally following hypothetical isoclines for the lactase persistence gene. There were no correlations between the population frequencies of the apo E2, E3, or E4 alleles and either the prevalence of lactase persistence or the frequency of the apo A-IV-2 allele. In light of the effects of the apo A-IV-2 polymorphism on lipid metabolism, we speculate that the apo A-IV-2 allele may have originated in ancient Scandinavia, spread by conferring a nutritional advantage in the setting of a lifelong high milkfat intake, and was later carried southwards by the Viking incursions into Europe.

  18. Avian influenza virus surveillance in hunter-harvested waterfowl, Texas coast, September 2009-January 2010.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Pamela J; Khan, Owais; Peterson, Markus J; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Reddy, Sanjay M; Lupiani, Blanca

    2012-12-01

    Wild waterfowl are considered the natural reservoir of type A influenza viruses, and the migratory nature of many waterfowl species presents a possible vehicle for global dissemination of these infectious agents. In order to fully understand the ecology of influenza viruses, multiyear surveillance efforts are critical, particularly in understudied areas, such as waterfowl wintering areas. Herein we report results obtained during the fifth year ofa 5-yr avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance project conducted on waterfowl wintering grounds of the Texas Coast. During year 5, the 2009-2010 hunting season (September, November-January), 655 cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl and screened for AIV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) followed by virus isolation on all positive samples. Molecular methods were used for subtyping all AIV isolates. Sixty-five (9.5%) samples were positive for AIV by rRT-PCR, and 24 (3.7%) AIVs were isolated. Eight different hemagglutinin (H3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 11) and seven different neuraminidase (N1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9) subtypes were identified. This was the first year H8 and H9 were isolated throughout the 5-yr survey. Our results support the fact that continued multiyear surveillance of natural reservoirs, particularly in understudied areas, is needed in order to better understand the ecology of AIVs in nature.

  19. Development and optimization of a biopreparedness protocol for extracting and detecting avian influenza virus in broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Simona; Falcone, Emiliana; Knutsson, Rickard; Vaccari, Gabriele; De Medici, Dario; Di Trani, Livia

    2013-09-01

    Detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry meat is hampered by the lack of an efficient analytical method able to extract and concentrate viral RNA prior to PCR. In this study we developed a method for extracting and detecting AIV from poultry meat by a previously standardized 1-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) assay. In addition, a new process control, represented by feline calicivirus (FCV), was included in the original protocol, to evaluate all analytical steps from sample preparation to the detection phase. The detection limit was below 1×10(-1) TCID50 of AIV per sample, and the quantification limit corresponded to 1×10(1) TCID50 of AIV per sample. Moreover, the addition of 1×10(2) TCID50/sample of FCV did not affect the quantification and detection limit of the reaction. These results show that the developed assay is suitable for detecting small amounts of AIV in poultry meat. In addition, the developed biopreparedness protocol can be applied to detect AIV in legal or illegal imported broiler chicken meat. The availability of a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method based on molecular identification of AIV in poultry meat provides an important tool in the prevention of AIV circulation.

  20. Evidence for genetic variation of Eurasian avian influenza viruses of subtype H15: the first report of an H15N7 virus.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Starick, Elke; Fereidouni, Sasan

    2016-03-01

    Since the first detection of H15 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in Australia in 1979, only seven H15 strains have been reported. A new H15 AIV was detected in Ukraine in 2010, carrying the unique HA-NA subtype combination H15N7. This virus replicated efficiently in chicken eggs, and antisera against it reacted strongly with the homologous antigen, but with lower titers when using the reference Australian antigen. The amino acid motifs of the HA cleavage site and receptor-binding site were different from those in the Australian viruses. The new virus, together with an H15 virus from Siberia from 2008, constitutes a new clade of H15 AIV isolates. PMID:26650037

  1. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  2. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  3. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  4. Assessment of the ability of ratite-origin influenza viruses to infect and produce disease in rheas and chickens.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Perdue, M L; Brugh, M; Slemons, R D

    1996-01-01

    Pathobiologic characteristics were determined for three mildly pathogenic (MP) ratite-origin avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Ratite-origin AIVs produced respiratory disease in rheas, and virus was reisolated from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs on days 2-6 postinoculation. Inoculation of two ratite-origin AIVs in the upper respiratory tract of chickens resulted in viral infections, but the mean chicken infectious dose (CID50) for A/emu/Texas/39924/93 (H5N2) (Emu/Texas) virus was 500-fold lower than the CID50 for the A/rhea/North Carolina/39482/93 (H7N1) virus. In ovo and in vivo passage of the MP parent Emu/Texas isolate resulted in emergence of a highly pathogenic (HP) variant that had high plaquing efficiency in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and was highly lethal in chicken pathotyping tests. This variant virus produced gross lesions in chickens similar to those reported for other HP AIVs. These findings demonstrated that ratite-origin AIVs can produce significant clinical disease in rheas and have a realistic potential for interspecies transmission to domestic poultry. Furthermore, HP variants can emerge from MP H5 ratite-origin AIVs if introduced and allowed to circulate in chicken populations.

  5. Comparison of Environmental Test Approaches Through MATED AIV Data and Reference to ECSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquinelli, Mauro; Messidoro, Piero; Basso, Valter; Maggiore, Paolo; Scozzi, Rosario

    2012-07-01

    The verification effectiveness can be improved with a proper knowledge management, collecting and analyzing data coming from the AIV activities and flight operations of former projects. The ESA Model And Test Effectiveness Database (MAT€D) can be used for this purpose, collecting such data and providing associated statistical analyses to derive feedback for the improvement of the Model and Test Philosophies of future projects. This paper presents a methodology to support analysis of MAT€D data, with the purpose of comparing verification processes of different projects, with a specific emphasis on the environmental tests effectiveness. The used approaches are compared with those reported for each stage and level in ECSS-E-ST-10-03 (Testing). Performed AIV activities, related conditions (e.g. duration, levels) at different stages are considered to build a complexity index framework, and related normalization and aggregation functions are discussed. The related “Test Depth Index” (TDI) is proposed as an innovative method to calculate the completeness of the testing activity in relation to the ECSS standards, as a formal complement to the index currently used in MAT€D, namely MATEI (Model And Test Effectiveness Index). The application to a subset of MAT€D data is presented and recommendations are provided for further improvements.

  6. Spring Migration Stopover Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus Shorebird Hosts at Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Angela M; Sitters, Humphrey P; Luttrell, M Page; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

    2016-05-01

    Although low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) are detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay annually, little is known about affected species habitat preferences or the movement patterns that might influence virus transmission and spread. During the 5-wk spring migration stopover period during 2007-2008, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of often-infected ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella; n = 60) and rarely infected sanderlings (Calidris alba; n = 20) to identify locations and habitats important to these species (during daytime and nighttime), determine the extent of overlap with other AIV reservoir species or poultry production areas, reveal possible movements of AIV around the Bay, and assess whether long-distance movement of AIV is likely after shorebird departure. Ruddy turnstones and sanderlings both fed on Bay beaches during the daytime. However, sanderlings used remote sandy points and islands during the nighttime while ruddy turnstones primarily used salt marsh harboring waterfowl and gull breeding colonies, suggesting that this environment supports AIV circulation. Shorebird locations were farther from agricultural land and poultry operations than were random locations, suggesting selection away from poultry. Further, there was no areal overlap between shorebird home ranges and poultry production areas. Only 37% (22/60) of ruddy turnstones crossed into Delaware from capture sites in New Jersey, suggesting partial site fidelity and AIV gene pool separation between the states. Ruddy turnstones departed en masse around June 1 when AIV prevalence was low or declining, suggesting that a limited number of birds could disperse AIV onto the breeding grounds. This study provides needed insight into AIV and migratory host ecology, and results can inform both domestic animal AIV prevention and shorebird conservation efforts.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Renata; Fabrizio, Thomas; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Renata; Fabrizio, Thomas; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America. PMID:26689791

  9. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Renata; Fabrizio, Thomas; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America. PMID:26689791

  10. Spring Migration Stopover Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus Shorebird Hosts at Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Angela M; Sitters, Humphrey P; Luttrell, M Page; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

    2016-05-01

    Although low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) are detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay annually, little is known about affected species habitat preferences or the movement patterns that might influence virus transmission and spread. During the 5-wk spring migration stopover period during 2007-2008, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of often-infected ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella; n = 60) and rarely infected sanderlings (Calidris alba; n = 20) to identify locations and habitats important to these species (during daytime and nighttime), determine the extent of overlap with other AIV reservoir species or poultry production areas, reveal possible movements of AIV around the Bay, and assess whether long-distance movement of AIV is likely after shorebird departure. Ruddy turnstones and sanderlings both fed on Bay beaches during the daytime. However, sanderlings used remote sandy points and islands during the nighttime while ruddy turnstones primarily used salt marsh harboring waterfowl and gull breeding colonies, suggesting that this environment supports AIV circulation. Shorebird locations were farther from agricultural land and poultry operations than were random locations, suggesting selection away from poultry. Further, there was no areal overlap between shorebird home ranges and poultry production areas. Only 37% (22/60) of ruddy turnstones crossed into Delaware from capture sites in New Jersey, suggesting partial site fidelity and AIV gene pool separation between the states. Ruddy turnstones departed en masse around June 1 when AIV prevalence was low or declining, suggesting that a limited number of birds could disperse AIV onto the breeding grounds. This study provides needed insight into AIV and migratory host ecology, and results can inform both domestic animal AIV prevention and shorebird conservation efforts. PMID:27309084

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the "harmful" internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs. PMID:26973600

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the “harmful” internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs. PMID:26973600

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the "harmful" internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs.

  14. Apo AIV and Citrulline Plasma Concentrations in Short Bowel Syndrome Patients: The Influence of Short Bowel Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Targarona, Jordi; Ruiz, Jorge; García, Natalia; Oró, Denise; García-Villoria, Judit; Creus, Gloria; Pita, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients is linked to the functionality of the remnant small bowel (RSB). Patients may wean off PN following a period of intestinal adaptation that restores this functionality. Currently, plasma citrulline is the standard biomarker for monitoring intestinal functionality and adaptation. However, available studies reveal that the relationship the biomarker with the length and function of the RSB is arguable. Thus, having additional biomarkers would improve pointing out PN weaning. Aim By measuring concomitant changes in citrulline and the novel biomarker apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV), as well as taking into account the anatomy of the RSB, this exploratory study aims to a better understanding of the intestinal adaptation process and characterization of the SBS patients under PN. Methods Thirty four adult SBS patients were selected and assigned to adapted (aSBS) and non-adapted (nSBS) groups after reconstructive surgeries. Remaining jejunum and ileum lengths were recorded. The aSBS patients were either on an oral diet (ORAL group), those with intestinal insufficiency, or on oral and home parenteral nutrition (HPN group), those with chronic intestinal failure. Apo AIV and citrulline were analyzed in plasma samples after overnight fasting. An exploratory ROC analysis using citrulline as gold standard was performed. Results Biomarkers, Apo AIV and citrulline showed a significant correlation with RSBL in aSBS patients. In jejuno-ileocolic patients, only Apo AIV correlated with RSBL (rb = 0.54) and with ileum length (rb = 0.84). In patients without ileum neither biomarker showed any correlation with RSBL. ROC analysis indicated the Apo AIV cut-off value to be 4.6 mg /100 mL for differentiating between the aSBS HPN and ORAL groups. Conclusions Therefore, in addition to citrulline, Apo AIV can be set as a biomarker to monitor intestinal adaptation in SBS patients. As short bowel anatomy is shown

  15. Sparse serological evidence of H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in domestic cats, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingshuang; Zhou, Pei; He, Shuyi; Luo, Yongfeng; Jia, Kun; Fu, Cheng; Sun, Yao; He, Huamei; Tu, Liqing; Ning, Zhangyong; Yuan, Ziguo; Wang, Heng; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Liguo

    2015-05-01

    Today the cross-species transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a great concern. A number of AIV strains are now enzootic among poultry, with H9N2 and highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV strains prevalent in China. H5N1 strains have been recognized to infect zoo and domestic feline species. In this serological study we sought to examine evidence that H5N1 strains have infected domestic cats in northeastern China. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional serological study of 916 healthy cats in Heilongjian, Jilin, and Liaonin Provinces. Sera were screened with a hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay and seropositive specimens (HI ≥ 1:20) were further evaluated with a microneutralization (MN) assay against a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 AIV, a H9N2 AIV, A (H1N1)pdm09, and a canine H3N2 virus. While ∼2% of cats had elevated HI assays against H5N1, no elevations were confirmed (MN ≥ 1:80). These data serve as baseline for future surveillance for AIV infections among domestic cats. Conducting such surveillance seems important for geographical areas recognized as endemic for AIVs. This is especially true for countries such as China where domestic cats and poultry are often in close contact.

  16. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Pearce, John M; Reeves, Andrew B; Franson, J Christian; Petersen, Margaret R; Ip, Hon S

    2011-10-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0.2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3.9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (> 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn.

  17. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Pearce, John M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J. Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Ip, Hon S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0.2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3.9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (> 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn.

  18. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, A.M.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ip, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0. 2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3. 9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11. 2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4. 9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (& 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  19. Assessment of human enteric viruses in cultured and wild bivalve molluscs.

    PubMed

    Vilariño, M Luz; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Polo, David; Schaeffer, Julien; Kröl, Joanna; Romalde, Jesús L

    2009-09-01

    Standard and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures were used to monitor cultured and wild bivalve molluscs from the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) for the main human enteric RNA viruses, specifically, norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus (AsV), rotavirus (RT), enterovirus (EV), and Aichi virus (AiV). The results showed the presence of at least one enteric virus in 63.4% of the 41 samples analyzed. NoV GII was the most prevalent virus, detected in 53.7% of the samples, while NoV GI, AsV, EV, and RV were found at lower percentages (7.3, 12.2, 12.2, and 4.9%, respectively). In general, samples obtained in the wild were more frequently contaminated than those from cultured (70.6 vs. 58.3%) molluscs and were more readily contaminated with more than one virus. However, NoV GI was detected in similar amounts in cultured and wild samples (6.4 x 10(2) to 3.3 x 10(3) RNA copies per gram of digestive tissue) while the concentrations of NoV GII were higher in cultured (from 5.6 x 10(1) to 1.5 x 10(4) RNA copies per gram of digestive tissue) than in wild (from 1.3 x 10(2) to 3.4 x 10(4) RNA copies per gram of digestive tissue) samples.

  20. Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds of the Pacific Flyway, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Siembieda, Jennifer L.; Cardona, Carol; Anchell, Nichole; Dao, Nguyet; Reisen, William; Boyce, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. We investigated the prevalence and distribution of AIVs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in North America along the Pacific flyway, which is a major north–south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in Alaska providing opportunities for mixing of Eurasian and American origin influenza viruses. Overall, the prevalence of AIVs was low (1%) among the wide range of avian species tested, but we detected AIVs in 69 hunter-harvested waterfowl (Anseriformes) sampled at a national wildlife refuge in California from October 2007 to January 2008. A wide range of subtypes were detected in waterfowl with H6N1, H10N7, H7N3, and H3N5 being the most common. We suspect H6N1 was introduced or remerged in 2007 at this key wintering site for waterfowl along the Pacific Flyway. Over a 3-week period, 13 H6N1 AIVs were isolated from two northern pintails (Anas acuta), three northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), three ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris), four American widgeon (Anas americana), and one gadwall (Anas strepera). We conclude that a diverse array of AIVs was present and that cross-species transmission was occurring among waterfowl in the central valley wetlands of California. PMID:20059316

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection in isolated Afro-Brazilian communities.

    PubMed

    Motta-Castro, Ana R C; Martins, Regina M B; Yoshida, Clara F T; Teles, Sheila A; Paniago, Anamaria M; Lima, Kátia M B; Gomes, Selma A

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence and genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have distinct geographical distribution. In Brazil, some African-descendants have been maintained as small isolated communities since the slavery period. In this study, HBV infection among these communities of African origin was examined. Individuals (1,058) living in 12 communities were interviewed and serum samples screened for the presence of HBV markers. HBsAg-positive sera were tested for HBV DNA by PCR and positive samples were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.5-22.3), ranging from 5.5% to 42.4%, depending on the communities studied. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that increasing age, family history of hepatitis, and sexual activity were associated significantly with this infection. HBsAg was detected in 23/1,058 (2.2%) individuals. HBV DNA was present in 2/2 of HBeAg-positive serum samples and in 18/21 (85.7%) anti-HBe-positive samples. All HBV isolates belonged to genotype A, subtype Aa. Three RFLP patterns were identified: AI (17 isolates), AIV (1 isolate), and AVI (2 isolates). These findings suggest a common introduction of HBV during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  2. Genetic analysis of H3N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dequan; Liu, Jian; Ju, Houbin; Ge, Feifei; Wang, Jian; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jinping; Liu, Peihong

    2015-08-01

    Five H3N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from live poultry markets (LPMs) and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013. All viruses were characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent genetic comparison and phylogenetic analysis. The hemagglutinin cleavage site of all viruses indicated that the five strains were low-pathogenic AIVs. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the five H3N2 viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza viruses. The eight genes showed evidence of reassortment events between these H3 subtype viruses and other subtype viruses, especially H5 and H7 subtypes, probably in pigeons, domestic ducks, and wild birds. These findings emphasized the importance of AIV surveillance in LPMs and poultry slaughterhouses for understanding the genesis and emergence of novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:25899857

  3. Genetic analysis of H3N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dequan; Liu, Jian; Ju, Houbin; Ge, Feifei; Wang, Jian; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jinping; Liu, Peihong

    2015-08-01

    Five H3N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from live poultry markets (LPMs) and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013. All viruses were characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent genetic comparison and phylogenetic analysis. The hemagglutinin cleavage site of all viruses indicated that the five strains were low-pathogenic AIVs. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the five H3N2 viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza viruses. The eight genes showed evidence of reassortment events between these H3 subtype viruses and other subtype viruses, especially H5 and H7 subtypes, probably in pigeons, domestic ducks, and wild birds. These findings emphasized the importance of AIV surveillance in LPMs and poultry slaughterhouses for understanding the genesis and emergence of novel reassortants with pandemic potential.

  4. Avian influenza virus investigation in wild bobwhite quail from Texas.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Pamela J; Khan, Owais; Vuong, Christine; Reddy, Sanjay M; LaCoste, Lloyd; Rollins, Dale; Lupiani, Blanca

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) populations from the rolling plains of Texas, U. S. A. A total of 1320 swab samples (652 tracheal swabs and 668 cloacal swabs) and 44 serum samples were collected from wild-captured or hunter-harvested bobwhite quail from November 2009 to April 2011 at the Rolling Planes Quail Research Ranch, Fisher County, Texas, U. S. A. The presence of AIV in the swabs was determined by real-time reverse-transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) and all samples positive or suspicious by rRT-PCR were further processed for virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs. A total of 18 (1.4%) swab samples tested positive for AIV by rRT-PCR (cycle threshold [Ct] values < 35): 13 cloacal swabs (1.9%) and 5 tracheal swabs (0.8%). In addition, 100 (7.6%) swab samples were considered suspicious (Ct values 35.1-40): 69 cloacal swabs (10.3%) and 31 tracheal swabs (4.7%). No virus was isolated from any of the rRT-PCR-positive or suspicious samples tested. Additionally, 44 serum samples were screened for AIV antibodies and were negative. The results presented here indicate low prevalence of AIV in wild populations of bobwhite quail.

  5. Evaluation of chicken-origin (DF-1) and quail-origin (QT-6) fibroblast cell lines for replication of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-W; Jung, K; Jadhao, S J; Suarez, D L

    2008-10-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are isolated routinely and propagated in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and mammalian origin Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. Continuous avian cell lines offer advantages for propagation of AIVs over MDCK cells because they maintain species specificity, and lower recurring costs compared to ECE. In this study, the characteristics of two avian fibroblast cell lines were evaluated, DF-1 (chicken-origin) and QT-6 (quail-origin), and their ability to support the growth of AIVs (n=19) belonging to nine different hemagglutinin subtypes from a variety of avian species. The replication efficiency of the AIVs in QT-6 and DF-1 cells was comparable to those in primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and MDCK cells. Receptor distribution analysis demonstrated high prevalence of SA alpha2,3-gal linked receptors in QT-6 and DF-1 cells which support a high growth of AIVs in these cell lines. Furthermore, the QT-6 and DF-1 cells supported high plaque-forming ability of representative highly pathogenic Eurasian H5N1 and H7N1 subtype AIVs. These two avian cell lines, especially QT-6 cells, also showed high transfection efficiency and could be useful for reverse genetics based rescue of AIVs. This study indicates that the DF-1 and QT-6 cell lines may be useful as a substitute for primary CEF and MDCK cells for AIV research in the areas of in vitro host range, molecular pathobiology and molecular genetics.

  6. Genetic characterization of H1 avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory birds and domestic ducks in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Yong-Joo; Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2011-02-01

    H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from migratory birds and domestic ducks from 2003 to 2007 were analyzed to determine their genetic relationship. Phylogenic analysis with nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments showed that 13 H1 AIVs from migratory birds and domestic ducks belonged to Eurasian avian lineages and were closely related to each other. Compared with H1 influenza viruses of swine or human origin in Korea, there was no evidence of reassortment among the human, swine, and avian hosts. Our results show that H1 AIVs isolated in Korea from 2003 to 2007 were genetically stable. However, continued surveillance is needed considering the role of migratory birds and domestic duck as a source of AIVs.

  7. Development of a duplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of antibody responses to influenza A and newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Pinette, Mathieu M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan C; Pasick, John; Ojkic, Davor; Leith, Marsha; Suderman, Matthew; Berhane, Yohannes

    2014-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) cause serious illnesses in domestic poultry, both of which are reportable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) and APMV-1 infections are difficult to differentiate, emphasizing the importance of rapid and sensitive serologic assays that are able to distinguish them. Currently, a variety of serological assays are used for the serologic diagnosis of both diseases, but these assays are not used in multiplex formats. In this study, development of a duplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) based on Luminex xMAP Technology is described. The assay employs MagPlex magnetic microspheres that are covalently coated with recombinant avian influenza virus nucleoprotein and APMV-1 nucleocapsid antigens produced in a baculovirus insect cell expression system. The assay is able to detect AIV antibodies against all existing hemagglutinin (H1-H16) subtypes and simultaneously detect antibodies against APMV-1. In the process of this assay development different bead coupling conditions were compared. The assay has the capability of detecting serum antibodies from chickens and turkeys and optimization was accomplished by using 2462 chicken and 446 turkey field and experimental sera and had a comparable detection capability with currently used assays in the laboratory. Assay threshold values were calculated with Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis (ROC) in non-parametric analysis due to a highly skewed data distribution; this analysis resulted in AIV nucleoprotein relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99.7%, and 97.3% respectively. The APMV-1 nucleocapsid relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95.4%, and 98.5% respectively.

  8. Molecular basis of a unique African variant (A-IV 5) of human apolipoprotein A-IV and its significance in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kamboh, M I; Williams, E R; Law, J C; Aston, C E; Bunker, C H; Ferrell, R E; Pollitzer, W S

    1992-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) exhibits a genetically determined structural polymorphism amenable to analysis by isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting techniques. We have determined the allele frequency and molecular basis of a unique ApoA-IV*5 allele which is widely distributed among blacks but is absent in other populations. The frequency of the ApoA-IV*5 allele in blacks (N = 308) was estimated to be 3.2%. In comparison to the common ApoA-IV*1 allele, analysis of coding and non-coding sequences of the ApoA-IV*5 allele revealed an in-frame insertion of 12 nucleotides near the carboxyl terminal region of the mature protein. The insertion involves an exact duplication of the second of the four repeats and codes for 4 amino acids glutamic acid (GAA), glutamine (CAG), glutamine (CAG), and glutamine (CAG) and is responsible for the charge shift of the the apoA-IV 5 isoform slightly toward the anode as compared to the wild type apoA-IV 1 isoform on the isoelectric focusing gel. This in-frame insertion occurs in a region which is highly conserved among rat, mouse, and humans. In addition to the 12 nucleotide insertion, the four individuals sequenced for the ApoA-IV*5 allele also revealed a same-sense mutation by replacing G to T at the third position of codon 316. Our preliminary data suggest that this unique black allele marker may be of potentially significance in studies of human lipid metabolism and in microevolution.

  9. Apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits AgRP/NPY neurons and activates POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in the brain potently suppresses food intake. However the mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic effects remain to be identified. We first examined the effects of apoA-IV on cellular activities in hypothalamic neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and ne...

  10. EGSE customization for the Euclid NISP Instrument AIV/AIT activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschi, E.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Conforti, V.; Andersen, J. J.; Stephen, J. B.; Valenziano, L.; Auricchio, N.; Bulgarelli, A.; De Rosa, A.; Fioretti, V.; Maiorano, E.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Sortino, F.; Zoli, A.; Balestra, A.; Bonino, D.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Capobianco, V.; Corcione, L.; Dal Corso, F.; Debei, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Dusini, S.; Farinelli, R.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Guizzo, G. P.; Laudisio, F.; Ligori, S.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.; Valieri, C.; Ventura, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration by using various test equipment. The Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and calibration activities at instrument level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP instrument is mounted on the spacecraft. In the case of the Euclid mission this EGSE will be provided by ESA to NISP team, in the HW/SW framework called "CCS Lite", with a possible first usage already during the Warm Electronics (WE) AIV/AIT activities. In this paper we discuss how we will customize that "CCS Lite" as required to support both the WE and Instrument test activities. This customization will primarily involve building the NISP Mission Information Base (the CCS MIB tables) by gathering the relevant data from the instrument sub-units and validating these inputs through specific tools. Secondarily, it will imply developing a suitable set of test sequences, by using uTOPE (an extension to the TCL scripting language, included in the CCS framework), in order to implement the foreseen test procedures. In addition and in parallel, custom interfaces shall be set up between the CCS and the NI-IWS (the NISP Instrument Workstation, which will be in use at any level starting from the WE activities), and also between the CCS and the TCC (the Telescope Control and command Computer, to be only and specifically used during the instrument level tests).

  11. Review of a new molecular virus pathotyping method in the context of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Mikael; Belák, Sándor

    2013-09-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infect various avian species including domestic poultry. Clinical manifestations vary from subclinical or mild to severe multiorgan systemic disease with a near 100% mortality rate. Severe disease is caused by highly virulent specific virus strains, termed highly pathogenic AIV and velogenic NDV. Recent controversial influenza H5 adaptation studies in ferrets have highlighted the importance of preparedness against AIV as a bioterrorism agent. Furthermore, NDV also has zoonotic potential, although symptoms in humans are mild and self-limiting for naturally occurring viruses. Thus, both of these viruses pose a direct biothreat to domestic poultry but also indirectly to humans via zoonotic transmission. For diagnosis and rapid containment of disease, it is crucial to differentiate highly pathogenic AIVs and NDVs from frequently occurring low pathogenic variants. Recently, we developed a novel strategy for pathotyping of AIV and NDV that we review here. The method should be ideal for rapid testing and surveillance in food safety, for wild bird monitoring, and for combating acts of bioterrorism.

