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Sample records for ai virus aiv

  1. Characterization of 10 adjuvants for inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines against challenge with highly pathogenic AIV in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...

  2. Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific “candidate genes”, which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed. PMID:25228954

  3. Estimation of Hardy-Weinberg and pairwise disequilibrium in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Haviland, M B; Kessling, A M; Davignon, J; Sing, C F

    1991-01-01

    Departures from Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibria and pairwise disequilibria were estimated in a sample of unrelated healthy individuals typed for six RFLPs in the apo AI-CIII-AIV gene region. The sample was composed of males and females, selected for health, from two populations, those of exclusively French-Canadian (FC) and those of some non-French-Canadian (NFC) ancestry. An approach suggested by Weir and Cockerham, which includes estimates of nonrandom association (disequilibria) between three and four alleles at two loci as well as the traditional associations between two alleles, at two loci was used. The pattern of departures from HW equilibria suggested that the genetic structures of the FC and NFC are different. Departure from HW equilibrium at an RFLP locus could not be predicted from information about other loci in the same gene region. Nonrandom associations were also evident from the pairwise analyses. Two pairs of loci had significant diallelic disequilibria, while two other pairs had significant triallelic disequilibria. All of the RFLP pairs had at least one measure of disequilibrium at its maximum value determined by allele frequencies. Inferences about pairwise disequilibria depended on the statistical approach used. Sizes of the pairwise disequilibria were not correlated with the physical distance between loci. The impact of these disequilibria on RFLP-phenotype association studies is discussed. PMID:1678249

  4. Variation at the hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV loci is a major cause of genetically determined variation in plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J C; Wang, Z; Grundy, S M; Stoesz, M R; Guerra, R

    1994-01-01

    Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in determining interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels, but the specific genetic determinants of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have not been elucidated. In this study, the effects of variation in the genomic regions encoding hepatic lipase, apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV, and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein on plasma HDL-C levels were examined in 73 normotriglyceridemic, Caucasian nuclear families. Genetic factors accounted for 56.5 +/- 13% of the interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. For each candidate gene, adjusted plasma HDL-C levels of sibling pairs who shared zero, one, or two parental alleles identical-by-descent were compared using sibling-pair linkage analysis. Allelic variation in the genes encoding hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV accounted for 25 and 22%, respectively, of the total interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. In contrast, none of the variation in plasma HDL-C levels could be accounted for by allelic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein. These findings indicate that a major fraction of the genetically determined variation in plasma HDL-C levels is conferred by allelic variation at the hepatic lipase and the apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV gene loci. PMID:7989594

  5. Patterns of association between genetic variability in apolipoprotein (apo) B, apo AI-CIII-AIV, and cholesterol ester transfer protein gene regions and quantitative variation in lipid and lipoprotein traits: influence of gender and exogenous hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Kessling, A; Ouellette, S; Bouffard, O; Chamberland, A; Bétard, C; Selinger, E; Xhignesse, M; Lussier-Cacan, S; Davignon, J

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of RFLP association were studied, to identify gene regions influencing quantitative variation in lipid and lipoprotein traits (coronary artery disease [CAD] risk factors or metabolically related traits). Subjects (118 female and 229 male; age 20-59 years) were selected for health. Multiple RFLPs were used to sample variability in regions around genes for apolipoprotein (apo) B (restriction enzymes HincII, PvuII, EcoRI, and XbaI), apo AI-CIII-AIV (BamHI, XmnI, TaqI, PstI, SstI, and PvuII) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (TaqI). Separate analyses were done by gender. The sample was truncated at mean +/- 4 SD, to remove extreme outliers. There was no significant gender difference in RFLP genotype frequency distribution. After trait-level adjustment to maximize removal of concomitant variability, analysis of variance was used to estimate the percentage trait phenotypic variance explained by measured variability in the gene regions studied. Fewer gene regions were involved in men, with less influence on quantitative trait variation than in women, in whom hormone use affected association patterns. Gender differences imply that pooling genders or adjusting data for gender effects removes genetic information and should be avoided. The association patterns show that variability around the candidate genes modulates trait levels: the genes are contributors to the genetics of CAD risk variables in a healthy sample. PMID:1346081

  6. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infections in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses (AIV) are categorized as low pathogenicity (LPAI) or high pathogenicity (HPAI) viruses, and can be of any of...

  7. AN RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL FOR SHELLFISH-BORNE VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GPTT virus RNA extraction method, originally developed for extraction of human norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNAs from contaminated shellfish, was evaluated for extraction of RNA from Aichi virus strain A846/88 (AiV), coxsackievirus strains A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5), murine norovirus (strain MNV...

  8. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a type A influenza virus isolated from and adapted to an avian host. This chapter covers the basic physicochemical aspects of AIV including; virus family and properties, subtype classification; basic molecular biology and genetics. The avian host range and ecology...

  9. Sequencing of avian influenza virus genomes following random amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) is a significant disease of birds and a threat to humans. Recently, as a result of the emergence of Asian H5N1 viruses capable of zoonotic spread, wild and domestic bird surveillance for Avian Influenza viruses (AIV) has increased worldwide, requiring the development of fast a...

  10. Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus by protein microarray using nucleoprotein expressed in insect cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Yuhui; WANG, Xiurong; CHEN, Pucheng; ZENG, Xianying; BAO, Hongmei; WANG, Yunhe; XU, Xiaolong; JIANG, Yongping; CHEN, Hualan; LI, Guangxing

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease caused by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) which belong to the influenza virus A group. AI causes tremendous economic losses in poultry industry and pose great threatens to human health. Active serologic surveillance is necessary to prevent and control the spread of AI. In this study, a protein microarray using nucleoprotein (NP) of H5N1 AIV expressed in insect cells was developed to detect antibodies against AIV NP protein. The protein microarray was used to test Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), AIV positive and negative sera. The results indicated that the protein microarray could hybridize specifically with antibodies against AIV with strong signals and without cross-hybridization. Moreover, 76 field serum samples were detected by microarray, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The positive rate was 92.1% (70/76), 93.4% (71/76) and 89.4% (68/76) by protein microarray, ELISA and HI test, respectively. Compared with ELISA, the microarray showed 100% (20/20) agreement ratio in chicken and 98.2% (55/56) in ornamental bird. In conclusion, this method provides an alternative serological diagnosis for influenza antibody screening and will provide a basis for the development of protein microarrays that can be used to respectively detect antibodies of different AIV subtypes and other pathogens. PMID:25650059

  11. Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus by protein microarray using nucleoprotein expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Xiurong; Chen, Pucheng; Zeng, Xianying; Bao, Hongmei; Wang, Yunhe; Xu, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yongping; Chen, Hualan; Li, Guangxing

    2015-04-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease caused by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) which belong to the influenza virus A group. AI causes tremendous economic losses in poultry industry and pose great threatens to human health. Active serologic surveillance is necessary to prevent and control the spread of AI. In this study, a protein microarray using nucleoprotein (NP) of H5N1 AIV expressed in insect cells was developed to detect antibodies against AIV NP protein. The protein microarray was used to test Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), AIV positive and negative sera. The results indicated that the protein microarray could hybridize specifically with antibodies against AIV with strong signals and without cross-hybridization. Moreover, 76 field serum samples were detected by microarray, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The positive rate was 92.1% (70/76), 93.4% (71/76) and 89.4% (68/76) by protein microarray, ELISA and HI test, respectively. Compared with ELISA, the microarray showed 100% (20/20) agreement ratio in chicken and 98.2% (55/56) in ornamental bird. In conclusion, this method provides an alternative serological diagnosis for influenza antibody screening and will provide a basis for the development of protein microarrays that can be used to respectively detect antibodies of different AIV subtypes and other pathogens. PMID:25650059

  12. Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404

  13. Aichi virus 1: environmental occurrence and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404

  14. Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus-AI Vaccine Virus Replication in Different Species of Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Kovács, Edit Walkóné; Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Felföldi, Balázs; Homonnay, Zalán G; Mató, Tamás; Sato, Takanori; Gardin, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl play a key role in the epidemiology of the H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus; therefore, efficient immunization of domesticated ducks and geese to maximize the impact of other control measures is of great importance. A recombinant (r)HVT-AI, expressing the HA gene of a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain had been developed and proved to be efficient against different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus in chickens after a single vaccination at 1 day old and could provide long-term immunity. We investigated whether rHVT-AI applied at 1 day old is able to replicate in different species and crossbreeds of ducks and in geese with the aim of collecting data on the possible application of rHVT-AI vaccine in different species of waterfowl for the control of H5N1 HPAI. We tested the possible differences among different waterfowl species, i.e., between geese (Anser anser, domesticated greylag goose), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata forma domestica), Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos forma domestica), and mule ducks (Muscovy duck × Pekin duck), in their susceptibility to support the replication of rHVT-AI. Vaccine virus replication was followed by real-time PCR in spleen, bursa, and feather tip samples. Humoral immune response to vaccination was tested using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and H5-specific commercial ELISA. Significant differences among the different waterfowl species regarding the rate of rHVT-AI replication was detected that were not reflected by the same difference in the immune response to vaccination. Replication of the rHVT-AI vaccine was very limited in Pekin ducks, somewhat better in mule ducks, and the vaccine virus was replicating significantly better in Muscovy ducks and geese, reaching 100% detectability at certain time points after administration at 1 day old. Results indicated that the vaccine virus could establish different levels of persistent infection in these species of waterfowl. No humoral immune response

  15. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  16. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects. PMID:26892338

  17. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai's wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  18. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C.; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai’s wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  19. Avirulent Marek’s Disease Virus Type 1 Strain 814 Vectored Vaccine Expressing Avian Influenza (AI) Virus H5 Haemagglutinin Induced Better Protection Than Turkey Herpesvirus Vectored AI Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xianlan; Zhao, Yan; Shi, Xingming; Li, Qiaoling; Yan, Shuai; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Liu, Changjun; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as a vector to express the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5 was developed and its protection against lethal Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) challenges was evaluated previously. It is well-known that avirulemt MDV type 1 vaccines are more effective than HVT in prevention of lethal MDV infection. To further increase protective efficacy against HPAIV and lethal MDV, a recombinant MDV type 1 strain 814 was developed to express HA gene of HPAIV H5N1. Methodology/Principal Findings A recombinant MDV-1 strain 814 expressing HA gene of HPAIV H5N1 virus A/goose/Guangdong/3/96 at the US2 site (rMDV-HA) was developed under the control of a human CMV immediate-early promoter. The HA expression in the rMDV-HA was tested by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, and in vitro and in vivo growth properties of rMDV-HA were also analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated and compared the protective immunity of rMDV-HA and previously constructed rHVT-HA against HPAIV and lethal MDV. Vaccination of chickens with rMDV-HA induced 80% protection against HPAIV, which was better than the protection rate by rHVT-HA (66.7%). In the animal study with MDV challenge, chickens immunized with rMDV-HA were completely protected against virulent MDV strain J-1 whereas rHVT-HA only induced 80% protection with the same challenge dose. Conclusions/Significance The rMDV-HA vaccine was more effective than rHVT-HA vaccine for protection against lethal MDV and HPAIV challenges. Therefore, avirulent MDV type 1 vaccine is a better vector than HVT for development of a recombinant live virus vaccine against virulent MDV and HPAIV in poultry. PMID:23301062

  20. Optimum-AIV: A planning and scheduling system for spacecraft AIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arentoft, M. M.; Fuchs, Jens J.; Parrod, Y.; Gasquet, Andre; Stader, J.; Stokes, I.; Vadon, H.

    1991-01-01

    A project undertaken for the European Space Agency (ESA) is presented. The project is developing a knowledge based software system for planning and scheduling of activities for spacecraft assembly, integration, and verification (AIV). The system extends into the monitoring of plan execution and the plan repair phase. The objectives are to develop an operational kernel of a planning, scheduling, and plan repair tool, called OPTIMUM-AIV, and to provide facilities which will allow individual projects to customize the kernel to suit its specific needs. The kernel shall consist of a set of software functionalities for assistance in initial specification of the AIV plan, in verification and generation of valid plans and schedules for the AIV activities, and in interactive monitoring and execution problem recovery for the detailed AIV plans. Embedded in OPTIMUM-AIV are external interfaces which allow integration with alternative scheduling systems and project databases. The current status of the OPTIMUM-AIV project, as of Jan. 1991, is that a further analysis of the AIV domain has taken place through interviews with satellite AIV experts, a software requirement document (SRD) for the full operational tool was approved, and an architectural design document (ADD) for the kernel excluding external interfaces is ready for review.

  1. Surveillance of Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl Used As Decoys in Andalusia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011–2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8–19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. PMID:24901946

  2. Photocatalytic inactivation efficiency of anatase Nano-TiO(2) Sol on the H(9) N(2) avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haixin; Jiang, Jianfang; Gu, Wei; Sun, Changjiao; Wu, Donglai; Yang, Tao; Yang, Guochen

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate efficiency of TiO(2) nanomaterial as a novel environment-friendly disinfectant to control avian influenza (AI) by its photochemical sterilization ability. Anatase nano-TiO(2) sol, a neutral, viscous aqueous colloid of 1.6% TiO(2) , was synthesized from peroxotitanic acid solution according to the Ichinose method. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the TiO(2) particles were spindle-shaped with an average size of 50 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystal phase of TiO(2) particles was anatase type with photocatalytic effect. A photocatalytic film of nano-TiO(2) sol was tested as a means of inactivating H(9) N(2) avian influenza virus (AIV). Inactivation capabilities were examined with 365nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation under black light by adjusting the UV intensity, the UV irradiation time and the quantity of AIV. The titer change of AIV was determined by hemagglutination tests. Cytopathic effect of Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was monitored by inverted fluorescence microscope. The results showed that anatase nano-TiO(2) sol significantly inactivated AIV under UV irradiation of 365nm. The inactivation of AIV viruses reached up to 100%. Therefore, anatase nano-TiO(2) sol is a potentially environment-friendly antivirus agent to prevent AI. PMID:20553405

  3. Further improvement and validation of MagMAX-96 AI/ND viral RNA isolation for efficient removal of RT-PCR inhibitors from cloacal swabs and tissues for rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus by RT reverse transcription PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) is a high throughput molecular diagnostic test used for rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical samples. However the performance of RRT-PCR can be adversely affected by RT-PCR inhibitors present in the sample. The tested commercial RNA extraction kits ...

  4. Structure of human Aichi virus and implications for receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Wang, Xiangxi; Ren, Jingshan; Kotecha, Abhay; Walter, Thomas S; Yuan, Shuai; Yamashita, Teruo; Tuthill, Tobias J; Fry, Elizabeth E; Rao, Zihe; Stuart, David I

    2016-01-01

    Aichi virus (AiV), an unusual and poorly characterized picornavirus, classified in the genus Kobuvirus, can cause severe gastroenteritis and deaths in children below the age of five years, especially in developing countries(1,2). The seroprevalence of AiV is approximately 60% in children under the age of ten years and reaches 90% later in life(3,4). There is no available vaccine or effective antiviral treatment. Here, we describe the structure of AiV at 3.7 Å. This first high-resolution structure for a kobuvirus is intermediate between those of the enteroviruses and cardioviruses, with a shallow, narrow depression bounded by the prominent VP0 CD loops (linking the C and D strands of the β-barrel), replacing the depression known as the canyon, frequently the site of receptor attachment in enteroviruses. VP0 is not cleaved to form VP2 and VP4, so the 'VP2' β-barrel structure is complemented with a unique extended structure on the inside of the capsid. On the outer surface, a polyproline helix structure, not seen previously in picornaviruses is present at the C terminus of VP1, a position where integrin binding motifs are found in some other picornaviruses. A peptide corresponding to this polyproline motif somewhat attenuates virus infectivity, presumably blocking host-cell attachment. This may guide cellular receptor identification. PMID:27595320

  5. Characteristics of human infection with avian influenza viruses and development of new antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Dong-ying; Yang, Zhan-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Since 1997, several epizootic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been transmitted to humans, causing diseases and even deaths. The recent emergence of severe human infections with AIV (H7N9) in China has raised concerns about efficient interpersonal viral transmission, polygenic traits in viral pathogenicity and the management of newly emerging strains. The symptoms associated with viral infection are different in various AI strains: H5N1 and newly emerged H7N9 induce severe pneumonia and related complications in patients, while some H7 and H9 subtypes cause only conjunctivitis or mild respiratory symptoms. The virulence and tissue tropism of viruses as well as the host responses contribute to the pathogenesis of human AIV infection. Several preventive and therapeutic approaches have been proposed to combat AIV infection, including antiviral drugs such as M2 inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, attachment inhibitors and signal-transduction inhibitors etc. In this article, we summarize the recent progress in researches on the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenicity determinants, and available or potential antivirals of AIV. PMID:24096642

  6. [Inhibition of proliferation of H5N1 subtype AIV in CEF by chemosynthetic siRNA].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-Shu; Yu, Dan; Luo, Bao-Zheng; Bo, Qing-Ru; Xu, Hai-Nie; Sha, Cai-Hua; Liao, Xiu-Yun

    2013-06-01

    In order to study the proliferation inhibition effect of H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) with small interfere RNA (siRNA), a total of 4 siRNAs were designed in accordance with the NP and PA genes of H5N1 subtype AIV, the siRNAs were then transfected to chicken embryo fibroblast(CEF), CEF was infected with H5N1 subtype AIV after 6 hrs. Virus titer of cell supernatant was tested at 16-56hrs post infection, and pathological changes of the cells was observed; mRNA levels of NP, PA, HA and p13-actin gene were tested at 36hrs post infection. The results showed that these 4 siRNAs could inhibit the prolif-eration of H5N1 subtype AIV in CEF in varying degrees, and one siRNA targeting PA was best per-formed. The experimental results also showed that the inhibition effect was decreased with the time prolonged. This research provides a basis for further studying RNAi on AIV prevention and control. PMID:23895002

  7. Host antiviral defenses induced by a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus prevents infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. To evaluate the dynamics of AIV-NDV co-i...

  8. Avian influenza virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase combination H8N8, isolated in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8 isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2....

