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Sample records for ai virus aiv

  1. Selective isolation of Avian influenza virus (AIV) from cloacal samples containing AIV and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Chander, Yogesh; Redig, Patrick T; Abd El Latif, Hemmat K; El Sayed, Mona A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2011-03-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are important zoonotic pathogens whose natural reservoir is waterfowl. In addition to AIV, waterfowl are often coinfected with other viruses, such as the paramyxoviruses, of which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is of particular importance because of the highly virulent nature of certain strains of this virus for domestic poultry. In routine surveillance of waterfowl for AIV, a number of cloacal samples were encountered that were positive for AIV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), but did not yield AIV by inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs. On further testing, these samples were also positive for NDV by conventional RT-PCR. It was hypothesized that if both NDV and AIV are present in a sample, the former may overgrow AIV yielding false-negative AIV results. Such samples were treated with chicken anti-NDV polyclonal antiserum and then inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs. Several samples were found to be positive for different subtypes of AIV, indicating that, in the presence of mixed infection with NDV and AIV, it is imperative to remove the influence of NDV, so a true picture of AIV prevalence emerges. An additional benefit is that information on the circulation of NDV in these birds sheds light on their epidemiologic and ecologic significance.

  2. Characterization of 10 adjuvants for inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines against challenge with highly pathogenic AIV in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...

  3. Contribution of polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster to hyperlipidaemia in patients with gout

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, F; Tinahones, F; Collantes, E; Escudero, A; Garcia-Fuentes, E; Soriguer, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that hyperuricaemia is independently related to the insulin resistance syndrome and that polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster are also related to insulin resistance. Objective: To study the prevalence of polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster in persons with gout and to determine whether these polymorphisms contribute to the pathophysiology of gout or to altered lipid concentrations. Methods: Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL triglycerides, cholesterol, and the renal excretion of uric acid were measured in 68 patients with gout with gout and 165 healthy subjects. Polymorphisms were studied by amplification and RFLP in all subjects, using XmnI and MspI in the apolipoprotein AI gene and SstI in the apolipoprotein CIII gene. Results: The A allele at position –75 bp in the apolipoprotein AI gene was more common in patients with gout than in controls (p = 0.01). Levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, basal glycaemia, and HDL cholesterol were higher in the patients (p<0.001). In the patients there was also an interaction between mutations at the two polymorphic loci studied in the apolipoprotein AI gene (p = 0.04). An absence of the mutation at position –75 bp of the apolipoprotein AI gene resulted in increased plasma triglyceride levels. Conclusions: Gouty patients have an altered allelic distribution in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV cluster, which could lead to changes in levels of lipoproteins. This is not caused by a single mutation but rather by a combination of different mutations. PMID:15115711

  4. Association of serum lipids and coronary artery disease with polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Himanshu; Sinha, Nakul; Finn, James; Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants are considered as one of the main determinants of the concentration of serum lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster has been known to affect the concentrations of various lipid sub-fractions and the risk of CAD. The present study assessed associations between polymorphisms of the Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, [ApoA-I,-75G > A, (rs1799837); ApoC-III 3238C > G, (SstI), (rs5128) and ApoA-IV, Thr347Ser(347A > T), (rs675)] with serum lipids and their contributions to CAD in North Indian population. We recruited age, sex matched, 200 CAD patients and 200 healthy controls and tested them for fasting levels of serum lipids. We genotyped selected polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There were no statistically significant association of selected polymorphisms (or their combinations) with CAD even after employing additive, dominant and recessive models. However there was significant association of selected polymorphisms with various lipid traits amongst the control cohort (p < 0.05). Mean levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly higher among controls carrying at least one mutant allele at ApoA1-75G > A (p = 0.019) and ApoCIII SstI (p < 0.001) polymorphism respectively. Our study observed that the selected polymorphisms in the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster although significantly affect various lipid traits but this affect does not seem to translate into association with CAD, at least among North Indian population. PMID:28261635

  5. Detection of Aichi virus with antibody targeting of conserved viral protein 1 epitope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.

  6. Structure of Aichi Virus 1 and Its Empty Particle: Clues to Kobuvirus Genome Release Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, Charles; Füzik, Tibor; Škubník, Karel; Pálková, Lenka; Lindberg, A. Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) is a human pathogen from the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. Worldwide, 80 to 95% of adults have antibodies against the virus. AiV-1 infections are associated with nausea, gastroenteritis, and fever. Unlike most picornaviruses, kobuvirus capsids are composed of only three types of subunits: VP0, VP1, and VP3. We present here the structure of the AiV-1 virion determined to a resolution of 2.1 Å using X-ray crystallography. The surface loop puff of VP0 and knob of VP3 in AiV-1 are shorter than those in other picornaviruses. Instead, the 42-residue BC loop of VP0 forms the most prominent surface feature of the AiV-1 virion. We determined the structure of AiV-1 empty particle to a resolution of 4.2 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. The empty capsids are expanded relative to the native virus. The N-terminal arms of capsid proteins VP0, which mediate contacts between the pentamers of capsid protein protomers in the native AiV-1 virion, are disordered in the empty capsid. Nevertheless, the empty particles are stable, at least in vitro, and do not contain pores that might serve as channels for genome release. Therefore, extensive and probably reversible local reorganization of AiV-1 capsid is required for its genome release. IMPORTANCE Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) is a human pathogen that can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. AiV-1 is identified in environmental screening studies with higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. Accordingly, 80 to 95% of adults worldwide have suffered from AiV-1 infections. We determined the structure of the AiV-1 virion. Based on the structure, we show that antiviral compounds that were developed against related enteroviruses are unlikely to be effective against AiV-1. The surface of the AiV-1 virion has a unique topology distinct from other related viruses from the Picornaviridae family. We also determined that AiV-1 capsids form compact shells

  7. Muscovy duck retinoic acid-induced gene I (MdRIG-I) functions in innate immunity against H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) infections.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Huang, Qingqing; Ji, Wenhui; Du, Bin; Fu, Qiang; An, Huiting; Li, Jing; Wang, Hengan; Yan, Yaxian; Ding, Chan; Sun, Jianhe

    2015-02-15

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) is a large duck different from other species of ducks, and is more susceptible to some microbial pathogens. In this study, the Muscovy duck RIG-I gene (MdRIG-I) was identified. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that MdRIG-I mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues, especially in those with mucosa. RIG-I null DF-1 cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding MdRIG-I or CARDs domain can activate IRF-3 and NF-κB to up-regulated activity of IFN-β promoter. The components of the signaling pathway downstream of RIG-I in mammalian cells including IRF-3, NF-κB, IFN-β and the IFN-stimulated genes Mx-1, PKR and MDA5 were significantly up-regulated in CARDs-overexpressing-DF-1 cells. Implicating RIG-I in the antiviral response to an infection in vivo, we found that RIG-I expression in brain, spleen, lung and bursa were up-regulated in ducks challenged with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV), whose six internal genes were closely related to the H7N9 and H10N8 AIV. In vitro, DF-1 cells transfected with MdRIG-I plasmid can respond significantly to H9N2 AIV, evident through enhancement of IFN-β promoter activity and decreased virus titer. Altogether, these results indicated that MdRIG-I is a novel member of RLR gene family, engaging in the early stage of antiviral innate immunity.

  8. Patterns of association between genetic variability in apolipoprotein (apo) B, apo AI-CIII-AIV, and cholesterol ester transfer protein gene regions and quantitative variation in lipid and lipoprotein traits: influence of gender and exogenous hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Kessling, A; Ouellette, S; Bouffard, O; Chamberland, A; Bétard, C; Selinger, E; Xhignesse, M; Lussier-Cacan, S; Davignon, J

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of RFLP association were studied, to identify gene regions influencing quantitative variation in lipid and lipoprotein traits (coronary artery disease [CAD] risk factors or metabolically related traits). Subjects (118 female and 229 male; age 20-59 years) were selected for health. Multiple RFLPs were used to sample variability in regions around genes for apolipoprotein (apo) B (restriction enzymes HincII, PvuII, EcoRI, and XbaI), apo AI-CIII-AIV (BamHI, XmnI, TaqI, PstI, SstI, and PvuII) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (TaqI). Separate analyses were done by gender. The sample was truncated at mean +/- 4 SD, to remove extreme outliers. There was no significant gender difference in RFLP genotype frequency distribution. After trait-level adjustment to maximize removal of concomitant variability, analysis of variance was used to estimate the percentage trait phenotypic variance explained by measured variability in the gene regions studied. Fewer gene regions were involved in men, with less influence on quantitative trait variation than in women, in whom hormone use affected association patterns. Gender differences imply that pooling genders or adjusting data for gender effects removes genetic information and should be avoided. The association patterns show that variability around the candidate genes modulates trait levels: the genes are contributors to the genetics of CAD risk variables in a healthy sample. PMID:1346081

  9. Recombinant Hemagglutinin of Avian Influenza Virus H5 Expressed in the Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Evaluation of Its Immunogenicity in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Huerta, Inkar; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Téllez, Guillermo; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Brieba, Luis G; Esquivel-Ramos, Elizabeth; Beltrán-López, Josué I; Velazquez, Gilberto; Fernandez-Siurob, Isidro

    2016-12-01

    Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification. The results showed that the HA protein of AIV in C. reinhardtii presents antigenic activity by western blot test and through its application in chickens, demonstrating its feasibility as a recombinant antigen against AIV.

  10. Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404

  11. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  12. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  13. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.

  14. Surveillance of influenza A virus in wild birds in the Asian portion of Russia in 2008.

    PubMed

    Sivay, Mariya V; Sayfutdinova, Sofya G; Sharshov, Kirill A; Alekseev, Aleksander Y; Yurlov, Aleksander K; Runstadler, Jonathan; Shestopalov, Aleksander M

    2012-09-01

    Wild waterfowl undertake a variety of long-distance flights during their migration. These flights provide birds with the opportunities to both acquire and disseminate avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The Asian portion of Russia is crossed by four major migration routes and represents the major breeding area for many wild bird species in the Palearctic. The Asian territory of Russia plays an important role in distribution, persistence, and evolution of AIVs due to the ecologic relationships of bird populations from Russia and different Asian, European, African, and North American countries. Our study highlights the results of surveillance conducted in 2008 for AIVs in wild birds in the Asian portion of Russia. During this study, our team collected and tested 5678 samples from wild birds. Among them, 41 samples tested positive for AIV with an isolation rate of 0.72%. The highest AIV prevalence, 1.49%, was found in Anseriformes. In Ardeidae and Laridae, the AIV prevalence was 1.23% and 0.64%, respectively. Rallidae showed the lowest AIV prevalence of 0.61%. Phylogenetic analysis of H3 and H4 subtypes represented close relationships of AIVs isolated from the Asian portion of Russia to the AI strains from Asia, Africa, and Europe. These findings were confirmed by the wild bird migration routes that affect bird populations from Eurasian, African, Australian, and North American continents.

  15. Molecular detection and nucleotide sequence analysis of a new Aichi virus closely related to canine kobuvirus in sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Teruo; Adachi, Hirokazu; Hirose, Emi; Nakamura, Noriko; Ito, Miyabi; Yasui, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko

    2014-05-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, 207 raw sewage samples were collected at the inflow of a sewage treatment plant in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Of the 207 sewage samples, 137 (66.2 %) were found to be positive for amplification of Aichi virus (AiV) nucleotide using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with 10 forward and 10 reverse primers in the 3D region corresponding to the nucleotide sequence of all kobuviruses. AiV genotype A sequences were detected in all 137 samples. New sequences of AiV were detected in nine samples, exhibiting 83 % similarity with AiV A846/88, but 95 % similarity with canine kobuvirus (CKV) US-PC0082 in this region. The nucleotide sequences from the VP3 region to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of sewage sample Y12/2004 were determined. The number of nucleotides in each region was the same as that of CKV. The similarity of the nucleotide (amino acid) identity of a complete VP1 region was 90.5 % (94.8 %) between Y12/2004 and CKV US-PC0082. The phylogenic analyses based on the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of VP1 and 3D showed that Y12/2004 was independent from AiV, but closely related to CKV. These results suggested that CKV is present in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

  16. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C.; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai’s wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  17. Molecular epidemiology of avian influenza virus and incidence of H5 and H9 virus subtypes among poultry in Egypt in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Osman, N; Sultan, S; Ahmed, A I; Ibrahim, R S; El-Wanes, S A Abd; Ibrahim, E M

    2015-03-01

    Egypt has experienced outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) since 2006. A total of 3583 cloacal swabs were collected from chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys from commercial farms, backyards and local bird markets in Qena and Luxor governorates in South Egypt during 2009-2011. These samples were examined for the presence of AI virus (AIV) and positive samples were further subtyped for the H5 and H9 by real time RT-PCR. In this way, 202 (5.64%) samples were found to be AIV-positive of which 186 (92.08%) and 7 (3.46%) belonged to H5 and H9 subtypes, respectively. Higher infection rates were observed in backyard birds and birds from local bird markets in comparison to birds from commercial farms. In conclusion, the predominance of H5 infection indicates a need for continuous monitoring of AIV among avian species and the awareness against public health risk.

  18. IACATS AIV: AIV process for a versatile turbulence simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Belenguer-Dávila, Tomás; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Moreno Raso, Javier; Argelaguet, Heribert; Serrano, Javier

    2010-07-01

    IACATS is an atmospheric turbulence, stars and telescope simulator for the evaluation of on ground telescopes instrumentation developed by INTA (optics) and LIDAX (opto-mechanics) for the IAC (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias). Three telescopes have been simulated, matching the f number, focal plane, and optical interface of the actual telescopes. An optical breadboard was designed and built containing the required opto-mechanics for simulating the telescopes, and various levels of turbulence required. In addition to the telescope simulator optics, a set of three phase plates have been procured and conveniently combined in order to reproduce the atmospheric turbulence required by the IAC. A wave front sensor has been also included in order to evaluate the deformation that the phase plates, or the simulated turbulence, produce in the wave front coming from the illumination system and star simulator. Finally, a specific illumination system was developed including different working wavelengths in order to fulfil the requirements. The description of the illumination system itself has been done in a separate publication.. In the following lines, the characteristics of the IACATS instrument as well as the results obtained from the AIV (Assembly and Integration Verification) process are reported on.

  19. Optimum-AIV: A planning and scheduling system for spacecraft AIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arentoft, M. M.; Fuchs, Jens J.; Parrod, Y.; Gasquet, Andre; Stader, J.; Stokes, I.; Vadon, H.

    1991-01-01

    A project undertaken for the European Space Agency (ESA) is presented. The project is developing a knowledge based software system for planning and scheduling of activities for spacecraft assembly, integration, and verification (AIV). The system extends into the monitoring of plan execution and the plan repair phase. The objectives are to develop an operational kernel of a planning, scheduling, and plan repair tool, called OPTIMUM-AIV, and to provide facilities which will allow individual projects to customize the kernel to suit its specific needs. The kernel shall consist of a set of software functionalities for assistance in initial specification of the AIV plan, in verification and generation of valid plans and schedules for the AIV activities, and in interactive monitoring and execution problem recovery for the detailed AIV plans. Embedded in OPTIMUM-AIV are external interfaces which allow integration with alternative scheduling systems and project databases. The current status of the OPTIMUM-AIV project, as of Jan. 1991, is that a further analysis of the AIV domain has taken place through interviews with satellite AIV experts, a software requirement document (SRD) for the full operational tool was approved, and an architectural design document (ADD) for the kernel excluding external interfaces is ready for review.

  20. Survival of hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus in cranberry-based juices at refrigeration (4 °C).

    PubMed

    Sewlikar, Snigdha; D'Souza, Doris H

    2017-04-01

    Viral foodborne illness continues to be a health-concern globally, with numerous fruit and juice outbreaks of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) reported worldwide. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging pathogen with limited epidemiological data. Both, HAV and AiV are resistant to low pH and can survive under adverse environmental conditions leading to transmission ease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of HAV and AiV in commercially-available cranberry-based juices (Cranberry juice cocktail, CJ and a 100% juice with cranberry, MJ) over 21 days at refrigeration (4 °C). Equal volumes of juice was mixed with each virus individually (final titer of 6 log PFU/mL) and stored at refrigeration over 21 days. At each time interval, the inoculated juices were serially diluted in cell culture media and infectious virus survival was determined by standard plaque assays. Each experiment was carried out in duplicate and replicated thrice. Reductions of 0.72 ± 0.06 (after day 1) to 2.3 ± 0.18 log PFU/mL (after day 21) and 0.63 ± 0.02 (after day 1) to 1.84 ± 0.14 log PFU/mL (after day 21) were obtained for AiV with MJ and CJ, respectively. Reductions ranging from 0.67 ± 0.03 (after day 1) to 1.09 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL (after day 21) and 0.93 ± 0.27 (after day1) to 1.49 ± 0.18 log PFU/mL (after day 21) were obtained for HAV at refrigeration in MJ and CJ, respectively. HAV showed greater survival than AiV in these juices over refrigerated storage. These results provide survival data of HAV and AiV in cranberry-based juices that can be used in risk-modeling and risk assessment studies.

  1. Further improvement and validation of MagMAX-96 AI/ND viral RNA isolation for efficient removal of RT-PCR inhibitors from cloacal swabs and tissues for rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus by RT reverse transcription PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) is a high throughput molecular diagnostic test used for rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical samples. However the performance of RRT-PCR can be adversely affected by RT-PCR inhibitors present in the sample. The tested commercial RNA extraction kits ...

  2. In vivo inhibition of NAS preparation on H9N2 subtype AIV.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ruo-feng; Liang, Jian-ping; Na, Zhong-yuan; Yang, Hong-jun; Lu, Yu; Hua, Lan-ying; Guo, Wen-zhu; Cui, Ying; Wang, Ling

    2010-04-01

    NAS preparation, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine found by the Yunnan Eco-agricultural Research Institute, has potential antiviral activity. In this paper, the inhibiting effect of NAS preparation on H9N2 subtype Avian influenza virus (AIV) was investigated in vivo. Chickens infected with H9N2 virus were treated with NAS preparation for 4 days. The virus was then detected by hemoagglutination (HA) test and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that no H9N2 virus could be detected at the 7th day when the chickens were treated with 0.2 g/kg/d or 0.1 g/kg/d of NAS preparation. However the virus could be detected in other chickens without NAS preparation treatment. This result suggested that NAS preparation may be a potential drug candidate to control infection of H9N2 subtype AIV in chickens.

  3. Characteristics of human infection with avian influenza viruses and development of new antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Dong-ying; Yang, Zhan-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Since 1997, several epizootic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been transmitted to humans, causing diseases and even deaths. The recent emergence of severe human infections with AIV (H7N9) in China has raised concerns about efficient interpersonal viral transmission, polygenic traits in viral pathogenicity and the management of newly emerging strains. The symptoms associated with viral infection are different in various AI strains: H5N1 and newly emerged H7N9 induce severe pneumonia and related complications in patients, while some H7 and H9 subtypes cause only conjunctivitis or mild respiratory symptoms. The virulence and tissue tropism of viruses as well as the host responses contribute to the pathogenesis of human AIV infection. Several preventive and therapeutic approaches have been proposed to combat AIV infection, including antiviral drugs such as M2 inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, attachment inhibitors and signal-transduction inhibitors etc. In this article, we summarize the recent progress in researches on the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenicity determinants, and available or potential antivirals of AIV. PMID:24096642

  4. AIV procedure for a CHEOPS demonstration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Dima, M.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Munari, M.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Scuderi, S.; Beck, T.; Buxton, R.; Piazza, D.; Benz, W.; Broeg, C.; Cessa, V.; Piotto, G.

    2014-08-01

    The CHaracterizing ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is an ESA Small Mission whose launch is planned for the end of 2017. It is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 320 mm aperture providing a FoV of 0.32 degrees, which will target nearby bright stars already known to host planets, and measure, through ultrahigh precision photometry, the radius of exo-planets, allowing to determine their composition. This paper will present the details of the AIV plan for a demonstration model of the CHEOPS Telescope with equivalent structure but different CTEs. Alignment procedures, needed GSEs and devised verification tests will be described and a path for the AIV of the flight model, which will take place at industries premises, will be sketched.

  5. Facile fabrication of networked patterns and their superior application to realize the virus immobilized networked pattern circuit.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung Min; Lee, Seok Jae; Choi, Jung Hoon; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Jong Wan; Shin, Weon Ho; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2010-12-07

    A facile route to fabricate a protein-immobilized network pattern circuit for rapid and highly sensitive diagnosis was developed via the evaporation directed impromptu patterning method and selective avian influenza virus (AIV) immobilization. The response to the 10 fg mL(-1) anti-AI antibody demonstrates that this easy and simple circuit has about 1000 times higher sensitivity compared to those of conventional approaches.

  6. Internet AIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filjar, Renato; Desic, Sasa; Pokrajac, Danijela; Cubic, Ivica

    2005-05-01

    Automatic Identification System (AIS) has recently become the leading issue in maritime navigation and traffic management worldwide. The present AIS solution, based on a VHF data communications scheme, provides AIS functionalities for SOLAS (AIS Class A) vessels only in a limited environment defined by radio propagation properties. Here we present a novel approach in AIS development based on current mobile communication technologies. It utilises existing mobile communications equipment that the majority of targetted end-users own and are familiar with. A novel AIS concept aims to offer a transition of AIS data traffic to mobile Internet. An innovative AIS architecture supports AIS data processing, storing and transferring to authorised parties. This enhances not only the operational area, but also provides the global AIS with data transfer security and an improved aids-for-navigation service, with all legally traceable vessels (both AIS Class A and AIS Class B) included in the system. In order to provide the development framework for Internet AIS, a set of essential four use-cases, a communication protocol and the first Internet AIS prototype have been recently developed and are briefly introduced in this article.

  7. Avian influenza virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase combination H8N8, isolated in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8 isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2....

  8. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  9. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed.

  10. Protective dose of a recombinant Newcastle disease LaSota-avian influenza virus H5 vaccine against H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus in broilers with high maternal antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    The protective dose of a live recombinant LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-avian influenza H5 vaccine (rNDV-LS/AI-H5) was determined in broiler chickens with high levels of maternal antibodies against NDV and avian influenza virus (AIV). At hatch the geometric mean titers (GMT) of the chickens' maternal antibodies were 2(5.1) and 2(10.3) for NDV and AIV, respectively. At the time of vaccination the GMT was 2(3.1) for NDV and 2(7.9) for AIV. The chickens were vaccinated with one drop (0.03 ml) in the eye at 10 days of age as is typical under field conditions. The test chickens received 10(4.8), 10(5.8), 10(6.8), or 10(7.8) mean chicken embryo infective doses (CEID50) of the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. Control chickens were either nonvaccinated, or vaccinated with 10(5.8) or 10(6.8) CEID50 of a commercial live LaSota NDV vaccine. Birds were challenged with either the Mexican highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) or a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic (VV) NDV strain. One hundred percent of the chickens vaccinated with the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine were protected against HPAIV and VVNDV when a challenge dose of 10(6.8) EID50 or higher was administered by eye drop. Birds vaccinated with the LaSota NDV vaccine were protected against VVNDV, but not against HPAIV.

  11. H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

  12. Experimental risk assessment of recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) used as live vaccines were assessed for: 1) the potential for recombinant NDV-vectored vaccines (rNDV) containing the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) H5 gene to recombine with low pathogenicity H5, H6 and H9 AIV strains, and originate a virus with increased vi...

  13. Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 A...

  14. Preparation of mucosal nanoparticles and polymer-based inactivated vaccine for Newcastle disease and H9N2 AI viruses

    PubMed Central

    Naggar, Heba M. El; Madkour, Mohamed Sayed; Hussein, Hussein Ali

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. Materials and Methods: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens. Cell-mediated and humoral immune response was measured as well as challenge trial was carried out. In addition, ISA71 water in oil was also evaluated. Results: Our results showed that the use of spray route as vaccination delivery method of polymer and nanoparticles Montanide™ adjuvants revealed that it enhanced the cell mediated immune response as indicated by phagocytic activity, gamma interferon and interleukin 6 responses and induced protection against challenge with Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) viruses. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the potentiality of polymer compared to nanoparticles adjuvantes when used via spray route. Mass application of such vaccines will add value to improve the vaccination strategies against ND virus and Avian influenza viruses. PMID:28344402

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide on virus shedding in avian influenza (H9N2) challenged broilers

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, T.; Ara, G.; Ali, N.; ud Din Mufti, F.; Imran Khan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease causing significant economic losses worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) on tracheal and cloacal virus shedding in AI challenged broilers and contamination of environment with H9N2. A total of 300 1-day-old-broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) and supplemented 0.2, 0.5 and 0.0% MOS, respectively in NRC recommended diet for 36 days. On day 21 the groups were further split into two sub groups A+ve, A-ve, B+ve, B-ve, C+ve and C-ve with 5 replicates each. The positive groups were shifted to remote sheds and were challenged intranasally with 0.1 ml of reference virus (AIV; Pk-UDL/01/08 H9N2) with EID50 = 10-6.66. Treatment reduces (P<0.05) cloacal virus shedding from day 24 to 26 and 28 to 32. Tracheal virus shedding was lower (P<0.05) on days 25-26 and 28-30 in treatment groups. Day 27 showed highest (P>0.05) virus shedding in all groups. However the reduction of viral shedding is faster in treatment groups and showed no virus shedding on day 32. Maternal antibody titer against AI showed a declining pattern but MOS influenced (P<0.05) the titer in treated groups. Hence the use of MOS may constitute a novel and effective plausible alternative that reduces the spread of disease by decreasing virus shedding and contamination of environment from AIV (H9N2) infection in poultry. PMID:28224012

  16. Adaptation of intestinal production of apolipoprotein A-IV during chronic feeding of lipid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeris, T J; Painter, R G

    2001-04-01

    We examined the effect of daily fat supplementation on intestinal gene expression and protein synthesis and plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV). Rats were fasted overnight and then given intragastric bolus infusion of either saline or fat emulsion after 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 days of similar daily feedings. Four hours after the final saline or fat infusion, plasma and jejunal mucosa were harvested; plasma levels of apo A-IV, triglycerides, and leptin were measured, as well as mucosal apo A-IV mRNA levels and biosynthesis of apo A-IV protein. In response to fat, plasma apo A-IV showed an initial 40% increase compared with saline-injected control rats; with continued daily fat feeding, the plasma A-IV response showed rapid and progressive diminution such that by 4 days, plasma A-IV was not different between fat- and saline-fed groups. Jejunal mucosal apo A-IV synthesis and mRNA levels also showed time-dependent refractoriness to fat feeding. However, the kinetics of this effect were considerably slower than in the case of plasma, requiring 16 days for completion. There was no correlation between plasma leptin or triglyceride levels and intestinal apo A-IV synthesis or plasma apo A-IV. These results indicate rapid, fat-induced, posttranslational adapation of plasma apo A-IV levels and a slower, but similarly complete pretranslational adaptation of intestinal apo A-IV production, which are independent of plasma levels of leptin.

  17. Genetic characterization of H9N2 avian influenza virus in plateau pikas in the Qinghai Lake region of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Gu, Jin-Yan; Yuan, Zhuang-Chuan; Chen, Xin-Yu; Li, Zeng-Kui; Lei, Jing; Hu, Bo-Li; Yan, Li-Ping; Xing, Gang; Liao, Min; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migratory-bird breeding site that has experienced several highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) epizootics. Plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) have previously been implicated in the ecology of avian influenza virus in this region. We first isolated an H9N2 AIV (A/Pika/Menyuan/01/2008) from plateau pikas between November 2008 and October 2009. Sequence analysis showed that the A/Pika/Menyuan/01/2008 AIV was closely related to the H9N2 AIV strain (A/Turkey/Wisconsin/ 1/1966). Our findings suggested that plateau pikas may contribute to AIV epidemiology in the Qinghai Lake region.

  18. Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus in Nonpelleted Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Breedlove, C

    2016-12-01

    Corn stored outside could become contaminated with avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild bird droppings. AIV-contaminated ingredients could pass into the poultry flocks in nonpelleted chicken feed. The efficacy of two disinfectants at inactivating AIV in chicken feed was evaluated. Both Termin-8 (a blend of formaldehyde, propionic acid, terpenes, and surfactant) and Finio (a blend of approved phytochemicals and carboxylic acids) effectively inactivated AIV in chicken feed. Because stability of infectious AIV in chicken feed is limited, we evaluated addition of protein (skim milk powder) to the virus suspension. Protein prolonged the stability of AIV in untreated feed to 24 hr at 24 C. However, both feed disinfectants were able to inactivate the virus in feed even when protected by skim milk powder.

  19. Validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for the detection of H7 avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedersen, J.; Killian, M.L.; Hines, N.; Senne, D.; Panigrahy, B.; Ip, H.S.; Spackman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the validation of an avian influenza virus (AIV) H7 subtype-specific real-time reverse transcriptasePCR (rRT-PCR) assay developed at the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) for the detection of H7 AI in North and South American wild aquatic birds and poultry. The validation was a collaborative effort by the SEPRL and the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The 2008 H7 rRT-PCR assay detects 101 50% embryo infectious doses per reaction, or 103104 copies of transcribed H7 RNA. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated to be 97.5% and 82.4%, respectively; the assay was shown to be specific for H7 AI when tested with >270 wild birds and poultry viruses. Following validation, the 2008 H7 rRT-PCR procedure was adopted as an official U.S. Department of Agriculture procedure for the detection of H7 AIV. The 2008 H7 assay replaced the previously used (2002) assay, which does not detect H7 viruses currently circulating in wild birds in North and South America. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  20. Accumulation and inactivation of avian influenza virus by the filter feeding invertebrate daphnia magna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principle mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals contract the virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for periods of months to years in w...

  1. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  2. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  3. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease and avian influenza viruses using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Severinghaus, Lucia Liu; Liu, Lu-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Tsong; Pu, Chang-En; Huang, Dean; Lir, Jihn-Tsair; Chin, Shih-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2008-03-18

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are two of the most important zoonotic viral diseases of birds throughout the world. These two viruses often have a great impact upon the poultry industry. Both viruses are associated with transmission from wild to domestic birds, and often display similar signs that need to be differentiated. A rapid surveillance among wild and domestic birds is important for early disease detection and intervention, and is the basis for what measures should be taken. The surveillance, thus, should be able to differentiate the diseases and provide a detailed analysis of the virus strains. Here, we described a fast, simultaneous and inexpensive approach to the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) using oligonucleotide microarrays. The NDV pathotypes and the AIV haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 were determined at the same time. Different probes on a microarray targeting the same gene were implemented in order to encompass the diversified virus strains or provide multiple confirmations of the genotype. This ensures good sensitivity and specificity among divergent viruses. Twenty-four virus isolates and twenty-four various combinations of the viruses were tested in this study. All viruses were successfully detected and typed. The hybridization results on microarrays were clearly identified with the naked eyes, with no further imaging equipment needed. The results demonstrate that the detection and typing of multiple viruses can be performed simultaneously and easily using oligonucleotide microarrays. The proposed method may provide potential for rapid surveillance and differential diagnosis of these two important zoonoses in both wild and domestic birds.

  4. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  5. Genomic selection for the improvement of antibody response to Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianfei; Qu, Hao; Luo, Chenglong; Li, Xuewei; Shu, Dingming; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV) and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV) in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP) and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP). Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV) in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising.

  6. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    PubMed

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  7. Effect of Infection with a Mesogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus on Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinic...

  8. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2005, 2006 and 2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for avian influenza virus (AIV) as part of a wild bird AIV monitoring program conducted in Mongolia. Samples collected in 2005 were tested by virus isolation directly, samples from 2006 and 2007...

  9. Continuing Reassortant of H5N6 Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Guangdong

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Wang, Zheng; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    First identified in May 2014 in China's Sichuan Province, initial cases of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans raised great concerns about the virus's prevalence, origin, and development. To evaluate both AIV contamination in live poultry markets (LPMs) and the risk of AIV infection in humans, we have conducted surveillance of LPMs in Guangdong Province since 2013 as part of environmental sampling programs. With environmental samples associated with these LPMs, we performed genetic and phylogenetic analyses of 10 H5N6 AIVs isolated from different cities of Guangdong Province from different years. Results revealed that the H5N6 viruses were reassortants with hemagglutinin (HA) genes derived from clade 2.3.4.4 of H5-subtype AIV, yet neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from H6N6 AIV. Unlike the other seven H5N6 viruses isolated in first 7 months of 2014, all of which shared remarkable sequence similarity with the H5N1 AIV in all internal genes, the PB2 genes of GZ693, GZ670, and ZS558 more closely related to H6N6 AIV and the PB1 gene of GZ693 to the H3-subtype AIV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the environmental H5N6 AIV related closely to human H5N6 AIVs isolated in Guangdong. These results thus suggest that continued reassortment has enabled the emergence of a novel H5N6 virus in Guangdong, as well as highlight the potential risk of highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs in the province. PMID:27148209

  10. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8+ T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8+ T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed. PMID:26973644

  11. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  12. AIV Platform for the Galileo Precise Timing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oving, B. A.; Kroon, E.

    2008-08-01

    The Precise Timing Facility (PTF) is an element of the Galileo Ground Mission Segment (GMS) and is responsible for maintaining and distributing the Galileo System Time (GST). The PTF is based on a set of Caesium clocks and Active Hydrogen Maser clocks, the combination of which should be able to provide the required precision and stability of the GST. As the PTF is a critical element within the GMS, diversity is applied in that two PTFs are made by two different companies. The subject of this paper is the PTF that is being developed by Kayser-Threde. To perform the Assembly, Integration and Verification (AIV) activities of the PTF, a dedicated test platform, PTF-AIVP, is developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR (the Netherlands) and the Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMi). The PTF-AIVP will be used to measure and analyse the (physical) output of the PTF, so that the stringent precision and stability requirements can be verified. Furthermore, it will simulate other Elements in the GMS that are connected to the PTF.

  13. Characterization of influenza A viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simulundu, Edgar; Ishii, Akihiro; Igarashi, Manabu; Mweene, Aaron S; Suzuki, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Namangala, Boniface; Moonga, Ladslav; Manzoor, Rashid; Ito, Kimihito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Simukonda, Chuma; Chansa, Wilbroad; Chulu, Jack; Takada, Ayato

    2011-06-01

    Although the quest to clarify the role of wild birds in the spread of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has yielded considerable data on AIVs in wild birds worldwide, information regarding the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in African wild birds is still very limited. During AIV surveillance in Zambia (2008-2009), 12 viruses of distinct subtypes (H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) were isolated from wild waterfowl. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all the isolates were of the Eurasian lineage. Whilst some genes were closely related to those of AIVs isolated from wild and domestic birds in South Africa, intimating possible AIV exchange between wild birds and poultry in southern Africa, some gene segments were closely related to those of AIVs isolated in Europe and Asia, thus confirming the inter-regional AIV gene flow among these continents. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of internal proteins revealed that several isolates harboured particular residues predominantly observed in human influenza viruses. Interestingly, the isolates with human-associated residues exhibited higher levels of virus replication in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity as measured by weight loss than an isolate lacking such residues. This study stresses the need for continued monitoring of AIVs in wild and domestic birds in southern Africa to gain a better understanding of the emergence of strains with the potential to infect mammals.

  14. The ecology of avian influenza virus in wild birds: what does this mean for poultry?

    PubMed

    Spackman, E

    2009-04-01

    As natural hosts for avian influenza virus (AIV), wild birds, particularly aquatic birds, are the primary reservoir for transmission of AIV to domestic poultry. Therefore, understanding the dissemination and maintenance of AIV in wild birds is important for understanding the factors that contribute to transmission of AIV from wild birds to poultry. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the virus in wild birds, and the depth of data are inconsistent worldwide. Also, the biology of the virus itself is very important, because AIV is highly adaptable to different hosts and likely to the environment as well. Some insight may be gained from the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AIV lineage, because surveillance for this virus has increased considerably in wild birds worldwide since 2005. Also, numerous species that have not previously been represented in AIV testing have been included in surveillance for the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AIV, allowing for a more complete understanding of the distribution of AIV in wild birds.

  15. Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

  16. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) are among the most prominent emerging viruses affecting animal and public health. This report was designed to explore the genetic variation, which has occurred among AIVs of the H7N3 subtype in the Northeast, Central and Southern Regions of Pakistan during the last dec...

  17. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  18. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  19. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  20. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...Epstein (1986) has suggested that this version of PROLOG has been used for business and industrial applications in Eastern Europe. The Japanese have...have been in building expert systems in the business analysis area. Expert systems for policy and rate selection for insurance (i.e., risk analysis) and

  1. Serologic testing for avian influenza viruses in wild birds: comparison of two commercial competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Rodríguez, Vanessa; Sommer, Dagmar; Blanco, Juan Manuel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Höfle, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Serologic testing of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance poses problems due to species differences and nonspecific inhibitors that may be present in sera of wild birds. Recently available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits offer a new species-independent approach. In this study we compare two commercial competitive cELISAs, using a total of 184 serum and plasma samples from 23 species of wild birds belonging to 10 orders. Thirteen samples were from experimentally high pathogenicity AI and low pathogenicity AI infected red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), 77 samples were from a flock of sentinel hybrid ducks confirmed infected by AI by real-time PCR, and 94 samples were from wild birds admitted to a rehabilitation center. Both ELISAs detected AI antibodies in the experimentally infected partridges, whereas hemagglutination inhibition (HI) was negative. Concordance in results between the two ELISAs was 51.5%. When specific subtype-H5/H7 HI-positive samples were considered for comparison, ELISA 1 appeared to perform better on ducks, whereas ELISA 2 appeared to perform better in other wild bird species. Overall, 68.2% of H5/H7 positive samples tested positive by ELISA 1 and 36% by ELISA 2. Both ELISAs detected AIV-antibody-positive samples negative by specific HI against 9 of the 16 existing hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. Presumably this reflects either higher sensitivity of cELISA when compared to HI, presence of antibodies against HA subtypes not tested, or unspecific reactions. Performance of ELISA 1 on ducks appears to be comparable to in-house cELISA previously used by other authors in wild birds, but requires a relatively large sample volume. Alternatively, although ELISA 2 required a smaller sample volume, it was less effective at identifying HI-positive samples. The results reflect the necessity of validation of cELISA tests for individual species or at least families, as required by the OIE.

  2. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  3. An Immune Agent for Web-Based AI Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing

    2006-01-01

    To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…

  4. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  5. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T; Ip, Hon S; Jónsson, Jón E; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Dugan, Vivien G; Wentworth, David E; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  6. [An overview of surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Shi, Jing-Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds (mainly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes) are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The long-term surveillance of AIVs in wild birds has been conducted in North America and Europe since 1970s. More and more surveillance data revealed that all the HA and NA subtypes of AIVs were identified in the wild ducks, shorebirds, and gulls, and the AIVs circulating in wild birds were implicated in the outbreaks of AIVs in poultry and humans. Therefore, the AIVs in wild birds pose huge threat to poultry industry and human health. To gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in wild birds, we summarize the transmission of AIVs between wild birds, poultry, and humans, the main results of surveillance of AIVs in wild birds worldwide and methods for surveillance, and the types of samples and detection methods for AIVs in wild birds, which would be vital for the effective control of avian influenza and response to possible influenza pandemic.

  7. Potency, efficacy, and antigenic mapping of H7 avian influenza virus vaccines against the 2012 H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2012 an outbreak of H7N3 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry in Mexico. Vaccination was implemented as a control measure along with increased biosecurity and surveillance. At that time there was no commercially available H7 AIV vaccine in North Ame...

  8. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  9. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... you start your first t'ai chi workout, dress comfortably so you can move and stretch easily. ... health problem. Is your schedule jam-packed with school, work, and social activities? Here are a few ...

  10. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... chi (pronounced: TY CHEE) is great for improving flexibility and strengthening your legs, abs, and arms. What ... general, though, practicing t'ai chi improves strength, flexibility, and respiratory function (breathing). So where can you ...

  11. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C.; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. PMID:26063419

  12. Efficacy of scallop shell powders and slaked lime for inactivating avian influenza virus under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Tsujimura, Misato; Satoh, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Tamura, Miho; Kawamura, Akinobu; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy and stability of scallop shell powder (SSP) were investigated, in terms of its capacity to inactivate avian influenza virus (AIV), and compared with slaked lime (SL). An environmental simulation was conducted by emulating sunlight and wet-dry conditions. The powders were collected at consecutive 2-week intervals under sunlight and upon every resuspension. These materials were tested by mixing them with AIV and incubating the mixture for 3 min or 20 h, followed by AIV titration. At the same time, a pH buffering test was conducted by neutralization with Tris-HCl. The results revealed that SSP and SL have high alkalinity and excellent ability to inactivate AIV. In a simulated harsh environment, SSP and SL retained a satisfactory ability to inactivate AIV within 20 h throughout the experimental procedure. However, SSP was able to inactivate AIV during a short contact period (3 min), even under harsh conditions, and it was more resistant than SL to neutralization.

  13. Molecular characterization of novel reassortant H6N2 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Eastern China, in 2014.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Wu, Nanping

    2015-12-01

    During the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets in Eastern China, in 2014, seven H6N2 AIVs were isolated from poultry. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains received their genes from H6, H3, and H9 AIVs of poultry in China. These strains were found to demonstrate moderate pathogenicity in mice, and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that novel reassorted H6N2 viruses were isolated from poultry in this study, it is possible that these chickens and ducks play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H6N2 AIVs.

  14. AI aerospace components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Montgomery, Ronnie E.; Pohle, George E.; Heard, Astrid E.; Atkinson, David J.; Wedlake, William E.; Anderson, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  15. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  16. Comparative susceptibility of waterfowl and gulls to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild avian species in the Orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shorebirds) have traditionally been considered the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and morbidity or mortality is rarely associated with AIV infection in these hosts. However, ...

  17. Accumulation and inactivation of avian influenza virus by the filter-feeding invertebrate Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meixell, Brandt W; Borchardt, Mark A; Spencer, Susan K

    2013-12-01

    The principal mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the ability of an aquatic filter-feeding invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to accumulate virus from AIV-dosed water under the hypothesis that they represent a potential vector of AIV to waterfowl hosts. We placed live daphnids in test tubes dosed with low-pathogenicity AIV (H3N8 subtype isolated from a wild duck) and sampled Daphnia tissue and the surrounding water using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) at 3- to 120-min intervals for up to 960 min following dosing. Concentrations of viral RNA averaged 3 times higher in Daphnia tissue than the surrounding water shortly after viral exposure, but concentrations decreased exponentially through time for both. Extracts from Daphnia tissue were negative for AIV by cell culture, whereas AIV remained viable in water without Daphnia present. Our results suggest daphnids can accumulate AIV RNA and effectively remove virus particles from water. Although concentrations of viral RNA were consistently higher in Daphnia tissue than the water, additional research is needed on the time scale of AIV inactivation after Daphnia ingestion to fully elucidate Daphnia's role as a potential vector of AIV infection to aquatic birds.