  12. A Unique Multibasic Proteolytic Cleavage Site and Three Mutations in the HA2 Domain Confer High Virulence of H7N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Veits, Jutta; Tauscher, Kerstin; Ziller, Mario; Teifke, Jens P.; Stech, Jürgen; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 1999, after circulation for a few months in poultry in Italy, low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza (AI) H7N1 virus mutated into a highly pathogenic (HP) form by acquisition of a unique multibasic cleavage site (mCS), PEIPKGSRVRR*GLF (asterisk indicates the cleavage site), in the hemagglutinin (HA) and additional alterations with hitherto unknown biological function. To elucidate these virulence-determining alterations, recombinant H7N1 viruses carrying specific mutations in the HA of LPAI A/chicken/Italy/473/1999 virus (Lp) and HPAI A/chicken/Italy/445/1999 virus (Hp) were generated. Hp with a monobasic CS or carrying the HA of Lp induced only mild or no disease in chickens, thus resembling Lp. Conversely, Lp with the HA of Hp was as virulent and transmissible as Hp. While Lp with a multibasic cleavage site (Lp_CS445) was less virulent than Hp, full virulence was exhibited when HA2 was replaced by that of Hp. In HA2, three amino acid differences consistently detected between LP and HP H7N1 viruses were successively introduced into Lp_CS445. Q450L in the HA2 stem domain increased virulence and transmission but was detrimental to replication in cell culture, probably due to low-pH activation of HA. A436T and/or K536R restored viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Viruses possessing A436T and K536R were observed early in the HPAI outbreak but were later superseded by viruses carrying all three mutations. Together, besides the mCS, stepwise mutations in HA2 increased the fitness of the Italian H7N1 virus in vivo. The shift toward higher virulence in the field was most likely gradual with rapid optimization. IMPORTANCE In 1999, after 9 months of circulation of low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV), a devastating highly pathogenic (HP) H7N1 AIV emerged in poultry, marking the largest epidemic of AIV reported in a Western country. The HPAIV possessed a unique multibasic cleavage site (mCS) complying with the minimum motif for HPAIV. The main finding

  13. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    PubMed

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions.

  14. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    PubMed

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. PMID:26686812

  15. RNA-seq analysis revealed novel genes and signaling pathway associated with disease resistance to avian influenza virus infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S M; Lamont, S J; Zhou, H

    2014-02-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a type A virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Avian influenza virus infection can cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry, and raises a great public health threat due to potential host jump from animals to humans. To develop more effective intervention strategies to prevent and control AIV infection in poultry, it is essential to elucidate molecular mechanisms of host response to AIV infection in chickens. The objective of this study was to identify genes and signal pathways associated with resistance to AIV infection in 2 genetically distinct highly inbred chicken lines (Fayoumi, relatively resistant to AIV infection, and Leghorn, susceptible to AIV infection). Three-week-old chickens were inoculated with 10(7) EID50 of low pathogenic H5N3 AIV, and lungs and trachea were harvested 4 d postinoculation. Four cDNA libraries (1 library each for infected and noninfected Leghorn, and infected and noninfected Fayoumi) were prepared from the lung samples and sequenced by Illumina Genome Analyzer II, which yielded a total of 116 million, 75-bp single-end reads. Gene expression levels of all annotated chicken genes were analyzed using CLC Genomics Workbench. DESeq was used to identify differentially expressed transcripts between infected and noninfected birds and between genetic lines (false discovery rate < 0.05 and fold-change > 2). Of the expressed transcripts in a total of 17,108 annotated chicken genes in Ensembl database, 82.44 and 81.40% were identified in Leghorn and Fayoumi birds, respectively. The bioinformatics analysis suggests that the hemoglobin family genes, the functional involvements for oxygen transportation and circulation, and cell adhesion molecule signaling pathway play significant roles in disease resistance to AIV infection in chickens. Further investigation of the roles of these candidate genes and signaling pathways in the regulation of host-AIV interaction can lead new directions for the

  16. Evidence for genetic variation of Eurasian avian influenza viruses, subtype H15: The first report of an H15N7 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H15N7 was isolated in 2010 during wild bird surveillance conducted in Ukraine (A/mallard/Novomychalivka/2-23-12/10). This particular subtype combination has not been previously reported. Until now, only seven subtype H15 viruses have been isolated worldwide, ...

  17. Intraperitoneal CCK and fourth-intraventricular Apo AIV require both peripheral and NTS CCK1R to reduce food intake in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chunmin C; Davidson, W Sean; Hibbard, Stephanie K; Georgievsky, Maria; Lee, Alexander; Tso, Patrick; Woods, Stephen C

    2014-05-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are secreted in response to fat consumption, and both cause satiation via CCK 1 receptor (CCK-1R)-containing vagal afferent nerves to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), where Apo AIV is also synthesized. Fasted male Long-Evans rats received ip CCK-8 or fourth-ventricular (i4vt) Apo AIV alone or in combination. Food intake and c-Fos proteins (a product of the c-Fos immediate-early gene) were assessed. i4vt Apo AIV and/or ip CCK at effective doses reduced food intake and activated c-Fos proteins in the NTS and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. Blockade of the CCK-1R by i4vt lorglumide adjacent to the NTS attenuated the satiating and c-Fos-stimulating effects of CCK and Apo AIV, alone or in combination. Maintenance on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks resulted in weight gain and attenuation of both the behavioral and c-Fos responses to a greater extent than occurred in low-fat diet-fed and pair-fed HFD animals. These observations suggest that NTS Apo AIV or/and peripheral CCK requires vagal CCK-1R signaling to elicit satiation and that maintenance on a HFD reduces the satiating capacity of these 2 signals.

  18. An active serological survey of antibodies to newcastle disease and avian influenza (H9N2) viruses in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province,Iran, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Yousef; Ghafouri, Seyed Ali; Tehrani, Farshad; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the antibodies against newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2) in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods A total of 1 530 blood samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens in Bushehr province, south of Iran, were tested for antibodies against NDV and AIV (H9N2) by hemagglutination inhibition test according to International Epizootic Office (OIE) recommendation. Results Of these, 614 (40.13%) and 595 (39.00%) were positive for NDV and AIV (H9N2) respectively. Conclusions The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2) were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program. PMID:25183083

  19. First Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses from Greenland 2014.

    PubMed

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Merkel, Flemming; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2016-05-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were found dead on the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examination in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2 and low pathogenic H5N1 were detected in some of the birds. Characterization of the viruses by full genome sequencing revealed that all the gene segments belonged to the North American lineage of AIVs. The seemingly sparse and mixed subtype occurrence of low pathogenic AIVs in these birds, in addition to the emaciated appearance of the birds, suggests that the murre die-off was due to malnutrition as a result of sparse food availability or inclement weather. Here we present the first characterization of AIVs isolated in Greenland, and our results support the idea that wild birds in Greenland may be involved in the movement of AIV between North America and Europe.

  20. Evaluation of field and laboratory protocols used to detect avian influenza viruses in wild aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Hepp, G R

    2009-09-01

    Careful selection and observance of standard field and laboratory protocols are critical for successful detection and characterization of avian influenza viruses (AIV) from wild birds. Cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-killed or nesting waterfowl and shorebirds from wildlife refuges in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida during 2006 to 2008. Swab samples were inoculated into embryonated eggs followed by hemagglutination (HA) test to determine the presence of hemagglutinating agents. Antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RRT-PCR) were used to detect AIV from both allantoic fluids (AF) and swab specimens of HA-positive samples. Hemagglutination inhibition test was used to detect Newcastle disease virus, another hemagglutinating virus common in wild birds. The HA-positive AF were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for subtyping of the isolates. Out of 825 samples tested, 19 AIV and 3 avian paramyxovirus subtypes were identified by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. Without egg passage, AC-ELISA did not detect virus, whereas matrix gene of 13 AIV were detected using RRT-PCR. When testing was done on AF, 14 were positive for influenza A by AC-ELISA and 20 by RRT-PCR. Antigen capture-ELISA did not detect influenza A when the HA titer was lower than 125, whereas RRT-PCR detected AIV from AF with HA titer as low as 4. The highest isolation rate was from Florida, where out of 109 samples analyzed, 14 AIV were detected by RRT-PCR from AF. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was more sensitive, specific, and cost-effective than AC-ELISA. However, to avoid false-negative results, testing should be performed on AF and not directly from cloacal swabs. Our procedures to detect AIV directly from cloacal swabs need further optimization for improved sensitivity.

  1. AIS Investigation of Agricultural Monocultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired over an agricultural area in eastern San Joaquin County, California in July, 1984. Cover type information was subsequently collected for all fields along this flight line. The lack of detailed ground data on individual fields, however, limited AIS data analysis to a qualitative comparison of the spectral reflectance curves for a total of nine cover types. Based on this analysis, it appears that cover types with a positive slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region have a higher spectral response in the 1200 to 1300 nm region compared to those cover types with a negative slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region. Within cover type, spectral variability was also found to be greater than that between cover types. Given the lack of additional field data, the reason for these differences is a matter of speculation.

  2. A primary chicken tracheal cell culture system for the study of infection with avian respiratory viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens is through cells of the airway epithelium. Here we describe the development and optimization of conditions for culture of tracheal epithelial cells from chicken embryos as well as their use in st...

  3. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. PMID:27486732

  4. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  5. Apolipoprotein A-IV improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Kohan, Alison B.; Kindel, Tammy L.; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Nunemaker, Craig S.; Obici, Silvana; Woods, Stephen C.; Davidson, W. Sean; Tso, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is secreted by the small intestine in response to fat absorption. Here we demonstrate a potential role for apoA-IV in regulating glucose homeostasis. ApoA-IV–treated isolated pancreatic islets had enhanced insulin secretion under conditions of high glucose but not of low glucose, suggesting a direct effect of apoA-IV to enhance glucose-stimulated insulin release. This enhancement involves cAMP at a level distal to Ca2+ influx into the β cells. Knockout of apoA-IV results in compromised insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance compared with WT mice. Challenging apoA-IV−/− mice with a high-fat diet led to fasting hyperglycemia and more severe glucose intolerance associated with defective insulin secretion than occurred in WT mice. Administration of exogenous apoA-IV to apoA-IV−/− mice improved glucose tolerance by enhancing insulin secretion in mice fed either chow or a high-fat diet. Finally, we demonstrate that exogenous apoA-IV injection decreases blood glucose levels and stimulates a transient increase in insulin secretion in KKAy diabetic mice. These results suggest that apoA-IV may provide a therapeutic target for the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and treatment of diabetes. PMID:22619326

  6. The AIV quick look and health monitoring system of the AGILE payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo; Di Cocco, Guido; Tavani, Marco; Marisaldi, Martino

    2008-07-01

    AGILE is an ASI (Italian Space Agency) Small Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics which was launched on April 23 2007 from Satish Dawan Space Centre, India) on a PSLV-C8 rocket. The AGILE Payload is composed of three instruments: a Tungsten-Silicon Tracker designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band, an X-ray imager called SuperAGILE that works in the 18-60 keV energy band, and a Minicalorimeter that detects gamma-rays or particle energy deposits between 300~keV and 200~MeV. The instrument is surrounded by an anti-coincidence (AC) system. We have developed a set of Quick Look software tools in the framework of the Test Equipment (TE) and the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE. This s/w is required in order to support all the assembly, integration and verification (AIV) activities to be carried out for the AGILE mission, from data handling unit level to payload integrated level, calibration campaign, launch campaign and in-orbit commissioning. These software tools have enabled us to test the engineering performance and to perform a health check of the Payload during the various phases. We have used an incremental development approach and a common framework to rapidly adapt our software to the different requirements of the various phases.

  7. Eliciting specific humoral immunity from a plasmid DNA encoding infectious bursal disease virus polyprotein gene fused with avian influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccine coding for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) polyprotein gene and that for avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene have been shown to induce immunity and provide protection against the respective disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether an IBDV polyprotein gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene could trigger immune response to both IBDV and AIV. After transfection, VP2 and HA were detected in the cytoplasm and at cell membrane, respectively, by immunofluorescent antibody double staining method, suggesting the fusion strategy did not affect the location of protein expression. VP4 cleavage between VP2 and HA was confirmed by Western blot, indicating the fusion strategy did not affect VP4 function in transfected cells. After vaccination in chickens, the DNA construct VP24-HA/pcDNA induced ELISA and virus neutralizing antibodies against VP2 and hemagglutination inhibition antibody against the HA subtype. The results indicated that a single plasmid construct carrying IBDV VP243 gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene can elicit specific antibody responses to both IBDV and AIV by DNA vaccination.

  8. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their occupying ecosystem, agricultural production system, or other anthropocentric niches. AIVs or evidence of their infection have been detected...

  9. Induction of antiviral responses against avian influenza virus in embryonated chicken eggs with toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Barjesteh, Neda; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Behboudi, Shahriar; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-05-01

    Early responses against viruses, such as avian influenza virus (AIV), may be induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways. In the present study, an in ovo model was employed to study the antiviral activities of TLR ligands. It was hypothesized that administration of TLR ligands in ovo at the appropriate dose and time can reduce AIV titer in embryonated chicken eggs. Moreover, the study aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the TLR-mediated antiviral responses in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Embryonated eggs (10-14 day old) were treated with TLR2, 4, 7, and 21 ligands using different doses and times pre- and post-AIV infection. The results revealed that treatment of embryonated chicken eggs with TLR ligands reduced AIV replication. Further analysis showed that TLR ligands induced interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN stimulatory genes in the CAM, which may have played a role in the reduction of the AIV titer. The timing and dose of TLR ligands administration had significant impacts on the outcome of the treated eggs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the in ovo route may be employed to determine the antiviral characteristics of TLR ligands against AIV.

  10. Presence of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and wetlands during summer 2010 in California: Are resident birds a potential reservoir?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henaux, V.; Samuel, M.D.; Dusek, R.J.; Fleskes, J.P.; Ip, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Although wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv), the environment plays a critical role for the circulation and persistence of AIv. LPAIv may persist for extended periods in cold environments, suggesting that waterfowl breeding areas in the northern hemisphere may be an important reservoir for AIv in contrast to the warmer southern wintering areas. We evaluated whether southern wetlands, with relatively small populations (thousands) of resident waterfowl, maintain AIv in the summer, prior to the arrival of millions of migratory birds. We collected water and fecal samples at ten wetlands in two regions (Yolo Bypass and Sacramento Valley) of the California Central Valley during three bi-weekly intervals beginning in late July, 2010. We detected AIv in 29/367 fecal samples (7.9%) and 12/597 water samples (2.0%) by matrix real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). We isolated two H3N8, two H2N3, and one H4N8 among rRT-PCR positive fecal samples but no live virus from water samples. Detection of AIv RNA in fecal samples was higher from wetlands in the Sacramento Valley (11.9%) than in the Yolo Bypass (0.0%), but no difference was found for water samples (2.7 vs. 1.7%, respectively). Our study showed that low densities of hosts and unfavorable environmental conditions did not prevent LPAIv circulation during summer in California wetlands. Our findings justify further investigations to understand AIv dynamics in resident waterfowl populations, compare AIv subtypes between migratory and resident waterfowl, and assess the importance of local AIv as a source of infection for migratory birds.

  11. Presence of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and wetlands during summer 2010 in California: are resident birds a potential reservoir?

    PubMed

    Hénaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D; Dusek, Robert J; Fleskes, Joseph P; Ip, Hon S

    2012-01-01

    Although wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv), the environment plays a critical role for the circulation and persistence of AIv. LPAIv may persist for extended periods in cold environments, suggesting that waterfowl breeding areas in the northern hemisphere may be an important reservoir for AIv in contrast to the warmer southern wintering areas. We evaluated whether southern wetlands, with relatively small populations (thousands) of resident waterfowl, maintain AIv in the summer, prior to the arrival of millions of migratory birds. We collected water and fecal samples at ten wetlands in two regions (Yolo Bypass and Sacramento Valley) of the California Central Valley during three bi-weekly intervals beginning in late July, 2010. We detected AIv in 29/367 fecal samples (7.9%) and 12/597 water samples (2.0%) by matrix real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). We isolated two H3N8, two H2N3, and one H4N8 among rRT-PCR positive fecal samples but no live virus from water samples. Detection of AIv RNA in fecal samples was higher from wetlands in the Sacramento Valley (11.9%) than in the Yolo Bypass (0.0%), but no difference was found for water samples (2.7 vs. 1.7%, respectively). Our study showed that low densities of hosts and unfavorable environmental conditions did not prevent LPAIv circulation during summer in California wetlands. Our findings justify further investigations to understand AIv dynamics in resident waterfowl populations, compare AIv subtypes between migratory and resident waterfowl, and assess the importance of local AIv as a source of infection for migratory birds. PMID:22328934

  12. Influenza A Virus Migration and Persistence in North American Wild Birds

    PubMed Central

    Kühnert, Denise; Fourment, Mathieu; Raven, Garnet; Pryor, S. Paul; Niles, Lawrence J.; Danner, Angela; Walker, David; Mendenhall, Ian H.; Su, Yvonne C. F.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Webby, Richard J.; Wentworth, David E.; Drummond, Alexei J.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV) samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:24009503

  13. Survival of H5N1 influenza virus in water and its inactivation by chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Maria Elena; Tecu, Cristina; Ivanciuc, Alina Elena; Necula, Gheorghe; Lupulescu, Emilia; Onu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The ability of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) to survive in surface water has been assessed in experimental laboratory conditions, based on non-pathogenic avian reassortant model, by titration of infectivity (TCID50) at different time intervals, in three different types of water. The effect of different chemicals on AIV's survival was assessed using the same type of experimental model. After exposure to the chemical, followed by growth on a suitable substrate, the AIV was quantified by a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The reassortant virus persisted, and remained infective in aquatic environments, for 12 days at 22-35 degrees C and up to 20 days at 4 degrees C, irrespective of the type of water, supporting the hypothesis of a potential risk for transmitting the virus among birds and contaminating the household water via common sources of water. A significant decrease for AIV persistence models was recorded for sea water, after 12 days, at 35 degrees C. An effective inactivation has been shown when using commercially available products based on glutaraldehyde and penta potassium bis (peroxy mono sulphate) bis(sulphate), respectively. This rapid and safe method for decontamination, developed in this study, might be helpful in implementation of biosafety measures in laboratory and farms against AIV.

  14. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A; Cunningham, Fred L; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Subtype H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976-2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971-2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry. PMID:26858078

  15. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976–2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971–2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry. PMID:26858078

  16. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay.

  17. Ecological Factors Driving Avian Influenza Virus Dynamics in Spanish Wetland Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Acevedo, Pelayo; Allepuz, Alberto; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alba, Anna; Busquets, Núria; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Álvarez, Vega; Abad, Francesc Xavier; Barral, Marta; Majó, Natàlia; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Studies exploring the ecological interactions between avian influenza viruses (AIV), natural hosts and the environment are scarce. Most work has focused on viral survival and transmission under laboratory conditions and through mathematical modelling. However, more integrated studies performed under field conditions are required to validate these results. In this study, we combined information on bird community, environmental factors and viral epidemiology to assess the contribution of biotic and abiotic factors in the occurrence of low pathogenic AIV in Spanish wetlands. For that purpose, seven locations in five different wetlands were studied during two years (2007–2009), including seven sampling visits by location. In each survey, fresh faeces (n = 4578) of wild birds and water samples were collected for viral detection. Also, the vegetation structure, water physical properties of wetlands, climatic conditions and wild bird community composition were determined. An overall AIV prevalence of 1.7%±0.4 was detected in faecal samples with important fluctuations among seasons and locations. Twenty-six AIV were isolated from the 78 RRT-PCR positive samples and eight different haemagglutinines and five neuraminidases were identified, being the combination H3N8 the most frequent. Variation partitioning procedures identified the combination of space and time variables as the most important pure factor – independently to other factors – explaining the variation in AIV prevalence (36.8%), followed by meteorological factor (21.5%) and wild bird community composition/vegetation structure (21.1%). These results contribute to the understanding of AIV ecological drivers in Spanish ecosystems and provide useful guidelines for AIV risk assessment identifying potential hotspots of AIV activity. PMID:23152749

  18. Isolation of H9N2 avian influenza virus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Zoghby, Elham F; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Hassan, Mohamed K; Aly, Mona M; Selim, Abdullah; Kilany, Walid H; Selim, Usama; Nasef, Soad; Aggor, Mohamed G; Abdelwhab, E M; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-06-01

    This study describes the first isolation of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from commercial bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in Egypt. Infected birds showed neither clinical signs nor mortality. Virus isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of the H9N2 virus in cloacal swab samples collected at 35 days of age and the absence of other AIV subtypes, including H5 and H7. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the isolated virus showed 99.1% and 98.2% nucleotide identity and 97.3% and 100% amino acid identity, respectively, to those of H9N2 viruses currently circulating in poultry in the Middle East. Phylogenetically, the Egyptian H9N2 virus was closely related to viruses of the G1-like lineage isolated from neighbouring countries, indicating possible epidemiological links.

  19. The AIS-5000 parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, L.A.; Wilson, S.S.

    1988-05-01

    The AIS-5000 is a commercially available massively parallel processor which has been designed to operate in an industrial environment. It has fine-grained parallelism with up to 1024 processing elements arranged in a single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) architecture. The processing elements are arranged in a one-dimensional chain that, for computer vision applications, can be as wide as the image itself. This architecture has superior cost/performance characteristics than two-dimensional mesh-connected systems. The design of the processing elements and their interconnections as well as the software used to program the system allow a wide variety of algorithms and applications to be implemented. In this paper, the overall architecture of the system is described. Various components of the system are discussed, including details of the processing elements, data I/O pathways and parallel memory organization. A virtual two-dimensional model for programming image-based algorithms for the system is presented. This model is supported by the AIS-5000 hardware and software and allows the system to be treated as a full-image-size, two-dimensional, mesh-connected parallel processor. Performance bench marks are given for certain simple and complex functions.

  20. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy restores glucose homeostasis in apolipoprotein A-IV KO mice.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Josh W; Haller, April; Sorrell, Joyce; Wang, Fei; Seeley, Randy J; Tso, Patrick; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2015-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most successful strategy for treating obesity, yet the mechanisms for this success are not clearly understood. Clinical literature suggests that plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) rise with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). apoA-IV is secreted from the intestine postprandially and has demonstrated benefits for both glucose and lipid homeostasis. Because of the parallels in the metabolic improvements seen with surgery and the rise in apoA-IV levels, we hypothesized that apoA-IV was necessary for obtaining the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery. To test this hypothesis, we performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a surgery with clinical efficacy very similar to that for RYGB, in whole-body apoA-IV knockout (KO) mice. We found that VSG reduced body mass and improved both glucose and lipid homeostasis similarly in wild-type mice compared with apoA-IV KO mice. In fact, VSG normalized the impairment in glucose tolerance and caused a significantly greater improvement in hepatic triglyceride storage in the apoA-IV KO mice. Last, independent of surgery, apoA-IV KO mice had a significantly reduced preference for a high-fat diet. Altogether, these data suggest that apoA-IV is not necessary for the metabolic improvements shown with VSG, but also suggest an interesting role for apoA-IV in regulating macronutrient preference and hepatic triglyceride levels. Future studies are necessary to determine whether this is the case for RYGB as well.

  1. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SUGURO, Atsushi; ISHIDA, Yuki; KAWAMURA, Akinobu; TAMURA, Miho; SATOH, Keisuke; TSUJIMURA, Misato; HASEGAWA, Tomomi; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  2. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Kawamura, Akinobu; Tamura, Miho; Satoh, Keisuke; Tsujimura, Misato; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-02-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  3. Reduction of avian influenza virus shedding by administration of Toll-like receptor ligands to chickens.

    PubMed

    Barjesteh, Neda; Shojadoost, Bahram; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Emam, Mehdi; Hodgins, Douglas C; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-09-11

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of concern to the poultry industry. Outbreaks of AIV highlight the urgent need for effective control measures. Prophylactic strategies should be explored that rapidly elicit immunity against the virus. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune molecules that can induce anti-viral responses, therefore the application of TLR ligands as prophylactic agents in chickens is gaining more attention. We hypothesized that treatment of chickens with TLR ligands reduces the shedding of AIV from infected birds. In addition, the effects of TLR ligand dose and route of administration on the efficiency of TLR ligands to reduce AIV shedding were examined. Chickens were treated with TLR2, 4, 7 and 21 ligands using different doses and routes of administration, 18h before AIV infection. Moreover, the expression of several candidate genes, such as type I interferons, PKR, OAS, viperin and IFITM3 was quantified at 3, 8 and 18h post-treatment with TLR ligands. The results revealed that route of administration and dosage affect the efficacy of TLR ligands to reduce virus shedding. Furthermore, varying effects were observed when different ligands were applied. Our results demonstrated that all TLR ligand treatments reduced AIV shedding, with the CpG-ODN 1826 being the most efficacious to reduce oral virus shedding, whereas LPS from Escherichia coli 026:B6 resulted in the largest reduction in cloacal virus shedding. Moreover, TLR ligands induced the expression of genes involved in antiviral responses such as type I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes in chicken trachea and cecal tonsils. These results raise the possibility of treatment of chickens with TLR ligands as anti-viral agents.