  9. First isolation of an H1N1 avian influenza virus from wild terrestrial non-migratory birds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Paula; Mattiello, Rosana; Rivailler, Pierre; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, Charles T; Boado, Lorena; D'Ambrosio, Elisa; Aguirre, Sebastian; Espinosa, Cora; La Torre, José; Donis, Ruben; Mattion, Nora

    2010-01-01

    A type A avian influenza (AI) virus was isolated from dead or severely ill red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) found in a hunting ground in April 2008 in Argentina. The subtype of A/red-winged tinamou/Argentina/MP1/2008 was determined as H1N1 by sequence analysis. The cleavage site of the viral hemagglutinin corresponded to a low pathogenic influenza virus, although the clinical presentation and pathological studies suggest that the virus was pathogenic for red-winged tinamous. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome suggested that while the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were related to AIV from North America, the internal genes were most closely related to other South American isolates. These findings support the postulated South American phylogenetic lineage for AIV PB2, PB1, PA, M and NS genes, and suggest that the evolutionary pathways of HA and NA genes involve exchanges between the Northern and Southern hemispheres. PMID:19896684

  10. Pathobiology and transmission of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) may share with Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) its potential as an intermediate host and reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). To elucidate this question, European quail were experimentally challenged with two highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) (H7N1/HP and H5N1/HP) and one low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) (H7N2/LP). Contact animals were also used to assess the viral transmission among birds. Severe neurological signs and mortality rates of 67% (H7N1/HP) and 92% (H5N1/HP) were observed. Although histopathological findings were present in both HPAIV-infected groups, H5N1/HP-quail displayed a broader viral antigen distribution and extent of microscopic lesions. Neither clinical nor pathological involvement was observed in LPAIV-infected quail. Consistent long-term viral shedding and effective transmission to naive quail was demonstrated for the three studied AIV. Drinking water arose as a possible transmission route and feathers as a potential origin of HPAIV dissemination. The present study demonstrates that European quail may play a major role in AI epidemiology, highlighting the need to further understand its putative role as an intermediate host for avian/mammalian reassortant viruses. PMID:23537387

  11. Electronic microarray assays for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, Oliver; Beeston, Anne; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Pasick, John; Hodko, Dalibor; Hughes, Kimberley Burton; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara; Fisher, Mathew; Deregt, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    Microarrays are suitable for multiplexed detection and typing of pathogens. Avian influenza virus (AIV) is currently classified into 16 H (hemagglutinin) and 9 N (neuraminidase) subtypes, whereas Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains differ in virulence and are broadly classified into high and low pathogenicity types. In this study, three assays for detection and typing of poultry viruses were developed on an automated microarray platform: a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of AIV and detection and pathotyping of NDV, and two separate assays for differentiating all AIV H and N subtypes. The AIV-NDV multiplex assay detected all strains in a 63 virus panel, and accurately typed all high pathogenicity NDV strains tested. A limit of detection of 10(1)-10(3) TCID(50)/mL and 200-400 EID(50)/mL was obtained for NDV and AIV, respectively. The AIV typing assays accurately typed all 41 AIV strains and a limit of detection of 4-200 EID(50)/mL was obtained. Assay validation showed that the microarray assays were generally comparable to real-time RT-PCR. However, the AIV typing microarray assays detected more positive clinical samples than the AIV matrix real-time RT-PCR, and also provided information regarding the subtype. The AIV-NDV multiplex and AIV H typing microarray assays detected mixed infections and could be useful for detection and typing of AIV and NDV. PMID:22796283

  12. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed. PMID:26976895

  13. Effect of intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of cholecystokinin-8 and apolipoprotein AIV on intestinal lymphatic CCK-8 and apo AIV concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chun-Min; Xu, Min; Yang, Qing; Zheng, Shuqin; Carey, Katherine M.; Tubb, Matthew R.; Davidson, W. Sean; Liu, Min; Woods, Stephen C.; Tso, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    CCK and apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) are gastrointestinal satiety signals whose synthesis and secretion by the gut are stimulated by fat absorption. Intraperitoneally administered CCK-8 is more potent in suppressing food intake than a similar dose administered intravenously, but the reason for this disparity is unclear. In contrast, both intravenous and intraperitoneally administered apo AIV are equally as potent in inhibiting food intake. When we compared the lymphatic concentration of CCK-8 and apo AIV, we found that neither intraperitoneally nor intravenously administered CCK-8 or apo AIV altered lymphatic flow rate. Interestingly, intraperitoneal administration of CCK-8 produced a significantly higher lymphatic concentration at 15 min than did intravenous administration. Intraperitoneal injection of apo AIV also yielded a higher lymphatic concentration at 30 min than did intravenous administration. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK-8 and apo AIV also resulted in a much longer period of elevated CCK-8 and apo AIV peptide concentration in lymph than intravenous administration. Furthermore, enzymatic activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and aminopeptidase was higher in plasma than in lymph during fasting, and so, satiation peptides, such as CCK-8 and apo AIV in the lymph, are protected from degradation by the significantly lower DPPIV and aminopeptidase activity levels in lymph than in plasma. Therefore, the higher potency of intraperitoneally administered CCK-8 compared with intravenously administered CCK-8 in inhibiting food intake may be explained by both its higher concentration in lymph and the prolonged duration of its presence in the lamina propria. PMID:19020287

  14. The Genetic Diversity of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Pollett, Simon; Ghersi, Bruno; Silva, Maria; Simons, Mark P.; Icochea, Eliana; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Segovia, Karen; Kasper, Matthew R.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and whole-genome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1-H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America. PMID:26784331

  15. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Exposure to lentogenic NDV, either from live vaccines or field strains, is nearly unavoidable for poultry, and co-infections with low pathogenic (LP) AIV are expected to ...

  16. H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

  17. The ecology of avian influenza virus in wild birds: What does this mean for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As natural hosts for avian influenza virus (AIV), wild birds, particularly aquatic birds, are the primary reservoir for transmission of AIV to domestic poultry. Therefore understanding the dissemination and maintenance of AIV in wild birds is important for understanding the factors that contribute ...

  18. Experimental co-infection of chickens with lentogenic, mesogenic and velogenic strains of Newcastle disease viruses and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from the clinical point of view and diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on t...

  19. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of newcastle disease virus prevents infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on the interactions b...

  20. Experimental co-infection of chickens and turkeys with avian influenza and newcastle disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the two most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. The goal of this study was to examine the i...

  1. Differential Viral Fitness Between H1N1 and H3N8 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Helena Lage; Vangeluwe, Didier; Van Borm, Steven; Poncin, Olivier; Dumont, Nathalie; Ozhelvaci, Orkun; Munir, Muhammad; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Homosubtypic and heterosubtypic immunity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) play an important role in the avian influenza virus (AIV) diversity. The mechanisms of AIV replication among wild birds and the role of immunity in AIV diversity have thus not been completely clarified. During the monitoring of AI circulation among wild waterfowl in 2007-2008, two viruses (H3N8 and H1N1) were isolated from ducks caught in a funnel trap located in La Hulpe wetland in Belgium. H3N8 viruses were revealed to be more prevalent in the mallard population than was H1N1, which might suggest a better adaptation to this species. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we characterized both isolated viruses biologically by experimental inoculation. Virus excretion and humoral response induced by both isolated viruses were evaluated in mallards after a first infection followed by a homo-or heterosubtypic reinfection under controlled experimental conditions. The H1N1 virus had a delayed peak of excretion of 4 days compared to the H3N8, but the virus shedding was more limited, earlier, and shorter after each reinfection. Moreover, the H3N8 virus could spread to all ducks after homo- or heterosubtypic reinfections and during a longer period. Although the humoral response induced by both viruses after infection and reinfection could be detected efficiently by competitive ELISA, only a minimal H1 antibody response and almost no H3-specific antibodies could be detected by the HI test. Our results suggest that the H3N8 isolate replicates better in mallards under experimental controlled conditions. PMID:27309085

  2. Diversity in the enteric viruses detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Shobha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chhabra, Preeti; Patil, Pooja; Verma, Harsha; Lahon, Anismrita; Arora, Ritu; Tatte, Vaishali; Ranshing, Sujata; Dhale, Ganesh; Kolhapure, Rajendra; Tikute, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Jagannath; Bhardwaj, Renu; Akarte, Sulbha; Pawar, Sashikant

    2012-03-01

    Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6%) were positive, 73 (76.8%) for a single virus and 22 (23.2%) for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40%) and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%). The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%), rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%), enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%), Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5%) and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%). Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%), a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11%) and four (7.7% and 0%) viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage), NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India. PMID:22690171

  3. Diversity in the Enteric Viruses Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Shobha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chhabra, Preeti; Patil, Pooja; Verma, Harsha; Lahon, Anismrita; Arora, Ritu; Tatte, Vaishali; Ranshing, Sujata; Dhale, Ganesh; Kolhapure, Rajendra; Tikute, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Jagannath; Bhardwaj, Renu; Akarte, Sulbha; Pawar, Sashikant

    2012-01-01

    Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6%) were positive, 73 (76.8%) for a single virus and 22 (23.2%) for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40%) and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%). The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%), rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%), enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%), Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5%) and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%). Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%), a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11%) and four (7.7% and 0%) viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage), NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India. PMID:22690171

  4. Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 A...

  5. Experimental co-infection of SPF chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes H9N2, H5N2 and H7N9, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are two of the most important respiratory viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the effect of co-infection of these two viruses in poultry. Low pathogenicity (LP) AIV can produce from mild to moderate upper r...

  6. Validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for the detection of H7 avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedersen, J.; Killian, M.L.; Hines, N.; Senne, D.; Panigrahy, B.; Ip, H.S.; Spackman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the validation of an avian influenza virus (AIV) H7 subtype-specific real-time reverse transcriptasePCR (rRT-PCR) assay developed at the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) for the detection of H7 AI in North and South American wild aquatic birds and poultry. The validation was a collaborative effort by the SEPRL and the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The 2008 H7 rRT-PCR assay detects 101 50% embryo infectious doses per reaction, or 103104 copies of transcribed H7 RNA. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated to be 97.5% and 82.4%, respectively; the assay was shown to be specific for H7 AI when tested with >270 wild birds and poultry viruses. Following validation, the 2008 H7 rRT-PCR procedure was adopted as an official U.S. Department of Agriculture procedure for the detection of H7 AIV. The 2008 H7 assay replaced the previously used (2002) assay, which does not detect H7 viruses currently circulating in wild birds in North and South America. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  7. Simultaneous detection of avian influenza virus NP and H5 antibodies in chicken sera using a fluorescence microsphere immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lupiani, Blanca; Mozisek, Blayne; Mason, Peter W; Lamichhane, Chinta; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2010-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) surveillance in commercial poultry is accomplished by detecting the presence of antibodies to two group-specific antigens, NP and M1, using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. In order to determine the viral subtype responsible for the infection, positive samples must be further subtyped using the hemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition tests. These tests are labor intensive and may take up to 4 days, thus slowing down responses to outbreaks. To expedite the subtyping of chicken sera we have developed a multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA), which allows for the simultaneous detection and subtyping of chicken sera to H5 influenza viruses. The FMIA was developed using NP (full length) and H5 (HA1 region) proteins expressed in baby hamster kidney cells using a Venezuela equine encephalitis virus replicon system. Both proteins were tagged with 6xHis at the carboxy-end and purified using cobalt-coated agarose beads. Purified H5 protein showed minimal cross-reactivity with anti-H2 serum, while no cross-reactivity was observed with sera to other AI virus (AIV) subtypes and other important poultry viral pathogens. In addition, and as expected, all the AIV sera tested reacted strongly with purified NP protein. Our results indicate that FMIA can be used for rapid subtyping of chicken sera. PMID:20521712

  8. Accumulation and inactivation of avian influenza virus by the filter feeding invertebrate daphnia magna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principle mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals contract the virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for periods of months to years in w...

  9. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  10. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  11. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    PubMed

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  12. Genomic Selection for the Improvement of Antibody Response to Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chenglong; Li, Xuewei; Shu, Dingming; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV) and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV) in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP) and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP). Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV) in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising. PMID:25401767

  13. Is the occurrence of avian influenza virus in charadriiformes species and location dependent?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birds in the order Charadriiformes were sampled at multiple sites in the eastern half of the continental U.S., as well as Argentina, Chile, and Bermuda during 1999–2005 and tested for avian influenza virus (AIV). Of more than 9,400 birds sampled, AIV virus was isolated from 300 birds. Although rud...

  14. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2005, 2006 and 2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for avian influenza virus (AIV) as part of a wild bird AIV monitoring program conducted in Mongolia. Samples collected in 2005 were tested by virus isolation directly, samples from 2006 and 2007...

  15. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  16. EFFICACY OF A FOWLPOX-VECTORED AVIAN INFLUENZA H5 VACCINE AGAINST ASIAN H5N1 HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant fowlpox-avian influenza (AI) H5 vaccine (rFP-AIV-H5) expressing the hemagglutinin of the A/turkey/Ireland/1378/83 H5N8 AI isolate has been used in Central America since 1998 to control H5N2 low pathogenicity (LP) AI. Previously, this vaccine was shown to induce full protection against...

  17. Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Mateman, A. Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

  18. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8(+) T Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8(+) T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed. PMID:26973644

  19. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8+ T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8+ T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed. PMID:26973644

  20. Continuing Reassortant of H5N6 Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Guangdong.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Runyu; Wang, Zheng; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    First identified in May 2014 in China's Sichuan Province, initial cases of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans raised great concerns about the virus's prevalence, origin, and development. To evaluate both AIV contamination in live poultry markets (LPMs) and the risk of AIV infection in humans, we have conducted surveillance of LPMs in Guangdong Province since 2013 as part of environmental sampling programs. With environmental samples associated with these LPMs, we performed genetic and phylogenetic analyses of 10 H5N6 AIVs isolated from different cities of Guangdong Province from different years. Results revealed that the H5N6 viruses were reassortants with hemagglutinin (HA) genes derived from clade 2.3.4.4 of H5-subtype AIV, yet neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from H6N6 AIV. Unlike the other seven H5N6 viruses isolated in first 7 months of 2014, all of which shared remarkable sequence similarity with the H5N1 AIV in all internal genes, the PB2 genes of GZ693, GZ670, and ZS558 more closely related to H6N6 AIV and the PB1 gene of GZ693 to the H3-subtype AIV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the environmental H5N6 AIV related closely to human H5N6 AIVs isolated in Guangdong. These results thus suggest that continued reassortment has enabled the emergence of a novel H5N6 virus in Guangdong, as well as highlight the potential risk of highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs in the province. PMID:27148209

  1. Continuing Reassortant of H5N6 Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Guangdong

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Wang, Zheng; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    First identified in May 2014 in China's Sichuan Province, initial cases of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans raised great concerns about the virus's prevalence, origin, and development. To evaluate both AIV contamination in live poultry markets (LPMs) and the risk of AIV infection in humans, we have conducted surveillance of LPMs in Guangdong Province since 2013 as part of environmental sampling programs. With environmental samples associated with these LPMs, we performed genetic and phylogenetic analyses of 10 H5N6 AIVs isolated from different cities of Guangdong Province from different years. Results revealed that the H5N6 viruses were reassortants with hemagglutinin (HA) genes derived from clade 2.3.4.4 of H5-subtype AIV, yet neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from H6N6 AIV. Unlike the other seven H5N6 viruses isolated in first 7 months of 2014, all of which shared remarkable sequence similarity with the H5N1 AIV in all internal genes, the PB2 genes of GZ693, GZ670, and ZS558 more closely related to H6N6 AIV and the PB1 gene of GZ693 to the H3-subtype AIV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the environmental H5N6 AIV related closely to human H5N6 AIVs isolated in Guangdong. These results thus suggest that continued reassortment has enabled the emergence of a novel H5N6 virus in Guangdong, as well as highlight the potential risk of highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs in the province. PMID:27148209

  2. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  3. Avian influenza virus infection dynamics in shorebird hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using serial cross-sectional data from 2000-2008 and generalized linear models, we examined temporal trends of springtime avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and antibody prevalence in four Charadriiformes species at the Delaware Bay migratory stopover site. Prevalence of AIV in Ruddy Turnstones ...

  4. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  5. Bringing AI to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copple, Kevin L.

    Participation in the Loebner Prize Contest is a useful exercise in the development of intelligent computer systems (AI). This contest helps put a focus on performance and human interaction, countering idealistic and academic bias toward the elusive "true AI". Collection of a steadily expanding set of interacting features is being explored to find how far this approach can move toward better AI.

  6. Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

  7. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) are among the most prominent emerging viruses affecting animal and public health. This report was designed to explore the genetic variation, which has occurred among AIVs of the H7N3 subtype in the Northeast, Central and Southern Regions of Pakistan during the last dec...

  8. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  9. Evaluation and optimization of avian embryos and cell culture methods for efficient isolation and propagation of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance of wild bird populations for avian influenza viruses (AIV) contributes to our understanding of AIV evolution and ecology. Both real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE) are standard methods for detecting A...

  10. Distinctive structure and interfacial activity of the human apolipoprotein A-IV 347S isoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Cook, Victoria R.

    2010-01-01

    The T347S polymorphism in the human apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV gene is present at high frequencies among all the world's populations. Carriers of a 347S allele exhibit faster clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, greater adiposity, and increased risk for developing atherosclerosis, which suggests that this conservative amino acid substitution alters the structure of apo A-IV. Herein we have used spectroscopic and surface chemistry techniques to examine the structure, stability, and interfacial properties of the apo A-IV 347S isoprotein. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the 347S isoprotein has similar α-helical structure but lower thermodynamic stability than the 347T isoprotein. Fluorescence spectroscopy found that the 347S isoprotein exhibits an enhanced tyrosine emission and reduced tyrosine→tryptophan energy transfer, and second derivative UV absorption spectra noted increased tyrosine exposure, suggesting that the 347S isoprotein adopts a looser tertiary conformation. Surface chemistry studies found that although the 347S isoprotein bound rapidly to the lipid interface, it has a lower interfacial exclusion pressure and lower elastic modulus than the 347T isoprotein. Together, these observations establish that the T347S substitution alters the conformation of apo A-IV and lowers its interfacial activity—changes that could account for the effect of this polymorphism on postprandial lipid metabolism. PMID:20554794

  11. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  12. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  13. Evaluation and attempted optimization of avian embryos and cell culture methods for efficient isolation and propagation of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance of wild bird populations for avian influenza viruses (AIV) contributes to our understanding of AIV evolution and ecology. Both real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE) are standard methods for detecting A...

  14. Potency, efficacy, and antigenic mapping of H7 avian influenza virus vaccines against the 2012 H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2012 an outbreak of H7N3 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry in Mexico. Vaccination was implemented as a control measure along with increased biosecurity and surveillance. At that time there was no commercially available H7 AIV vaccine in North Ame...