  18. Accumulation and Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus by the Filter-Feeding Invertebrate Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    The principal mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the ability of an aquatic filter-feeding invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to accumulate virus from AIV-dosed water under the hypothesis that they represent a potential vector of AIV to waterfowl hosts. We placed live daphnids in test tubes dosed with low-pathogenicity AIV (H3N8 subtype isolated from a wild duck) and sampled Daphnia tissue and the surrounding water using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) at 3- to 120-min intervals for up to 960 min following dosing. Concentrations of viral RNA averaged 3 times higher in Daphnia tissue than the surrounding water shortly after viral exposure, but concentrations decreased exponentially through time for both. Extracts from Daphnia tissue were negative for AIV by cell culture, whereas AIV remained viable in water without Daphnia present. Our results suggest daphnids can accumulate AIV RNA and effectively remove virus particles from water. Although concentrations of viral RNA were consistently higher in Daphnia tissue than the water, additional research is needed on the time scale of AIV inactivation after Daphnia ingestion to fully elucidate Daphnia's role as a potential vector of AIV infection to aquatic birds. PMID:24038705

  19. A robust tool highlights the influence of bird migration on influenza A virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Vivien G

    2012-12-01

    One of the fundamental unknowns in the field of influenza biology is a panoramic understanding of the role wild birds play in the global maintenance and spread of influenza A viruses. Wild aquatic birds are considered a reservoir host for all lowly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV) and thus serve as a potential source of zoonotic AIV, such as Australasian-origin H5N1 responsible for morbidity and mortality in both poultry and humans, as well as genes that may contribute to the emergence of pandemic viruses. Years of broad, in-depth wild bird AIV surveillance have helped to decipher key observations and ideas regarding AIV evolution and viral ecology including the trending of viral lineages, patterns of gene flow within and between migratory flyways and the role of geographic boundaries in shaping viral evolution (Bahl et al. 2009; Lam et al. 2012). While these generally 'virus-centric' studies have ultimately advanced our broader understanding of AIV dynamics, recent studies have been more host-focused, directed at determining the potential impact of host behaviour on AIV, specifically, the influence of bird migration upon AIV maintenance and transmission. A large number of surveillance studies have taken place in Alaska, United States-a region where several global flyways overlap-with the aim of detecting the introduction of novel, Australasian-origin highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV into North America. By targeting bird species with known migration habits, long-distance migrators were determined to be involved in the intercontinental movement of individual AIV gene segments, but not entire viruses, between the Australasian and North American flyways (Koehler et al. 2008; Pearce et al. 2010). Yet, bird movement is not solely limited to long-distance migration, and the relationship of resident or nonmigratory and intermediate-distance migrant populations with AIV ecology has only recently been explored by Hill et al. (2012) in this issue of Molecular Ecology

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Reassortant H6N8 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Wild Waterfowl in Poyang Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guangyu; Li, Jinping; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Suchun; Chen, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an H6N8 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from wild waterfowl in Poyang Lake, China, in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was a novel reassortant AIV between domestic ducks and wild waterfowl. The finding of this study is helpful for our understanding of the ecology and the evolutionary characteristics of H6 subtypes of AIV in birds. PMID:28153897

  1. Complete genome sequence of an H10N8 avian influenza virus isolated from a live bird market in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Cao, Lan; Yuan, Runyu; Wei, Liangmeng; Song, Yafen; Shen, Dan; Gong, Lang; Luo, Kaijian; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming

    2012-07-01

    An H10N8 avian influenza virus (AIV), designated A/Duck/Guangdong/E1/2012 (H10N8), was isolated from a duck in January 2012. This is first report that this subtype of AIV was isolated from a live bird market (LBM) in Guangdong Province in southern China. Furthermore, the complete genome of this strain was analyzed. The availability of genome sequences is helpful to further investigations of epidemiology and molecular characteristics of AIV in southern China.

  2. Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    de Geus, Eveline D; Rebel, Johanna M J; Vervelde, Lonneke

    2012-06-01

    The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV, aerosol vaccination using live virus is not desirable because of its zoonotic potential and because of the risk for virus reassortment. The rational design of novel mucosal-inactivated vaccines against AIV requires a comprehensive knowledge of the structure and function of the lung-associated immune system in birds in order to target vaccines appropriately and to design efficient mucosal adjuvants. This review addresses our current understanding of the induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken. Furthermore, possible mucosal vaccination strategies for AIV are highlighted.

  3. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-06-02

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs.

  4. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus in Ruddy ducks and Lesser Scaup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV) has not been characterized in numerous duck species, especially diving ducks, some of which migrate across the continental U.S. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N2 AIV was characterized in two diving duck species, Ruddy ...

  5. Reassortment of Avian Influenza A/H6N6 Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Zou, Lirong; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Liao, Ming; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2013, H7N9-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused human infection in eastern China. To evaluate AIV contamination and the public risk of infection, we systematically implemented environmental sampling from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and next-generation sequencing, we generated full nucleotide sequences of all 10 H6N6 AIVs isolated during sampling. Focusing on sequence analyses of hemagglutinin genes of the 10 H6N6 AIVs revealed that the viruses were low pathogenic AIVs with the typical hemagglutinin cleavage site of P-Q-I-E-T-R-G. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsid genes of nine AIVs were of ST2853-like (H6-subtype) lineage, ST192-like (N6-subtype) lineage, and HN573-like (H6-subtype) lineage, respectively; whereas the other five genes were of ST339-like (H6-subtype) lineage. However, the polymerase PB2 and nucleocapsid genes of one strain (HZ057) were of GS/GD-like (H5N1-subtype) and ST339-like lineages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that all eight genes of the 10 viruses belonged to Eurasian avian lineage. Altogether, the 10 AIVs were reassortants of different genetic groups of exchanges with the same virus subtype, thus illustrating the genetic diversity and complexity of H6N6-subtype AIVs in Guangdong Province. PMID:26903958

  6. Lack of antigenic diversity in contemporary H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Understanding the antigenic diversity and genetic evolution of H7 AIVs is critical for developing effective strategies for disease prev...

  7. Reassortment of Avian Influenza A/H6N6 Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Runyu; Zou, Lirong; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Liao, Ming; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2013, H7N9-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused human infection in eastern China. To evaluate AIV contamination and the public risk of infection, we systematically implemented environmental sampling from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and next-generation sequencing, we generated full nucleotide sequences of all 10 H6N6 AIVs isolated during sampling. Focusing on sequence analyses of hemagglutinin genes of the 10 H6N6 AIVs revealed that the viruses were low pathogenic AIVs with the typical hemagglutinin cleavage site of P-Q-I-E-T-R-G. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsid genes of nine AIVs were of ST2853-like (H6-subtype) lineage, ST192-like (N6-subtype) lineage, and HN573-like (H6-subtype) lineage, respectively; whereas the other five genes were of ST339-like (H6-subtype) lineage. However, the polymerase PB2 and nucleocapsid genes of one strain (HZ057) were of GS/GD-like (H5N1-subtype) and ST339-like lineages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that all eight genes of the 10 viruses belonged to Eurasian avian lineage. Altogether, the 10 AIVs were reassortants of different genetic groups of exchanges with the same virus subtype, thus illustrating the genetic diversity and complexity of H6N6-subtype AIVs in Guangdong Province.

  8. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are...

  9. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  10. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  11. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  12. Continuing evolution and interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in live bird markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Yu-Na; Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Min-Chul; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) provide an ideal environment for the evolution and interspecies transfer of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). In this study, we analyzed AIVs present in LBMs in Korea during the winter seasons of 2006-08. Sixty-five AIVs that belong to four hemagglutination (HA) subtypes ofAIV (H3, H4, H6, and H9) were isolated from 644 pooled tissue or swab samples collected in LBMs. Most H9 subtypes of AIVs were isolated from Galliformes (chickens, silky fowls, pheasants, and guinea fowls), and other subtypes were isolated from Anseriformes (Pekin ducks and mallards). In addition, we obtained a single H3N2 virus from nasal swabs of dogs sold in LBMs, and the virus was genetically identical to the canine influenza virus (CIV) isolated from pet dogs in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Korean H9N2 viruses prevalent in chickens have provided their gene segments to AIVs circulating in ducks. These gene transfers facilitated reassortment events among AIVs and likely generated the ancestors of CIV in Korea. An animal challenge study using chickens, quail, mice, and dogs had shown that the H4 and H6 subtypes could replicate in mice and that some H4 and H6 viruses could replicate in chickens without preadaptation. In addition, two H3 subtype viruses (H3N2 and H3N8) induced interstitial pneumonia that accompanied clinical signs and seroconversion in dogs. Our findings indicate that the newly evolved AIVs have been continuously generated by reassortment in ducks, and these reassortments could result in expanding the host range of AIVs.

  13. Evidence for the Introduction, Reassortment, and Persistence of Diverse Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yvonne C. F.; Aban, Malet; Peck, Heidi; Lau, Hilda; Baas, Chantal; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Ellström, Patrik; Hernandez, Jorge; Olsen, Bjorn; Barr, Ian G.; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in Antarctica during 2013 revealed the prevalence of evolutionarily distinct influenza viruses of the H11N2 subtype in Adélie penguins. Here we present results from the continued surveillance of AIV on the Antarctic Peninsula during 2014 and 2015. In addition to the continued detection of H11 subtype viruses in a snowy sheathbill during 2014, we isolated a novel H5N5 subtype virus from a chinstrap penguin during 2015. Gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H11 virus detected in 2014 had a >99.1% nucleotide similarity to the H11N2 viruses isolated in 2013, suggesting the continued prevalence of this virus in Antarctica over multiple years. However, phylogenetic analysis of the H5N5 virus showed that the genome segments were recently introduced to the continent, except for the NP gene, which was similar to that in the endemic H11N2 viruses. Our analysis indicates geographically diverse origins for the H5N5 virus genes, with the majority of its genome segments derived from North American lineage viruses but the neuraminidase gene derived from a Eurasian lineage virus. In summary, we show the persistence of AIV lineages in Antarctica over multiple years, the recent introduction of gene segments from diverse regions, and reassortment between different AIV lineages in Antarctica, which together significantly increase our understanding of AIV ecology in this fragile and pristine environment. IMPORTANCE Analysis of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) detected in Antarctica reveals both the relatively recent introduction of an H5N5 AIV, predominantly of North American-like origin, and the persistence of an evolutionarily divergent H11 AIV. These data demonstrate that the flow of viruses from North America may be more common than initially thought and that, once introduced, these AIVs have the potential to be maintained within Antarctica. The future introduction of AIVs from North America into the Antarctic

  14. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-11-10

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model.

  15. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  16. Replication of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens is affected by the PB1, PB2 and NP viral genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Devastating losses to the poultry industry can result from pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) created by natural reassortment events. The role of individual viral genes on the pathogenesis of AIVs in chickens is unclear. Reverse genetics was used to create single-gene reassortants to determ...

  17. Protection of chickens to antigenically variant avian influenza virus challenge after immunization with two antigenically unrelated strains of the same subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antigenic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) within a subtype has been well established and is believed to be driven by the selection of immunologic escape mutants. In regions where vaccination against AIV has been implemented for prolonged periods (e.g. Vietnam and Egypt), vaccines which...

  18. The use of FTA® filter papers for diagnosis of avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Abdelwhab, E M; Lüschow, Dörte; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2011-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) infect a wide range of host species including domestic poultry and wild birds; also, AIVs may infect humans in whom some highly pathogenic viruses (HPAIV) may cause acute fatal disease. Accurate laboratory diagnosis of AIV infections requires time-consuming and logistically complex precautionary measures for shipment of specimens or viruses to avoid biohazard exposure. The feasibility was investigated of the Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA® card) for infectivity of AIVs and to preserve viral RNA for detection by RT-qPCR, sequencing and by DNA microarray assay. The infectivity of AIV subtype H6N2 and HPAIV subtype H5N1 was inactivated completely within one hour after adsorption to the FTA card at room temperature. FTA-adsorbed viral RNA remained stable for five months. Swab samples obtained from chickens infected experimentally with H5N1 virus and spotted directly onto the FTA® cards allowed a sensitive and straightforward diagnosis by RT-qPCR. FTA® cards were also suitable for examination of field samples, although AIV RNA was detected with reduced sensitivity in comparison to direct examination of swab fluids. The use of FTA® cards will facilitate safe transport of samples for molecular diagnosis of AIV avoiding the need for an uninterrupted cold storage.

  19. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?

    PubMed

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  20. Detection method for avian influenza viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Rönnqvist, Maria; Ziegler, Thedi; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Recent events have shown that humans may become infected with some pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). Since soil and water, including lakes, rivers, and seashores, may be contaminated by AIV excreted by birds, effective methods are needed for monitoring water for emerging viruses. Combining water filtration with molecular methods such as PCR is a fast and effective way for detecting viruses. The objective of this study was to apply a convenient method for the detection of AIV in natural water samples. Distilled water and lake, river, and seawater were artificially contaminated with AIV (H5N3) and passed through a filter system. AIV was detected from filter membrane by real-time RT-PCR. The performance of Zetapor, SMWP, and Sartobind D5F membranes in recovering influenza viruses was first evaluated using contaminated distilled water. SWMP, which gave the highest virus recoveries, was then compared with a pre-filter combined GF/F filter membrane in a trial using natural water samples. In this study, the cellulose membrane SMWP was found to be practical for recovery of AIVs in water. Viral yields varied between 62.1 and 65.9% in distilled water and between 1 and 16.7% in natural water samples. The borosilicate glass membrane GF/F combined with pre-filter was also feasible in filtering natural water samples with viral yields from 1.98 to 7.33%. The methods described can be used for monitoring fresh and seawater samples for the presence of AIV and to determine the source of AIV transmission in an outbreak situation.

  1. Intestinal hormones and regulation of satiety: the case for CCK, GLP-1, PYY, and Apo A-IV.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, David

    2008-01-01

    Satiety, the physiologic processes that combine to bring about the cessation of a meal, is controlled in part by intestinal peptide secretion. The effects of cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide I, peptide YY, and apolipoprotein A-IV are described.

  2. Genetic and molecular characterization of H9N2 and H5 avian influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a key source of reassorted avian influenza viruses (AIVs) because of the density of terrestrial and aquatic poultry and the frequency of AIV infection. H9N2 viruses are prevalent in terrestrial poultry throughout Asia and have been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. They infect both avian and mammalian species and may be significant donors of genetic material to emerging human pathogens. LPMs in Zhejiang Province were surveyed from 2013–2014 for AIVs. Three hundred seventy-four (374) AIV strains were isolated from 3,328 samples. Whole–genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. We identified a novel H9N2 virus genotype that had undergone reassortment with gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97–like, Ck/BJ/1/94–like, and Dk/HK/Y439/97–like viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the H9N2 viruses had undergone reassortments with other AIV subtypes. The results also suggested that two different clades (2.3.2 and 2.3.4.6) of H5 viruses were co–circulating in Zhejiang Province. Given that reassorted H5 AIVs were detected in geese and ducks, it is possible that apparently healthy birds contribute to emerging H5 AIVs. Continued surveillance is required in poultry in eastern China. PMID:26627108

  3. Genetic and molecular characterization of H9N2 and H5 avian influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-12-02

    Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a key source of reassorted avian influenza viruses (AIVs) because of the density of terrestrial and aquatic poultry and the frequency of AIV infection. H9N2 viruses are prevalent in terrestrial poultry throughout Asia and have been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. They infect both avian and mammalian species and may be significant donors of genetic material to emerging human pathogens. LPMs in Zhejiang Province were surveyed from 2013-2014 for AIVs. Three hundred seventy-four (374) AIV strains were isolated from 3,328 samples. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. We identified a novel H9N2 virus genotype that had undergone reassortment with gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97-like, Ck/BJ/1/94-like, and Dk/HK/Y439/97-like viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the H9N2 viruses had undergone reassortments with other AIV subtypes. The results also suggested that two different clades (2.3.2 and 2.3.4.6) of H5 viruses were co-circulating in Zhejiang Province. Given that reassorted H5 AIVs were detected in geese and ducks, it is possible that apparently healthy birds contribute to emerging H5 AIVs. Continued surveillance is required in poultry in eastern China.

  4. Predicting transmission of avian influenza A viruses from avian to human by using informative physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Ma, Chuang; Kou, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Liu, Huai-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Some strains of avian influenza A virus (AIV) can directly transmit from their natural hosts to humans. These avian-to-human transmissions have continuously been reported to cause human deaths worldwide since 1997. Predicting whether AIV strains can transmit from avian to human is valuable for early warning of AIV strains with human pandemic potential. In this study, we constructed a computational model to predict avian-to-human transmission of AIV based on physicochemical properties. Initially, ninety signature positions in the inner protein sequences were extracted with the entropy method. These positions were then encoded with 531 physicochemical features. Subsequently, the optimal subset of these physicochemical features was mined with several feature selection methods. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) model named A2H was established to integrate the selected optimal features. The experimental results of cross-validation and an independent test show that A2H has the capability of predicting transmission of AIV from avian to human.

  5. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  6. A fully automated procedure for the high-throughput detection of avian influenza virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Montserrat; San Miguel, Elena; Sánchez, Azucena; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2007-03-01

    The recent spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (AI) has made it important to develop highly sensitive diagnostic systems for the rapid detection of AI genome and the differentiation of H5N1 variants in a high number of samples. In the present paper, we describe a high-throughput procedure that combines automated extraction, amplification, and detection of AI RNA, by an already described TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) assay targeted at the matrix (M) protein gene of AI virus (AIV). The method was tested in cloacal and tracheal swabs, the most common type of samples used in AI surveillance, as well as in tissue and fecal samples. A robotic system (QIAGEN Biosprint 96) extracted RNA and set up reactions for RRT-PCR in a 96-well format. The recovery of the extracted RNA was as efficient as that of a manual RNA extraction kit, and the sensitivity of the detection system was as high as with previously described nonautomated methods. A system with a basic configuration (one extraction robot plus two real-time 96-well thermocyclers) operated by two persons could account for about 360 samples in 5 hr. Further characterization of AI RNA-positive samples with a TaqMan RRT-PCR specific for H5 (also described here) and/or N1 was possible within 2 hr more. As this work shows, the system can analyze up to 1400 samples per working day by using two nucleic acid extraction robots and a 384-well-format thermocycler.

  7. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of economically impor...

  8. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  9. An immuno-biosensor system based on quartz crystal microbalance for avian influenza virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengping; Chen, Guoming; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yunlong

    2007-12-01

    For the quick detection of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), a biosensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was fabricated according to the specific bonding principle between antibody and antigen. Staphylococcal Protein A (SPA) was extracted from Staphylococcus and purified. Then SPA was coated on the surface of QCM for immobilizing AIV monoclonal antibodies. The use of AIV monoclonal antibody could enhance the specificity of the immuno-biosensor. A multi-channel piezoelectricity detection system for the immuno-biosensor was developed. The system can work for the quick detection of AIV antigen in the case of the entirely aqueous status owe to one special oscillating circuit designed in this work. The optimum conditions of SPA coating and AIV monoclonal antibody immobilization were investigated utilizing the multi-channel detection system. The preliminary application of the immuno-biosensor system for detection of AIV was evaluated. Results indicate that the immuno-biosensor system can detect the AIV antigens with a linear range of 3-200ng/ml. The system can accomplish the detection of AIV antigens around 40 minutes.

  10. Full genome sequence of a recombinant H5N1 influenza virus from a condor in southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Yuan, Runyu; Song, Yafen; Wei, Liangmeng; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming; Luo, Kaijian

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report the first genomic information on an H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from a condor in Guangdong Province in southern China in 2003. Full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses show that it is a recombinant virus containing genome segments derived from the Eurasia and North America gene pools. This will be useful for analyses of the evolution of H5N1 AIV in southern China.

  11. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Ip, Hon S; Ghedin, Elodie; Wentworth, David E; Halpin, Rebecca A; Stockwell, Timothy B; Spiro, David J; Dusek, Robert J; Bortner, James B; Hoskins, Jenny; Bales, Bradley D; Yparraguirre, Dan R; Holmes, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway.

  12. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lam, T. T. -Y.; Ip, H. S.; Ghedin, E.; Wentworth, D. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Stockwell, T. B.; Spiro, D. J.; Dusek, R. J.; Bortner, J. B.; Hoskins, J.; Bales, B. D.; Yparraguirre, D. R.; Holmes, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Ip, Hon S.; Ghedin, Elodie; Wentworth, David E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Spiro, David J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bortner, James B.; Hoskins, Jenny; Bales, Bradley D.; Yparraguirre, Dan R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway.

  14. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance.

  15. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Poland, 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Świętoń, Edyta; Wyrostek, Krzysztof; Jóźwiak, Michał; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Włodarczyk, Radosław; Minias, Piotr; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Minta, Zenon; Śmietanka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-17

    We tested wild birds in Poland during 2008-2015 for avian influenza virus (AIV). We took 10,312 swabs and feces samples from 6,314 live birds representing 12 orders and 84 bird species, mostly from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, for testing and characterization by various PCR methods. From PCR-positive samples, we attempted to isolate and subtype the virus. The RNA of AIV was detected in 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-2.1%) of birds represented by 48 Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ), 11 Mute Swans ( Cygnus olor ), 48 Common Teal ( Anas crecca ), three Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), one Common Coot ( Fulica atra ), one Garganey (Spatula querquedula), and one unidentified bird species. Overall, the prevalence of AIV detection in Mallards and Mute Swans (the most frequently sampled species) was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4%-2.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.8%), respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.000). Hemagglutinin subtypes from H1 to H13 were identified, including H5 and H7 low pathogenic AIV subtypes. Mallards and Common Teals harbored the greatest diversity of subtypes. We observed seasonality of viral detection in Mallards, with higher AIV prevalence in late summer and autumn than in winter and spring. In addition, two peaks in AIV prevalence in summer (August) and autumn (November) were demonstrated for Mallards. The prevalence of AIV in Mute Swans did not show any statistically significant seasonal patterns.

  16. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  17. High Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza Viruses among Wild Waterfowl in Alaska: Implications for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics. PMID:23472177

  18. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  19. Black knight of AI

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, F.

    1985-03-01

    For two decades now, Hubert Dreyfus, an existentialist philosopher at the University of California at Berkeley, has been in the forefront of the controversy over artificial intelligence. He maintains that computers will never be able to think because scientists will never come up with a suitably rigorous set of rules to describe how we think. To many computer scientists, this is like saying the Earth is flat. But so far, none of them have been able to prove him wrong. Even most AI researchers now admit that before they can make computers any smarter, they'll have to come up with an explanation of how intelligence works in people. This realization has coincided with the emergence of cognitive science, a new discipline linking philosophy, psychology, anthroplogy, linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science in an attempt to develop a theory of the way humans think. The guiding principle of most cognitive science research is the notion that the mind, like the computer, is a system for manipulating symbols - for processing information. The task of cognitive science is to discover how this processing occurs.

  20. Characterizations of H4 avian influenza viruses isolated from ducks in live poultry markets and farm in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Cui, Hongrui; Wang, Junheng; Chi, Qiuyan; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H4 avian influenza virus is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in birds. The evolution and pathogenicity of H4 AIV in domestic birds of China remain largely unclear. In the present study, a total of eight H4 AIV strains isolated in duck farm and live poultry markets (LPM) were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains are divided into two groups in the Eurasian lineage. Eight genes of MH-2/H4N6 isolated from a duck farm were closely related to three H4N6 viruses from LPM, suggesting a potential AIV link between farms and LPMs. Additionally, the HA, NA, PB2, NP, and NS genes of two other H4N6 viruses isolated in LPM clustered with that of MH-2/H4N6. However, the remaining genes were more closely related to other sublineages, suggesting that MH-2/H4N6-originated viruses reassorted with other viruses in LPM. All H4 viruses replicated in mouse lungs without prior adaptation and all viruses replicated and transmitted among ducks. 29-1/H4N2, MH-2/H4N6, and 420-2/H4N6 viruses caused systemic infection in infected ducks. However, most of the viruses were not adapted in chickens. The present results indicate a potential correlation of AIV between LPMs and farms and suggest that active surveillance of AIV in LPM is warranted in China. PMID:27897216

  1. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their falconry birds as well as prey birds. Findings During 2 hunting seasons (2006/2007 and 2007/2008) falconers took tracheal and cloacal swabs from 1080 prey birds that were captured by their falconry birds (n = 54) in Germany. AIV-RNA of subtypes H6, H9, or H13 was detected in swabs of 4.1% of gulls (n = 74) and 3.8% of ducks (n = 53) using RT-PCR. The remaining 953 sampled prey birds and all falconry birds were negative. Blood samples of the falconry birds tested negative for AIV specific antibodies. Serum samples from all 43 falconers reacted positive in influenza A virus-specific ELISA, but remained negative using microneutralisation test against subtypes H5 and H7 and haemagglutination inhibition test against subtypes H6, H9 and H13. Conclusion Although we were able to detect AIV-RNA in samples from prey birds, the corresponding falconry birds and falconers did not become infected. Currently falconers do not seem to carry a high risk for getting infected with AIV through handling their falconry birds and their prey. PMID:21513552

  2. Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5) and cotton swabs (n = 24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

  3. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the ...

  4. Comparison of Environmental Test Approaches Through MATED AIV Data and Reference to ECSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquinelli, Mauro; Messidoro, Piero; Basso, Valter; Maggiore, Paolo; Scozzi, Rosario

    2012-07-01

    The verification effectiveness can be improved with a proper knowledge management, collecting and analyzing data coming from the AIV activities and flight operations of former projects. The ESA Model And Test Effectiveness Database (MAT€D) can be used for this purpose, collecting such data and providing associated statistical analyses to derive feedback for the improvement of the Model and Test Philosophies of future projects. This paper presents a methodology to support analysis of MAT€D data, with the purpose of comparing verification processes of different projects, with a specific emphasis on the environmental tests effectiveness. The used approaches are compared with those reported for each stage and level in ECSS-E-ST-10-03 (Testing). Performed AIV activities, related conditions (e.g. duration, levels) at different stages are considered to build a complexity index framework, and related normalization and aggregation functions are discussed. The related “Test Depth Index” (TDI) is proposed as an innovative method to calculate the completeness of the testing activity in relation to the ECSS standards, as a formal complement to the index currently used in MAT€D, namely MATEI (Model And Test Effectiveness Index). The application to a subset of MAT€D data is presented and recommendations are provided for further improvements.

  5. Human leucine zipper protein promotes hepatic steatosis via induction of apolipoprotein A-IV.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsoo; Kim, Jeonghan; An, Hyoung-Tae; Ko, Jesang

    2017-02-28

    The molecular mechanism of stress-induced hepatic steatosis is not well known. Human leucine zipper protein (LZIP) regulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell migration, and stress response. The aim of this study was to determine the regulatory role of LZIP in stress-induced hepatic steatosis. We used a microarray analysis to identify LZIP-induced genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. LZIP increased the expression of apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4) mRNA. In the presence of stress inducer, APOA4 promoter analysis was performed and LZIP-induced lipid accumulation was monitored in mouse primary cells and human tissues. Under Golgi stress conditions, LZIP underwent proteolytic cleavage and was phosphorylated by AKT to protect against proteasome degradation. The stabilized N-terminal LZIP was translocated to the nucleus, where it directly bound to the APOA4 promoter, leading to APOA4 induction. LZIP-induced APOA4 expression resulted in increased absorption of surrounding free fatty acids. LZIP also promoted hepatic steatosis in mouse liver. Both LZIP and APOA4 were highly expressed in human steatosis samples. Our findings indicate that LZIP is a novel modulator of APOA4 expression and hepatic lipid metabolism. LZIP might be a therapeutic target for developing treatment strategies for hepatic steatosis and related metabolic diseases.-Kang, M., Kim, J., An, H.-T., Ko, J. Human leucine zipper protein promotes hepatic steatosis via induction of apolipoprotein A-IV.

  6. Hemagglutinin glycosylation modulates the pathogenicity and antigenicity of the H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Sujuan; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Kai; Huang, Jun; Yang, Da; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhu, Yinbiao; Shi, Shaohua; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-02-25

    The location and number of glycosylation in HA proteins exhibit large variations among H5 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To investigate the effect of glycosylation in the globular head of HA on the pathogenicity and antigenicity of H5N1 AIVs, seven rescued AIVs differing in their glycosylation patterns (144N, 158N and 169N) within the HA globular head of A/Mallard/Huadong/S/2005 were generated using site directed mutagenesis. Results showed that loss of glycosylation 158N was the prerequisite for H5 AIV binding to the α2,6-linked receptor. Only in conjunction with the removal of the 158N glycosylation, the H5 AIVs harboring both 144N and 169N glycosylations obtained an optimal binding preference to the α2,6-linked receptor. Compared with the wild-type virus, growth of viruses lacking glycosylation at either 158N or 169N was significantly reduced both in MDCK and A549 cells, while replication of viruses with additional glycosylation 144N was significantly promoted. Mutant viruses with loss of 158N or 169N glycosylation sites showed increased pathogenicity, systemic spread and pulmonary inflammation in mice compared to the wild-type H5N1 virus. In addition, chicken studies demonstrated that inactivated de-glycosylation 169N mutant induced cross-reaction HI and neutralization antibody against various clades of H5N1 AIVs. Moreover, this type of glycan pattern vaccine virus provided better cross-protection in chickens compared to wild-type vaccine virus. Thus, the glycosylation alteration of HA should be considered in the global surveillance and vaccine design of H5 subtype AIVs.

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola Ebola Virus Ecology and Transmission About Ebola Signs and Symptoms Symptoms ... Resources Videos Audio Infographics & Illustrations Factsheets Posters Virus Ecology Graphic Language: English Español Français File ...

  8. Evidence for genetic variation of Eurasian avian influenza viruses of subtype H15: the first report of an H15N7 virus.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Starick, Elke; Fereidouni, Sasan

    2016-03-01

    Since the first detection of H15 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in Australia in 1979, only seven H15 strains have been reported. A new H15 AIV was detected in Ukraine in 2010, carrying the unique HA-NA subtype combination H15N7. This virus replicated efficiently in chicken eggs, and antisera against it reacted strongly with the homologous antigen, but with lower titers when using the reference Australian antigen. The amino acid motifs of the HA cleavage site and receptor-binding site were different from those in the Australian viruses. The new virus, together with an H15 virus from Siberia from 2008, constitutes a new clade of H15 AIV isolates.

  9. Apo AIV and Citrulline Plasma Concentrations in Short Bowel Syndrome Patients: The Influence of Short Bowel Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Targarona, Jordi; Ruiz, Jorge; García, Natalia; Oró, Denise; García-Villoria, Judit; Creus, Gloria; Pita, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients is linked to the functionality of the remnant small bowel (RSB). Patients may wean off PN following a period of intestinal adaptation that restores this functionality. Currently, plasma citrulline is the standard biomarker for monitoring intestinal functionality and adaptation. However, available studies reveal that the relationship the biomarker with the length and function of the RSB is arguable. Thus, having additional biomarkers would improve pointing out PN weaning. Aim By measuring concomitant changes in citrulline and the novel biomarker apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV), as well as taking into account the anatomy of the RSB, this exploratory study aims to a better understanding of the intestinal adaptation process and characterization of the SBS patients under PN. Methods Thirty four adult SBS patients were selected and assigned to adapted (aSBS) and non-adapted (nSBS) groups after reconstructive surgeries. Remaining jejunum and ileum lengths were recorded. The aSBS patients were either on an oral diet (ORAL group), those with intestinal insufficiency, or on oral and home parenteral nutrition (HPN group), those with chronic intestinal failure. Apo AIV and citrulline were analyzed in plasma samples after overnight fasting. An exploratory ROC analysis using citrulline as gold standard was performed. Results Biomarkers, Apo AIV and citrulline showed a significant correlation with RSBL in aSBS patients. In jejuno-ileocolic patients, only Apo AIV correlated with RSBL (rb = 0.54) and with ileum length (rb = 0.84). In patients without ileum neither biomarker showed any correlation with RSBL. ROC analysis indicated the Apo AIV cut-off value to be 4.6 mg /100 mL for differentiating between the aSBS HPN and ORAL groups. Conclusions Therefore, in addition to citrulline, Apo AIV can be set as a biomarker to monitor intestinal adaptation in SBS patients. As short bowel anatomy is shown

  10. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage.

  11. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Renata; Fabrizio, Thomas; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America. PMID:26689791

  13. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Renata; Fabrizio, Thomas; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America.

  14. AIS ASM Operational Integration Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    River , WA; and the future Vessel Traffic Service systems being developed under PAWSS. Interfacing the AIS Transmit architecture with agencies that...provides accurate real-time information such as water levels, currents, and other oceanographic and meteorological data. The USACE provide river lock...information and river level and current data on the Inland Waterways. AIS ASM Operational Integration Plan viii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC

  15. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  16. Construction of a recombinant duck enteritis virus vaccine expressing hemagglutinin of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluation of its efficacy in ducks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Yang, Chenghuai; Li, Junping; Li, Ling; Cao, Minghui; Li, Qihong; Li, Huijiao

    2017-01-01

    H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination. One-step growth analyses showed that the HA gene insertion had no effect on viral replication and suggested that the UL2 gene was nonessential for virus growth in vitro. In vivo tests further showed that the insertion of the HA gene in place of the UL2 gene did not affect the immunogenicity of the virus. Moreover, a single dose of 10(3) TCID50 of rDEV-∆UL2-HA induced solid protection against lethal DEV challenge and completely prevented H9N2 AIV viral shedding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a DEV-vectored vaccine providing robust protection against both DEV and H9N2 AIV virus infections in ducks.

  17. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Pearce, John M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J. Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0.2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3.9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (> 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn.

  18. Sparse serological evidence of H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in domestic cats, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingshuang; Zhou, Pei; He, Shuyi; Luo, Yongfeng; Jia, Kun; Fu, Cheng; Sun, Yao; He, Huamei; Tu, Liqing; Ning, Zhangyong; Yuan, Ziguo; Wang, Heng; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Liguo

    2015-05-01

    Today the cross-species transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a great concern. A number of AIV strains are now enzootic among poultry, with H9N2 and highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV strains prevalent in China. H5N1 strains have been recognized to infect zoo and domestic feline species. In this serological study we sought to examine evidence that H5N1 strains have infected domestic cats in northeastern China. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional serological study of 916 healthy cats in Heilongjian, Jilin, and Liaonin Provinces. Sera were screened with a hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay and seropositive specimens (HI ≥ 1:20) were further evaluated with a microneutralization (MN) assay against a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 AIV, a H9N2 AIV, A (H1N1)pdm09, and a canine H3N2 virus. While ∼2% of cats had elevated HI assays against H5N1, no elevations were confirmed (MN ≥ 1:80). These data serve as baseline for future surveillance for AIV infections among domestic cats. Conducting such surveillance seems important for geographical areas recognized as endemic for AIVs. This is especially true for countries such as China where domestic cats and poultry are often in close contact.

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the “harmful” internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs. PMID:26973600

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the "harmful" internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs.

  1. Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds of the Pacific Flyway, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Siembieda, Jennifer L.; Cardona, Carol; Anchell, Nichole; Dao, Nguyet; Reisen, William; Boyce, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. We investigated the prevalence and distribution of AIVs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in North America along the Pacific flyway, which is a major north–south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in Alaska providing opportunities for mixing of Eurasian and American origin influenza viruses. Overall, the prevalence of AIVs was low (1%) among the wide range of avian species tested, but we detected AIVs in 69 hunter-harvested waterfowl (Anseriformes) sampled at a national wildlife refuge in California from October 2007 to January 2008. A wide range of subtypes were detected in waterfowl with H6N1, H10N7, H7N3, and H3N5 being the most common. We suspect H6N1 was introduced or remerged in 2007 at this key wintering site for waterfowl along the Pacific Flyway. Over a 3-week period, 13 H6N1 AIVs were isolated from two northern pintails (Anas acuta), three northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), three ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris), four American widgeon (Anas americana), and one gadwall (Anas strepera). We conclude that a diverse array of AIVs was present and that cross-species transmission was occurring among waterfowl in the central valley wetlands of California. PMID:20059316

  2. Apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits AgRP/NPY neurons and activates POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in the brain potently suppresses food intake. However the mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic effects remain to be identified. We first examined the effects of apoA-IV on cellular activities in hypothalamic neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and ne...

  3. EGSE customization for the Euclid NISP Instrument AIV/AIT activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschi, E.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Conforti, V.; Andersen, J. J.; Stephen, J. B.; Valenziano, L.; Auricchio, N.; Bulgarelli, A.; De Rosa, A.; Fioretti, V.; Maiorano, E.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Sortino, F.; Zoli, A.; Balestra, A.; Bonino, D.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Capobianco, V.; Corcione, L.; Dal Corso, F.; Debei, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Dusini, S.; Farinelli, R.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Guizzo, G. P.; Laudisio, F.; Ligori, S.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.; Valieri, C.; Ventura, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration by using various test equipment. The Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and calibration activities at instrument level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP instrument is mounted on the spacecraft. In the case of the Euclid mission this EGSE will be provided by ESA to NISP team, in the HW/SW framework called "CCS Lite", with a possible first usage already during the Warm Electronics (WE) AIV/AIT activities. In this paper we discuss how we will customize that "CCS Lite" as required to support both the WE and Instrument test activities. This customization will primarily involve building the NISP Mission Information Base (the CCS MIB tables) by gathering the relevant data from the instrument sub-units and validating these inputs through specific tools. Secondarily, it will imply developing a suitable set of test sequences, by using uTOPE (an extension to the TCL scripting language, included in the CCS framework), in order to implement the foreseen test procedures. In addition and in parallel, custom interfaces shall be set up between the CCS and the NI-IWS (the NISP Instrument Workstation, which will be in use at any level starting from the WE activities), and also between the CCS and the TCC (the Telescope Control and command Computer, to be only and specifically used during the instrument level tests).

  4. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  5. Genetic analysis of H3N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dequan; Liu, Jian; Ju, Houbin; Ge, Feifei; Wang, Jian; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jinping; Liu, Peihong

    2015-08-01

    Five H3N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from live poultry markets (LPMs) and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013. All viruses were characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent genetic comparison and phylogenetic analysis. The hemagglutinin cleavage site of all viruses indicated that the five strains were low-pathogenic AIVs. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the five H3N2 viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza viruses. The eight genes showed evidence of reassortment events between these H3 subtype viruses and other subtype viruses, especially H5 and H7 subtypes, probably in pigeons, domestic ducks, and wild birds. These findings emphasized the importance of AIV surveillance in LPMs and poultry slaughterhouses for understanding the genesis and emergence of novel reassortants with pandemic potential.

  6. Molecular detection of avian influenza virus but not West Nile virus in wild birds in northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, H; Ozan, E

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a total of 402 samples (173 cloacal swab samples, 169 tracheal swab samples and 60 organ pools including the lung, spleen, liver, trachea and brain) obtained from 27 different wild avian species from Kizilirmak delta and the adjacent wetlands in northern Turkey were surveyed for the presence of RNA from Avian influenza virus (AIV) and West Nile virus (WNV) by Taqman-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. No WNV genomic RNA was detected in any sample. In contrast, AIV RNA was found in two of 402 samples (0.49%).

  7. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    PubMed

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions.

  8. Hepatitis B virus infection in isolated Afro-Brazilian communities.

    PubMed

    Motta-Castro, Ana R C; Martins, Regina M B; Yoshida, Clara F T; Teles, Sheila A; Paniago, Anamaria M; Lima, Kátia M B; Gomes, Selma A

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence and genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have distinct geographical distribution. In Brazil, some African-descendants have been maintained as small isolated communities since the slavery period. In this study, HBV infection among these communities of African origin was examined. Individuals (1,058) living in 12 communities were interviewed and serum samples screened for the presence of HBV markers. HBsAg-positive sera were tested for HBV DNA by PCR and positive samples were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.5-22.3), ranging from 5.5% to 42.4%, depending on the communities studied. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that increasing age, family history of hepatitis, and sexual activity were associated significantly with this infection. HBsAg was detected in 23/1,058 (2.2%) individuals. HBV DNA was present in 2/2 of HBeAg-positive serum samples and in 18/21 (85.7%) anti-HBe-positive samples. All HBV isolates belonged to genotype A, subtype Aa. Three RFLP patterns were identified: AI (17 isolates), AIV (1 isolate), and AVI (2 isolates). These findings suggest a common introduction of HBV during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  9. Development of a duplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of antibody responses to influenza A and newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Pinette, Mathieu M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan C; Pasick, John; Ojkic, Davor; Leith, Marsha; Suderman, Matthew; Berhane, Yohannes

    2014-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) cause serious illnesses in domestic poultry, both of which are reportable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) and APMV-1 infections are difficult to differentiate, emphasizing the importance of rapid and sensitive serologic assays that are able to distinguish them. Currently, a variety of serological assays are used for the serologic diagnosis of both diseases, but these assays are not used in multiplex formats. In this study, development of a duplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) based on Luminex xMAP Technology is described. The assay employs MagPlex magnetic microspheres that are covalently coated with recombinant avian influenza virus nucleoprotein and APMV-1 nucleocapsid antigens produced in a baculovirus insect cell expression system. The assay is able to detect AIV antibodies against all existing hemagglutinin (H1-H16) subtypes and simultaneously detect antibodies against APMV-1. In the process of this assay development different bead coupling conditions were compared. The assay has the capability of detecting serum antibodies from chickens and turkeys and optimization was accomplished by using 2462 chicken and 446 turkey field and experimental sera and had a comparable detection capability with currently used assays in the laboratory. Assay threshold values were calculated with Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis (ROC) in non-parametric analysis due to a highly skewed data distribution; this analysis resulted in AIV nucleoprotein relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99.7%, and 97.3% respectively. The APMV-1 nucleocapsid relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95.4%, and 98.5% respectively.