  4. Zoonotic infections with avian influenza A viruses and vaccine preparedness: a game of "mix and match"

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Various direct avian-to-human transmissions of influenza A virus subtypes upon exposure to infected poultry have been previously observed in the past decades. Although some of these strains caused lethal infections, the lack of sustained person-to-person transmission has been the major factor that prevented these viruses from causing new pandemics. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) yet again breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. Notably, roughly 20% of the A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection whereas two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal. Thus, these events revived the concerns of potential pandemic threats by AIVs in the horizon. This article reviews the various human incursions with AIV variants and provides insight on how continued circulation of these viruses poses perpetual challenge to global public health. As the world anticipates for the next human pandemic, constant vigilance for newly emerging viruses in nature is highly encouraged. With the various numbers of AIVs demonstrating their capacity to breach the animal-human host interface and apparent limitations of current antivirals, there is a need to broaden the selection of pre-pandemic vaccine candidate viruses and development of novel alternative therapeutic strategies. PMID:25003087

  5. Genetics, Receptor Binding, Replication, and Mammalian Transmission of H4 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Live Poultry Markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Libin; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Gu, Chunyang; Guan, Yuntao; Suzuki, Yasuo; Li, Yanbing; Jiang, Yongping; Tian, Guobin; Liu, Liling

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT H4 avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in the world. However, whether H4 AIVs pose a threat to public health remains largely unclear. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships, receptor binding properties, replication, and transmissibility in mammals of H4 AIVs isolated from live poultry markets in China between 2009 and 2012. Genomic sequence analysis of 36 representative H4 viruses revealed 32 different genotypes, indicating that these viruses are undergoing complex and frequent reassortment events. All 32 viruses tested could replicate in the respiratory organs of infected mice without prior adaptation. Receptor binding analysis demonstrated that the H4 AIVs bound to α-2,6-linked glycans, although they retained the binding preference for α-2,3-linked glycans. When we tested the direct-contact transmission of 10 H4 viruses in guinea pigs, we found that three viruses did not transmit to any of the contact animals, one virus transmitted to one of three contact animals, and six viruses transmitted to all three contact animals. When we further tested the respiratory droplet transmissibility of four of the viruses that transmitted efficiently via direct contact, we found that three of them could transmit to one or two of the five exposed animals. Our study demonstrates that the current circulating H4 AIVs can infect, replicate in, and transmit to mammalian hosts, thereby posing a potential threat to human health. These findings emphasize the continual need for enhanced surveillance of H4 AIVs. IMPORTANCE Numerous surveillance studies have documented the wide distribution of H4 AIVs throughout the world, yet the biological properties of H4 viruses have not been well studied. In this study, we found that multiple genotypes of H4 viruses are cocirculating in the live poultry markets of China and that H4 viruses can replicate in mice, possess human-type receptor binding specificity, and transmit between

  6. Delivery of an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine adjuvanted with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated CpG ODN induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-09-14

    In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in

  7. Delivery of an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine adjuvanted with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated CpG ODN induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-09-14

    In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in

  8. Chicken cells sense influenza A virus infection through MDA5 and CARDIF signaling involving LGP2.

    PubMed

    Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Zimmer, Gert; McCullough, Kenneth C; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) raise worldwide veterinary and public health concerns due to their potential for zoonotic transmission. While infection with highly pathogenic AIV results in high mortality in chickens, this is not necessarily the case in wild birds and ducks. It is known that innate immune factors can contribute to the outcome of infection. In this context, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is the main cytosolic pattern recognition receptor known for detecting influenza A virus infection in mammalian cells. Chickens, unlike ducks, lack RIG-I, yet chicken cells do produce type I interferon (IFN) in response to AIV infection. Consequently, we sought to identify the cytosolic recognition elements in chicken cells. Chicken mRNA encoding the putative chicken analogs of CARDIF and LGP2 (chCARDIF and chLGP2, respectively) were identified. HT7-tagged chCARDIF was observed to associate with mitochondria in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts. The exogenous expression of chCARDIF, as well as of the caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) of the chicken melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (chMDA5), strongly activated the chicken IFN-β (chIFN-β) promoter. The silencing of chMDA5, chCARDIF, and chIRF3 reduced chIFN-β levels induced by AIV, indicating their involvement in AIV sensing. As with mammalian cells, chLGP2 had opposing effects. While overexpression decreased the activation of the chIFN-β promoter, the silencing of endogenous chLGP2 reduced chIFN-β induced by AIV. We finally demonstrate that the chMDA5 signaling pathway is inhibited by the viral nonstructural protein 1. In conclusion, chicken cells, including DF-1 fibroblasts and HD-11 macrophage-like cells, employ chMDA5 for sensing AIV.

  9. JGOMAS: New Approach to AI Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barella, A.; Valero, S.; Carrascosa, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new environment for teaching practical work in AI subjects. The main purpose of this environment is to make AI techniques more appealing to students and to facilitate the use of the toolkits which are currently widely used in research and development. This new environment has a toolkit for developing and executing agents,…

  10. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  11. The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in regulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Qing; Huesman, Sarah; Xu, Min; Li, Xiaoming; Lou, Danwen; Woods, Stephen C; Marziano, Corina; Tso, Patrick

    2015-10-15

    Both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) are produced from the gut and enhance postprandial insulin secretion. This study investigated whether apoA-IV regulates nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion and whether apoA-IV knockout causes compensatory GLP-1 release. Using lymph-fistula-mice, we first determined lymphatic GLP-1 secretion by administering apoA-IV before an intraduodenal Ensure infusion. apoA-IV changed neither basal nor Ensure-induced GLP-1 secretion relative to saline administration. We then assessed GLP-1 in apoA-IV-/- and wild-type (WT) mice administered intraduodenal Ensure. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable lymph flow, lymphatic triglyceride, glucose, and protein outputs as WT mice. Intriguingly, apoA-IV-/- mice had higher lymphatic GLP-1 concentration and output than WT mice 30 min after Ensure administration. Increased GLP-1 was also observed in plasma of apoA-IV-/- mice at 30 min. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable total gut GLP-1 content relative to WT mice under fasting, but a lower GLP-1 content 30 min after Ensure administration, suggesting that more GLP-1 was secreted. Moreover, an injection of apoA-IV protein did not reverse the increased GLP-1 secretion in apoA-IV-/- mice. Finally, we assessed gene expression of GLUT-2 and the lipid receptors, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40, GPR119, and GPR120 in intestinal segments. GLUT-2, GPR40 and GPR120 mRNAs were unaltered by apoA-IV knockout. However, ileal GPR119 mRNA was significantly increased in apoA-IV-/- mice. GPR119 colocalizes with GLP-1 in ileum and stimulates GLP-1 secretion by sensing OEA, lysophosphatidylcholine, and 2-monoacylglycerols. We suggest that increased ileal GPR119 is a potential mechanism by which GLP-1 secretion is enhanced in apoA-IV-/- mice. PMID:26294669

  12. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  13. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  14. Mycoplasma gallisepticum modifies the pathogenesis of influenza A virus in the avian tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sid, Hicham; Hartmann, Sandra; Petersen, Henning; Ryll, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-05-01

    Multiple respiratory infections have a significant impact on health and economy. Pathogenesis of co-infecting viruses and bacteria and their interaction with mucosal surfaces are poorly characterized. In this study we established a co-infection model based on pre-incubation of tracheal organ cultures (TOC) with Mycoplasma (M.) gallisepticum and a subsequent infection with avian influenza virus (AIV). Mycoplasma gallisepticum modified the pathogenesis of AIV as demonstrated in TOC of two different avian species (chickens and turkeys). Co-infection promoted bacterial growth in tracheal epithelium. Depending on the interaction time of M. gallisepticum with the host cells, AIV replication was either promoted or suppressed. M. gallisepticum inhibited the antiviral gene expression and affected AIV attachment to the host cell by desialylation of α-2,3 linked sialic acids. Ultrastructural analysis of co-infected TOC suggests that both pathogens may attach to and possibly infect the same epithelial cell. The obtained results contribute to better understanding of the interaction dynamics between M. gallisepticum and AIV. They highlight the importance of the time interval between infections as well as the biological properties of the involved pathogens as influencing factors in the outcome of respiratory infections.

  15. Virological Investigation of Avian Influenza Virus on Postglacial Species of Phasianidae and Tetraonidae in the Italian Alps

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; Ghetti, Giulia; Gugiatti, Alessandro; Cotti, Claudia; Piredda, Isabella; Frasnelli, Matteo; De Marco, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Land-based birds, belonging to Galliformes order are considered to be potential intermediaries in the emergence of new strains of influenza A viruses (AIVs), but the viral circulation in these birds remains largely unknown. To gain insights into the circulation of AIV in the wild Galliformes populations in Italian Alps, we conducted a virological survey on rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis) belonging to Phasianidae family and on tetraonids including rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus helveticus) and black grouse (Tetrao tetrix tetrix). In 2003 and 2004, during the hunting seasons, 79 wild Galliformes, categorised into age and sex classes, were hunted in the Sondrio Province (Central Alps). Cloacal swabs were collected from 11 rock partridges and from 68 tetraonids including 23 alpine rock ptarmigans and 45 black grouses. We tested cloacal swabs by a high sensitive reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR detecting the matrix gene of AIV. No AIV was detected in the investigated samples, thus, suggesting the lack of AIV circulation in these relict populations in the study period. In terms of threatened species conservation, during wildlife management activities, it is very important to exclude the introduction of AIV-carrier birds in shared territories, a fact representing a health risk for these populations. PMID:24167732

  16. Potential Intercontinental Movement of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus into North America by Wild Birds: Application of a Rapid Assessment Framework.

    PubMed

    Miller, R S; Sweeney, S J; Akkina, J E; Saito, E K

    2015-12-01

    A critical question surrounding emergence of novel strains of avian influenza viruses (AIV) is the ability for wild migratory birds to translocate a complete (unreassorted whole genome) AIV intercontinentally. Virus translocation via migratory birds is suspected in outbreaks of highly pathogenic strain A(H5N1) in Asia, Africa and Europe. As a result, the potential intercontinental translocation of newly emerging AIV such as A(H7N9) from Eurasia to North America via migratory movements of birds remains a concern. An estimated 2.91 million aquatic birds move annually between Eurasia and North America with an estimated AIV prevalence as high as 32.2%. Here, we present a rapid assessment to address the likelihood of whole (unreassorted)-genome translocation of Eurasian strain AIV into North America. The scope of this assessment was limited specifically to assess the weight of evidence to support the movement of an unreassorted AIV intercontinentally by migratory aquatic birds. We developed a rapid assessment framework to assess the potential for intercontinental movement of avian influenzas by aquatic birds. This framework was iteratively reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel of scientific experts until a consensus was established. Our assessment framework identified four factors that may contribute to the potential for introduction of any AIV intercontinentally into North America by wild aquatic birds. These factors, in aggregate, provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of new forms of AIV from Eurasia to be introduced by aquatic birds into North America. Based on our assessment, we determined that the potential for introduction of A(H7N9) into North America through aquatic migratory birds is possible, but the likelihood ranges from extremely low to low.

  17. A single substitution in amino acid 184 of the NP protein alters the replication and pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we found that exchanging the NP genes of recombinant avian influenza viruses (AIVs) affected viral replication and altered host gene expression and mean death times in chickens infected with these viruses. Five amino acids at positions 22, 184, 400, 406, and 423 were different between th...

  18. Genetic relationship of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in Korea and their pathogenic potential in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Min-Chul; Paek, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kim, Bang-Sil; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2012-03-23

    The H3 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most frequently isolated subtypes in domestic ducks, live poultry markets, and wild birds in Korea. In 2002-2009, a total of 45 H3 subtype AIVs were isolated from the feces of clinically normal domestic ducks (n=28) and wild birds (n=17). The most prevalent subtypes in domestic ducks were H3N2 (35.7%), H3N6 (35.7%), H3N8 (25.0%), and H3N1 (3.6%, novel subtype in domestic duck in Korea). In contrast, H3N8 (70.6%) is the most prevalent subtype in wild birds in Korea. In the phylogenetic analysis, HA genes of the Korean H3 AIVs were divided into 3 groups (Korean duck, wild bird 1, and wild bird 2) and all viruses of duck origin except one were clustered in a single group. However, other genes showed extensive diversity and at least 17 genotypes were circulating in domestic ducks in Korea. When the analysis expanded to viruses of wild bird origin, the genetic diversity of Korean H3 AIVs became more complicated. Extensive reassortments may have occurred in H3 subtype influenza viruses in Korea. When we inoculated chickens and ducks with six selected viruses, some of the viruses replicated efficiently without pre-adaptation and shed a significant amount of viruses through oropharyngeal and cloacal routes. This raised concerns that H3 subtype AIV could be a new subtype in chickens in Korea. Continuous surveillance is needed to prepare the advent of a novel subtype AIV in Korea.

  19. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaodan; Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential.

  20. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaodan; Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  1. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.

  2. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity. PMID:26185241

  3. Design concept of the electrical ground support equipment for the AIV and calibration of the Euclid NISP instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Butler, Chris. R.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Conforti, Vito; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Gianotti, Fulvio; Ligori, Sebastiano; Maciaszek, Thierry; Morgante, Gianluca; Muñoz, Jacinto; Nicastro, Luciano; Prieto, Eric; Rebolo-López, Rafael; Riva, Mario; Spano, Paolo; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Valenziano, Luca; Villó, Isidro; Zerbi, Filippo Maria

    2012-09-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. In this paper we describe the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) which shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and calibration activities at instrument level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP instrument is mounted on the spacecraft. We present the EGSE conceptual design as defined in order to be compliant with the AIV/AIT and calibration requirements. The proposed concept is aimed at maximizing the re-use in the EGSE configuration of the Test Equipment developed for subsystem level activities, as well as, at allowing a smooth transition from instrument level to satellite level, and, possibly, at Ground Segment level. This paper mainly reports the technical status at the end of the Definition phase and it is presented on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.

  4. Effects of different NS genes of avian influenza viruses and amino acid changes on pathogenicity of recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 viruses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Lee, Su-Hyung; Kim, Dae-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-30

    To examine the effects of the NS1 and NEP genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on pathogenicity in mice, we generated recombinant PR8 viruses containing 3 different NS genes of AIVs. In contrast to the reverse genetics-generated PR8 (rPR8) strain and other recombinant viruses, the recombinant virus rPR8-NS(0028), which contained the NS gene of A/chicken/KBNP-0028/2000 (H9N2) (0028), was non-pathogenic to mice. The novel single mutations of 0028 NS1 to corresponding amino acid of PR8 NS1, G139D and S151T increased the pathogenicity of rPR8-NS(0028). The replacement of the PL motifs (EPEV or RSEV) of pathogenic recombinant viruses with that of 0028 (GSEV) did not reduce the pathogenicity of the viruses. However, a recombinant virus with an EPEV-grafted 0028 NS gene was more pathogenic than rPR8-NS(0028) but less than rPR8. The lower pathogenicity of rPR8-NS(0028) might be associated with the lower virus titer and IFN-β level in the lungs of infected mice, and be attributed to G139, S151 and GSEV-PL motif of NS1 gene of 0028. In conclusion we defined new amino acid residues of NS1 related to mice pathogenicity and the presence of pathogenic NS genes among low pathogenic AIVs may encourage continuous monitoring of their mammalian pathogenicity.

  5. A virus spreading model for cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L.; Yeung, K. H.; Wong, K. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since cognitive radio (CR) networks could solve the spectrum scarcity problem, they have drawn much research in recent years. Artificial intelligence(AI) is introduced into CRs to learn from and adapt to their environment. Nonetheless, AI brings in a new kind of attacks specific to CR networks. The most powerful one is a self-propagating AI virus. And no spreading properties specific to this virus have been reported in the literature. To fill this research gap, we propose a virus spreading model of an AI virus by considering the characteristics of CR networks and the behavior of CR users. Several important observations are made from the simulation results based on the model. Firstly, the time taken to infect the whole network increases exponentially with the network size. Based on this result, CR network designers could calculate the optimal network size to slow down AI virus propagation rate. Secondly, the anti-virus performance of static networks to an AI virus is better than dynamic networks. Thirdly, if the CR devices with the highest degree are initially infected, the AI virus propagation rate will be increased substantially. Finally, it is also found that in the area with abundant spectrum resource, the AI virus propagation speed increases notably but the variability of the spectrum does not affect the propagation speed much.

  6. Detection prevalence of H5N1 avian influenza virus among stray cats in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Shao, Jun-Jun; Lin, Tong; Li, Yang-Fan; Wei, Ping; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Since 1997, more and more cases of the infectious H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans have been reported all over the world but the transmission of H5N1 avian influenza virus to stray cats has been little demonstrated. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of H5N1 AIV antibodies in stray cats in eastern China where is the dominant enzootic H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV). A total of 1,020 nasal swab and 1,020 serum samples were collected and tested. Evidence of HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies was present in two of the 1,020 serum samples that were positive by HI assay and NT assay, respectively. The results imply little transmission and that the Clade 2.3.2 HPAIV H5N1 infections in poultry did not significantly affect the rural animal shelters or suburban environment in eastern China. In future studies, these results can be used as baseline seroepidemiological levels for H5N1 AIV among cats in China.

  7. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  8. Detection prevalence of H5N1 avian influenza virus among stray cats in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Shao, Jun-Jun; Lin, Tong; Li, Yang-Fan; Wei, Ping; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Since 1997, more and more cases of the infectious H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans have been reported all over the world but the transmission of H5N1 avian influenza virus to stray cats has been little demonstrated. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of H5N1 AIV antibodies in stray cats in eastern China where is the dominant enzootic H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV). A total of 1,020 nasal swab and 1,020 serum samples were collected and tested. Evidence of HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies was present in two of the 1,020 serum samples that were positive by HI assay and NT assay, respectively. The results imply little transmission and that the Clade 2.3.2 HPAIV H5N1 infections in poultry did not significantly affect the rural animal shelters or suburban environment in eastern China. In future studies, these results can be used as baseline seroepidemiological levels for H5N1 AIV among cats in China. PMID:25952001

  9. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  10. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  11. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at -20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl₂)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at -20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl₂ inactivated 6 log₁₀ AIV within 5 min at -20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl₂ solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl₂ is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons.

  12. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at −20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl2)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at −20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl2 inactivated 6 log10 AIV within 5 min at −20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl2 solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl2 is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  13. Analytical validation of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for Pan-American lineage H7 subtype Avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Ip, H.S.; Suarez, D.L.; Slemons, R.D.; Stallknecht, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for the identification of the H7 subtype in North American Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) was first reported in 2002; however, recent AIV surveillance efforts in wild birds and H7 outbreaks in poultry demonstrated that the 2002 test did not detect all H7 AIVs present in North and South America. Therefore, a new test, the 2008 Pan-American H7 test, was developed by using recently available H7 nucleotide sequences. The analytical specificity of the new assay was characterized with an RNA panel composed of 19 H7 viruses from around the world and RNA from all hemagglutinin subtypes except H16. Specificity for North and South American lineage H7 viruses was observed. Assay limits of detection were determined to be between 103 and 104 gene copies per reaction with in vitro transcribed RNA, and 100.0 and 10 0.8 50% egg infectious doses per reaction. The 2008 Pan-American H7 test also was shown to perform similarly to the 2002 test with specimens from chickens experimentally exposed to A/Chicken/BritishColumbia/314514-2/04 H7N3 highly pathogenic AIV. Furthermore, the 2008 test was able to detect 100% (n = 27) of the H7 AIV isolates recovered from North American wild birds in a 2006-2007 sample set (none of which were detected by the 2002 H7 test).

  14. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species.

  15. Bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses at the wildlife/domestic interface: an eco-epidemiological framework implemented in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, A; Grosbois, V; Etter, E; Gaidet, N; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2014-12-01

    Wild terrestrial birds can act as potential local spreaders or bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) between waterfowl (the maintenance hosts of AIVs) and domestic avian populations in which AIVs may cause disease. Few studies have investigated this hypothesis, although it is an important knowledge gap in our understanding of AIV spread within socio-ecosystems. We designed a simple and reproducible approach in an agro-ecosystem in Zimbabwe based on: (1) bird counts at key target sites (i.e., wetlands, villages, intensive poultry production buildings and ostrich farms) to identify which wild birds species co-occur in these different sites and seasons when the risk of AIV transmission through these potential bridge hosts is maximal and (2) targeted sampling and testing for AIV infection in the identified potential bridge hosts. We found that 12 wild bird species represented the vast majority (79%) of co-occurrences in the different sites, whereas 230 bird species were recorded in this ecosystem. Specifically, three species - barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, red-billed quelea, Quelea quelea and cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis - represented the main potential bridge host species (65% of co-occurrences). In two out of these three species (i.e., barn swallow and red-billed quelea), we detected AIV infections, confirming that they can play a bridge function between waterfowl and domestic species in the ecosystem. Our approach can be easily implemented in other ecosystems to identify potential bridge hosts, and our results have implications in terms of surveillance, risk management and control of AIV spread in socio-ecosystems. PMID:25457135

  16. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  17. Associations of chicken Mx1 polymorphism with antiviral responses in avian influenza virus infected embryos and broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Brahmakshatriya, V; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S; Okimoto, R; Li, X; Chiang, H; Zhou, H

    2012-12-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major respiratory disease of poultry that causes catastrophic losses to the poultry industry. The Mx protein has been shown to confer antiviral responses to influenza viruses in mice. One nonsynonymous substitution (S631N) in the chicken Mx protein is reported to be associated with resistance to AIV infection in vitro. The previous studies suggested controversy over whether this substitution in the Mx protein plays an important antiviral role in AIV infection in the chicken. It would be intriguing to investigate if the substitution is associated with resistance to AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in chickens. In this study, the embryos and young chicks were generated from the cross of Mx1 heterozygous (S631N) parents with an expected segregating ratio of 1:2:1 in the progeny. A PCR length polymorphism was developed to genotype the Mx1 gene from 119 embryos and 48 chickens. The embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose (EID(50)) H5N9 AIV on d 13. Hemagglutinating units in allantoic fluid were determined at 48 h postinoculation. For the in vivo study, twenty-four 1-wk-old broilers were inoculated with 10(6) EID(50) H5N3, and virus titers in lungs were evaluated at d 4 postinoculation. This is the first report revealing no significant association between Mx1 genotypes and low pathogenesis AIV infection both in ovo and in vivo in the chicken. Total RNA samples were isolated from chicken lung tissues in the in vivo study, and the Mx1 mRNA expression assay among 3 genotypes also suggested that only heterozygote birds had significantly greater expression with AIV infection than noninfected birds. A recombination breakpoint within Mx1 gene was also first identified, which has laid a solid foundation for further understanding biological function of the Mx1 gene in chickens. The current study provides valuable information on the effect of the Mx1 gene on the genetic resistance to AIV in chickens, and

  18. Avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses from northern pintail in Japan: isolation, characterization and inter-annual comparisons during 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Alam; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Ueda, Shuhei; Ueno, Yuichi; Shoham, Dany; Shindo, Junji; Okamura, Masashi; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2009-07-01

    Since wild ducks constitute a vital element in the epizootiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) as well as avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) and play a key role in the ecology and inter-species transmission of these viruses, it is crucial to elucidate the diversity and prevalence of these viruses within these bird populations. This report shows the presence, antigenic diversity, and inter-annual prevalence variations of AIVs in apparently healthy northern pintail (Anas acta) wintering in Japan. We also provide evidence that this host carries APMV-1: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and other haemagglutinating viruses. Composite samples (n=2381) of fresh fecal materials were collected from northern pintail during November 2007-March 2008 at different locations of Tohoku district, main Island, Japan. We isolated 47 haemagglutinating viruses, out of which 25 were identified as AIVs, representing 9 combinations of 5 different haemagglutinin (HA) and 6 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Both H5 and H7 subtypes were identified and found to be low pathogenic. A further 11 viruses were grouped into APMV-1 (NDV). The rest of the viruses (n=11) remained to be identified. Some of the HA subtypes and NA subtypes detected during the first season reoccurred in the second season, as well as some of their combinations; yet, several new subtypes and combinations appeared during the second season. These findings indicate that different subtypes of AIVs, NDV and other haemagglutinating viruses circulate subclinically in the pintail populations sampled. Pintails should be regarded, potentially, as important spreaders of AIVs and NDVs, particularly due to their extensively ramified flyways, which include various inter-continental routes.

  19. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  20. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus roselaari).

    PubMed

    Johnson, James A; DeCicco, Lucas H; Ruthrauff, Daniel R; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  1. An immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of avian influenza H5N1 virus viremia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Yu, Xu; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-12-15

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 attracts particular consideration because it is a continuous threat to animals and public health systems. The viremia caused by AIV H5N1 infection may increase the risk of blood-borne transmission between humans. Therefore, there is a need to rapidly evaluate and implement screening measures for AIV H5N1 viremia that allows for rapid response to this potentially pandemic threat. The present report describes an immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (immuno-RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in whole blood samples. Using PCR tubes coated with an H5 subtype monoclonal antibody, AIV H5N1 virions were specifically captured from blood samples. After a thermal lysis step, the released viral N1 gene was exponentially amplified using RT-LAMP on either a real-time PCR instrument for quantitative analysis, or in a water bath system for endpoint analysis. The detection limit of the newly developed immuno-RT-LAMP assay was as low as 1.62×10(1) 50% embryo infectious dose/mL of virus in both regular samples and simulated viremia samples. There were no cross-reactions with non-H5N1 influenza viruses or other avian viruses. The reproducibility of the assay was confirmed using intra- and inter-assay tests with variability ranging from 1.05% to 3.37%. Our results indicate that immuno-RT-LAMP is a novel, effective point-of-care virus identification solution for the rapid diagnosis and monitoring of AIV H5N1 in blood samples.

  2. An immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of avian influenza H5N1 virus viremia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Yu, Xu; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-12-15

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 attracts particular consideration because it is a continuous threat to animals and public health systems. The viremia caused by AIV H5N1 infection may increase the risk of blood-borne transmission between humans. Therefore, there is a need to rapidly evaluate and implement screening measures for AIV H5N1 viremia that allows for rapid response to this potentially pandemic threat. The present report describes an immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (immuno-RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in whole blood samples. Using PCR tubes coated with an H5 subtype monoclonal antibody, AIV H5N1 virions were specifically captured from blood samples. After a thermal lysis step, the released viral N1 gene was exponentially amplified using RT-LAMP on either a real-time PCR instrument for quantitative analysis, or in a water bath system for endpoint analysis. The detection limit of the newly developed immuno-RT-LAMP assay was as low as 1.62×10(1) 50% embryo infectious dose/mL of virus in both regular samples and simulated viremia samples. There were no cross-reactions with non-H5N1 influenza viruses or other avian viruses. The reproducibility of the assay was confirmed using intra- and inter-assay tests with variability ranging from 1.05% to 3.37%. Our results indicate that immuno-RT-LAMP is a novel, effective point-of-care virus identification solution for the rapid diagnosis and monitoring of AIV H5N1 in blood samples. PMID:27376196

  3. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States

    PubMed Central

    Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

  4. Phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongrui; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Tao; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H3 subtype influenza A virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. However, the evolution and pathogenicity of H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) circulating in domestic birds in China remain largely unclear. In this study, seven H3 AIVs (four H3N2 and three H3N8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (LPM) in China. Phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into Eurasian lineage, except N8 genes of two H3N8 isolates fell into North American lineage. Intriguingly, the N8 gene of one H3N8 and PB2, PB1, NP and NS of two H3N2 isolates have close relationship with those of the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses circulating in Korea and United States, suggesting that the H3-like AIV may contribute internal genes to the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses. Phylogenetic tree of HA gene and antigenic cross-reactivity results indicated that two antigenically different H3 viruses are circulating in LPM in China. Most of the H3 viruses replicated in mice lung and nasal turbinate without prior adaptation, and the representative H3 viruses infected chickens without causing clinical signs. The reassortment of H3 subtype influenza viruses warrants continuous surveillance in LPM in China. PMID:27270298

  5. Phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongrui; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Tao; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H3 subtype influenza A virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. However, the evolution and pathogenicity of H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) circulating in domestic birds in China remain largely unclear. In this study, seven H3 AIVs (four H3N2 and three H3N8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (LPM) in China. Phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into Eurasian lineage, except N8 genes of two H3N8 isolates fell into North American lineage. Intriguingly, the N8 gene of one H3N8 and PB2, PB1, NP and NS of two H3N2 isolates have close relationship with those of the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses circulating in Korea and United States, suggesting that the H3-like AIV may contribute internal genes to the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses. Phylogenetic tree of HA gene and antigenic cross-reactivity results indicated that two antigenically different H3 viruses are circulating in LPM in China. Most of the H3 viruses replicated in mice lung and nasal turbinate without prior adaptation, and the representative H3 viruses infected chickens without causing clinical signs. The reassortment of H3 subtype influenza viruses warrants continuous surveillance in LPM in China. PMID:27270298

  6. Isolation of avian influenza virus (H9N2) from emu in China

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    This is the first reported isolation of avian influenza virus (AIV) from emu in China. An outbreak of AIV infection occurred at an emu farm that housed 40 four-month-old birds. Various degrees of haemorrhage were discovered in the tissues of affected emus. Cell degeneration and necrosis were observed microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed round or oval virions with a diameter of 80 nm to 120 nm, surrounded by an envelope with spikes. The virus was classified as low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV), according to OIE standards. It was named A/Emu/HeNen/14/2004(H9N2)(Emu/HN/2004). The HA gene (1683bp) was amplified by RT-PCR and it was compared with other animal H9N2 AIV sequences in GenBank, the US National Institutes of Health genetic sequence database. The results suggested that Emu/HN/2004 may have come from an avian influenza virus (H9N2) from Southern China. PMID:21851680

  7. Coexistence of Avian Influenza Virus H10 and H9 Subtypes among Chickens in Live Poultry Markets during an Outbreak of Infection with a Novel H10N8 Virus in Humans in Nanchang, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maohong; Li, Xiaodan; Ni, Xiansheng; Wu, Jingwen; Gao, Rongbao; Xia, Wen; Wang, Dayan; He, Fenglan; Chen, Shengen; Liu, Yangqing; Guo, Shuangli; Li, Hui; Shu, Yuelong; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Liu, Mingbin; Moore, Justin B; Chen, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the novel H10N8 virus in humans has raised concerns about its pandemic potential worldwide. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets (LPMs) in Nanchang, China, after the first human case of H10N8 virus infection was reported in the city. A total of 201 specimens tested positive for AIVs among 618 samples collected from 24 LPMs in Nanchang from December 2013 to January 2014. We found that the LPMs were heavily contaminated by AIVs, with H9, H10, and H5 being the predominant subtypes and more than half of the LPMs providing samples that were positive for the H10 subtype. Moreover, the coexistence of different subtypes was common in LPMs. Of the 201 positive samples, 20.9% (42/201) had mixed infections with AIVs of different HA subtypes. Of the 42 mixed infections, 50% (21/42) showed the coexistence of the H9 and H10 subtypes, with or without H5, and were from chicken samples. This indicated that the H10N8 virus probably originated from segment reassortment of the H9 and H10 subtypes. PMID:25766608

  8. Deterioration of eggshell quality in laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuefeng; Tan, Dan; Wu, Chengqi; Tang, Chao; Li, Tao; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Liu, Caihong; Li, Ruiqiao; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-02-25

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in the oviduct was coincident with the adverse changes in egg production in the infected hens. The viral loads of AIV have a close correlation with the changes in the uterus CaBP-D28k mRNA expression as well as the Ca concentrations in the eggshells in the infected hens from 1 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Ultrastructural examination of eggshells showed significantly decreased shell thickness in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi (P < 0.05). Furthermore, obvious changes in the structure of the external shell surface and shell membrane were detected in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi as compared with the control hens. In conclusion, this study confirmed that H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) infection is associated with severe lesions of the uterus and abnormal expression of CaBP-D28k mRNA in the uteri of the infected hens. The change of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression may contribute to the deterioration of the eggshell quality of the laying hens infected with AIV. It is noteworthy that the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV strains may vary depending on the virus strain and host preference.