  15. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  16. A sensitive one-step real-time PCR for detection of avian influenza viruses using a MGB probe and an internal positive control

    PubMed Central

    Di Trani, Livia; Bedini, Barbara; Donatelli, Isabella; Campitelli, Laura; Chiappini, Barbara; De Marco, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Mauro; Buonavoglia, Canio; Vaccari, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Background Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and their introduction and conversion to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry is a cause of serious economic losses as well as a risk for potential transmission to humans. The ability to rapidly recognise AIVs in biological specimens is critical for limiting further spread of the disease in poultry. The advent of molecular methods such as real time polymerase chain reaction has allowed improvement of detection methods currently used in laboratories, although not all of these methods include an Internal Positive Control (IPC) to monitor for false negative results. Therefore we developed a one-step reverse transcription real time PCR (RRT-PCR) with a Minor Groove Binder (MGB) probe for the detection of different subtypes of AIVs. This technique also includes an IPC. Methods RRT-PCR was developed using an improved TaqMan technology with a MGB probe to detect AI from reference viruses. Primers and probe were designed based on the matrix gene sequences from most animal and human A influenza virus subtypes. The specificity of RRT-PCR was assessed by detecting influenza A virus isolates belonging to subtypes from H1–H13 isolated in avian, human, swine and equine hosts. The analytical sensitivity of the RRT-PCR assay was determined using serial dilutions of in vitro transcribed matrix gene RNA. The use of a rodent RNA as an IPC in order not to reduce the efficiency of the assay was adopted. Results The RRT-PCR assay is capable to detect all tested influenza A viruses. The detection limit of the assay was shown to be between 5 and 50 RNA copies per reaction and the standard curve demonstrated a linear range from 5 to 5 × 108 copies as well as excellent reproducibility. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 10–100 times higher than conventional RT-PCR. Conclusion The high sensitivity, rapidity, reproducibility and specificity of the AIV RRT-PCR with the use of IPC to monitor

  17. An Immune Agent for Web-Based AI Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing

    2006-01-01

    To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…

  18. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C.; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. PMID:26063419

  19. Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important. PMID:24171570

  20. Comparative susceptibility of waterfowl and gulls to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild avian species in the Orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shorebirds) have traditionally been considered the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and morbidity or mortality is rarely associated with AIV infection in these hosts. However, ...

  1. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  2. Accumulation and Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus by the Filter-Feeding Invertebrate Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    The principal mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the ability of an aquatic filter-feeding invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to accumulate virus from AIV-dosed water under the hypothesis that they represent a potential vector of AIV to waterfowl hosts. We placed live daphnids in test tubes dosed with low-pathogenicity AIV (H3N8 subtype isolated from a wild duck) and sampled Daphnia tissue and the surrounding water using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) at 3- to 120-min intervals for up to 960 min following dosing. Concentrations of viral RNA averaged 3 times higher in Daphnia tissue than the surrounding water shortly after viral exposure, but concentrations decreased exponentially through time for both. Extracts from Daphnia tissue were negative for AIV by cell culture, whereas AIV remained viable in water without Daphnia present. Our results suggest daphnids can accumulate AIV RNA and effectively remove virus particles from water. Although concentrations of viral RNA were consistently higher in Daphnia tissue than the water, additional research is needed on the time scale of AIV inactivation after Daphnia ingestion to fully elucidate Daphnia's role as a potential vector of AIV infection to aquatic birds. PMID:24038705

  3. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model. PMID:26552719

  4. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model. PMID:26552719

  5. Immuno-PCR for one step detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using magnetic gold particles as carriers.

    PubMed

    Deng, MingJun; Long, Ling; Xiao, XiZhi; Wu, ZhenXing; Zhang, FengJuan; Zhang, YanMing; Zheng, XiaoLong; Xin, XueQian; Wang, Qun; Wu, DongLai

    2011-06-15

    Detecting avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at low concentrations from tracheal and cloacal swabs of avian influenza- and Newcastle disease-infected poultry was carried out using a highly sensitive immunological-polymerase chain reaction (immuno-PCR) method. Magnetic gold particles were pre-coated with a capture antibody, either a monoclonal anti-AIV/H5 or monoclonal anti-NDV/F and viruses serially diluted ten-fold from 10(2) to 10(-5)EID(50)/ml. A biotinylated detection antibody bound to the viral antigen was then linked via a streptavidin bridge to biotinylated reporter DNA. After extensive washing, reporter DNA was released by denaturation, transferred to PCR tubes, amplified, electrophoresed and visualized. An optimized immuno-PCR method was able to detect as little as 10(-4)EID(50)/ml AIV and NDV. To further evaluate the specificity and the clinical application of this IPCR assay for AIV H5N1 and NDV, the tracheal swab specimens, taken from chickens which were infected with H5N1/AIV, H9N2/AIV, H7N2/AIV, NDV, IBDV, IBV/H(120), were detected by IPCR. Our data demonstrated that this monoclonal antibody-based immuno-PCR method provides a platform capable of rapid screening of clinical samples for trace levels of AIV H5 and NDV in one step. PMID:21511345

  6. Molecular identification and comparative transcriptional analysis of myxovirus resistance GTPase (Mx) gene in goose (Anser cygnoide) after H9N2 AIV infection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Miao; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-08-01

    Interferon (IFN)-induced myxovirus resistance (Mx) GTPases belong to the family of dynamin-like GTPases and control a diverse range of viruses. In this study, the identified goose Mx (goMx) mRNA is 2009bp long, shares partially conserved exons with other homologues, and shares highly conserved domains in its primary structure. The amino acid position 629 (629aa) of the goMx protein was identified as serine (Ser), in contrast to the Ser located at 631aa in chicken Mx, which is considered to be responsible for the lack of chicken Mx antiviral activity. In addition, the goMx 142aa residue in the dynamin family signature differs from that of other functional Mx proteins. Transcriptional analysis revealed that goMx was mainly expressed in the digestive, respiratory and immune systems in an age-specific manner. GoMx transcript levels in goose peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were found to be significantly up-regulated by various agonists and avian viruses. Furthermore, a time course study of the effects of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) on goMx expression in infected goslings suggested that H9N2 AIV affected goMx expression. However, significant changes in goMx expression were observed in the trachea, lung and small intestine of infected birds. Altogether, these results indicate that goMx protein may have acquired its broad antiviral activity by changing only a few amino acids at select sites, even as it shares a conserved architectures with species. PMID:27477505

  7. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  8. Experimental co-infection studies with avian influenza viruses and Newcastle Disease viruses in chickens, turkeys and domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-infections of poultry with Newcastle Disease viruses (NDVs) and Avian Influenza viruses (AIVs) present a problem both from the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. Little has been done to understand the interactions between these two viruses when infecting poultry. Exposur...

  9. Characterization of a novel highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus isolated from a duck in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Lihua; Jin, Changzhong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2014-12-01

    During surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live-poultry markets (LPMs) in eastern China in 2013, one H5N2 AIV was isolated from a duck. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the hemagglutinin of this strain belongs to clade 2.3.4 and received its genes from H5, H3 and H6 AIVs of poultry in China. The virulence of this strain was examined in chickens and mice, and it was found to be highly pathogenic in chickens but demonstrated moderate pathogenicity in mice. These results suggest that active surveillance of AIVs in LPMs should be used in an early warning system for avian influenza outbreaks. PMID:25091744

  10. Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Low-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses of Subtype H7N3 following Heterologous Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifei; Long, Li-Ping; Capua, Ilaria; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of the H7N3 subtype were first detected in Italy in October 2002, and the virus continued to circulate between 2002 and 2004 in a densely populated poultry area in the northeast portion of that country. This virus circulated in unvaccinated and vaccinated poultry farms, and the infection was controlled in August 2003 by culling, control of movements, improved biosecurity, and heterologous vaccination. In 2004, H7N3 reoccurred in vaccinated poultry farms in which infection had been successfully controlled by the vaccination program. To shed light on this occurrence and the temporal pattern and genetic basis of antigenic drift for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the absence and presence of heterologous vaccination, a collection of H7N3 viruses isolated in 2002 and 2004 were characterized genetically and antigenically. Molecular analysis showed that viruses isolated in the 2004 outbreaks after the implementation of vaccination had acquired specific amino acid signatures, most of which were located at reported antibody binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Antigenic characterization of these 2004 isolates showed that they were antigenically different from those isolated prior to the implementation of vaccination. This is the first report on antigenic and genetic evolution of H7 LPAI viruses following the application of heterologous vaccination in poultry. These findings may have an impact on control strategies to combat AI infections in poultry based on vaccination. PMID:24554694

  11. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs. PMID:26034886

  12. Regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein by apolipoprotein A-IV in newborn swine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Lu, Song; Huang, Yue; Beeman-Black, Casey C; Lu, Rena; Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M Mahmood; Black, Dennis D

    2011-02-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV overexpression enhances chylomicron (CM) assembly and secretion in newborn swine intestinal epithelial cells by producing larger particles (Lu S, Yao Y, Cheng X, Mitchell S, Leng S, Meng S, Gallagher JW, Shelness GS, Morris GS, Mahan J, Frase S, Mansbach CM, Weinberg RB, Black DD. J Biol Chem 281: 3473-3483, 2006). To determine the impact of apo A-IV on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), IPEC-1 cell lines containing a tetracycline-regulatable expression system were used to overexpress native swine apo A-IV and "piglike" human apo A-IV, a mutant human apo A-IV with deletion of the EQQQ-rich COOH-terminus, previously shown to upregulate basolateral triglyceride (TG) secretion 5-fold and 25-fold, respectively. Cells were incubated 24 h with and without doxycycline and oleic acid (OA, 0.8 mM). Overexpression of the native swine apo A-IV and piglike human apo A-IV increased MTTP lipid transfer activity by 39.7% (P = 0.006) and 53.6% (P = 0.0001), respectively, compared with controls. Changes in mRNA and protein levels generally paralleled changes in activity. Interestingly, native swine apo A-IV overexpression also increased MTTP large subunit mRNA, protein levels, and lipid transfer activity in the absence of OA, suggesting a mechanism not mediated by lipid absorption. Overexpression of piglike human apo A-IV significantly increased partitioning of radiolabeled OA from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to lumen, suggesting increased net transfer of membrane TG to luminal particles. These results suggest that the increased packaging of TG into nascent CMs in the ER lumen, induced by apo A-IV, is associated with upregulation of MTTP activity at the pretranslational level. Thus MTTP is regulated by apo A-IV in a manner to promote increased packaging of TG into the CM core, which may be important in neonatal fat absorption. PMID:21127258

  13. Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of different H5 avian Influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Chung; Chu, Wen-Yu; Tsao, Zak; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2012-07-01

    Avian Influenza A virus (AIV) subtype H5 is divided into American and Eurasian lineages, according to hemagglutinin gene sequences. Although methods for detecting H5 AIVs have been described, no H5 strain-specific detection method has been reported. The purpose of the present study was to develop an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) to detect and differentiate between the American and the Eurasian H5 AIVs. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the HA fragment of a Eurasian H5N2 AIV were used as the capture antibodies as well as the detector antibodies after labeling with horseradish peroxidase to develop an ACE. One mAb was selected for detecting the American as well as the Eurasian H5 AIVs. The other mAb was used for detecting only the Eurasian H5N2 but not the American H5N2 AIVs, H6N1 AIVs, or Newcastle disease virus. The ACEs developed would be useful for detection and differentiation of H5 AIVs from the Eurasian and the American H5 AIVs. PMID:22621946

  14. Reassortment of Avian Influenza A/H6N6 Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Runyu; Zou, Lirong; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Liao, Ming; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2013, H7N9-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused human infection in eastern China. To evaluate AIV contamination and the public risk of infection, we systematically implemented environmental sampling from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and next-generation sequencing, we generated full nucleotide sequences of all 10 H6N6 AIVs isolated during sampling. Focusing on sequence analyses of hemagglutinin genes of the 10 H6N6 AIVs revealed that the viruses were low pathogenic AIVs with the typical hemagglutinin cleavage site of P-Q-I-E-T-R-G. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsid genes of nine AIVs were of ST2853-like (H6-subtype) lineage, ST192-like (N6-subtype) lineage, and HN573-like (H6-subtype) lineage, respectively; whereas the other five genes were of ST339-like (H6-subtype) lineage. However, the polymerase PB2 and nucleocapsid genes of one strain (HZ057) were of GS/GD-like (H5N1-subtype) and ST339-like lineages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that all eight genes of the 10 viruses belonged to Eurasian avian lineage. Altogether, the 10 AIVs were reassortants of different genetic groups of exchanges with the same virus subtype, thus illustrating the genetic diversity and complexity of H6N6-subtype AIVs in Guangdong Province. PMID:26903958

  15. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus in Ruddy ducks and Lesser Scaup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV) has not been characterized in numerous duck species, especially diving ducks, some of which migrate across the continental U.S. The pathobiology of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N2 AIV was characterized in two diving duck species, Ruddy ...

  16. Lack of antigenic diversity in contemporary H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Understanding the antigenic diversity and genetic evolution of H7 AIVs is critical for developing effective strategies for disease prev...

  17. Reassortment of Avian Influenza A/H6N6 Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Zou, Lirong; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Liao, Ming; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2013, H7N9-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused human infection in eastern China. To evaluate AIV contamination and the public risk of infection, we systematically implemented environmental sampling from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and next-generation sequencing, we generated full nucleotide sequences of all 10 H6N6 AIVs isolated during sampling. Focusing on sequence analyses of hemagglutinin genes of the 10 H6N6 AIVs revealed that the viruses were low pathogenic AIVs with the typical hemagglutinin cleavage site of P-Q-I-E-T-R-G. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsid genes of nine AIVs were of ST2853-like (H6-subtype) lineage, ST192-like (N6-subtype) lineage, and HN573-like (H6-subtype) lineage, respectively; whereas the other five genes were of ST339-like (H6-subtype) lineage. However, the polymerase PB2 and nucleocapsid genes of one strain (HZ057) were of GS/GD-like (H5N1-subtype) and ST339-like lineages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that all eight genes of the 10 viruses belonged to Eurasian avian lineage. Altogether, the 10 AIVs were reassortants of different genetic groups of exchanges with the same virus subtype, thus illustrating the genetic diversity and complexity of H6N6-subtype AIVs in Guangdong Province. PMID:26903958

  18. AI aerospace components

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, T.A.; Murphy, T.B.; Rasmussen, A.N.; Mcfarland, R.Z.; Montgomery, R.E.; Pohle, G.E.; Heard, A.E.; Atkinson, D.J.; Wedlake, W.E.; Anderson, J.M. Mitre Corp., Houston, TX Unisys Corp., Houston, TX Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL JPL, Pasadena, CA Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Austin, TX McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., McLean, VA )

    1991-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  19. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  20. Improvements in avian influenza virus (AIV) specimen collection, transport and processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimen collection and transport are critical to achieving optimal sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Since influenza tests are so widely used, small improvements in sensitivity and specificity can translate into substantial cost savings from better test accuracy. To optimize testin...

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of reassortant H11N3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang Province in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Nanping

    2016-10-01

    In July 2013, six H11N3 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. These strains were characterized by whole genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that these strains clustered in the AIV Eurasian lineage, and these strains received their genes from H11, H7, and H1 AIVs in Eastern China. These strains were found to be minimally pathogenic in mice, and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Continued surveillance is needed considering the important role of domestic ducks in AIV reassortment. PMID:27142079

  2. Isolation and genetic characterization of novel reassortant H6N6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Lu, Rufeng; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Lu, Xiangyun; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2016-07-01

    H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect mammals and pose a threat to human health. From June 2014 to July 2015, 12 H6N6 AIVs were isolated from chickens in live-poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates received their genes from H6 and H9N2 subtype AIVs of poultry in China. These novel reassortant viruses showed moderate pathogenicity in mice and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that novel reassorted H6N6 viruses were isolated from chickens in this study, it is possible that these chickens play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H6N6 AIVs, and these results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of the H6N6 AIVs circulating in poultry. PMID:27101069

  3. Detection method for avian influenza viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Rönnqvist, Maria; Ziegler, Thedi; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Recent events have shown that humans may become infected with some pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). Since soil and water, including lakes, rivers, and seashores, may be contaminated by AIV excreted by birds, effective methods are needed for monitoring water for emerging viruses. Combining water filtration with molecular methods such as PCR is a fast and effective way for detecting viruses. The objective of this study was to apply a convenient method for the detection of AIV in natural water samples. Distilled water and lake, river, and seawater were artificially contaminated with AIV (H5N3) and passed through a filter system. AIV was detected from filter membrane by real-time RT-PCR. The performance of Zetapor, SMWP, and Sartobind D5F membranes in recovering influenza viruses was first evaluated using contaminated distilled water. SWMP, which gave the highest virus recoveries, was then compared with a pre-filter combined GF/F filter membrane in a trial using natural water samples. In this study, the cellulose membrane SMWP was found to be practical for recovery of AIVs in water. Viral yields varied between 62.1 and 65.9% in distilled water and between 1 and 16.7% in natural water samples. The borosilicate glass membrane GF/F combined with pre-filter was also feasible in filtering natural water samples with viral yields from 1.98 to 7.33%. The methods described can be used for monitoring fresh and seawater samples for the presence of AIV and to determine the source of AIV transmission in an outbreak situation. PMID:23412765

  4. Characterization of a novel H3N2 influenza virus isolated from domestic ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Yu, Meng; Liu, Litao; Sun, Honglei

    2016-08-01

    Cases of human infection with a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) were first reported in March 2013, which caused 115 deaths within a single year. Beyond that, other subtypes of H7 AIV were isolated from poultry in eastern China during the same period, including H7N7 and H7N2 AIV. In the present study, a subtype H3N2 AIV was isolated from ducks from Anhui Province, China. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that seven gene segments of this virus showed the highest sequence homology with that of the H7 subtype influenza virus, which is presumed to be the reassortants of the H3 and H7 subtypes AIV. The present study also reconfirmed that the reassortment between the H7 subtype and waterfowl-originating AIVs universally occurred in waterfowl. Animal inoculation tests showed that the virus has low pathogenicity in chickens; however, it could be replicated in the lungs of mice. The emergence of this H3N2 isolate emphasizes the importance of enhancing the surveillance of waterfowl-originating AIVs, the identification of novel reassortant strains, and characterization of their biological properties. PMID:27000112

  5. Avian influenza diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) varies by virus strain and host species. The clinical disease and lesions the virus produces in poultry are not pathognomonic for avian influenza; therefore, diagnosis of AI virus (AIV) infection requires a laboratory test. Detection of AIV infecti...