  10. Frequent inter-species transmission and geographic subdivision in avian influenza viruses from wild birds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rubing; Holmes, Edward C

    2009-01-05

    Revealing the factors that shape the genetic structure of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild bird populations is essential to understanding their evolution. However, the relationship between epidemiological dynamics and patterns of genetic diversity in AIV is not well understood, especially at the continental scale. To address this question, we undertook a phylogeographic analysis of complete genome sequences of AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. In particular, we asked whether host species, geographic location or sampling time played the major role in shaping patterns of viral genetic diversity. Strikingly, our analysis revealed no strong species effect, yet a significant viral clustering by time and place of sampling, as well as the circulation of multiple viral lineages in single locations. These results suggest that AIVs can readily infect many of the bird species that share breeding/feeding areas.

  11. CASCADE: Introducing AI into CBT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendley, R. J.; Jurascheck, N.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses changes in training requirements of commerce and industry in the United Kingdom and describes a project, CASCADE, that was developed to investigate and implement the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques into computer-based training (CBT). An overview of pilot projects in higher education settings is provided. (eight…

  12. A SPR Aptasensor for Detection of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Wang, Ronghui; Hargis, Billy; Lu, Huaguang; Li, Yanbin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) is urgently needed due to the concerns over the potential outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in animals and humans. Aptamers are artificial oligonucleic acids that can bind specific target molecules, and show comparable affinity for target viruses and better thermal stability than monoclonal antibodies. The objective of this research was to use a DNA-aptamer as the specific recognition element in a portable Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor for rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in poultry swab samples. A SPR biosensor was fabricated using selected aptamers that were biotinylated and then immobilized on the sensor gold surface coated with streptavidin via streptavidin-biotin binding. The immobilized aptamers captured AIV H5N1 in a sample solution, which caused an increase in the refraction index (RI). After optimizing the streptavidin and aptamer parameters, the results showed that the RI value was linearly related (R2 = 0.99) to the concentration of AIV in the range of 0.128 to 1.28 HAU. Negligible signal (<4% of H5N1) was observed from six non-target AIV subtypes. The AIV H5N1 in poultry swab samples with concentrations of 0.128 to 12.8 HAU could be detected using this aptasensor in 1.5 h. PMID:23112728

  13. A SPR aptasensor for detection of avian influenza virus H5N1.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua; Wang, Ronghui; Hargis, Billy; Lu, Huaguang; Li, Yanbin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) is urgently needed due to the concerns over the potential outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in animals and humans. Aptamers are artificial oligonucleic acids that can bind specific target molecules, and show comparable affinity for target viruses and better thermal stability than monoclonal antibodies. The objective of this research was to use a DNA-aptamer as the specific recognition element in a portable Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor for rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in poultry swab samples. A SPR biosensor was fabricated using selected aptamers that were biotinylated and then immobilized on the sensor gold surface coated with streptavidin via streptavidin-biotin binding. The immobilized aptamers captured AIV H5N1 in a sample solution, which caused an increase in the refraction index (RI). After optimizing the streptavidin and aptamer parameters, the results showed that the RI value was linearly related (R(2) = 0.99) to the concentration of AIV in the range of 0.128 to 1.28 HAU. Negligible signal (<4% of H5N1) was observed from six non-target AIV subtypes. The AIV H5N1 in poultry swab samples with concentrations of 0.128 to 12.8 HAU could be detected using this aptasensor in 1.5 h.

  14. Primary survey of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus infection in wild birds in some areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yu-Ping; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Si-Yuan; Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Sun, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Two hundred thirty specimens of wild birds were collected from some areas in Heilongjiang Province during the period of 2003-2004, including two batches of specimens collected randomly from a same flock of mallards in Zhalong Natural Reserve in August and December, 2004, respectively. Primary virus isolation and identification for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were performed. The results showed that only two specimens of young mallards collected from Zhalong Natural Reserve in August, 2004 were positive to AIV (isolation rate 0.9%), and one strain (D57) of these two virus isolates was identified to be H9 subtype by hemagglutination inhibition test. Meanwhile, the two batches of blood serum samples of mallards from Zhalong were also examined for antibodies against AIV and NDV. Among 38 blood serum samples collected in August, antibodies against the hemagglutinin of H1, H3, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes of AIV were found in 1, 0, 2, 0 and 8 samples, respectively; and 11 samples were found with antibody against NDV. Whereas the NDV isolation in both two batches of specimens of mallard was negative, all of the 32 blood serum samples collected in December were negative for antibodies against AIV and NDV.

  15. Evaluation of field and laboratory protocols used to detect avian influenza viruses in wild aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Hepp, G R

    2009-09-01

    Careful selection and observance of standard field and laboratory protocols are critical for successful detection and characterization of avian influenza viruses (AIV) from wild birds. Cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-killed or nesting waterfowl and shorebirds from wildlife refuges in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida during 2006 to 2008. Swab samples were inoculated into embryonated eggs followed by hemagglutination (HA) test to determine the presence of hemagglutinating agents. Antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RRT-PCR) were used to detect AIV from both allantoic fluids (AF) and swab specimens of HA-positive samples. Hemagglutination inhibition test was used to detect Newcastle disease virus, another hemagglutinating virus common in wild birds. The HA-positive AF were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for subtyping of the isolates. Out of 825 samples tested, 19 AIV and 3 avian paramyxovirus subtypes were identified by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. Without egg passage, AC-ELISA did not detect virus, whereas matrix gene of 13 AIV were detected using RRT-PCR. When testing was done on AF, 14 were positive for influenza A by AC-ELISA and 20 by RRT-PCR. Antigen capture-ELISA did not detect influenza A when the HA titer was lower than 125, whereas RRT-PCR detected AIV from AF with HA titer as low as 4. The highest isolation rate was from Florida, where out of 109 samples analyzed, 14 AIV were detected by RRT-PCR from AF. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was more sensitive, specific, and cost-effective than AC-ELISA. However, to avoid false-negative results, testing should be performed on AF and not directly from cloacal swabs. Our procedures to detect AIV directly from cloacal swabs need further optimization for improved sensitivity.

  16. The AIV quick look and health monitoring system of the AGILE payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo; Di Cocco, Guido; Tavani, Marco; Marisaldi, Martino

    2008-07-01

    AGILE is an ASI (Italian Space Agency) Small Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics which was launched on April 23 2007 from Satish Dawan Space Centre, India) on a PSLV-C8 rocket. The AGILE Payload is composed of three instruments: a Tungsten-Silicon Tracker designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band, an X-ray imager called SuperAGILE that works in the 18-60 keV energy band, and a Minicalorimeter that detects gamma-rays or particle energy deposits between 300~keV and 200~MeV. The instrument is surrounded by an anti-coincidence (AC) system. We have developed a set of Quick Look software tools in the framework of the Test Equipment (TE) and the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE. This s/w is required in order to support all the assembly, integration and verification (AIV) activities to be carried out for the AGILE mission, from data handling unit level to payload integrated level, calibration campaign, launch campaign and in-orbit commissioning. These software tools have enabled us to test the engineering performance and to perform a health check of the Payload during the various phases. We have used an incremental development approach and a common framework to rapidly adapt our software to the different requirements of the various phases.

  17. Cross-protective efficacy of dendritic cells targeting conserved influenza virus antigen expressed by Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Gui-Lian; Jiang, Yan-Long; Zhao, Liang; Li, Yu; Wang, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect birds and mammals, including humans, and are thus a serious threat to public health. Vaccination is vital for controlling AIV circulation. In this study, we generated a recombinant lactobacillus expressing the NP-M1-DCpep of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluated the activation effect of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep on dendritic cells (DCs) in a mouse model. The specific mucosal antibody responses and B and T cell responses in lymphoid tissues were also characterized. Importantly, we confirmed that specific CD8 T cells presented in vitro and antigen-specific cytotoxicity (activated the expression of CD107a) and in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxicity after vaccination. The adoptive transfer of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep-primed CD8+ T cells into NOD-SCID mice resulted in effective protection against mouse-adapted AIV infection. In addition, we observed protection in immunized mice challenged with mouse-adapted H9N2 AIV and H1N1 influenza virus, as evidenced by reductions in the lung virus titers, improvements in lung pathology, and weight loss and complete survival. Our data are promising for the generation of effective, non-traditional influenza vaccines against AIVs. PMID:28004787

  18. Comparison of cloacal and oropharyngeal samples for the detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Naresh; de Abin, Martha; Primus, Alexander E; Raju, Subathra; Chander, Yogesh; Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-03-01

    This study was conducted to compare oropharyngeal (OP) and cloacal samples of wild birds (n = 137) for the detection and isolation of avian influenza virus (AIV). A total of 39 (28.5%) cloacal and 85 (62.0%) OP samples were positive for AIV by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RRT-PCR). The AIV nucleic acid was detected in both cloacal and OP samples from 27 (19.7%) birds, in cloacal samples only from 12 (8.8%) birds, and in OP samples only from 58 (42.3%) birds. Thus, a total of 97 (70.8%) birds were AIV positive by RRT-PCR. The cycle threshold values for the cloacal samples ranged from 16.6 to 36.9 (mean 31.5), and those for OP samples ranged from 18 to 38.9 (mean 34.9). Of the cloacal samples, 12 were positive for H5 subtype influenza virus by RRT-PCR, with one being low pathogenic H5N1. In contrast, five of the OP samples were H5 positive, but none was H5N1. None of the cloacal or OP samples was H7 positive. Eight cloacal samples yielded AIV on inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs, while only one isolate was obtained from OP samples. Thus, from testing of 137 birds, only nine (6.6%) AIV isolates were obtained. The isolates from cloacal samples were subtyped as H6N1 (n = 5), H3N8 (n = 2), and H4N8 (n = 1), and the isolate from OP sample was subtyped as H6N1. No virus was isolated from the corresponding cloacal sample of the bird whose OP sample yielded AIV on virus isolation. These results suggest that surveillance programs for detection of AIV by RRT-PCR may include both sample types (cloacal and OP) to obtain a better picture of AIV prevalence, and OP samples may yield additional isolates of AIV when tested in conjunction with cloacal samples.

  19. AIS Investigation of Agricultural Monocultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired over an agricultural area in eastern San Joaquin County, California in July, 1984. Cover type information was subsequently collected for all fields along this flight line. The lack of detailed ground data on individual fields, however, limited AIS data analysis to a qualitative comparison of the spectral reflectance curves for a total of nine cover types. Based on this analysis, it appears that cover types with a positive slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region have a higher spectral response in the 1200 to 1300 nm region compared to those cover types with a negative slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region. Within cover type, spectral variability was also found to be greater than that between cover types. Given the lack of additional field data, the reason for these differences is a matter of speculation.

  20. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  1. Insight into live bird markets of Bangladesh: an overview of the dynamics of transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jasmine C M; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Hasan, M Kamrul; Akhtar, Sharmin; Walker, David; Seiler, Patrick; Barman, Subrata; Franks, John; Jones-Engel, Lisa; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi; Webster, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been recognized as threats to public health in Bangladesh since 2007. Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been implicated in the transmission, dissemination, and circulation of these viruses, an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of avian transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses at the human-animal interface has been lacking. Here we present and evaluate epidemiological findings from active surveillance conducted among poultry in various production sectors in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2016. Overall, the prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in collected samples was 24%. Our data show that AIVs are more prevalent in domestic birds within LBMs (30.4%) than in farms (9.6%). Quail, chickens and ducks showed a high prevalence of AIVs (>20%). The vast majority of AIVs detected (99.7%) have come from apparently healthy birds and poultry drinking water served as a reservoir of AIVs with a prevalence of 32.5% in collected samples. HPAI H5N1 was more frequently detected in ducks while H9N2 was more common in chickens and quail. LBMs, particularly wholesale markets, have become a potential reservoir for various types of AIVs, including HPAI H5N1 and LPAI H9N2. The persistence of AIVs in LBMs is of great concern to public health, and this study highlights the importance of regularly reviewing and implementing infection control procedures as a means of reducing the exposure of the general public to AIVs.Emerging Microbes & Infections (2017) 6, e12; doi:10.1038/emi.2016.142; published online 8 March 2017.

  2. Isolation and identification of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from emus from the Ein Gedi oasis by the Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Amnon, Inbar; Shkoda, Irina; Lapin, Ekaterina; Raibstein, Israel; Rosenbluth, Ezra; Nagar, Sagit; Perk, Shimon; Bellaiche, Michel; Davidson, Irit

    2011-09-01

    An avian influenza virus (AIV), A/Emu/Israel/552/2010/(H5N1), was isolated from a dead emu that was found in the Ein Gedi oasis near the Dead Sea. The virus molecular characterization was performed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR using AIV subtype-specific primers. The virus was of high pathogenicity, according to its intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.85 and the nucleotide sequencing at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin gene, GERRRKKR, which is typical for highly pathogenic chicken influenza A viruses.

  3. [Epidemics of conjunctivitis caused by avian influenza virus and molecular basis for its ocular tropism].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Jin, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused several outbreaks in humans, leading to disasters to human beings. The outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza in China in 2003 re-attracted our close attention to this disease. More and more evidences demonstrated that eye is one of invasion portals of AIV, leading to conjunctivitis. The current studies showed that only subtypes H7 and H5 could cause severe systemic infections. Abundant distribution of α-2, 3 siliac acid receptor in conjunctiva and cornea as well as specific activiation of NF-κB signal transduction pathway by subtype H7 virus may contribute to the ocular tropism of the virus. These studies suggest that avian influenza conjunctivitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis during influenza epidemic seasons, and eyes should be well protected for disease control personnel when handling avian influenza epidemics. This review focused on AIV conjunctivitis and the molecular basis of ocular tropism.

  4. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their occupying ecosystem, agricultural production system, or other anthropocentric niches. AIVs or evidence of their infection have been detected...

  5. Detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease virus and influenza virus by using duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nidzworski, Dawid; Wasilewska, Edyta; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Minta, Zenon

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family and avian influenza virus (AIV), member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, are two main avian pathogens causing serious economic problems in poultry health. Both are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and cause similar symptoms, ranging from sub-clinical infections to severe diseases, including decrease in egg production, acute respiratory syndrome, and high mortality. Similar symptoms hinder the differentiation of infection with the two viruses by standard veterinary procedures like clinical examination or necropsy. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new duplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of these two viruses. Eighteen NDV strains, fourteen AIV strains, and twelve other (negative control) strains viruses were isolated from allantoic fluids of specific pathogen-free (SPF), embryonated eggs. Four-weeks-old SPF chickens were co-infected with both viruses (NDV - LaSota and AIV - H7N1). Swabs from cloaca and trachea were collected and examined. The results obtained in this study show that by using duplex real-time PCR, it was possible to detect and distinguish both viruses within less than three hours and with high sensitivity, even in case a bird was co-infected. Additionally, the results show the applicability of the real-time PCR assay in laboratory practice for the identification and differentiation of Newcastle disease and influenza A viruses in birds.

  6. CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph cooling system AIV: thermo-mechanical performance of the instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, S.; Mirabet, E.; Lizon, J. L.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, C.; Ferro, I.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Ramón, A.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Seifert, W.; Herranz, J.

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES is the new high-resolution high-stability spectrograph built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA, Almería, Spain) by a consortium formed by German and Spanish institutions. This instrument is composed by two separated spectrographs: VIS channel (550-1050 nm) and NIR channel (950- 1700 nm). The NIR-channel spectrograph's responsible is the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAACSIC). It has been manufactured, assembled, integrated and verified in the last two years, delivered in fall 2015 and commissioned in December 2015. One of the most challenging systems in this cryogenic channel involves the Cooling System. Due to the highly demanding requirements applicable in terms of stability, this system arises as one of the core systems to provide outstanding stability to the channel. Really at the edge of the state-of-the-art, the Cooling System is able to provide to the cold mass ( 1 Ton) better thermal stability than few hundredths of degree within 24 hours (goal: 0.01K/day). The present paper describes the Assembly, Integration and Verification phase (AIV) of the CARMENES-NIR channel Cooling System implemented at IAA-CSIC and later installation at CAHA 3.5m Telescope, thus the most relevant highlights being shown in terms of thermal performance. The CARMENES NIR-channel Cooling System has been implemented by the IAA-CSIC through very fruitful collaboration and involvement of the ESO (European Southern Observatory) cryo-vacuum department with Jean-Louis Lizon as its head and main collaborator. The present work sets an important trend in terms of cryogenic systems for future E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) large-dimensioned instrumentation in astrophysics.

  7. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy restores glucose homeostasis in apolipoprotein A-IV KO mice.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Josh W; Haller, April; Sorrell, Joyce; Wang, Fei; Seeley, Randy J; Tso, Patrick; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2015-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most successful strategy for treating obesity, yet the mechanisms for this success are not clearly understood. Clinical literature suggests that plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) rise with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). apoA-IV is secreted from the intestine postprandially and has demonstrated benefits for both glucose and lipid homeostasis. Because of the parallels in the metabolic improvements seen with surgery and the rise in apoA-IV levels, we hypothesized that apoA-IV was necessary for obtaining the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery. To test this hypothesis, we performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a surgery with clinical efficacy very similar to that for RYGB, in whole-body apoA-IV knockout (KO) mice. We found that VSG reduced body mass and improved both glucose and lipid homeostasis similarly in wild-type mice compared with apoA-IV KO mice. In fact, VSG normalized the impairment in glucose tolerance and caused a significantly greater improvement in hepatic triglyceride storage in the apoA-IV KO mice. Last, independent of surgery, apoA-IV KO mice had a significantly reduced preference for a high-fat diet. Altogether, these data suggest that apoA-IV is not necessary for the metabolic improvements shown with VSG, but also suggest an interesting role for apoA-IV in regulating macronutrient preference and hepatic triglyceride levels. Future studies are necessary to determine whether this is the case for RYGB as well.

  8. Characterization of low pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low pathogenic H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 ...

  9. Presence of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and wetlands during summer 2010 in California: Are resident birds a potential reservoir?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henaux, V.; Samuel, M.D.; Dusek, R.J.; Fleskes, J.P.; Ip, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Although wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv), the environment plays a critical role for the circulation and persistence of AIv. LPAIv may persist for extended periods in cold environments, suggesting that waterfowl breeding areas in the northern hemisphere may be an important reservoir for AIv in contrast to the warmer southern wintering areas. We evaluated whether southern wetlands, with relatively small populations (thousands) of resident waterfowl, maintain AIv in the summer, prior to the arrival of millions of migratory birds. We collected water and fecal samples at ten wetlands in two regions (Yolo Bypass and Sacramento Valley) of the California Central Valley during three bi-weekly intervals beginning in late July, 2010. We detected AIv in 29/367 fecal samples (7.9%) and 12/597 water samples (2.0%) by matrix real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). We isolated two H3N8, two H2N3, and one H4N8 among rRT-PCR positive fecal samples but no live virus from water samples. Detection of AIv RNA in fecal samples was higher from wetlands in the Sacramento Valley (11.9%) than in the Yolo Bypass (0.0%), but no difference was found for water samples (2.7 vs. 1.7%, respectively). Our study showed that low densities of hosts and unfavorable environmental conditions did not prevent LPAIv circulation during summer in California wetlands. Our findings justify further investigations to understand AIv dynamics in resident waterfowl populations, compare AIv subtypes between migratory and resident waterfowl, and assess the importance of local AIv as a source of infection for migratory birds.

  10. Influenza a virus migration and persistence in North American wild birds.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Justin; Krauss, Scott; Kühnert, Denise; Fourment, Mathieu; Raven, Garnet; Pryor, S Paul; Niles, Lawrence J; Danner, Angela; Walker, David; Mendenhall, Ian H; Su, Yvonne C F; Dugan, Vivien G; Halpin, Rebecca A; Stockwell, Timothy B; Webby, Richard J; Wentworth, David E; Drummond, Alexei J; Smith, Gavin J D; Webster, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV) samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  11. Genetic analysis of avian influenza virus from wild birds and mallards reared for shooting in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Kurt Jensen; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2010-03-01

    Denmark forms a geographical bottleneck along the migration route of many water birds breeding from northeastern Canada to north Siberia that gather to winter in Europe and Africa. Potentially, the concentration of such large numbers of water birds enhances the risk of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction to domestic poultry. In 2003, Denmark initiated a nationwide survey of AIV in wild birds and mallards reared for shooting. Partial sequence analysis of the six internal genes from a total of 12 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates obtained in 2003 showed that genes from these viruses were closely related with genes from AIV circulating in northern Europe. For the Danish sequences only the PB2 and NS genes differ, so they cluster to more than one cluster in the phylogenetic trees. In spring 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 was detected in 44 cases of wild birds in Denmark. Sequence analysis of the HP H5N1 virus genome showed that it was not related to the LPAIV isolated previously, but closely related to the HPAIV H5 (Asian type) detected in the rest of Europe at that time. Even though only partial sequences were applied, this gave the idea for future full-length sequence studies.

  12. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976–2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971–2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry. PMID:26858078

  13. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A; Cunningham, Fred L; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-02-09

    Subtype H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976-2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971-2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry.

  14. Mapping AIS coverage for trusted surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Isenor, Anthony W.

    2010-10-01

    Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an unattended vessel reporting system developed for collision avoidance. Shipboard AIS equipment automatically broadcasts vessel positional data at regular intervals. The real-time position and identity data from a vessel is received by other vessels in the area thereby assisting with local navigation. As well, AIS broadcasts are beneficial to those concerned with coastal and harbour security. Land-based AIS receiving stations can also collect the AIS broadcasts. However, reception at the land station is dependent upon the ship's position relative to the receiving station. For AIS to be used as a trusted surveillance system, the characteristics of the AIS coverage area in the vicinity of the station (or stations) should be understood. This paper presents some results of a method being investigated at DRDC Atlantic, Canada) to map the AIS coverage characteristics of a dynamic AIS reception network. The method is shown to clearly distinguish AIS reception edges from those edges caused by vessel traffic patterns. The method can also be used to identify temporal changes in the coverage area, an important characteristic for local maritime security surveillance activities. Future research using the coverage estimate technique is also proposed to support surveillance activities.

  15. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SUGURO, Atsushi; ISHIDA, Yuki; KAWAMURA, Akinobu; TAMURA, Miho; SATOH, Keisuke; TSUJIMURA, Misato; HASEGAWA, Tomomi; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  16. Delivery of an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine adjuvanted with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated CpG ODN induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-09-14

    In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in

  17. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay.

  18. Avian influenza a virus in wild birds in highly urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Josanne H; Munster, Vincent J; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Stumpel, Job B G; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Schutten, Martin; Slaterus, Roy; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses.

  19. Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Bluhm, Pedro; Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Cortez, Valerie; Marvin, Shauna A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as ‘hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans. PMID:27924808

  20. Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Bluhm, Pedro; Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Cortez, Valerie; Marvin, Shauna A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-12-07

    Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as 'hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans.

  1. A genome-wide association meta-analysis on apolipoprotein A-IV concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lamina, Claudia; Friedel, Salome; Coassin, Stefan; Rueedi, Rico; Yousri, Noha A; Seppälä, Ilkka; Gieger, Christian; Schönherr, Sebastian; Forer, Lukas; Erhart, Gertraud; Kollerits, Barbara; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Ried, Janina; Waeber, Gerard; Bergmann, Sven; Dähnhardt, Doreen; Stöckl, Andrea; Kiechl, Stefan; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika; Willeit, Johann; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Paulweber, Bernhard; Peters, Annette; Meitinger, Thomas; Strauch, Konstantin; Study Group, Kora; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hunt, Steven C; Vollenweider, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-08-15

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a major component of HDL and chylomicron particles and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. It is an early marker of impaired renal function. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with apoA-IV concentrations and to investigate relationships with known susceptibility loci for kidney function and lipids. A genome-wide association meta-analysis on apoA-IV concentrations was conducted in five population-based cohorts (n = 13,813) followed by two additional replication studies (n = 2,267) including approximately 10 M SNPs. Three independent SNPs from two genomic regions were significantly associated with apoA-IV concentrations: rs1729407 near APOA4 (P = 6.77 × 10 (-)  (44)), rs5104 in APOA4 (P = 1.79 × 10(-)(24)) and rs4241819 in KLKB1 (P = 5.6 × 10(-)(14)). Additionally, a look-up of the replicated SNPs in downloadable GWAS meta-analysis results was performed on kidney function (defined by eGFR), HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. From these three SNPs mentioned above, only rs1729407 showed an association with HDL-cholesterol (P = 7.1 × 10 (-)  (07)). Moreover, weighted SNP-scores were built involving known susceptibility loci for the aforementioned traits (53, 70 and 38 SNPs, respectively) and were associated with apoA-IV concentrations. This analysis revealed a significant and an inverse association for kidney function with apoA-IV concentrations (P = 5.5 × 10(-)(05)). Furthermore, an increase of triglyceride-increasing alleles was found to decrease apoA-IV concentrations (P = 0.0078). In summary, we identified two independent SNPs located in or next the APOA4 gene and one SNP in KLKB1 The association of KLKB1 with apoA-IV suggests an involvement of apoA-IV in renal metabolism and/or an interaction within HDL particles. Analyses of SNP-scores indicate potential causal effects of kidney function and by lesser extent triglycerides on apoA-IV concentrations.

  2. A genome-wide association meta-analysis on apolipoprotein A-IV concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Claudia; Friedel, Salome; Coassin, Stefan; Rueedi, Rico; Yousri, Noha A.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Gieger, Christian; Schönherr, Sebastian; Forer, Lukas; Erhart, Gertraud; Kollerits, Barbara; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Ried, Janina; Waeber, Gerard; Bergmann, Sven; Dähnhardt, Doreen; Stöckl, Andrea; Kiechl, Stefan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kähönen, Mika; Willeit, Johann; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Paulweber, Bernhard; Peters, Annette; Meitinger, Thomas; Strauch, Konstantin; Study Group, KORA; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hunt, Steven C.; Vollenweider, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a major component of HDL and chylomicron particles and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. It is an early marker of impaired renal function. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with apoA-IV concentrations and to investigate relationships with known susceptibility loci for kidney function and lipids. A genome-wide association meta-analysis on apoA-IV concentrations was conducted in five population-based cohorts (n = 13,813) followed by two additional replication studies (n = 2,267) including approximately 10 M SNPs. Three independent SNPs from two genomic regions were significantly associated with apoA-IV concentrations: rs1729407 near APOA4 (P = 6.77 × 10 − 44), rs5104 in APOA4 (P = 1.79 × 10−24) and rs4241819 in KLKB1 (P = 5.6 × 10−14). Additionally, a look-up of the replicated SNPs in downloadable GWAS meta-analysis results was performed on kidney function (defined by eGFR), HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. From these three SNPs mentioned above, only rs1729407 showed an association with HDL-cholesterol (P = 7.1 × 10 − 07). Moreover, weighted SNP-scores were built involving known susceptibility loci for the aforementioned traits (53, 70 and 38 SNPs, respectively) and were associated with apoA-IV concentrations. This analysis revealed a significant and an inverse association for kidney function with apoA-IV concentrations (P = 5.5 × 10−05). Furthermore, an increase of triglyceride-increasing alleles was found to decrease apoA-IV concentrations (P = 0.0078). In summary, we identified two independent SNPs located in or next the APOA4 gene and one SNP in KLKB1. The association of KLKB1 with apoA-IV suggests an involvement of apoA-IV in renal metabolism and/or an interaction within HDL particles. Analyses of SNP-scores indicate potential causal effects of kidney function and by lesser extent triglycerides on apoA-IV concentrations. PMID

  3. Genetics, Receptor Binding, Replication, and Mammalian Transmission of H4 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Live Poultry Markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Libin; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Gu, Chunyang; Guan, Yuntao; Suzuki, Yasuo; Li, Yanbing; Jiang, Yongping; Tian, Guobin; Liu, Liling

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT H4 avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in the world. However, whether H4 AIVs pose a threat to public health remains largely unclear. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships, receptor binding properties, replication, and transmissibility in mammals of H4 AIVs isolated from live poultry markets in China between 2009 and 2012. Genomic sequence analysis of 36 representative H4 viruses revealed 32 different genotypes, indicating that these viruses are undergoing complex and frequent reassortment events. All 32 viruses tested could replicate in the respiratory organs of infected mice without prior adaptation. Receptor binding analysis demonstrated that the H4 AIVs bound to α-2,6-linked glycans, although they retained the binding preference for α-2,3-linked glycans. When we tested the direct-contact transmission of 10 H4 viruses in guinea pigs, we found that three viruses did not transmit to any of the contact animals, one virus transmitted to one of three contact animals, and six viruses transmitted to all three contact animals. When we further tested the respiratory droplet transmissibility of four of the viruses that transmitted efficiently via direct contact, we found that three of them could transmit to one or two of the five exposed animals. Our study demonstrates that the current circulating H4 AIVs can infect, replicate in, and transmit to mammalian hosts, thereby posing a potential threat to human health. These findings emphasize the continual need for enhanced surveillance of H4 AIVs. IMPORTANCE Numerous surveillance studies have documented the wide distribution of H4 AIVs throughout the world, yet the biological properties of H4 viruses have not been well studied. In this study, we found that multiple genotypes of H4 viruses are cocirculating in the live poultry markets of China and that H4 viruses can replicate in mice, possess human-type receptor binding specificity, and transmit between

  4. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...September 2014 Report No. CD-D-09-15 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al. Public...States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild waterfowl, including ducks, represent the classic reservoir for low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and play a major role in the worldwide dissemination of AIV. AIVs belonging to the hemagglutinin (H) 7 subtype are of epidemiological and economic importance due to their potential to mutate into a highly pathogenic form of the virus. Thus far, however, relatively little work has been conducted on elucidating the host-pathogen interactions of ducks and H7 LPAIVs. In the current study, three H7 LPAIVs isolated from either chicken, duck, or turkey avian species were evaluated for their comparative effect on the transcriptional innate immune response of ducks. Results Three H7 LPAIV isolates, chicken-origin (A/chicken/Maryland/MinhMa/2004), duck-origin (A/pintail/Minnesota/423/1999), and turkey-origin (A/turkey/Virginia/SEP-67/2002) were used to infect Pekin ducks. At 3 days post-infection, RNA from spleen tissue was used for transcriptional analysis using the Avian Innate Immune Microarray (AIIM) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Microarray analysis revealed that a core set of 61 genes was differentially regulated in response to all three LPAIVs. Furthermore, we observed 101, 135, and 628 differentially expressed genes unique to infection with the chicken-, duck-, or turkey-origin LPAIV isolates, respectively. qRT-PCR results revealed significant (p<0.05) induction of IL-1β, IL-2, and IFNγ transcription, with the greatest induction observed upon infection with the chicken-origin isolate. Several key innate immune pathways were activated in response to LPAIV infection including the toll-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor pathways. Conclusions Pekin ducks elicit a unique innate immune response to different species-of-origin H7 LPAIV isolates. However, twelve identifiable genes and their associated cell signaling pathways (RIG-I, NOD, TLR) are differentially expressed regardless of isolate origin. This core set of genes are

  6. Chicken cells sense influenza A virus infection through MDA5 and CARDIF signaling involving LGP2.

    PubMed

    Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Zimmer, Gert; McCullough, Kenneth C; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) raise worldwide veterinary and public health concerns due to their potential for zoonotic transmission. While infection with highly pathogenic AIV results in high mortality in chickens, this is not necessarily the case in wild birds and ducks. It is known that innate immune factors can contribute to the outcome of infection. In this context, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is the main cytosolic pattern recognition receptor known for detecting influenza A virus infection in mammalian cells. Chickens, unlike ducks, lack RIG-I, yet chicken cells do produce type I interferon (IFN) in response to AIV infection. Consequently, we sought to identify the cytosolic recognition elements in chicken cells. Chicken mRNA encoding the putative chicken analogs of CARDIF and LGP2 (chCARDIF and chLGP2, respectively) were identified. HT7-tagged chCARDIF was observed to associate with mitochondria in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts. The exogenous expression of chCARDIF, as well as of the caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) of the chicken melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (chMDA5), strongly activated the chicken IFN-β (chIFN-β) promoter. The silencing of chMDA5, chCARDIF, and chIRF3 reduced chIFN-β levels induced by AIV, indicating their involvement in AIV sensing. As with mammalian cells, chLGP2 had opposing effects. While overexpression decreased the activation of the chIFN-β promoter, the silencing of endogenous chLGP2 reduced chIFN-β induced by AIV. We finally demonstrate that the chMDA5 signaling pathway is inhibited by the viral nonstructural protein 1. In conclusion, chicken cells, including DF-1 fibroblasts and HD-11 macrophage-like cells, employ chMDA5 for sensing AIV.

  7. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nichola J; Takekawa, John Y; Cardona, Carol J; Meixell, Brandt W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Boyce, Walter M

    2012-03-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  8. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  9. Cross-Seasonal Patterns of Avian Influenza Virus in Breeding and Wintering Migratory Birds: A Flyway Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nichola J.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway—breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007–2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway. PMID:21995264

  10. Potential Intercontinental Movement of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus into North America by Wild Birds: Application of a Rapid Assessment Framework.

    PubMed

    Miller, R S; Sweeney, S J; Akkina, J E; Saito, E K

    2015-12-01

    A critical question surrounding emergence of novel strains of avian influenza viruses (AIV) is the ability for wild migratory birds to translocate a complete (unreassorted whole genome) AIV intercontinentally. Virus translocation via migratory birds is suspected in outbreaks of highly pathogenic strain A(H5N1) in Asia, Africa and Europe. As a result, the potential intercontinental translocation of newly emerging AIV such as A(H7N9) from Eurasia to North America via migratory movements of birds remains a concern. An estimated 2.91 million aquatic birds move annually between Eurasia and North America with an estimated AIV prevalence as high as 32.2%. Here, we present a rapid assessment to address the likelihood of whole (unreassorted)-genome translocation of Eurasian strain AIV into North America. The scope of this assessment was limited specifically to assess the weight of evidence to support the movement of an unreassorted AIV intercontinentally by migratory aquatic birds. We developed a rapid assessment framework to assess the potential for intercontinental movement of avian influenzas by aquatic birds. This framework was iteratively reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel of scientific experts until a consensus was established. Our assessment framework identified four factors that may contribute to the potential for introduction of any AIV intercontinentally into North America by wild aquatic birds. These factors, in aggregate, provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of new forms of AIV from Eurasia to be introduced by aquatic birds into North America. Based on our assessment, we determined that the potential for introduction of A(H7N9) into North America through aquatic migratory birds is possible, but the likelihood ranges from extremely low to low.

  11. Generation of an attenuated H5N1 avian influenza virus vaccine with all eight genes from avian viruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huoying; Liu, Xiu Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Chen, Sujuan; Sun, Lei; Lu, Jianhong

    2007-10-16

    In the face of disease outbreaks in poultry and the potential pandemic threat to humans caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N1 subtype, improvement in biosecurity and the use of inactivated vaccines are two main options for the control of this disease. Vaccine candidates of influenza A viruses of H5N1 subtype have been generated in several laboratories by plasmid-based reverse genetics with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from the epidemic strains of avian viruses in a background of internal genes from the vaccine donor strain of human strains, A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8). These reassortant viruses containing genes from both avian and human viruses might impose biosafety concerns, also may be do if C4/F AIV would be a live attenuated vaccine or cold-adaptive strain vaccine. In order to generate better and safer vaccine candidate viruses, we genetically constructed attenuated reassortant H5N1 influenza A virus, designated as C4/F AIV, by plasmid-based reverse genetics with all eight genes from the avian strains. The C4/F AIV virus contained HA and NA genes from an epidemic strain A/Chicken/Huadong/04 (H5N1) (C4/H5N1) in a background of internal genes derived from a low pathogenic strain of A/Chicken/F/98(H9N2). The reassortant virus was attenuated by removal of the multibasic amino acid motif in the HA gene by mutation and deletion (from PQRERRRKKR (downward arrow) G to PQIETR (downward arrow) G). The intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of C4/F AIV virus was 0, whereas that of the donor virus C4/H5N1 was 3.0. The virus HA titer of C4/H5N1 in the allantoic fluid from infected embryonated eggs was as high as 1:2048. The inactivated vaccine prepared from the reassortant virus C4/F AIV-induced high HI titer in vaccinated chickens and gave 100% protection when challenged with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype.

  12. An evaluation of transmission routes for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus among chickens sold in live bird markets.

    PubMed

    Yee, Karen S; Carpenter, Tim E; Farver, Thomas B; Cardona, Carol J

    2009-11-10

    Many theories about the modes of avian influenza virus (AIV) transmission have been proposed, but few have been quantified, and none within a flock or live bird market (LBM) setting where birds are often kept in stacked cages. We describe a novel experimental design and the results collected for the purpose of estimating transmission rates specific to the potential modes of AIV transmission within an LBM. Chickens of the strains and ages found in California LBMs were inoculated with low pathogenicity AIV H6N2. Aerosol exposure was found to be the most important route of transmission for this H6N2 AIV. The handling of infectious chickens resulted in the transmission of H6N2 AIV, though the virus was not detectible by rRT-PCR. Chickens with fecal exposure to infected birds (median=8.0 DPI) had detectable virus earlier than in those with aerosol exposure only (median=10.0 DPI). Changes in the hemagglutinin sequence were not found to be associated with oropharyngeal or cloacal shedding in this study.

  13. JGOMAS: New Approach to AI Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barella, A.; Valero, S.; Carrascosa, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new environment for teaching practical work in AI subjects. The main purpose of this environment is to make AI techniques more appealing to students and to facilitate the use of the toolkits which are currently widely used in research and development. This new environment has a toolkit for developing and executing agents,…

  14. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  15. Development of methods for detection and quantification of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in compost by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation.

    PubMed

    Guan, J; Chan, M; Ma, B; Grenier, C; Wilkie, D C; Pasick, J; Brooks, B W; Spencer, J L

    2008-05-01

    Composting has been used for disposal of poultry carcasses and manure following outbreaks caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but methods are needed to test for survival of the viruses in compost to ensure biosecurity. Methods developed in the present study include extracting viruses from compost and purifying viral RNA. The extracted viruses were detected by virus isolation using embryonated chicken eggs, and the purified RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR). The virus isolation and the RRT-PCR methods were evaluated with 3 compost preparations that were produced from chicken manure mixed with corn silage, wood shavings, or wheat straw. The detection limits of both methods were 1,700 and 1,000 embryo lethal doses of AIV and NDV per gram of compost, respectively. The copy number of viral RNA quantified by RRT-PCR was highly correlated with the amount of virus in compost. The results suggested that the RRT-PCR method may be used as an alternative to the virus isolation method for rapid detection and accurate quantification of AIV and NDV in compost.

  16. Genetic relationship of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in Korea and their pathogenic potential in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Min-Chul; Paek, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kim, Bang-Sil; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2012-03-23

    The H3 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most frequently isolated subtypes in domestic ducks, live poultry markets, and wild birds in Korea. In 2002-2009, a total of 45 H3 subtype AIVs were isolated from the feces of clinically normal domestic ducks (n=28) and wild birds (n=17). The most prevalent subtypes in domestic ducks were H3N2 (35.7%), H3N6 (35.7%), H3N8 (25.0%), and H3N1 (3.6%, novel subtype in domestic duck in Korea). In contrast, H3N8 (70.6%) is the most prevalent subtype in wild birds in Korea. In the phylogenetic analysis, HA genes of the Korean H3 AIVs were divided into 3 groups (Korean duck, wild bird 1, and wild bird 2) and all viruses of duck origin except one were clustered in a single group. However, other genes showed extensive diversity and at least 17 genotypes were circulating in domestic ducks in Korea. When the analysis expanded to viruses of wild bird origin, the genetic diversity of Korean H3 AIVs became more complicated. Extensive reassortments may have occurred in H3 subtype influenza viruses in Korea. When we inoculated chickens and ducks with six selected viruses, some of the viruses replicated efficiently without pre-adaptation and shed a significant amount of viruses through oropharyngeal and cloacal routes. This raised concerns that H3 subtype AIV could be a new subtype in chickens in Korea. Continuous surveillance is needed to prepare the advent of a novel subtype AIV in Korea.

  17. A single substitution in amino acid 184 of the NP protein alters the replication and pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we found that exchanging the NP genes of recombinant avian influenza viruses (AIVs) affected viral replication and altered host gene expression and mean death times in chickens infected with these viruses. Five amino acids at positions 22, 184, 400, 406, and 423 were different between th...

  18. Using mean infectious dose of wild duck-and poultry-origin high and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses as one measure of infectivity and adaptation to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mean infectious doses of selected avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates, determined in domestic poultry under experimental conditions, were shown to be both host and virus dependent and could be considered one measure of the infectivity and adaptation to a specific host. As such, the mean infect...

  19. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient’s house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  20. Where do avian influenza viruses meet in the Americas?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reicheabc, Ana S; Perez, Daniel R

    2012-12-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance has been scarce in most countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Historically, avian influenza surveillance efforts in Central and South America have been localized in places where outbreaks in poultry have occurred. Since the emergence of the H5N1 subtype in Asia, active surveillance in wild birds has increased in a number of Latin American countries, including Barbados, Guatemala, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Peru. A broad diversity of virus subtypes has been detected; however, nucleotide sequence data are still limited in comparison to other regions of the world. Here we review the current knowledge of AIV in Latin America, including phylogenetic relationships among publicly available viral genomes. Overall AIV reports are sparse across the region and the cocirculation of two distinct genetic lineages is puzzling. Phylogenetic analysis reflects bias in time and location where sampling has been conducted. Increased surveillance is needed to address the major determinants for AIV ecology, evolution, and transmission in the region.

  1. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.

  2. Domestic cats and dogs are susceptible to H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Zhaowei; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Lin; Cheng, Kaihui; Wang, Tiecheng; Huang, Geng; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Feng, Na; Fu, Jun; Qin, Chuan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2013-07-01

    Replication and transmission of avian influenza virus (AIV) in domestic dogs and cats may pose a risk to humans. The susceptibility of cats and dogs to H9N2 influenza virus was evaluated by intranasally or orally inoculating animals with an H9N2 influenza virus. Cats had recoverable virus in respiratory tissues and the olfactory bulb three days post-inoculation and shed H9N2 virus into nasal washes and pharyngeal swabs from day 2 through day 10 post-inoculation. Virus was recovered from respiratory tissues of dogs three days post-inoculation, but was not detected in nasal washes or pharyngeal swabs. While no virus shedding or replication was detected in cats or dogs following consumption of H9N2-infected chicks, one of two cats and one of two dogs seroconverted. Two of three naïve contact cats seroconverted following co-housing with cats that were intranasally inoculated with H9N2 virus, whereas none of the three naïve contact dogs seroconverted. Our results demonstrate that H9N2 AIV can infect domestic cats and dogs via the upper respiratory tract and indicate that cats are more susceptible than dogs to H9N2 AIV. These findings suggest that domestic dogs and cats may serve as host species contributing to the adaptation of H9N2 viruses in mammals.