  9. Sequence Analysis of Recent H7 Avian Influenza Viruses Associated with Three Different Outbreaks in Commercial Poultry in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, Erica; Senne, Dennis A.; Davison, Sherrill; Suarez, David L.

    2003-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated between 1994 and 2002 from live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States and from three outbreaks in commercial poultry have been characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes demonstrates that the isolates from commercial poultry were closely related to the viruses circulating in the LBMs. Also, since 1994, two distinguishing genetic features have appeared in this AIV lineage: a deletion of 17 amino acids in the NA protein stalk region and a deletion of 8 amino acids in the HA1 protein which is putatively in part of the receptor binding site. Furthermore, analysis of the HA cleavage site amino acid sequence, a marker for pathogenicity in chickens and turkeys, shows a progression toward a cleavage site sequence that fulfills the molecular criteria for highly pathogenic AIV. PMID:14645595

  10. Sequence analysis of recent H7 avian influenza viruses associated with three different outbreaks in commercial poultry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Senne, Dennis A; Davison, Sherrill; Suarez, David L

    2003-12-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated between 1994 and 2002 from live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States and from three outbreaks in commercial poultry have been characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes demonstrates that the isolates from commercial poultry were closely related to the viruses circulating in the LBMs. Also, since 1994, two distinguishing genetic features have appeared in this AIV lineage: a deletion of 17 amino acids in the NA protein stalk region and a deletion of 8 amino acids in the HA1 protein which is putatively in part of the receptor binding site. Furthermore, analysis of the HA cleavage site amino acid sequence, a marker for pathogenicity in chickens and turkeys, shows a progression toward a cleavage site sequence that fulfills the molecular criteria for highly pathogenic AIV. PMID:14645595

  11. Antigenic cartography of H9N2 virus and its impact on the vaccine efficacy in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) is wide-spread in Asia and the Middle East. The efficacy of vaccines is enhanced by the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA) between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how antigenic variations affect the vaccine efficacy, speci...

  12. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  13. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.

  14. Molecular epidemiologic studies on North American H9 avian influenza virus isolates from waterfowl and shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Mark W; Stallknecht, David E

    2007-03-01

    Because sequence data on H9 avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild birds are currently limited, we set out to determine the sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H9 viruses circulating in North American waterfowl and shorebirds. In this study, we examined the HA gene from H9 AIV isolated from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) sampled during 1998 and 1999 in Minnesota and ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) sampled during 2003 in Delaware and New Jersey. At these sites, the H9N2 subtype represented 12% and 4% of the avian influenza isolates from mallards in 1998 and 1999, respectively, and 8% of the AIVs isolated from shorebirds between 2000 and 2002. Sequences from these viruses were compared with sequences from H9 AIV isolated from commercial poultry and aquatic birds from North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East: four previously reported and three new clades were observed. Sequence data from the HA gene of North American waterfowl and shorebird isolates generated in this study most closely group with the Eurasian H9 viruses in the Y439 clade. In addition, the HA cleavage site (AASNR/G) and receptor binding site was identical to the representative virus of that group (DK/Hong Kong/Y439/97). Viruses in that clade are commonly found in ducks and chickens in Hong Kong and Korea. Positive evolutionary selection (dNonsynonymous > dSynonymous) was observed for the HA gene among the North American waterfowl and shorebird H9N2 viruses, indicating that the H9N2-type viruses are changing in their natural hosts.

  15. Genetic characterization of natural reassortant H4 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang province in China from 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-12-01

    The H4 subtype of the influenza virus was first isolated in 1999 from pigs with pneumonia in Canada. H4 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are able to cross the species barrier to infect humans. In order to better understand the genetic relationships between H4 AIV strains circulating in Eastern China and other AIV strains from Asia, a survey of domestic ducks in live poultry markets was undertaken in Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2014. In this study, 23 H4N2 (n = 14) and H4N6 (n = 9) strains were isolated from domestic ducks, and all eight gene segments of these strains were sequenced and compared to reference AIV strains available in GenBank. The isolated strains clustered primarily within the Eurasian lineage. No mutations associated with adaption to mammalian hosts or drug resistance was observed. The H4 reassortant strains were found to be of low pathogenicity in mice and able to replicate in the lung of the mice without prior adaptation. Continued surveillance is required, given the important role of domestic ducks in reassortment events leading to new AIVs.

  16. ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTION AND ANTIBODY STATUS IN BLUE-WINGED TEAL (ANAS DISCORS) IN THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES.

    PubMed

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Leighton, Frederick A; Epp, Tasha; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Lindsay, Robbin; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian prairies are one of the most important breeding and staging areas for migratory waterfowl in North America. Hundreds of thousands of waterfowl of numerous species from multiple flyways converge in and disperse from this region annually; therefore this region may be a key area for potential intra- and interspecific spread of infectious pathogens among migratory waterfowl in the Americas. Using Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors, BWTE), which have the most extensive migratory range among waterfowl species, we investigated ecologic risk factors for infection and antibody status to avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) in the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) prior to fall migration. We used generalized linear models to examine infection or evidence of exposure in relation to host (age, sex, body condition, exposure to other infections), spatiotemporal (year, province), population-level (local population densities of BWTE, total waterfowl densities), and environmental (local pond densities) factors. The probability of AIV infection in BWTE was associated with host factors (e.g., age and antibody status), population-level factors (e.g., local BWTE population density), and year. An interaction between age and AIV antibody status showed that hatch year birds with antibodies to AIV were more likely to be infected, suggesting an antibody response to an active infection. Infection with AIV was positively associated with local BWTE density, supporting the hypothesis of density-dependent transmission. The presence of antibodies to WNV and APMV-1 was positively associated with age and varied among years. Furthermore, the probability of being WNV antibody positive was positively associated with pond density rather than host population density, likely because ponds provide suitable breeding habitat for mosquitoes, the primary vectors for transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of

  17. Applying AI to the Writer's Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlette, Forrest

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of current applications of artificial intelligence (AI) to writing focuses on how to represent knowledge of the writing process in a way that links procedural knowledge to other types of knowledge. A model is proposed that integrates the subtasks of writing into the process of writing itself. (15 references) (LRW)

  18. Novel avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses isolated in migratory waterfowl before the first human case reported in China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Liu, Haizhou; Xiong, Chaochao; Di Liu; Shi, Weifeng; Li, Mingxin; Liu, Siling; Chen, Jing; Chen, Guang; Li, Yong; Yang, Guoxiang; Lei, Yongsong; Xiong, Yanping; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Hanzhong; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Jianjun; Gao, George F

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, China formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan Province. Before the first human case was reported, surveillance of AIVs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three H5N6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in Chenhu wetlands, Hubei Province, China. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these three novel viruses were closely related to the H5N6 virus that has caused human infections in China since 2014. A Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of all eight segments suggests multiple reassortment events in the evolution of these viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) originated from the H5N2 and H6N6 AIVs, respectively, whereas all six internal genes were derived from avian H5N1 viruses. The reassortant may have occurred in eastern China during 2012-2013. A phylogeographic analysis of the HA and NA genes traced the viruses to southern China, from where they spread to other areas via eastern China. A receptor-binding test showed that H5N6 viruses from migratory waterfowl had human-type receptor-binding activity, suggesting a potential for transmission to humans. These data suggest that migratory waterfowl may play a role in the dissemination of novel H5N6 viruses. PMID:27431568

  19. Novel avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses isolated in migratory waterfowl before the first human case reported in China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yuhai; Liu, Haizhou; Xiong, Chaochao; Di Liu; Shi, Weifeng; Li, Mingxin; Liu, Siling; Chen, Jing; Chen, Guang; Li, Yong; Yang, Guoxiang; Lei, Yongsong; Xiong, Yanping; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Hanzhong; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Jianjun; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, China formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan Province. Before the first human case was reported, surveillance of AIVs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three H5N6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in Chenhu wetlands, Hubei Province, China. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these three novel viruses were closely related to the H5N6 virus that has caused human infections in China since 2014. A Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of all eight segments suggests multiple reassortment events in the evolution of these viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) originated from the H5N2 and H6N6 AIVs, respectively, whereas all six internal genes were derived from avian H5N1 viruses. The reassortant may have occurred in eastern China during 2012–2013. A phylogeographic analysis of the HA and NA genes traced the viruses to southern China, from where they spread to other areas via eastern China. A receptor-binding test showed that H5N6 viruses from migratory waterfowl had human-type receptor-binding activity, suggesting a potential for transmission to humans. These data suggest that migratory waterfowl may play a role in the dissemination of novel H5N6 viruses. PMID:27431568

  20. Fertility of holstein dairy heifers after synchronization of ovulation and timed AI or AI after removed tail chalk.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2004-07-01

    Nonlactating Holstein dairy heifers (n=352) 13 mo of age were managed using a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) breeding period in which they received AI after removed tail chalk evaluated once daily. At AI breeding period onset (d 0), heifers were randomly assigned to receive synchronization of ovulation (100 microg of GnRH, d 0; 25 mg of PGF2alpha, d 6; 100 microg of GnRH, d 8) and timed AI (TAI; d 8) and AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (GPG; n=175), or AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (TC; n=177). As expected, 17.7% (31/175) of GPG heifers received AI after removed tail chalk before scheduled TAI. Pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (PR/AI) at approximately 30 d after first AI tended to be greater for TC (46.5%) than for GPG (38.3%) heifers. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected; however, overall PR/AI was low for heifers in both treatments due to variation among the 3 inseminators (24.8, 30.0, and 58.0%). Pregnancy loss from approximately 30 to approximately 75 d after first AI was 10% and did not differ between treatments. Based on survival analysis, days to first AI was greater for TC than for GPG heifers, whereas days to pregnancy across the 42-d AI breeding period did not differ between treatments. Overall, 81.2% of GPG heifers receiving TAI synchronized luteal regression and ovulated within 48 h after the second GnRH injection. We conclude that this synchronization protocol can yield acceptable fertility in dairy heifers if AI to estrus is conducted between treatment with GnRH and PGF2alpha and AI efficiency is optimized. PMID:15328217

  1. Evaluation of changes induced by temperature, contact time, and surface in the efficacies of disinfectants against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yangho; Lee, Joongbok; So, Byungjae; Lee, Kwangjick; Yun, Seonjong; Lee, Myoungheon; Choe, Nonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfectants effective against AIV have optimum efficacies at temperatures above 20°C. Very few studies on effective disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. Disinfectants were investigated at 4 different temperatures (25, 4, 0, and -10°C) and 2 contact times (1 and 5 min) with suspension tests. Virucidal activity of the disinfectants was evaluated by carrier tests (wood and stainless steel) at 25 and -10°C. The concentration of each disinfectant for efficient disinfection within a short time (<1 min) at 25 and -10°C was also reestablished. The results from the suspension test indicated that low temperatures inhibited the virucidal efficacy of citric acid (CA) and CA + quaternary ammonium compounds (CA+ QAC) for 1 and 5 min, whereas the remaining disinfectants were effective, regardless of the short contact times and low temperatures. The carrier test results suggested that dried virus on wood was more difficult to inactivate compared with that on stainless steel. However, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and glutaraldehyde could inactivate AIV on both wood and stainless steel at -10°C. Citric acid-based agents could not sufficiently inactivate AIV at -10°C; however, the limitation due to low temperatures was overcome by adjusting disinfectant concentration. For a successful disinfection during winter, the disinfectants that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target organism should be selected. PMID:24570425

  2. Evaluation of changes induced by temperature, contact time, and surface in the efficacies of disinfectants against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yangho; Lee, Joongbok; So, Byungjae; Lee, Kwangjick; Yun, Seonjong; Lee, Myoungheon; Choe, Nonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfectants effective against AIV have optimum efficacies at temperatures above 20°C. Very few studies on effective disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. Disinfectants were investigated at 4 different temperatures (25, 4, 0, and -10°C) and 2 contact times (1 and 5 min) with suspension tests. Virucidal activity of the disinfectants was evaluated by carrier tests (wood and stainless steel) at 25 and -10°C. The concentration of each disinfectant for efficient disinfection within a short time (<1 min) at 25 and -10°C was also reestablished. The results from the suspension test indicated that low temperatures inhibited the virucidal efficacy of citric acid (CA) and CA + quaternary ammonium compounds (CA+ QAC) for 1 and 5 min, whereas the remaining disinfectants were effective, regardless of the short contact times and low temperatures. The carrier test results suggested that dried virus on wood was more difficult to inactivate compared with that on stainless steel. However, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and glutaraldehyde could inactivate AIV on both wood and stainless steel at -10°C. Citric acid-based agents could not sufficiently inactivate AIV at -10°C; however, the limitation due to low temperatures was overcome by adjusting disinfectant concentration. For a successful disinfection during winter, the disinfectants that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target organism should be selected.

  3. ELPylated haemagglutinins produced in tobacco plants induce potentially neutralizing antibodies against H5N1 viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang T; Pohl, Julia; Floss, Doreen M; Rabenstein, Frank; Veits, Jutta; Le, Binh T; Chu, Ha H; Hause, Gerd; Mettenleiter, Thomas; Conrad, Udo

    2013-06-01

    Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and its ELPylated form. We firstly presented evidence to produce stabilized trimers of soluble HA in plants. ELPylation of these trimers does not influence the trimerization. Strong expression enhancement in planta caused by ELPylation was demonstrated for trimerized H5-ELP. ELPylated trimers could be purified by a membrane-based inverse transition cycling procedure with the potential of successful scale-up. The trimeric form of AIV HA was found to enhance the HA-specific immune response compared with the monomeric form. Plant-derived AIV HA trimers elicited potentially neutralizing antibodies interacting with both homologous virus-like particles from plants and heterologous inactivated AIV. ELPylation did not influence the functionality and the antigenicity of the stabilized H5 trimers. These data allow further developments including scale-up of production, purification and virus challenge experiments with the final goal to achieve suitable technologies for efficient avian flu vaccine production.

  4. Impact of murine intestinal apolipoprotein A-IV expression on regional lipid absorption, gene expression, and growth

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Trang; Cook, Victoria R.; Rao, Anuradha; Weinberg, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is synthesized by intestinal enterocytes during lipid absorption and secreted into lymph on the surface of nascent chylomicrons. A compelling body of evidence supports a central role of apoA-IV in facilitating intestinal lipid absorption and in regulating satiety, yet a longstanding conundrum is that no abnormalities in fat absorption, feeding behavior, or weight gain were observed in chow-fed apoA-IV knockout (A4KO) mice. Herein we reevaluated the impact of apoA-IV expression in C57BL6 and A4KO mice fed a high-fat diet. Fat balance and lymph cannulation studies found no effect of intestinal apoA-IV gene expression on the efficiency of fatty acid absorption, but gut sac transport studies revealed that apoA-IV differentially modulates lipid transport and the number and size of secreted triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in different anatomic regions of the small bowel. ApoA-IV gene deletion increased expression of other genes involved in chylomicron assembly, impaired the ability of A4KO mice to gain weight and increase adipose tissue mass, and increased the distal gut hormone response to a high-fat diet. Together these findings suggest that apoA-IV may play a unique role in integrating feeding behavior, intestinal lipid absorption, and energy storage. PMID:21840868

  5. AI in space: Past, present, and possible futures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.

    1992-01-01

    While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.

  6. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, C.R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, H.S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  7. Why Don't Accounting Students like AIS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Aoun, Chadi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The demand for Accounting Information Systems (AIS) knowledge has increased exponentially over the past two decades, but studying AIS has not proved easy for many accounting students. The aim of the study is to understand the challenges accounting students face in studying AIS through investigation of the factors which may be contributing…

  8. 47 CFR 80.393 - Frequencies for AIS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements for non-Federal Government ships. These requirements are codified at 33 CFR 164.46, 401.20. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for AIS stations. 80.393 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ais Stations § 80.393 Frequencies for AIS stations....

  9. The AI Interdisciplinary Context: Single or Multiple Research Bases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1992-01-01

    This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)

  10. Expression of mRNA of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, and matricellular proteins in the myocardium and intensity of fibroplastic processes during experimental hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Pichigin, V I; Klinnikova, M G; Nepomnyashchikh, R D; Sergeevichev, D S

    2013-12-01

    The expression of mRNA of matricellular proteins (osteopontin, and lumican), apolipoproteins E and A-IV, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the intensity of fibroplastic processes were studied in the myocardium of rats during experimental chronic hypercholesterolemia. We have found that the development of chronic hypercholesterolemia was followed by an increase in volume density of interstitial connective tissue in the myocardium reflecting the activation of fibroplastic processes. A slight positive correlation was observed between the connective tissue density in the myocardium and expression of osteopontin mRNA (r=0.408) and lumican mRNA (r=0.470). Myocardium remodeling during hypercholesterolemia is realized against the background of increased expression of apolipoproteins E and A-IV mRNA and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA involved in transport and metabolism of lipoproteins in several tissues and probably play a pivotal role in the regulation of lipoprotein transport and metabolism in the myocardium. We concluded that the increase in the expression of apolipoproteins (E and A-IV) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein play adaptive and compensatory role and is related to the increase in lipoprotein utilization by macrophages.

  11. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine (2006-2011)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  13. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Muthanan A; Redig, Patrick T; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2010-07-28

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV.

  14. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Muthanan A; Redig, Patrick T; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2010-01-01

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

  15. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

  16. Autonomous vehicle control using AI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keirsey, D.; Mitchell, J.; Bullock, B.; Nussmeier, T.; Tseng, D.

    1983-11-01

    A review of early work on a project for developing autonomous vehicle control technology is presented. The primary goal of this effort is the development of a generic capability that can be specialized to a wide range of DOD applications. Project emphasis is on development of the fundamental AI-based technology required by autonomous systems and the implementation of a testbed environment to evaluate and demonstrate the system capabilities. 10 references.

  17. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  18. Amino acid substitutions in the neuraminidase protein of an H9N2 avian influenza virus affect its airborne transmission in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Wei, Liangmeng; Yang, Yan; Wang, Bingxiao; Liang, Wei; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Lili; Cai, Yumei; Hou, Peiqiang; Yang, Huili; Wang, Airong; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jing; Chai, Tongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cases of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry are increasing throughout many Eurasian countries, and co-infections with other pathogens have resulted in high morbidity and mortality in poultry. Few studies have investigated the genetic factors of virus airborne transmission which determine the scope of this epidemic. In this study, we used specific-pathogen-free chickens housed in isolators to investigate the airborne transmissibility of five recombinant H9N2 AIV rescued by reverse genetic technology. The results show that airborne transmission of A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) virus was related to the neuraminidase (NA) gene, and four amino acid mutations (D368E, S370L, E313K and G381D) within the head region of the SD01 NA, reduced virus replication in the respiratory tract of chickens, reduced virus NA activity, and resulted in a loss of airborne transmission ability in chickens. Similarly, reverse mutations of these four amino acids in the NA protein of r01/NASS virus, conferred an airborne transmission ability to the recombinant virus. We conclude that these four NA residues may be significant genetic markers for evaluating potential disease outbreak of H9N2 AIV, and propose that immediate attention should be paid to the airborne transmission of this virus. PMID:25928577

  19. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import.

    PubMed

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  20. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A.; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  1. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect fecal-oral route involving fecal-contaminated water. In this study, the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water was examined. A single cla...

  2. Assessment of viral interference using a chemical receptor blocker against avian influenza and establishment of protection levels in field outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Siurob, I; Retana, M A; Tellez, G; Arroyo-Navarro, L; Bañuelos-Hernandez, B; Castellanos-Huerta, I

    2014-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) currently poses a serious problem for poultry farming worldwide. Its prevalence in Mexico, despite vaccination, has highlighted the need for new approaches to control AI and reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. The different interactions between AI viruses (AIV) and cellular receptors have been described, along with the affinity of some viruses for certain types of species-specific receptors. This receptor-ligand specificity, combined with an understanding of viral interference processes and their relevance in different viral models, permits the assessment of new strategies for controlling AIV. The present study was designed to investigate the feasibility of using viral interference as a novel approach for AIV control, taking advantage of the high receptor-ligand specificity between AIV and animal cells. The results from field outbreak tests and cell culture analysis along with measurements of specific antibodies against AIV demonstrate that the mortality associated with AI infection can be reduced by using a receptor blocker against AIV. This receptor blocker approach also has the potential to be used on an industrial scale for the efficient control of AIV.

  3. Uracil-DNA glycosylase-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of avian influenza virus preventing carry-over contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kim, Ji-Jung; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Geon

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (uRT-LAMP) for the visual detection of all subtypes of avian influenza A virus (AIV). The uRT-LAMP assay can prevent unwanted amplification by carryover contamination of the previously amplified DNA, although the detection limit of the uRT-LAMP assay is 10-fold lower than that of the RT-LAMP without a UNG treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of deoxyuridine triphosphate/UNG strategy in RT-LAMP for AIV detection, and the assay can be applied for the rapid, and reliable diagnosis of AIVs, even in contaminated samples. PMID:26726027

  4. Effective inhibition of mRNA accumulation and protein expression of H5N1 avian influenza virus NS1 gene in vitro by small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hanwei; Du, Li; Hao, Yongchang; Cheng, Ying; Luo, Jing; Kuang, Wenhua; Zhang, Donglin; Lei, Ming; Jia, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaoru; Qi, Chao; He, Hongxuan; Wang, Fengyang

    2013-07-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as a devastating disease and may cross species barrier and adapt to a new host, causing enormous economic loss and great public health threats, and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional non-structural protein of avian influenza virus (AIV) that counters cellular antiviral activities and is a virulence factor. RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful promising approach to inhibit viral infection specifically. To explore the possibility of using RNAi as a strategy against AIV infection, after the fusion protein expression plasmids pNS1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), which contain the EGFP reporter gene and AIV NS1 as silencing target, were constructed and NS1-EGFP fusion protein expressing HEK293 cell lines were established, four small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting NS1 gene were designed, synthesized, and used to transfect the stable cell lines. Flow cytometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were performed to assess the expression level of NS1. The results suggested that sequence-dependent specific siRNAs effectively inhibited mRNA accumulation and protein expression of AIV NS1 in vitro. These findings provide useful information for the development of RNAi-based prophylaxis and therapy for AIV infection.

  5. Surveillance, epidemiological, and virological detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in duck and poultry from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Wahedul Karim; Parvej, Md Shafiullah; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Jackson, Sally; Bustin, Stephen A; Ibrahim, Adel K; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Rahman, Md Tanvir; Zhang, Han; Khan, Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman; Ahamed, Md Mostakin; Rahman, Md Fasiur; Rahman, Marzia; Nazir, K H M Nazmul Hussain; Ahmed, Sultan; Hossen, Md Liakot; Kafi, Md Abdul; Yamage, Mat; Debnath, Nitish C; Ahmed, Graba; Ashour, Hossam M; Masudur Rahman, Md; Noreddin, Ayman; Rahman, Md Bahanur

    2016-09-25

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to pose a global threat. Waterfowl are the main reservoir and are responsible for the spillover of AIVs to other hosts. This study was conducted as part of routine surveillance activities in Bangladesh and it reports on the serological and molecular detection of H5N1 AIV subtype. A total of 2169 cloacal and 2191 oropharyngeal swabs as well as 1725 sera samples were collected from live birds including duck and chicken in different locations in Bangladesh between the years of 2013 and 2014. Samples were tested using virus isolation, serological tests and molecular methods of RT-PCR. Influenza A viruses were detected using reverse transcription PCR targeting the virus matrix (M) gene in 41/4360 (0.94%) samples including both cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples, 31 of which were subtyped as H5N1 using subtype-specific primers. Twenty-one live H5N1 virus isolates were recovered from those 31 samples. Screening of 1,868 blood samples collected from the same birds using H5-specific ELISA identified 545/1603 (34%) positive samples. Disconcertingly, an analysis of 221 serum samples collected from vaccinated layer chicken in four districts revealed that only 18 samples (8.1%) were seropositive for anti H5 antibodies, compared to unvaccinated birds (n=105), where 8 samples (7.6%) were seropositive. Our result indicates that the vaccination program as currently implemented should be reviewed and updated. In addition, surveillance programs are crucial for monitoring the efficacy of the current poultry vaccinations programs, and to monitor the circulating AIV strains and emergence of AIV subtypes in Bangladesh. PMID:27599930

  6. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses: Cocirculation of Avian Influenza Viruses with Allele A and B Nonstructural Gene in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) Ducks Wintering in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Alam; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Sultana, Nadia; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus strains of 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2), and 2009 (H1N1) have genes related to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The nonstructural (NS) gene of AIVs plays a significant role in host-viral interaction. However, little is known about the degree of diversity of this gene in Northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks wintering in Japan. This study describes characteristics of pintail-originated H1N1, H1N2, H1N3, H5N2, H5N3, H5N9, and H7N7 viruses. Most of the viruses were revealed to be avian strains and not related to pandemic and seasonal flu strains. Nevertheless, the NP genes of 62.5% (5/8) viruses were found closely related to a A/swine/Korea/C12/08, indicating exchange of genetic material and ongoing mammalian-linked evolution of AIVs. Besides, all the viruses, except Aomori/422/07 H1N1, contain PSIQSR∗GLF motif usually found in avian, porcine, and human H1 strains. The Aomori/422/07 H1N1 has a PSVQSR∗GLF motif identical to a North American strain. This findings linked to an important intercontinental, Asian-American biogeographical interface. Phylogenetically all the viruses were clustered in Eurasian lineage. Cocirculation of allele A and B (NS gene) viruses was evident in the study implying the existence of a wide reservoir of influenza A viruses in pintail wintering in Japan. PMID:23320157

  7. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  8. Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: A strategy to capture viral diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a global threat to food animal production and distribution systems as well as human health. However, a sustained, comprehensive and coordinated global effort to monitor the continually changing genetic diversity of AI viruses (AIVs) circulating in nature is lacking. Two strai...