  6. Protection of chickens to antigenically variant avian influenza virus challenge after immunization with two antigenically unrelated strains of the same subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antigenic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) within a subtype has been well established and is believed to be driven by the selection of immunologic escape mutants. In regions where vaccination against AIV has been implemented for prolonged periods (e.g. Vietnam and Egypt), vaccines which...

  7. Replication of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens is affected by the PB1, PB2 and NP viral genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Devastating losses to the poultry industry can result from pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) created by natural reassortment events. The role of individual viral genes on the pathogenesis of AIVs in chickens is unclear. Reverse genetics was used to create single-gene reassortants to determ...

  8. Single and combination diagnostic test efficiency and cost analysis for detection and isolation of avian influenza virus from wild bird cloacal swabs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective laboratory methods for identifying avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild bird populations are crucial to understanding the ecology of this pathogen. The gold standard method has been AIV isolation in chorioallantoic sac (CAS) of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonating chicken eggs (ECE), ...

  9. High genetic diversity and frequent genetic reassortment of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses along the East Asian-Australian migratory flyway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiming; Zhang, Zhenjie; Chen, Zhanqiang; Zhang, Yanru; Lv, Qiang; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Carr, Michael J; Sun, Shuhong; Shi, Weifeng

    2016-04-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIV) along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway, we collected faecal samples (n=2859) between November 2014 and March 2015 from poultry, environmental sources and wild birds in Dongying, Shandong province and Yancheng, Jiangsu province in eastern China. The presence of AIV RNA was evaluated by real-time PCR and the positivity rate ranged from 0 to 29.3%. In both Dongying and Yancheng, samples collected from live poultry markets had the highest positivity rate for AIV RNA. AIV whole genomes were generated and phylogenetically analysed. Our results demonstrate that most of the viruses belonged to the H9N2 subtype, and could be classified into nine novel genotypes based on the phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments of the AIV genomes. This revealed a high genetic diversity of H9N2 in this region and suggested that they might have undergone frequent genetic reassortment. In addition, the internal genes (PB2, etc.) of two viruses from wild birds and several viruses from poultry belonged to the same gene constellation, suggesting a potential inter-host transmission of AIV between wild birds and poultry in live markets along routes of migratory flyways. Our results highlight the high genetic diversity of AIV along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway and the need for more extensive AIV surveillance in eastern China. PMID:26876220

  10. Comparison of Environmental Test Approaches Through MATED AIV Data and Reference to ECSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquinelli, Mauro; Messidoro, Piero; Basso, Valter; Maggiore, Paolo; Scozzi, Rosario

    2012-07-01

    The verification effectiveness can be improved with a proper knowledge management, collecting and analyzing data coming from the AIV activities and flight operations of former projects. The ESA Model And Test Effectiveness Database (MAT€D) can be used for this purpose, collecting such data and providing associated statistical analyses to derive feedback for the improvement of the Model and Test Philosophies of future projects. This paper presents a methodology to support analysis of MAT€D data, with the purpose of comparing verification processes of different projects, with a specific emphasis on the environmental tests effectiveness. The used approaches are compared with those reported for each stage and level in ECSS-E-ST-10-03 (Testing). Performed AIV activities, related conditions (e.g. duration, levels) at different stages are considered to build a complexity index framework, and related normalization and aggregation functions are discussed. The related “Test Depth Index” (TDI) is proposed as an innovative method to calculate the completeness of the testing activity in relation to the ECSS standards, as a formal complement to the index currently used in MAT€D, namely MATEI (Model And Test Effectiveness Index). The application to a subset of MAT€D data is presented and recommendations are provided for further improvements.

  11. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of economically impor...

  12. Visual detection of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiological investigation of different HA subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) shows that the H3 subtype is the most predominant among low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs), and the seasonal variations in isolation of H3 subtype AIVs are consistent with that of human H3 subtype influenza viruses. Consequently, the development of a rapid, simple, sensitive detection method for H3 subtype AIVs is required. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method that does not require any specialized equipment. Results A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect the H3 subtype AIVs visually. Specific primer sets target the sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H3 subtype AIVs were designed, and assay reaction conditions were optimized. The established assay was performed in a water bath for 50 minutes, and the amplification result was visualized directly as well as under ultraviolet (UV) light reflections. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 0.1pg total RNA of virus, which was one hundred-fold higher than that of RT-PCR. The results on specificity indicated that the assay had no cross-reactions with other subtype AIVs or avian respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, a total of 176 clinical samples collected from birds at the various live-bird markets (LBMs) were subjected to the H3-subtype-specific RT-LAMP (H3-RT-LAMP). Thirty-eight H3 subtype AIVs were identified from the 176 clinical samples that were consistent with that of virus isolation. Conclusions The newly developed H3-RT-LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, rapid and can identify H3 subtype AIVs visually. Consequently, it will be a very useful screening assay for the surveillance of H3 subtype AIVs in underequipped laboratories as well as in field conditions. PMID:21729297

  13. Genetic and molecular characterization of H9N2 and H5 avian influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a key source of reassorted avian influenza viruses (AIVs) because of the density of terrestrial and aquatic poultry and the frequency of AIV infection. H9N2 viruses are prevalent in terrestrial poultry throughout Asia and have been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. They infect both avian and mammalian species and may be significant donors of genetic material to emerging human pathogens. LPMs in Zhejiang Province were surveyed from 2013–2014 for AIVs. Three hundred seventy-four (374) AIV strains were isolated from 3,328 samples. Whole–genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. We identified a novel H9N2 virus genotype that had undergone reassortment with gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97–like, Ck/BJ/1/94–like, and Dk/HK/Y439/97–like viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the H9N2 viruses had undergone reassortments with other AIV subtypes. The results also suggested that two different clades (2.3.2 and 2.3.4.6) of H5 viruses were co–circulating in Zhejiang Province. Given that reassorted H5 AIVs were detected in geese and ducks, it is possible that apparently healthy birds contribute to emerging H5 AIVs. Continued surveillance is required in poultry in eastern China. PMID:26627108

  14. Genetic and molecular characterization of H9N2 and H5 avian influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Zhejiang Province, eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a key source of reassorted avian influenza viruses (AIVs) because of the density of terrestrial and aquatic poultry and the frequency of AIV infection. H9N2 viruses are prevalent in terrestrial poultry throughout Asia and have been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. They infect both avian and mammalian species and may be significant donors of genetic material to emerging human pathogens. LPMs in Zhejiang Province were surveyed from 2013-2014 for AIVs. Three hundred seventy-four (374) AIV strains were isolated from 3,328 samples. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. We identified a novel H9N2 virus genotype that had undergone reassortment with gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97-like, Ck/BJ/1/94-like, and Dk/HK/Y439/97-like viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the H9N2 viruses had undergone reassortments with other AIV subtypes. The results also suggested that two different clades (2.3.2 and 2.3.4.6) of H5 viruses were co-circulating in Zhejiang Province. Given that reassorted H5 AIVs were detected in geese and ducks, it is possible that apparently healthy birds contribute to emerging H5 AIVs. Continued surveillance is required in poultry in eastern China. PMID:26627108

  15. Characterization and Sequencing of an H6N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Sansui Sheldrake Ducks in Guizhou, Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jiaqi; Ji, Xinqin; Xu, Houqiang; Ruan, Yong; Zhao, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an H6N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from Sansui Sheldrake ducks in Guizhou Province, China, in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H6N6 virus was a reassortant virus derived from three different H6 subtype lineages. The finding of this study will help us understand the epidemiology and the evolutionary characteristics of H6 subtypes of AIV in ducks in southwestern China. PMID:27174267

  16. Characterization and Sequencing of an H6N6 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Sansui Sheldrake Ducks in Guizhou, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiaqi; Ji, Xinqin; Xu, Houqiang; Ruan, Yong; Zhao, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an H6N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from Sansui Sheldrake ducks in Guizhou Province, China, in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H6N6 virus was a reassortant virus derived from three different H6 subtype lineages. The finding of this study will help us understand the epidemiology and the evolutionary characteristics of H6 subtypes of AIV in ducks in southwestern China. PMID:27174267

  17. Spread and Persistence of Influenza A Viruses in Waterfowl Hosts in the North American Mississippi Migratory Flyway

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Bowman, Andrew S.; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Wester, Eric; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Das, Suman R.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Slemons, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT While geographic distance often restricts the spread of pathogens via hosts, this barrier may be compromised when host species are mobile. Migratory waterfowl in the order Anseriformes are important reservoir hosts for diverse populations of avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) and are assumed to spread AIVs during their annual continental-scale migrations. However, support for this hypothesis is limited, and it is rarely tested using data from comprehensive surveillance efforts incorporating both the temporal and spatial aspects of host migratory patterns. We conducted intensive AIV surveillance of waterfowl using the North American Mississippi Migratory Flyway (MMF) over three autumn migratory seasons. Viral isolates (n = 297) from multiple host species were sequenced and analyzed for patterns of gene dispersal between northern staging and southern wintering locations. Using a phylogenetic and nucleotide identity framework, we observed a larger amount of gene dispersal within this flyway rather than between the other three longitudinally identified North American flyways. Across seasons, we observed patterns of regional persistence of diversity for each genomic segment, along with limited survival of dispersed AIV gene lineages. Reassortment increased with both time and distance, resulting in transient AIV constellations. This study shows that within the MMF, AIV gene flow favors spread along the migratory corridor within a season, and also that intensive surveillance during bird migration is important for identifying virus dispersal on time scales relevant to pandemic responsiveness. In addition, this study indicates that comprehensive monitoring programs to capture AIV diversity are critical for providing insight into AIV evolution and ecology in a major natural reservoir. IMPORTANCE Migratory birds are a reservoir for antigenic and genetic diversity of influenza A viruses (AIVs) and are implicated in the spread of virus diversity that has

  18. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of avian H3, H5, and H9 subtype influenza viruses and Newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qingdong; Wang, Jinliang; Bao, Jingnan; Sun, Honglei; Sun, Yipeng; Liu, Jinhua; Pu, Juan

    2012-05-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) co-circulate in the poultry population in China. These viruses cause repeated disease outbreaks that exhibit similar clinical symptoms and epidemiological patterns. H5 and H9 influenza viruses are the major pathogens infecting poultry stocks. Recently, H3 AIV (one of the main subtypes in waterfowl) has become endemic in chickens. A multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was designed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of avian H3, H5, H9 subtype AIVs and NDVs. Four primer sets were evaluated, three of which specifically targeted the hemagglutinin genes of H3, H5 and H9 AIVs, while the other targeted the NDV fusion gene. The sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR assay was determined. The assay detected the major clades or genotypes of all of the reference AIVs and NDVs currently circulating in China. In addition, the mRT-PCR results obtained from screening 380 clinical swabs and 12 experimental tracheal samples were consistent with those obtained using conventional virus isolation methods. The mRT-PCR assay was established successfully for the detection and differentiation of avian H3, H5, and H9 subtype AIVs and NDVs. The method should, therefore, provide a valuable diagnostic tool for these infections. PMID:22387341

  19. Improved method for the isolation and sub-typing of avian influenza viruses from oropharyngeal samples of ducks.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Abin, Martha; Chander, Yogesh; Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2011-09-01

    Waterfowl are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), from which the virus can spread to other species including humans, poultry, and swine. For the surveillance of AIV in their natural reservoir, most laboratories initially screen the samples using real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction because of its high speed and sensitivity. Thereafter, virus isolation is used to isolate viruses from positive samples. Although many studies point to the need of testing both cloacal and oropharyngeal (OP) samples in AIV surveillance programs, most laboratories focus only on cloacal samples. This study was undertaken to determine the utility of OP samples as target samples in AIV surveillance programs under a strict cold chain of samples from the field to the laboratory. A total of 16 AIV (15.1%) were isolated from the 106 OP samples examined. Upon subtyping, four hemagglutinin subtypes (H1, H3, H4, and H6) and three neuraminidase subtypes (N1, N2, and N8) were detected in nine different combinations. Mixed infection with two different subtypes was found in four samples. No AIVs were isolated from the corresponding cloacal samples. These results highlight the fact that testing of properly frozen OP samples could add value to the understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of AIV in waterfowl populations. PMID:22017043

  20. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  1. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-10-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  2. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics. PMID:27309070

  3. An immuno-biosensor system based on quartz crystal microbalance for avian influenza virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengping; Chen, Guoming; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yunlong

    2007-12-01

    For the quick detection of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), a biosensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was fabricated according to the specific bonding principle between antibody and antigen. Staphylococcal Protein A (SPA) was extracted from Staphylococcus and purified. Then SPA was coated on the surface of QCM for immobilizing AIV monoclonal antibodies. The use of AIV monoclonal antibody could enhance the specificity of the immuno-biosensor. A multi-channel piezoelectricity detection system for the immuno-biosensor was developed. The system can work for the quick detection of AIV antigen in the case of the entirely aqueous status owe to one special oscillating circuit designed in this work. The optimum conditions of SPA coating and AIV monoclonal antibody immobilization were investigated utilizing the multi-channel detection system. The preliminary application of the immuno-biosensor system for detection of AIV was evaluated. Results indicate that the immuno-biosensor system can detect the AIV antigens with a linear range of 3-200ng/ml. The system can accomplish the detection of AIV antigens around 40 minutes.

  4. Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frédéric; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, François; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J.; Thomas, Frédéric; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only. PMID:19802387

  5. Apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits AgRP/NPY neurons and activates POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in the brain potently suppresses food intake. However the mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic effects remain to be identified. We first examined the effects of apoA-IV on cellular activities in hypothalamic neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and ne...

  6. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  7. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lam, T. T. -Y.; Ip, H. S.; Ghedin, E.; Wentworth, D. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Stockwell, T. B.; Spiro, D. J.; Dusek, R. J.; Bortner, J. B.; Hoskins, J.; Bales, B. D.; Yparraguirre, D. R.; Holmes, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Ip, Hon S.; Ghedin, Elodie; Wentworth, David E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Spiro, David J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bortner, James B.; Hoskins, Jenny; Bales, Bradley D.; Yparraguirre, Dan R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway.

  9. Avian Influenza Virus and DIVA Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Peaston, Anne; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is becoming a more acceptable option in the effort to eradicate avian influenza viruses (AIV) from commercial poultry, especially in countries where AIV is endemic. The main concern surrounding this option has been the inability of the conventional serological tests to differentiate antibodies produced due to vaccination from antibodies produced in response to virus infection. In attempts to address this issue, at least six strategies have been formulated, aiming to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), namely (i) sentinel birds, (ii) subunit vaccine, (iii) heterologous neuraminidase (NA), (iv) nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein, (v) matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein, and (vi) haemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2) glycoprotein. This short review briefly discusses the strengths and limitations of these DIVA strategies, together with the feasibility and practicality of the options as a part of the surveillance program directed toward the eventual eradication of AIV from poultry in countries where highly pathogenic avian influenza is endemic. PMID:26900835

  10. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  11. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses. PMID:26910902

  12. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance. PMID:26758561

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of Hemagglutinin Genes of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Chickens in Shandong, China, between 1998 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuxin; Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Tang, Yujing; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2015-01-01

    Since H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) was first isolated in Guangdong province of China, the virus has been circulating in chicken flocks in mainland China. However, a systematic phylogenetic analysis of H9N2 AIV from chickens in Shandong of China has not been conducted. Based on hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of H9N2 AIVs isolated from chickens in Shandong of China between 1998 and 2013, genetic evolution of 35 HA gene sequences was systematically analyzed in this study. Our findings showed that the majority of H9N2 AIVs (21 out of 35) belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5. Most of isolates (33 out of 35) had a PSRSSR↓GLF motif in HA cleavage site. Importantly, 29 out of these 35 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor-binding site. The substitution showed that H9N2 AIVs had the potential affinity to bind to human-like receptor. The currently prevalent H9N2 AIVs in Shandong belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5 which are different from the vaccine strain SS/94 clade h9.4.2.3. Therefore, the long-term surveillance of H9N2 AIVs is of significance to combat the possible H9N2 AIV outbreaks. PMID:26609523

  14. Host Restrictions of Avian Influenza Viruses: In Silico Analysis of H13 and H16 Specific Signatures in the Internal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Ragnhild; Hauge, Anna G.; Hansen, Elisabeth F.; Rimstad, Espen; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Gulls are the primary hosts of H13 and H16 avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The molecular basis for this host restriction is only partially understood. In this study, amino acid sequences from Eurasian gull H13 and H16 AIVs and Eurasian AIVs (non H13 and H16) were compared to determine if specific signatures are present only in the internal proteins of H13 and H16 AIVs, using a bioinformatics approach. Amino acids identified in an initial analysis performed on 15 selected sequences were checked against a comprehensive set of AIV sequences retrieved from Genbank to verify them as H13 and H16 specific signatures. Analysis of protein similarities and prediction of subcellular localization signals were performed to search for possible functions associated with the confirmed signatures. H13 and H16 AIV specific signatures were found in all the internal proteins examined, but most were found in the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and in the nucleoprotein. A putative functional signature was predicted to be present in the nuclear export protein. Moreover, it was predicted that the NS1 of H13 and H16 AIVs lack one of the nuclear localization signals present in NS1 of other AIV subtypes. These findings suggest that the signatures found in the internal proteins of H13 and H16 viruses are possibly related to host restriction. PMID:23646204

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Hemagglutinin Genes of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Chickens in Shandong, China, between 1998 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuxin; Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Tang, Yujing; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2015-01-01

    Since H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) was first isolated in Guangdong province of China, the virus has been circulating in chicken flocks in mainland China. However, a systematic phylogenetic analysis of H9N2 AIV from chickens in Shandong of China has not been conducted. Based on hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of H9N2 AIVs isolated from chickens in Shandong of China between 1998 and 2013, genetic evolution of 35 HA gene sequences was systematically analyzed in this study. Our findings showed that the majority of H9N2 AIVs (21 out of 35) belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5. Most of isolates (33 out of 35) had a PSRSSR↓GLF motif in HA cleavage site. Importantly, 29 out of these 35 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor-binding site. The substitution showed that H9N2 AIVs had the potential affinity to bind to human-like receptor. The currently prevalent H9N2 AIVs in Shandong belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5 which are different from the vaccine strain SS/94 clade h9.4.2.3. Therefore, the long-term surveillance of H9N2 AIVs is of significance to combat the possible H9N2 AIV outbreaks. PMID:26609523

  16. Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5) and cotton swabs (n = 24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

  17. Development and optimization of a biopreparedness protocol for extracting and detecting avian influenza virus in broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Simona; Falcone, Emiliana; Knutsson, Rickard; Vaccari, Gabriele; De Medici, Dario; Di Trani, Livia

    2013-09-01

    Detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry meat is hampered by the lack of an efficient analytical method able to extract and concentrate viral RNA prior to PCR. In this study we developed a method for extracting and detecting AIV from poultry meat by a previously standardized 1-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) assay. In addition, a new process control, represented by feline calicivirus (FCV), was included in the original protocol, to evaluate all analytical steps from sample preparation to the detection phase. The detection limit was below 1×10(-1) TCID50 of AIV per sample, and the quantification limit corresponded to 1×10(1) TCID50 of AIV per sample. Moreover, the addition of 1×10(2) TCID50/sample of FCV did not affect the quantification and detection limit of the reaction. These results show that the developed assay is suitable for detecting small amounts of AIV in poultry meat. In addition, the developed biopreparedness protocol can be applied to detect AIV in legal or illegal imported broiler chicken meat. The availability of a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method based on molecular identification of AIV in poultry meat provides an important tool in the prevention of AIV circulation. PMID:23971811

  18. Evidence for genetic variation of Eurasian avian influenza viruses of subtype H15: the first report of an H15N7 virus.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Starick, Elke; Fereidouni, Sasan

    2016-03-01

    Since the first detection of H15 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in Australia in 1979, only seven H15 strains have been reported. A new H15 AIV was detected in Ukraine in 2010, carrying the unique HA-NA subtype combination H15N7. This virus replicated efficiently in chicken eggs, and antisera against it reacted strongly with the homologous antigen, but with lower titers when using the reference Australian antigen. The amino acid motifs of the HA cleavage site and receptor-binding site were different from those in the Australian viruses. The new virus, together with an H15 virus from Siberia from 2008, constitutes a new clade of H15 AIV isolates. PMID:26650037

  19. THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SHORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen of poultry as it can cause severe economic losses through disease, including respiratory signs and mortality, and effects on trade. Avian influenza virus is classified as type A influenza, which is a member of the orthomyxoviridae family. Charact...