  3. Prevalence of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in one live bird market in Eastern China from 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo; Pan, Jinjin; Gu, Xiaobing; Zhao, Kunkun; Chen, Hongzhi; Chen, Sujuan; Wang, Xiaoquan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-03-01

    The role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the perpetuation of avian influenza virus (AIV) has been well studied worldwide; however, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence of different AIV subtypes in LBMs in Eastern China. In this study, long-term surveillance was conducted to investigate the prevalence of AIV in chickens, ducks, and geese in an LBM in Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province, Eastern China, between July 2002 and May 2011. The study used primary virus isolation and subtype-specific reverse-transcription-PCR. In total, 23 different HA-NA subtype combinations were detected, mainly in domestic ducks. This result suggests that domestic ducks play a more important role in LBMs in Eastern China.

  4. Avian influenza virus detection and quantitation by real-time RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been used for avian influenza virus (AIV) detection since the early 2000’s for routine surveillance, during outbreaks and for research. Some of the advantages of rRT-PCR are: high sensitivity, high specificity, rapid time-to-result, scalability, cost, and its inherentl...

  5. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  6. Variable regulation of chicken embryo fibroblasts gene expression by H5N1 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause severe clinical disease associated with high mortality in chickens and other gallinaceous species. However, the mechanism by which different strains of AIV overcome host response is still not clear. In the present study, differences in early t...

  7. Detection prevalence of H5N1 avian influenza virus among stray cats in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Shao, Jun-Jun; Lin, Tong; Li, Yang-Fan; Wei, Ping; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Since 1997, more and more cases of the infectious H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans have been reported all over the world but the transmission of H5N1 avian influenza virus to stray cats has been little demonstrated. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of H5N1 AIV antibodies in stray cats in eastern China where is the dominant enzootic H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV). A total of 1,020 nasal swab and 1,020 serum samples were collected and tested. Evidence of HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies was present in two of the 1,020 serum samples that were positive by HI assay and NT assay, respectively. The results imply little transmission and that the Clade 2.3.2 HPAIV H5N1 infections in poultry did not significantly affect the rural animal shelters or suburban environment in eastern China. In future studies, these results can be used as baseline seroepidemiological levels for H5N1 AIV among cats in China.

  8. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed the genetic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes sampled from 14 bird species in four locations across North America. This revealed 29 combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes, with 26% of isolates showin...

  9. A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR method for neuraminidase type 1 (N1) gene detection of H5N1 Eurasian strains of avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Montserrat; Sánchez, Azucena; San Miguel, Elena; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2007-03-01

    This work describes the development of a real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) procedure for detection of the N1 gene from avian influenza virus (AIV), based on the use of specific primers and a TaqMan-MGB (minor groove binder) probe. Nucleotide sequences of the neuraminidase type 1 gene from a collection of H5N1 Eurasian strains of AIV were aligned using ClustalW software. Conserved regions were located and used to design specific primers and a TaqMan-MGB probe using Primer Express software. A one-step RRT-PCR method was optimized using RNA from the Turkey 2005 H5N1 strain of AIV and can be completed in about 2 hr once the RNA is extracted from the sample. The specificity of the assay was assessed with non-N1 AIV strains, another related avian virus, and different avian tissue samples from healthy animals. Sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions of the H5N1 Turkey 2005 strain and was compared with the generic RRT-PCR detection method, targeted at the matrix protein gene of AIV, commonly used at the Spanish AIV National Reference Laboratory. The N1 detection method proved to be even more sensitive than the generic (matrix-based) method, allowing a very quick confirmation (or discarding) of any Eurasian N1 strain when a positive result was obtained with the matrix RRT-PCR assay. Combined with RRT-PCR tests for general detection of AIV and H5 typing in use at the NRL, the procedure here described allows characterizing of any H5N1 Eurasian AIV strain in a field sample within a working day.

  10. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at -20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl₂)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at -20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl₂ inactivated 6 log₁₀ AIV within 5 min at -20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl₂ solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl₂ is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons.

  11. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at −20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl2)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at −20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl2 inactivated 6 log10 AIV within 5 min at −20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl2 solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl2 is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  12. Susceptibility of primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells for low pathogenic avian influenza virus and velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Annette; Willer, Thomas; Sid, Hicham; Petersen, Henning; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Steinberg, Pablo; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-10-02

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) share a high tropism for the avian respiratory epithelium and may cause severe clinical disease associated with high mortality. Both viruses have different pathotypes, which may lead to differences in the severity of the disease. Respiratory epithelial cells were shown to be the primary target cells for infection and replication. Nevertheless, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were also suggested as target cells for both viruses in avian species. Most studies on AIV and NDV focused on the respiratory tract, while information regarding the virus-host interaction at the intestinal epithelial cell interface is lacking. We established a primary chicken IEC culture model. Primary chicken embryo fibroblast cultures (CEFs) were used for comparison. IECs and CEFs were infected with a low infectious dose (LID; multiplicity of infection, MOI, of 0.01) or high infectious dose (HID, MOI of 1), of low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H9N2 or velogenic viscerotropic NDV (vvNDV) Herts 33/56. Virus replication, mRNA expression pattern of the type I and type III interferon (IFN) and related genes IFIT5 (interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5) and ISG12 (interferon stimulated gene 12) were investigated at four, 16, and 24h post infection (hpi). The results suggest high susceptibility of primary chicken IECs for these AIV and NDV strains. Replication rates and expression pattern of IFNs as well as related genes differed between the infecting viruses as well as cell culture systems. Both viruses induced an IFN λ-increase of more than 30-fold in IECs, while IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA expression was either downregulated or only slightly increased with up to 10fold changes for the latter at 24h post LPAIV-infection. These results suggest a possible role of IFN λ in the control of viruses at the gut epithelial surface. LPAIV induced upregulation of IFIT5 as well as ISG12 expression in a dose and time dependent manner

  13. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hindman, Larry J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Driscoll, Cindy P.; Nagel, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Sampling of key migratory waterfowl species occurred at 20 locations throughout the Delmarva Peninsula in fall and winter of 2013–14. Samples were collected from 400 hunter-harvested or live-caught birds via cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. Fourteen of the 400 (3.5%) birds sampled tested positive for the AIV matrix gene using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, all from five dabbling duck species. Further characterization of the 14 viral isolates identified two hemagglutinin (H3 and H4) and four neuraminidase (N2, N6, N8, and N9) subtypes, which were consistent with isolates reported in the Influenza Research Database for this region. Three of 14 isolates contained multiple HA or NA subtypes. This study adds to the limited baseline information available for AIVs in migratory waterfowl populations on the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly prior to the highly pathogenic AIV A(H5N8) and A(H5N2) introductions to the United States in late 2014.

  14. Analytical validation of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for Pan-American lineage H7 subtype Avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Ip, H.S.; Suarez, D.L.; Slemons, R.D.; Stallknecht, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for the identification of the H7 subtype in North American Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) was first reported in 2002; however, recent AIV surveillance efforts in wild birds and H7 outbreaks in poultry demonstrated that the 2002 test did not detect all H7 AIVs present in North and South America. Therefore, a new test, the 2008 Pan-American H7 test, was developed by using recently available H7 nucleotide sequences. The analytical specificity of the new assay was characterized with an RNA panel composed of 19 H7 viruses from around the world and RNA from all hemagglutinin subtypes except H16. Specificity for North and South American lineage H7 viruses was observed. Assay limits of detection were determined to be between 103 and 104 gene copies per reaction with in vitro transcribed RNA, and 100.0 and 10 0.8 50% egg infectious doses per reaction. The 2008 Pan-American H7 test also was shown to perform similarly to the 2002 test with specimens from chickens experimentally exposed to A/Chicken/BritishColumbia/314514-2/04 H7N3 highly pathogenic AIV. Furthermore, the 2008 test was able to detect 100% (n = 27) of the H7 AIV isolates recovered from North American wild birds in a 2006-2007 sample set (none of which were detected by the 2002 H7 test).

  15. Development of a TaqMan MGB RT-PCR for the rapid detection of H3 subtype avian influenza virus circulating in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Yan, Dawei; Yan, Liping; Li, Xuesong; Li, Guoxin; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) in China is isolated most frequently from wild birds and live poultry markets. However, there is no subtype-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) available for the rapid and highly sensitive identification of H3 AIV. In this study, a TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probe and a pair of primers were designed based on a conserved region in the hemagglutinin gene of H3 AIV. These were used to generate an H3-MGB RT-PCR assay that recognizes only H3 AIV. The detection limit of the H3-MGB RT-PCR was 10 copies of DNA per reaction when 10-fold serial dilutions of T-H3HA plasmid were used as the template. This was 1000-times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. In experimental samples obtained from oropharyngeal swabs or cloacal swabs, the virus was detected in all ducks using H3-MGB RT-PCR, whereas only one duck tested positive for the virus in oropharyngeal swabs tested using conventional RT-PCR. The H3-MGB RT-PCR assay developed in this study is a sensitive and rapid tool for screening H3 AIV in China.

  16. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  17. Conformational analysis of apolipoprotein A-I and E-3 based on primary sequence and circular dichroism.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, R T; Atkinson, D

    1992-01-01

    The primary and secondary structure of human plasma apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E-3 have been analyzed to further our understanding of the secondary and tertiary conformation of these proteins and the structure and function of plasma lipoprotein particles. The methods used to analyze the primary sequence of these proteins used computer programs: (a) to identify repeated patterns within these proteins on the basis of conservative substitutions and similarities within the physicochemical properties of each residue; (b) for local averaging, hydrophobic moment, and Fourier analysis of the physicochemical properties; and (c) for secondary structure prediction of each protein carried out using homology, statistical, and information theory based methods. Circular dichroism was used to study purified lipid-protein complexes of each protein and quantitate the secondary structure in a lipid environment. The data from these analyses were integrated into a single secondary structure prediction to derive a model of each protein. The sequence homology within apolipoproteins A-I, E-3, and A-IV is used to derive a consensus sequence for two 11 amino acid repeating sequences in this family of proteins. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 8 PMID:1477274

  18. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  19. Status of AIS Frequencies Nationally and Internationally: Improving Satellite Detection of AIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-04

    International Telecommunications Union? • ITU 2007 World Radio Conference – Authorized AIS 1 & AIS 2 as satellite uplink frequencies, on secondary basis...Collision Rate “AIS as is” How do results correlate with predictions? Satellite Detection Statistics with Correlation Processing – ITU -R Rep M.2084 (JSC...Status of AIS Frequencies  Nationally and  Internationally: Improving  satellite  detection of AIS CG‐622 | Joe Hersey Chief, Spectrum Mgt Div USCG

  20. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  1. An immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of avian influenza H5N1 virus viremia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Yu, Xu; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-12-15

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 attracts particular consideration because it is a continuous threat to animals and public health systems. The viremia caused by AIV H5N1 infection may increase the risk of blood-borne transmission between humans. Therefore, there is a need to rapidly evaluate and implement screening measures for AIV H5N1 viremia that allows for rapid response to this potentially pandemic threat. The present report describes an immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (immuno-RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in whole blood samples. Using PCR tubes coated with an H5 subtype monoclonal antibody, AIV H5N1 virions were specifically captured from blood samples. After a thermal lysis step, the released viral N1 gene was exponentially amplified using RT-LAMP on either a real-time PCR instrument for quantitative analysis, or in a water bath system for endpoint analysis. The detection limit of the newly developed immuno-RT-LAMP assay was as low as 1.62×10(1) 50% embryo infectious dose/mL of virus in both regular samples and simulated viremia samples. There were no cross-reactions with non-H5N1 influenza viruses or other avian viruses. The reproducibility of the assay was confirmed using intra- and inter-assay tests with variability ranging from 1.05% to 3.37%. Our results indicate that immuno-RT-LAMP is a novel, effective point-of-care virus identification solution for the rapid diagnosis and monitoring of AIV H5N1 in blood samples.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongrui; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Tao; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H3 subtype influenza A virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. However, the evolution and pathogenicity of H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) circulating in domestic birds in China remain largely unclear. In this study, seven H3 AIVs (four H3N2 and three H3N8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (LPM) in China. Phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into Eurasian lineage, except N8 genes of two H3N8 isolates fell into North American lineage. Intriguingly, the N8 gene of one H3N8 and PB2, PB1, NP and NS of two H3N2 isolates have close relationship with those of the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses circulating in Korea and United States, suggesting that the H3-like AIV may contribute internal genes to the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses. Phylogenetic tree of HA gene and antigenic cross-reactivity results indicated that two antigenically different H3 viruses are circulating in LPM in China. Most of the H3 viruses replicated in mice lung and nasal turbinate without prior adaptation, and the representative H3 viruses infected chickens without causing clinical signs. The reassortment of H3 subtype influenza viruses warrants continuous surveillance in LPM in China. PMID:27270298

  3. Coexistence of Avian Influenza Virus H10 and H9 Subtypes among Chickens in Live Poultry Markets during an Outbreak of Infection with a Novel H10N8 Virus in Humans in Nanchang, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maohong; Li, Xiaodan; Ni, Xiansheng; Wu, Jingwen; Gao, Rongbao; Xia, Wen; Wang, Dayan; He, Fenglan; Chen, Shengen; Liu, Yangqing; Guo, Shuangli; Li, Hui; Shu, Yuelong; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Liu, Mingbin; Moore, Justin B; Chen, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the novel H10N8 virus in humans has raised concerns about its pandemic potential worldwide. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets (LPMs) in Nanchang, China, after the first human case of H10N8 virus infection was reported in the city. A total of 201 specimens tested positive for AIVs among 618 samples collected from 24 LPMs in Nanchang from December 2013 to January 2014. We found that the LPMs were heavily contaminated by AIVs, with H9, H10, and H5 being the predominant subtypes and more than half of the LPMs providing samples that were positive for the H10 subtype. Moreover, the coexistence of different subtypes was common in LPMs. Of the 201 positive samples, 20.9% (42/201) had mixed infections with AIVs of different HA subtypes. Of the 42 mixed infections, 50% (21/42) showed the coexistence of the H9 and H10 subtypes, with or without H5, and were from chicken samples. This indicated that the H10N8 virus probably originated from segment reassortment of the H9 and H10 subtypes.

  4. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  5. Antigenic cartography of H9N2 virus and its impact on the vaccine efficacy in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) is wide-spread in Asia and the Middle East. The efficacy of vaccines is enhanced by the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA) between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how antigenic variations affect the vaccine efficacy, speci...

  6. The first lack of evidence of H7N9 avian influenza virus infections among pigs in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Tong; Shao, Jun-Jun; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we sought to examine whether evidence existed suggesting that pigs were being infected with the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. From November 2012 to November 2013, blood was drawn from 1560 pigs from 100 large farms in 4 provinces of eastern China. Many of these pigs were in close proximity to wild birds or poultry. Swine sera were studied using hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against the H7 antigen derived from the emergent H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV). Only 29 of the 1560 samples had HI titers of 1:20 when using the H7N9 AIV antigens, and none of the 29 (H7N9 AIV) HI-positive samples were positive when using ELISA, indicating that no samples were positive for H7N9. The negative results were also verified using a novel competitive HA-ELISA. As pigs have been shown to be infected with other avian influenza viruses and as the prevalence of novel influenza A viruses (e.g., H7N9 AIV) may be increasing among poultry in China, similar seroepidemiological studies of pigs should be periodically conducted in the future.

  7. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  8. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  9. A virus spreading model for cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L.; Yeung, K. H.; Wong, K. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since cognitive radio (CR) networks could solve the spectrum scarcity problem, they have drawn much research in recent years. Artificial intelligence(AI) is introduced into CRs to learn from and adapt to their environment. Nonetheless, AI brings in a new kind of attacks specific to CR networks. The most powerful one is a self-propagating AI virus. And no spreading properties specific to this virus have been reported in the literature. To fill this research gap, we propose a virus spreading model of an AI virus by considering the characteristics of CR networks and the behavior of CR users. Several important observations are made from the simulation results based on the model. Firstly, the time taken to infect the whole network increases exponentially with the network size. Based on this result, CR network designers could calculate the optimal network size to slow down AI virus propagation rate. Secondly, the anti-virus performance of static networks to an AI virus is better than dynamic networks. Thirdly, if the CR devices with the highest degree are initially infected, the AI virus propagation rate will be increased substantially. Finally, it is also found that in the area with abundant spectrum resource, the AI virus propagation speed increases notably but the variability of the spectrum does not affect the propagation speed much.

  10. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.

  11. Newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Torchetti, Mia Kim

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of ND. Other APMV-1 viruses of low virulence, which are not used as vaccines, are also often isolated from wild bird species. The APMV-1 virus, like avian influenza virus (AIV), is a hemagglutinating virus (HA) and able to agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBC). Because the clinical presentation of ND can be difficult to distinguish from disease caused by AIV, techniques for differential diagnosis are essential, as well as the ability to detect mixed infections. When an HA positive virus is detected from virus isolation, additional assays can be performed to determine which virus is present. Both antigenic and molecular methods are necessary as some virulent ND viruses from cormorants in the USA after 2002 have lost their ability to hemagglutinate chicken RBC and molecular methods are needed for identification.

  12. Impact of murine intestinal apolipoprotein A-IV expression on regional lipid absorption, gene expression, and growth

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Trang; Cook, Victoria R.; Rao, Anuradha; Weinberg, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is synthesized by intestinal enterocytes during lipid absorption and secreted into lymph on the surface of nascent chylomicrons. A compelling body of evidence supports a central role of apoA-IV in facilitating intestinal lipid absorption and in regulating satiety, yet a longstanding conundrum is that no abnormalities in fat absorption, feeding behavior, or weight gain were observed in chow-fed apoA-IV knockout (A4KO) mice. Herein we reevaluated the impact of apoA-IV expression in C57BL6 and A4KO mice fed a high-fat diet. Fat balance and lymph cannulation studies found no effect of intestinal apoA-IV gene expression on the efficiency of fatty acid absorption, but gut sac transport studies revealed that apoA-IV differentially modulates lipid transport and the number and size of secreted triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in different anatomic regions of the small bowel. ApoA-IV gene deletion increased expression of other genes involved in chylomicron assembly, impaired the ability of A4KO mice to gain weight and increase adipose tissue mass, and increased the distal gut hormone response to a high-fat diet. Together these findings suggest that apoA-IV may play a unique role in integrating feeding behavior, intestinal lipid absorption, and energy storage. PMID:21840868

  13. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  14. Expression of mRNA of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, and matricellular proteins in the myocardium and intensity of fibroplastic processes during experimental hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Pichigin, V I; Klinnikova, M G; Nepomnyashchikh, R D; Sergeevichev, D S

    2013-12-01

    The expression of mRNA of matricellular proteins (osteopontin, and lumican), apolipoproteins E and A-IV, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the intensity of fibroplastic processes were studied in the myocardium of rats during experimental chronic hypercholesterolemia. We have found that the development of chronic hypercholesterolemia was followed by an increase in volume density of interstitial connective tissue in the myocardium reflecting the activation of fibroplastic processes. A slight positive correlation was observed between the connective tissue density in the myocardium and expression of osteopontin mRNA (r=0.408) and lumican mRNA (r=0.470). Myocardium remodeling during hypercholesterolemia is realized against the background of increased expression of apolipoproteins E and A-IV mRNA and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA involved in transport and metabolism of lipoproteins in several tissues and probably play a pivotal role in the regulation of lipoprotein transport and metabolism in the myocardium. We concluded that the increase in the expression of apolipoproteins (E and A-IV) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein play adaptive and compensatory role and is related to the increase in lipoprotein utilization by macrophages.

  15. ELPylated haemagglutinins produced in tobacco plants induce potentially neutralizing antibodies against H5N1 viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang T; Pohl, Julia; Floss, Doreen M; Rabenstein, Frank; Veits, Jutta; Le, Binh T; Chu, Ha H; Hause, Gerd; Mettenleiter, Thomas; Conrad, Udo

    2013-06-01

    Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and its ELPylated form. We firstly presented evidence to produce stabilized trimers of soluble HA in plants. ELPylation of these trimers does not influence the trimerization. Strong expression enhancement in planta caused by ELPylation was demonstrated for trimerized H5-ELP. ELPylated trimers could be purified by a membrane-based inverse transition cycling procedure with the potential of successful scale-up. The trimeric form of AIV HA was found to enhance the HA-specific immune response compared with the monomeric form. Plant-derived AIV HA trimers elicited potentially neutralizing antibodies interacting with both homologous virus-like particles from plants and heterologous inactivated AIV. ELPylation did not influence the functionality and the antigenicity of the stabilized H5 trimers. These data allow further developments including scale-up of production, purification and virus challenge experiments with the final goal to achieve suitable technologies for efficient avian flu vaccine production.

  16. Novel avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses isolated in migratory waterfowl before the first human case reported in China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yuhai; Liu, Haizhou; Xiong, Chaochao; Di Liu; Shi, Weifeng; Li, Mingxin; Liu, Siling; Chen, Jing; Chen, Guang; Li, Yong; Yang, Guoxiang; Lei, Yongsong; Xiong, Yanping; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Hanzhong; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Jianjun; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, China formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan Province. Before the first human case was reported, surveillance of AIVs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three H5N6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in Chenhu wetlands, Hubei Province, China. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these three novel viruses were closely related to the H5N6 virus that has caused human infections in China since 2014. A Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of all eight segments suggests multiple reassortment events in the evolution of these viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) originated from the H5N2 and H6N6 AIVs, respectively, whereas all six internal genes were derived from avian H5N1 viruses. The reassortant may have occurred in eastern China during 2012–2013. A phylogeographic analysis of the HA and NA genes traced the viruses to southern China, from where they spread to other areas via eastern China. A receptor-binding test showed that H5N6 viruses from migratory waterfowl had human-type receptor-binding activity, suggesting a potential for transmission to humans. These data suggest that migratory waterfowl may play a role in the dissemination of novel H5N6 viruses. PMID:27431568

  17. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, C.R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, H.S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  18. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  19. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Lee, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from experimentally infected birds. Samples can generally be divided into two types; enriched (e.g. virus stocks) and clinical. Clinical type samples, which may be tissues or swab material, are the most difficult to process due to the complex sample composition and possibly low virus titers. In this chapter two well established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented.

  20. Effect of 360His mutation in apolipoprotein A-IV on plasma HDL-cholesterol response to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S; Lopez-Miranda, J; Ordovas, J M; Zambrana, J L; Marin, C; Ostos, M A; Castro, P; McPherson, R; Lopez Segura, F; Blanco, A; Jimenez Pereperez, J A; Perez-Jimenez, F

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine whether genetic variability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is responsible for the improvement in lipid profile when dietary saturated fats are replaced by carbohydrates or monounsaturated fats, 41 healthy male subjects were studied: 33 were homozygous for the 360Gln allele and 8 were heterozygote carriers of the 360His allele. These were administered three consecutive 4-week diets. The first was a diet rich in saturated fat (SAT diet, with 38% fat, 20% saturated. This was followed by a low fat diet (NCEP-I, with < 30% fat, < 10% saturated). The final diet was rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA diet, with 38% fat, 22% monounsaturated). There was no difference in plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels of both groups of individuals after consuming the SAT diet. Switching from this diet to the NCEP-I diet, carriers of the 360His allele presented a greater decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-10 vs. -1 mg/dL, P < 0.004) and apoA-I levels (-19 vs. -8 mg/dL, P < 0.037). Similarly, replacement of carbohydrates by monounsaturated fats produced a greater increase in HDL-C (9 vs. 1 mg/dL, P < 0.003) and apoA-I levels (9 vs. 2 mg/dL, P < 0.036) in carriers of the 360His mutation. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities and apoA-IV levels were also measured. However, no genotype-related differences were observed for these parameters. Our results suggest that variability in HDL-C and apoA-I response to diet is, at least partially, determined by the 360His mutation of apoA-IV.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits AgRP/NPY neurons and activates POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Shu, Gang; Wang, Chunmei; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Xu, Pingwen; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Yan, Xiaofeng; Yu, Likai; Wu, Qi; Tso, Patrick; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in the brain potently suppresses food intake. However the mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic effects remain to be identified. Methods We first examined the effects of apoA-IV on cellular activities in hypothalamic neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and in neurons that express pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). We then compared anorexigenic effects of apoA-IV in wild type mice and in mutant mice lacking melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs, the receptors of AgRP and the POMC gene product). Finally, we examined expression of apoA-IV in mouse hypothalamus and quantified its protein levels at fed vs. fasted states. Results We demonstrate that apoA-IV inhibited the firing rate of AgRP/NPY neurons. The decreased firing was associated with hyperpolarized membrane potential and decreased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current. We further used c-fos immunoreactivity to show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of apoA-IV abolished the fasting-induced activation of AgRP/NPY neurons in mice. Further, we found that apoA-IV depolarized POMC neurons and increased their firing rate. In addition, genetic deletion of MC4Rs blocked anorexigenic effects of i.c.v. apoA-IV. Finally, we detected endogenous apoA-IV in multiple neural populations in mouse hypothalamus, including AgRP/NPY neurons, and food deprivation suppresses hypothalamic apoA-IV protein levels. Conclusion Our findings support a model where central apoA-IV inhibits AgRP/NPY neurons and activates POMC neurons to activate MC4Rs, which in turn suppresses food intake. PMID:26337236

  2. AI in space: Past, present, and possible futures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.

    1992-01-01

    While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.

  3. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Muthanan A; Redig, Patrick T; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2010-07-28

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV.

  4. Deploying Embodied AI into Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burden, David J. H.

    The last two years have seen the start of commercial activity within virtual worlds. Unlike computer games where Non-Player-Character avatars are common, in most virtual worlds they are the exception — and until recently in Second Life they were non-existent. However there is real commercial scope for Als in these worlds — in roles from virtual sales staff and tutors to personal assistants. Deploying an embodied AI into a virtual world offers a unique opportunity to evaluate embodied Als, and to develop them within an environment where human and computer are on almost equal terms. This paper presents an architecture being used for the deployment of chatbot driven avatars within the Second Life virtual world, looks at the challenges of deploying an AI within such a virtual world, the possible implications for the Turing Test, and identifies research directions for the future.

  5. Why Don't Accounting Students like AIS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Aoun, Chadi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The demand for Accounting Information Systems (AIS) knowledge has increased exponentially over the past two decades, but studying AIS has not proved easy for many accounting students. The aim of the study is to understand the challenges accounting students face in studying AIS through investigation of the factors which may be contributing…

  6. The AI Interdisciplinary Context: Single or Multiple Research Bases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1992-01-01

    This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)

  7. 47 CFR 80.393 - Frequencies for AIS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for AIS stations. 80.393 Section 80.393 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ais Stations § 80.393 Frequencies for AIS stations....

  8. Tactical AI in Real Time Strategy Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in this tactical decision making problem allows an AI agent to make fast , effective solutions that do not require modification...ranged attacks. The terran army operates most similarly to Warcraft. The player must still balance food (supply depots), and two other resources (minerals...types of methods analyze the current status of enemy units and makes a decision based on a single metric. These techniques are very fast , but are open to

  9. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  10. Surveillance and characterization of avian influenza viruses from migratory water birds in eastern Hokkaido, the northern part of Japan, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Abao, Lary N B; Jamsransuren, Dulamjav; Bui, Vuong N; Ngo, Lai H; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Runstadler, Jonathan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2013-04-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance was conducted around a small pond in Obihiro, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Eleven AIVs were isolated from a total of 1,269 fecal samples of migratory wild birds collected during 2009 and 2010. The sample number covered approximately 60 % of the total number of birds observed during sampling periods. The subtypes of the isolates included H3N8 (4 isolates), H5N2 (3), H6N2 (2), H6N1 (1), and H11N2 (1). The H3N8 subtype was most prevalent as in the previous studies performed in Hokkaido. The three H5N2 isolates genetically characterized as low pathogenic AIV were closely related to the strains previously isolated from aquatic wild birds in Japan and also to the Korean strains isolated from aquatic birds in recent years. In Korea, H5N2 subtype virus has often been isolated from poultry and wild birds, as well as reassortant viruses generated from duck H5N2 viruses and chicken H9N2 virus, and avian-swine-like reassortant H5N2 viruses. Considering the previous chicken outbreaks caused by highly pathogenic H5N2 viruses, which affected many countries, it should be an important priority to continue, monitoring the evolution of H5N2 viruses circulating in the region.

  11. Amino acid substitutions in the neuraminidase protein of an H9N2 avian influenza virus affect its airborne transmission in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Wei, Liangmeng; Yang, Yan; Wang, Bingxiao; Liang, Wei; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Lili; Cai, Yumei; Hou, Peiqiang; Yang, Huili; Wang, Airong; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jing; Chai, Tongjie

    2015-04-18

    Cases of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry are increasing throughout many Eurasian countries, and co-infections with other pathogens have resulted in high morbidity and mortality in poultry. Few studies have investigated the genetic factors of virus airborne transmission which determine the scope of this epidemic. In this study, we used specific-pathogen-free chickens housed in isolators to investigate the airborne transmissibility of five recombinant H9N2 AIV rescued by reverse genetic technology. The results show that airborne transmission of A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) virus was related to the neuraminidase (NA) gene, and four amino acid mutations (D368E, S370L, E313K and G381D) within the head region of the SD01 NA, reduced virus replication in the respiratory tract of chickens, reduced virus NA activity, and resulted in a loss of airborne transmission ability in chickens. Similarly, reverse mutations of these four amino acids in the NA protein of r01/NASS virus, conferred an airborne transmission ability to the recombinant virus. We conclude that these four NA residues may be significant genetic markers for evaluating potential disease outbreak of H9N2 AIV, and propose that immediate attention should be paid to the airborne transmission of this virus.

  12. Uracil-DNA glycosylase-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of avian influenza virus preventing carry-over contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kim, Ji-Jung; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Geon

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (uRT-LAMP) for the visual detection of all subtypes of avian influenza A virus (AIV). The uRT-LAMP assay can prevent unwanted amplification by carryover contamination of the previously amplified DNA, although the detection limit of the uRT-LAMP assay is 10-fold lower than that of the RT-LAMP without a UNG treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of deoxyuridine triphosphate/UNG strategy in RT-LAMP for AIV detection, and the assay can be applied for the rapid, and reliable diagnosis of AIVs, even in contaminated samples. PMID:26726027

  13. Uracil-DNA glycosylase-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of avian influenza virus preventing carry-over contamination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kim, Ji-Jung; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Geon; Park, Choi-Kyu

    2016-09-30

    Here, we describe a uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (uRT-LAMP) for the visual detection of all subtypes of avian influenza A virus (AIV). The uRT-LAMP assay can prevent unwanted amplification by carryover contamination of the previously amplified DNA, although the detection limit of the uRT-LAMP assay is 10-fold lower than that of the RT-LAMP without a UNG treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of deoxyuridine triphosphate/UNG strategy in RT-LAMP for AIV detection, and the assay can be applied for the rapid, and reliable diagnosis of AIVs, even in contaminated samples.

  14. Assembly and immunological properties of a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) for avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huifang; Xue, Chunyi; Lv, Lishan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Qiliang; Liu, Kang; Chen, Xianxian; Zheng, Jing; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Yongchang

    2013-12-26

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are both important pathogens in poultry worldwide. The protection of poultry from avian influenza and Newcastle disease can be achieved through vaccination. We embarked on the development of a bivalent vaccine that would allow for a single immunization against both avian influenza and Newcastle disease. We constructed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) that is composed of the M1 protein and HA protein of avian influenza virus and a chimeric protein containing the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of AIV neuraminidase protein (NA) and the ectodomain of the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein (NA/HN). The single immunization of chickens with the chimeric VLP vaccine induced both AIV H5- and NDV-specific antibodies. The HI titers and specific antibodies elicited by the chimeric VLPs were statistically similar to those elicited in animals vaccinated with the corresponding commercial monovalent vaccines. Chickens vaccinated with chimeric VLP vaccine and then challenged with the Newcastle disease F48E9 virus displayed complete protection. Overall, the chimeric VLP vaccine elicits strong immunity and can protect against Newcastle disease virus challenge.

  15. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A.; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  16. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import.

    PubMed

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-03-18

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic.

  17. Research update on avian influenza viruses and H1N1 influenza virus in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory conducts research on many areas related to AI including pathogenesis and transmission studies, use of vaccination, virus ...

  18. Avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds in Georgia: 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nicola S; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Russell, Colin A; Machablishvili, Ann; Lexmond, Pascal; Verhagen, Josanne H; Vuong, Oanh; Onashvili, Tinatin; Donduashvili, Marina; Smith, Derek J; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2013-01-01

    The Caucasus, at the border of Europe and Asia, is important for migration and over-wintering of wild waterbirds. Three flyways, the Central Asian, East Africa-West Asia, and Mediterranean/Black Sea flyways, converge in the Caucasus region. Thus, the Caucasus region might act as a migratory bridge for influenza virus transmission when birds aggregate in high concentrations in the post-breeding, migrating and overwintering periods. Since August 2009, we have established a surveillance network for influenza viruses in wild birds, using five sample areas geographically spread throughout suitable habitats in both eastern and western Georgia. We took paired tracheal and cloacal swabs and fresh feces samples. We collected 8343 swabs from 76 species belonging to 17 families in 11 orders of birds, of which 84 were real-time RT-PCR positive for avian influenza virus (AIV). No highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) H5 or H7 viruses were detected. The overall AIV prevalence was 1.6%. We observed peak prevalence in large gulls during the autumn migration (5.3-9.8%), but peak prevalence in Black-headed Gulls in spring (4.2-13%). In ducks, we observed increased AIV prevalence during the autumn post-moult aggregations and migration stop-over period (6.3%) but at lower levels to those observed in other more northerly post-moult areas in Eurasia. We observed another prevalence peak in the overwintering period (0.14-5.9%). Serological and virological monitoring of a breeding colony of Armenian Gulls showed that adult birds were seropositive on arrival at the breeding colony, but juveniles remained serologically and virologically negative for AIV throughout their time on the breeding grounds, in contrast to gull AIV data from other geographic regions. We show that close phylogenetic relatives of viruses isolated in Georgia are sourced from a wide geographic area throughout Western and Central Eurasia, and from areas that are represented by multiple different flyways, likely linking different

  19. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  20. [Rapid detection of novel avian influenza virus subtype H7N9 by multiplex real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Luo, Bao-Zheng; Mo, Qiu-Hua; Li, Ru-Shu; Bo, Qing-Ru; Xu, Hai-Nie; Sha, Cai-Hua; Liao, Xiu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a rapid detection kit for novel avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7N9, two sets of specific primers and probes were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen (NA) of novel H7N9 virus (2013) available in GenBank to establish the method of TaqMan probe-based multiplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection of AIV subtype H7N9. The primer and probe of HA were for all H7 subtype AIVs, while the primer and probe of NA were only for novel N9 subtype AIVs. The results showed that this method had high sensitivity and specificity. This method was applicable to the testing of positive standard sample with a minimum concentration of 10 copies/microL; it not only distinguished H7 subtype from H1, H3, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, but also distinguished novel N9 subtype from traditional N9 subtype. A total of 2700 samples from Zhuhai, China were tested by this method, and the results were as expected. For the advantages of sensitivity and specificity, the method holds promise for wide application.

  1. Apolipoprotein AIF gene variant S347 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and lower apolipoprotein AIV plasma concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Wai-man R.; Hawe, Emma; Li, Lai K.; Miller, George J.; Nicaud, Viviane; Pennacchio, Len A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2003-01-30

    The impact of common variants in the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOC3-A4-A5) on prospective CHD risk was examined in healthy UK men. Of the 2808 men followed over nine years, 187 had a clinically defined CHD event. Examination of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this group revealed that homozygotes for APOA4 S347 had significantly increased risk of CHD [Hazard ratio (HR) of 2.07 (95%CI 1.04-4.12)] while men homozygous for APOC3 1100T were protected (HR 0.28 (95%CI 0.09-0.87)). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, after entering all the variants and adjusting for established risk factors APOA4 T347S alone remained in the model. Using nine-SNP haplotype analysis, highest risk-estimate haplotypes carried APOA4 S347 and rare alleles of the two flanking intergenic markers. The protective effect of APOC31100T could be explained by negative linkage disequilibrium with these alleles. To determine the association of APOA4 T347S with apoAIVlevels, the relationship was examined in over 1600 healthy young European men and women. S347 homozygotes had significantly lower apoAIV plasma levels (13.48 + 0.6mg/dl) compared to carriers of the T347 allele (14.85 + 0.12 mg/dl) (p=0.025). These results demonstrate that genetic variation in and around APOA4, independent of effects of TG, is associated with risk of CHD and apoAIV levels, supporting an anti-atherogenic role for apoAIV.

  2. CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph: how to achieve the full AIV at system level of a cryo-instrument in nine months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, S.; Cárdenas, C.; Amado, P.; Abril, M.; Ferro, I.; Mirabet, E.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Ramón, A.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Caballero Hernández, J. A.; Seifert, W.

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES is the new high-resolution high-stability spectrograph built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA, Almería, Spain) by a consortium formed by German and Spanish institutions. This instrument is composed by two separated spectrographs: VIS channel (550-1050 nm) and NIR channel (950- 1700 nm). The NIR-channel spectrograph's responsible institution is the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC. The contouring conditions have led CARMENES-NIR to be a schedule-driven project with a extremely tight plan. The operation start-up was mandatory to be before the end of 2015. This plays in contradiction to the very complex, calm-requiring tasks and development phases faced during the AIV, which has been fully designed and implemented at IAA through a very ambitious, zero-contingency plan. As a large cryogenic instrument, this plan includes necessarily a certain number cryo-vacuum cycles, this factor being the most important for the overall AIV duration. Indeed, each cryo-vacuum cycle of the NIR channel runs during 3 weeks. This plan has therefore been driven to minimize the amount of cryo-vacuum cycles. Such huge effort has led the AIV at system level at IAA lab to be executed in 9 months from start to end -an astonishingly short duration for a large cryogenic, complex instrument like CARMENES NIR- which has been fully compliant with the final deadline of the installation of the NIR channel at CAHA 3.5m telescope. The detailed description of this planning, as well as the way how it was actually performed, is the main aim of the present paper.

  3. The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

    2014-10-01

    Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections.

  4. Molecular quantitation of H9N2 avian influenza virus in various organs of broiler chickens using TaqMan real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Najmeh; Dadras, Habibollah; Mohammadi, Ali

    2009-01-16

    During the past decade, H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) has caused considerable economic loss due to decreased production, increased mortality and the cost of vaccination in Iranian poultry industry. Because of widespread occurrence of this disease and the virus potential to mutate to highly-pathogenic (HP) form and transmission to humans, it is, therefore, imperative to understand the pathogenesis and properties of these viruses. In this study, a two step TaqMan real time PCR assay was performed for the quantitation of A/chicken/Iran/772/1998(H(9)N(2)) virus in various organs of broiler chickens at different days post inoculation (DPI). Forty 5-week-old commercial broiler chickens were inoculated with the virus. Five chickens were randomly selected on days 1, 3, 6 and 9 PI. Their trachea, lungs, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, blood and faeces were collected for virus detection. A PCR test was performed and the positive samples were used for quantitative real time PCR assay. The result of RT-PCR assay showed the presence of the virus in trachea (40%, 33%), lungs (20%, 66.6%) and spleen (20%, 50%) of infected chickens on days 3 and 6 PI, respectively. The virus was also detected in the kidneys of inoculated chickens on 3 (40%), 6 (60%) and 9 (100%) DPI. In faecal samples the virus was only detected on day 6 PI (83.3%). The molecular quantitation of AIV showed that the AIV titre in the trachea, lungs and spleen of chickens at 3 DPI is lower than the AIV titre at 6 DPI in these organs. The highest titre was observed in the faeces. The AIV titre in all organs of the birds which died at 6 DPI was higher than those of the same organs in the other experimental birds.

  5. Detection of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Castilla-La Mancha (south central Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Barral, Marta; Höfle, Ursula

    2010-12-15

    The Iberian Peninsula is located along the East Atlantic and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways and is the third ranking European country as wintering quarter for wild migrating birds after Turkey and Rumania. For these reasons, Spanish wetlands are of importance in AIV surveillance, and of great interest for the study of the epidemiology of LPAIV under Mediterranean climate conditions. Nevertheless, information on prevalence of LPAIV viruses in Spain is still scarce and is restricted to two serological surveys carried out in the south of the country during 1990 and 1994 and one virological study performed recently in North East Spain. In the present study we analysed the prevalence of AIV circulating in wild birds in continental wetlands in central Spain and determined temporal, spatial and species variation. Real time RTPCR was performed on 1435 faecal samples and cloacal swabs from 54 species. An overall AIV prevalence of 2.6% was detected with a peak during November and December, when thousands of migrating wild birds arrive to Spain for wintering. Highest prevalence rates were detected in Phoenicopteriformes and Anseriformes. AIV prevalence obtained from cloacal swabs and fresh faeces did not vary significantly, which supports faecal sampling as an appropriate method for large scale LPAIV surveillance programs. Viral culture was achieved in samples obtained from two Mallards and a White stork, in which subtypes H7N9 and H11N9, respectively, were identified. Our results reflect a similar scenario in AIV epidemiology in small continental wetlands as compared to large coastal humid areas in Europe and underline the importance of including species such as flamingos and storks in surveillance programs, since their role in AIV ecology in these areas could be more important than previously considered.