  9. Adaptive Evolution and Environmental Durability Jointly Structure Phylodynamic Patterns in Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Benjamin; Drake, John M.; Brown, Justin; Stallknecht, David E.; Bedford, Trevor; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker signature of immune escape in AIVs than in human viruses. To explain these differences, we performed statistical analyses to quantify the relative contribution of several potential explanations. We found that HA genetic diversity in avian viruses is determined by a combination of factors, predominantly subtype-specific differences in host immune selective pressure and the ecology of transmission (in particular, the durability of subtypes in aquatic environments). Extending this analysis using a computational model demonstrated that virus durability may lead to long-term, indirect chains of transmission that, when coupled with a short host lifespan, can generate and maintain the observed high levels of genetic diversity. Further evidence in support of this novel finding was found by demonstrating an association between subtype-specific environmental durability and predicted phylogenetic signatures: genetic diversity, variation in phylogenetic tree branch lengths, and tree height. The conclusion that environmental transmission plays an important role in the evolutionary biology of avian influenza viruses—a manifestation of the “storage effect”—highlights the potentially unpredictable impact of wildlife reservoirs for future human pandemics and the need for improved understanding of the natural ecology of these viruses. PMID:25116957

  10. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  11. Integrating Vision and AI for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1990-03-01

    The article describes an extension to the well-established AI language Prolog. This allows Prolog to operate both an image processing system and a controller for a variety of electro-mechanical devices. The user can define his/her own pull-down menus and provides an interface to a speech synthesis package. The latter enables the user to follow the flow of a program, easily and in a natural way. The application of the software to food inspection is also discussed

  12. Intelligent control: integrating AI and control theory

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, K.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the requirements placed upon computer-controlled systems is forcing a departure from rigid, predetermined control sequences toward more flexible, intelligent control regimes. The basic premise of this research is that such systems can be developed by exploiting the strengths of both standard control theory and recent developments in artificial intelligence. A framework is described for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with more traditional control theory approaches both at the design stages as well as online control. Its potential is then discussed in the context of several complex navy control problems including automatic tracking systems, autonomous vehicles, and large-scale, flexible space structures. 8 references.

  13. Detection of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Castilla-La Mancha (south central Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Barral, Marta; Höfle, Ursula

    2010-12-15

    The Iberian Peninsula is located along the East Atlantic and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways and is the third ranking European country as wintering quarter for wild migrating birds after Turkey and Rumania. For these reasons, Spanish wetlands are of importance in AIV surveillance, and of great interest for the study of the epidemiology of LPAIV under Mediterranean climate conditions. Nevertheless, information on prevalence of LPAIV viruses in Spain is still scarce and is restricted to two serological surveys carried out in the south of the country during 1990 and 1994 and one virological study performed recently in North East Spain. In the present study we analysed the prevalence of AIV circulating in wild birds in continental wetlands in central Spain and determined temporal, spatial and species variation. Real time RTPCR was performed on 1435 faecal samples and cloacal swabs from 54 species. An overall AIV prevalence of 2.6% was detected with a peak during November and December, when thousands of migrating wild birds arrive to Spain for wintering. Highest prevalence rates were detected in Phoenicopteriformes and Anseriformes. AIV prevalence obtained from cloacal swabs and fresh faeces did not vary significantly, which supports faecal sampling as an appropriate method for large scale LPAIV surveillance programs. Viral culture was achieved in samples obtained from two Mallards and a White stork, in which subtypes H7N9 and H11N9, respectively, were identified. Our results reflect a similar scenario in AIV epidemiology in small continental wetlands as compared to large coastal humid areas in Europe and underline the importance of including species such as flamingos and storks in surveillance programs, since their role in AIV ecology in these areas could be more important than previously considered.

  14. Characterization of Immune Responses to an Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus Vaccine Adjuvanted with Nanoparticles Containing CpG ODN.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Hodgins, Douglas C; Novy, Anastasia; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), a mucosal pathogen, gains entry into host chickens through respiratory and gastrointestinal routes. Most commercial AIV vaccines for poultry consist of inactivated, whole virus with adjuvant, delivered by parenteral administration. Recent advances in vaccine development have led to the application of nanoparticle emulsion delivery systems, such as poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. In chickens, the Toll-like receptor 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), have been demonstrated to be immunostimulatory. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant potential of CpG ODN 2007 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 when combined with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 virus, through intramuscular and aerosol delivery routes. Chickens were vaccinated at days 7 and 21 posthatch for the intramuscular route and at days 7, 21, and 35 for the aerosol route. Antibody-mediated responses were evaluated weekly in sera and lacrimal secretions in specific pathogen-free chickens. The results indicate that nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in inactivated AIV vaccines administered by the intramuscular route generated higher antibody responses compared to the encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 formulation by the same route. Additionally, encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in AIV vaccines administered by the aerosol route elicited higher mucosal responses compared to nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007. Future studies may be aimed at evaluating protective immune responses induced with PLGA encapsulation of AIV and adjuvants.

  15. Characterization of Immune Responses to an Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus Vaccine Adjuvanted with Nanoparticles Containing CpG ODN.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Hodgins, Douglas C; Novy, Anastasia; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), a mucosal pathogen, gains entry into host chickens through respiratory and gastrointestinal routes. Most commercial AIV vaccines for poultry consist of inactivated, whole virus with adjuvant, delivered by parenteral administration. Recent advances in vaccine development have led to the application of nanoparticle emulsion delivery systems, such as poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. In chickens, the Toll-like receptor 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), have been demonstrated to be immunostimulatory. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant potential of CpG ODN 2007 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 when combined with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 virus, through intramuscular and aerosol delivery routes. Chickens were vaccinated at days 7 and 21 posthatch for the intramuscular route and at days 7, 21, and 35 for the aerosol route. Antibody-mediated responses were evaluated weekly in sera and lacrimal secretions in specific pathogen-free chickens. The results indicate that nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in inactivated AIV vaccines administered by the intramuscular route generated higher antibody responses compared to the encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 formulation by the same route. Additionally, encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in AIV vaccines administered by the aerosol route elicited higher mucosal responses compared to nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007. Future studies may be aimed at evaluating protective immune responses induced with PLGA encapsulation of AIV and adjuvants. PMID:27077969

  16. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...

  17. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...

  18. Variation in protection of four divergent avian influenza virus vaccine seed strains against eight clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1. Egyptian H5N1 high pathogenicity variants in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) was introduced to Egyptian poultry in 2006 and has since become enzootic. Vaccination has been utilized as a control tool, but for a variety of reasons the disease has not been eradicated. In 2007, an antigenically divergent hemagglutinin sub-c...

  19. Intense circulation of A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses in Cambodian live-bird markets with serological evidence of sub-clinical human infections.

    PubMed

    Horm, Srey Viseth; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rith, Sareth; Ly, Sowath; Gambaretti, Juliette; Duong, Veasna; Y, Phalla; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Allal, Lotfi; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry and environmental samples was conducted in four live-bird markets in Cambodia from January through November 2013. Through real-time RT-PCR testing, AIVs were detected in 45% of 1048 samples collected throughout the year. Detection rates ranged from 32% and 18% in duck and chicken swabs, respectively, to 75% in carcass wash water samples. Influenza A/H5N1 virus was detected in 79% of samples positive for influenza A virus and 35% of all samples collected. Sequence analysis of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/H5N1 viruses, and full-genome analysis of six representative isolates, revealed that the clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus associated with Cambodian human cases during 2013 was the only A/H5N1 virus detected during the year. However, multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of HA and NA genes revealed co-circulation of at least nine low pathogenic AIVs from HA1, HA2, HA3, HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9, HA10 and HA11 subtypes. Four repeated serological surveys were conducted throughout the year in a cohort of 125 poultry workers. Serological testing found an overall prevalence of 4.5% and 1.8% for antibodies to A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Seroconversion rates of 3.7 and 0.9 cases per 1000 person-months participation were detected for A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Peak AIV circulation was associated with the Lunar New Year festival. Knowledge of periods of increased circulation of avian influenza in markets should inform intervention measures such as market cleaning and closures to reduce risk of human infections and emergence of novel AIVs. PMID:27436362

  20. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay. PMID:26456918

  1. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered.

  2. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered. PMID:25055621

  3. AI Based Personal Learning Environments: Directions for Long Term Research. AI Memo 384.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ira P.; Miller, Mark L.

    The application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to the design of personal learning environments is an enterprise of both theoretical and practical interest. In the short term, the process of developing and testing intelligent tutoring programs serves as a new experimental vehicle for exploring alternative cognitive and pedagogical…

  4. The PA protein directly contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiasheng; Feng, Huapeng; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Dongming; Shi, Jianzhong; Li, Yanbing; Deng, Guohua; Jiang, Yongping; Li, Xuyong; Zhu, Pengyang; Guan, Yuntao; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2011-03-01

    During their circulation in nature, H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have acquired the ability to kill their natural hosts, wild birds and ducks. The genetic determinants for this increased virulence are largely unknown. In this study, we compared two genetically similar H5N1 AIVs, A/duck/Hubei/49/05 (DK/49) and A/goose/Hubei/65/05 (GS/65), that are lethal for chickens but differ in their virulence levels in ducks. To explore the genetic basis for this difference in virulence, we generated a series of reassortants and mutants of these two viruses. The virulence of the reassortant bearing the PA gene from DK/49 in the GS/65 background increased 10(5)-fold relative to that of the GS/65 virus. Substitution of two amino acids, S224P and N383D, in PA contributed to the highly virulent phenotype. The amino acid 224P in PA increased the replication of the virus in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the amino acid 383D in PA increased the polymerase activity in duck embryo fibroblasts and delayed the accumulation of the PA and PB1 polymerase subunits in the nucleus of virus-infected cells. Our results provide strong evidence that the polymerase PA subunit is a virulence factor for H5N1 AIVs in ducks.

  5. Apolipoprotein AIF gene variant S347 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and lower apolipoprotein AIV plasma concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Wai-man R.; Hawe, Emma; Li, Lai K.; Miller, George J.; Nicaud, Viviane; Pennacchio, Len A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2003-01-30

    The impact of common variants in the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOC3-A4-A5) on prospective CHD risk was examined in healthy UK men. Of the 2808 men followed over nine years, 187 had a clinically defined CHD event. Examination of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this group revealed that homozygotes for APOA4 S347 had significantly increased risk of CHD [Hazard ratio (HR) of 2.07 (95%CI 1.04-4.12)] while men homozygous for APOC3 1100T were protected (HR 0.28 (95%CI 0.09-0.87)). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, after entering all the variants and adjusting for established risk factors APOA4 T347S alone remained in the model. Using nine-SNP haplotype analysis, highest risk-estimate haplotypes carried APOA4 S347 and rare alleles of the two flanking intergenic markers. The protective effect of APOC31100T could be explained by negative linkage disequilibrium with these alleles. To determine the association of APOA4 T347S with apoAIVlevels, the relationship was examined in over 1600 healthy young European men and women. S347 homozygotes had significantly lower apoAIV plasma levels (13.48 + 0.6mg/dl) compared to carriers of the T347 allele (14.85 + 0.12 mg/dl) (p=0.025). These results demonstrate that genetic variation in and around APOA4, independent of effects of TG, is associated with risk of CHD and apoAIV levels, supporting an anti-atherogenic role for apoAIV.

  6. A systems engineering approach to AIS accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.M.; Hunteman, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    The systems engineering model provides the vehicle for communication between the developer and the customer by presenting system facts and demonstrating the system in an organized form. The same model provides implementors with views of the system`s function and capability. The authors contend that the process of obtaining accreditation for a classified Automated Information System (AIS) adheres to the typical systems engineering model. The accreditation process is modeled as a ``roadmap`` with the customer represented by the Designed Accrediting Authority. The ``roadmap`` model reduces the amount of accreditation knowledge required of an AIS developer and maximizes the effectiveness of participation in the accreditation process by making the understanding of accreditation a natural consequence of applying the model. This paper identifies ten ``destinations`` on the ``road`` to accreditation. The significance of each ``destination`` is explained, as are the potential consequences of its exclusion. The ``roadmap,`` which has been applied to a range of information systems throughout the DOE community, establishes a paradigm for the certification and accreditation of classified AISs.

  7. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  8. Computational approach for predicting the conserved B-cell epitopes of hemagglutinin H7 subtype influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangyu; Sun, Qi; Ye, Zhonghua; Hua, Ying; Shao, Na; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Qiwei; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    An avian-origin influenza H7N9 virus epidemic occurred in China in 2013–2014, in which >422 infected people suffered from pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. H7N9 viruses belong to the H7 subtype of avian-origin influenza viruses (AIV-H7). Hemagglutinin (HA) is a vital membrane protein of AIV that has an important role in host recognition and infection. The epitopes of HA are significant determinants of the regularity of epidemic and viral mutation and recombination mechanisms. The present study aimed to predict the conserved B-cell epitopes of AIV-H7 HA using a bioinformatics approach, including the three most effective epitope prediction softwares available online: Artificial Neural Network based B-cell Epitope Prediction (ABCpred), B-cell Epitope Prediction (BepiPred) and Linear B-cell Epitope Prediction (LBtope). A total of 24 strains of Euro-Asiatic AIV-H7 that had been associated with a serious poultry pandemic or had infected humans in the past 30 years were selected to identify the conserved regions of HA. Sequences were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data databases. Using a combination of software prediction and sequence comparisons, the conserved epitopes of AIV-H7 were predicted and clarified. A total of five conserved epitopes [amino acids (aa) 37–52, 131–142, 215–234, 465–484 and 487–505] with a suitable length, high antigenicity and minimal variation were predicted and confirmed. Each obtained a score of >0.80 in ABCpred, 60% in LBtope and a level of 0.35 in Bepipred. In addition, a representative amino acid change (glutamine235-to-leucine235) in the HA protein of the 2013 AIV-H7N9 was discovered. The strategy adopted in the present study may have profound implications on the rapid diagnosis and control of infectious disease caused by H7N9 viruses, as well as by other virulent viruses, such as the Ebola virus. PMID:27703505

  9. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 Korean avian influenza viruses and assessment of the pathogenic potential of isolate MS96.

    PubMed

    Lee, C W; Song, C S; Lee, Y J; Mo, I P; Garcia, M; Suarez, D L; Kim, S J

    2000-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of five Korean H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates showed that these viruses were closely related and possibly came from the same source. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA1 subunit of H9 subtype isolates revealed that Korean AIV isolates were different from isolates from the poultry markets in Hong Kong in 1997. None of the Korean AIVs had multiple basic amino acids at the HA cleavage site that confer high pathogenicity to some H5 and H7 AIVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein and matrix gene demonstrated that Korean isolates cluster with Eurasian origin AIVs. The pathogenic potential of one of the isolates (MS96) was assessed after several passages in 14-day-old embryonated chicken eggs (ECE). Fourteen-day-old ECE derivatives of MS96 showed increased HA titer and embryo mortality in eggs; this was apparent after the third passage in 14-day-old ECE. Sequence analysis of the cleavage site of MS96 after the third and tenth passages in 14-day-old ECE revealed no changes in the amino acid sequence. The pathogenicity of MS96 after the tenth passage in 14-day-old eggs (MS96p10(ECE14)) was tested with 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. The 14-day-old derivative, MS96p10(ECE14), showed wider tissue tropism and induced more severe clinical signs than the parent virus. Furthermore, after intranasal inoculation of 86-wk-old broiler breeders and 30-wk-old layers, the MS96p10(ECE14) derivative induced more severe signs of depression than the parent virus as well as a transient drop in egg production.

  10. Quantifying the tracking capability of space-based AIS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has operated three Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in space. Two are on dedicated nano-satellites, AISSat-1 and AISSat-2. The third, the NORAIS Receiver, was installed on the International Space Station. A general method for calculating the upper bound on the tracking capability of a space-based AIS system has been developed and the results from the algorithm applied to AISSat-1 and the NORAIS Receiver individually. In addition, a constellation of AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 is presented. The tracking capability is defined as the probability of re-detecting ships as they move around the globe and is explained to represent and upper bound on a space-based AIS system performance. AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 operates on the nominal AIS1 and AIS2 channels, while the NORAIS Receiver data used are from operations on the dedicated space AIS channels, AIS3 and AIS4. The improved tracking capability of operations on the space AIS channels is presented.

  11. The implementation of AI technologies in computer wargames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, John A.

    2004-08-01

    Computer wargames involve the most in-depth analysis of general game theory. The enumerated turns of a game like chess are dwarfed by the exponentially larger possibilities of even a simple computer wargame. Implementing challenging AI is computer wargames is an important goal in both the commercial and military environments. In the commercial marketplace, customers demand a challenging AI opponent when they play a computer wargame and are frustrated by a lack of competence on the part of the AI. In the military environment, challenging AI opponents are important for several reasons. A challenging AI opponent will force the military professional to avoid routine or set-piece approaches to situations and cause them to think much deeper about military situations before taking action. A good AI opponent would also include national characteristics of the opponent being simulated, thus providing the military professional with even more of a challenge in planning and approach. Implementing current AI technologies in computer wargames is a technological challenge. The goal is to join the needs of AI in computer wargames with the solutions of current AI technologies. This talk will address several of those issues, possible solutions, and currently unsolved problems.

  12. Apolipoprotein AI mutation Arg-60 causes autosomal dominant amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Soutar, A K; Hawkins, P N; Vigushin, D M; Tennent, G A; Booth, S E; Hutton, T; Nguyen, O; Totty, N F; Feest, T G; Hsuan, J J

    1992-01-01

    A mutation in the gene for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) was identified in an English family with autosomal dominant non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis. The plasma of all affected individuals contained a variant apoAI with one additional charge, as well as normal apoAI. The propositus was heterozygous; the coding region of his apoAI gene contained both the normal sequence and a single-base substitution changing the codon for residue 60 of the mature protein from CTG (leucine) to CGG (arginine). Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization showed that the other affected individuals were also heterozygotes and that there was concordance of the mutant allele with the presence of variant plasma apoAI. Amyloid fibrils isolated from the spleen of the propositus consisted of proteins that ran as a doublet with an apparent mass of approximately 10 kDa in SDS/PAGE and a trace band at 28 kDa. Electrospray mass spectrometry of the purified 10-kDa material revealed components with mass corresponding to the N-terminal 88, 92, 93, and 94 residues of apoAI each with substitution of arginine for leucine. These observations were confirmed by direct protein sequencing and laser desorption time-of-flight mass analysis. No material with the normal apoAI sequence was detected. The trace band at 28 kDa yielded the N-terminal sequence of mature apoAI, indicating that intact or minimally degraded apoAI was also present in the fibril preparation. Discovery of this mutation and the detailed characterization of the apoAI fragments that form the amyloid fibrils open additional avenues for investigation of amyloidogenesis. Images PMID:1502149

  13. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  14. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  15. Application of AIS Technology to Forest Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.

  16. Impact of antigenic and genetic drift on the serologic surveillance of H5N2 avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Serologic surveillance of Avian Influenza (AI) viruses is carried out by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test using reference reagents. This method is recommended by animal health organizations as a standard test to detect antigenic differences (subtypes) between circulating influenza virus, vaccine- and/or reference- strains. However, significant discrepancies between reference antisera and field isolates have been observed during serosurveillance of influenza A viruses in pig and poultry farms. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of influenza virus genetic and antigenic drift on serologic testing using standard HI assays and reference reagents. Low pathogenic AI H5N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 1994 and 2008 were used for phylogenetic analysis of AI hemagglutinin genes and for serologic testing using antisera produced with year-specific AI virus isolates. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed significant divergence between early LPAI H5N2 viruses (1994 - 1998) and more recent virus field isolates (2002 - 2008). Results of the HI test were markedly influenced by the selection of the AI H5N2 virus (year of isolation) used as reference antigen for the assay. These analyses indicate that LPAI H5N2 viruses in Mexico are constantly undergoing genetic drift and that serosurveillance of AI viruses is significantly influenced by the antigen or antisera used for the HI test. Conclusions Reference viral antigens and/or antisera need to be replaced constantly during surveillance of AI viruses to keep pace with the AI antigenic drift. This strategy should improve the estimation of antigenic differences between circulating AI viruses and the selection of suitable vaccine strains. PMID:21172021

  17. Different outcomes of infection of chickens and ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, C C; Diao, Y X; Sun, X Y; Hao, D M; Liu, X; Ge, P P

    2014-01-01

    As the major aquatic and terrestrial hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), ducks and chickens play a critical role in the evolution and spread of the H9N2 virus. However, the outcomes of infection of ducks and chickens with the H9N2 virus are not sufficiently documented. In this study, we compared the outcomes of infection of chickens and Peking ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 virus. The results showed that this virus caused more pronounced clinical signs and histological lesions in chickens. As for the virus shedding, chickens shed more virus in the trachea and less virus in the cloaca in levels of interferon (IFN) γ were found in the trachea of ducks compared with chickens, while comparison with ducks. As for cytokines, namely IFNs and interleukins (IL), higher higher levels of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 were observed in the ileum of chickens compared with ducks. Eventually, serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were higher in chickens than in ducks. Taken together, ducks and chickens use different strategies in response to the H9N2 virus infection in tissues representing main replication sites of low-pathogenic AIVs. Given the different outcomes of the H9N2 virus infection in ducks and chickens, different measures should be taken in vaccination and treatment.

  18. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  19. Virological Evaluation of Avian Influenza Virus Persistence in Natural and Anthropic Ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, Summer 2012)

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Maria A.; Delogu, Mauro; Sivay, Mariya; Sharshov, Kirill; Yurlov, Alexander; Cotti, Claudia; Shestopalov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs), congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118) tested virus isolation (VI)-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5%) were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%). Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative. Conclusion/Significance We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches

  20. Pedagogy and the PC: Trends in the AIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badua, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time,…

  1. The Social Stratification of /aI/ in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, L. Ben

    This study is a sociolinguistic analysis of the variant pronunciation of /aI/, a selected phonological variable, by white informants in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 56 informants were interviewed to determine their pronunciation of /aI/. Informants were ranked according to education, income, and occupation to…

  2. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  3. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  4. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-22

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society.

  5. Complex reassortment of multiple subtypes of avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks at the Dongting Lake Region of China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guohua; Tan, Dan; Shi, Jianzhong; Cui, Pengfei; Jiang, Yongping; Liu, Liling; Tian, Guobin; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Li, Chengjun; Chen, Hualan

    2013-09-01

    To gain insight into the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AIV), we conducted active influenza virus surveillance in domestic ducks on farms located on the flyway of migratory birds in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China, from winter 2011 until spring 2012. Specimens comprising 3,030 duck swab samples and 1,010 environmental samples were collected from 101 duck farms. We isolated AIV of various HA subtypes, including H3, H4, H5, H6, H9, H10, H11, and H12. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of 28 representative isolates constituting 13 specific subtypes. When the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates were examined, we observed that extensive reassortment events had occurred. Among the 28 Dongting Lake viruses, 21 genotypes involving the six internal genes were identified. Furthermore, we identified viruses or viral genes introduced from other countries, viral gene segments of unknown origin, and a novel HA/NA combination. Our findings emphasize the importance of farmed domestic ducks in the Dongting Lake region to the genesis and evolution of AIV and highlight the need for continued surveillance of domestic ducks in this region.

  6. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  7. Avian influenza virus prevalence in migratory waterfowl in the United States, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Groepper, Scott R; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Vrtiska, Mark P; Pedersen, Kerri; Swafford, Seth R; Hygnstrom, Scott E

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed 155,535 samples collected for surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), in the United States from 2007 to 2009, from migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans). The goal was to elucidate patterns of prevalence by flyway and functional groups to determine targets for future surveillance. Apparent prevalence of AIV was highest in the Pacific Flyway in 2007-2008 (14.2% and 14.1%, respectively), in the Mississippi Flyway in 2009 (16.8%), and lowest each year in the Atlantic Flyway (range, 7.3%-8.9%). Dabbling ducks had higher apparent prevalence of AIV (12.8%-18.8%) than diving ducks (3.9%-6.0%) or geese and swans (3.6%-3.9%). We observed highest apparent prevalence in hatch-year waterfowl (15.6%-18.9%). We further analyzed 117,738 of the 155,535 samples to test the hypothesis mallard (Anasplatyrhynchos) had highest prevalence of AIV. We compared apparent prevalence and odds ratios for seven species of ducks and one species of goose commonly collected across the United States. Mallards had highest apparent prevalence (15%-26%) in half of comparisons made, whereas American green- winged teal (Anas creeca, 12%-13%), blue-winged teal (Anas discors, 13%-23%), northern pintail (Anas acuta, 16%-22%), or northern shoveler (Anas clypeata, 15%) had higher apparent prevalence in the remaining comparisons. The results of our research can be used to tailor future surveillance that targets flyways, functional groups, and species with the highest probability of detecting AIV. PMID:25618997

  8. Serological Surveillance of Wild Waterfowl in Northern Australia for Avian Influenza Virus Shows Variations in Prevalence and a Cyclical Periodicity of Infection.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2015-12-01

    The virological surveillance of 3582 wild waterfowl in northern Australia from 2004 to 2009 for avian influenza virus (AIV) found an apparent prevalence (AP) of 1% (31 of 2989 cloacal swabs; 95% CI: 0.71%-1.47%) using a Taqman Type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and no viral isolations from 593 swabs tested by the embryonating chicken egg culture method. From serological testing using a nucleoprotein competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AIV antibody, 1131 of 3645 sera had ≥ 40% inhibition, indicating an apparent seroprevalence of 31% (95% CI: 29.5%-32.6%). This value suggests that the low AP from virological testing does not reflect the dynamics of AIV infection in these populations. Spatiotemporal and species variations in seroprevalence were found at wetland sampling sites, with consistently higher values at Kununurra in Western Australia (AP  =  39%, 95% CI: 36.9%-41.4%) compared to other locations. At Kununurra, seroprevalence values had a two-year cyclical periodicity and suggest this location is a hotspot of AIV activity. From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using multiple subtype antigens, the highest AP of HI reactions were to H6 and H5 subtypes. The phenomenon of cyclic periodicity in NP seroprevalence at Kununurra is hypothesized as being related to the prevalent H6 subtype that may have either become predominant or cycled back into a mostly AIV naïve flock. The inclusion of serological testing provided insight into the dynamics of AIV infection in wild birds such as species risk profiles and spatiotemporal patterns, important epidemiological information for a risk-based approach to surveillance.