  20. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  1. Optimal specimen collection and transport methods for the detection of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active and passive surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is widespread in commercial poultry worldwide, therefore optimization of sample collection and transport would be valuable to achieve the best sensitivity and specificity possible, and to develop the mo...

  2. Spring Migration Stopover Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus Shorebird Hosts at Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Angela M; Sitters, Humphrey P; Luttrell, M Page; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

    2016-05-01

    Although low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) are detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay annually, little is known about affected species habitat preferences or the movement patterns that might influence virus transmission and spread. During the 5-wk spring migration stopover period during 2007-2008, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of often-infected ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella; n = 60) and rarely infected sanderlings (Calidris alba; n = 20) to identify locations and habitats important to these species (during daytime and nighttime), determine the extent of overlap with other AIV reservoir species or poultry production areas, reveal possible movements of AIV around the Bay, and assess whether long-distance movement of AIV is likely after shorebird departure. Ruddy turnstones and sanderlings both fed on Bay beaches during the daytime. However, sanderlings used remote sandy points and islands during the nighttime while ruddy turnstones primarily used salt marsh harboring waterfowl and gull breeding colonies, suggesting that this environment supports AIV circulation. Shorebird locations were farther from agricultural land and poultry operations than were random locations, suggesting selection away from poultry. Further, there was no areal overlap between shorebird home ranges and poultry production areas. Only 37% (22/60) of ruddy turnstones crossed into Delaware from capture sites in New Jersey, suggesting partial site fidelity and AIV gene pool separation between the states. Ruddy turnstones departed en masse around June 1 when AIV prevalence was low or declining, suggesting that a limited number of birds could disperse AIV onto the breeding grounds. This study provides needed insight into AIV and migratory host ecology, and results can inform both domestic animal AIV prevention and shorebird conservation efforts. PMID:27309084

  3. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Renata; Fabrizio, Thomas; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America. PMID:26689791

  4. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Renata; Fabrizio, Thomas; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America. PMID:26689791

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the "harmful" internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs. PMID:26973600

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the “harmful” internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs. PMID:26973600

  7. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, A.M.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ip, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0. 2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3. 9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11. 2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4. 9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (& 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  8. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Pearce, John M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J. Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Ip, Hon S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0.2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3.9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (> 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn.

  9. Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds of the Pacific Flyway, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Siembieda, Jennifer L.; Cardona, Carol; Anchell, Nichole; Dao, Nguyet; Reisen, William; Boyce, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. We investigated the prevalence and distribution of AIVs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in North America along the Pacific flyway, which is a major north–south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in Alaska providing opportunities for mixing of Eurasian and American origin influenza viruses. Overall, the prevalence of AIVs was low (1%) among the wide range of avian species tested, but we detected AIVs in 69 hunter-harvested waterfowl (Anseriformes) sampled at a national wildlife refuge in California from October 2007 to January 2008. A wide range of subtypes were detected in waterfowl with H6N1, H10N7, H7N3, and H3N5 being the most common. We suspect H6N1 was introduced or remerged in 2007 at this key wintering site for waterfowl along the Pacific Flyway. Over a 3-week period, 13 H6N1 AIVs were isolated from two northern pintails (Anas acuta), three northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), three ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris), four American widgeon (Anas americana), and one gadwall (Anas strepera). We conclude that a diverse array of AIVs was present and that cross-species transmission was occurring among waterfowl in the central valley wetlands of California. PMID:20059316

  10. Role of apolipoprotein A-I in HDL binding to a rat hepatoma cell in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of HDL to rat Fu5AH hepatoma cells at 4/sup 0/, and uptake and degradation at 37/sup 0/, was investigated in monolayer cultures. HDL, free of apo E and apo A-IV, was obtained from the plasma of nephrotic rats (HDLne). /sup 125/I-labeled HDLne bound to the cells in a specific, saturable manner. By Scatchard analysis, two classes of binding sites were obtained: a high affinity binding site (Kd = 1.25 +/- 0.023 ..mu..g/ml, or 5 x 10/sup -9/ M), and a lower affinity site (Kd = 45 +/- 15 ..mu..g/ml, or 1.8 x 10/sup -7/ M). In competitive binding experiments, normal rat HDL was nearly as effective as HDLne, but rat VLDL and human lipoproteins were ineffective. Rat apo A-I/phospholipid complexes also did not complete effectively for HDLne binding, although they were capable of binding to the cells. However, LDL (1.02 < d < 1.063) from nephrotic rat plasma, containing 20% of apo A-I, was as effective as rat HDL in competing for HDLne binding when the competition was expressed as a function of apo A-I content. Control experiments indicated that labeled apo A-I from HDLne did not exchange appreciably with unlabeled apo A-I on the LDLne. When the hepatoma cells were allowed to internalize and degrade HDLne at 37/sup 0/, the acid-soluble products (iodotyrosine and iodide) were derived almost entirely from the breakdown of apo A-I. We conclude that the rat hepatoma cell (Fu5AH) has high affinity HDL binding sites which recognize apo A-I-lipid complexes in which apo A-I an appropriate conformation.

  11. Genetic analysis of H3N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dequan; Liu, Jian; Ju, Houbin; Ge, Feifei; Wang, Jian; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jinping; Liu, Peihong

    2015-08-01

    Five H3N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from live poultry markets (LPMs) and poultry slaughterhouses in Shanghai, China in 2013. All viruses were characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent genetic comparison and phylogenetic analysis. The hemagglutinin cleavage site of all viruses indicated that the five strains were low-pathogenic AIVs. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the five H3N2 viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza viruses. The eight genes showed evidence of reassortment events between these H3 subtype viruses and other subtype viruses, especially H5 and H7 subtypes, probably in pigeons, domestic ducks, and wild birds. These findings emphasized the importance of AIV surveillance in LPMs and poultry slaughterhouses for understanding the genesis and emergence of novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:25899857

  12. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  13. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  14. Development of a duplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of antibody responses to influenza A and newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Pinette, Mathieu M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan C; Pasick, John; Ojkic, Davor; Leith, Marsha; Suderman, Matthew; Berhane, Yohannes

    2014-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) cause serious illnesses in domestic poultry, both of which are reportable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) and APMV-1 infections are difficult to differentiate, emphasizing the importance of rapid and sensitive serologic assays that are able to distinguish them. Currently, a variety of serological assays are used for the serologic diagnosis of both diseases, but these assays are not used in multiplex formats. In this study, development of a duplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) based on Luminex xMAP Technology is described. The assay employs MagPlex magnetic microspheres that are covalently coated with recombinant avian influenza virus nucleoprotein and APMV-1 nucleocapsid antigens produced in a baculovirus insect cell expression system. The assay is able to detect AIV antibodies against all existing hemagglutinin (H1-H16) subtypes and simultaneously detect antibodies against APMV-1. In the process of this assay development different bead coupling conditions were compared. The assay has the capability of detecting serum antibodies from chickens and turkeys and optimization was accomplished by using 2462 chicken and 446 turkey field and experimental sera and had a comparable detection capability with currently used assays in the laboratory. Assay threshold values were calculated with Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis (ROC) in non-parametric analysis due to a highly skewed data distribution; this analysis resulted in AIV nucleoprotein relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99.7%, and 97.3% respectively. The APMV-1 nucleocapsid relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95.4%, and 98.5% respectively. PMID:24556589

  15. Review of a new molecular virus pathotyping method in the context of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Mikael; Belák, Sándor

    2013-09-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infect various avian species including domestic poultry. Clinical manifestations vary from subclinical or mild to severe multiorgan systemic disease with a near 100% mortality rate. Severe disease is caused by highly virulent specific virus strains, termed highly pathogenic AIV and velogenic NDV. Recent controversial influenza H5 adaptation studies in ferrets have highlighted the importance of preparedness against AIV as a bioterrorism agent. Furthermore, NDV also has zoonotic potential, although symptoms in humans are mild and self-limiting for naturally occurring viruses. Thus, both of these viruses pose a direct biothreat to domestic poultry but also indirectly to humans via zoonotic transmission. For diagnosis and rapid containment of disease, it is crucial to differentiate highly pathogenic AIVs and NDVs from frequently occurring low pathogenic variants. Recently, we developed a novel strategy for pathotyping of AIV and NDV that we review here. The method should be ideal for rapid testing and surveillance in food safety, for wild bird monitoring, and for combating acts of bioterrorism. PMID:23971812

  16. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    PubMed

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. PMID:26686812

  17. Evidence for genetic variation of Eurasian avian influenza viruses, subtype H15: The first report of an H15N7 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H15N7 was isolated in 2010 during wild bird surveillance conducted in Ukraine (A/mallard/Novomychalivka/2-23-12/10). This particular subtype combination has not been previously reported. Until now, only seven subtype H15 viruses have been isolated worldwide, ...

  18. A Unique Multibasic Proteolytic Cleavage Site and Three Mutations in the HA2 Domain Confer High Virulence of H7N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Veits, Jutta; Tauscher, Kerstin; Ziller, Mario; Teifke, Jens P.; Stech, Jürgen; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 1999, after circulation for a few months in poultry in Italy, low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza (AI) H7N1 virus mutated into a highly pathogenic (HP) form by acquisition of a unique multibasic cleavage site (mCS), PEIPKGSRVRR*GLF (asterisk indicates the cleavage site), in the hemagglutinin (HA) and additional alterations with hitherto unknown biological function. To elucidate these virulence-determining alterations, recombinant H7N1 viruses carrying specific mutations in the HA of LPAI A/chicken/Italy/473/1999 virus (Lp) and HPAI A/chicken/Italy/445/1999 virus (Hp) were generated. Hp with a monobasic CS or carrying the HA of Lp induced only mild or no disease in chickens, thus resembling Lp. Conversely, Lp with the HA of Hp was as virulent and transmissible as Hp. While Lp with a multibasic cleavage site (Lp_CS445) was less virulent than Hp, full virulence was exhibited when HA2 was replaced by that of Hp. In HA2, three amino acid differences consistently detected between LP and HP H7N1 viruses were successively introduced into Lp_CS445. Q450L in the HA2 stem domain increased virulence and transmission but was detrimental to replication in cell culture, probably due to low-pH activation of HA. A436T and/or K536R restored viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Viruses possessing A436T and K536R were observed early in the HPAI outbreak but were later superseded by viruses carrying all three mutations. Together, besides the mCS, stepwise mutations in HA2 increased the fitness of the Italian H7N1 virus in vivo. The shift toward higher virulence in the field was most likely gradual with rapid optimization. IMPORTANCE In 1999, after 9 months of circulation of low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV), a devastating highly pathogenic (HP) H7N1 AIV emerged in poultry, marking the largest epidemic of AIV reported in a Western country. The HPAIV possessed a unique multibasic cleavage site (mCS) complying with the minimum motif for HPAIV. The main finding

  19. Primary survey of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus infection in wild birds in some areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yu-Ping; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Si-Yuan; Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Sun, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Two hundred thirty specimens of wild birds were collected from some areas in Heilongjiang Province during the period of 2003-2004, including two batches of specimens collected randomly from a same flock of mallards in Zhalong Natural Reserve in August and December, 2004, respectively. Primary virus isolation and identification for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were performed. The results showed that only two specimens of young mallards collected from Zhalong Natural Reserve in August, 2004 were positive to AIV (isolation rate 0.9%), and one strain (D57) of these two virus isolates was identified to be H9 subtype by hemagglutination inhibition test. Meanwhile, the two batches of blood serum samples of mallards from Zhalong were also examined for antibodies against AIV and NDV. Among 38 blood serum samples collected in August, antibodies against the hemagglutinin of H1, H3, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes of AIV were found in 1, 0, 2, 0 and 8 samples, respectively; and 11 samples were found with antibody against NDV. Whereas the NDV isolation in both two batches of specimens of mallard was negative, all of the 32 blood serum samples collected in December were negative for antibodies against AIV and NDV. PMID:16293995

  20. A SPR Aptasensor for Detection of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Wang, Ronghui; Hargis, Billy; Lu, Huaguang; Li, Yanbin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) is urgently needed due to the concerns over the potential outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in animals and humans. Aptamers are artificial oligonucleic acids that can bind specific target molecules, and show comparable affinity for target viruses and better thermal stability than monoclonal antibodies. The objective of this research was to use a DNA-aptamer as the specific recognition element in a portable Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor for rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in poultry swab samples. A SPR biosensor was fabricated using selected aptamers that were biotinylated and then immobilized on the sensor gold surface coated with streptavidin via streptavidin-biotin binding. The immobilized aptamers captured AIV H5N1 in a sample solution, which caused an increase in the refraction index (RI). After optimizing the streptavidin and aptamer parameters, the results showed that the RI value was linearly related (R2 = 0.99) to the concentration of AIV in the range of 0.128 to 1.28 HAU. Negligible signal (<4% of H5N1) was observed from six non-target AIV subtypes. The AIV H5N1 in poultry swab samples with concentrations of 0.128 to 12.8 HAU could be detected using this aptasensor in 1.5 h. PMID:23112728

  1. Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in a Common Synanthropic Mammal – The Cottontail Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Root, J. Jeffrey; Shriner, Susan A.; Bentler, Kevin T.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Mooers, Nicole L.; Spraker, Terry R.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) are common mammals throughout much of the U.S. and are often found in peridomestic settings, potentially interacting with livestock and poultry operations. If these animals are susceptible to avian influenza virus (AIV) infections and shed the virus in sufficient quantities they may pose a risk for movement of avian influenza viruses between wildlife and domestic animals in certain situations. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the viral shedding potential of AIV in cottontails, we nasally inoculated fourteen cottontails with a low pathogenic AIV (H4N6). All inoculated cottontails shed relatively large quantities of viral RNA both nasally (≤106.94 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL) and orally (≤105.09 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL). However, oral shedding tended to decline more quickly than did nasal shedding. No animals showed any obvious signs of disease throughout the study. Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities. Thus, if infected these mammals could easily transport AIVs short distances. PMID:25111780

  2. Replication and Adaptive Mutations of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Tracheal Organ Cultures of Different Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Henning; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Pleschka, Stephan; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP) AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC) and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants. PMID:22912693

  3. First Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses from Greenland 2014.

    PubMed

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Merkel, Flemming; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2016-05-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were found dead on the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examination in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2 and low pathogenic H5N1 were detected in some of the birds. Characterization of the viruses by full genome sequencing revealed that all the gene segments belonged to the North American lineage of AIVs. The seemingly sparse and mixed subtype occurrence of low pathogenic AIVs in these birds, in addition to the emaciated appearance of the birds, suggests that the murre die-off was due to malnutrition as a result of sparse food availability or inclement weather. Here we present the first characterization of AIVs isolated in Greenland, and our results support the idea that wild birds in Greenland may be involved in the movement of AIV between North America and Europe. PMID:27309071

  4. Evaluation of field and laboratory protocols used to detect avian influenza viruses in wild aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Hepp, G R

    2009-09-01

    Careful selection and observance of standard field and laboratory protocols are critical for successful detection and characterization of avian influenza viruses (AIV) from wild birds. Cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-killed or nesting waterfowl and shorebirds from wildlife refuges in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida during 2006 to 2008. Swab samples were inoculated into embryonated eggs followed by hemagglutination (HA) test to determine the presence of hemagglutinating agents. Antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RRT-PCR) were used to detect AIV from both allantoic fluids (AF) and swab specimens of HA-positive samples. Hemagglutination inhibition test was used to detect Newcastle disease virus, another hemagglutinating virus common in wild birds. The HA-positive AF were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for subtyping of the isolates. Out of 825 samples tested, 19 AIV and 3 avian paramyxovirus subtypes were identified by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. Without egg passage, AC-ELISA did not detect virus, whereas matrix gene of 13 AIV were detected using RRT-PCR. When testing was done on AF, 14 were positive for influenza A by AC-ELISA and 20 by RRT-PCR. Antigen capture-ELISA did not detect influenza A when the HA titer was lower than 125, whereas RRT-PCR detected AIV from AF with HA titer as low as 4. The highest isolation rate was from Florida, where out of 109 samples analyzed, 14 AIV were detected by RRT-PCR from AF. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was more sensitive, specific, and cost-effective than AC-ELISA. However, to avoid false-negative results, testing should be performed on AF and not directly from cloacal swabs. Our procedures to detect AIV directly from cloacal swabs need further optimization for improved sensitivity. PMID:19687266

  5. A primary chicken tracheal cell culture system for the study of infection with avian respiratory viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens is through cells of the airway epithelium. Here we describe the development and optimization of conditions for culture of tracheal epithelial cells from chicken embryos as well as their use in st...