  6. Adaptive Evolution and Environmental Durability Jointly Structure Phylodynamic Patterns in Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Benjamin; Drake, John M.; Brown, Justin; Stallknecht, David E.; Bedford, Trevor; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker signature of immune escape in AIVs than in human viruses. To explain these differences, we performed statistical analyses to quantify the relative contribution of several potential explanations. We found that HA genetic diversity in avian viruses is determined by a combination of factors, predominantly subtype-specific differences in host immune selective pressure and the ecology of transmission (in particular, the durability of subtypes in aquatic environments). Extending this analysis using a computational model demonstrated that virus durability may lead to long-term, indirect chains of transmission that, when coupled with a short host lifespan, can generate and maintain the observed high levels of genetic diversity. Further evidence in support of this novel finding was found by demonstrating an association between subtype-specific environmental durability and predicted phylogenetic signatures: genetic diversity, variation in phylogenetic tree branch lengths, and tree height. The conclusion that environmental transmission plays an important role in the evolutionary biology of avian influenza viruses—a manifestation of the “storage effect”—highlights the potentially unpredictable impact of wildlife reservoirs for future human pandemics and the need for improved understanding of the natural ecology of these viruses. PMID:25116957

  7. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses: Cocirculation of Avian Influenza Viruses with Allele A and B Nonstructural Gene in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) Ducks Wintering in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Alam; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Sultana, Nadia; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus strains of 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2), and 2009 (H1N1) have genes related to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The nonstructural (NS) gene of AIVs plays a significant role in host-viral interaction. However, little is known about the degree of diversity of this gene in Northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks wintering in Japan. This study describes characteristics of pintail-originated H1N1, H1N2, H1N3, H5N2, H5N3, H5N9, and H7N7 viruses. Most of the viruses were revealed to be avian strains and not related to pandemic and seasonal flu strains. Nevertheless, the NP genes of 62.5% (5/8) viruses were found closely related to a A/swine/Korea/C12/08, indicating exchange of genetic material and ongoing mammalian-linked evolution of AIVs. Besides, all the viruses, except Aomori/422/07 H1N1, contain PSIQSR∗GLF motif usually found in avian, porcine, and human H1 strains. The Aomori/422/07 H1N1 has a PSVQSR∗GLF motif identical to a North American strain. This findings linked to an important intercontinental, Asian-American biogeographical interface. Phylogenetically all the viruses were clustered in Eurasian lineage. Cocirculation of allele A and B (NS gene) viruses was evident in the study implying the existence of a wide reservoir of influenza A viruses in pintail wintering in Japan.

  8. Apolipoprotein AI and Transthyretin as Components of Amyloid Fibrils in a Kindred with apoAI Leu178His Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Vital, Claude; Ostler, Dominique; Fernandes, Rui; Pouget-Abadie, Jean; Carles, Dominique; Saraiva, Maria João

    2000-01-01

    We found a new C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), Leu178His in a French kindred, associated with cardiac and larynx amyloidosis and skin lesions with onset during the fourth decade. This single-point mutation in exon 4 of the apoAI gene was detected by DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified material and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in two siblings. Blood, larynx, and skin biopsies were available from one sibling. Anti-apoAI immunoblotting of isoelectric focusing of plasma showed a +1 alteration in the charge of the protein. Extraction of fibrils from the skin biopsy revealed both full-length and N-terminal fragments of apoAI and transthyretin (TTR). ApoAI and TTR co-localized in amyloid deposits as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The present report, together with the first recently described C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apoAI, Arg173Pro, shows that amyloidogenicity of apoAI is not a feature exclusive to N-terminal variants. The most striking characteristic of amyloid fibrils in Leu178His is that wild-type TTR is co-localized with apoAI in the fibrils. We have previously determined that a fraction of plasma TTR circulates in plasma bound to high-density lipoprotein and that this interaction occurs through binding to apoAI. Therefore we hypothesize that nonmutated TTR might influence deposition of apoAI as amyloid. PMID:10854214

  9. Apolipoprotein AI and transthyretin as components of amyloid fibrils in a kindred with apoAI Leu178His amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, M M; Vital, C; Ostler, D; Fernandes, R; Pouget-Abadie, J; Carles, D; Saraiva, M J

    2000-06-01

    We found a new C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), Leu178His in a French kindred, associated with cardiac and larynx amyloidosis and skin lesions with onset during the fourth decade. This single-point mutation in exon 4 of the apoAI gene was detected by DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified material and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in two siblings. Blood, larynx, and skin biopsies were available from one sibling. Anti-apoAI immunoblotting of isoelectric focusing of plasma showed a +1 alteration in the charge of the protein. Extraction of fibrils from the skin biopsy revealed both full-length and N-terminal fragments of apoAI and transthyretin (TTR). ApoAI and TTR co-localized in amyloid deposits as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The present report, together with the first recently described C-terminal amyloidogenic variant of apoAI, Arg173Pro, shows that amyloidogenicity of apoAI is not a feature exclusive to N-terminal variants. The most striking characteristic of amyloid fibrils in Leu178His is that wild-type TTR is co-localized with apoAI in the fibrils. We have previously determined that a fraction of plasma TTR circulates in plasma bound to high-density lipoprotein and that this interaction occurs through binding to apoAI. Therefore we hypothesize that nonmutated TTR might influence deposition of apoAI as amyloid.

  10. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...

  11. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...

  12. Variation in protection of four divergent avian influenza virus vaccine seed strains against eight clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1. Egyptian H5N1 high pathogenicity variants in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) was introduced to Egyptian poultry in 2006 and has since become enzootic. Vaccination has been utilized as a control tool, but for a variety of reasons the disease has not been eradicated. In 2007, an antigenically divergent hemagglutinin sub-c...

  13. Intense circulation of A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses in Cambodian live-bird markets with serological evidence of sub-clinical human infections

    PubMed Central

    Horm, Srey Viseth; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rith, Sareth; Ly, Sowath; Gambaretti, Juliette; Duong, Veasna; Y, Phalla; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Allal, Lotfi; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry and environmental samples was conducted in four live-bird markets in Cambodia from January through November 2013. Through real-time RT-PCR testing, AIVs were detected in 45% of 1048 samples collected throughout the year. Detection rates ranged from 32% and 18% in duck and chicken swabs, respectively, to 75% in carcass wash water samples. Influenza A/H5N1 virus was detected in 79% of samples positive for influenza A virus and 35% of all samples collected. Sequence analysis of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/H5N1 viruses, and full-genome analysis of six representative isolates, revealed that the clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus associated with Cambodian human cases during 2013 was the only A/H5N1 virus detected during the year. However, multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of HA and NA genes revealed co-circulation of at least nine low pathogenic AIVs from HA1, HA2, HA3, HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9, HA10 and HA11 subtypes. Four repeated serological surveys were conducted throughout the year in a cohort of 125 poultry workers. Serological testing found an overall prevalence of 4.5% and 1.8% for antibodies to A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Seroconversion rates of 3.7 and 0.9 cases per 1000 person-months participation were detected for A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Peak AIV circulation was associated with the Lunar New Year festival. Knowledge of periods of increased circulation of avian influenza in markets should inform intervention measures such as market cleaning and closures to reduce risk of human infections and emergence of novel AIVs. PMID:27436362

  14. Intense circulation of A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses in Cambodian live-bird markets with serological evidence of sub-clinical human infections.

    PubMed

    Horm, Srey Viseth; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rith, Sareth; Ly, Sowath; Gambaretti, Juliette; Duong, Veasna; Y, Phalla; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Allal, Lotfi; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-07-20

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry and environmental samples was conducted in four live-bird markets in Cambodia from January through November 2013. Through real-time RT-PCR testing, AIVs were detected in 45% of 1048 samples collected throughout the year. Detection rates ranged from 32% and 18% in duck and chicken swabs, respectively, to 75% in carcass wash water samples. Influenza A/H5N1 virus was detected in 79% of samples positive for influenza A virus and 35% of all samples collected. Sequence analysis of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/H5N1 viruses, and full-genome analysis of six representative isolates, revealed that the clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus associated with Cambodian human cases during 2013 was the only A/H5N1 virus detected during the year. However, multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of HA and NA genes revealed co-circulation of at least nine low pathogenic AIVs from HA1, HA2, HA3, HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9, HA10 and HA11 subtypes. Four repeated serological surveys were conducted throughout the year in a cohort of 125 poultry workers. Serological testing found an overall prevalence of 4.5% and 1.8% for antibodies to A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Seroconversion rates of 3.7 and 0.9 cases per 1000 person-months participation were detected for A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Peak AIV circulation was associated with the Lunar New Year festival. Knowledge of periods of increased circulation of avian influenza in markets should inform intervention measures such as market cleaning and closures to reduce risk of human infections and emergence of novel AIVs.

  15. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  16. Pathogenic potential of North American H7N2 avian influenza virus: a mutagenesis study using reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Won; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Senne, Dennis A; Suarez, David L

    2006-09-30

    An H7N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) first appeared in the live bird marketing system (LBMS) in the Northeastern United States in 1994. Since then this lineage of virus has become the predominant subtype of AIV isolated from the LBMS and has been linked to several costly commercial poultry outbreaks. Concern for this low pathogenicity isolate mutating to the highly pathogenic form has remained high because of the increasing number of basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site, which is known to be associated with increased pathogenicity of AIV. To address the risk of low pathogenic LBMS-lineage H7N2 virus mutating to the highly pathogenic form of the virus, we generated a series of mutant viruses that have changes in the sequence at the HA cleavage site by using plasmid-based reverse genetics. We confirmed that a conserved proline at -5 position from the HA cleavage site could be changed to a basic amino acid, producing a virus with five basic amino acids in a row at the cleavage site, but with no increase in virulence. Increased virulence was only observed when additional basic amino acids were inserted. We also observed that the virus preferred the arginine instead of lysine at the -4 position from the cleavage site to manifest increased virulence both in vitro and in vivo. Using helper virus-based reverse genetics, where only one transcription plasmid expressing a mutated HA vRNA is used, we identified specific HA cleavage site sequences that were preferentially incorporated into the low pathogenic wild-type virus. The resultant reassortant viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. This study provides additional evidence that H7 avian influenza viruses require an insertional event to become highly pathogenic, as compared to H5 viruses that can become highly pathogenic strictly by mutation or by insertions.

  17. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  18. AI techniques in geomagnetic storm forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    This review deals with how geomagnetic storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict geomagnetic storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of geomagnetic storms.

  19. Computational approach for predicting the conserved B-cell epitopes of hemagglutinin H7 subtype influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangyu; Sun, Qi; Ye, Zhonghua; Hua, Ying; Shao, Na; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Qiwei; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    An avian-origin influenza H7N9 virus epidemic occurred in China in 2013–2014, in which >422 infected people suffered from pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. H7N9 viruses belong to the H7 subtype of avian-origin influenza viruses (AIV-H7). Hemagglutinin (HA) is a vital membrane protein of AIV that has an important role in host recognition and infection. The epitopes of HA are significant determinants of the regularity of epidemic and viral mutation and recombination mechanisms. The present study aimed to predict the conserved B-cell epitopes of AIV-H7 HA using a bioinformatics approach, including the three most effective epitope prediction softwares available online: Artificial Neural Network based B-cell Epitope Prediction (ABCpred), B-cell Epitope Prediction (BepiPred) and Linear B-cell Epitope Prediction (LBtope). A total of 24 strains of Euro-Asiatic AIV-H7 that had been associated with a serious poultry pandemic or had infected humans in the past 30 years were selected to identify the conserved regions of HA. Sequences were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data databases. Using a combination of software prediction and sequence comparisons, the conserved epitopes of AIV-H7 were predicted and clarified. A total of five conserved epitopes [amino acids (aa) 37–52, 131–142, 215–234, 465–484 and 487–505] with a suitable length, high antigenicity and minimal variation were predicted and confirmed. Each obtained a score of >0.80 in ABCpred, 60% in LBtope and a level of 0.35 in Bepipred. In addition, a representative amino acid change (glutamine235-to-leucine235) in the HA protein of the 2013 AIV-H7N9 was discovered. The strategy adopted in the present study may have profound implications on the rapid diagnosis and control of infectious disease caused by H7N9 viruses, as well as by other virulent viruses, such as the Ebola virus. PMID:27703505

  20. Chinese and global distribution of H9 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenming; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guangyu; Li, Jinping; Zhuang, Qingye; Wang, Suchun; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are of significance in poultry and public health, but epidemiological studies about the viruses are scarce. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the viruses were analyzed based on 1233 previously reported sequences and 745 novel sequences of the viral hemagglutinin gene. The novel sequences were obtained through large-scale surveys conducted in 2008-2011 in China. The results revealed distinct distributions of H9 subtype AIVs in different hosts, sites and regions in China and in the world: (1) the dominant lineage of H9 subtype AIVs in China in recent years is lineage h9.4.2.5 represented by A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005; (2) the newly emerging lineage h9.4.2.6, represented by A/chicken/Guangdong/FZH/2011, has also become prevalent in China; (3) lineages h9.3.3, h9.4.1 and h9.4.2, represented by A/duck/Hokkaido/26/99, A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 and A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97, respectively, have become globally dominant in recent years; (4) lineages h9.4.1 and h9.4.2 are likely of more risk to public health than others; (5) different lineages have different transmission features and host tropisms. This study also provided novel experimental data which indicated that the Leu-234 (H9 numbering) motif in the viral hemagglutinin gene is an important but not unique determinant in receptor-binding preference. This report provides a detailed and updated panoramic view of the epidemiological distributions of H9 subtype AIVs globally and in China, and sheds new insights for the prevention of infection in poultry and preparedness for a potential pandemic caused by the viruses.

  1. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect fecal-oral route involving fecal-contaminated water. In this study, the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water was examined. A single cla...

  2. Protection of poultry from highly pathogenic avian influenza with multivalent virus-like particle vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses, especially H5 subtypes, cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic and wild bird populations. Dissemination of AI results primarily from the movement of the virus through infected poultry and poultry products, but migratory birds have also served as secondary...

  3. Inhibition of H9N2 Virus Invasion into Dendritic Cells by the S-Layer Protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Huang, Lulu; Zhu, Liqi; Mou, Chunxiao; Hou, Qihang; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are essential for the prevention of virus invasion and the maintenance of the immune balance. However, the mechanism of competition between probiotics and virus are unknown. The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer) protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in DCs. We found that the S-layer protein induced DCs activation and up-regulated the IL-10 secretion. The invasion and replication of the H9N2 virus in mouse DCs was successfully demonstrated. However, the invasion of H9N2 virus into DCs could be inhibited by treatment with the S-layer protein prior to infection, which was verified by the reduced hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) mRNA expression, and nucleoprotein (NP) protein expression in the DCs. Furthermore, treatment with the S-layer protein increases the Mx1, Isg15, and Ddx58 mRNA expressions, and remits the inflammatory process to inhibit H9N2 AIV infection. In conclusion, the S-layer protein stimulates the activation of mouse DCs, inhibits H9N2 virus invasion of DCs, and stimulates the IFN-I signaling pathway. Thus, the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is a promising biological antiviral material for AIV prevention.

  4. Inhibition of H9N2 Virus Invasion into Dendritic Cells by the S-Layer Protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Huang, Lulu; Zhu, Liqi; Mou, Chunxiao; Hou, Qihang; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are essential for the prevention of virus invasion and the maintenance of the immune balance. However, the mechanism of competition between probiotics and virus are unknown. The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer) protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in DCs. We found that the S-layer protein induced DCs activation and up-regulated the IL-10 secretion. The invasion and replication of the H9N2 virus in mouse DCs was successfully demonstrated. However, the invasion of H9N2 virus into DCs could be inhibited by treatment with the S-layer protein prior to infection, which was verified by the reduced hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) mRNA expression, and nucleoprotein (NP) protein expression in the DCs. Furthermore, treatment with the S-layer protein increases the Mx1, Isg15, and Ddx58 mRNA expressions, and remits the inflammatory process to inhibit H9N2 AIV infection. In conclusion, the S-layer protein stimulates the activation of mouse DCs, inhibits H9N2 virus invasion of DCs, and stimulates the IFN-I signaling pathway. Thus, the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is a promising biological antiviral material for AIV prevention. PMID:27826541

  5. Failure of transmission of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus between Mallards and freshwater snails: an experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Paul T; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Orahood, Darcy; Mooers, Nicole; Sullivan, Heather; Franklin, Alan B; Root, J Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    In aquatic bird populations, the ability of avian influenza (AI) viruses to remain infectious in water for extended periods provides a mechanism that allows viral transmission to occur long after shedding birds have left the area. However, this also exposes other aquatic organisms, including freshwater invertebrates, to AI viruses. Previous researchers found that AI viral RNA can be sequestered in snail tissues. Using an experimental approach, we determined whether freshwater snails (Physa acuta and Physa gyrina) can infect waterfowl with AI viruses by serving as a means of transmission between infected and naïve waterfowl via ingestion. In our first experiment, we exposed 20 Physa spp. snails to an AI virus (H3N8) and inoculated embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs with the homogenized snail tissues. Sequestered AI viruses remain infectious in snail tissues; 10% of the exposed snail tissues infected SPF eggs. In a second experiment, we exposed snails to water contaminated with feces of AI virus-inoculated Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to evaluate whether ingestion of exposed freshwater snails was an alternate route of AI virus transmission to waterfowl. None of the immunologically naïve Mallards developed an infection, indicating that transmission via ingestion likely did not occur. Our results suggest that this particular trophic interaction may not play an important role in the transmission of AI viruses in aquatic habitats.

  6. Opposite regulation of human versus mouse apolipoprotein A-I by fibrates in human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Berthou, L; Duverger, N; Emmanuel, F; Langouët, S; Auwerx, J; Guillouzo, A; Fruchart, J C; Rubin, E; Denèfle, P; Staels, B; Branellec, D

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of liver apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene expression by fibrates was studied in human apo A-I transgenic mice containing a human genomic DNA fragment driving apo A-I expression in liver. Treatment with fenofibrate (0.5% wt/wt) for 7 d increased plasma human apo A-I levels up to 750% and HDL-cholesterol levels up to 200% with a shift to larger particles. The increase in human apo A-I plasma levels was time and dose dependent and was already evident after 3 d at the highest dose (0.5% wt/wt) of fenofibrate. In contrast, plasma mouse apo A-I concentration was decreased after fenofibrate in nontransgenic mice. The increase in plasma human apo A-I levels after fenofibrate treatment was associated with a 97% increase in hepatic human apo A-I mRNA, whereas mouse apo A-I mRNA levels decreased to 51%. In nontransgenic mice, a similar down-regulation of hepatic apo A-I mRNA levels was observed. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that the increase in human apo A-I and the decrease in mouse apo A-I gene expression after fenofibrate occurred at the transcriptional level. Since part of the effects of fibrates are mediated through the nuclear receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), the expression of the acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) gene was measured as a control of PPAR activation. Both in transgenic and nontransgenic mice, fenofibrate induced ACO mRNA levels up to sixfold. When transgenic mice were treated with gemfibrozil (0.5% wt/wt) plasma human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels increased 32 and 73%, respectively, above control levels. The weaker effect of this compound on human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels correlated with a less pronounced impact on ACO mRNA levels (a threefold increase) suggesting that the level of induction of human apo A-I gene is related to the PPAR activating potency of the fibrate used. Treatment of human primary hepatocytes with fenofibric acid (500 microM) provoked an 83 and 50% increase in apo A-I secretion and

  7. The implementation of AI technologies in computer wargames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiller, John A.

    2004-08-01

    Computer wargames involve the most in-depth analysis of general game theory. The enumerated turns of a game like chess are dwarfed by the exponentially larger possibilities of even a simple computer wargame. Implementing challenging AI is computer wargames is an important goal in both the commercial and military environments. In the commercial marketplace, customers demand a challenging AI opponent when they play a computer wargame and are frustrated by a lack of competence on the part of the AI. In the military environment, challenging AI opponents are important for several reasons. A challenging AI opponent will force the military professional to avoid routine or set-piece approaches to situations and cause them to think much deeper about military situations before taking action. A good AI opponent would also include national characteristics of the opponent being simulated, thus providing the military professional with even more of a challenge in planning and approach. Implementing current AI technologies in computer wargames is a technological challenge. The goal is to join the needs of AI in computer wargames with the solutions of current AI technologies. This talk will address several of those issues, possible solutions, and currently unsolved problems.

  8. Quantifying the tracking capability of space-based AIS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has operated three Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in space. Two are on dedicated nano-satellites, AISSat-1 and AISSat-2. The third, the NORAIS Receiver, was installed on the International Space Station. A general method for calculating the upper bound on the tracking capability of a space-based AIS system has been developed and the results from the algorithm applied to AISSat-1 and the NORAIS Receiver individually. In addition, a constellation of AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 is presented. The tracking capability is defined as the probability of re-detecting ships as they move around the globe and is explained to represent and upper bound on a space-based AIS system performance. AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 operates on the nominal AIS1 and AIS2 channels, while the NORAIS Receiver data used are from operations on the dedicated space AIS channels, AIS3 and AIS4. The improved tracking capability of operations on the space AIS channels is presented.

  9. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  10. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  11. Application of AIS Technology to Forest Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.

  12. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  13. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-22

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society.

  14. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV.

  15. Serological Surveillance of Wild Waterfowl in Northern Australia for Avian Influenza Virus Shows Variations in Prevalence and a Cyclical Periodicity of Infection.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2015-12-01

    The virological surveillance of 3582 wild waterfowl in northern Australia from 2004 to 2009 for avian influenza virus (AIV) found an apparent prevalence (AP) of 1% (31 of 2989 cloacal swabs; 95% CI: 0.71%-1.47%) using a Taqman Type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and no viral isolations from 593 swabs tested by the embryonating chicken egg culture method. From serological testing using a nucleoprotein competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AIV antibody, 1131 of 3645 sera had ≥ 40% inhibition, indicating an apparent seroprevalence of 31% (95% CI: 29.5%-32.6%). This value suggests that the low AP from virological testing does not reflect the dynamics of AIV infection in these populations. Spatiotemporal and species variations in seroprevalence were found at wetland sampling sites, with consistently higher values at Kununurra in Western Australia (AP  =  39%, 95% CI: 36.9%-41.4%) compared to other locations. At Kununurra, seroprevalence values had a two-year cyclical periodicity and suggest this location is a hotspot of AIV activity. From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using multiple subtype antigens, the highest AP of HI reactions were to H6 and H5 subtypes. The phenomenon of cyclic periodicity in NP seroprevalence at Kununurra is hypothesized as being related to the prevalent H6 subtype that may have either become predominant or cycled back into a mostly AIV naïve flock. The inclusion of serological testing provided insight into the dynamics of AIV infection in wild birds such as species risk profiles and spatiotemporal patterns, important epidemiological information for a risk-based approach to surveillance.

  16. Different outcomes of infection of chickens and ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, C C; Diao, Y X; Sun, X Y; Hao, D M; Liu, X; Ge, P P

    2014-01-01

    As the major aquatic and terrestrial hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), ducks and chickens play a critical role in the evolution and spread of the H9N2 virus. However, the outcomes of infection of ducks and chickens with the H9N2 virus are not sufficiently documented. In this study, we compared the outcomes of infection of chickens and Peking ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 virus. The results showed that this virus caused more pronounced clinical signs and histological lesions in chickens. As for the virus shedding, chickens shed more virus in the trachea and less virus in the cloaca in levels of interferon (IFN) γ were found in the trachea of ducks compared with chickens, while comparison with ducks. As for cytokines, namely IFNs and interleukins (IL), higher higher levels of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 were observed in the ileum of chickens compared with ducks. Eventually, serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were higher in chickens than in ducks. Taken together, ducks and chickens use different strategies in response to the H9N2 virus infection in tissues representing main replication sites of low-pathogenic AIVs. Given the different outcomes of the H9N2 virus infection in ducks and chickens, different measures should be taken in vaccination and treatment.

  17. Avian influenza A viruses in birds --an ecological, ornithological and virological view.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Hergarten, G; Yilmaz, A

    2005-12-01

    Avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are the causative agents of the presently most important poultry disease. Ten countries in Asia and several other countries in Eastern Europe suffer high losses from the lethal effects of these viruses of the H5N1 subtype. AIV of other subtypes cause in additional countries severe losses. The threat to health and well-being of the avifauna, domestic poultry and possibly mammals including humans are worldwide of major concern. The European Union reacted with a complete import ban on untreated meat, eggs, poultry products as well as free-living and pet birds. Extensive surveillance of free-living birds and domestic poultry that is maintained in free-range and close to open waters were initiated in an attempt to gather information on the current status of infection with these viruses and to target appropriate countermeasures for the protection of domestic poultry (in-house keeping) and to safeguard food production for humans. Since the monitoring of free-living birds is labour-intensive, costly, and time-consuming, only birds should be included in the monitoring programme that harboured in the past most if not all influenza A viruses. The birds of the order Anatiformes, family Anatidae, subfamilies Anserinae and Anatinae, provided 65.9 % of all avian AIV isolates. The cosmopolitan Common Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the dominant species with the highest rate of isolations among all bird species. Second in frequency is the North-American Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors). Consequently, free-living anatiform birds of the genera Anas and Spatula should comprise the main focus for the collection of cloacal and pharyngeal swabs. With the likely exception of the most recent H5N1 viruses, signs of disease were not recorded in AIV infected anatiform birds. AIV isolations were definitely less frequently obtained from birds of the orders Phasianiformes (including domestic chickens and turkeys), Charadriiformes (plovers and lapwings

  18. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  19. Development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Qiong; Zhang, Jun; Muller, Claude P; Chen, Jing-Xian; Yang, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Ren; Li, Juan; He, Yun-Shao

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and, if transmitted to poultry, can cause serious economic losses. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for rapid detection of influenza virus type A, including H5 and H9 subtypes. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan reporter probes corresponding to matrix, H5, and H9 genes were used in a multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay can be applied to detect RNA of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes with a high specificity and a sensitivity of 10 copies per reaction. As a result of its short turnaround times and a high specificity and sensitivity, the assay is very suitable for large-scale screening during AIV outbreaks.

  20. Pedagogy and the PC: Trends in the AIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badua, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time,…

  1. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  2. Phylogenetic and biological characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (Vietnam 2005) in chickens and ducks virus research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus hemagglutinin (HA) genes shows a common origin, but the virus has evolved into at least three major clades (clades 0, 1, and 2) over the last 11 years. Previous reports of Vietnam viruses have documented predominantly clade 1 viruses. Unexpectedly,...

  3. Doctor AI: Predicting Clinical Events via Recurrent Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Edward; Bahadori, Mohammad Taha; Schuetz, Andy; Stewart, Walter F.; Sun, Jimeng

    2017-01-01

    Leveraging large historical data in electronic health record (EHR), we developed Doctor AI, a generic predictive model that covers observed medical conditions and medication uses. Doctor AI is a temporal model using recurrent neural networks (RNN) and was developed and applied to longitudinal time stamped EHR data from 260K patients over 8 years. Encounter records (e.g. diagnosis codes, medication codes or procedure codes) were input to RNN to predict (all) the diagnosis and medication categories for a subsequent visit. Doctor AI assesses the history of patients to make multilabel predictions (one label for each diagnosis or medication category). Based on separate blind test set evaluation, Doctor AI can perform differential diagnosis with up to 79% recall@30, significantly higher than several baselines. Moreover, we demonstrate great generalizability of Doctor AI by adapting the resulting models from one institution to another without losing substantial accuracy. PMID:28286600

  4. Potency, efficacy, and antigenic mapping of H7 avian influenza virus vaccines against the 2012 H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Kapczynski, Darrell; Xu, Yifei; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David

    2014-09-01

    In the spring of 2012 an outbreak of H7N3 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry in Mexico. Vaccination was implemented as a control measure, along with increased biosecurity and surveillance. At that time there was no commercially available H7 AIV vaccine in North America; therefore, a recent H7N3 wild bird isolate of low pathogenicity from Mexico (A/cinnamon teal/Mexico/2817/2006 H7N3) was selected and utilized as the vaccine seed strain. In these studies, the potency and efficacy of this vaccine strain was evaluated in chickens against challenge with the 2012 Jalisco H7N3 HPAIV. Although vaccine doses of 256 and 102 hemagglutinating units (HAU) per bird decreased morbidity and mortality significantly compared to sham vaccinates, a dose of 512 HAU per bird was required to prevent mortality and morbidity completely. Additionally, the efficacy of 11 other H7 AIV vaccines and an antigenic map of hemagglutination inhibition assay data with all the vaccines and challenge viruses were evaluated, both to identify other potential vaccine strains and to characterize the relationship between genetic and antigenic distance with protection against this HPAIV. Several other isolates provided adequate protection against the 2012 Jalisco H7N3 lineage, but antigenic and genetic differences were not clear indicators of protection because the immunogenicity of the vaccine seed strain was also a critical factor.

  5. Immune responses of chickens inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine coexpressing HA of H9N2 avain influenza virus and chicken IL-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Shang, Yan-Hong; Yao, Hui-Xia; Cui, Bao-An; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Zi-Xin; Wang, Ya-Dan; Chao, An-Jun; Duan, Ting-Yun

    2011-07-01

    Control of the circulation of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major concern for both animal and public health, and H9N2 AIV poses a major threat to the chicken industry worldwide. Here, we developed a recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV-HA) expressing the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the A/CH/JY/1/05 (H9N2) influenza virus and a recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV-HA/IL18) expressing the HA gene and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene. Recombinant plasmid pSY-HA/IL18 was constructed by cloning chicken IL-18 expression cassette into recombinant plasmid pSY-HA containing the HA gene. Two rFPVs were generated by transfecting two recombinant plasmids into the chicken embryo fibroblast cells pre-infected with S-FPV-017, and assessed for their immunological efficacy on one-day-old White Leghorn specific-pathogen-free chickens challenged with the A/CH/JY/1/05 (H9N2) strain. There was a significant difference in HI antibody levels (P<0.05) elicited by either rFPV-HA or rFPV-HA/IL18. The level of splenocyte proliferation response in the rFPV-HA/IL18-vaccinated group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in the rFPV-HA group. After challenge with 10(6.5)ELD(50) H9N2 AIV 43days after immunization, rFPVs vaccinated groups could prevent virus shedding and replication in multiple organs in response to H9N2 AIV infection, and rFPV-HA/IL18 vaccinated group had better inhibition of viruses than rFPV-HA vaccinated group. Our results show that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-HA vaccine could be enhanced significantly by simultaneous expression of IL-18.

  6. A cell-based high-throughput protocol to screen entry inhibitors of highly pathogenic viruses with Traditional Chinese Medicines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Cheng, Han; Yan, Hui; Wang, Peng-Zhan; Rong, Rong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Cheng-Bo; Du, Rui-Kun; Rong, Li-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Emerging viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), and avian influenza virus H5N1 (AIV) are global health concerns. Since there is very limited options (either vaccine or specific therapy) approved for humans against these viruses, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Previously we reported a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol to identify entry inhibitors for three highly pathogenic viruses (EBOV, LASV, and AIV) using a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudotyping platform which allows us to perform the screening in a BSL-2 facility. In this report, we have adopted this screening protocol to evaluate traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) in an effort to discover entry inhibitors against these viruses. Here we show that extracts of the following Chinese medicinal herbs exhibit potent anti-Ebola viral activities: Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Citrus aurantium L., Viola yedoensis Makino, Prunella vulgaris L., Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. mayuen (Roman.) Stapf, Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit., and Morus alba L. This study represents a proof-of-principle investigation supporting the suitability of this assay for rapid screening TCMs and identifying putative entry inhibitors for these viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:908-916, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Parameters influencing AIS 1 neck injury outcome in frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Norin, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y

    2004-06-01

    In order to gain more knowledge of the neck injury scenario in frontal impacts, a statistical study of parameters influencing incidences of AIS 1 neck injuries was performed. The data set consisted of 616 occupants in Volvo cars. Information regarding the crash, the safety systems, occupant characteristics (including prior neck problems), behavior and sitting posture at the time of impact, and neck symptoms (including duration) was collected and analyzed. Occupant characteristics (mainly gender, weight, and age), kinematics (head impacts) and behavior at the time of impact were identified as the most prominent parameter areas with regard to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Specifically, women had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to men, occupants under the age of 50 had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to those above 50 and occupants weighing less than 65 kg have a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than heavier occupants. Drivers stating that they impacted their head against a frontal interior structure had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than those without head impact. Also, occupants who stated they had tensed their neck muscles at the time of impact, had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to occupants who did not. Occupant activities, such as tightly gripping the steering wheel or straightening their arms showed a significantly increased AIS 1 neck injury rate, indicating that occupant behavior at time of impact could be influential with respect to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Also, occupants reporting prior neck problems had a higher rate of persistent symptoms (>1 year) but no difference with respect to passing symptoms (<3 months) as compared to those without prior neck problems. Additionally, there was no distinct pattern for the duration of neck symptoms.

  8. Impact of antigenic and genetic drift on the serologic surveillance of H5N2 avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Serologic surveillance of Avian Influenza (AI) viruses is carried out by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test using reference reagents. This method is recommended by animal health organizations as a standard test to detect antigenic differences (subtypes) between circulating influenza virus, vaccine- and/or reference- strains. However, significant discrepancies between reference antisera and field isolates have been observed during serosurveillance of influenza A viruses in pig and poultry farms. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of influenza virus genetic and antigenic drift on serologic testing using standard HI assays and reference reagents. Low pathogenic AI H5N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 1994 and 2008 were used for phylogenetic analysis of AI hemagglutinin genes and for serologic testing using antisera produced with year-specific AI virus isolates. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed significant divergence between early LPAI H5N2 viruses (1994 - 1998) and more recent virus field isolates (2002 - 2008). Results of the HI test were markedly influenced by the selection of the AI H5N2 virus (year of isolation) used as reference antigen for the assay. These analyses indicate that LPAI H5N2 viruses in Mexico are constantly undergoing genetic drift and that serosurveillance of AI viruses is significantly influenced by the antigen or antisera used for the HI test. Conclusions Reference viral antigens and/or antisera need to be replaced constantly during surveillance of AI viruses to keep pace with the AI antigenic drift. This strategy should improve the estimation of antigenic differences between circulating AI viruses and the selection of suitable vaccine strains. PMID:21172021

  9. Antigenic Cartography of H9 Avian Influenza Virus and Its Application to Vaccine Selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Davidson, Irit; Fouchier, Ron; Spackman, Erica

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the H9 subtype of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV), which is widespread in Asia and the Middle East. One of the most important factors for selecting an effective vaccine strain is the antigenic match between the hemagglutinin protein of the vaccine and the strain circulating in the field. To demonstrate the antigenic relationships among H9 AIVs, with a focus on Israeli H9 isolates, antigenic cartography was used to develop a map of H9 AIVs. Based on their antigenic diversity, three isolates from Israel were selected for vaccination-challenge studies: 1) the current vaccine virus, A/chicken/Israel/215/2007 H9N2 (Ck/215); 2) A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 H9N2 (Ck/1163); and 3) A/ostrich/Israel/1436/2003 (Os/1436). A 50% infective dose (ID50) model was used to determine the effect of the vaccines on susceptibility to infection by using a standardized dose of vaccine. Sera collected immediately prior to challenge showed that Ck/215 was the most immunogenic, followed by Ck/1163 and Os/1436. A significant difference in ID50 was only observed with Ck/215 homologous challenge, where the ID50 was increased by 2 log 10 per bird. The ID50 for Ck/1163 was the same, regardless of vaccine, including sham vaccination. The ID50 for Os/1436 was above the maximum possible dose and therefore could not be established.

  10. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T.; Hill, Nichola J.; Hussein, Islam T. M.; Ma, Eric J.; Easterday, Bernard C.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David E.; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Swartz, Michael D.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:27166585

  11. Host behaviour and physiology underpin individual variation in avian influenza virus infection in migratory Bewick's swans

    PubMed Central

    Hoye, Bethany J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Klaassen, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Individual variation in infection modulates both the dynamics of pathogens and their impact on host populations. It is therefore crucial to identify differential patterns of infection and understand the mechanisms responsible. Yet our understanding of infection heterogeneity in wildlife is limited, even for important zoonotic host–pathogen systems, owing to the intractability of host status prior to infection. Using novel applications of stable isotope ecology and eco-immunology, we distinguish antecedent behavioural and physiological traits associated with avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in free-living Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii). Swans infected with AIV exhibited higher serum δ13C (−25.3 ± 0.4) than their non-infected counterparts (−26.3 ± 0.2). Thus, individuals preferentially foraging in aquatic rather than terrestrial habitats experienced a higher risk of infection, suggesting that the abiotic requirements of AIV give rise to heterogeneity in pathogen exposure. Juveniles were more likely to be infected (30.8% compared with 11.3% for adults), shed approximately 15-fold higher quantity of virus and exhibited a lower specific immune response than adults. Together, these results demonstrate the potential for heterogeneity in infection to have a profound influence on the dynamics of pathogens, with concomitant impacts on host habitat selection and fitness. PMID:21733894

  12. An Impedance Aptasensor with Microfluidic Chips for Specific Detection of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jacob; Wang, Ronghui; Hargis, Billy; Tung, Steve; Bottje, Walter; Lu, Huaguang; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this research a DNA aptamer, which was selected through SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to be specific against the H5N1 subtype of the avian influenza virus (AIV), was used as an alternative reagent to monoclonal antibodies in an impedance biosensor utilizing a microfluidics flow cell and an interdigitated microelectrode for the specific detection of H5N1 AIV. The gold surface of the interdigitated microelectrode embedded in a microfluidics flow cell was modified using streptavidin. The biotinylated aptamer against H5N1 was then immobilized on the electrode surface using biotin–streptavidin binding. The target virus was captured on the microelectrode surface, causing an increase in impedance magnitude. The aptasensor had a detection time of 30 min with a detection limit of 0.0128 hemagglutinin units (HAU). Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the binding of the target virus onto the electrode surface. The DNA aptamer was specific to H5N1 and had no cross-reaction to other subtypes of AIV (e.g., H1N1, H2N2, H7N2). The newly developed aptasensor offers a portable, rapid, low-cost alternative to current methods with the same sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26230699

  13. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Mute swans in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alexander; Machova, Jirina; Hornickova, Jitka; Tomci, Miroslav; Nagl, Ivan; Horyna, Bedrich; Holko, Ivan

    2007-02-25

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild birds in the Czech Republic extensive surveillance was carried out between January and April 2006. A total of 2101 samples representing 61 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza A by using PCR, sequencing and cultivation on chicken embryos. AIV subtype H5N1 was detected in 12 Mute swans (Cygnus olor). The viruses were determined as HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza) and the hemagglutinin sequence was closely similar to A/mallard/Italy/835/06 and A/turkey/Turkey/1194/05. Following the first H5N1 case, about 300 wild birds representing 33 species were collected from the outbreak region and tested for the presence of AIV without any positive result. This is the first report of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 in the Czech Republic. The potential role of swan as an effective vector of avian influenza virus is also discussed.

  14. Apoptosis induction and release of inflammatory cytokines in the oviduct of egg-laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Chao; Wang, Qiuzhen; Li, Ruiqiao; Chen, Zhanli; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xingang

    2015-06-12

    The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8α(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-β, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-α was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage.

  15. The mRNA and Proteins Expression Levels Analysis of TC-1 Cells Immune Response to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Ning; Meng, Dan; Hao, Mengchan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Since 1994, the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has spread widely in mainland China, causing great economic losses to the poultry industry there. Subsequently, it was found that the H9N2 AIV had the ability to infect mammals, which gave rise to great panic. In order to investigate the immune response of a host infected with H9N2 AIV, TC-1 cells were set as a model in this research. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to study the expression changes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in AIV-infected TC-1 cells. Our research found that TC-1 cells had similar susceptibility to both CK/SD/w3 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W3/2012) and CK/SD/w4 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W4/2012) H9N2 isolates, while the CK/SD/w3 isolate had a stronger capability of replication in the TC-1 cells. At the same time, the expression of PRRs (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, MDA-5), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6], and chemokines [regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and interferon-γ-induced protein-10 kDa (IP-10)] were significantly up-regulated. These results indicated that MDA-5, IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES, and IP-10 might play important roles in the host immune response to H9N2 AIV infection. This study provided useful information for further understanding the interaction between H9N2 virus infection and host immunity, and had certain guiding significance for the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:27446066

  16. Genetic changes that accompanied shifts of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses toward higher pathogenicity in poultry

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of H5 and H7 subtypes exhibit two different pathotypes in poultry: infection with low pathogenic (LP) strains results in minimal, if any, health disturbances, whereas highly pathogenic (HP) strains cause severe morbidity and mortality. LPAIV of H5 and H7 subtypes can spontaneously mutate into HPAIV. Ten outbreaks caused by HPAIV are known to have been preceded by circulation of a predecessor LPAIV in poultry. Three of them were caused by H5N2 subtype and seven involved H7 subtype in combination with N1, N3, or N7. Here, we review those outbreaks and summarize the genetic changes which resulted in the transformation of LPAIV to HPAIV under natural conditions. Mutations that were found directly in those outbreaks are more likely to be linked to virulence, pathogenesis, and early adaptation of AIV. PMID:23863606

  17. Identification of a Highly Conserved Epitope on Avian Influenza Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 Using a Peptide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xuexia; Bao, Hongmei; Shi, Lin; Tao, Qimeng; Jiang, Yongping; Zeng, Xianying; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Guobin; Zheng, Shimin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein. It is present at high levels in infected cells and can be used for AIV detection and diagnosis. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibody (MAb) D7 against AIV NS1 protein by immunization of BALB/c mice with purified recombinant NS1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Isotype determination revealed that the MAb was IgG1/κ-type subclass. To identify the epitope of the MAb D7, the NS1 protein was truncated into a total of 225 15-mer peptides with 14 amino acid overlaps, which were spotted for a peptide microarray. The results revealed that the MAb D7 recognized the consensus DAPF motif. Furthermore, the AIV NS1 protein with the DAPF motif deletion was transiently expressed in 293T cells and failed to react with MAb D7. Subsequently, the DAPF motif was synthesized with an elongated GSGS linker at both the C- and N-termini. The MAb D7 reacted with the synthesized peptide both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot assays. From these results, we concluded that DAPF motif is the epitope of MAb D7. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 4-mer epitope on the NS1 protein of AIV that can be recognized by MAb using a peptide microarray, which is able to simplify epitope identification, and that could serve as the basis for immune responses against avian influenza. PMID:26938453

  18. Influenza-A Viruses in Ducks in Northwestern Minnesota: Fine Scale Spatial and Temporal Variation in Prevalence and Subtype Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Knutsen, Gregory A.; Berdeen, James; Goekjian, Virginia; Poulson, Rebecca; Goyal, Sagar; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Cardona, Carol; Berghaus, Roy D.; Swayne, David E.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 AIV subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. Ten hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes were detected each year (i.e., H1, 3–8, and 10–12 during 2007; H1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008). All neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were detected during each year of the study. Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. Predominant subtypes during 2007 (comprising ≥5% of subtype diversity) included H1N1, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H7N3, H10N7, and H11N9. Predominant subtypes during 2008 included H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7. Additionally, within each HA subtype, the same predominant HA/NA subtype combinations were detected each year and included H1N1, H3N8, H4N6, H5N2, H6N1, H7N3, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N9. The H2N3 and H12N5 viruses also predominated within the H2 and H12 subtypes, respectively, but only were detected during a single year (H2 and H12 viruses were not detected during 2007 and 2008, respectively). Mallards were the predominant species sampled (63.7% of the total), and 531 AIV were isolated from this species (80.5% of the total isolates). Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity. PMID:21931636

  19. DNA microarray-based solid-phase RT-PCR for rapid detection and identification of influenza virus type A and subtypes H5 and H7.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong; Handberg, Kurt; Wolff, Anders

    2011-04-01

    Endemic of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Asia and epizootics in some European regions have caused considerable public concern on a possible pandemic of AIV. A rapid method for virus detection and effective surveillance in wild avian, poultry production as well as in humans is required. In this article, a DNA microarray-based solid-phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach has been developed for rapid detection of influenza virus type A and for simultaneous identification of pathogenic virus subtypes H5 and H7. This solid-phase RT-PCR method combined reverse-transcription amplification of RNA extract in the liquid phase with sequence-specific nested PCR on the solid phase. A simple ultraviolet cross-linking method was used to immobilize the DNA probes over an unmodified glass surface, which makes solid-phase PCR a convenient possibility for AIV screening. The testing of 33 avian fecal and tracheal swab specimens was completed in less than 2 h with 94% accuracy.