  9. Serological Surveillance of Wild Waterfowl in Northern Australia for Avian Influenza Virus Shows Variations in Prevalence and a Cyclical Periodicity of Infection.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2015-12-01

    The virological surveillance of 3582 wild waterfowl in northern Australia from 2004 to 2009 for avian influenza virus (AIV) found an apparent prevalence (AP) of 1% (31 of 2989 cloacal swabs; 95% CI: 0.71%-1.47%) using a Taqman Type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and no viral isolations from 593 swabs tested by the embryonating chicken egg culture method. From serological testing using a nucleoprotein competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AIV antibody, 1131 of 3645 sera had ≥ 40% inhibition, indicating an apparent seroprevalence of 31% (95% CI: 29.5%-32.6%). This value suggests that the low AP from virological testing does not reflect the dynamics of AIV infection in these populations. Spatiotemporal and species variations in seroprevalence were found at wetland sampling sites, with consistently higher values at Kununurra in Western Australia (AP  =  39%, 95% CI: 36.9%-41.4%) compared to other locations. At Kununurra, seroprevalence values had a two-year cyclical periodicity and suggest this location is a hotspot of AIV activity. From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using multiple subtype antigens, the highest AP of HI reactions were to H6 and H5 subtypes. The phenomenon of cyclic periodicity in NP seroprevalence at Kununurra is hypothesized as being related to the prevalent H6 subtype that may have either become predominant or cycled back into a mostly AIV naïve flock. The inclusion of serological testing provided insight into the dynamics of AIV infection in wild birds such as species risk profiles and spatiotemporal patterns, important epidemiological information for a risk-based approach to surveillance. PMID:26629622

  10. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 attracts particular attention because of the risk of their potential pathogenicity in poultry. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is widely used as subtype specific test for serological diagnostics despite the laborious nature of this method. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are being explored as an alternative test method. H5 and H7 specific monoclonal antibodies were experimentally raised and used in the development of inhibition ELISAs for detection of serological response specifically directed against AIV subtypes H5 and H7. The ELISAs were evaluated with polyclonal chicken anti-AIV antibodies against AIV subtypes: H1N2, H5N2, H5N7, H7N1, H7N7, H9N9, H10N4 and H16N3. Results Both the H5 and H7 ELISA proved to have a high sensitivity and specificity and the ELISAs detected H5 and H7 antibodies earlier during experimental infection than the HI test did. The reproducibility of the ELISA’s performed at different times was high with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.96-0.98. Conclusions The ELISAs are a potential alternative to the HI test for screening of large amounts of avian sera, although only experimental sera were tested in this study. PMID:24256721

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I variants. Naturally occurring substitutions of proline residues affect plasma concentration of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    von Eckardstein, A; Funke, H; Henke, A; Altland, K; Benninghoven, A; Assmann, G

    1989-01-01

    Six unrelated families with genetically determined structural variants of apo A-I were found in the course of an electrophoretic screening program for apo A-I variants in dried blood samples of newborns. The following structural variations were identified by the combined use of HPLC, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and automated gas phase sequencing: Pro3----Arg (1x), Pro4----Arg (1x), and Pro165----Arg (4x). All variant carriers were heterozygous for their mutant of apo A-I. Subjects heterozygous for apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) (n = 12) were found to exhibit lower mean values for apo A-I (109 +/- 16 mg/dl) and HDL cholesterol (37 +/- 9 mg/dl) than unaffected family members (n = 9): 176 +/- 41 and 64 +/- 18 mg/dl, respectively (P less than 0.001). In 9 of 12 apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) variant carriers the concentrations of apo A-I were below the fifth percentile of sex-matched controls. By two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis as well as by densitometry the relative concentration of the variant apo A-I in heterozygous carriers of apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) was determined to account for only 30% of the total plasma apo A-I mass instead of the expected 50%. Thus, the observed apo A-I deficiency may be largely a consequence of the decreased concentration of the variant apo A-I. In the case of the apo A-I(Pro3----Arg) mutant, densitometry of HDL apolipoproteins demonstrated a distinctly increased concentration of the variant proapo A-I relative to normal proapo A-I. This phenomenon was not observed in the apo A-I(Pro4----Arg) mutant or in other mutants. This suggests that the interspecies conserved proline residue in position 3 of mature apo A-I is functionally important for the regular enzymatic conversion of proapo A-I to mature apo A-I. Images PMID:2512329

  12. New Reassortant H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Southern China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Peirong; Cui, Jin; Song, Yafen; Song, Hui; Zhao, Zhishan; Wu, Siyu; Qu, Nannan; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    New reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Southern China in 2014. Our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. They were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. The viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. BLAST analysis revealed that their HA gene was most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), and their NA genes were most closely related to A/swine/Guangdong/K6/2010 (H6N6). The other genes had the highest identity with A/wild duck/Fujian/1/2011(H5N1). The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that their HA genes clustered into clade 2.3.4.4 of the H5N1 viruses and all genes derived from H5 were Mix-like or H6-like viruses. Thus, the new H5N6 viruses were reassortmented of H5N1 and H6N6 virus. Therefore, the circulation of the new H5N6 AIVs may become a threat to poultry and human health. PMID:27242767

  13. New Reassortant H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Southern China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Cui, Jin; Song, Yafen; Song, Hui; Zhao, Zhishan; Wu, Siyu; Qu, Nannan; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    New reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Southern China in 2014. Our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. They were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. The viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. BLAST analysis revealed that their HA gene was most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), and their NA genes were most closely related to A/swine/Guangdong/K6/2010 (H6N6). The other genes had the highest identity with A/wild duck/Fujian/1/2011(H5N1). The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that their HA genes clustered into clade 2.3.4.4 of the H5N1 viruses and all genes derived from H5 were Mix-like or H6-like viruses. Thus, the new H5N6 viruses were reassortmented of H5N1 and H6N6 virus. Therefore, the circulation of the new H5N6 AIVs may become a threat to poultry and human health. PMID:27242767

  14. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ducks represent an important reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses and are partly responsible for the worldwide dissemination of AI. Due to the ability of some low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the hemagglutinin H7 subtype to mutate into a highly pathogenic form o...

  15. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 avian influenza viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine, with an overall virus isolation frequency of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from thr...

  16. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T; Hill, Nichola J; Hussein, Islam T M; Ma, Eric J; Easterday, Bernard C; Halpin, Rebecca A; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David E; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Swartz, Michael D; Smith, Gavin J D; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:27166585

  17. Antigenic Cartography of H9 Avian Influenza Virus and Its Application to Vaccine Selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Davidson, Irit; Fouchier, Ron; Spackman, Erica

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the H9 subtype of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV), which is widespread in Asia and the Middle East. One of the most important factors for selecting an effective vaccine strain is the antigenic match between the hemagglutinin protein of the vaccine and the strain circulating in the field. To demonstrate the antigenic relationships among H9 AIVs, with a focus on Israeli H9 isolates, antigenic cartography was used to develop a map of H9 AIVs. Based on their antigenic diversity, three isolates from Israel were selected for vaccination-challenge studies: 1) the current vaccine virus, A/chicken/Israel/215/2007 H9N2 (Ck/215); 2) A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 H9N2 (Ck/1163); and 3) A/ostrich/Israel/1436/2003 (Os/1436). A 50% infective dose (ID50) model was used to determine the effect of the vaccines on susceptibility to infection by using a standardized dose of vaccine. Sera collected immediately prior to challenge showed that Ck/215 was the most immunogenic, followed by Ck/1163 and Os/1436. A significant difference in ID50 was only observed with Ck/215 homologous challenge, where the ID50 was increased by 2 log 10 per bird. The ID50 for Ck/1163 was the same, regardless of vaccine, including sham vaccination. The ID50 for Os/1436 was above the maximum possible dose and therefore could not be established.

  18. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T.; Hill, Nichola J.; Hussein, Islam T. M.; Ma, Eric J.; Easterday, Bernard C.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David E.; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Swartz, Michael D.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:27166585

  19. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T; Hill, Nichola J; Hussein, Islam T M; Ma, Eric J; Easterday, Bernard C; Halpin, Rebecca A; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David E; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Swartz, Michael D; Smith, Gavin J D; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  20. An Impedance Aptasensor with Microfluidic Chips for Specific Detection of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jacob; Wang, Ronghui; Hargis, Billy; Tung, Steve; Bottje, Walter; Lu, Huaguang; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this research a DNA aptamer, which was selected through SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to be specific against the H5N1 subtype of the avian influenza virus (AIV), was used as an alternative reagent to monoclonal antibodies in an impedance biosensor utilizing a microfluidics flow cell and an interdigitated microelectrode for the specific detection of H5N1 AIV. The gold surface of the interdigitated microelectrode embedded in a microfluidics flow cell was modified using streptavidin. The biotinylated aptamer against H5N1 was then immobilized on the electrode surface using biotin–streptavidin binding. The target virus was captured on the microelectrode surface, causing an increase in impedance magnitude. The aptasensor had a detection time of 30 min with a detection limit of 0.0128 hemagglutinin units (HAU). Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the binding of the target virus onto the electrode surface. The DNA aptamer was specific to H5N1 and had no cross-reaction to other subtypes of AIV (e.g., H1N1, H2N2, H7N2). The newly developed aptasensor offers a portable, rapid, low-cost alternative to current methods with the same sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26230699

  1. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Christina; Stallknecht, David; Swayne, David; Brown, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are believed to be transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect faecal–oral route involving contaminated water. This study examined the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water. Clams were placed into individual flasks with distilled water inoculated 1:100 with a low pathogenic (LP) AI virus (A/Mallard/MN/190/99 (H3N8)). Viral titres in water with clams were significantly lower at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation compared to LPAI-infected water without clams. To determine whether clams affected the infectivity of AI viruses, 18 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were divided into test groups and inoculated with a variety of treatments of clam supernatants, whole clams and water exposed to a high pathogenic (HP) AI (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1)). None of the wood ducks inoculated with HPAI-infected water that was filtered by clams or that was inoculated with or fed tissue from these clams exhibited morbidity or mortality. All wood ducks exposed to either HPAI-infected water without clams or the original viral inoculum died. These results indicate that filter-feeding bivalves can remove and reduce the infectivity of AI viruses in water and demonstrate the need to examine biotic environmental factors that can influence AI virus transmission. PMID:19656788

  2. Quality measures and assurance for AI (Artificial Intelligence) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.

  3. Apoptosis induction and release of inflammatory cytokines in the oviduct of egg-laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Chao; Wang, Qiuzhen; Li, Ruiqiao; Chen, Zhanli; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xingang

    2015-06-12

    The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8α(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-β, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-α was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage. PMID:25911114

  4. The mRNA and Proteins Expression Levels Analysis of TC-1 Cells Immune Response to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Ning; Meng, Dan; Hao, Mengchan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Since 1994, the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has spread widely in mainland China, causing great economic losses to the poultry industry there. Subsequently, it was found that the H9N2 AIV had the ability to infect mammals, which gave rise to great panic. In order to investigate the immune response of a host infected with H9N2 AIV, TC-1 cells were set as a model in this research. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to study the expression changes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in AIV-infected TC-1 cells. Our research found that TC-1 cells had similar susceptibility to both CK/SD/w3 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W3/2012) and CK/SD/w4 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W4/2012) H9N2 isolates, while the CK/SD/w3 isolate had a stronger capability of replication in the TC-1 cells. At the same time, the expression of PRRs (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, MDA-5), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6], and chemokines [regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and interferon-γ-induced protein-10 kDa (IP-10)] were significantly up-regulated. These results indicated that MDA-5, IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES, and IP-10 might play important roles in the host immune response to H9N2 AIV infection. This study provided useful information for further understanding the interaction between H9N2 virus infection and host immunity, and had certain guiding significance for the prevention and treatment of this disease.

  5. The mRNA and Proteins Expression Levels Analysis of TC-1 Cells Immune Response to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Ning; Meng, Dan; Hao, Mengchan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Since 1994, the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has spread widely in mainland China, causing great economic losses to the poultry industry there. Subsequently, it was found that the H9N2 AIV had the ability to infect mammals, which gave rise to great panic. In order to investigate the immune response of a host infected with H9N2 AIV, TC-1 cells were set as a model in this research. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to study the expression changes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in AIV-infected TC-1 cells. Our research found that TC-1 cells had similar susceptibility to both CK/SD/w3 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W3/2012) and CK/SD/w4 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W4/2012) H9N2 isolates, while the CK/SD/w3 isolate had a stronger capability of replication in the TC-1 cells. At the same time, the expression of PRRs (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, MDA-5), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6], and chemokines [regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and interferon-γ-induced protein-10 kDa (IP-10)] were significantly up-regulated. These results indicated that MDA-5, IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES, and IP-10 might play important roles in the host immune response to H9N2 AIV infection. This study provided useful information for further understanding the interaction between H9N2 virus infection and host immunity, and had certain guiding significance for the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:27446066

  6. Apoptosis induction and release of inflammatory cytokines in the oviduct of egg-laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Chao; Wang, Qiuzhen; Li, Ruiqiao; Chen, Zhanli; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xingang

    2015-06-12

    The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8α(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-β, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-α was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage.

  7. The mRNA and Proteins Expression Levels Analysis of TC-1 Cells Immune Response to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Ning; Meng, Dan; Hao, Mengchan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Since 1994, the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has spread widely in mainland China, causing great economic losses to the poultry industry there. Subsequently, it was found that the H9N2 AIV had the ability to infect mammals, which gave rise to great panic. In order to investigate the immune response of a host infected with H9N2 AIV, TC-1 cells were set as a model in this research. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to study the expression changes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in AIV-infected TC-1 cells. Our research found that TC-1 cells had similar susceptibility to both CK/SD/w3 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W3/2012) and CK/SD/w4 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W4/2012) H9N2 isolates, while the CK/SD/w3 isolate had a stronger capability of replication in the TC-1 cells. At the same time, the expression of PRRs (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, MDA-5), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6], and chemokines [regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and interferon-γ-induced protein-10 kDa (IP-10)] were significantly up-regulated. These results indicated that MDA-5, IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES, and IP-10 might play important roles in the host immune response to H9N2 AIV infection. This study provided useful information for further understanding the interaction between H9N2 virus infection and host immunity, and had certain guiding significance for the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:27446066

  8. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  9. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus isolated from diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; El-Sabagh, I M; Al-Ankari, Abdul-Rahman

    2014-06-01

    During 2007, two outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) in backyard and commercial ostrich flocks were first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The infected ostriches suffered from depression, anorexia, and diarrhea and some exhibited sudden death. A rapid AIV-group antigen detection and real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rtRT-PCR) were initially performed on cloacal and tracheal swabs collected from diseased birds. Pools from positive-tested swabs for each flock were utilized for virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. H5N1 AIV was identified in the harvested allantoic fluids by hemagglutination followed by hemagglutination inhibition and rtRT-PCR. The viruses responsible for these two outbreaks were sequenced and characterized as HPAIV H5N1 (A/ostrich/Saudi Arabia/6732-3/2007 and A/ostrich/Saudi Arabia/3489-73VIR08/ 2007) from backyard and commercial flocks, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of both isolates revealed that the two viruses belong to clade 2.2 sublineage II and cluster with the HPAIV H5N1 isolated from falcons and turkeys during 2007 in KSA. PMID:25055639

  10. Characterization of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Free-Living Mynah Birds (Acridotheres tristis) in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Body, Mohammad H; Alrarawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Alhubsy, Saif S; Saravanan, Nirmala; Rajmony, Sunil; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid

    2015-06-01

    A low pathogenic avian influenza virus was identified from free-living birds (mynah, Acridotheres tristis) of the starling family. Virus was isolated by inoculation of homogenized suspension from lung, tracheal, spleen, and cloacal swabs into the allantoic cavity of embryonated chicken eggs. Subtype of the isolate was characterized as H9N2 by hemagglutination inhibition test using monospecific chicken antisera to a wide range of influenza reference strain. Pathogenicity of the isolate was determined by intravenous pathogenicity index. The virus was reisolated from experimentally infected chicken. Additionally, the isolate was subjected to reverse transcriptase PCR using partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene-specific primers and yielded an amplicon of 487 bp. HA gene sequence analysis revealed 99% sequence homology among mynah and chicken isolates from Oman. On phylogenetic analysis, isolates from mynah (A/mynnah/Oman/AIVS6/2005) and chicken (A/chicken/Oman/AIVS3/2006; A/chicken/Oman/AIVS7/2006) clustered together tightly, indicating these free-flying birds may be a source of introduction of H9N2 subtype in poultry bird in Oman. Moreover, the HA gene of H9N2 isolates from Oman resembled those of viruses of the G1-like lineage and were very similar to those from United Arab Emirates. PMID:26473686

  11. Influenza-A Viruses in Ducks in Northwestern Minnesota: Fine Scale Spatial and Temporal Variation in Prevalence and Subtype Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Knutsen, Gregory A.; Berdeen, James; Goekjian, Virginia; Poulson, Rebecca; Goyal, Sagar; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Cardona, Carol; Berghaus, Roy D.; Swayne, David E.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 AIV subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. Ten hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes were detected each year (i.e., H1, 3–8, and 10–12 during 2007; H1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008). All neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were detected during each year of the study. Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. Predominant subtypes during 2007 (comprising ≥5% of subtype diversity) included H1N1, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H7N3, H10N7, and H11N9. Predominant subtypes during 2008 included H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7. Additionally, within each HA subtype, the same predominant HA/NA subtype combinations were detected each year and included H1N1, H3N8, H4N6, H5N2, H6N1, H7N3, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N9. The H2N3 and H12N5 viruses also predominated within the H2 and H12 subtypes, respectively, but only were detected during a single year (H2 and H12 viruses were not detected during 2007 and 2008, respectively). Mallards were the predominant species sampled (63.7% of the total), and 531 AIV were isolated from this species (80.5% of the total isolates). Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity. PMID:21931636

  12. Calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.

  13. Identification of a Highly Conserved Epitope on Avian Influenza Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 Using a Peptide Microarray.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiashan; Wang, Xiurong; Wen, Xuexia; Bao, Hongmei; Shi, Lin; Tao, Qimeng; Jiang, Yongping; Zeng, Xianying; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Guobin; Zheng, Shimin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein. It is present at high levels in infected cells and can be used for AIV detection and diagnosis. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibody (MAb) D7 against AIV NS1 protein by immunization of BALB/c mice with purified recombinant NS1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Isotype determination revealed that the MAb was IgG1/κ-type subclass. To identify the epitope of the MAb D7, the NS1 protein was truncated into a total of 225 15-mer peptides with 14 amino acid overlaps, which were spotted for a peptide microarray. The results revealed that the MAb D7 recognized the consensus DAPF motif. Furthermore, the AIV NS1 protein with the DAPF motif deletion was transiently expressed in 293T cells and failed to react with MAb D7. Subsequently, the DAPF motif was synthesized with an elongated GSGS linker at both the C- and N-termini. The MAb D7 reacted with the synthesized peptide both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot assays. From these results, we concluded that DAPF motif is the epitope of MAb D7. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 4-mer epitope on the NS1 protein of AIV that can be recognized by MAb using a peptide microarray, which is able to simplify epitope identification, and that could serve as the basis for immune responses against avian influenza.

  14. Identification of a Highly Conserved Epitope on Avian Influenza Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 Using a Peptide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xuexia; Bao, Hongmei; Shi, Lin; Tao, Qimeng; Jiang, Yongping; Zeng, Xianying; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Guobin; Zheng, Shimin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein. It is present at high levels in infected cells and can be used for AIV detection and diagnosis. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibody (MAb) D7 against AIV NS1 protein by immunization of BALB/c mice with purified recombinant NS1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Isotype determination revealed that the MAb was IgG1/κ-type subclass. To identify the epitope of the MAb D7, the NS1 protein was truncated into a total of 225 15-mer peptides with 14 amino acid overlaps, which were spotted for a peptide microarray. The results revealed that the MAb D7 recognized the consensus DAPF motif. Furthermore, the AIV NS1 protein with the DAPF motif deletion was transiently expressed in 293T cells and failed to react with MAb D7. Subsequently, the DAPF motif was synthesized with an elongated GSGS linker at both the C- and N-termini. The MAb D7 reacted with the synthesized peptide both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot assays. From these results, we concluded that DAPF motif is the epitope of MAb D7. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 4-mer epitope on the NS1 protein of AIV that can be recognized by MAb using a peptide microarray, which is able to simplify epitope identification, and that could serve as the basis for immune responses against avian influenza. PMID:26938453

  15. Newly Emergent Highly Pathogenic H5N9 Subtype Avian Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Xingbo; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hailong; Si, Weiying; Yang, Hui; Wu, Jiusheng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Guang; Sang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xiaopeng; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Yu, Xinfen; Pan, Jingcao; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) was demonstrated to cause severe human respiratory infections in China. Here, we examined poultry specimens from live bird markets linked to human H7N9 infection in Hangzhou, China. Metagenomic sequencing revealed mixed subtypes (H5, H7, H9, N1, N2, and N9). Subsequently, AIV subtypes H5N9, H7N9, and H9N2 were isolated. Evolutionary analysis showed that the hemagglutinin gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM227/2012 (H5N1), which belongs to clade 2.3.2.1. The neuraminidase gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from human-infective A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (H7N9). The six internal genes were similar to those of other H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 virus strains. The virus harbored the PQRERRRKR/GL motif characteristic of highly pathogenic AIVs at the HA cleavage site. Receptor-binding experiments demonstrated that the virus binds α-2,3 sialic acid but not α-2,6 sialic acid. Identically, pathogenicity experiments also showed that the virus caused low mortality rates in mice. This newly isolated H5N9 virus is a highly pathogenic reassortant virus originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes. Live bird markets represent a potential transmission risk to public health and the poultry industry. IMPORTANCE This investigation confirms that the novel H5N9 subtype avian influenza A virus is a reassortant strain originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes and is totally different from the H5N9 viruses reported before. The novel H5N9 virus acquired a highly pathogenic H5 gene and an N9 gene from human-infecting subtype H7N9 but caused low mortality rates in mice. Whether this novel H5N9 virus will cause human infections from its avian host and become a pandemic subtype is not known yet. It is therefore imperative to assess the risk of emergence of this novel reassortant virus with potential transmissibility to public health. PMID:26085150

  16. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Differential growth of avian influenza virus in chicken and duck cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and chickens infected with AI viruses display clear differences in disease manifestation. To understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences we have determined the ability of several AI isolates to replicate in primary tracheal epithelial cells and fibroblasts from both species. Re...

  18. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-12-29

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV.

  19. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  20. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  1. Identification and genetic analysis of H3N8 subtype influenza viruses isolated from domestic pigeons in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong; Chen, Sunrui; Liu, Ziduo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-02-01

    A novel strain of H3N8 influenza virus was isolated from domestic pigeons during the avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in wet markets in Anhui, China, during 2013. The virus was characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent genetic comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NA gene of AIV mapped to the North American lineage, and the remaining seven genes belong to a Eurasian lineage. These findings indicated that this H3N8 virus is a novel nature reassortant virus. Comparison of the hemagglutinin amino acid sequences indicated 9 substitutions. One substitution caused the loss of a potential glycosylation site, and six substitutions were not previously observed in avian H3 isolates. Q226 and T228 at the receptor binding sites suggested that Anhui-08 preferentially binds to a-2,3-linked sialic acid receptors, and the cleavage site sequence showed a low pathogenic feature. Animal experiments further confirmed that A/pigeon/Anhui/08/2013 (H3N8) is low or in pigeons. The results improve our understanding of these viruses as they evolve and also provide important information to aid ongoing risk assessment analyses because these zoonotic influenza viruses continue to circulate and adapt to new hosts.

  2. Effects of different polymerases of avian influenza viruses on the growth and pathogenicity of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1)-derived reassorted viruses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-01-10

    We generated reassorted PR8 viruses containing six different combinations of avian influenza virus (AIV) polymerase genes from A/chicken/Korea/01310/2001 (H9N2) (01310) and A/chicken/Korea/KBNP-0028/2000 (H9N2) (0028) to examine the effects of the AIV polymerase genes PB1, PB2, and PA on replication efficiency in different host cells and pathogenicity in mice. The virus titers of the reassorted viruses possessing 01310 [rPR8-PB2(01310)] and 0028 [rPR8-PB2(0028)] PB2 genes were significantly higher than those of the others except the rPR8 virus in embryonated chicken eggs at 37°C, and those of avian polymerase reassorted viruses were significantly less than rPR8 in MDCK cells at 32 and 37°C. rPR8-PB2(01310), rPR8-PB2(0028), and rPR8-PA(0028) caused no body weight loss in BALB/c mice but rPR8-PA(01310), rPR8-PB1(01310), and rPR8-PB1(0028) caused mortality and significantly different body weight loss compared to those in the mock treatment. In contrast to rPR8-PB2(0028) and rPR8-PA(0028), rPR8-PB2(01310) was not isolated from infected mice, and rPR8-PB1(0028) was less pathogenic than rPR8-PB1(01310). We determined the amino acid residues that were specific to the less pathogenic polymerases. A comparison with those of pandemic 2009 H1N1, human fatal H5N1 and H7N9, and pathogenic AIVs to mice without adaptation revealed that they possessed the mammalian pathogenic constellation of polymerases. Thus, the novel polymerase genes and amino acid residues may be useful to understand the host-barrier overcome of AIVs in mice and to develop safer and efficacious vaccines.

  3. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  4. Little evidence of avian or equine influenza virus infection among a cohort of Mongolian adults with animal exposures, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia's migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective study

  5. Discovering Knowledge from AIS Database for Application in VTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng

    The widespread use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has had a significant impact on maritime technology. AIS enables the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) not only to offer commonly known functions such as identification, tracking and monitoring of vessels, but also to provide rich real-time information that is useful for marine traffic investigation, statistical analysis and theoretical research. However, due to the rapid accumulation of AIS observation data, the VTS platform is often unable quickly and effectively to absorb and analyze it. Traditional observation and analysis methods are becoming less suitable for the modern AIS generation of VTS. In view of this, we applied the same data mining technique used for business intelligence discovery (in Customer Relation Management (CRM) business marketing) to the analysis of AIS observation data. This recasts the marine traffic problem as a business-marketing problem and integrates technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), database management systems, data warehousing and data mining to facilitate the discovery of hidden and valuable information in a huge amount of observation data. Consequently, this provides the marine traffic managers with a useful strategic planning resource.