  6. Susceptibility of wood ducks to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused mortality in numerous species of wild birds; this is atypical for avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in wild birds, especially for species in the Order Anseriformes. Although these infections document the susceptibili...

  7. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. PMID:27486732

  8. Characterization of low pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low pathogenic H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 ...

  9. Complete genome sequence of a novel H9N2 subtype influenza virus FJG9 strain in china reveals a natural reassortant event

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Chicken/FJ/G9/09 (FJ/G9) is an H9N2 subtype strain of avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) strain causing high morbidity, that was isolated from broilers in Fujian province, China, in 2009. The FJ/G9 has been used as the vaccine strain against H9N2 AIV infection in Fujian Province of China. Here, we r...

  10. Design concept of the electrical ground support equipment for the AIV and calibration of the Euclid NISP instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Butler, Chris. R.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Conforti, Vito; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Gianotti, Fulvio; Ligori, Sebastiano; Maciaszek, Thierry; Morgante, Gianluca; Muñoz, Jacinto; Nicastro, Luciano; Prieto, Eric; Rebolo-López, Rafael; Riva, Mario; Spano, Paolo; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Valenziano, Luca; Villó, Isidro; Zerbi, Filippo Maria

    2012-09-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. In this paper we describe the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) which shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and calibration activities at instrument level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP instrument is mounted on the spacecraft. We present the EGSE conceptual design as defined in order to be compliant with the AIV/AIT and calibration requirements. The proposed concept is aimed at maximizing the re-use in the EGSE configuration of the Test Equipment developed for subsystem level activities, as well as, at allowing a smooth transition from instrument level to satellite level, and, possibly, at Ground Segment level. This paper mainly reports the technical status at the end of the Definition phase and it is presented on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.

  11. Eliciting specific humoral immunity from a plasmid DNA encoding infectious bursal disease virus polyprotein gene fused with avian influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccine coding for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) polyprotein gene and that for avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene have been shown to induce immunity and provide protection against the respective disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether an IBDV polyprotein gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene could trigger immune response to both IBDV and AIV. After transfection, VP2 and HA were detected in the cytoplasm and at cell membrane, respectively, by immunofluorescent antibody double staining method, suggesting the fusion strategy did not affect the location of protein expression. VP4 cleavage between VP2 and HA was confirmed by Western blot, indicating the fusion strategy did not affect VP4 function in transfected cells. After vaccination in chickens, the DNA construct VP24-HA/pcDNA induced ELISA and virus neutralizing antibodies against VP2 and hemagglutination inhibition antibody against the HA subtype. The results indicated that a single plasmid construct carrying IBDV VP243 gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene can elicit specific antibody responses to both IBDV and AIV by DNA vaccination. PMID:25445883

  12. Detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease virus and influenza virus by using duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nidzworski, Dawid; Wasilewska, Edyta; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Minta, Zenon

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family and avian influenza virus (AIV), member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, are two main avian pathogens causing serious economic problems in poultry health. Both are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and cause similar symptoms, ranging from sub-clinical infections to severe diseases, including decrease in egg production, acute respiratory syndrome, and high mortality. Similar symptoms hinder the differentiation of infection with the two viruses by standard veterinary procedures like clinical examination or necropsy. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new duplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of these two viruses. Eighteen NDV strains, fourteen AIV strains, and twelve other (negative control) strains viruses were isolated from allantoic fluids of specific pathogen-free (SPF), embryonated eggs. Four-weeks-old SPF chickens were co-infected with both viruses (NDV - LaSota and AIV - H7N1). Swabs from cloaca and trachea were collected and examined. The results obtained in this study show that by using duplex real-time PCR, it was possible to detect and distinguish both viruses within less than three hours and with high sensitivity, even in case a bird was co-infected. Additionally, the results show the applicability of the real-time PCR assay in laboratory practice for the identification and differentiation of Newcastle disease and influenza A viruses in birds. PMID:24040628

  13. The effects of pooling, swab type and transport conditions on avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A crucial aspect of achieving high diagnostic test accuracy is sample collection and transport. In order to optimize avian influenza virus (AIV) detection in poultry we have evaluated swab pooling, different swab material types, and transport conditions. Swab pooling was evaluated with Newcastle d...

  14. Efficacy of scallop shell powders and slaked lime for inactivating avian influenza virus under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Tsujimura, Misato; Satoh, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Tamura, Miho; Kawamura, Akinobu; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy and stability of scallop shell powder (SSP) were investigated, in terms of its capacity to inactivate avian influenza virus (AIV), and compared with slaked lime (SL). An environmental simulation was conducted by emulating sunlight and wet-dry conditions. The powders were collected at consecutive 2-week intervals under sunlight and upon every resuspension. These materials were tested by mixing them with AIV and incubating the mixture for 3 min or 20 h, followed by AIV titration. At the same time, a pH buffering test was conducted by neutralization with Tris-HCl. The results revealed that SSP and SL have high alkalinity and excellent ability to inactivate AIV. In a simulated harsh environment, SSP and SL retained a satisfactory ability to inactivate AIV within 20 h throughout the experimental procedure. However, SSP was able to inactivate AIV during a short contact period (3 min), even under harsh conditions, and it was more resistant than SL to neutralization. PMID:26168709

  15. Presence of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and wetlands during summer 2010 in California: Are resident birds a potential reservoir?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henaux, V.; Samuel, M.D.; Dusek, R.J.; Fleskes, J.P.; Ip, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Although wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv), the environment plays a critical role for the circulation and persistence of AIv. LPAIv may persist for extended periods in cold environments, suggesting that waterfowl breeding areas in the northern hemisphere may be an important reservoir for AIv in contrast to the warmer southern wintering areas. We evaluated whether southern wetlands, with relatively small populations (thousands) of resident waterfowl, maintain AIv in the summer, prior to the arrival of millions of migratory birds. We collected water and fecal samples at ten wetlands in two regions (Yolo Bypass and Sacramento Valley) of the California Central Valley during three bi-weekly intervals beginning in late July, 2010. We detected AIv in 29/367 fecal samples (7.9%) and 12/597 water samples (2.0%) by matrix real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). We isolated two H3N8, two H2N3, and one H4N8 among rRT-PCR positive fecal samples but no live virus from water samples. Detection of AIv RNA in fecal samples was higher from wetlands in the Sacramento Valley (11.9%) than in the Yolo Bypass (0.0%), but no difference was found for water samples (2.7 vs. 1.7%, respectively). Our study showed that low densities of hosts and unfavorable environmental conditions did not prevent LPAIv circulation during summer in California wetlands. Our findings justify further investigations to understand AIv dynamics in resident waterfowl populations, compare AIv subtypes between migratory and resident waterfowl, and assess the importance of local AIv as a source of infection for migratory birds.

  16. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976–2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971–2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry. PMID:26858078

  17. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A; Cunningham, Fred L; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Subtype H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976-2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971-2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry. PMID:26858078

  18. Influenza A Virus Migration and Persistence in North American Wild Birds

    PubMed Central

    Kühnert, Denise; Fourment, Mathieu; Raven, Garnet; Pryor, S. Paul; Niles, Lawrence J.; Danner, Angela; Walker, David; Mendenhall, Ian H.; Su, Yvonne C. F.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Webby, Richard J.; Wentworth, David E.; Drummond, Alexei J.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV) samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:24009503

  19. Molecular Characteristics of H6N6 Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigeons in Guangxi, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Huang, Li; Deng, Xianwen; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an H6N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from a pigeon in Guangxi, southern China, in 2014. The eight RNA segment genes shared a high nucleotide identity (97 to 99%) with H6N6 subtypes of AIV isolated from ducks in the regions around Guangxi Province. The finding of this study will help us understand the ecology and molecular characteristics of H6 avian influenza virus in wild birds in southern China. PMID:26634763

  20. Chicken interferon alpha pretreatment reduces virus replication of pandemic H1N1 and H5N9 avian influenza viruses in lung cell cultures from different avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type I interferons, including interferon (IFN)-alpha, represent one of the first lines of innate immune defense against influenza virus infection. Following natural infection of chickens with avian influenza virus (AIV), transcription of IFN-alpha is quickly up regulated along with multiple other im...

  1. Improved avian influenza virus isolation rates from wild waterfowl cloacal swabs using yolk sac inoculation of embryonating chicken egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) remains of interest to researchers as a pathogen that infects many economically important bird species. Asymptomatic wild birds, such as waterfowl species, can shed virus and spread it to domestic poultry, where it can cause severe damage. Effective laboratory methods t...

  2. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Kawamura, Akinobu; Tamura, Miho; Satoh, Keisuke; Tsujimura, Misato; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-02-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  3. Detection and Quantification of Infectious Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Environmental Water by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dovas, C. I.; Papanastassopoulou, M.; Georgiadis, M. P.; Chatzinasiou, E.; Maliogka, V. I.; Georgiades, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    Routes of avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal among aquatic birds involve direct (bird-to-bird) and indirect (waterborne) transmission. The environmental persistence of H5N1 virus in natural water reservoirs can be assessed by isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs. Here we describe development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detection of H5N1 AIV in environmental water. This method is based on adsorption of virus particles to formalin-fixed erythrocytes, followed by qRT-PCR detection. The numbers of hemagglutinin RNA copies from H5N1 highly pathogenic AIV particles adsorbed to erythrocytes detected correlated highly with the infectious doses of the virus that were determined for three different types of artificially inoculated environmental water over a 17-day incubation period. The advantages of this method include detection and quantification of infectious H5N1 AIVs with a high level of sensitivity, a wide dynamic range, and reproducibility, as well as increased biosecurity. The lowest concentration of H5N1 virus that could be reproducibly detected was 0.91 50% egg infective dose per ml. In addition, a virus with high virion stability (Tobacco mosaic virus) was used as an internal control to accurately monitor the efficiency of RNA purification, cDNA synthesis, and PCR amplification for each individual sample. This detection system could be useful for rapid high-throughput monitoring for the presence of H5N1 AIVs in environmental water and in studies designed to explore the viability and epidemiology of these viruses in different waterfowl ecosystems. The proposed method may also be adapted for detection of other AIVs and for assessment of their prevalence and distribution in environmental reservoirs. PMID:20118369

  4. Portable AI Lab for Teaching Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Michael; Baj, Fabio.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Portable AI Lab, a computing environment containing artificial intelligence (AI) tools, examples, and documentation for use with university AI courses. Two modules of the lab are highlighted: the automated theorem proving module and the natural language processing module, which includes augmented transition networks. (23 references)…

  5. Persistence of Avian Influenza Viruses in Various Artificially Frozen Environmental Water Types

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, Dany; Jahangir, Alam; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the viable persistence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in various types of artificially frozen environmental water and evaluates the feasibility of similar occurrence taking place in nature, and allowing for prolonged abiotic virus survival, with subsequent biotic viral recirculation. Methods. Fresh, brackish, and salty water, taken in Japan from aquatic biotopes regularly visited by migratory waterfowl, were seeded with AIVs. We monthly monitored the viability of the seeded viruses in the frozen state at −20°C and −30°C, for 12 months. We also monitored virus viability following repeatedly induced freezing and thawing. Results. The viruses exhibited considerable viable persistence all along that period of time, as well as during freezing-thawing cycles. Appreciable, yet noncrucial variances were observed in relation to some of the parameters examined. Conclusions. As typical waterborne pathogens of numerous northerly aquatic birds, AIVs are innately adapted to both the body temperature of their hosts (40°C to 42°C) and, presumably, to subzero temperatures of frozen lakes (down to −54°C in parts of Siberia) occupied and virus-seeded by subclinically infected birds, prior to freezing. Marked cryostability of AIVs appears to be evident. Preservation in environmental ice has significant ecophylogenetic and epidemiological implications, potentially, and could account for various unexplained phenomena. PMID:23091712

  6. Genetics, Receptor Binding, Replication, and Mammalian Transmission of H4 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Live Poultry Markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Libin; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Gu, Chunyang; Guan, Yuntao; Suzuki, Yasuo; Li, Yanbing; Jiang, Yongping; Tian, Guobin; Liu, Liling

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT H4 avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in the world. However, whether H4 AIVs pose a threat to public health remains largely unclear. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships, receptor binding properties, replication, and transmissibility in mammals of H4 AIVs isolated from live poultry markets in China between 2009 and 2012. Genomic sequence analysis of 36 representative H4 viruses revealed 32 different genotypes, indicating that these viruses are undergoing complex and frequent reassortment events. All 32 viruses tested could replicate in the respiratory organs of infected mice without prior adaptation. Receptor binding analysis demonstrated that the H4 AIVs bound to α-2,6-linked glycans, although they retained the binding preference for α-2,3-linked glycans. When we tested the direct-contact transmission of 10 H4 viruses in guinea pigs, we found that three viruses did not transmit to any of the contact animals, one virus transmitted to one of three contact animals, and six viruses transmitted to all three contact animals. When we further tested the respiratory droplet transmissibility of four of the viruses that transmitted efficiently via direct contact, we found that three of them could transmit to one or two of the five exposed animals. Our study demonstrates that the current circulating H4 AIVs can infect, replicate in, and transmit to mammalian hosts, thereby posing a potential threat to human health. These findings emphasize the continual need for enhanced surveillance of H4 AIVs. IMPORTANCE Numerous surveillance studies have documented the wide distribution of H4 AIVs throughout the world, yet the biological properties of H4 viruses have not been well studied. In this study, we found that multiple genotypes of H4 viruses are cocirculating in the live poultry markets of China and that H4 viruses can replicate in mice, possess human-type receptor binding specificity, and transmit between

  7. AIS Investigation of Agricultural Monocultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired over an agricultural area in eastern San Joaquin County, California in July, 1984. Cover type information was subsequently collected for all fields along this flight line. The lack of detailed ground data on individual fields, however, limited AIS data analysis to a qualitative comparison of the spectral reflectance curves for a total of nine cover types. Based on this analysis, it appears that cover types with a positive slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region have a higher spectral response in the 1200 to 1300 nm region compared to those cover types with a negative slope in the 1550 to 1700 nm region. Within cover type, spectral variability was also found to be greater than that between cover types. Given the lack of additional field data, the reason for these differences is a matter of speculation.

  8. Delivery of an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine adjuvanted with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated CpG ODN induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-09-14

    In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in

  9. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  10. Regulation of apo A-IV transcription by lipid in newborn swine is associated with a promoter DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lu, Song; Yao, Ying; Wang, Heng; Meng, Songmei; Cheng, Xiangying; Black, Dennis D

    2003-02-01

    Dietary lipid acutely upregulates apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV expression by sevenfold at the pretranslational level in neonatal swine jejunum. To determine the mechanism of this regulation, two-day-old female swine received intraduodenal infusions of low- and high-triacylglycerol (TG) isocaloric diets for 24 h. Nuclear runoff assay confirmed apo A-IV gene transcriptional regulation by the high-TG diet. Footprinting analysis using the swine apo A-IV proximal promoter sequence (+14 to -246 bp) demonstrated three regions protected by the low-TG extracts. Of these three motifs, only ACCTTC showed 100% homology to the human sequence and was further studied. EMSA was performed using probes containing wild-type (WT) and mutant (M) motifs. A shift was noted with the low-TG nuclear extracts with the WT probe but not with the M probe. Excess unlabeled free WT probe competed out the shift, whereas the M probe did not. No significant shift occurred with either probe using high-TG extracts. These results suggest that a repressor protein binds to the ACCTTC motif and becomes unbound during lipid absorption, allowing transcriptional activation of the apo A-IV gene in newborn swine small intestine. PMID:12388193

  11. Pathogenesis and pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses are categorized as, low (LP) and high pathogenicity (HP). Typically, LPAI (low pathogenicity avian influenza) viruses ...