  20. Emerging highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in France during winter 2015/16: phylogenetic analyses and markers for zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Briand, François-Xavier; Schmitz, Audrey; Ogor, Katell; Le Prioux, Aurélie; Guillou-Cloarec, Cécile; Guillemoto, Carole; Allée, Chantal; Le Bras, Marie-Odile; Hirchaud, Edouard; Quenault, Hélène; Touzain, Fabrice; Cherbonnel-Pansart, Martine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Courtillon, Céline; Gares, Hélène; Daniel, Patrick; Fediaevsky, Alexandre; Massin, Pascale; Blanchard, Yannick; Eterradossi, Nicolas; van der Werf, Sylvie; Jestin, Véronique; Niqueux, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Several new highly pathogenic (HP) H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) have been detected in poultry farms from south-western France since November 2015, among which an HP H5N1. The zoonotic potential and origin of these AIVs immediately became matters of concern. One virus of each subtype H5N1 (150169a), H5N2 (150233) and H5N9 (150236) was characterised. All proved highly pathogenic for poultry as demonstrated molecularly by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in their HA protein – with a sequence (HQRRKR/GLF) previously unknown among avian H5 HPAI viruses – or experimentally by the in vivo demonstration of an intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.9 for the H5N1 HP isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on the full genomes obtained by NGS confirmed that the eight viral segments of the three isolates were all part of avian Eurasian phylogenetic lineage but differed from the Gs/Gd/1/96-like lineage. The study of the genetic characteristics at specific amino acid positions relevant for modulating the adaptation to and the virulence for mammals showed that presently, these viruses possess most molecular features characteristic of AIV and lack some major characteristics required for efficient respiratory transmission to or between humans. The three isolates are therefore predicted to have no significant pandemic potential. PMID:28277218

  1. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Effect of route of inoculation on replication of avian influenza virus (H9N2) and interferon gene expression in guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis).

    PubMed

    Umar, S; Munir, M T; Kaboudi, K; Rehman, A; Asif, S; Usman, M; Ali, A; Shahzad, M; Subhan, S; Shah, M A A

    2016-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the replication of a re-assortant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) and induction of the interferon (IFNγ) response after aerosol or intranasal inoculation with the virus in guinea fowl. To determine virus shedding pattern, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and tissue specimens of trachea, lungs, spleen and caecal tonsils were collected post-inoculation (pi). Infected guinea fowl showed mild clinical signs, while negative control guinea fowl remained healthy and active throughout the experiment irrespective of the inoculation route. However, the clinical signs were more prominent in guinea fowl infected through the aerosol route. Virus was detected in all oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 7 d pi in guinea fowl from both inoculation groups. However, virus was detected more frequently and in higher titres in oropharyngeal swabs and specimens of trachea and lungs from the group exposed to aerosols than in the group given intranasal drops. In accordance with viral replication findings, expression of IFNγ was up-regulated on 1, 2 and 4 d pi to a significantly higher level in lung tissue specimens from the group exposed to virus aerosol than from controls treated with PBS intranasally. On the other hand, IFNγ was up-regulated above that of controls in lung tissue specimens from the group treated with intranasal drops of virus only on 4 d pi. These findings indicate that virus administered in aerosols was more efficient in infecting the lower respiratory tract and in inducing activity of the IFNγ gene than virus administered as intranasal drops. The results of this study suggest that virus aerosols cause more intense respiratory infection and increase the shedding of the H9N2 AIV in guinea fowl, highlighting the potential role of guinea fowl as a mixing bowl for transmission and maintenance of H9N2 AIV between poultry premises.

  3. D701N mutation in the PB2 protein contributes to the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses but not transmissibility in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Wei, Liangmeng; Song, Yafen; Cui, Jin; Song, Hui; Cao, Lan; Yuan, Runyu; Luo, Kaijian; Liao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of clade 2.3.2 has been circulating in waterfowl in Southern China since 2003. Our previous studies showed that certain H5N1 HPAIV isolates within clade 2.3.2 from Southern China had high pathogenicity in different birds. Guinea pigs have been successfully used as models to evaluate the transmissibility of AIVs and other species of influenza viruses in mammalian hosts. However, few studies have reported pathogenicity and transmissibility of H5N1 HPAIVs of this clade in guinea pigs. In this study, we selected an H5N1 HPAIV isolate, A/duck/Guangdong/357/2008, to investigate the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in guinea pigs. The virus had high pathogenicity in mice; additionally, it only replicated in some tissues of the guinea pigs without production of clinical signs, but was transmissible among guinea pigs. Interestingly, virus isolates from co-caged guinea pigs had the D701N mutation in the PB2 protein. These mutant viruses showed higher pathogenicity in mice and higher replication capability in guinea pigs but did not demonstrate enhanced the transmissibility among guinea pigs. These findings indicate the transmission of the H5N1 virus between mammals could induce virus mutations, and the mutant viruses might have higher pathogenicity in mammals without higher transmissibility. Therefore, the continued evaluation of the pathogenicity and transmissibility of avian influenza virus (AIVs) in mammals is critical to the understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of AIVs and the emergence of potential pandemic strains.

  4. Genetic analysis of H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulated in broiler flocks: a case study in Iraq in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Kraidi, Qayssar Ali; Madadgar, Omid; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been recorded in Eurasian for several years. Since 2004-2005, the disease has become endemic in Iraq, causing serious economic losses in the poultry industry. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), two out of eight protein-coding genes, play an important role during the early stage of infection and hinder virus assembling. Little is known about the genetic information of the H9N2 viruses currently circulating in Iraq; thus, gene sequences of six AIVS of the H9N2 subtype have been detected and analyzed in the period of 2014-2015 from different outbreaks of broiler flocks in five provinces situated in the middle and southern parts of Iraq. Genetic comparison of the partial sequences of HA gene indicated that all Iraqi viruses are related to each other and could be divided into two subgroups. Viruses of the first and the second subgroups demonstrated a high similar identity with Pakistani and Iranian viruses, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the NA protein of the all studied Iraqi viruses were very similar (95.2-100% identity), and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with Iranian, Pakistani, and Lebanese strains. All six recent viruses possessed histidine, alanine, and leucine at positions 183, 190, and 226, respectively, which are the key residues in receptor-binding sites. The Iraqi viruses were closely related to viruses of G1-like lineage isolated from poultry flocks of Iran and Pakistan, suggesting that possible epidemiological links could be derived from a common origin. Further investigations are required and should include the viral isolation and full-length molecular characterization of H9N2 AIVs in this area.

  5. Recent progresses on AI-2 bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Li, Minyong

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a communication procedure that predominates gene expression in response to cell density and fluctuations in the neighboring environment as a result of discerning molecules termed autoinducers (AIs). It has been embroiled that QS can govern bacterial behaviors such as the secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, bioluminescence production, conjugation, sporulation and swarming motility. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a QS signaling molecule brought up to be involved in interspecies communication, exists in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Therefore, novel approaches to interrupt AI-2 quorum sensing are being recognized as next generation antimicrobials. In the present review article, we summarized recent progresses on AI-2 bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors and discussed their potential as the antibacterial agents.

  6. Quality measures and assurance for AI (Artificial Intelligence) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.

  7. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  8. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  9. AI-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Bachtiar, Endang W; Bachtiar, Boy M; Jarosz, Lucja M; Amir, Lisa R; Sunarto, Hari; Ganin, Hadas; Meijler, Michael M; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2014-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2), synthesized by LuxS, that plays an important role in expression of virulence factors, in intra- but also in interspecies communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AI-2 based signaling in the interactions between C. albicans and A. actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans adhered to C. albicans and inhibited biofilm formation by means of a molecule that was secreted during growth. C. albicans biofilm formation increased significantly when co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS, lacking AI-2 production. Addition of wild-type-derived spent medium or synthetic AI-2 to spent medium of the luxS strain, restored inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Addition of synthetic AI-2 significantly inhibited hypha formation of C. albicans possibly explaining the inhibition of biofilm formation. AI-2 of A. actinomycetemcomitans is synthesized by LuxS, accumulates during growth and inhibits C. albicans hypha- and biofilm formation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between bacteria and fungi may provide important insight into the balance within complex oral microbial communities.

  10. Calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.

  11. Influenza at the animal-human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1).

    PubMed

    Freidl, G S; Meijer, A; de Bruin, E; de Nardi, M; Munoz, O; Capua, I; Breed, A C; Harris, K; Hill, A; Kosmider, R; Banks, J; von Dobschuetz, S; Stark, K; Wieland, B; Stevens, K; van der Werf, S; Enouf, V; van der Meulen, K; Van Reeth, K; Dauphin, G; Koopmans, M

    2014-05-08

    Factors that trigger human infection with animal influenza virus progressing into a pandemic are poorly understood. Within a project developing an evidence-based risk assessment framework for influenza viruses in animals, we conducted a review of the literature for evidence of human infection with animal influenza viruses by diagnostic methods used. The review covering Medline, Embase, SciSearch and CabAbstracts yielded 6,955 articles, of which we retained 89; for influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9), the official case counts of t he World Health Organization were used. An additional 30 studies were included by scanning the reference lists. Here, we present the findings for confirmed infections with virological evidence. We found reports of 1,419 naturally infected human cases, of which 648 were associated with avian influenza virus (AIV) A(H5N1), 375 with other AIV subtypes, and 396 with swine influenza virus (SIV). Human cases naturally infected with AIV spanned haemagglutinin subtypes H5, H6, H7, H9 and H10. SIV cases were associated with endemic SIV of H1 and H3 subtype descending from North American and Eurasian SIV lineages and various reassortants thereof. Direct exposure to birds or swine was the most likely source of infection for the cases with available information on exposure.

  12. Newly Emergent Highly Pathogenic H5N9 Subtype Avian Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Xingbo; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hailong; Si, Weiying; Yang, Hui; Wu, Jiusheng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Guang; Sang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xiaopeng; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Yu, Xinfen; Pan, Jingcao; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) was demonstrated to cause severe human respiratory infections in China. Here, we examined poultry specimens from live bird markets linked to human H7N9 infection in Hangzhou, China. Metagenomic sequencing revealed mixed subtypes (H5, H7, H9, N1, N2, and N9). Subsequently, AIV subtypes H5N9, H7N9, and H9N2 were isolated. Evolutionary analysis showed that the hemagglutinin gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM227/2012 (H5N1), which belongs to clade 2.3.2.1. The neuraminidase gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from human-infective A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (H7N9). The six internal genes were similar to those of other H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 virus strains. The virus harbored the PQRERRRKR/GL motif characteristic of highly pathogenic AIVs at the HA cleavage site. Receptor-binding experiments demonstrated that the virus binds α-2,3 sialic acid but not α-2,6 sialic acid. Identically, pathogenicity experiments also showed that the virus caused low mortality rates in mice. This newly isolated H5N9 virus is a highly pathogenic reassortant virus originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes. Live bird markets represent a potential transmission risk to public health and the poultry industry. IMPORTANCE This investigation confirms that the novel H5N9 subtype avian influenza A virus is a reassortant strain originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes and is totally different from the H5N9 viruses reported before. The novel H5N9 virus acquired a highly pathogenic H5 gene and an N9 gene from human-infecting subtype H7N9 but caused low mortality rates in mice. Whether this novel H5N9 virus will cause human infections from its avian host and become a pandemic subtype is not known yet. It is therefore imperative to assess the risk of emergence of this novel reassortant virus with potential transmissibility to public health. PMID:26085150

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Differential Expression of Cellular Proteins in Response to Avian H9N2 Virus Infection of A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guanliu; Liang, Wei; Liu, Jiyuan; Meng, Dan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Cai, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Sixteen different spots between the groups (ratio > 2, p < 0.05) were identified with mass spectrometry identification. Proteins located in the downstream of the NF-κB and IFN transcription factor pathways were identified, e.g., ISG15. Actin and keratin were also identified, suggesting that the cytoskeleton may plays an important role in the AIV infection of mammalian cells. These findings could provide insights into the interaction between host and influenza viruses and might provide valuable information for clarifying the pathogenesis of viral infections as well. PMID:28018302

  14. Characterization of the axon initial segment (AIS) of motor neurons and identification of a para-AIS and a juxtapara-AIS, organized by protein 4.1B

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a crucial role: it is the site where neurons initiate their electrical outputs. Its composition in terms of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, as well as its length and localization determine the neuron's spiking properties. Some neurons are able to modulate their AIS length or distance from the soma in order to adapt their excitability properties to their activity level. It is therefore crucial to characterize all these parameters and determine where the myelin sheath begins in order to assess a neuron's excitability properties and ability to display such plasticity mechanisms. If the myelin sheath starts immediately after the AIS, another question then arises as to how would the axon be organized at its first myelin attachment site; since AISs are different from nodes of Ranvier, would this particular axonal region resemble a hemi-node of Ranvier? Results We have characterized the AIS of mouse somatic motor neurons. In addition to constant determinants of excitability properties, we found heterogeneities, in terms of AIS localization and Nav composition. We also identified in all α motor neurons a hemi-node-type organization, with a contactin-associated protein (Caspr)+ paranode-type, as well as a Caspr2+ and Kv1+ juxtaparanode-type compartment, referred to as a para-AIS and a juxtapara (JXP)-AIS, adjacent to the AIS, where the myelin sheath begins. We found that Kv1 channels appear in the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS concomitantly with myelination and are progressively excluded from the para-AIS. Their expression in the AIS and JXP-AIS is independent from transient axonal glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1)/Caspr2, in contrast to juxtaparanodes, and independent from PSD-93. Data from mice lacking the cytoskeletal linker protein 4.1B show that this protein is necessary to form the Caspr+ para-AIS barrier, ensuring the compartmentalization of Kv1 channels and the segregation of the AIS, para-AIS

  15. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ducks represent an important reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses and are partly responsible for the worldwide dissemination of AI. Due to the ability of some low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the hemagglutinin H7 subtype to mutate into a highly pathogenic form o...

  16. Variation in infectivity and adaptation of wild duck- and poultry-origin high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses vary in their adaptation which impacts transmission between and infection of different bird species. We determine the intranasal mean bird infectious doses (BID50) for 11 high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses for layer type chickens (LC), and three low pathogenicity (LP) A...

  17. Inverse modeling of biomass smoke emissions using the TOMS AI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Penner, J. E.; Torres, O.

    2003-12-01

    Results of inverse modeling of biomass smoke emissions using the TOMS AI and a three-dimensional transport model are presented. The IMPACT model with DAO meteorology data in 1997 are utilized to obtain aerosol spatial and temporal distributions. Two absorbing aerosol types are considered, including biomass smoke and mineral dust. First, a radiative transfer model is applied to generate the modeled AI. Then a Bayesian inverse technique is applied to optimize the difference between the modeled AI and the EP TOMS AI in the same period by regulating monthly a priori biomass smoke emissions, while the dust emissions are fixed. The modeled AI with a posteriori emissions generally is in better agreement with the EP TOMS AI. The annual global a posteriori source increases by about 13% for the year 1997 (6.31 Tg/yr BC) in the base scenario, with a larger adjustment of monthly regional emissions. Five sensitivity scenarios are carried out, including sensitivity to the a priori uncertainties, the height of the smoke layer, the cloud screening criteria of the daily EP TOMS AI, the adjustment of emissions in a lumped region outside of the major biomass burning regions, and the covariances between observations. Results suggest that a posteriori annual global emissions in the sensitivity scenarios are within 15% of that of the base scenario. However, the difference of annual a posteriori emissions between the sensitivity scenarios and the base scenario can be as large as 50% on regional scale. We are also applying the inverse model technique to the year 2000 to compare with biomass emissions deduced from an analysis based on burned areas.

  18. Expression of scavenger receptor‐AI promotes alternative activation of murine macrophages to limit hepatic inflammation and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, Adam C.; Sung, Sun‐Sang J.; Jennelle, Lucas T.; Dandekar, Aditya P.

    2016-01-01

    The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate that expression of C‐type lectin receptor scavenger receptor‐AI (SR‐AI) is crucial for promoting M2‐like Mϕ activation and polarization during hepatic inflammation. Liver Mϕ uniquely up‐regulated SR‐AI during hepatotropic viral infection and displayed increased expression of alternative Mϕ activation markers, such as YM‐1, arginase‐1, and interleukin‐10 by activation of mer receptor tyrosine kinase associated with inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin. Expression of these molecules was reduced on Mϕ obtained from livers of infected mice deficient for the gene encoding SR‐AI (msr1). Furthermore, in vitro studies using an SR‐AI‐deficient Mϕ cell line revealed impeded M2 polarization and decreased phagocytic capacity. Direct stimulation with virus was sufficient to activate M2 gene expression in the wild‐type (WT) cell line, but not in the knockdown cell line. Importantly, tissue damage and fibrosis were exacerbated in SR‐AI–/– mice following hepatic infection and adoptive transfer of WT bone‐marrow–derived Mϕ conferred protection against fibrosis in these mice. Conclusion: SR‐AI expression on liver Mϕ promotes recovery from infection‐induced tissue damage by mediating a switch to a proresolving Mϕ polarization state. (Hepatology 2017;65:32‐43). PMID:27770558

  19. Little evidence of avian or equine influenza virus infection among a cohort of Mongolian adults with animal exposures, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia's migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective study

  20. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 avian influenza viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine, with an overall virus isolation frequency of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from thr...

  1. 76 FR 44045 - Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... of Justice Programs Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee AGENCY: Office for... (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Initiative (``SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee'' or... (FACA), as amended, 5 U.S.C., App. 2. The SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee will provide the...

  2. Adaptation and transmission of a duck-origin avian influenza virus in poultry species.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinling; zu Dohna, Heinrich; Anchell, Nichole L; Adams, Sean C; Dao, Nguyet T; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol J

    2010-01-01

    A duck-origin avian influenza virus (AIV) was used to study viral adaptation and transmission patterns in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). Inoculated birds were housed with naïve birds of the same species and all birds were monitored for infection. The inoculating duck virus was transmitted effectively by contact in both species. Viruses recovered from infected birds showed mutations as early as 1 or 3 days after inoculation in chickens and ducks, respectively. Amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) or deletions in neuraminidase (NA) stalk regions were identified in chicken isolates, but only substitutions in HA were identified in duck isolates. HA substitution-containing viruses replicated more efficiently than those with NA stalk deletions. NA deletion mutants were not recovered from contact chickens, suggesting inefficient transmission. Amino acid substitutions in HA proteins appeared in pairs in chickens, but were independent in ducks, indicating adaptation in chickens. In addition, our findings showed that a duck-origin virus can rapidly adapt to chickens, suggesting that the emergence of new epidemic AIV can be rapid.

  3. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Christina; Stallknecht, David; Swayne, David; Brown, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are believed to be transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect faecal–oral route involving contaminated water. This study examined the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water. Clams were placed into individual flasks with distilled water inoculated 1:100 with a low pathogenic (LP) AI virus (A/Mallard/MN/190/99 (H3N8)). Viral titres in water with clams were significantly lower at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation compared to LPAI-infected water without clams. To determine whether clams affected the infectivity of AI viruses, 18 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were divided into test groups and inoculated with a variety of treatments of clam supernatants, whole clams and water exposed to a high pathogenic (HP) AI (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1)). None of the wood ducks inoculated with HPAI-infected water that was filtered by clams or that was inoculated with or fed tissue from these clams exhibited morbidity or mortality. All wood ducks exposed to either HPAI-infected water without clams or the original viral inoculum died. These results indicate that filter-feeding bivalves can remove and reduce the infectivity of AI viruses in water and demonstrate the need to examine biotic environmental factors that can influence AI virus transmission. PMID:19656788

  4. Molecular analysis of hemagglutinin-1 fragment of avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Gusti N; Jonas, Melina; Murwijati, Theresia; Fitria, Nur; Suartha, I Nyoman; Suartini, I Gusti A A; Wibawan, I Wayan Teguh

    2016-04-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1) has been circulating in Indonesia since 2003. To understand the genetic diversity of these viruses, and to predict vaccine efficacy, the hemaglutinin-1 (HA-1) fragment of viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010 was sequenced and analyzed. The effects of these molecular changes were investigated in challenge experiments and HI assays of homologous and heterologous strains. Molecular analysis showed that these AIV-H5N1 isolates had evolved into three distinct sub-lineages from an ancestor circulating since 2003. Although no significant positive selection of residues was detected, 12 negatively selected sites were identified (p<0.05). Moreover, four sites showed evidence of significant episodic diversifying selection. The findings indicated complete protectivity and high HI titers with homologous strains, compared with protectivity ranging from 40 to 100% and lower HI titers with heterologous strains resulting from polymorphisms at antigenic sites. Our findings provide valuable insight into the molecular evolution of AIV and have important implications for vaccine efficacy and future vaccination strategies.

  5. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  6. Discovering Knowledge from AIS Database for Application in VTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng

    The widespread use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has had a significant impact on maritime technology. AIS enables the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) not only to offer commonly known functions such as identification, tracking and monitoring of vessels, but also to provide rich real-time information that is useful for marine traffic investigation, statistical analysis and theoretical research. However, due to the rapid accumulation of AIS observation data, the VTS platform is often unable quickly and effectively to absorb and analyze it. Traditional observation and analysis methods are becoming less suitable for the modern AIS generation of VTS. In view of this, we applied the same data mining technique used for business intelligence discovery (in Customer Relation Management (CRM) business marketing) to the analysis of AIS observation data. This recasts the marine traffic problem as a business-marketing problem and integrates technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), database management systems, data warehousing and data mining to facilitate the discovery of hidden and valuable information in a huge amount of observation data. Consequently, this provides the marine traffic managers with a useful strategic planning resource.

  7. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  8. Synergetic effects of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infection on growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuan; Ju, Sidi; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-08-27

    To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P<0.05). Chickens inoculated with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower weights than chickens in all other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two single infection groups and co-infection group (P>0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

  9. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  10. Toward detecting California shrubland canopy chemistry with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Westman, Walter E.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS)-2 data of coastal sage scrub vegetation were examined for fine spectral features that might be used to predict concentrations of certain canopy chemical constituents. A Fourier notch filter was applied to the AIS data and the TREE and ROCK mode spectra were ratioed to a flat field. Portions of the resulting spectra resemble spectra for plant cellulose and starch in that both show reduced reflectance at 2100 and 2270 nm. The latter are regions of absorption of energy by organic bonds found in starch and cellulose. Whether the relationship is sufficient to predict the concentration of these chemicals from AIS spectra will require testing of the predictive ability of these wavebands with large field sample sizes.

  11. Situated, strategic, and AI-Enhanced technology introduction to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bushko, Renata G

    2005-01-01

    We work hard on creating AI-wings for physicians to let them fly higher and faster in diagnosing patients--a task that physicians do not want to automate. What we do not work hard on is determining the ENVIRONMENT in which physicians' AI wings are supposed to function. It seems to be a job for social/business analysts that have their own separate kingdom. For the sake of all of us (potential patients!) social/business consultants and their methodologies should not be treated as a separate kingdom. The most urgent task is to achieve synergy between (1) AI/Fuzzy/Neural research, (2) Applied medical AI, (3) Social/Business research on medical institutions. We need this synergy in order to assure humanistic medical technology; technology flexible and sensitive enough to facilitate healthcare work while leaving space for human pride and creativity. In order to achieve humanistic technology, designers should consider the impact of technological breakthroughs on the organizations in which this technology will function and the nature of work of humans destined to use this technology. Situated (different for each organization), Strategic (based on an in-depth knowledge of Healthcare business), and AI-Enhanced (ended with a dynamic model) method for introducing technology to Healthcare allows identifying areas where technology can make medical work easier. Using this method before automating human work will get us closer to the ideal where there is no discontinuity between design and use of programs; where the technology matches users' needs perfectly--the world with humanistic technology and healthcare workers with AI-wings.

  12. Influenza A virus monitoring in urban and free-ranging pigeon populations in Germany, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Andrea; Lüschow, Dörte; Lierz, Michael; Hafez, Hafez M

    2011-09-01

    Tracheal and cloacal swabs as well as blood samples from 408 feral urban (Columba livia forma domestica) and 170 free-ranging wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) in Germany were tested for infection with avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Neither influenza A virus was isolated in the swab samples nor influenza A virus RNA detected using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-qPCR). In three urban feral pigeons, avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 1 was isolated. Two of 123 serum samples from hunted free-ranging wood pigeons contained specific antibodies against influenza A virus but not against the subtypes H5 and H7. In conclusion, our study indicates that even after the occurrence of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in the area of investigation in Germany, pigeons do not play a major part in the transmission of influenza viruses. The risk of AIV infection for humans from urban and free-ranging wood pigeons is, if at all, of minimal importance.

  13. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus, a powerful tool for control of the disease, may result in issues related to surveillance programs and international trade of poultry and poultry products. The use of AI vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test...

  14. Molecular characterization of H6 subtype influenza viruses in southern China from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Wenbing; Bai, Tian; Dong, Libo; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-01

    H6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries, have been isolated from pigs, a dog and a human. Routine virological surveillance at live poultry markets or poultry farms was conducted in southern China from 2009 to 2011. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characteristics, analyzed the receptor-binding properties and evaluated the kinetics of infectivity of the AIVs in A549, MDCK and PK15 cells. A total of 14 H6N6 and 2 H6N2 isolates were obtained from four provinces in southern China. Genetic analysis indicated two distinct hemagglutinin lineages of the H6 strains cocirculating in southern China, and these strains facilitated active evolution and reassortment among multiple influenza virus subtypes from different avian species in nature. None of these isolates grouped with the novel Taiwan H6N1 virus responsible for human infection. Receptor-binding specificity assays showed that five H6 AIVs may have acquired the ability to recognize human receptors. Growth kinetics experiments showed that EV/HB-JZ/02/10(H6N2) and EV/JX/15/10(H6N6) initially reproduced faster and achieved higher titers than other viruses, suggesting that enhanced binding to α-2,6-linked sialic acids correlated with increased viral replication in mammalian cells. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H6 outbreaks and extensive characterization of H6 isolates to better understand genetic changes and their implications. PMID:27436363

  15. Molecular characterization of H6 subtype influenza viruses in southern China from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Wenbing; Bai, Tian; Dong, Libo; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-07-20

    H6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries, have been isolated from pigs, a dog and a human. Routine virological surveillance at live poultry markets or poultry farms was conducted in southern China from 2009 to 2011. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characteristics, analyzed the receptor-binding properties and evaluated the kinetics of infectivity of the AIVs in A549, MDCK and PK15 cells. A total of 14 H6N6 and 2 H6N2 isolates were obtained from four provinces in southern China. Genetic analysis indicated two distinct hemagglutinin lineages of the H6 strains cocirculating in southern China, and these strains facilitated active evolution and reassortment among multiple influenza virus subtypes from different avian species in nature. None of these isolates grouped with the novel Taiwan H6N1 virus responsible for human infection. Receptor-binding specificity assays showed that five H6 AIVs may have acquired the ability to recognize human receptors. Growth kinetics experiments showed that EV/HB-JZ/02/10(H6N2) and EV/JX/15/10(H6N6) initially reproduced faster and achieved higher titers than other viruses, suggesting that enhanced binding to α-2,6-linked sialic acids correlated with increased viral replication in mammalian cells. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H6 outbreaks and extensive characterization of H6 isolates to better understand genetic changes and their implications.

  16. Frame synchronization of satellite based on AIS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexiang; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    Frame synchronization play a very important role in coding of AIS. There are much arithmetic like maximum-likelihood, correlation and so on. But most of those cannot achieve good performance with large frequency offset. As satellite-based AIS system exist larger time delay and Doppler frequency offset, this paper propose arithmetic of frame synchronization. It is based on folding auto-correlation, where the top half and second half of training sequence have largest correlation after it is modulated by GMSK. Simulation experiments indicate that this arithmetic has good anti-frequency-offset performance.

  17. Rapid prototyping and AI programming environments applied to payload modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1987-01-01

    This effort focused on using artificial intelligence (AI) programming environments and rapid prototyping to aid in both space flight manned and unmanned payload simulation and training. Significant problems addressed are the large amount of development time required to design and implement just one of these payload simulations and the relative inflexibility of the resulting model to accepting future modification. Results of this effort have suggested that both rapid prototyping and AI programming environments can significantly reduce development time and cost when applied to the domain of payload modeling for crew training. The techniques employed are applicable to a variety of domains where models or simulations are required.

  18. Diverter AI based decision aid, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Bayles, Scott J.; Patterson, Robert W.; Schulke, Duane A.; Williams, Deborah C.

    1989-01-01

    It was determined that a system to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) into airborne flight management computers is feasible. The AI functions that would be most useful to the pilot are to perform situational assessment, evaluate outside influences on the contemplated rerouting, perform flight planning/replanning, and perform maneuver planning. A study of the software architecture and software tools capable of demonstrating Diverter was also made. A skeletal planner known as the Knowledge Acquisition Development Tool (KADET), which is a combination script-based and rule-based system, was used to implement the system. A prototype system was developed which demonstrates advanced in-flight planning/replanning capabilities.

  19. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  20. Neutrality, Cross-Immunity and Subtype Dominance in Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Vicki L.; Drake, John M.; Barton, Heather D.; Stallknecht, David E.; Brown, Justin D.; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are considered a threat for their potential to seed human influenza pandemics. Despite their acknowledged importance, there are significant unknowns regarding AIV transmission dynamics in their natural hosts, wild birds. Of particular interest is the difference in subtype dynamics between human and bird populations–in human populations, typically only two or three subtypes cocirculate, while avian populations are capable of simultaneously hosting a multitude of subtypes. One species in particular–ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres)–has been found to harbour a very wide range of AIV subtypes, which could make them a key player in the spread of new subtypes in wild bird populations. Very little is known about the mechanisms that drive subtype dynamics in this species, and here we address this gap in our knowledge. Taking advantage of two independent sources of data collected from ruddy turnstones in Delaware Bay, USA, we examine patterns of subtype diversity and dominance at this site. We compare these patterns to those produced by a stochastic, multi-strain transmission model to investigate possible mechanisms that are parsimonious with the observed subtype dynamics. We find, in agreement with earlier experimental work, that subtype differences are unnecessary to replicate the observed dynamics, and that neutrality alone is sufficient. We also evaluate the role of subtype cross-immunity and find that it is not necessary to generate patterns consistent with observations. This work offers new insights into the mechanisms behind subtype diversity and dominance in a species that has the potential to be a key player in AIV dynamics in wild bird populations. PMID:24586401

  1. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  2. AI in the Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Susan N.; Biglan, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Describes activities that present concepts and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) for elementary and secondary school students. The use of Logo with elementary students is discussed; appropriate software is described; programing activities using Logo, BASIC, and Prolog are examined; and the field of robotics is discussed. (four…

  3. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory…

  4. New directions for Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in optimum design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1989-01-01

    Developments and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in the design of structural systems is reviewed. Principal shortcomings in the current approach are emphasized, and the need for some degree of formalism in the development environment for such design tools is underscored. Emphasis is placed on efforts to integrate algorithmic computations in expert systems.

  5. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  6. State Revolving Fund American Iron and Steel (AIS) Requirement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The AIS provision requires CWSRF and DWSRF assistance recipients to use iron and steel products that are produced in the U.S. It applies to projects for the construction, alteration, maintenance, or repair of a public water system or treatment work.

  7. Automatic Identification System (AIS) Transmit Testing in Louisville Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    project. Two of the captains were Capt. David Williams and Capt. Spencer Kennedy. After leaving SCI, the team members went to Crounse Inc. and met...team members had a phone conference with Herbert Taylor (VP Operations, Kongsberg Maritime Simulation Inc.) to discuss the integration of AIS data in

  8. 33 CFR 164.46 - Automatic Identification System (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forth in IMO SN/Circ.227 (incorporated by reference, see § 164.03). Not all AIS units are able to broadcast position, course, and speed without the input of an external positioning device (e.g. dGPS); the use of other external devices (e.g. transmitting heading device, gyro, rate of turn indicator)...

  9. AI in Reverse: Computer Tools That Become Cognitive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    The question of whether human thinking can come to simulate computer intelligence--i.e., AI in reverse--is addressed in this paper. Examples are given of three computer tools which perform several functions that constitute an intellectual partnership between student and tool. Such functions include: (1) assuming part of the intellectual burden in…

  10. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-04-25

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project.

  11. Genotypic evolution and antigenicity of H9N2 influenza viruses in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Feifei; Li, Xin; Ju, Houbin; Yang, Dequan; Liu, Jian; Qi, Xinyong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xianchao; Qiu, Yafeng; Liu, Peihong; Zhou, Jinping

    2016-06-01

    H9N2 influenza viruses have been circulating in China since 1994, but a systematic investigation of H9N2 in Shanghai has not previously been undertaken. Here, using 14 viruses we isolated from poultry and pigs in Shanghai during 2002 and 2006-2014, together with the commercial vaccine A/chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98), we analyzed the evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in Shanghai and showed that all 14 isolates originated from Ck/SH/F/98 antigenically. We evaluated the immune protection efficiency of the vaccine. Our findings demonstrate that H9N2 viruses in Shanghai have undergone extensive reassortment. Various genotypes emerged in 2002, 2006 and 2007, while during 2009-2014 only one genotype was found. Four antigenic groups, A-D, could be identified among the 14 isolates and a variety of antigenically distinct H9N2-virus-derived avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulated simultaneously in Shanghai during this period. Challenge experiments using vaccinated chickens indicated that the vaccine prevented shedding of antigenic group A and B viruses, but not those of the more recent groups C and D. Genetic analysis showed that compared to the vaccine strain, representative viruses of antigenic groups C and D possess greater numbers of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein than viruses in antigenic groups A and B. Many of these substitutions are located in antigenic sites. Our results indicate that the persistence of H9N2 AIV in China might be due to incomplete vaccine protection and that the avian influenza vaccine should be regularly evaluated and updated to maintain optimal protection.

  12. Detection of autoinducer (AI-2)-like activity in food samples.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Pillai, Suresh D

    2011-01-01

    The contamination, survival, and possible foodborne disease outbreaks are major issues confronting the food industry. However, from a microbial perspective, any food whether natural or processed is just another environmental niche that is available for colonization. Quorum sensing or cell-cell communication is a process by which microorganisms are thought to communicate with each other using a variety of small molecules termed autoinducers. The autoinducer AI-2 is thought to be a universal signaling molecule due to its ability to modulate the gene expression of a number of different bacterial species and genera. Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, Streptococcus sp., and Burkholderia cepacia form biofilms on a variety of man-made and natural surfaces using cell-cell mechanisms. It is important to detect and study autoinducers and their activities in foods, since a better understanding of these molecules in food and food ingredients may help in designing new approaches to thwart microbial persistence and biofilm formation. The autoinducer AI-2 is thought to be involved in microbial attachment and biofilm formation leading to food spoilage. To better understand microbial cell-cell signaling in foods especially as it relates to pathogen persistence, biofilm formation, and food spoilage, methods to process, extract, and purify autoinducer molecules need to be developed. This chapter details methods to process food samples to obtain cell-free supernatants (CFS), which could subsequently be tested for the presence of AI-2 or "AI-2-like activity" in the extracted CFS using autoinducer bioassays. Additionally, the method of synthesizing AI-2 in the laboratory is also provided. The methods that are presented in this chapter are based on previously published research articles from the authors' laboratory.

  13. Temperature effects for high pressure processing of Picornaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the effects of pre-pressurization temperature on the high pressure inactivation for single strains of aichivirus (AiV), coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5) viruses, as well as human parechovirus -1 (HPeV), was performed. For CAV9, an average 1.99 log10 greater inactivation was ...

  14. Composition of the Hemagglutinin Polybasic Proteolytic Cleavage Motif Mediates Variable Virulence of H7N7 Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, E. M.; Veits, Jutta; Ulrich, Reiner; Kasbohm, Elisa; Teifke, Jens P.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of a polybasic cleavage site (pCS) in the hemagglutinin (HA) is a prerequisite for the shift of low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) to the highly pathogenic (HP) form in chickens. Whereas presence of a pCS is required for high pathogenicity, less is known about the effect of composition of pCS on virulence of AIV particularly H7N7. Here, we investigated the virulence of four avian H7N7 viruses after insertion of different naturally occurring pCS from two HPAIV H7N7 (designated pCSGE and pCSUK) or from H7N1 (pCSIT). In vitro, the different pCS motifs modulated viral replication and the HA cleavability independent on the HA background. However, in vivo, the level of virulence conferred by the different pCS varied significantly. Within the respective viral backgrounds viruses with pCSIT and pCSGE were more virulent than those coding for pCSUK. The latter showed also the most restricted spread in inoculated birds. Besides the pCS, other gene segments modulated virulence of these H7N7 viruses. Together, the specific composition of the pCS significantly influences virulence of H7N7 viruses. Eurasian LPAIV H7N7 may shift to high pathogenicity after acquisition of “specific” pCS motifs and/or other gene segments from HPAIV. PMID:28004772

  15. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Senne, Dennis A.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pasick, John; Handel, Katherine; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha; Lee, Chang-Won; Stallknecht, David; Slemons, Richard; Ip, Hon S.; Deliberto, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 105.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage.

  16. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, D. E.; Suarez, D. L.; Senne, D. A.; Pedersen, J. C.; Killian, M. L.; Pasick, J.; Handel, K.; Pillai, S. P. S.; Lee, C. -W.; Stallknecht, D.; Slemons, R.; Ip, H. S.; Deliberto, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 10 5.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. A fast and sensitive immunoassay of avian influenza virus based on label-free quantum dot probe and lateral flow test strip.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuepu; Lu, Donglian; Sheng, Zonghai; Chen, Kun; Guo, Xuebo; Jin, Meilin; Han, Heyou

    2012-10-15

    A novel fluorescence immunoassay method for fast and ultrasensitive detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) was developed. The immunoassay method which integrated lateral flow test strip technique with fluorescence immunoassay used the label-free and high luminescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal output. By the sandwich immunoreaction performed on lateral flow test strip, the gold nanoparticle (NP) labels were captured in the test zone and further dissolved to release a large number of gold ions as a signal transduction bridge that was detected by the QDs-based fluorescence quenching method. Under the optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of QDs was linear over the range of 0.27-12 ng mL(-1) AIV, and the limit of detection was estimated to be 0.09 ng mL(-1) which was 100-fold greater than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitive and specific response was also coupled with high reproducibility in the proposed method. A series of six parallel measurements produced reproducible fluorescent signals with a relative standard deviation of 4.7%. The proposed method can be used to directly detect clinical sample without any pretreatment, and showed high efficiency (90.0%), sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (88.2%) compared with virus isolation (gold method). The new method shows great promise for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of AIV in-field or point-of-care diagnosis.

  18. The comparison of pathology in ferrets infected by H9N2 avian influenza viruses with different genomic features.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rongbao; Bai, Tian; Li, Xiaodan; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Yiwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Ye; Bo, Hong; Zou, Shumei; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-15

    H9N2 avian influenza virus circulates widely in poultry and has been responsible for sporadic human infections in several regions. Few studies have been conducted on the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV isolates that have different genomic features. We compared the pathology induced by a novel reassortant H9N2 virus and two currently circulating H9N2 viruses that have different genomic features in ferrets. The results showed that the three viruses can induce infections with various amounts of viral shedding in ferrets. The novel H9N2 induced respiratory infection, but no pathological lesions were observed in lung tissues. The other two viruses induced mild to intermediate pathological lesions in lung tissues, although the clinical signs presented mildly in ferrets. The pathological lesions presented a diversity consistent with viral replication in ferrets.

  19. 78 FR 17232 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)--Sexual Assault Response Team (SART.../Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)--Sexual Assault Response Team...

  20. In vitro responses of chicken macrophage-like monocytes following exposure to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli ghosts loaded with a rational design of conserved genetic materials of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Lagzian, Milad; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important viral diseases in the poultry industry. Therefore, new disease-fighting strategies, especially effective genetic vaccination, are in high demand. Bacterial Ghost (BG) is a promising platform for delivering genetic materials to macrophages, cells that are among the first to encounter these viruses. However, there is no investigation on the immune response of these macrophage-targeted treatments. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic materials of AIV and NDV on the gene expression profile of important pro-inflammatory cytokines, a chemokine, a transcription factor, major histocompatibility complexes, and the viability of the chicken macrophage-like monocyte cells (CMM). Our genetic construct contained the external domain of matrix protein 2 and nucleoprotein gene of AIV, and immunodominant epitopes of fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of NDV (hereinafter referred to as pAIV-Vax), delivered via the pathogenic and non-pathogenic BGs (Escherichia coli O78K80 and E. coli TOP10 respectively). The results demonstrated that both types of BGs were able to efficiently deliver the construct to the CMM, although the pathogenic strain derived BG was a significantly better stimulant and delivery vehicle. Both BGs were safe regarding LPS toxicity and did not induce any cell death. Furthermore, the loaded BGs were more powerful in modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines' responses and antigen presentation systems in comparison to the unloaded BGs. Nitric oxide production of the BG-stimulated cells was also comparable to those challenged by the live bacteria. According to the results, the combination of pAIV-Vax construct and E. coli O78K80 BG is promising in inducing a considerable innate and adaptive immune response against AIV-NDV and perhaps the pathogenic E. coli, provided that the current combination be a potential candidate for in vivo testing regarding the development of an

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  2. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of surface protein genes of emerging H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from poultry in two geographical regions of China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yu; Wang, Jing-Lan; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Li, Guang-Wei; Chen, Shun-Yan; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Qin, Jian-Ping; Li, Hai-Yan; Chang, Shuang; Chen, Feng; Bee, Ying-Zuo; Xie, Qing-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Subtype H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating in China have aroused increasing concerns for their impact on poultry and risk to public health. The present study was an attempt to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship of H9N2 AIVs in two geographically distinct regions of China where vaccination is routinely practiced. A total of 18 emerging H9N2 isolates were identified and genetically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes confirmed that the isolates belonged to the Y280 lineage. Based on the HA genes, the isolates were subdivided into two subgroups. The viruses from Zhejiang Province were clustered together in Group I, while the isolates from Guangdong Province were clustered together in Group II. Antigenic characterization showed that the tested viruses were antigenically different when compared to the current used vaccine strain. It was notable that 14 out of total 18 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q→L) at position 216 (226 by H3 Numbering) in the receptor-binding site, which indicated that the virus had potential affinity of binding to human like receptor. These results suggest that the emerging viruses have potential risk to public health than previously thought. Therefore, continuous surveillance studies of H9N2 influenza virus are very important to the prognosis and control of future influenza pandemics.