  6. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  7. Molecular analysis of hemagglutinin-1 fragment of avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Gusti N; Jonas, Melina; Murwijati, Theresia; Fitria, Nur; Suartha, I Nyoman; Suartini, I Gusti A A; Wibawan, I Wayan Teguh

    2016-04-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1) has been circulating in Indonesia since 2003. To understand the genetic diversity of these viruses, and to predict vaccine efficacy, the hemaglutinin-1 (HA-1) fragment of viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010 was sequenced and analyzed. The effects of these molecular changes were investigated in challenge experiments and HI assays of homologous and heterologous strains. Molecular analysis showed that these AIV-H5N1 isolates had evolved into three distinct sub-lineages from an ancestor circulating since 2003. Although no significant positive selection of residues was detected, 12 negatively selected sites were identified (p<0.05). Moreover, four sites showed evidence of significant episodic diversifying selection. The findings indicated complete protectivity and high HI titers with homologous strains, compared with protectivity ranging from 40 to 100% and lower HI titers with heterologous strains resulting from polymorphisms at antigenic sites. Our findings provide valuable insight into the molecular evolution of AIV and have important implications for vaccine efficacy and future vaccination strategies.

  8. Toward detecting California shrubland canopy chemistry with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Westman, Walter E.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS)-2 data of coastal sage scrub vegetation were examined for fine spectral features that might be used to predict concentrations of certain canopy chemical constituents. A Fourier notch filter was applied to the AIS data and the TREE and ROCK mode spectra were ratioed to a flat field. Portions of the resulting spectra resemble spectra for plant cellulose and starch in that both show reduced reflectance at 2100 and 2270 nm. The latter are regions of absorption of energy by organic bonds found in starch and cellulose. Whether the relationship is sufficient to predict the concentration of these chemicals from AIS spectra will require testing of the predictive ability of these wavebands with large field sample sizes.

  9. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  10. Synergetic effects of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infection on growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuan; Ju, Sidi; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-08-27

    To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P<0.05). Chickens inoculated with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower weights than chickens in all other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two single infection groups and co-infection group (P>0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

  11. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, D.E.; Suarez, D.L.; Senne, D.A.; Pedersen, J.C.; Killian, M.L.; Pasick, J.; Handel, K.; Pillai, S.P.S.; Lee, C.-W.; Stallknecht, D.; Slemons, R.; Ip, H.S.; Deliberto, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 10 5.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Senne, Dennis A.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pasick, John; Handel, Katherine; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha; Lee, Chang-Won; Stallknecht, David; Slemons, Richard; Ip, Hon S.; Deliberto, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 105.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage.

  13. Situated, strategic, and AI-Enhanced technology introduction to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bushko, Renata G

    2005-01-01

    We work hard on creating AI-wings for physicians to let them fly higher and faster in diagnosing patients--a task that physicians do not want to automate. What we do not work hard on is determining the ENVIRONMENT in which physicians' AI wings are supposed to function. It seems to be a job for social/business analysts that have their own separate kingdom. For the sake of all of us (potential patients!) social/business consultants and their methodologies should not be treated as a separate kingdom. The most urgent task is to achieve synergy between (1) AI/Fuzzy/Neural research, (2) Applied medical AI, (3) Social/Business research on medical institutions. We need this synergy in order to assure humanistic medical technology; technology flexible and sensitive enough to facilitate healthcare work while leaving space for human pride and creativity. In order to achieve humanistic technology, designers should consider the impact of technological breakthroughs on the organizations in which this technology will function and the nature of work of humans destined to use this technology. Situated (different for each organization), Strategic (based on an in-depth knowledge of Healthcare business), and AI-Enhanced (ended with a dynamic model) method for introducing technology to Healthcare allows identifying areas where technology can make medical work easier. Using this method before automating human work will get us closer to the ideal where there is no discontinuity between design and use of programs; where the technology matches users' needs perfectly--the world with humanistic technology and healthcare workers with AI-wings.

  14. Validation of the ICD/AIS MAP for pediatric use

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, D; Localio, A; MacKenzie, E

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the performance of the ICD/AIS MAP (© E J MacKenzie et al) as a method of classifying injury severity for children. Methods—Data on all children less than 16 years of age admitted to all designated trauma centers in Pennsylvania from January 1994 through October 1996 were obtained from the state trauma registry. The ICD/AIS MAP was used to convert all injury related ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes into abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score and injury severity score (ISS). Agreement between trauma registry AIS and ISS scores and MAP generated scores was assessed using the weighted κ (κw) coefficient for ordered data and the intraclass correlation coefficient for continuous data. Results—Agreement in ISS scores was excellent, both overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 0.89)), and when grouped into three levels of severity (κw= 0.86, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.87). Agreement in AIS scores across all body regions and ages was also excellent, (κw= 0.86 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.87). Agreement increased with age (κw= 0.78 for children <2 years; κw= 0.86 for older children) and varied by body region, though was excellent across all regions. Conclusions—The performance of the ICD/AIS MAP in assessing severity of pediatric injuries was equal to or better than previous assessments of its performance on primarily adult patients. Its performance was excellent across the pediatric age range and across nearly all body regions of injury. PMID:11428572

  15. [The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Options and problems in application].

    PubMed

    Haasper, C; Junge, M; Ernstberger, A; Brehme, H; Hannawald, L; Langer, C; Nehmzow, J; Otte, D; Sander, U; Krettek, C; Zwipp, H

    2010-05-01

    The new AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) was released with an update by the AAAM (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine) in 2008. It is a universal scoring system in the field of trauma applicable in clinic and research. In engineering it is used as a classification system for vehicle safety. The AIS can therefore be considered as an international, interdisciplinary and universal code of injury severity. This review focuses on a historical overview, potential applications and new coding options in the current version and also outlines the associated problems. PMID:20376615

  16. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  17. Rapid prototyping and AI programming environments applied to payload modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1987-01-01

    This effort focused on using artificial intelligence (AI) programming environments and rapid prototyping to aid in both space flight manned and unmanned payload simulation and training. Significant problems addressed are the large amount of development time required to design and implement just one of these payload simulations and the relative inflexibility of the resulting model to accepting future modification. Results of this effort have suggested that both rapid prototyping and AI programming environments can significantly reduce development time and cost when applied to the domain of payload modeling for crew training. The techniques employed are applicable to a variety of domains where models or simulations are required.

  18. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  19. Diverter AI based decision aid, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Bayles, Scott J.; Patterson, Robert W.; Schulke, Duane A.; Williams, Deborah C.

    1989-01-01

    It was determined that a system to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) into airborne flight management computers is feasible. The AI functions that would be most useful to the pilot are to perform situational assessment, evaluate outside influences on the contemplated rerouting, perform flight planning/replanning, and perform maneuver planning. A study of the software architecture and software tools capable of demonstrating Diverter was also made. A skeletal planner known as the Knowledge Acquisition Development Tool (KADET), which is a combination script-based and rule-based system, was used to implement the system. A prototype system was developed which demonstrates advanced in-flight planning/replanning capabilities.

  20. Molecular characterization of H6 subtype influenza viruses in southern China from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Wenbing; Bai, Tian; Dong, Libo; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-01

    H6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries, have been isolated from pigs, a dog and a human. Routine virological surveillance at live poultry markets or poultry farms was conducted in southern China from 2009 to 2011. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characteristics, analyzed the receptor-binding properties and evaluated the kinetics of infectivity of the AIVs in A549, MDCK and PK15 cells. A total of 14 H6N6 and 2 H6N2 isolates were obtained from four provinces in southern China. Genetic analysis indicated two distinct hemagglutinin lineages of the H6 strains cocirculating in southern China, and these strains facilitated active evolution and reassortment among multiple influenza virus subtypes from different avian species in nature. None of these isolates grouped with the novel Taiwan H6N1 virus responsible for human infection. Receptor-binding specificity assays showed that five H6 AIVs may have acquired the ability to recognize human receptors. Growth kinetics experiments showed that EV/HB-JZ/02/10(H6N2) and EV/JX/15/10(H6N6) initially reproduced faster and achieved higher titers than other viruses, suggesting that enhanced binding to α-2,6-linked sialic acids correlated with increased viral replication in mammalian cells. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H6 outbreaks and extensive characterization of H6 isolates to better understand genetic changes and their implications. PMID:27436363

  1. Development of dual-function ELISA for effective antigen and antibody detection against H7 avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Outbreaks in poultry involving influenza virus from H7 subtype have resulted in human infections, thus causing a major concern for public health, as well as for the poultry industry. Currently, no efficient rapid test is available for large-scale detection of either antigen or antibody of H7 avian influenza viruses. Results In the present study, a dual function ELISA was developed for the effective detection of antigen and antibody against H7 AIVs. The test was established based on antigen-capture-ELISA and epitope blocking ELISA. The two Mabs 62 and 98 which were exploited in the assay were identified to recognize two conformational neutralizing epitopes on H7 HA1. Both of the epitopes exist in all of the human H7 strains, including the recent H7N9 strain from China and > 96.6% of avian H7 strains. The dual ELISA was able to detect all of the five H7 antigens tested without any cross reaction to other influenza subtypes. The antigen detection limit was less than 1 HA unit of H7. For antibody detection, the sensitivity and specificity of the dual ELISA was evaluated and compared to HI and microneutralization using immunized animal sera to different H7 strains and different subtypes of AIVs. Results indicated that antibodies to H7 were readily detected in immunized animal sera by the dual ELISA whereas specimens with antibodies to other AIVs yielded negative results. Conclusions This is the first dual-function ELISA reported for either antigen or antibody detection against H7 AIVs. The assay was highly sensitive and 100% specific in both functions rendering it effective for H7 diagnosis. PMID:24083616

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  3. Comparisons of the Outcome Prediction Performance of Injury Severity Scoring Tools Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 90 Update 98 (AIS 98) and 2005 Update 2008 (AIS 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was revised in 2005 and updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to compare the outcome prediction performance of AIS-based injury severity scoring tools by using AIS 2008 and AIS 98. We used all major trauma patients hospitalized to the Royal Perth Hospital between 1994 and 2008. We selected five AIS-based injury severity scoring tools, including Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), modified Anatomic Profile (mAP), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). We selected survival after injury as a target outcome. We used the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC) as a performance measure. First, we compared the five tools using all cases whose records included all variables for the TRISS (complete dataset) using a 10-fold cross-validation. Second, we compared the ISS and NISS for AIS 98 and AIS 2008 using all subjects (whole dataset). We identified 1,269 and 4,174 cases for a complete dataset and a whole dataset, respectively. With the 10-fold cross-validation, there were no clear differences in the AUROCs between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based scores. With the second comparison, the AIS 98-based ISS performed significantly worse than the AIS 2008-based ISS (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based NISSs. Researchers should be aware of these findings when they select an injury severity scoring tool for their studies. PMID:22105401

  4. Neutrality, cross-immunity and subtype dominance in avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Brown, Vicki L; Drake, John M; Barton, Heather D; Stallknecht, David E; Brown, Justin D; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are considered a threat for their potential to seed human influenza pandemics. Despite their acknowledged importance, there are significant unknowns regarding AIV transmission dynamics in their natural hosts, wild birds. Of particular interest is the difference in subtype dynamics between human and bird populations-in human populations, typically only two or three subtypes cocirculate, while avian populations are capable of simultaneously hosting a multitude of subtypes. One species in particular-ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres)--has been found to harbour a very wide range of AIV subtypes, which could make them a key player in the spread of new subtypes in wild bird populations. Very little is known about the mechanisms that drive subtype dynamics in this species, and here we address this gap in our knowledge. Taking advantage of two independent sources of data collected from ruddy turnstones in Delaware Bay, USA, we examine patterns of subtype diversity and dominance at this site. We compare these patterns to those produced by a stochastic, multi-strain transmission model to investigate possible mechanisms that are parsimonious with the observed subtype dynamics. We find, in agreement with earlier experimental work, that subtype differences are unnecessary to replicate the observed dynamics, and that neutrality alone is sufficient. We also evaluate the role of subtype cross-immunity and find that it is not necessary to generate patterns consistent with observations. This work offers new insights into the mechanisms behind subtype diversity and dominance in a species that has the potential to be a key player in AIV dynamics in wild bird populations.

  5. Comparison of 3 kinds of Toll-like receptor ligands for inactivated avian H5N1 influenza virus intranasal immunization in chicken.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinfeng; Fu, Jia; Kang, Haihong; Lin, Jian; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of co-administration of inactivated avian influenza H5N1 virus (IAIV) and different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in chickens, 10-d-old chickens were immunized intranasally with IAIV and TLR ligand [Bacillus subtilis spores, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), respectively]. The results showed that both anti-avian influenza virus (AIV) specific secretory IgA level in respiratory tract and anti-AIV specific IgG level in serum significantly increased, as well as the expressions of IL-12, interferon-γ, IL-6, and TLR in the nasal cavity and trachea after intranasal immunization with IAIV and TLR ligand. Among the used TLR ligands, B. subtilis spores as the adjuvant for nasal IAIV had the strongest effect on the expression of IL-6 and IL-12 (P < 0.01), whereas the CpG-ODN could present an advantageous effect on the induction of anti-AIV specific IgG and neutralization antibodies (P < 0.01). The chickens that were previously co-administrated with IAIV and B. subtilis spores could survive at an improved rate upon challenge by live AIV H5N1 virus. Our study suggested that B. subtilis spores, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, or CpG-ODN all could effectively enhance the local and systemic immune responses to IAIV in chickens. Considering of the effects and cost of these TLR ligands, we prospected that B. subtilis spores might serve as a more affordable and efficacious mucosal adjuvant for nasal IAIV in chickens. PMID:24046412

  6. AIS-2 automated meter for spectra recorded on photographic plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramendik, G.I.; Khromov, A.Yu.; Volkov, V.L.; Astaf'ev, P.N.

    1986-10-01

    The AIS-2 system contains a G-2 microdensitometer, an Elektronika D3-28 microcomputer, an Shch1312 digital voltmeter, and an S1-72 oscilloscope, which serves as a graphics display. The system operates in the interactive mode.

  7. New directions for Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in optimum design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1989-01-01

    Developments and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in the design of structural systems is reviewed. Principal shortcomings in the current approach are emphasized, and the need for some degree of formalism in the development environment for such design tools is underscored. Emphasis is placed on efforts to integrate algorithmic computations in expert systems.

  8. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  9. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  10. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  11. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-04-25

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project.

  12. Dialect Leveling and /ai/ Monopthongization among African American Detroiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bridget L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents evidence that Detroit African Americans are participating in a recent sound change that is typically associated with some White but not African American varieties in the American South. Reports a leveling pattern in which /ai/ monothongization has expanded to the salient pre-voiceless context in Detroit African American English (AAE).…

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans. PMID:27382195

  14. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans.

  15. Model to Track Wild Birds for Avian Influenza by Means of Population Dynamics and Surveillance Information

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Anna; Bicout, Dominique J.; Vidal, Francesc; Curcó, Antoni; Allepuz, Alberto; Napp, Sebastián; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Costa, Taiana; Casal, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Design, sampling and data interpretation constitute an important challenge for wildlife surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV). The aim of this study was to construct a model to improve and enhance identification in both different periods and locations of avian species likely at high risk of contact with AIV in a specific wetland. This study presents an individual-based stochastic model for the Ebre Delta as an example of this appliance. Based on the Monte-Carlo method, the model simulates the dynamics of the spread of AIV among wild birds in a natural park following introduction of an infected bird. Data on wild bird species population, apparent AIV prevalence recorded in wild birds during the period of study, and ecological information on factors such as behaviour, contact rates or patterns of movements of waterfowl were incorporated as inputs of the model. From these inputs, the model predicted those species that would introduce most of AIV in different periods and those species and areas that would be at high risk as a consequence of the spread of these AIV incursions. This method can serve as a complementary tool to previous studies to optimize the allocation of the limited AI surveillance resources in a local complex ecosystem. However, this study indicates that in order to predict the evolution of the spread of AIV at the local scale, there is a need for further research on the identification of host factors involved in the interspecies transmission of AIV. PMID:22952962

  16. The comparison of pathology in ferrets infected by H9N2 avian influenza viruses with different genomic features.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rongbao; Bai, Tian; Li, Xiaodan; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Yiwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Ye; Bo, Hong; Zou, Shumei; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-15

    H9N2 avian influenza virus circulates widely in poultry and has been responsible for sporadic human infections in several regions. Few studies have been conducted on the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV isolates that have different genomic features. We compared the pathology induced by a novel reassortant H9N2 virus and two currently circulating H9N2 viruses that have different genomic features in ferrets. The results showed that the three viruses can induce infections with various amounts of viral shedding in ferrets. The novel H9N2 induced respiratory infection, but no pathological lesions were observed in lung tissues. The other two viruses induced mild to intermediate pathological lesions in lung tissues, although the clinical signs presented mildly in ferrets. The pathological lesions presented a diversity consistent with viral replication in ferrets. PMID:26638019

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Exposure of Free-Range Poultry to Avian Influenza Viruses in Important Bird Areas in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kirunda, H; Kabi, F; Muwereza, N; Kabuuka, T; Kerfua, S D; Kasaija, P D; Byarugaba, D K; Wabwire-Mangen, F

    2015-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses cause disease in domestic and wild bird species. Although these viruses have been reported to occur in poultry in Uganda, risk factors for their introduction and spread were largely unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for exposure of free-range poultry to AI viruses in Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the country. A structured questionnaire was administered to 664 respondents, and 1342 sera were collected from poultry. Sera were analyzed for antibody titers against AI using competitive ELISA. AI antibody prevalence was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-9.0) in the Lake Victoria Basin, 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0-9.8) in the southwestern region, and none (0/432) in the Kyoga region. High proportions of risky practices were observed among respondent farmers. Significant predictors for exposure of poultry to AI viruses were the source of restocking poultry, method of disposal of inedible parts of slaughtered poultry, and waterfowl visits to a nearby body of water. In addition, visits by waterbirds to a nearby body of water during October-December were more associated with exposure to AI viruses (odds ratio = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.42-9.23) compared with January-March visits'. These results suggested the existence of several risk factors for exposure of free-range to AI viruses in IBAs in Uganda.

  18. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  19. Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1) in infected chickens: feather as a suitable sample for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Alba, Anna; Dolz, Roser; Allepuz, Alberto; Rivas, Raquel; Ramis, Antonio; Darji, Ayub; Majó, Natàlia

    2010-09-01

    Selection of an ideal sample is a vital element in early detection of influenza infection. Rapid identification of infectious individuals or animals is crucial not only for avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance programmes, but also for treatment and containment strategies. This study used a combination of quantitative real-time RT-PCR with an internal positive control and a cell-titration system to examine the presence of virus in different samples during active experimental AIV infection and its persistence in the infected carcasses. Oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs as well as feather pulp and blood samples were collected from 15-day-old chicks infected with H7N1 highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) and the kinetics of virus shedding during active infection were evaluated. Additionally, several samples (muscle, skin, brain, feather pulp and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs) were examined to assess the persistence of virus in the HPAIV-infected carcasses. Based on the results, feather pulp was found to be the best sample to detect and isolate HPAIV from infected chicks from 24 h after inoculation onwards. Kinetic studies on the persistence of virus in infected carcasses revealed that tissues such as muscle could potentially transmit infectious virus for 3 days post-mortem (p.m.), whilst other tissues such as skin, feather pulp and brain retained their infectivity for as long as 5-6 days p.m. at environmental temperature (22-23 degrees C). These results strongly favour feather as a useful sample for HPAIV diagnosis in infected chickens as well as in carcasses.

  20. Avian influenza virus H9N2 seroprevalence and risk factors for infection in occupational poultry-exposed workers in Tai'an of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2016-08-01

    To determine risk factor for H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, a serological surveillance among both occupational poultry-exposed (OPE) workers and general humans was carried out using both haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays in Tai'an, China, between 2011 and 2013. At baseline, the positive rate of anti-H9 antibody (HI and MN titers ≥40) among OPE workers (51/600, 8.5%) was significantly higher than that among the general population (11/600, 1.8%). The result indicated that occupational exposure to chicken flocks was an important risk factor for H9N2 AIV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1453-1456, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26816053

  1. Adaptive amino acid substitutions enhance the virulence of an H7N7 avian influenza virus isolated from wild waterfowl in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Yu, Zhijun; Sun, Weiyang; Li, Xue; Chai, Hongliang; Gao, Xiaolong; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Geng; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Wang, Tiecheng; Hua, Yuping

    2015-05-15

    Although H7N7 AIVs primarily circulate in wild waterfowl, documented cases of human infection with H7N7 viruses suggest they may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a wild waterfowl-origin H7N7 virus to identify adaptive changes that confer enhanced virulence in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the adapted variants were reduced >5000-fold compared to the parental virus. Mouse-adapted variants viruses displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and acquired the ability to replicate in extrapulmonary tissues. These observations suggest that enhanced growth characteristics and modified cell tropism may increase the virulence of H7N7 AIVs in mice. Genomic analysis of the adapted variant viruses revealed amino acid changes in the PB2 (E627K), PB1 (R118I), PA (L550M), HA (G214R), and NA (S372N) proteins. Our results suggest that these amino acid substitutions collaboratively enhance the ability of H7N7 virus to replicate and cause severe disease in mammals. PMID:25769645

  2. AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, F. W.

    1991-03-01

    The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

  3. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  4. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  5. In vitro responses of chicken macrophage-like monocytes following exposure to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli ghosts loaded with a rational design of conserved genetic materials of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Lagzian, Milad; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important viral diseases in the poultry industry. Therefore, new disease-fighting strategies, especially effective genetic vaccination, are in high demand. Bacterial Ghost (BG) is a promising platform for delivering genetic materials to macrophages, cells that are among the first to encounter these viruses. However, there is no investigation on the immune response of these macrophage-targeted treatments. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic materials of AIV and NDV on the gene expression profile of important pro-inflammatory cytokines, a chemokine, a transcription factor, major histocompatibility complexes, and the viability of the chicken macrophage-like monocyte cells (CMM). Our genetic construct contained the external domain of matrix protein 2 and nucleoprotein gene of AIV, and immunodominant epitopes of fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of NDV (hereinafter referred to as pAIV-Vax), delivered via the pathogenic and non-pathogenic BGs (Escherichia coli O78K80 and E. coli TOP10 respectively). The results demonstrated that both types of BGs were able to efficiently deliver the construct to the CMM, although the pathogenic strain derived BG was a significantly better stimulant and delivery vehicle. Both BGs were safe regarding LPS toxicity and did not induce any cell death. Furthermore, the loaded BGs were more powerful in modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines' responses and antigen presentation systems in comparison to the unloaded BGs. Nitric oxide production of the BG-stimulated cells was also comparable to those challenged by the live bacteria. According to the results, the combination of pAIV-Vax construct and E. coli O78K80 BG is promising in inducing a considerable innate and adaptive immune response against AIV-NDV and perhaps the pathogenic E. coli, provided that the current combination be a potential candidate for in vivo testing regarding the development of an

  6. In vitro responses of chicken macrophage-like monocytes following exposure to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli ghosts loaded with a rational design of conserved genetic materials of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Lagzian, Milad; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important viral diseases in the poultry industry. Therefore, new disease-fighting strategies, especially effective genetic vaccination, are in high demand. Bacterial Ghost (BG) is a promising platform for delivering genetic materials to macrophages, cells that are among the first to encounter these viruses. However, there is no investigation on the immune response of these macrophage-targeted treatments. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic materials of AIV and NDV on the gene expression profile of important pro-inflammatory cytokines, a chemokine, a transcription factor, major histocompatibility complexes, and the viability of the chicken macrophage-like monocyte cells (CMM). Our genetic construct contained the external domain of matrix protein 2 and nucleoprotein gene of AIV, and immunodominant epitopes of fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of NDV (hereinafter referred to as pAIV-Vax), delivered via the pathogenic and non-pathogenic BGs (Escherichia coli O78K80 and E. coli TOP10 respectively). The results demonstrated that both types of BGs were able to efficiently deliver the construct to the CMM, although the pathogenic strain derived BG was a significantly better stimulant and delivery vehicle. Both BGs were safe regarding LPS toxicity and did not induce any cell death. Furthermore, the loaded BGs were more powerful in modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines' responses and antigen presentation systems in comparison to the unloaded BGs. Nitric oxide production of the BG-stimulated cells was also comparable to those challenged by the live bacteria. According to the results, the combination of pAIV-Vax construct and E. coli O78K80 BG is promising in inducing a considerable innate and adaptive immune response against AIV-NDV and perhaps the pathogenic E. coli, provided that the current combination be a potential candidate for in vivo testing regarding the development of an

  7. Rapid PCR-Based Molecular Pathotyping of H5 and H7 Avian Influenza Viruses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, Mikael; Ullman, Karin; Thyselius, Susanna; Zohari, Siamak; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hanna, Amanda; Mahmood, Sahar; Banks, Jill; Slomka, Marek J.; Belák, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    While the majority of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes are classified as low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV), the H5 and H7 subtypes have the ability to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in poultry and therefore are the etiological agents of notifiable AIV (NAIV). It is of great importance to distinguish HPAIV from LPAIV variants during H5/H7 outbreaks and surveillance. To this end, a novel and fast strategy for the molecular pathotyping of H5/H7 AIVs is presented. The differentiation of the characteristic hemagglutinin (HA) protein cleavage sites (CSs) of HPAIVs and LPAIVs is achieved by a novel PCR method where the samples are interrogated for all existing CSs with a 484-plex primer mixture directly targeting the CS region. CSs characteristic for HP or LP H5/H7 viruses are distinguished in a seminested duplex real-time PCR format using plexor fluorogenic primers. Eighty-six laboratory isolates and 60 characterized NAIV-positive clinical specimens from poultry infected with H5/H7 both experimentally and in the field were successfully pathotyped in the validation. The method has the potential to substitute CS sequencing in the HA gene for the determination of the molecular pathotype, thereby providing a rapid means to acquire additional information concerning NAIV outbreaks, which may be critical to their management. The new assay may be extended to the LP/HP differentiation of previously unknown H5/H7 isolates. It may be considered for integration into surveillance and control programs in both domestic and wild bird populations. PMID:21900520

  8. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  9. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  10. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged frommore » 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.« less

  11. Hereditary apolipoprotein AI-associated renal amyloidosis: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Samillán-Sosa, Kelly Del Rocío; Sención-Martínez, Gloria; Lopes-Martín, Vanessa; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Solé, Manel; Arostegui, Jose Luis; Mesa, Jose; García-Díaz, Juan de Dios; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Martínez-Miguel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary renal amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant condition with considerable overlap with other amyloidosis types. Differential diagnosis is complicated, but is relevant for prognosis and treatment. We describe a patient with nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal failure, who had a mother with renal amiloidosis. Renal biopsy revealed amyloid deposits in glomerular space, with absence of light chains and protein AA. We suspected amyloidosis with fibrinogen A alpha chain deposits, which is the most frequent cause of hereditary amyloidosis in Europe, with a glomerular preferential affectation. However, the genetic study showed a novel mutation in apolipoprotein AI. On reviewing the biopsy of the patient's mother similar glomerular deposits were found, but there were significant deposits in the renal medulla as well, which is typical in APO AI amyloidosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Apo AI amyloidosis is characterized by slowly progressive renal disease and end-stage renal disease occurs aproximately 3 to 15 years from initial diagnosis. Renal transplantation offers an acceptable graft survival and in these patients with hepatorenal involvement simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation could be considered.