  12. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nichola J; Takekawa, John Y; Cardona, Carol J; Meixell, Brandt W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Boyce, Walter M

    2012-03-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway. PMID:21995264

  13. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  14. Cross-Seasonal Patterns of Avian Influenza Virus in Breeding and Wintering Migratory Birds: A Flyway Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nichola J.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway—breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007–2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway. PMID:21995264

  15. Development of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of H9 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fuhu; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Shuhui; Wu, Renwei; Hu, Sishun; Li, Zili; Wang, Xiliang; Bi, Dingren

    2008-03-01

    An immunochromatographic strip was developed for the detection of the H9 subtype of avian influenza viruses (H9AIVs) in poultry, using two monoclonal antibodies (MAb), 4C4 for H9AIV hemagglutinin (HA) and 4D4 for nucleoprotein. The 4C4 MAb was labeled with colloidal gold as the detection reagent, and the 4D4 MAb was blotted on the test line while a goat anti-mouse antibody was used on the control line of the nitrocellulose membrane. In comparison with the HA and HA inhibition (HI) tests, the strip was specific for the detection of H9AIV, with a sensitivity at 0.25 HA units within 10 min. Storage of the strips at room temperature for 6 months or at 4 degrees C for 12 months did not change their sensitivity and specificity. Evaluation of the strip with experimental tracheal and cloacal swab samples collected from H9N2-infected chickens revealed that the strip detected the H9N2 viruses on day 3 postinoculation, earlier than the appearance of clinical symptoms. Application of the strip for the analysis of 157 tracheal or cloacal samples from potentially infected chickens on five poultry farms showed that four farms had chickens that were infected with H9AIV. Further characterization of 10 positive and 30 negative randomly selected samples showed that no single sample was false positive or negative, as determined by the standard virus isolation and HI assays. Therefore, the immunochromatographic strip for the detection of H9AIVs has high specificity, sensitivity, and stability. This finding, together with the advantages of rapid detection and easy operation and without the requirement for special skills and equipment, makes the strip suitable for onsite detection and the differentiation of H9AIVs from other viruses in poultry. PMID:18199737

  16. Newcastle disease virus expressing H5 hemagglutinin gene protects chickens against Newcastle disease and avian influenza

    PubMed Central

    Veits, Jutta; Wiesner, Dorothee; Fuchs, Walter; Hoffmann, Bernd; Granzow, Harald; Starick, Elke; Mundt, Egbert; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mebatsion, Teshome; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-expressing avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) of subtype H5 was constructed by reverse genetics. A cloned full-length copy of the genome of the lentogenic NDV strain Clone 30 was used for insertion of the ORF encoding the HA of the highly pathogenic AIV isolate A/chicken/Italy/8/98 (H5N2) in the intergenic region between the NDV fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes. Remarkably, two species of HA transcripts were detected in cells infected with the resultant NDVH5. In a second recombinant (NDVH5m), a NDV transcription termination signal-like sequence located within the HA ORF was eliminated by silent mutations. Consequently, NDVH5m produced 2.7-fold more full-length HA transcripts, expressed higher levels of HA, and also incorporated more HA protein into its envelope than NDVH5. NDVH5m stably expressed the modified HA gene for 10 egg passages and both recombinants were found innocuous after intracerebral inoculation of 1-day-old chickens. Immunization of chickens with NDVH5m induced NDV- and AIVH5-specific antibodies and protected chickens against clinical disease after challenge with a lethal dose of velogenic NDV or highly pathogenic AIV, respectively. Remarkably, shedding of influenza virus was not observed. Furthermore, immunization with NDVH5m permitted serological discrimination of vaccinated and AIV field virus-infected animals based on antibodies against the nucleoprotein of AIV. Therefore, recombinant NDVH5m is suitable as a bivalent vaccine against NDV and AIV and may be used as marker vaccine for the control of avian influenza. PMID:16717197

  17. Mycoplasma gallisepticum modifies the pathogenesis of influenza A virus in the avian tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sid, Hicham; Hartmann, Sandra; Petersen, Henning; Ryll, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-05-01

    Multiple respiratory infections have a significant impact on health and economy. Pathogenesis of co-infecting viruses and bacteria and their interaction with mucosal surfaces are poorly characterized. In this study we established a co-infection model based on pre-incubation of tracheal organ cultures (TOC) with Mycoplasma (M.) gallisepticum and a subsequent infection with avian influenza virus (AIV). Mycoplasma gallisepticum modified the pathogenesis of AIV as demonstrated in TOC of two different avian species (chickens and turkeys). Co-infection promoted bacterial growth in tracheal epithelium. Depending on the interaction time of M. gallisepticum with the host cells, AIV replication was either promoted or suppressed. M. gallisepticum inhibited the antiviral gene expression and affected AIV attachment to the host cell by desialylation of α-2,3 linked sialic acids. Ultrastructural analysis of co-infected TOC suggests that both pathogens may attach to and possibly infect the same epithelial cell. The obtained results contribute to better understanding of the interaction dynamics between M. gallisepticum and AIV. They highlight the importance of the time interval between infections as well as the biological properties of the involved pathogens as influencing factors in the outcome of respiratory infections. PMID:27079856

  18. Virological Investigation of Avian Influenza Virus on Postglacial Species of Phasianidae and Tetraonidae in the Italian Alps

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; Ghetti, Giulia; Gugiatti, Alessandro; Cotti, Claudia; Piredda, Isabella; Frasnelli, Matteo; De Marco, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Land-based birds, belonging to Galliformes order are considered to be potential intermediaries in the emergence of new strains of influenza A viruses (AIVs), but the viral circulation in these birds remains largely unknown. To gain insights into the circulation of AIV in the wild Galliformes populations in Italian Alps, we conducted a virological survey on rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis) belonging to Phasianidae family and on tetraonids including rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus helveticus) and black grouse (Tetrao tetrix tetrix). In 2003 and 2004, during the hunting seasons, 79 wild Galliformes, categorised into age and sex classes, were hunted in the Sondrio Province (Central Alps). Cloacal swabs were collected from 11 rock partridges and from 68 tetraonids including 23 alpine rock ptarmigans and 45 black grouses. We tested cloacal swabs by a high sensitive reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR detecting the matrix gene of AIV. No AIV was detected in the investigated samples, thus, suggesting the lack of AIV circulation in these relict populations in the study period. In terms of threatened species conservation, during wildlife management activities, it is very important to exclude the introduction of AIV-carrier birds in shared territories, a fact representing a health risk for these populations. PMID:24167732

  19. New approach to delist highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from BSL3+ select agents to BSL2 non-select status for diagnostics and vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV) are Select Agents in the United States and are required to be handled in bio-containment level 3 enhanced (BSL3+) facilities. Using a reverse genetics system, we attenuated a highly pathogenic virus with the goal of making it low pathogenic and having...

  20. Using mean infectious dose of wild duck-and poultry-origin high and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses as one measure of infectivity and adaptation to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mean infectious doses of selected avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates, determined in domestic poultry under experimental conditions, were shown to be both host and virus dependent and could be considered one measure of the infectivity and adaptation to a specific host. As such, the mean infect...

  1. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient’s house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  2. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaodan; Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  3. Influenza A virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses are important veterinary and human health pathogens around the world. Avian influenza (AI) virus in poultry is unusual in that it can cause a range of disease symptoms from a subclinical infection to being highly virulent with 100% mortality. The difference between low pathogen...

  4. Effect of homosubtypic and heterosubtypic low pathogenic avian influenza exposure on H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus...

  5. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  6. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  7. Amino acid substitutions occurring during adaptation of an emergent H5N6 avian influenza virus to mammals.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Xiaoxin; Cheng, Linfang; Liu, Fumin; Ji, Shujing; Wu, Nanping

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are known to cross species barriers, and emergent highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs pose a serious threat to human health and the poultry industry. Here, we serially passaged an H5N6 virus 10 times in BALB/c mice. The pathogenicity of the wild-type 6D2 (WT-6D2) and mammal-adapted 6D2 strain (MA-6D2) were compared. The viral titer in multiple organs and the death rate for MA-6D2 were significantly higher than for WT-6D2. We provide evidence that the mutations HA A150V, NA R143K and G147E, PB2 E627K, and PA A343T may be important for adaptation of H5N6 AIVs to mammals. PMID:26997612

  8. Impact of murine intestinal apolipoprotein A-IV expression on regional lipid absorption, gene expression, and growth

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Trang; Cook, Victoria R.; Rao, Anuradha; Weinberg, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is synthesized by intestinal enterocytes during lipid absorption and secreted into lymph on the surface of nascent chylomicrons. A compelling body of evidence supports a central role of apoA-IV in facilitating intestinal lipid absorption and in regulating satiety, yet a longstanding conundrum is that no abnormalities in fat absorption, feeding behavior, or weight gain were observed in chow-fed apoA-IV knockout (A4KO) mice. Herein we reevaluated the impact of apoA-IV expression in C57BL6 and A4KO mice fed a high-fat diet. Fat balance and lymph cannulation studies found no effect of intestinal apoA-IV gene expression on the efficiency of fatty acid absorption, but gut sac transport studies revealed that apoA-IV differentially modulates lipid transport and the number and size of secreted triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in different anatomic regions of the small bowel. ApoA-IV gene deletion increased expression of other genes involved in chylomicron assembly, impaired the ability of A4KO mice to gain weight and increase adipose tissue mass, and increased the distal gut hormone response to a high-fat diet. Together these findings suggest that apoA-IV may play a unique role in integrating feeding behavior, intestinal lipid absorption, and energy storage. PMID:21840868

  9. An evaluation of optimal methods for avian influenza virus sample collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample collection and transport are critical components of any diagnostic testing program and due to the amount of avian influenza virus (AIV) testing in the U.S. and worldwide, small improvements in sensitivity and specificity can translate into substantial cost savings from better test accuracy. ...

  10. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  11. Avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses in wintering and breeding waterfowl populations in North Carolina, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although wild ducks are recognized reservoirs for avian influenza (AIV) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMV), information related to the prevalence of these viruses in breeding and migratory duck populations on North American wintering grounds is limited. Wintering (n=2,889) and resident breeding (n=524...

  12. Evaluation of poultry diagnostic tests for avial influenza virus in duck origin samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diagnostic test for the detection and identification of avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in chickens and turkeys have been well established and commercial test kits are available for some applications. However few, if any diagnostic tests have been validated or evaluated for use with specimens...

  13. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed the genetic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes sampled from 14 bird species in four locations across North America. This revealed 29 combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes, with 26% of isolates showin...

  14. Systemic virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic or high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP) and high pathogenic (HP), based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host responses. Methods To study differences in disease development between HPAIV and LPAIV, we examined the first appearance and eventual load of viral RNA in multiple organs as well as host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with two closely related H7N1 HPAIV or LPAIV strains. Results Both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV spread systemically in chickens after a combined intranasal/intratracheal inoculation. In brain, large differences in viral RNA load and host gene expression were found between H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Chicken embryo brain cell culture studies revealed that both HPAIV and LPAIV could infect cultivated embryonic brain cells, but in accordance with the absence of the necessary proteases, replication of LPAIV was limited. Furthermore, TUNEL assay indicated apoptosis in brain of HPAIV infected chickens only. In intestine, where endoproteases that cleave HA of LPAIV are available, we found minimal differences in the amount of viral RNA and a large overlap in the transcriptional responses between HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Interestingly, brain and ileum differed clearly in the cellular pathways that were regulated upon an AI infection. Conclusions Although both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV RNA was detected in a broad range of tissues beyond the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, our observations indicate that differences in pathogenicity and mortality between HPAIV and LPAIV could originate from differences in virus replication and the resulting host responses in vital organs like the brain. PMID:22390870

  15. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  16. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at −20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl2)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at −20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl2 inactivated 6 log10 AIV within 5 min at −20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl2 solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl2 is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  17. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at -20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl₂)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at -20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl₂ inactivated 6 log₁₀ AIV within 5 min at -20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl₂ solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl₂ is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  18. Analytical validation of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for Pan-American lineage H7 subtype Avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Ip, H.S.; Suarez, D.L.; Slemons, R.D.; Stallknecht, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for the identification of the H7 subtype in North American Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) was first reported in 2002; however, recent AIV surveillance efforts in wild birds and H7 outbreaks in poultry demonstrated that the 2002 test did not detect all H7 AIVs present in North and South America. Therefore, a new test, the 2008 Pan-American H7 test, was developed by using recently available H7 nucleotide sequences. The analytical specificity of the new assay was characterized with an RNA panel composed of 19 H7 viruses from around the world and RNA from all hemagglutinin subtypes except H16. Specificity for North and South American lineage H7 viruses was observed. Assay limits of detection were determined to be between 103 and 104 gene copies per reaction with in vitro transcribed RNA, and 100.0 and 10 0.8 50% egg infectious doses per reaction. The 2008 Pan-American H7 test also was shown to perform similarly to the 2002 test with specimens from chickens experimentally exposed to A/Chicken/BritishColumbia/314514-2/04 H7N3 highly pathogenic AIV. Furthermore, the 2008 test was able to detect 100% (n = 27) of the H7 AIV isolates recovered from North American wild birds in a 2006-2007 sample set (none of which were detected by the 2002 H7 test).

  19. JGOMAS: New Approach to AI Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barella, A.; Valero, S.; Carrascosa, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new environment for teaching practical work in AI subjects. The main purpose of this environment is to make AI techniques more appealing to students and to facilitate the use of the toolkits which are currently widely used in research and development. This new environment has a toolkit for developing and executing agents,…

  20. Tips to Improve AI Pregnancy Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is aimed at identifying and emphasizing the critical factors that contribute to a successful AI breeding season. Accurate and efficient heat detection is the first step toward achieving AI pregnancies. Electronic estrous detection is not necessary if producers will spend more time observi...

  1. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  2. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species. PMID:27309081

  3. Bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses at the wildlife/domestic interface: an eco-epidemiological framework implemented in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, A; Grosbois, V; Etter, E; Gaidet, N; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2014-12-01

    Wild terrestrial birds can act as potential local spreaders or bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) between waterfowl (the maintenance hosts of AIVs) and domestic avian populations in which AIVs may cause disease. Few studies have investigated this hypothesis, although it is an important knowledge gap in our understanding of AIV spread within socio-ecosystems. We designed a simple and reproducible approach in an agro-ecosystem in Zimbabwe based on: (1) bird counts at key target sites (i.e., wetlands, villages, intensive poultry production buildings and ostrich farms) to identify which wild birds species co-occur in these different sites and seasons when the risk of AIV transmission through these potential bridge hosts is maximal and (2) targeted sampling and testing for AIV infection in the identified potential bridge hosts. We found that 12 wild bird species represented the vast majority (79%) of co-occurrences in the different sites, whereas 230 bird species were recorded in this ecosystem. Specifically, three species - barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, red-billed quelea, Quelea quelea and cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis - represented the main potential bridge host species (65% of co-occurrences). In two out of these three species (i.e., barn swallow and red-billed quelea), we detected AIV infections, confirming that they can play a bridge function between waterfowl and domestic species in the ecosystem. Our approach can be easily implemented in other ecosystems to identify potential bridge hosts, and our results have implications in terms of surveillance, risk management and control of AIV spread in socio-ecosystems. PMID:25457135

  4. Evaluation of a commercial bELISA serologic assay for avian influenza virus detection in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus surveillance in wild birds is predominately dependent on diagnostic assays that identify the virus, including reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation. A sensitive and specific assay to detect AI virus antibodies would complement existing survei...

  5. A virus spreading model for cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L.; Yeung, K. H.; Wong, K. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since cognitive radio (CR) networks could solve the spectrum scarcity problem, they have drawn much research in recent years. Artificial intelligence(AI) is introduced into CRs to learn from and adapt to their environment. Nonetheless, AI brings in a new kind of attacks specific to CR networks. The most powerful one is a self-propagating AI virus. And no spreading properties specific to this virus have been reported in the literature. To fill this research gap, we propose a virus spreading model of an AI virus by considering the characteristics of CR networks and the behavior of CR users. Several important observations are made from the simulation results based on the model. Firstly, the time taken to infect the whole network increases exponentially with the network size. Based on this result, CR network designers could calculate the optimal network size to slow down AI virus propagation rate. Secondly, the anti-virus performance of static networks to an AI virus is better than dynamic networks. Thirdly, if the CR devices with the highest degree are initially infected, the AI virus propagation rate will be increased substantially. Finally, it is also found that in the area with abundant spectrum resource, the AI virus propagation speed increases notably but the variability of the spectrum does not affect the propagation speed much.

  6. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark T; Brown, Justin D; Goekjian, Virginia H; Luttrell, M Page; Poulson, Rebecca L; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2010-07-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine the role of Canada Geese in the ecology of AI, we re-evaluated existing literature related to AI virus in this species and tested breeding populations of Canada Geese from three states (Georgia, West Virginia, and Minnesota, USA) by virus isolation and serology. The ability of AI virus to persist in goose feces under experimental conditions also was evaluated as an additional measure of the potential for this species to serve as an AI virus reservoir. Virus was not isolated from 1,668 cloacal swabs and type-specific antibody prevalence was low (4/335, 1.2%). Finally, under experimental conditions, AI virus persistence in goose feces and in water contaminated with goose feces was limited as compared to published estimates from duck feces and water. Our results are consistent with historic reports of a low prevalence of AI virus infection in this species, and we suggest that Canada Geese play a minor, if any, role as a reservoir for low pathogenic AI viruses that naturally circulate in wild bird populations. PMID:20688710

  7. Continued Evolution of H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds, Domestic Poultry, and Humans in China from 2004 to 2009▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Zhong, Gongxun; Deng, Guohua; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Zeng, Xianying; Song, Jiasheng; Zhao, Dongming; Liu, Liling; Jiang, Yongping; Guan, Yuntao; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial efforts to control H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), the viruses have continued to evolve and cause disease outbreaks in poultry and infections in humans. In this report, we analyzed 51 representative H5N1 AIVs isolated from domestic poultry, wild birds, and humans in China during 2004 to 2009, and 21 genotypes were detected based on whole-genome sequences. Twelve genotypes of AIVs in southern China bear similar H5 hemagglutinin (HA) genes (clade 2.3). These AIVs did not display antigenic drift and could be completely protected against by the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GS/GD/1/96)-based oil-adjuvanted killed vaccine and recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine, which have been used in China. In addition, antigenically drifted H5N1 viruses, represented by A/chicken/Shanxi/2/06 (CK/SX/2/06), were detected in chickens from several provinces in northern China. The CK/SX/2/06-like viruses are reassortants with newly emerged HA, NA, and PB1 genes that could not be protected against by the GS/GD/1/96-based vaccines. These viruses also reacted poorly with antisera generated from clade 2.2 and 2.3 viruses. The majority of the viruses isolated from southern China were lethal in mice and ducks, while the CK/SX/2/06-like viruses caused mild disease in mice and could not replicate in ducks. Our results demonstrate that the H5N1 AIVs circulating in nature have complex biological characteristics and pose a continued challenge for disease control and pandemic preparedness. PMID:20538856

  8. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  9. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus roselaari).