  3. Adaptive amino acid substitutions enhance the virulence of an H7N7 avian influenza virus isolated from wild waterfowl in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Yu, Zhijun; Sun, Weiyang; Li, Xue; Chai, Hongliang; Gao, Xiaolong; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Geng; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Wang, Tiecheng; Hua, Yuping

    2015-05-15

    Although H7N7 AIVs primarily circulate in wild waterfowl, documented cases of human infection with H7N7 viruses suggest they may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a wild waterfowl-origin H7N7 virus to identify adaptive changes that confer enhanced virulence in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the adapted variants were reduced >5000-fold compared to the parental virus. Mouse-adapted variants viruses displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and acquired the ability to replicate in extrapulmonary tissues. These observations suggest that enhanced growth characteristics and modified cell tropism may increase the virulence of H7N7 AIVs in mice. Genomic analysis of the adapted variant viruses revealed amino acid changes in the PB2 (E627K), PB1 (R118I), PA (L550M), HA (G214R), and NA (S372N) proteins. Our results suggest that these amino acid substitutions collaboratively enhance the ability of H7N7 virus to replicate and cause severe disease in mammals.

  4. Rapid PCR-Based Molecular Pathotyping of H5 and H7 Avian Influenza Viruses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, Mikael; Ullman, Karin; Thyselius, Susanna; Zohari, Siamak; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hanna, Amanda; Mahmood, Sahar; Banks, Jill; Slomka, Marek J.; Belák, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    While the majority of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes are classified as low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV), the H5 and H7 subtypes have the ability to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in poultry and therefore are the etiological agents of notifiable AIV (NAIV). It is of great importance to distinguish HPAIV from LPAIV variants during H5/H7 outbreaks and surveillance. To this end, a novel and fast strategy for the molecular pathotyping of H5/H7 AIVs is presented. The differentiation of the characteristic hemagglutinin (HA) protein cleavage sites (CSs) of HPAIVs and LPAIVs is achieved by a novel PCR method where the samples are interrogated for all existing CSs with a 484-plex primer mixture directly targeting the CS region. CSs characteristic for HP or LP H5/H7 viruses are distinguished in a seminested duplex real-time PCR format using plexor fluorogenic primers. Eighty-six laboratory isolates and 60 characterized NAIV-positive clinical specimens from poultry infected with H5/H7 both experimentally and in the field were successfully pathotyped in the validation. The method has the potential to substitute CS sequencing in the HA gene for the determination of the molecular pathotype, thereby providing a rapid means to acquire additional information concerning NAIV outbreaks, which may be critical to their management. The new assay may be extended to the LP/HP differentiation of previously unknown H5/H7 isolates. It may be considered for integration into surveillance and control programs in both domestic and wild bird populations. PMID:21900520

  5. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  6. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  7. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  9. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  10. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  11. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  12. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems for interpreting complex medical datasets.

    PubMed

    Altman, R B

    2017-02-09

    Advances in machine intelligence have created powerful capabilities in algorithms that find hidden patterns in data, classify objects based on their measured characteristics, and associate similar patients/diseases/drugs based on common features. However, artificial intelligence (AI) applications in medical data have several technical challenges: complex and heterogeneous datasets, noisy medical datasets, and explaining their output to users. There are also social challenges related to intellectual property, data provenance, regulatory issues, economics, and liability.

  13. The AIS: A Spectrograph/Imager Ensemble for Space Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-17

    emissions in the vicinity of spacecraft. It includes nine spectrographs, which cover the spectral range from 115 to 1100 snm#.Vlithpe- tralI ...designations, wavelength ranges, and fields of view. 10 3. Spectrograph parameters and calibration results . 26 4. Imager parameters and calibration... results . 28 BI Weights and Dimensions of the boxes that comprise the AIS 42 Accession For NTIS GRA& DTIC TAB 0 Unamotced E0 Just ificat1o by Distrlbution

  14. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged frommore » 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.« less

  15. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AI Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, R. T.; Janke, C. J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new series of adsorbents (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole to mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with high degrees of grafting (DOG) varying from 110 to 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 5 wt % hydroxylamine at 80 °C for 72 h. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with prescreening brine spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacities in prescreening ranged from 171 to 187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of percent DOG. The performance of the adsorbents with respect to uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also investigated using flow-throughcolumn testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Three hours of KOH conditioning led to higher uranium uptake than 1 h of conditioning. The adsorbent AI11, containing AN and VPA at the mole ratio of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for the highest uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in seawater flow-through-columns. The rate of vanadium adsorption over uranium linearly increased throughout the 56 days of exposure. The total mass of vanadium uptake was ~5 times greater than uranium after 56 days.

  16. Functional subdivisions in low-frequency primary auditory cortex (AI).

    PubMed

    Wallace, M N; Palmer, A R

    2009-04-01

    We wished to test the hypothesis that there are modules in low-frequency AI that can be identified by their responsiveness to communication calls or particular regions of space. Units were recorded in anaesthetised guinea pig AI and stimulated with conspecific vocalizations and a virtual motion stimulus (binaural beats) presented via a closed sound system. Recording tracks were mainly oriented orthogonally to the cortical surface. Some of these contained units that were all time-locked to the structure of the chutter call (14/22 tracks) and/or the purr call (12/22 tracks) and/or that had a preference for stimuli from a particular region of space (8/20 tracks with four contralateral, two ipsilateral and two midline), or where there was a strong asymmetry in the response to beats of different direction (two tracks). We conclude that about half of low-frequency AI is organized into modules that are consistent with separate "what" and "where" pathways.

  17. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  18. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.

  19. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  20. Hereditary apolipoprotein AI-associated renal amyloidosis: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Samillán-Sosa, Kelly Del Rocío; Sención-Martínez, Gloria; Lopes-Martín, Vanessa; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Solé, Manel; Arostegui, Jose Luis; Mesa, Jose; García-Díaz, Juan de Dios; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Martínez-Miguel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary renal amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant condition with considerable overlap with other amyloidosis types. Differential diagnosis is complicated, but is relevant for prognosis and treatment. We describe a patient with nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal failure, who had a mother with renal amiloidosis. Renal biopsy revealed amyloid deposits in glomerular space, with absence of light chains and protein AA. We suspected amyloidosis with fibrinogen A alpha chain deposits, which is the most frequent cause of hereditary amyloidosis in Europe, with a glomerular preferential affectation. However, the genetic study showed a novel mutation in apolipoprotein AI. On reviewing the biopsy of the patient's mother similar glomerular deposits were found, but there were significant deposits in the renal medulla as well, which is typical in APO AI amyloidosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Apo AI amyloidosis is characterized by slowly progressive renal disease and end-stage renal disease occurs aproximately 3 to 15 years from initial diagnosis. Renal transplantation offers an acceptable graft survival and in these patients with hepatorenal involvement simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation could be considered.

  1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  2. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic H5N1, from poultry in live bird markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan C; Uyeki, Timothy M; Jadhao, Samadhan; Maines, Taronna; Shaw, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Smith, Catherine; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Balish, Amanda; Klimov, Alexander; Tumpey, Terrence M; Swayne, David E; Huynh, Lien P T; Nghiem, Ha K; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Hoang, Long T; Cox, Nancy J; Katz, Jacqueline M

    2005-04-01

    Since 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 and circulation of H9N2 viruses among domestic poultry in Asia have posed a threat to public health. To better understand the extent of transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) to humans in Asia, we conducted a cross-sectional virologic study in live bird markets (LBM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in October 2001. Specimens from 189 birds and 18 environmental samples were collected at 10 LBM. Four influenza A viruses of the H4N6 (n = 1), H5N2 (n = 1), and H9N3 (n = 2) subtypes were isolated from healthy ducks for an isolation frequency of over 30% from this species. Two H5N1 viruses were isolated from healthy geese. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these H5N1 viruses possessed multiple basic amino acid motifs at the cleavage site, were HP for experimentally infected chickens, and were thus characterized as HP AIV. These HA genes shared high amino acid identities with genes of other H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia during this period, but they were genetically distinct from those of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Vietnam during the early 2004 outbreaks. These viruses were not highly virulent for experimentally infected ducks, mice, or ferrets. These results establish that HP H5N1 viruses with properties similar to viruses isolated in Hong Kong and mainland China circulated in Vietnam as early as 2001, suggest a common source for H5N1 viruses circulating in these Asian countries, and provide a framework to better understand the recent widespread emergence of HP H5N1 viruses in Asia.

  3. Role of different genes in the pathogenesis of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The determinants of pathogenicity of Avian Influenza (AI) virus are not totally defined. Previous studies have pointed towards the importance of different influenza virus genes in determining virulence in various hosts. We used reverse genetics to generate recombinant viruses in order to better unde...

  4. Efficacy of commercial vaccines in chickens and ducks against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and have spread to other regions of the world. Though attempts at eradication of the viruses during various outbreaks have been successful for short periods of time, new strains of H5N1 viruses continue to emerge...

  5. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  6. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Humm, John R; Stadter, Gregory W; Curry, William H; Brasel, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990-1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m(2). Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data.

  7. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  8. Use of embryonated chicken egg as a model to study the susceptibility of avian influenza H9N2 viruses to oseltamivir carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Tare, Deeksha S; Pawar, Shailesh D

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza (AI) H9N2 viruses are endemic in many bird species, and human infections of H9N2 viruses have been reported. Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu(®)) is the available antiviral drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. There are no reports of use of embryonated chicken egg as a model to study susceptibility of AI viruses to oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), the active metabolite. The present study was undertaken to explore the use of embryonated chicken eggs as a model for testing OC against the AI H9N2 viruses. A total of three AI H9N2 viruses, isolated in poultry in India, were used. Various virus dilutions were tested against 14μg/ml of OC. Three methods, namely (1) the in vitro virus-drug treatment, (2) drug delivery and virus challenge by allantoic route, and (3) drug delivery by albumen route and virus challenge by allantoic route were explored. The viruses were also tested using the fluorescence-based neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) assay. There was significant inhibition (p<0.05) of the H9N2 viruses in presence of OC. The infectious virus titers as well as hemagglutination titers were significantly lower in presence of OC as compared to controls. The in vitro treatment of virus and drug; and drug and virus delivery at the same time by allantoic route showed significantly higher inhibition (p<0.05) of virus growth than that by the albumen route. In the NAI assay, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the H9N2 viruses were within the standard range for known susceptible reference virus. In conclusion, the H9N2 viruses used in the study were susceptible to OC. Embryonated chicken egg could be used as a model to study susceptibility of AI viruses to antiviral drugs.

  9. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Subtype H3N8 Influenza Virus Infection among Pet Dogs in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, San; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lifang; Fu, Xinliang; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    The H3N8 virus and the H3N2 virus are the main subtypes of canine influenza virus (CIV). H3N8 CIV mainly circulates in America, and H3N2 CIV mainly circulates in Asia. However, there was an outbreak of the Asian H3N2 virus in the United States (US) in 2015. Thus, it is important to evaluate the presence of subtype H3N8 virus in dogs in China. From May 2015 to November 2015, 600 sera from pet dogs were collected from Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and microneutralization (MN) assays. Fifty-two (8.66%) of the 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N2 virus, which matched the previous reports. Five (0.83%) of 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N8 virus (H3N8 EIV or H3N8 AIV or H3N8 CIV), which is the first report of subtype H3N8 virus infection among dogs in China and remind us to play more attention to this subtype virus. Therefore, further serological and virological surveillance of influenza virus infection among dogs in China is imperative. PMID:27414031

  10. A duck enteritis virus-vectored bivalent live vaccine provides fast and complete protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-11-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 10(6) PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks.

  11. Modeling the association of space, time, and host species with variation of the HA, NA, and NS genes of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from birds in Romania in 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Alkhamis, Mohammad; Perez, Andres; Batey, Nicole; Howard, Wendy; Baillie, Greg; Watson, Simon; Franz, Stephanie; Focosi-Snyman, Raffaella; Onita, Iuliana; Cioranu, Raluca; Turcitu, Mihai; Kellam, Paul; Brown, Ian H; Breed, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Molecular characterization studies of a diverse collection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have demonstrated that AIVs' greatest genetic variability lies in the HA, NA, and NS genes. The objective here was to quantify the association between geographical locations, periods of time, and host species and pairwise nucleotide variation in the HA, NA, and NS genes of 70 isolates of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) collected from October 2005 to December 2007 from birds in Romania. A mixed-binomial Bayesian regression model was used to quantify the probability of nucleotide variation between isolates and its association with space, time, and host species. As expected for the three target genes, a higher probability of nucleotide differences (odds ratios [ORs] > 1) was found between viruses sampled from places at greater geographical distances from each other, viruses sampled over greater periods of time, and viruses derived from different species. The modeling approach in the present study maybe useful in further understanding the molecular epidemiology of H5N1 HPAI virus in bird populations. The methodology presented here will be useful in predicting the most likely genetic distance for any of the three gene segments of viruses that have not yet been isolated or sequenced based on space, time, and host species during the course of an epidemic.

  12. Rapid detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus by TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Heine, H G; Trinidad, L; Selleck, P; Lowther, S

    2007-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 viruses have been spreading from Asia since late 2003. Early detection and classification are paramount for control of the disease because these viruses are lethal to birds and have caused fatalities in humans. Here, we described TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid detection of all AI viruses (influenza type A) and for identification of H5N1 of the Eurasian lineage. The assays were sensitive and quantitative over a 10(5)-10(6) linear range, detected all of the tested AI viruses, and enabled differentiation between H5 and H7 subtypes. These tests allow definitive confirmation of an AI virus as H5 within hours, which is crucial for rapid implementation of control measures in the event of an outbreak.

  13. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  14. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG.

  15. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG. PMID:25648212

  16. Role of bird movements in the epidemiology of West Nile and avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John; Perry, William M.; Smith, Lacy M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian infl uenza virus (AIV) is infl uenced by site fi delity and movements of bird hosts. We examined the movement ecology of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) as potential hosts for West Nile virus (WNV) and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) as potential hosts for AIVs. Research was based on radio-telemetry studies conducted in the Central Valley of California, USA. While crows were restricted to a small area of only a few square kilometers, the distribution of the geese encompassed the northern Central Valley. The crows used 1.5 to 3.5 different roosting areas monthly from February through October, revealing lower roost fi delity than the geese that used 1.1 to 1.5 roosting areas each month from November through March. The crows moved a mean distance of 0.11 to 0.49 km/month between their roosting sites and 2.5 to 3.9 km/month between roosting and feeding sites. In contrast, the geese moved 4.2 to 19.3 km/month between roosting areas, and their feeding range varied from 13.2 to 19.0 km/month. Our comparison of the ecological characteristics of bird movements suggests that the limited local movements of crows coupled with frequent turnover of roosts may result in persistence of focal areas for WNV infection. In contrast, widespread areas used by geese will provide regular opportunities for intermixing of AIVs over a much greater geographic area.

  17. Human Immune Responses to Dengue Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    D-Ai8i 71S UMAN IMMUNE RESPONSES TO DENGUE VIRUSES(U) MASSACHUSETTS UNIV M DICAL CENTER WORCESTER MA F A ENNIS 81 AUG 86 DAD17-82-C-2233 UNCLSE...Classification) (U) Human Immune Responses to Dengue Viruses 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ennis. Francis A. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 414. DATE OF...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP06 13 Virus; Dengue ; Arbovirus; Immunology 06 03 I9% ABSTRACT

  18. Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F.

    2009-01-01

    The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the ‘well-known’ reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

  19. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens in South China from 2012 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Qin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zeng, Fan-Gui; Liao, Chang-Tao; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    As part of our ongoing influenza surveillance program in South China, 19 field strains of H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from dead or diseased chicken flocks in Guangdong province, South China, between 2012 and 2013. Hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these strains were sequenced and analyzed and phylogenic analysis showed that 12 of the 19 isolates belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5, while the other seven belonged to h9.4.2.6. Specifically, we found that all of the viruses isolated in 2013 belonged to lineage h9.4.2.5. The lineage h9.4.2.5 viruses contained a PSRSSR↓GLF motif at HA cleavage site, while the lineage h9.4.2.6 viruses contained a PARSSR↓GLF at the same position. Most of the isolates in lineage h9.4.2.5 lost one potential glycosylation site at residues 200-202, and had an additional one at residues 295-297 in HA1. Notably, 19 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor binding site, which indicated that the viruses had potential affinity of binding to human like receptor. The present study shows the importance of continuing surveillance of new H9N2 strains to better prepare for the next epidemic or pandemic outbreak of H9N2 AIV infections in chicken flocks.

  20. Differential host gene expression in cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Luciana; Afonso, Claudio L; Estevez, Carlos; Wasilenko, Jamie; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2008-10-15

    In order to understand the molecular mechanisms by which different strains of avian influenza viruses overcome host response in birds, we used a complete chicken genome microarray to compare early gene expression levels in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with two avian influenza viruses (AIV), A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 and A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02, with different replication characteristics. Gene ontology revealed that the genes with altered expression are involved in many vital functional classes including protein metabolism, translation, transcription, host defense/immune response, ubiquitination and the cell cycle. Among the immune-related genes, MEK2, MHC class I, PDCD10 and Bcl-3 were selected for further expression analysis at 24 hpi using semi-quantitive RT-PCR. Infection of CEF with A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02 resulted in a marked repression of MEK2 and MHC class I gene expression levels. Infection of CEF with A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 induced an increase of MEK2 and a decrease in PDCD10 and Bcl-3 expression levels. The expression levels of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were also analyzed at 24 hpi, showing higher expression levels of all of these genes after infection with A/CK/Hong Kong/220/97 compared to A/Egret/Hong Kong/757.2/02. In addition, comparison of the NS1 sequences of the viruses revealed amino acid differences that may explain in part the differences in IFN-alpha expression observed. Microarray gene expression analysis has proven to be a useful tool on providing important insights into how different AIVs affect host gene expression and how AIVs may use different strategies to evade host response and replicate in host cells.

  1. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  2. An AIS-Based E-mail Classification Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Jinjian; Mao, Ruilong; Bie, Rongfang; Gao, Xiao-Zhi

    This paper proposes a new e-mail classification method based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS), which is endowed with good diversity and self-adaptive ability by using the immune learning, immune memory, and immune recognition. In our method, the features of spam and non-spam extracted from the training sets are combined together, and the number of false positives (non-spam messages that are incorrectly classified as spam) can be reduced. The experimental results demonstrate that this method is effective in reducing the false rate.

  3. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  4. Urban, Forest, and Agricultural AIS Data: Fine Spectral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) near Lafayette, IN, Ely, MN, and over the Stanford University campus, CA were analyzed for fine spectral structure using two techniques: the ratio of radiance of a ground target to the radiance of a standard and also the correlation coefficient of radiances at adjacent wavelengths. The results show ramp like features in the ratios. These features are due to the biochemical composition of the leaf and to the optical scattering properties of its cuticle. The size and shape of the ramps vary with ground cover.

  5. The genome sequence analysis of H5N1 avian influenza A virus isolated from the outbreak among poultry populations in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Viseshakul, Nareerat; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Suradhat, Sanipa; Payungporn, Sunchai; Keawchareon, Juthatip; Oraveerakul, Kanisak; Wongyanin, Piya; Plitkul, Sukanya; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2004-10-25

    In this report, the genome of the Thai avian influenza virus A (H5N1); A/Chicken/Nakorn-Pathom/Thailand/CU-K2/04, isolated from the Thai avian influenza A (AI) epidemic during the early of 2004 was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed in comparison to AI viruses from Hong Kong 1997 outbreaks and other AI (H5N1) isolates reported during 2001-2004. Molecular characterization of the Thai AI (H5N1) HA gene revealed a common characteristic of a highly pathogenic AI (HPAI), a 20-codon deletion in the neuraminidase gene, a 5-codon deletion in the NS gene and polymorphisms of the M2 and PB2 genes. Moreover, the HA and NA genes of the Thai AI displayed high similarity to those of the AI viruses isolated from human cases during the same epidemic. Finally, our results demonstrated that the Thai AI emerged as a member of 2000's AI lineage with most of the genetic sequences closely related to the Influenza A/Duck/China/E319.2/03 (H5N1).

  6. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Ely, Craig R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S; Ip, Hon S

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%-96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  7. Inhibition of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by obesity-associated endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Mazza, Angela D; Wong, Norman C W; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased serum endocannabinoid (EC) levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc). Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the primary protein component of HDL is expressed primarily in the liver and small intestine. To determine whether ECs regulate apo A-I gene expression directly, the effect of the obesity-associated ECs anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol on apo A-I gene expression was examined in the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 and the intestinal cell line Caco-2. Apo A-I protein secretion was suppressed nearly 50% by anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines. Anandamide treatment suppressed both apo A-I mRNA and apo A-I gene promoter activity in both cell lines. Studies using apo A-I promoter deletion constructs indicated that repression of apo A-I promoter activity by anandamide requires a previously identified nuclear receptor binding site designated as site A. Furthermore, anandamide-treatment inhibited protein-DNA complex formation with the site A probe. Exogenous over expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CBR1) in HepG2 cells suppressed apo A-I promoter activity, while in Caco-2 cells, exogenous expression of both CBR1 and CBR2 could repress apo A-I promoter activity. The suppressive effect of anandamide on apo A-I promoter activity in Hep G2 cells could be inhibited by CBR1 antagonist AM251 but not by AM630, a selective and potent CBR2 inhibitor. These results indicate that ECs directly suppress apo A-I gene expression in both hepatocytes and intestinal cells, contributing to the decrease in serum HDLc in obese individuals.

  8. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  9. Building distributed rule-based systems using the AI Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain C.

    1990-01-01

    The AI Bus software architecture was designed to support the construction of large-scale, production-quality applications in areas of high technology flux, running heterogeneous distributed environments, utilizing a mix of knowledge-based and conventional components. These goals led to its current development as a layered, object-oriented library for cooperative systems. This paper describes the concepts and design of the AI Bus and its implementation status as a library of reusable and customizable objects, structured by layers from operating system interfaces up to high-level knowledge-based agents. Each agent is a semi-autonomous process with specialized expertise, and consists of a number of knowledge sources (a knowledge base and inference engine). Inter-agent communication mechanisms are based on blackboards and Actors-style acquaintances. As a conservative first implementation, we used C++ on top of Unix, and wrapped an embedded Clips with methods for the knowledge source class. This involved designing standard protocols for communication and functions which use these protocols in rules. Embedding several CLIPS objects within a single process was an unexpected problem because of global variables, whose solution involved constructing and recompiling a C++ version of CLIPS. We are currently working on a more radical approach to incorporating CLIPS, by separating out its pattern matcher, rule and fact representations and other components as true object oriented modules.

  10. Discrimination of Coastal Vegetation and Biomass Using AIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over a coastal wetlands region near Lewes, Delaware, adjacent to the Delaware Bay on 16 August 1984. Using the AIS data, it was possible to discriminate between four different types of wetland vegetation canopies: (1) trees; (2) broadleaf herbaceous plants (e.g., Acnida cannabina, Hisbiscus moscheutos); (3) the low marsh grass Spartina alterniflora; and (4) the high marsh grasses Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens. The single most useful region of the spectrum was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns, where slopes of portions of the radiance curve and ratios of radiance at particular wavelengths were significantly different for the four canopy types. The ratio between the highest digital number in the 1.40 to 1.90 microns and .84 to .94 microns regions and a similar ratio between the peaks in radiance in the 1.12 to 1.40 microns and .84 to .94 microns spectral regions were also very effective at discriminating between vegetation types. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass.

  11. Sensor assignment to mission in AI-TECD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganger, Robert; de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Rudnicki, Ronald; Schreiber, Yonatan

    2016-05-01

    Sensor-mission assignment involves the allocation of sensors and other information-providing resources to missions in order to cover the information needs of the individual tasks within each mission. The importance of efficient and effective means to find appropriate resources for tasks is exacerbated in the coalition context where the operational environment is dynamic and a multitude of critically important tasks need to achieve their collective goals to meet the objectives of the coalition. The Sensor Assignment to Mission (SAM) framework—a research product of the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Sciences (NIS-ITA) program—provided the first knowledge intensive resource selection approach for the sensor network domain so that contextual information could be used to effectively select resources for tasks in coalition environments. Recently, CUBRC, Inc. was tasked with operationalizing the SAM framework through the use of the I2WD Common Core Ontologies for the Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) sponsored Actionable Intelligence Technology Enabled Capabilities Demonstration (AI-TECD). The demonstration event took place at Fort Dix, New Jersey during July 2015, and this paper discusses the integration and the successful demonstration of the SAM framework within the AI-TECD, lessons learned, and its potential impact in future operations.

  12. Modulation of the innate immune-related genes expression in H9N2 avian influenza virus-infected chicken macrophage-like cells (HD11) in response to Escherichia coli LPS stimulation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuefeng; Liu, Caihong; Li, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Huizhu; Xu, Xingang; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-11-17

    Macrophages play important roles in mediating virus-induced innate immune responses and are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial superinfections. The innate immune response initiated by both low pathogenicity AIV and bacterial superinfection in their avian host is not fully understood. We therefore determine the transcripts of innate immune-related genes following avian H9N2 AIV virus infection and E. coli LPS co-stimulation of avian macrophage-like cell line HD11 cells. More pronounced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β) as well as the inflammatory chemokines (CXCLi1 and CXCLi2) was observed in virus infected plus LPS treated HD11 cells compared to H9N2 virus solely infected control. For two superinfection groups, the levels of genes examined in a prior H9N2 virus infection before secondary LPS treatment group were significantly higher as compared with simultaneous virus infection plus LPS stimulation group. Interestingly, similar high levels of IL-6 gene were observed between LPS sole stimulation group and two superinfection groups. Moreover, IL-10 and TGF-β3 mRNA levels in both superinfection groups were moderately upregulated compared to sole LPS stimulation group or virus alone infection group. Although TLR4 and MDA5 levels in virus alone infection group were significantly lower compared to that in both superinfection groups, TLR4 upregulation respond more rapid to virus sole infection compared to LPS plus virus superinfection. Collectively, innate immune-related genes respond more pronounced in LPS stimulation plus H9N2 virus infection HD11 cells compared to sole virus infection or LPS alone stimulation control cells.

  13. Efficacy of commercial vaccines in protecting chickens and ducks against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and have spread to other regions of the world. Though attempts at eradication of the viruses during various outbreaks have been successful for short periods of time, new strains of H5N1 viruses continue to emerge...

  14. Novel therapies to increase apolipoprotein AI and HDL for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Norman Cw

    2007-09-01

    Apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) is the major protein component of HDL, and thus has an important role in the treatment of atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the various approaches being examined for raising levels of apoAI/HDL, including increasing the synthesis of apoAI and altering the metabolism of HDL. In addition, the currently available drugs used to increase apoAI/HDL are discussed, with a focus on the potential sites of action of these drugs on HDL metabolism. The outcome of further investigational studies into this field should provide effective therapies to increase apoAI/HDL levels and thus be of use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  16. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  17. Analysis of AIS data of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired in 1985 over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska for the analysis of canopy characteristics including biochemistry. Concurrent with AIS overflights, foliage from fifteen coniferous and deciduous forest stands were analyzed for a variety of biochemical constituents including nitrogen, lignin, protein, and chlorophyll. Preliminary analysis of AIS spectra indicates that the wavelength region between 1450 to 1800 namometers (nm) displays distinct differences in spectral response for some of the forest stands. A flat field subtraction (forest stand spectra - flat field spectra) of the AIS spectra assisted in the interpretation of features of the spectra that are related to biology.

  18. Adaptive amino acid substitutions enhance the virulence of a reassortant H7N1 avian influenza virus isolated from wild waterfowl in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijun; Sun, Weiyang; Li, Xue; Chen, Qiang; Chai, Hongliang; Gao, Xiaolong; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Geng; Yang, Songtao; Hua, Yuping; Zhang, Xuemei; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-02-01

    H7 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have caused a number of human infections, highlighting the pandemic potential of them. However, the factors that promote their replication in mammals remain poorly understood. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a reassortant H7N1 virus to identify adaptive changes that confer enhanced virulence in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the variants were reduced >10,000-fold compared to the parental virus. Adapted variants displayed enhanced replication kinetics in vitro and vivo, and were capable of replicating in multiple organs. Analysis of the variant virus genomes revealed amino acid changes in the PB2 (E627K), HA (H3 numbering; E114K, G205E, and G218E), and NA (S350N) proteins. Notably, some amino acid changes have been identified in natural H7 isolates. Our results implicate a number of amino acid substitutions that collectively enhance the ability of a wild bird-origin H7N1 AIV to replicate and cause severe disease in mice.

  19. Characterization of recombinant H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from wild ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangjian; Wang, Renjie; Xuan, Fujun; Daszak, Peter; Anthony, Simon J; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Libiao; He, Guimei

    2013-10-25

    Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIV). During active influenza surveillance in Poyang Lake of southeast China, we isolated and characterized 11 H9N2 viruses from two species of wild ducks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 11 isolates were almost identical with 99.3-100% nucleotide homology in their entire genome, and they all closely related in whole eight genes (95.6-99.4% homology) to human H9N2 isolates (HK/33982/2009) and clustered in the same sublineage. The isolates belonged to triple reassortant H9N2 genotype viruses containing Ck/Bei-like NA genes, Y439-like PA genes and six other G1-like genes. We also found that the subtype of virus replicated efficiently in the lungs and tracheas of BALB/c mice and caused mortality in 20-40% of infected groups after 3-6 days, which indicates that the subtype of virus is capable of establishing lethal mammalian infections. However, whether or not the virus has features transmittable from wild ducks to humans is not known. This study showed H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus for the first time in wild birds, and suggests that wild birds may carry the virus along migratory routes, highlighting the need for continued surveillance of wild birds.

  20. Receptor characterization and susceptibility of cotton rats to avian and 2009 pandemic influenza virus strains.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge C G; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Wan, Hongquan; Araya, Yonas; Angel, Matthew; Oue, Raymonde O; Sutton, Troy C; Perez, Daniel R

    2013-02-01

    Animal influenza viruses (AIVs) are a major threat to human health and the source of pandemic influenza. A reliable small-mammal model to study the pathogenesis of infection and for testing vaccines and therapeutics against multiple strains of influenza virus is highly desirable. We show that cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are susceptible to avian and swine influenza viruses. Cotton rats express α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) and α2,6-linked SA residues in the trachea and α2,6-linked SA residues in the lung parenchyma. Prototypic avian influenza viruses (H3N2, H9N2, and H5N1) and swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses replicated in the nose and in the respiratory tract of cotton rats without prior adaptation and produced strong lung pathology that was characterized by early lung neutrophilia, followed by subsequent pneumonia. Consistent with other natural and animal models of influenza, only the H5N1 virus was lethal for cotton rats. More importantly, we show that the different avian and pandemic H1N1 strains tested are strong activators of the type I interferon (IFN)-inducible MX-1 gene both locally and systemically. Our data indicate that the cotton rat is a suitable small-mammal model to study the infection of animal influenza viruses and for validation of vaccines and therapeutics against these viruses.

  1. Serological comparison of antibodies to avian influenza viruses, subtypes H5N2, H6N1, H7N3 and H7N9 between poultry workers and non-poultry workers in Taiwan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, S Y; Yang, J R; Lin, Y J; Yang, C H; Cheng, M C; Liu, M T; Wu, H S; Chang, F Y

    2015-10-01

    In Taiwan, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N2, H6N1 and H7N3 have been identified in domestic poultry, and several strains of these subtypes have become endemic in poultry. To evaluate the potential of avian-to-human transmission due to occupational exposure, an exploratory analysis of AIV antibody status in poultry workers was conducted. We enrolled 670 poultry workers, including 335 live poultry vendors (LPVs), 335 poultry farmers (PFs), and 577 non-poultry workers (NPWs). Serum antibody titres against various subtypes of viruses were analysed and compared. The overall seropositivity rates in LPVs and PFs were 2·99% (10/335) and 1·79% (6/335), respectively, against H5N2; and 0·6% (2/335) and 1·19% (4/335), respectively, for H7N3 virus. Of NPWs, 0·35% (2/577) and 0·17% (1/577) were seropositive for H5N2 and H7N3, respectively. Geographical analysis revealed that poultry workers whose workplaces were near locations where H5N2 outbreaks in poultry have been reported face greater risks of being exposed to viruses that result in elevated H5N2 antibody titres. H6N1 antibodies were detected in only one PF, and no H7N9 antibodies were found in the study subjects. Subclinical infections caused by H5N2, H6N1 and H7N3 viruses were thus identified in poultry workers in Taiwan. Occupational exposure is associated with a high risk of AIV infection, and the seroprevalence of particular avian influenza strains in humans reflects the endemic strains in poultry in this region.

  2. Assessing an AI knowledge-base for asymptomatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Babic, A; Mathiesen, U; Hedin, K; Bodemar, G; Wigertz, O

    1998-01-01

    Discovering not yet seen knowledge from clinical data is of importance in the field of asymptomatic liver diseases. Avoidance of liver biopsy which is used as the ultimate confirmation of diagnosis by making the decision based on relevant laboratory findings only, would be considered an essential support. The system based on Quinlan's ID3 algorithm was simple and efficient in extracting the sought knowledge. Basic principles of applying the AI systems are therefore described and complemented with medical evaluation. Some of the diagnostic rules were found to be useful as decision algorithms i.e. they could be directly applied in clinical work and made a part of the knowledge-base of the Liver Guide, an automated decision support system.

  3. Low pathogenic influenza A virus activity at avian interfaces in Ohio zoos, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Jacqueline M; Dennis, Patricia; Long, Lindsey; Holtvoigt, Lauren; Brown, Deniele; King, Mary Jo; Shellbarger, Wynonna; Hanley, Chris; Killian, Mary Lea; Slemons, Richard D

    2013-09-01

    This investigation to examine influenza A virus activity in avian species at four Ohio zoos was initiated to better understand the ecology of avian-origin influenza A (AIV) virus in wild aquatic birds and the possibility of spill-over of such viruses into captive zoo birds, both native and foreign species. Virus isolation efforts resulted in the recovery of three low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates (one H7N3 and two H3N6) from oral-pharyngeal or cloacal swabs collected from over 1000 zoo birds representing 94 species. In addition, 21 LPAIV isolates possessing H3N6, H4N6, or H7N3 subtype combinations were recovered from 627 (3.3%) environmental fecal samples collected from outdoor habitats accessible to zoo and wild birds. Analysis of oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected from free-ranging mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) live-trapped at one zoo in 2007 resulted in the recovery of 164 LPAIV isolates (48% of samples) representing five HA and six NA subtypes and at least nine HA-NA combinations. The high frequency of isolate recovery is undoubtedly due to the capture and holding of wild ducks in a common pen before relocation. Serologic analyses using an agar gel immune diffusion assay detected antibodies to the influenza A virus type-specific antigen in 147 of 1237 (11.9%) zoo bird sera and in 14 of 154 (9%) wild mallard sera. Additional analyses of a limited number of zoo bird sera demonstrated HA- and NA-inhibition activity to 15 HA and nine NA subtypes. The spectrum of HA antibodies indicate antibody diversity of AIV infecting zoo birds; however, the contribution of heterologous cross-reactions and steric interference was not ruled out. This proactive investigation documented that antigenically diverse LPAIVs were active in all three components of the avian zoologic-wild bird interfaces at Ohio zoos (zoo birds, the environment, and wild birds). The resulting baseline data provides insight and justification for preventive medicine strategies for zoo birds.

  4. Characterization of the Pathogenesis of H10N3, H10N7, and H10N8 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses Circulating in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Zhang, Xingxing; Xu, Kaidi; Teng, Qiaoyang; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Xuesong; Yang, Jianmei; Xu, Jianqing; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    Three H10 subtype avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic ducks in China, designated as SH602/H10N8, FJ1761/H10N3 and SX3180/H10N7, with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 0.39, 1.60, and 1.27, respectively. These H10 viruses showed a complex pathology pattern in different species, although full genome characterizations of the viruses could not identify any molecular determinant underlying the observed phenotypes. Our findings describe the pathobiology of the three H10 subtype AIVs in chickens, ducks, and mice. FJ1761/H10N3 evolved E627K and Q591K substitutions in the gene encoding the PB2 protein in infected mice with severe lung damage, suggesting that H10 subtype avian influenza viruses are a potential threat to mammals. PMID:27678170

  5. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, G.W.; Castle, C.K.

    1989-07-01

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD (apo A-I(50 kD)), whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range (apo A-I(LDL)). The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species.

  6. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the Order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine...

  7. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-specific goose TLR21 initiates an anti-viral immune response against NGVEV but not AIV strain H9N2 infection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yulin; Yan, Bing; Chen, Shun; Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Sun, Kunfeng; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Jing, Bo; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize components of pathogens and mediate the host innate immune response. TLR21 is a TLR that specifically recognizes exogenous double-stranded DNA and rapidly signals to downstream innate immune factors. This study reports the cDNA of goose TLR21 and identifies its immune characteristics. The goose TLR21 is 3161 base pairs and encodes a 975 amino acid protein. As predicted, the goose transmembrane protein TLR21 has a signal peptide, leucine-rich repeat regions, a transmembrane domain, and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses showed that goose TLR21 has homology to chicken TLR21. The tissue distribution of TLR21 suggested that it has high transcript levels in immune-associated tissues, especially in the bursa of Fabricius, the Hadrian gland, and the thymus. After challenge with agonist ODN2006 and new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV), significant induction of TLR21 production, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and interferons were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both synthetic DNA (ODN2006) and viral DNA (NGVEV) can be recognized by goose TLR21, which leads to a rapid up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-viral molecules. In vivo, avian influenza A virus H9N2 and NGVEV were used to infect goslings, which was followed by a significant up-regulation of TLR21 mRNA transcripts in multiple tissues of NGVEV-infected geese. In general, goose TLR21 plays an important role in binding invading pathogenic DNA viruses, which subsequently triggers an innate immune response; furthermore, it acts as a functional homologue of mammalian TLR9, as TLR21 recognizes a mammalian TLR9 agonist.

  8. design of multiplexed detection assays for identification of avian influenza a virus subtypes pathogenic to humans by SmartCycler real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ren, Peijun; Mardi, Sek; Hou, Lili; Tsai, Cheguo; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheng, Peter; Sheng, Jun; Buchy, Philippe; Sun, Bing; Toyoda, Tetsuya; Lim, Wilina; Peiris, J S Malik; Zhou, Paul; Deubel, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for identification of the IAV M and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from six known AIVs infecting pigs, birds, and humans. IAV M1 gene-positive samples tested by single-step rRT-PCR and a fluorogenic Sybr green I detection system were further processed for H5 subtype identification by using two-primer-set multiplex and Sybr green I rRT-PCR assays. H5 subtype-negative samples were then tested with either a TaqMan assay for subtypes H1 and H3 or a TaqMan assay for subtypes H2, H7, and H9 and a beacon multiplex rRT-PCR identification assay. The four-tube strategy was able to detect 10 RNA copies of the HA genes of subtypes H1, H2, H3, H5, and H7 and 100 RNA copies of the HA gene of subtype H9. At least six H5 clades of H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia and China were detected by that test. Using rRT-PCR assays for the M1 and HA genes in 202 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from children with acute respiratory infections, we identified a total of 39 samples positive for the IAV M1 gene and subtypes H1 and H3. When performed with a portable SmartCycler instrument, the assays offer an efficient, flexible, and reliable platform for investigations of IAV and AIV in remote hospitals and in the field.

  9. Genomic signature and protein sequence analysis of a novel influenza A (H7N9) virus that causes an outbreak in humans in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Lu, Lu; Sun, Zhiwu; Chen, Guang-Wu; Wen, Yumei; Jiang, Shibo

    2013-06-01

    Very recently, a new avian flu outbreak in humans, which is caused by a novel H7N9 influenza A virus (AIV), was reported in China. As of April 13, 2013, 49 confirmed cases (mainly middle-aged to elderly males), including 11 deaths, were reported in China. Here we analyzed the genomic signatures and protein sequences of the human H7N9 AIVs. We found that the genomic signatures of A(H7N9) had high and low identity to avian and human IAVs, respectively, suggesting its avian origin. The signature amino acids of A(H7N9) had high identity to 1997 H5N1 and 2009 H1N1, but low identity to those influenza strains that caused pandemics before 1980. One of the key signature amino acids at 627 in PB2 mutated to lysine, which is associated with mammalian adaptation and increased virulence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus. Besides, several other human-like signatures, including PB2-44S, PA-100A, PA-356R, and PA-409N are also found in this avian-origin A(H7N9) virus. The HA protein has the Q226L mutation, which is associated with increased binding to mammalian-like receptors bearing alpha 2,6 receptor in the human upper airway. The M2 protein contains the N31S mutation, suggesting its resistance to the M2 channel blockers amantadine and rimantadine. These findings suggest that this avian-origin AIV gains its bird-to-human, i.e., zoonotic, transmissibility and increased virulence, as well as drug-resistance, by mutating key signature amino acid residues and those in the functional domains of the viral proteins. Therefore, it is prudent to monitor the evolution of A(H7N9), as well as develop strategies to combat any potential epidemic or pandemic.

  10. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...