  12. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  13. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  14. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  15. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.

  16. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%-96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age. PMID:23469210

  17. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Subtype H3N8 Influenza Virus Infection among Pet Dogs in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, San; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lifang; Fu, Xinliang; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    The H3N8 virus and the H3N2 virus are the main subtypes of canine influenza virus (CIV). H3N8 CIV mainly circulates in America, and H3N2 CIV mainly circulates in Asia. However, there was an outbreak of the Asian H3N2 virus in the United States (US) in 2015. Thus, it is important to evaluate the presence of subtype H3N8 virus in dogs in China. From May 2015 to November 2015, 600 sera from pet dogs were collected from Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and microneutralization (MN) assays. Fifty-two (8.66%) of the 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N2 virus, which matched the previous reports. Five (0.83%) of 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N8 virus (H3N8 EIV or H3N8 AIV or H3N8 CIV), which is the first report of subtype H3N8 virus infection among dogs in China and remind us to play more attention to this subtype virus. Therefore, further serological and virological surveillance of influenza virus infection among dogs in China is imperative. PMID:27414031

  18. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Subtype H3N8 Influenza Virus Infection among Pet Dogs in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, San; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lifang; Fu, Xinliang; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    The H3N8 virus and the H3N2 virus are the main subtypes of canine influenza virus (CIV). H3N8 CIV mainly circulates in America, and H3N2 CIV mainly circulates in Asia. However, there was an outbreak of the Asian H3N2 virus in the United States (US) in 2015. Thus, it is important to evaluate the presence of subtype H3N8 virus in dogs in China. From May 2015 to November 2015, 600 sera from pet dogs were collected from Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and microneutralization (MN) assays. Fifty-two (8.66%) of the 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N2 virus, which matched the previous reports. Five (0.83%) of 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N8 virus (H3N8 EIV or H3N8 AIV or H3N8 CIV), which is the first report of subtype H3N8 virus infection among dogs in China and remind us to play more attention to this subtype virus. Therefore, further serological and virological surveillance of influenza virus infection among dogs in China is imperative. PMID:27414031

  19. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  20. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  1. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG. PMID:25648212

  2. A duck enteritis virus-vectored bivalent live vaccine provides fast and complete protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-11-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 10(6) PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks.

  3. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Kulak, M V; Ilinykh, F A; Zaykovskaya, A V; Epanchinzeva, A V; Evstaphiev, I L; Tovtunec, N N; Sharshov, K A; Durimanov, A G; Penkovskaya, N A; Shestopalov, A M; Lerman, A I; Drozdov, I G; Swayne, D E

    2010-09-01

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood, especially for the H5N1 high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) viruses. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 AI viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine with an overall frequency of virus recovery of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from three species of dabbling ducks: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (Anas penelope), and garganey (Anas querquedula), making the frequency of virus recovery for dabbling ducks 6.3%. The viruses were predominantly isolated during the fall sampling period. All viruses were genetically and antigenically characterized. No H5N1 HPAI viruses were isolated, but other HA and NA subtypes were identified including H3N1 (2), H3N6 (3), H3N8 (4), H4N6 (6), H5N2 (3), H7N8 (1), and H10N6 (1) subtypes. All isolates were of low pathogenicity, as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00. For H5N2 and H7N8 isolates, the HA gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecologic connections of the Crimea region with AI viruses from Siberia and Europe. No influenza A isolates were recovered from other Anseriformes (diving ducks [two species of pochards] and graylag geese), Columbiformes (collared doves), Gruiformes (coot), and Galliformes (gray partridges). PMID:20945793

  4. Modeling the association of space, time, and host species with variation of the HA, NA, and NS genes of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from birds in Romania in 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Alkhamis, Mohammad; Perez, Andres; Batey, Nicole; Howard, Wendy; Baillie, Greg; Watson, Simon; Franz, Stephanie; Focosi-Snyman, Raffaella; Onita, Iuliana; Cioranu, Raluca; Turcitu, Mihai; Kellam, Paul; Brown, Ian H; Breed, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Molecular characterization studies of a diverse collection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have demonstrated that AIVs' greatest genetic variability lies in the HA, NA, and NS genes. The objective here was to quantify the association between geographical locations, periods of time, and host species and pairwise nucleotide variation in the HA, NA, and NS genes of 70 isolates of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) collected from October 2005 to December 2007 from birds in Romania. A mixed-binomial Bayesian regression model was used to quantify the probability of nucleotide variation between isolates and its association with space, time, and host species. As expected for the three target genes, a higher probability of nucleotide differences (odds ratios [ORs] > 1) was found between viruses sampled from places at greater geographical distances from each other, viruses sampled over greater periods of time, and viruses derived from different species. The modeling approach in the present study maybe useful in further understanding the molecular epidemiology of H5N1 HPAI virus in bird populations. The methodology presented here will be useful in predicting the most likely genetic distance for any of the three gene segments of viruses that have not yet been isolated or sequenced based on space, time, and host species during the course of an epidemic.

  5. Environmental transmission scrambles coexistence patterns of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Roche, Benjamin; Rohani, Pejman

    2010-06-01

    Despite the recent accumulation of theoretical and empirical studies on avian influenza viruses (AIVs), the interactions among the diverse pool of strains remain poorly understood. One potential reason is multiple transmission routes. In this paper, we explore the behavior of a two-strain mathematical model of AIV dynamics with lifelong immunity to understand how the combination of direct and environmental transmission (via a persistent viral reservoir) determines strains coexistence and dominance. We find that coexistence requires the magnitude of basic reproductive ratios of the strains to be identical for each transmission route (R(0)(dir) and R(0)(env)) when cross-immunity is assumed to be perfect. Coexistence may be also possible when one strain is only directly transmitted and the contribution by environmental transmission is high. When we relax this assumption, the level of cross-protection does not modify coexistence criteria when strains are mainly environmentally transmitted, in contrast to the case where direct transmission dominates. Finally, when competitive exclusion is observed, the strain with the largest contribution from direct transmission outcompetes the other through competition for viral particle acquisition. Overall, we conclude that environmental transmission can affect the patterns of coexistence predicted by direct transmission models in complex ways. PMID:21352779

  6. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens in South China from 2012 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Han-Qin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zeng, Fan-Gui; Liao, Chang-Tao; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2015-01-01

    As part of our ongoing influenza surveillance program in South China, 19 field strains of H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from dead or diseased chicken flocks in Guangdong province, South China, between 2012 and 2013. Hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these strains were sequenced and analyzed and phylogenic analysis showed that 12 of the 19 isolates belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5, while the other seven belonged to h9.4.2.6. Specifically, we found that all of the viruses isolated in 2013 belonged to lineage h9.4.2.5. The lineage h9.4.2.5 viruses contained a PSRSSR↓GLF motif at HA cleavage site, while the lineage h9.4.2.6 viruses contained a PARSSR↓GLF at the same position. Most of the isolates in lineage h9.4.2.5 lost one potential glycosylation site at residues 200-202, and had an additional one at residues 295-297 in HA1. Notably, 19 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor binding site, which indicated that the viruses had potential affinity of binding to human like receptor. The present study shows the importance of continuing surveillance of new H9N2 strains to better prepare for the next epidemic or pandemic outbreak of H9N2 AIV infections in chicken flocks. PMID:25643797

  7. Distinguishing Acute from Chronic and Resolved Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infections by Measurement of Anti-HCV Immunoglobulin G Avidity Index▿

    PubMed Central

    Klimashevskaya, S.; Obriadina, A.; Ulanova, T.; Bochkova, G.; Burkov, A.; Araujo, A.; Stramer, Susan L.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Busch, Michael P.; Fields, Howard A.

    2007-01-01

    An assay to measure avidity index (AI) was developed to diagnose incident hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The assay demonstrated an AI value statistically significantly lower in primary HCV infections than in chronic infections. When the assay was applied to past resolved infections, the difference in AI values was not as significant as the difference between incident and chronic infections. Lower AI values obtained in past resolved infections may be directly related to lower levels of immunoglobulin G anti-HCV in past resolved infections than in either new infections or chronic infections. PMID:17715377

  8. Prevalence of avian influenza viruses, Borrelia garinii, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in waterfowl and terrestrial birds in Slovakia, 2006.

    PubMed

    Gronesova, Paulina; Ficova, Martina; Mizakova, Adriana; Kabat, Peter; Trnka, Alfred; Betakova, Tatiana

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of Borrelia, Mycobacteria and avian influenza virus (AIV) infections, together with the distribution of different AIV subtypes, was studied in migratory waterfowl and terrestrial birds trapped in three localities in Slovakia during 2006. Samples obtained from waterfowl captured in the Senianske Ponds area of Eastern Slovakia showed the highest diversity of AIV isolates. A total of 13 different subtypes were detected in 19 samples from this location (H1N2, H2N2, H3N2, H6N6, H7N6, H9N2, H9N5, H9N6, H10N5, H10N6, H12N6, H13N6, and H16N6). H3N5 virus was detected in 50% of passerines testing positive for AIV in the Parizske Wetlands, with H7N2, H9N2, H9N5, H12N1, and H13N2 infections also recorded at this locality. H9N5 virus predominated in passerines captured at Trnava Ponds, with isolates H1N6, H6N5, H7N2, H7N6, H10N3, and H10N6 also detected at this location. There were five cases where different AIV infections were detected in oropharyngeal and cloacal samples originating from the same bird (H13N6 and H1N2; H10N5 and H12N6; H9N5 and H6N5; H10N6 and H7N6; and H9N2 and H3N5 in the oropharynx and cloaca, respectively). Between 21% and 52% of captured birds tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with the proportion infected depending on bird species and locality. Samples were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and identified as Borrelia garinii species (either B/B' or R/R' pattern). Mycobacteria were detected in 42% and 26% of waders captured at Senianske Ponds and marsh-dwelling passerines captured in the Parizske Wetlands, respectively. Interestingly, forest-dwelling passerine species caught in the Trnava Ponds region were tested negative for Mycobacteria. PMID:18798030

  9. Prevalence of avian influenza viruses, Borrelia garinii, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in waterfowl and terrestrial birds in Slovakia, 2006.

    PubMed

    Gronesova, Paulina; Ficova, Martina; Mizakova, Adriana; Kabat, Peter; Trnka, Alfred; Betakova, Tatiana

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of Borrelia, Mycobacteria and avian influenza virus (AIV) infections, together with the distribution of different AIV subtypes, was studied in migratory waterfowl and terrestrial birds trapped in three localities in Slovakia during 2006. Samples obtained from waterfowl captured in the Senianske Ponds area of Eastern Slovakia showed the highest diversity of AIV isolates. A total of 13 different subtypes were detected in 19 samples from this location (H1N2, H2N2, H3N2, H6N6, H7N6, H9N2, H9N5, H9N6, H10N5, H10N6, H12N6, H13N6, and H16N6). H3N5 virus was detected in 50% of passerines testing positive for AIV in the Parizske Wetlands, with H7N2, H9N2, H9N5, H12N1, and H13N2 infections also recorded at this locality. H9N5 virus predominated in passerines captured at Trnava Ponds, with isolates H1N6, H6N5, H7N2, H7N6, H10N3, and H10N6 also detected at this location. There were five cases where different AIV infections were detected in oropharyngeal and cloacal samples originating from the same bird (H13N6 and H1N2; H10N5 and H12N6; H9N5 and H6N5; H10N6 and H7N6; and H9N2 and H3N5 in the oropharynx and cloaca, respectively). Between 21% and 52% of captured birds tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with the proportion infected depending on bird species and locality. Samples were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and identified as Borrelia garinii species (either B/B' or R/R' pattern). Mycobacteria were detected in 42% and 26% of waders captured at Senianske Ponds and marsh-dwelling passerines captured in the Parizske Wetlands, respectively. Interestingly, forest-dwelling passerine species caught in the Trnava Ponds region were tested negative for Mycobacteria.

  10. STAR - A computer language for hybrid AI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    Constructing Artificial Intelligence application systems which rely on both symbolic and non-symbolic processing places heavy demands on the communication of data between dissimilar languages. This paper describes STAR (Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning), a computer language for the development of AI application systems which supports the transfer of data structures between a symbolic level and a non-symbolic level defined in languages such as FORTRAN, C and PASCAL. The organization of STAR is presented, followed by the description of an application involving STAR in the interpretation of airborne imaging spectrometer data.

  11. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  12. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  13. Urban, Forest, and Agricultural AIS Data: Fine Spectral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) near Lafayette, IN, Ely, MN, and over the Stanford University campus, CA were analyzed for fine spectral structure using two techniques: the ratio of radiance of a ground target to the radiance of a standard and also the correlation coefficient of radiances at adjacent wavelengths. The results show ramp like features in the ratios. These features are due to the biochemical composition of the leaf and to the optical scattering properties of its cuticle. The size and shape of the ramps vary with ground cover.

  14. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  15. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...

  16. A role for Apolipoprotein A-I in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Lindsay; Groover, Chassidy J; Douglas, Joshua; Lee, Sangmin; Brand, David; Levin, Michael C; Gardner, Lidia A

    2014-12-15

    Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A-I), the most abundant component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is an anti-inflammatory molecule, yet its potential role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully investigated. In this study, Western blot analyses of human plasma showed differential Apo A-I expression in healthy controls compared to MS patients. Further, primary progressive MS patients had less plasma Apo A-I than other forms of MS. Using experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model for MS, Apo A-I deficient mice exhibited worse clinical disease and more neurodegeneration concurrent with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type animals. These data suggest that Apo A-I plays a role in the pathogenesis of EAE, a model for MS, creating the possibility for agents that increase Apo A-I levels as potential therapies for MS.

  17. Building distributed rule-based systems using the AI Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain C.

    1990-01-01

    The AI Bus software architecture was designed to support the construction of large-scale, production-quality applications in areas of high technology flux, running heterogeneous distributed environments, utilizing a mix of knowledge-based and conventional components. These goals led to its current development as a layered, object-oriented library for cooperative systems. This paper describes the concepts and design of the AI Bus and its implementation status as a library of reusable and customizable objects, structured by layers from operating system interfaces up to high-level knowledge-based agents. Each agent is a semi-autonomous process with specialized expertise, and consists of a number of knowledge sources (a knowledge base and inference engine). Inter-agent communication mechanisms are based on blackboards and Actors-style acquaintances. As a conservative first implementation, we used C++ on top of Unix, and wrapped an embedded Clips with methods for the knowledge source class. This involved designing standard protocols for communication and functions which use these protocols in rules. Embedding several CLIPS objects within a single process was an unexpected problem because of global variables, whose solution involved constructing and recompiling a C++ version of CLIPS. We are currently working on a more radical approach to incorporating CLIPS, by separating out its pattern matcher, rule and fact representations and other components as true object oriented modules.

  18. Discrimination of Coastal Vegetation and Biomass Using AIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over a coastal wetlands region near Lewes, Delaware, adjacent to the Delaware Bay on 16 August 1984. Using the AIS data, it was possible to discriminate between four different types of wetland vegetation canopies: (1) trees; (2) broadleaf herbaceous plants (e.g., Acnida cannabina, Hisbiscus moscheutos); (3) the low marsh grass Spartina alterniflora; and (4) the high marsh grasses Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens. The single most useful region of the spectrum was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns, where slopes of portions of the radiance curve and ratios of radiance at particular wavelengths were significantly different for the four canopy types. The ratio between the highest digital number in the 1.40 to 1.90 microns and .84 to .94 microns regions and a similar ratio between the peaks in radiance in the 1.12 to 1.40 microns and .84 to .94 microns spectral regions were also very effective at discriminating between vegetation types. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass.

  19. Using AI to understand key success features in evolving CTSAs.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Jennifer D; Nelson, David A; Simpson, Deborah; Gerrits, Ronald; Glass, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A vital role for Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) evaluators is to first identify and then articulate the necessary change processes that support the research infrastructures and achieve synergies needed to improve health through research. The use of qualitative evaluation strategies to compliment quantitative tracking measures (e.g., number of grants/publications) is an essential but under-utilized approach in CTSA evaluations. The Clinical and Translational Science Institute of Southeast Wisconsin implemented a qualitative evaluation approach using appreciative inquiry (AI) that has revealed three critical features associated with CTSA infrastructure transformation success: developing open communication, creating opportunities for proactive collaboration, and ongoing attainment of milestones at the key function group level. These findings are consistent with Bolman & Deal's four interacting hallmarks of successful organizations: structural (infrastructure), political (power distribution; organizational politics), human resource (facilitating change among humans necessary for continued success), and symbolic (visions and aspirations). Data gathered through this longitudinal AI approach illuminates how these change features progress over time as CTSA funded organizations successfully create the multiinstitutional infrastructures to connect laboratory discoveries with the diagnosis and treatment of human disease.

  20. Sensor assignment to mission in AI-TECD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganger, Robert; de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Rudnicki, Ronald; Schreiber, Yonatan

    2016-05-01

    Sensor-mission assignment involves the allocation of sensors and other information-providing resources to missions in order to cover the information needs of the individual tasks within each mission. The importance of efficient and effective means to find appropriate resources for tasks is exacerbated in the coalition context where the operational environment is dynamic and a multitude of critically important tasks need to achieve their collective goals to meet the objectives of the coalition. The Sensor Assignment to Mission (SAM) framework—a research product of the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Sciences (NIS-ITA) program—provided the first knowledge intensive resource selection approach for the sensor network domain so that contextual information could be used to effectively select resources for tasks in coalition environments. Recently, CUBRC, Inc. was tasked with operationalizing the SAM framework through the use of the I2WD Common Core Ontologies for the Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) sponsored Actionable Intelligence Technology Enabled Capabilities Demonstration (AI-TECD). The demonstration event took place at Fort Dix, New Jersey during July 2015, and this paper discusses the integration and the successful demonstration of the SAM framework within the AI-TECD, lessons learned, and its potential impact in future operations.

  1. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  2. Interpretation of AIS Images of Cuprite, Nevada Using Constraints of Spectral Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is outlined that tests the hypothesis Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image spectra are produced by mixtures of surface materials. This technique allows separation of AIS images into concentration images of spectral endmembers (e.g., surface materials causing spectral variation). Using a spectral reference library it was possible to uniquely identify these spectral endmembers with respect to the reference library and to calibrate the AIS images.

  3. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  4. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event. PMID:10334486

  5. Generation of an infectious clone of duck enteritis virus (DEV) and of a vectored DEV expressing hemagglutinin of H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichun; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2011-07-01

    We report on the generation of an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of duck enteritis virus (DEV) and a vectored DEV vaccine expressing hemagglutinin (H5) of high pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV). For generation of the DEV BAC, we inserted mini-F vector sequences by homologous recombination in lieu of the UL44 (gC) gene of DEV isolate 2085. DNA of the resulting in recombinant virus v2085-GFPΔgC was electroporated into Escherichia coli and a full-length DEV BAC clone (p2085) was recovered. Transfection of p2085 into chicken embryo cells resulted in DEV-specific plaques exhibiting green autofluorescence. A gC-negative mutant, v2085ΔgC, was generated by deleting mini-F vector sequences by using Cre-Lox recombination, and a revertant virus v2085ΔgC-R was constructed by co-transfection of p2085 with UL44 sequences. Finally, AIV H5 was inserted into p2085, and high-level H5 expression of the v2085_H5 virus was detected by indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting. Plaque area measurements showed that v2085ΔgC plaques were significantly increased (12%) over those of parental 2085 virus or the v2085ΔgC-R revertant virus (ANOVA, P<0.05), while plaque areas of the H5- or GFP-expressing DEV mutants were significantly smaller. There was no significant difference between DEV with respect to virus titers determined after trypsinization titration of infected cells, while virus titers of infected-cell supernatants revealed significant reductions in case of the gC-negative viruses of more than 700-fold when compared to parental 2085 or v2085ΔgC-R. Cell-associated virus titers of gC-negative DEV also showed significant reduction of 50-500-fold (ANOVA, P<0.05). We conclude that (i) absence of DEV gC results in increased plaque sizes in vitro, (ii) gC plays a role in DEV egress, and (iii) generation of an infectious DEV clone allows rapid generation of vectored vaccines.

  6. Abiotic Factors Affecting the Persistence of Avian Influenza Virus in Surface Waters of Waterfowl Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Cressler, Alan M.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) virus can remain infectious in water for months, and virus-contaminated surface water is considered to be a source of infection within wild waterfowl populations. Previous work has characterized the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on viral persistence in water, but most of that work was done with modified distilled water. The objective of this study was to identify the abiotic factors that influence the duration of AI virus persistence in natural surface water. Surface water samples were collected from 38 waterfowl habitats distributed across the United States. Samples were submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for chemical analysis and the University of Georgia for viral reduction time analysis. Samples were filtered with 0.22-μm filters, and the durations of persistence of three wild-bird-derived influenza A viruses within each water sample at 10, 17, and 28°C were determined. The effects of the surface water physicochemical factors on the duration of AI viral persistence in laboratory experiments were evaluated by multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors. The duration of AI virus persistence was determined to be longest in filtered surface water with a low temperature (<17°C), a neutral-to-basic pH (7.0 to 8.5), low salinity (<0.5 ppt), and a low ammonia concentration (<0.5 mg/liter). Our results also highlighted potential strain-related variation in the stability of AI virus in surface water. These results bring us closer to being able to predict the duration of AI virus persistence in surface water of waterfowl habitats. PMID:24584247

  7. Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensing approach for the sensitive detection of H9N2 avian influenza virus particles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Hua; Shu, Yun; Hong, Zheng-Yuan; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ling

    2013-09-01

    A novel electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for fast and ultrasensitive detection of H9N2 avian influenza virus particles (H9N2 AIV) was designed based on the combination of high-efficiency immunomagnetic separation, enzyme catalytic amplification, and the biotin-streptavidin system. The reusable, homemade magneto Au electrode (M-AuE) was designed and used for the direct sensing. Immunocomplex-coated magnetic beads (IMBs) were easily accumulated on the surface of the M-AuE to obtain the catalytically reduced electrochemical signal of H2 O2 after the immunoreaction. The transducer was regenerated through a simple washing procedure, which made it possible to detect all the samples on a single electrode with higher reproducibility. The magnetic-bead-based electrochemical immunosensor showed better analytical performance than the planar-electrode-based immunosensor with the same sandwich construction. Amounts as low as 10 pg mL(-1) H9N2 AIV could be detected even in samples of chicken dung. This electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor not only provides a simple platform for the detection of the virus with high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility but also shows great potential in the early diagnosis of diseases.

  8. Analysis of AIS data of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired in 1985 over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska for the analysis of canopy characteristics including biochemistry. Concurrent with AIS overflights, foliage from fifteen coniferous and deciduous forest stands were analyzed for a variety of biochemical constituents including nitrogen, lignin, protein, and chlorophyll. Preliminary analysis of AIS spectra indicates that the wavelength region between 1450 to 1800 namometers (nm) displays distinct differences in spectral response for some of the forest stands. A flat field subtraction (forest stand spectra - flat field spectra) of the AIS spectra assisted in the interpretation of features of the spectra that are related to biology.

  9. [Development of a GeXP assay for simultaneous differentiation of six chicken respiratory viruses].

    PubMed

    Luo, Si-Si; Xie, Zhi-Xun; Xie, Li-Ji; Pang, Yao-Shan; Fan, Qing; Deng, Xian-Wen; Liu, Jia-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Qin

    2013-05-01

    A GeXP based multiplex PCR assay was developed to simultaneously detect six different chicken respiratory viruses including H5, H7, H9 subtypes of avian influenza virus(AIV), new castle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus(ILTV). According to the conserved sequences of genes of each pathogen, seven pairs of specific primers were designed, and the reaction conditions were optimized. The specificity and accuracy of GeXP were examined using samples of single and mixed infections of virus. The sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial 10-fold dilutions of cloned plasmids. To further evaluate the reliability, thirty-four clinical samples were detected by GeXP. The corresponding specific fragments of genes were amplified. The detection limit of GeXP was 10(2) copies/microL when all of 7 pre-mixed plasmids containing target genes of six chicken respiratory viruses were present. In the detection of thirty-four clinical samples, the results of GeXP were accorded with the viral isolation completely. In conclusion, this GeXP assay is a rapid, specific, sensitive and high-throughput method for the detection of chicken respiratory virus infections. It can be applied in rapid differential diagnosis for clinical samples, and also provide an effective tool to prevent and control chicken respiratory diseases with similar clinical symptoms.

  10. Characterization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus isolated from an ostrich.

    PubMed

    Yang, Penghui; Dongmei; Wang, Cheng; Tang, Chong; Xing, Li; Luo, Deyan; Zhan, Zhongpeng; Duan, Yueqiang; Jia, Weihong; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan; Wang, Xiliang

    2010-06-11

    The continued spread of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among poultry and wild birds has posed a potential threat to human public health. An influenza pandemic happens, when a new subtype that has not previously circulated in humans emerges. Almost all of the influenza pandemics in history have originated from avian influenza viruses (AIV). Birds are significant reservoirs of influenza viruses. In the present study, we performed a survey of avian influenza virus in ostriches and H5N1 virus (A/Ostrich/SuZhou/097/03, China097) was isolated. This H5N1 virus is highly pathogenic to both chickens and mice. It is also able to replicate in the lungs of, and to cause death in, BALB/c mice following intranasal administration. It forms plaques in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells in the absence of trypsin. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus is genetically similar to A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1) and belongs to clade 0. The HA sequence contains multiple basic amino acids adjacent to the cleavage site, a motif associated with HPAI viruses. More importantly, the existence of H5N1 isolates in ostriches highlights the potential threat of wild bird infections to veterinary and public health. PMID:20497905

  11. Reassortant H5N1 avian influenza viruses containing PA or NP gene from an H9N2 virus significantly increase the pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoli; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Jiongjiong; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Yunpeng; Li, Qunhui; He, Dongchang; Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Xu, Xiulong; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-30

    Reassortment between different influenza viruses is a crucial way to generate novel influenza viruses with unpredictable virulence and transmissibility, which may threaten the public health. As currently in China, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes are endemic in poultry in many areas, while they are prone to reassort with each other naturally. In order to evaluate the risk of the reassortment to public health, A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 [GS/10(H5N1)] virus was used as a backbone to generate a series of reassortants, each contained a single internal gene derived from the predominant S genotype of the A/Chicken/Jiangsu/WJ57/2012 [WJ/57(H9N2)]. We next assessed the biological characteristics of these assortments, including pathogenicity, replication efficiency and polymerase activity. We found that the parental WJ/57(H9N2) and GS/10(H5N1) viruses displayed high genetic compatibility. Notably, the H5N1 reassortants containing the PA or NP gene from WJ/57(H9N2) virus significantly increased virulence and replication ability in mice, as well as markedly enhanced polymerase activity. Our results indicate that the endemicity of H9N2 and H5N1 in domestic poultry greatly increases the possibility of generating new viruses by reassortment that may pose a great threat to poultry industry and public health. PMID:27527770

  12. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and da