  11. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  12. Genome Sequence of Phytomonas françai, a Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Latex Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Claire E.; Jaskowska, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the genome sequence of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) latex parasite Phytomonas françai. P. françai infection is linked with the yield-loss disease “chochamento de raizes” (empty roots) in the Unha variety of cassava, a disease characterized by poor root development and chlorosis of the leaves. PMID:28082482

  13. Single-molecule kinetics of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4AI upon RNA unwinding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjie; Atas, Evrim; Lindqvist, Lisa M; Sonenberg, Nahum; Pelletier, Jerry; Meller, Amit

    2014-07-08

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AI (eIF4AI) is the prototypical DEAD-box RNA helicase. It has a "dumbbell" structure consisting of two domains connected by a flexible linker. Previous studies demonstrated that eIF4AI, in conjunction with eIF4H, bind to loop structures and repetitively unwind RNA hairpins. Here, we probe the conformational dynamics of eIF4AI in real time using single-molecule FRET. We demonstrate that eIF4AI/eIF4H complex can repetitively unwind RNA hairpins by transitioning between an eIF4AI "open" and a "closed" conformation using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. Our experiments directly track the conformational changes in the catalytic cycle of eIF4AI and eIF4H, and this correlates precisely with the kinetics of RNA unwinding. Furthermore, we show that the small-molecule eIF4A inhibitor hippuristanol locks eIF4AI in the closed conformation, thus efficiently inhibiting RNA unwinding. These results indicate that the large conformational changes undertaken by eIF4A during the helicase catalytic cycle are rate limiting.

  14. Real time magnetic resonance imaging of apo AI metabolism in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) plays a key role in maintaining cardiovascular health and constitutes the major lipoprotein component in high density lipoproteins (HDL). It metabolism, however, follows a complex pathway. Synthesized in the liver and intestines, its becomes lipidated by its interaction w...

  15. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  16. Regulation of the promoter of rat apolipoprotein A-I gene in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Y.; Pan, T.; Wu, T.; Hao, Q.; Yamin, T.; Kroon, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to study the regulation of the promoter of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene, they joined the 5' end of rat apo A-I gene (1.9 Kb) to the coding region of bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. The chimeric gene produced high levels of CAT activity in both mouse L cells and Hep G2 cells in transient expression assays. Ethanol increased the levels of rat apo A-I promoter activity in both cells. However, dexamethasone increased rat apo A-I promoter activity only in Hep G2 cells. Similar results were obtained in stable expression cell lines. Nucleotide deletion experiments showed DNA sequences between -149 and -469 base pairs upstream from the rat apo A-I transcription site are required for the high level of expression and that the regulatory sequences are located further upstream. These data demonstrated that the 5' end of rat apo A-I gene contains sequences which are responsible for the regulation of apo A-I expression by ethanol and dexamethasone and that the expression and regulation of rat apo A-I promoter are cell specific.

  17. Macrophage apoAI protects against dyslipidemia-induced dermatitis and atherosclerosis without affecting HDL.

    PubMed

    Tavori, Hagai; Su, Yan Ru; Yancey, Patricia G; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Wilhelm, Ashley J; Blakemore, John L; Zabalawi, Manal; Linton, MacRae F; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Fazio, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Tissue cholesterol accumulation, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation are features of atherosclerosis and some forms of dermatitis. HDL and its main protein, apoAI, are acceptors of excess cholesterol from macrophages; this process inhibits tissue inflammation. Recent epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence questions the role of HDL and its manipulation in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of ectopic macrophage apoAI expression on atherosclerosis and dermatitis induced by the combination of hypercholesterolemia and absence of HDL in mice. Hematopoietic progenitor cells were transduced to express human apoAI and transplanted into lethally irradiated LDL receptor(-/-)/apoAI(-/-) mice, which were then placed on a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Macrophage apoAI expression reduced aortic CD4(+) T-cell levels (-39.8%), lesion size (-25%), and necrotic core area (-31.6%), without affecting serum HDL or aortic macrophage levels. Macrophage apoAI reduced skin cholesterol by 39.8%, restored skin morphology, and reduced skin CD4(+) T-cell levels. Macrophage apoAI also reduced CD4(+) T-cell levels (-32.9%) in skin-draining lymph nodes but had no effect on other T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages compared with control transplanted mice. Thus, macrophage apoAI expression protects against atherosclerosis and dermatitis by reducing cholesterol accumulation and regulating CD4(+) T-cell levels, without affecting serum HDL or tissue macrophage levels.

  18. Evolutionary trajectories and diagnostic challenges of potentially zoonotic avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H9N2 co-circulating in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar A; El-Kady, Magdy F; Selim, Abdullah A; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Goller, Katja V; Hassan, Mohamed K; Beer, Martin; Abdelwhab, E M; Harder, Timm C

    2015-08-01

    In Egypt, since 2006, descendants of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2 continue to cause sharp losses in poultry production and seriously threaten public health. Potentially zoonotic H9N2 viruses established an endemic status in poultry in Egypt as well and co-circulate with HP AIV H5N1 rising concerns of reassortments between H9N2 and H5N1 viruses along with an increase of mixed infections of poultry. Nucleotide sequences of whole genomes of 15 different isolates (H5N1: 7; H9N2: 8), and of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) encoding segments of nine further clinical samples (H5N1: 2; H9N2: 7) from 2013 and 2014 were generated and analysed. The HA of H5N1 viruses clustered with clade 2.2.1 while the H9 HA formed three distinguishable subgroups within cluster B viruses. BEAST analysis revealed that H9N2 viruses are likely present in Egypt since 2009. Several previously undescribed substituting mutations putatively associated with host tropism and virulence modulation were detected in different proteins of the analysed H9N2 and H5N1 viruses. Reassortment between HP AIV H5N1 and H9N2 is anticipated in Egypt, and timely detection of such events is of public health concern. As a rapid tool for detection of such reassortants discriminative SYBR-Green reverse transcription real-time PCR assays (SG-RT-qPCR), targeting the internal genes of the Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses were developed for the rapid screening of viral RNAs from both virus isolates and clinical samples. However, in accordance to Sanger sequencing, no reassortants were found by SG-RT-qPCR. Nevertheless, the complex epidemiology of avian influenza in poultry in Egypt will require sustained close observation. Further development and continuing adaptation of rapid and cost-effective screening assays such as the SG-RT-qPCR protocol developed here are at the basis of efforts for improvement the currently critical situation.

  19. Reproductive performance of dairy cows resynchronized after pregnancy diagnosis at 31 (±3 days) after artificial insemination (AI) compared with resynchronization at 31 (±3 days) after AI with pregnancy diagnosis at 38 (±3 days) after AI.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Caixeta, L S; Giordano, J O; Guard, C L; Bicalho, R C

    2013-01-01

    An important part of reproductive management programs on dairy farms is identification of nonpregnant cows and early re-insemination to achieve higher pregnancy rates. The objective of this study was to compare the effect on reproductive performance and pregnancy loss of 2 pregnancy diagnosis protocols: (1) pregnancy diagnosis performed 31±3 d after artificial insemination (AI) by ultrasonography (ULTRA), and (2) resynchronization started 31±3 d after AI but with pregnancy diagnosis performed 38±3 d after AI by palpation per rectum (PALP). Cows were randomly allocated into 1 of the 2 management programs. For cows enrolled in ULTRA, the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) was performed by transrectal ultrasonography at 31±3 d after AI, and nonpregnant cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive timed AI (TAI). For cows enrolled in PALP, the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive TAI was initiated at 31±3 d after AI regardless of pregnancy status, with the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) performed by palpation per rectum at 38±3 d after AI. For both groups, reconfirmation of pregnancy was performed by palpation per rectum at 63±3 d after AI (P2). Cows were inseminated after detection of estrus by use of activity monitors at any time during the study. Two levels of activity were used as a reference for cows AI after detection of estrus based on activity: an activity level of ≥2 when a cow was coded in DairyComp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA) as open (nonpregnant) and an activity level of ≥3 when the pregnancy status of the cow was unknown. Our findings showed that the odds of pregnancy loss cows in ULTRA was 2 times higher between P1 and P2 compared with that of cows in PALP. Furthermore, pregnancy diagnosis method (ULTRA vs. PALP) did not have a significant effect on the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy at P2. The occurrence of assisted parturition, metritis, or retained

  20. Abiotic factors affecting the persistence of avian influenza virus in surface waters of waterfowl habitats.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Shamus P; Dalton, Melinda S; Cressler, Alan M; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E

    2014-05-01

    Avian influenza (AI) virus can remain infectious in water for months, and virus-contaminated surface water is considered to be a source of infection within wild waterfowl populations. Previous work has characterized the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on viral persistence in water, but most of that work was done with modified distilled water. The objective of this study was to identify the abiotic factors that influence the duration of AI virus persistence in natural surface water. Surface water samples were collected from 38 waterfowl habitats distributed across the United States. Samples were submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for chemical analysis and the University of Georgia for viral reduction time analysis. Samples were filtered with 0.22-μm filters, and the durations of persistence of three wild-bird-derived influenza A viruses within each water sample at 10, 17, and 28°C were determined. The effects of the surface water physicochemical factors on the duration of AI viral persistence in laboratory experiments were evaluated by multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors. The duration of AI virus persistence was determined to be longest in filtered surface water with a low temperature (<17°C), a neutral-to-basic pH (7.0 to 8.5), low salinity (<0.5 ppt), and a low ammonia concentration (<0.5 mg/liter). Our results also highlighted potential strain-related variation in the stability of AI virus in surface water. These results bring us closer to being able to predict the duration of AI virus persistence in surface water of waterfowl habitats.

  1. Abiotic Factors Affecting the Persistence of Avian Influenza Virus in Surface Waters of Waterfowl Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Cressler, Alan M.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) virus can remain infectious in water for months, and virus-contaminated surface water is considered to be a source of infection within wild waterfowl populations. Previous work has characterized the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on viral persistence in water, but most of that work was done with modified distilled water. The objective of this study was to identify the abiotic factors that influence the duration of AI virus persistence in natural surface water. Surface water samples were collected from 38 waterfowl habitats distributed across the United States. Samples were submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for chemical analysis and the University of Georgia for viral reduction time analysis. Samples were filtered with 0.22-μm filters, and the durations of persistence of three wild-bird-derived influenza A viruses within each water sample at 10, 17, and 28°C were determined. The effects of the surface water physicochemical factors on the duration of AI viral persistence in laboratory experiments were evaluated by multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors. The duration of AI virus persistence was determined to be longest in filtered surface water with a low temperature (<17°C), a neutral-to-basic pH (7.0 to 8.5), low salinity (<0.5 ppt), and a low ammonia concentration (<0.5 mg/liter). Our results also highlighted potential strain-related variation in the stability of AI virus in surface water. These results bring us closer to being able to predict the duration of AI virus persistence in surface water of waterfowl habitats. PMID:24584247

  2. The use of a handheld Raman system for virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunyuan; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Cui, Yiping; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    The combination of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a handheld Raman system would lead to a powerful portable device for defense and security applications. The Thermo Scientific FirstDefender RM instrument is a 785-nm handheld Raman spectrometer intended for rapid field identification of unknown solid and liquid samples. Its sensitivity and effectiveness for SERS-based detection was initially confirmed by evaluating detection of 1,2-di(4- pyridyl)ethylene as a reporter molecule on a silver nanorod (AgNR) substrate, and the results are comparable to those from a confocal Bruker Raman system. As avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are recognized as an important emerging threat to public health, this portable handheld Raman spectrometer is used, for the first time, to detect and identify avian influenza A viruses using a multi-well AgNR SERS chip. The SERS spectra obtained had rich peaks which demonstrated that the instrument can be effectively used for SERS-based influenza virus detection. According to the SERS spectra, these different influenza viruses were distinguished from the negative control via the principal component analysis and by partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Together, these results show that the combination effective SERS substrates when combined with a portable Raman spectrometer provides a powerful field device for chemical and biological sensing.

  3. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  4. Replication and pathogenesis associated with H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Egbert; Gay, Lauren; Jones, Les; Saavedra, Geraldine; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study examining replication and disease pathogenesis associated with low-pathogenic H5N1, H5N2, or H5N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection of chickens and ducks was performed. The replication and pathogenesis of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) has received substantial attention; however, the behavior of low-pathogenic AIVs, which serve as precursors to HPAIVs, has received less attention. Thus, chickens or ducks were inoculated with an isolate from a wild bird [A/Mute Swan/MI/451072/06 (H5N1)] or isolates from chickens [A/Ck/PA/13609/93 (H5N2), A/Ck/TX/167280-4/02 (H5N3)], and virus replication, induction of a serological response, and disease pathogenesis were investigated, and the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of the isolates were determined. Virus isolated from tracheal and cloacal swabs showed that H5N1 replicated better in ducks, whereas H5N2 and H5N3 replicated better in chickens. Comparison of the NA gene sequences showed that chicken-adapted H5N2 and H5N3 isolates both have a deletion of 20 amino acids in the NA stalk region, which was absent in the H5N1 isolate. Histopathological examination of numerous organs showed that H5N2 and H5N3 isolates caused lesions in chickens in a variety of organs, but to a greater extent in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, whereas H5N1 lesions in ducks were observed mainly in the respiratory tract. This study suggests that the H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 infections occurred at distinct sites in chicken and ducks, and that comparative studies in different model species are needed to better understand the factors influencing the evolution of these viruses.

  5. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (P<0.01) at 4 days post inoculation (dpi). Co-infection did not affect the number of birds shedding LPAIV, but more LPAIV was shed at 2 dpi (P<0.0001) from ducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (P<0.05) compared to the ducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses.

  6. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI.

  7. Characterization of influenza virus sialic acid receptors in minor poultry species.

    PubMed

    Kimble, Brian; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R

    2010-12-09

    It is commonly accepted that avian influenza viruses (AIVs) bind to terminal α2,3 sialic acid (SA) residues whereas human influenza viruses bind to α2,6 SA residues. By a series of amino acid changes on the HA surface protein, AIVs can switch receptor specificity and recognize α2,6 SA positive cells, including human respiratory epithelial cells. Animal species, like pigs and Japanese quail, that contain both α2,3 and α2,6 SA become ideal environments for receptor switching. Here, we describe the SA patterns and distributions in 6 common minor domestic poultry species: Peking duck, Toulouse geese, Chinese ring-neck pheasant, white midget turkey, bobwhite quail, and pearl guinea fowl. Lectins specific to α2,3 and α2,6 SA (Maakia amurensis agglutinin and Sambuca nigra agglutinin, respectively) were used to detect SA by an alkaline phosphotase-based method and a fluorescent-based method. Differences in SA moieties and their ability to bind influenza viruses were visualized by fluorescent labeling of 4 different H3N2 influenza viruses known to be specific for one receptor or the other. The geese and ducks showed α2,3 SA throughout the respiratory tract and marginal α2,6 SA only in the colon. The four other avian species showed both α2,3 and α2,6 SA in the respiratory tract and the intestines. Furthermore, the turkey respiratory tract showed a positive correlation between age and α2,6 SA levels. The fact that these birds have both avian and human flu receptors, combined with their common presence in backyard farms and live bird markets worldwide, mark them as potential mixing bowl species and necessitates improved surveillance and additional research about the role of these birds in influenza host switching.

  8. A synchronized global sweep of the internal genes of modern avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Worobey, Michael; Han, Guan-Zhu; Rambaut, Andrew

    2014-04-10

    Zoonotic infectious diseases such as influenza continue to pose a grave threat to human health. However, the factors that mediate the emergence of RNA viruses such as influenza A virus (IAV) are still incompletely understood. Phylogenetic inference is crucial to reconstructing the origins and tracing the flow of IAV within and between hosts. Here we show that explicitly allowing IAV host lineages to have independent rates of molecular evolution is necessary for reliable phylogenetic inference of IAV and that methods that do not do so, including 'relaxed' molecular clock models, can be positively misleading. A phylogenomic analysis using a host-specific local clock model recovers extremely consistent evolutionary histories across all genomic segments and demonstrates that the equine H7N7 lineage is a sister clade to strains from birds--as well as those from humans, swine and the equine H3N8 lineage--sharing an ancestor with them in the mid to late 1800s. Moreover, major western and eastern hemisphere avian influenza lineages inferred for each gene coalesce in the late 1800s. On the basis of these phylogenies and the synchrony of these key nodes, we infer that the internal genes of avian influenza virus (AIV) underwent a global selective sweep beginning in the late 1800s, a process that continued throughout the twentieth century and up to the present. The resulting western hemispheric AIV lineage subsequently contributed most of the genomic segments to the 1918 pandemic virus and, independently, the 1963 equine H3N8 panzootic lineage. This approach provides a clear resolution of evolutionary patterns and processes in IAV, including the flow of viral genes and genomes within and between host lineages.

  9. Pathogenesis of Dengue Vaccine Viruses in Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    AD-AI30 52S PATHOGENESIS OF DENGUE VACCINE VIRUSES IN MOSQUITOES i/I (U) VALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CONN SCHOOL OF MEDICINE B J BEATY ET AL. 81 JAN 81 DAMDi...UNCLASSIFIED PATHOGENESIS OF DENGUE VACCINE VIRUSES IN MOSQUITOES Second Annual Report Barry J. Beaty, Ph.D. D T IC ; Thomas H.G. Aitken, Ph.D...REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED PATHOMMSIS CF DENGUE

  10. Genetic characterization of H5N2 influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Japan suggests multiple reassortment.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Serageldeen; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Hill, Nichola J; Hussein, Islam T M; Trinh, Dai Quang; Inage, Kumiko; Hashizume, Taishi; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-12-01

    Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) of the H5 subtype can mutate to highly pathogenic forms, potentially destabilizing the poultry industry. Wild migratory birds are considered a natural reservoir of LPAIVs capable of dispersing both high- and low-pathogenic forms of the virus. Therefore, surveillance and characterization of AIV in wild birds are essential. Here, we report on the isolation and genetic characterization of 10 AIVs of the H5N2 subtype obtained through surveillance in Hokkaido, Japan, during 2009 and 2011. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the H5 and N2 genes of these isolates are all closely related to each other, belonging to the Eurasian avian-like lineage, but they are unrelated to H5 highly pathogenic strains of clade 2.3.4.4. The internal genes of the isolates were found to be diverse, consistent with our hypothesis that these H5N2 strains have undergone multiple reassortment events. Even though all of the H5N2 isolates were characterized as LPAIV based on the amino acid sequences at the HA cleavage site, this analysis demonstrates a diverse pool of precursors that may seed future outbreaks in poultry and possible human transmissions, suggesting the need for high-quality surveillance.

  11. Juveniles and migrants as drivers for seasonal epizootics of avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Hoye, Bethany J; Verhagen, Josanne H; Nolet, Bart A; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other infectious diseases, the prevalence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) has been seen to exhibit marked seasonal variation. However, mechanisms driving this variation in wild birds have yet to be tested. We investigated the validity of three previously suggested drivers for the seasonal dynamics in LPAIV infections in wild birds: (i) host density, (ii) immunologically naïve young and (iii) increased susceptibility in migrants. To address these questions, we sampled a key LPAIV host species, the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, on a small spatial scale, comprehensively throughout a complete annual cycle, measuring both current and past infection (i.e. viral and seroprevalence, respectively). We demonstrate a minor peak in LPAIV prevalence in summer, a dominant peak in autumn, during which half of the sampled population was infected, and no infections in spring. Seroprevalence of antibodies to a conserved gene segment of avian influenza virus (AIV) peaked in winter and again in spring. The summer peak of LPAIV prevalence coincided with the entrance of unfledged naïve young in the population. Moreover, juveniles were more likely to be infected, shed higher quantities of virus and were less likely to have detectable antibodies to AIV than adult birds. The arrival of migratory birds, as identified by stable hydrogen isotope analysis, appeared to drive the autumn peak in LPAIV infection, with both temporal coincidence and higher infection prevalence in migrants. Remarkably, seroprevalence in migrants was substantially lower than viral prevalence throughout autumn migration, further indicating that each wave of migrants amplified local AIV circulation. Finally, while host abundance increased throughout autumn, it peaked in winter, showing no direct correspondence with either of the LPAIV infection peaks. At an epidemiologically relevant spatial scale, we provide strong evidence for the role of migratory birds as key drivers for seasonal

  12. AI and simulation: What can they learn from each other

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.

    1988-01-01

    Simulation and Artificial Intelligence share a fertile common ground both from a practical and from a conceptual point of view. Strengths and weaknesses of both Knowledge Based System and Modeling and Simulation are examined and three types of systems that combine the strengths of both technologies are discussed. These types of systems are a practical starting point, however, the real strengths of both technologies will be exploited only when they are combined in a common knowledge representation paradigm. From an even deeper conceptual point of view, one might even argue that the ability to reason from a set of facts (i.e., Expert System) is less representative of human reasoning than the ability to make a model of the world, change it as required, and derive conclusions about the expected behavior of world entities. This is a fundamental problem in AI, and Modeling Theory can contribute to its solution. The application of Knowledge Engineering technology to a Distributed Processing Network Simulator (DPNS) is discussed.

  13. Challenges and progress in making DNA-based AIS early ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ability of DNA barcoding to find additional species in hard-to-sample locations or hard-to-identify samples is well established. Nevertheless, adoption of DNA barcoding into regular monitoring programs has been slow, in part due to issues of standardization and interpretation that need resolving. In this presentation, we describe our progress towards incorporating DNA-based identification into broad-spectrum aquatic invasive species early-detection monitoring in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Our work uses community biodiversity information as the basis for evaluating survey performance for various taxonomic groups. Issues we are tackling in bringing DNA-based data to bear on AIS monitoring design include: 1) Standardizing methodology and work flow from field collection and sample handling through bioinformatics post-processing; 2) Determining detection sensitivity and accounting for inter-species differences in DNA amplification and primer affinity; 3) Differentiating sequencing and barcoding errors from legitimate new finds when range and natural history information is limited; and 4) Accounting for the different nature of morphology- vs. DNA-based biodiversity information in subsequent analysis (e.g., via species accumulation curves, multi-metric indices). not applicable

  14. Computational intelligence from AI to BI to NI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Paul J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives highlights of the history of the neural network field, stressing the fundamental ideas which have been in play. Early neural network research was motivated mainly by the goals of artificial intelligence (AI) and of functional neuroscience (biological intelligence, BI), but the field almost died due to frustrations articulated in the famous book Perceptrons by Minsky and Papert. When I found a way to overcome the difficulties by 1974, the community mindset was very resistant to change; it was not until 1987/1988 that the field was reborn in a spectacular way, leading to the organized communities now in place. Even then, it took many more years to establish crossdisciplinary research in the types of mathematical neural networks needed to really understand the kind of intelligence we see in the brain, and to address the most demanding engineering applications. Only through a new (albeit short-lived) funding initiative, funding crossdisciplinary teams of systems engineers and neuroscientists, were we able to fund the critical empirical demonstrations which put our old basic principle of "deep learning" firmly on the map in computer science. Progress has rightly been inhibited at times by legitimate concerns about the "Terminator threat" and other possible abuses of technology. This year, at SPIE, in the quantum computing track, we outline the next stage ahead of us in breaking out of the box, again and again, and rising to fundamental challenges and opportunities still ahead of us.

  15. Utilizing AI in Temporal, Spatial, and Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stottler, Richard; Kalton, Annaka; Bell, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Aurora is a software system enabling the rapid, easy solution of complex scheduling problems involving spatial and temporal constraints among operations and scarce resources (such as equipment, workspace, and human experts). Although developed for use in the International Space Station Processing Facility, Aurora is flexible enough that it can be easily customized for application to other scheduling domains and adapted as the requirements change or become more precisely known over time. Aurora s scheduling module utilizes artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques to make scheduling decisions on the basis of domain knowledge, including knowledge of constraints and their relative importance, interdependencies among operations, and possibly frequent changes in governing schedule requirements. Unlike many other scheduling software systems, Aurora focuses on resource requirements and temporal scheduling in combination. For example, Aurora can accommodate a domain requirement to schedule two subsequent operations to locations adjacent to a shared resource. The graphical interface allows the user to quickly visualize the schedule and perform changes reflecting additional knowledge or alterations in the situation. For example, the user might drag the activity corresponding to the start of operations to reflect a late delivery.

  16. Reassortment and modification of hemagglutinin cleavage motif of avian/WSN influenza viruses generated by reverse genetics that correlate with attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lu, J-H; Long, J-X; Jia, L-J; Liu, Y-L; Shao, W-X; Zhang, Y-M; Liu, X-F

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza associated with H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has raised great concerns in China. To study this problem, reverse genetics has been employed. Three reassortants, rgH9N2, rgH5N1 and rgH5N2, were prepared and compared. Their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes originated from Chinese AIV isolates of H9N2 or H5N1 subtype, while the rest of their genes were derived from A/WSN/33(H1N1) virus (WSN). In the H5 HA reassortants, the multibasic cleavage site was converted to a monobasic one. The results demonstrated that the reassortants did not produce CPE on MDCK cells in the absence of trypsin, showed egg-adaptation phenotype and stability of HA and NA during consecutive egg passages, and were not lethal to chickens and mice. However, the rgH5N1 reassortant exhibited a residual virulence in terms of lethality to chick embryos and pathogenesis in chickens. It can be concluded that (i) the genetic modification of H5 HA attenuated the H5 reassortants, (ii) the presence of internal WSN proteins contributed to the attenuated properties of the reassortants independently on H5 HA, and (iii) also the overall genome composition contributed to virulence differences. This report provides further contribution of reverse genetics to the knowledge of virulence of influenza viruses.

  17. 78 FR 63494 - Meeting of the National Coordination Committee on the AI/AN SANE-SART Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Coordination Committee on the American Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE... Native (AI/AN) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)- Sexual Assault Response Team (SART)...

  18. Novel cross-linked alcohol-insoluble solid (CL-AIS) affinity gel from pea pod for pectinesterase purification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Guan-Hui; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-10-05

    Alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) from pea pod were cross-linked (CL-AIS) and used as an affinity gel matrix to isolate pectin esterases (PEs) from tendril shoots of chayote (TSC) and jelly fig achenes (JFA), and the results were compared with those isolated by ion-exchange chromatography with a commercial resin. CL-AIS gel matrix in a column displayed poor absorption and purification fold of PE; however, highly methoxylated CL-AIS (HM-CL-AIS), by exposing CL-AIS to methanolic sulfuric acid to increase the degree of esterification (DE) to 92%, facilitated the enzyme purification. The purified TSC PE and JFA PE by the HM-CL-AIS column were proofed as a single band on an SDS-PAGE gel, showing that the HM-CL-AIS column was a good matrix for purification of PE, either with alkaline isoelectric point (pI) (TSC PE) or with acidic pI (JFA PE).

  19. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.

  20. Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among Treatment-Seeking Smoker

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.1% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at three time points (Baseline, Quit day, 1 month post-quit) as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor solution, described by inflexibility and avoidance due to smoking related “thoughts/feelings” (9 items) and “somatic sensations” (4 items). Results revealed that the AIS-total and factor scores demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The AIS total and factor scores also displayed high convergent, discriminant, and incremental predictive validity with theoretically-relevant smoking and affective variables. The present data suggest that the AIS measure appears to be a valid and reliable smoking-specific index of experiential avoidance. PMID:25642937

  1. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; ...

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  2. Defective removal of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids by apolipoprotein A-I in Tangier Disease.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, G A; Knopp, R H; Oram, J F

    1995-01-01

    Tangier disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by extremely low plasma levels of HDL and apo A-I, deposition of cholesteryl esters in tissues, and a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the possibility that HDL apolipoprotein-mediated removal of cellular lipids may be defective in Tangier disease. With fibroblasts from normal subjects, purified apo A-I cleared cells of cholesteryl esters, depleted cellular free cholesterol pools available for esterification, and stimulated efflux of radiolabeled cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. With fibroblasts from two unrelated Tangier patients, however, apo A-I had little or no effect on any of these lipid transport processes. Intact HDL also was unable to clear cholesteryl esters from Tangier cells even though it promoted radiolabeled cholesterol efflux to levels 50-70% normal. Passive desorption of radiolabeled cholesterol or phospholipids into medium containing albumin or trypsinized HDL was normal for Tangier cells. Binding studies showed that the interaction of apo A-I with high-affinity binding sites on Tangier fibroblasts was abnormal. These results indicate that apo A-I has an impaired ability to remove cholesterol and phospholipid from Tangier fibroblasts, possibly because of a defective interaction of apo A-I with cell-surface binding sites. Failure of apo A-I to acquire cellular lipids may account for the rapid catabolism of nascent HDL particles and the low plasma HDL levels in Tangier disease. Images PMID:7615839

  3. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and E in cholestatic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Florén, C H; Gustafson, A

    1985-04-01

    Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and E were determined in the plasma of nine patients (five females, four males) with cholestatic liver disease (eight patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and one patient with sclerosing cholangitis). Plasma concentrations were measured by electroimmunoassay in the fasting state, postprandially after ingestion of either 100 g fat as whipping cream or a light mixed meal with or without addition of wheat fibre. Concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II were low in patients with cholestatic liver disease and A-I levels correlated inversely with the severity of liver disease as measured by bilirubin levels (r = -0.66). No changes in plasma apolipoprotein A-I, A-II or E concentrations occurred postprandially. There was an inverse correlation between plasma concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and E (p less than 0.05, r = -0.68). A close relation existed between the ratio of apolipoprotein E to apolipoprotein A-I and plasma bile salt concentration (r = 0.80, p less than 0.01) and serum bilirubin (r = 0.76, p less than 0.01). This implies that in cholestatic liver disease apolipoprotein E and A-I levels reflect the degree of cholestasis.

  4. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H5, H6 and H9 avian influenza viruses circulating in live bird markets with intervention in the center part of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Chu, Duc-Huy; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Keita; Hiono, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Kohei; Nguyen, Lam Thanh; Van Nguyen, Long; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; Nguyen, Thuy Thu; Van Pham, Dong; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Tho Dang; To, Thanh Long; Van Nguyen, Hung; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-30

    A total of 3,045 environmental samples and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy poultry have been collected at three live bird markets (LBMs) at which practices were applied to reduce avian influenza (AI) virus transmission (intervention LBMs) and six conventional LBMs (non-intervention LBMs) in Thua Thien Hue province in 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention LBMs. The 178 AI viruses, including H3 (19 viruses), H4 (2), H5 (8), H6 (30), H9 (114), and H11 (5), were isolated from domestic ducks, muscovy ducks, chickens, and the environment. The prevalence of AI viruses in intervention LBMs (6.1%; 95% CI: 5.0-7.5) was similar to that in non-intervention LBMs (5.6%; 95% CI: 4.5-6.8; χ(2)=0.532; df=1; P=0.53) in the study area. Eight H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were isolated from apparently healthy ducks, muscovy ducks, and an environmental sample in an intervention LBM. The hemagglutinin genes of the H5N6 HPAI viruses belonged to the genetic clade 2.3.4.4, and the antigenicity of the H5N6 HPAI viruses differed from the H5N1 HPAI viruses previously circulating in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H6 and H9 viruses isolated in both types of LBMs revealed that they were closely related to the viruses isolated from domestic birds in China, Group II of H6 viruses and Y280 lineage of H9 viruses. These results indicate that the interventions currently applied in LBMs are insufficient to control AI. A risk analysis should be conducted to identify the key factors contributing to AI virus prevalence in intervention LBMs.

  5. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  6. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  7. Antiviral activity of the oseltamivir and Melissa officinalis L. essential oil against avian influenza A virus (H9N2).

    PubMed

    Pourghanbari, Gholamhosein; Nili, Hasan; Moattari, Afagh; Mohammadi, Ali; Iraji, Aida

    2016-06-01

    Lemon balm derivatives are going to acquire a novelty as natural and potent remedy for treatment of viral infections since the influenza viruses are developing resistance to the current antivirals widely. Oseltamivir, Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) and their synergistic efficacy against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 were evaluated in vitro in MDCK cells at different time exposure by using TCID50, HA, Real Time PCR and HI assay. The results showed that MOEO could inhibit replication of AVI through the different virus replication phase (P ≤ 0.05). Also the highest antiviral activity of MOEO was seen when AIV incubated with MOEO before cell infection. The TCID50/ml was reduced 1.3-2.1, 2.3-2.8, 3.7-4.5 log 10 than control group (5.6 log 10), HAU/50 µl was decreased 85-94, 71.4-94, 71.4-94 % and viral genome copy number/µl was brought down 68-95, 90-100, 89.6-99.9 % at pre-infection, post-infection and simultaneous stage, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition result showed the MOEO was not able to inhibit agglutination of the chicken red blood cell (cRBC). Replication of the AVI was suppressed by the different concentration of oseltamivir completely or near 100 %. Also oseltamivir showed a synergistic activity with MOEO especially when oseltamivir concentration reduced under 0.005 mg/ml. The chemical composition was examined by GC-MS analysis and Its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b. In conclusion, the findings of the study showed that lemon balm essential oil could inhibit influenza virus replication through different replication cycle steps especially throughout the direct interaction with the virus particles.

  8. 75 FR 71183 - 23rd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Services and a revised Terms of Reference (TOR) for SC-206 has been approved by the RTCA Program Management... receipt, a Concept of Use for AIS and MET Data Link Services and an AIS and MET Services Delivery Architecture Recommendations are included in the TOR deliverables. The Concept of Use for AIS and MET Data...

  9. Induction of the apolipoprotein AI gene by fasting: a relationship with ketosis but not with ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Haas, M J; Reinacher, D; Pun, K; Wong, N C; Mooradian, A D

    2000-12-01

    Apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) expression is inversely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. ApoAI expression is also influenced by the nutritional state and diabetes. We used both cell culture and animal models to examine the effect of fasting and ketoacidosis on apoAI gene expression. Two days of food deprivation in rats increased hepatic and intestinal apoAI mRNA by 2.6- and 2.3-fold, respectively (P < .05). The absolute concentration of plasma apoAI did not change. However, the plasma apoAI concentration relative to the plasma concentration of serum proteins was increased 23% (P < .05). In fasting rats, there was a significant positive correlation between the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration and hepatic or intestinal apoAI mRNA level. Despite this correlation, changes in apoAI mRNA are probably not mediated by ketone bodies, since neither hepatic nor intestinal apoAI mRNA levels were altered in rats maintained on a ketogenic diet for 10 days or treated with isobutyramide, an orally active ketone analog. In addition, the activity of the rat apoAI promoter was not altered in Hep G2 cells treated with isobutyramide or fatty acids or exposed to hypoglycemic conditions, while dexamethasone increased promoter activity 1.9-fold (P < .05). These data indicate that metabolic changes other than ketone bodies, such as an increase in plasma glucocorticoids, may account for starvation-induced expression of apoAI.

  10. Behavior Modeling for Detection, Identification, Prediction, and Reaction (DIPR) in AI Systems Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshorn, Rachel E.; Goshorn, Deborah E.; Goshorn, Joshua L.; Goshorn, Lawrence A.

    The application need for distributed artificial intelligence (AI) systems for behavior analysis and prediction is a requirement today versus a luxury of the past. The advent of distributed AI systems with large numbers of sensors and sensor types and unobtainable network bandwidth is also a key driving force. Additionally, the requirement to fuse a large number of sensor types and inputs is required and can now be implemented and automated in the AI hierarchy, and therefore, this will not require human power to observer, fuse, and interpret.

  11. Measuring near infrared spectral reflectance changes from water stressed conifer stands with AIS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Running, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) data was acquired over two paired conifer stands for the purpose of detecting differences in spectral reflectance between stressed and natural canopies. Water stress was induced in a stand of Norway spruce and white pine by severing the sapwood near the ground. Water stress during the AIS flights was evaluated through shoot water potential and relative water content measurements. Preliminary analysis with raw AIS-2 data using SPAM indicates that there were small, inconsistent differences in absolute spectral reflectance in the near infrared 0.97 to 1.3 micron between the stressed and natural canopies.

  12. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellents AI3-38352a, AI3-38354a, AI3-38355a, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, May 1982 - November 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    irrita- chemical and of 10% (wv) A13-38357a, AI3-38360a, tion reaction under Oil of Bergamot (positive and Ar3-38361a did test conditions and control...caused a greater Irritant positive control (Oil of effect than In un- Bergamot ) and diluent were Irradiated skin areas. applied to additional skin

  13. Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in Wild Waterfowl in Argentina: Evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America

    PubMed Central

    Pereda, Ariel J.; Uhart, Marcela; Perez, Alberto A.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.; La Sala, Luciano; Decarre, Julieta; Goijman, Andrea; Solari, Laura; Suarez, Romina; Craig, Maria I.; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; König, Guido; Terrera, Maria V.; Kaloghlian, Analia; Song, Haichen; Sorrell, Erin M.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been sporadically isolated in South America. The most recent reports are from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002 and its putative ancestor from a wild bird in Bolivia in 2001. Extensive surveillance in wild birds was carried out in Argentina during 2006-2007. Using RRT-PCR, 12 AI positive detections were made from cloacal swabs. One of those positive samples yielded an AI virus isolated from a wild kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) captured in the South Atlantic coastline of Argentina. Further characterization by nucleotide sequencing reveals that it belongs to the H13N9 subtype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 viral genes suggests that the 6 internal genes are related to the isolates from Chile and Bolivia. The analysis also indicates that a cluster of phylogenetically related AI viruses from South America may have evolved independently, with minimal gene exchange, from influenza viruses in other latitudes. The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America. PMID:18632129

  14. Massive bowel resection upregulates the intestinal mRNA expression levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II and apolipoprotein A-IV and alters the intestinal vitamin A status in rats.

    PubMed

    Hebiguchi, Taku; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Watanabe, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Kiwamu; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki; Senoo, Haruki; Yoshino, Hiroaki

    2015-03-01

    Short bowel (SB) syndrome causes the malabsorption of various nutrients. Among these, vitamin A is important for a number of physiological activities. Vitamin A is absorbed by epithelial cells of the small intestine and is discharged into the lymphatic vessels as a component of chylomicrons and is delivered to the liver. In the present study, we used a rat model of SB syndrome in order to assess its effects on the expression of genes associated with the absorption, transport and metabolism of vitamin A. In the rats with SB, the intestinal mRNA expression levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II, gene symbol Rbp2) and apolipoprotein A-IV (gene symbol Apoa4) were higher than those in the sham-operated rats, as shown by RT-qPCR. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that absorptive epithelial cells stained positive for both CRBP II and lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which are both required for the effective esterification of vitamin A. In the rats with SB, the retinol content in the ileum and the retinyl ester content in the jejunum were lower than those in the sham-operated rats, as shown by quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl esters by high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that the elevated mRNA expression levels of Rbp2 and Apoa4 in the rats with SB contribute to the effective esterification and transport of vitamin A.

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I and its mimetics for the treatment of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Although statin treatment leads consistently to a reduction in major adverse coronary events and death in clinical trials, approximately 60 to 70% residual risk of these outcomes still remains. One frontier of investigational drug research is treatment to increase HDL, the ‘good cholesterol’ that is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) are protective against atherosclerosis through several mechanisms, including the ability to mediate reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical findings for two types of therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis: apoAI-containing compounds and apoAI mimetic peptides. Both of these therapies have excellent potential to be useful clinically to promote atherosclerosis regression and stabilize existing plaques, but significant hurdles must be overcome in order to develop these approaches into safe and effective therapies. PMID:20730693

  16. 77 FR 68150 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Coordination Committee on the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner...

  17. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  18. Virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Açai ( Euterpe oleraceae Martius) Pulp following Mild Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rodrigo Labello; Pereira, Karen Signori; Dias, Viviane Liotti; Schmidt, Flávio Luis; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Passos, Luiz Augusto Corrêa

    2016-10-01

    Outbreaks of acute Chagas disease (ACD) in northern Brazil can be caused by the ingestion of unprocessed açai pulp contaminated with Trypanosoma cruzi . The aim of this study was to determine the minimum thermal process required to inactivate T. cruzi in açai pulp. Trypomastigotes (100,000) of T. cruzi Y strain were added to 0.15 M NaCl or açai pulp and continuously mixed while being heat treated at 37 to 49°C for up to 1 h. When necessary, parasites were separated from açai pulp by forced sieving. Inocula were administrated intraperitoneally in inbred immunodeficient C.B-17-Prkdc(scid)/Pas Unib mice, and the recipients were monitored for parasitemia and mortality. Mice received prophylactic antibiotic therapy by using cephalexin to prevent bacterial infection from the açai pulp. T. cruzi retained its virulence in 0.15 M NaCl and açai pulp at 44 ± 0.1°C for 10 min and at 43 ± 0.1°C for 20 min, respectively, causing ACD and death in mice up to 24 days after infection. Incubation of açai pulp inoculum above 43°C for 20 min neutralized T. cruzi virulence, thereby preventing ACD and death in murine recipients. The heating of açai pulp above 43°C for 20 min is a practical and effective measure to prevent foodborne ACD caused by T. cruzi .

  19. Fatty acid modulation of autoinducer (AI-2) influenced growth and macrophage invasion by Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Kenneth W; Jesudhasan, Palmy; Pillai, Suresh D

    2012-03-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a small molecule that is involved in bacterial cell-to-cell signaling whose precursor formation is mediated by luxS. A luxS mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium PJ002 (ΔluxS) was grown in glucose-containing M-9 minimal medium supplemented with varying concentrations (1×, 10×, and 100×) of long-chain fatty acids (linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid) to study the influence of fatty acids on growth rate and macrophage invasion. Additionally, in vitro synthesized AI-2 was added to this medium to identify the influence of AI-2 on S. Typhimurium PJ002 (ΔluxS) growth rate and macrophage invasion. The growth rate constant (k) for each experimental treatment was determined based on OD₆₀₀ values recorded during 12 h of incubation. There was a significant (p=0.01) increase in the growth rate of S. Typhimurium PJ002 (ΔluxS) in the presence of AI-2 when compared to the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control. However, fatty acids either singly or in a mixture were unable to influence AI-2's effect on growth rate. The presence of AI-2 significantly (p=0.02) decreased the invasiveness of S. Typhimurium PJ002 (ΔluxS) towards the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. However, the fatty acid mixture was able to reverse this reduction and restore invasiveness to background levels. These results suggest that, while AI-2 may enhance the growth rate and reduce macrophage invasion by the luxS mutant S. Typhimurium PJ002 (ΔluxS), fatty acids may influence the virulence in S. Typhimurium (PJ002) by modulating AI-2 activity.

  20. Archival Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data for Navigation Project Performance Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Navigation Project Performance Evaluation by Brandan Scully and Kenneth Ned Mitchell PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical...applications of AIS data for performance evaluation of navigation projects. In particular, archived AIS data may be used in a variety of investigations and...conditions. Additional uses for modeling and engineering design are currently being investigated through the Navigation System