    PubMed

    Johnson, James A; DeCicco, Lucas H; Ruthrauff, Daniel R; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America. PMID:24807362

  10. Phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongrui; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Tao; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H3 subtype influenza A virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. However, the evolution and pathogenicity of H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) circulating in domestic birds in China remain largely unclear. In this study, seven H3 AIVs (four H3N2 and three H3N8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (LPM) in China. Phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into Eurasian lineage, except N8 genes of two H3N8 isolates fell into North American lineage. Intriguingly, the N8 gene of one H3N8 and PB2, PB1, NP and NS of two H3N2 isolates have close relationship with those of the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses circulating in Korea and United States, suggesting that the H3-like AIV may contribute internal genes to the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses. Phylogenetic tree of HA gene and antigenic cross-reactivity results indicated that two antigenically different H3 viruses are circulating in LPM in China. Most of the H3 viruses replicated in mice lung and nasal turbinate without prior adaptation, and the representative H3 viruses infected chickens without causing clinical signs. The reassortment of H3 subtype influenza viruses warrants continuous surveillance in LPM in China. PMID:27270298

  11. Phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongrui; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Tao; Li, Xuesong; Teng, Qiaoyang; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    H3 subtype influenza A virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. However, the evolution and pathogenicity of H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) circulating in domestic birds in China remain largely unclear. In this study, seven H3 AIVs (four H3N2 and three H3N8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (LPM) in China. Phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into Eurasian lineage, except N8 genes of two H3N8 isolates fell into North American lineage. Intriguingly, the N8 gene of one H3N8 and PB2, PB1, NP and NS of two H3N2 isolates have close relationship with those of the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses circulating in Korea and United States, suggesting that the H3-like AIV may contribute internal genes to the highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses. Phylogenetic tree of HA gene and antigenic cross-reactivity results indicated that two antigenically different H3 viruses are circulating in LPM in China. Most of the H3 viruses replicated in mice lung and nasal turbinate without prior adaptation, and the representative H3 viruses infected chickens without causing clinical signs. The reassortment of H3 subtype influenza viruses warrants continuous surveillance in LPM in China. PMID:27270298

  12. Artificial intelligence. Fears of an AI pioneer.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stuart; Bohannon, John

    2015-07-17

    From the enraged robots in the 1920 play R.U.R. to the homicidal computer H.A.L. in 2001: A Space Odyssey, science fiction writers have embraced the dark side of artificial intelligence (AI) ever since the concept entered our collective imagination. Sluggish progress in AI research, especially during the “AI winter” of the 1970s and 1980s, made such worries seem far-fetched. But recent breakthroughs in machine learning and vast improvements in computational power have brought a flood of research funding— and fresh concerns about where AI may lead us. One researcher now speaking up is Stuart Russell, a computer scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who with Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, wrote the premier AI textbook, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now in its third edition. Last year, Russell joined the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom as an AI expert focusing on “risks that could lead to human extinction.” Among his chief concerns, which he aired at an April meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, run by the United Nations, is the danger of putting military drones and weaponry under the full control of AI systems. This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity. PMID:26185241

  13. Sequence Analysis of Recent H7 Avian Influenza Viruses Associated with Three Different Outbreaks in Commercial Poultry in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, Erica; Senne, Dennis A.; Davison, Sherrill; Suarez, David L.

    2003-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated between 1994 and 2002 from live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States and from three outbreaks in commercial poultry have been characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes demonstrates that the isolates from commercial poultry were closely related to the viruses circulating in the LBMs. Also, since 1994, two distinguishing genetic features have appeared in this AIV lineage: a deletion of 17 amino acids in the NA protein stalk region and a deletion of 8 amino acids in the HA1 protein which is putatively in part of the receptor binding site. Furthermore, analysis of the HA cleavage site amino acid sequence, a marker for pathogenicity in chickens and turkeys, shows a progression toward a cleavage site sequence that fulfills the molecular criteria for highly pathogenic AIV. PMID:14645595

  14. Sequence analysis of recent H7 avian influenza viruses associated with three different outbreaks in commercial poultry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Senne, Dennis A; Davison, Sherrill; Suarez, David L

    2003-12-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated between 1994 and 2002 from live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States and from three outbreaks in commercial poultry have been characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes demonstrates that the isolates from commercial poultry were closely related to the viruses circulating in the LBMs. Also, since 1994, two distinguishing genetic features have appeared in this AIV lineage: a deletion of 17 amino acids in the NA protein stalk region and a deletion of 8 amino acids in the HA1 protein which is putatively in part of the receptor binding site. Furthermore, analysis of the HA cleavage site amino acid sequence, a marker for pathogenicity in chickens and turkeys, shows a progression toward a cleavage site sequence that fulfills the molecular criteria for highly pathogenic AIV. PMID:14645595

  15. Deterioration of eggshell quality in laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuefeng; Tan, Dan; Wu, Chengqi; Tang, Chao; Li, Tao; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Liu, Caihong; Li, Ruiqiao; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in the oviduct was coincident with the adverse changes in egg production in the infected hens. The viral loads of AIV have a close correlation with the changes in the uterus CaBP-D28k mRNA expression as well as the Ca concentrations in the eggshells in the infected hens from 1 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Ultrastructural examination of eggshells showed significantly decreased shell thickness in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi (P < 0.05). Furthermore, obvious changes in the structure of the external shell surface and shell membrane were detected in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi as compared with the control hens. In conclusion, this study confirmed that H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) infection is associated with severe lesions of the uterus and abnormal expression of CaBP-D28k mRNA in the uteri of the infected hens. The change of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression may contribute to the deterioration of the eggshell quality of the laying hens infected with AIV. It is noteworthy that the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV strains may vary depending on the virus strain and host preference. PMID:26915662

  16. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  17. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  18. The pathogenicity of H7 subtype avian influenza viruses in chickens, turkeys and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect numerous avian species, and low pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses of the H7 subtype are typically reported to produce mild or subclinical infections in both wild aquatic birds and domestic poultry. However relatively little work has been done to compare LPAI viruses ...

  19. Newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Torchetti, Mia Kim

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of ND. Other APMV-1 viruses of low virulence, which are not used as vaccines, are also often isolated from wild bird species. The APMV-1 virus, like avian influenza virus (AIV), is a hemagglutinating virus (HA) and able to agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBC). Because the clinical presentation of ND can be difficult to distinguish from disease caused by AIV, techniques for differential diagnosis are essential, as well as the ability to detect mixed infections. When an HA positive virus is detected from virus isolation, additional assays can be performed to determine which virus is present. Both antigenic and molecular methods are necessary as some virulent ND viruses from cormorants in the USA after 2002 have lost their ability to hemagglutinate chicken RBC and molecular methods are needed for identification. PMID:24899433

  20. Structure of human apolipoprotein A-IV: a distinct domain architecture among exchangeable apolipoproteins with potential functional implications.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Kevin; Saito, Hiroyuki; Woods, Stephen C; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Tso, Patrick; Phillips, Michael C; Davidson, W Sean

    2004-08-24

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein that shares many functional similarities with related apolipoproteins such as apoE and apoA-I but has also been implicated as a circulating satiety factor. However, despite the fact that it contains many predicted amphipathic alpha-helical domains, relatively little is known about its tertiary structure. We hypothesized that apoA-IV exhibits a characteristic functional domain organization that has been proposed to define apoE and apoA-I. To test this, we created truncation mutants in a bacterial system that deleted amino acids from either the N- or C-terminal ends of human apoA-IV. We found that apoA-IV was less stable than apoA-I but was more highly organized in terms of its cooperativity of unfolding. Deletion of the extreme N and C termini of apoA-IV did not significantly affect the cooperativity of unfolding, but deletions past amino acid 333 on the C terminus or amino acid 61 on the N terminus had major destabilizing effects. Functionally, apoA-IV was less efficient than apoA-I at clearing multilamellar phospholipid liposomes and promoting ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux. However, deletion of a C-terminal region of apoA-IV, which is devoid of predicted amphipathic alpha helices (amino acids 333-376) stimulated both of these activities dramatically. We conclude that the amphipathic alpha helices in apoA-IV form a single, large domain that may be similar to the N-terminal helical bundle domains of apoA-I and apoE but that apoA-IV lacks the C-terminal lipid-binding and cholesterol efflux-promoting domain present in these apolipoproteins. In fact, the C terminus of apoA-IV appears to reduce the ability of apoA-IV to interact with lipids and promote cholesterol efflux. This indicates that, although apoA-IV may have evolved from gene duplication events of ancestral apolipoproteins and shares the basic amphipathic helical building blocks, the overall localization of

  1. Immunoprotection against influenza virus H9N2 by the oral administration of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarumNC8 expressing hemagglutinin in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Wen-Tao; Yang, Gui-Lian; Cong, Yan-Long; Huang, Hai-Bin; Wang, Qian; Cai, Ruo-Peng; Ye, Li-Ping; Hu, Jing-Tao; Zhou, Jing-Yu; Wang, Chun-Feng; Li, Yu

    2014-09-01

    The H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has become increasingly concerning due to its role in severe economic losses in the poultry industry. Transmission of AIV to mammals, including pigs and humans, has accelerated efforts to devise preventive strategies. To develop an effective oral vaccine against H9N2 AIV, a recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 strain expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H9N2 AIV was constructed in this study. Mice were orally immunized with the recombinant NC8-pSIP409-HA strain, and sIgA, IgG and HI antibodies were produced by the NC8-pSIP409-HA strain, which also induced CD8(+) T cell immune responses. Most importantly, oral administration produced complete protection against challenge with mouse-adapted H9N2 virus. These results indicate that the recombinant NC8-pSIP409-HA was more effective at inducing the mucosal, humoral and cellular immune responses. Therefore, L. plantarum NC8-pSIP409-HA could become a promising oral vaccine candidate against H9N2 AIV. PMID:25083619

  2. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  3. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  4. ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTION AND ANTIBODY STATUS IN BLUE-WINGED TEAL (ANAS DISCORS) IN THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES.

    PubMed

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Leighton, Frederick A; Epp, Tasha; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Lindsay, Robbin; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian prairies are one of the most important breeding and staging areas for migratory waterfowl in North America. Hundreds of thousands of waterfowl of numerous species from multiple flyways converge in and disperse from this region annually; therefore this region may be a key area for potential intra- and interspecific spread of infectious pathogens among migratory waterfowl in the Americas. Using Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors, BWTE), which have the most extensive migratory range among waterfowl species, we investigated ecologic risk factors for infection and antibody status to avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) in the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) prior to fall migration. We used generalized linear models to examine infection or evidence of exposure in relation to host (age, sex, body condition, exposure to other infections), spatiotemporal (year, province), population-level (local population densities of BWTE, total waterfowl densities), and environmental (local pond densities) factors. The probability of AIV infection in BWTE was associated with host factors (e.g., age and antibody status), population-level factors (e.g., local BWTE population density), and year. An interaction between age and AIV antibody status showed that hatch year birds with antibodies to AIV were more likely to be infected, suggesting an antibody response to an active infection. Infection with AIV was positively associated with local BWTE density, supporting the hypothesis of density-dependent transmission. The presence of antibodies to WNV and APMV-1 was positively associated with age and varied among years. Furthermore, the probability of being WNV antibody positive was positively associated with pond density rather than host population density, likely because ponds provide suitable breeding habitat for mosquitoes, the primary vectors for transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of

  5. Apolipoprotein AIF gene variant S347 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and lower apolipoprotein AIV plasma concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Wai-man R.; Hawe, Emma; Li, Lai K.; Miller, George J.; Nicaud, Viviane; Pennacchio, Len A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2003-01-30

    The impact of common variants in the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOC3-A4-A5) on prospective CHD risk was examined in healthy UK men. Of the 2808 men followed over nine years, 187 had a clinically defined CHD event. Examination of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this group revealed that homozygotes for APOA4 S347 had significantly increased risk of CHD [Hazard ratio (HR) of 2.07 (95%CI 1.04-4.12)] while men homozygous for APOC3 1100T were protected (HR 0.28 (95%CI 0.09-0.87)). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, after entering all the variants and adjusting for established risk factors APOA4 T347S alone remained in the model. Using nine-SNP haplotype analysis, highest risk-estimate haplotypes carried APOA4 S347 and rare alleles of the two flanking intergenic markers. The protective effect of APOC31100T could be explained by negative linkage disequilibrium with these alleles. To determine the association of APOA4 T347S with apoAIVlevels, the relationship was examined in over 1600 healthy young European men and women. S347 homozygotes had significantly lower apoAIV plasma levels (13.48 + 0.6mg/dl) compared to carriers of the T347 allele (14.85 + 0.12 mg/dl) (p=0.025). These results demonstrate that genetic variation in and around APOA4, independent of effects of TG, is associated with risk of CHD and apoAIV levels, supporting an anti-atherogenic role for apoAIV.

  6. Annual survival of ruddy turnstones is not affected by natural infection with low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Angela M; Porter, Ronald R; Luttrell, M Page; Goekjian, Virginia H; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

    2012-09-01

    The population of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella) that migrates through Delaware Bay has undergone severe declines in recent years, attributable to reduced availability of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs at this critical spring migration stopover site. Concurrently, this population has experienced annual low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemics at this same site. Using a prospective cohort study design with birds individually flagged during May-June 2006-2008, we evaluated resighting rates (a proxy for annual survival) between AIV-infected and uninfected birds at 1 yr after capture, testing, and measurement. Overall resighting rate was 46%, which varied by year and increased with relative mass of the bird when captured. Resighting rates were not different between AIV-infected and uninfected birds in any period. In multivariate analyses, infection status was also unrelated to resighting rate after controlling for year, day, state, sex, body size, mass index, or whether the bird was blood-sampled. Thus, apparent annual survival in ruddy turnstones was not reduced by AIV infection at this migratory stopover. However, it is unknown whether intestinal AIV infection might cause subtle reductions in weight gain which could negatively influence reproduction. PMID:23050475

  7. Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis)

    PubMed Central

    Root, J. Jeffrey; Shriner, Susan A.; Bentler, Kevin T.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Mooers, Nicole L.; Ellis, Jeremy W.; Spraker, Terry R.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. Methodology/Principal Findings Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP) H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI). All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤106.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤105.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively). Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations. PMID:24489638

  8. Respiratory tract versus cloacal sampling of migratory ducks for influenza A viruses: are both ends relevant?

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Scott; Pryor, Sydney Paul; Raven, Garnet; Danner, Angela; Kayali, Ghazi; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Krauss et al. (2012) Respiratory tract versus cloacal sampling of migratory ducks for influenza A viruses: are both ends relevant? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: . Background  Early studies in dabbling ducks showed that cloacal swabs yielded a larger number of avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates than did respiratory tract swabs. Historically, AIV surveillance has been performed by collecting cloacal or environmental fecal samples only. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus emerged in 1996 and replicated to higher titers in the respiratory rather than the gastrointestinal tract of ducks, prompting the collection of respiratory samples in addition to cloacal swabs from wild birds. Studies confirmed that some virus subtypes, especially H9 and highly pathogenic H5, are shed primarily through the respiratory tract and may not be detected in cloacal swabs. Objectives  To examine prevalence and subtype differences for AIV isolates from cloacal or respiratory swabs of wild ducks and to determine whether individual respiratory tract samples should be included in AIV surveillance studies in wild birds. Methods  Individual respiratory tract and cloacal swabs were collected from each of 1036 wild ducks in Alberta, Canada, during the month of August from 2007 to 2010 in an ongoing surveillance study. Virus isolation in eggs and subtype identification by antigenic and molecular methods were performed. Results and conclusions  Respiratory tract and cloacal swabs yielded ten influenza virus HA subtypes representing 28 HA–NA combinations. Three HA–NA subtype combinations were found exclusively in respiratory tract samples. Only four HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, and H7) were recovered from respiratory samples, but respiratory shedding was associated with the dominance of 1 year’s subtype. Might respiratory shedding provide a risk assessment indicator? PMID:22458473

  9. Novel avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses isolated in migratory waterfowl before the first human case reported in China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Liu, Haizhou; Xiong, Chaochao; Di Liu; Shi, Weifeng; Li, Mingxin; Liu, Siling; Chen, Jing; Chen, Guang; Li, Yong; Yang, Guoxiang; Lei, Yongsong; Xiong, Yanping; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Hanzhong; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Jianjun; Gao, George F

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, China formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan Province. Before the first human case was reported, surveillance of AIVs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three H5N6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in Chenhu wetlands, Hubei Province, China. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these three novel viruses were closely related to the H5N6 virus that has caused human infections in China since 2014. A Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of all eight segments suggests multiple reassortment events in the evolution of these viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) originated from the H5N2 and H6N6 AIVs, respectively, whereas all six internal genes were derived from avian H5N1 viruses. The reassortant may have occurred in eastern China during 2012-2013. A phylogeographic analysis of the HA and NA genes traced the viruses to southern China, from where they spread to other areas via eastern China. A receptor-binding test showed that H5N6 viruses from migratory waterfowl had human-type receptor-binding activity, suggesting a potential for transmission to humans. These data suggest that migratory waterfowl may play a role in the dissemination of novel H5N6 viruses. PMID:27431568

  10. Novel avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses isolated in migratory waterfowl before the first human case reported in China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yuhai; Liu, Haizhou; Xiong, Chaochao; Di Liu; Shi, Weifeng; Li, Mingxin; Liu, Siling; Chen, Jing; Chen, Guang; Li, Yong; Yang, Guoxiang; Lei, Yongsong; Xiong, Yanping; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Hanzhong; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Jianjun; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, China formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan Province. Before the first human case was reported, surveillance of AIVs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three H5N6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in Chenhu wetlands, Hubei Province, China. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these three novel viruses were closely related to the H5N6 virus that has caused human infections in China since 2014. A Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of all eight segments suggests multiple reassortment events in the evolution of these viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) originated from the H5N2 and H6N6 AIVs, respectively, whereas all six internal genes were derived from avian H5N1 viruses. The reassortant may have occurred in eastern China during 2012–2013. A phylogeographic analysis of the HA and NA genes traced the viruses to southern China, from where they spread to other areas via eastern China. A receptor-binding test showed that H5N6 viruses from migratory waterfowl had human-type receptor-binding activity, suggesting a potential for transmission to humans. These data suggest that migratory waterfowl may play a role in the dissemination of novel H5N6 viruses. PMID:27431568

  11. Evaluation of changes induced by temperature, contact time, and surface in the efficacies of disinfectants against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yangho; Lee, Joongbok; So, Byungjae; Lee, Kwangjick; Yun, Seonjong; Lee, Myoungheon; Choe, Nonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfectants effective against AIV have optimum efficacies at temperatures above 20°C. Very few studies on effective disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. Disinfectants were investigated at 4 different temperatures (25, 4, 0, and -10°C) and 2 contact times (1 and 5 min) with suspension tests. Virucidal activity of the disinfectants was evaluated by carrier tests (wood and stainless steel) at 25 and -10°C. The concentration of each disinfectant for efficient disinfection within a short time (<1 min) at 25 and -10°C was also reestablished. The results from the suspension test indicated that low temperatures inhibited the virucidal efficacy of citric acid (CA) and CA + quaternary ammonium compounds (CA+ QAC) for 1 and 5 min, whereas the remaining disinfectants were effective, regardless of the short contact times and low temperatures. The carrier test results suggested that dried virus on wood was more difficult to inactivate compared with that on stainless steel. However, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and glutaraldehyde could inactivate AIV on both wood and stainless steel at -10°C. Citric acid-based agents could not sufficiently inactivate AIV at -10°C; however, the limitation due to low temperatures was overcome by adjusting disinfectant concentration. For a successful disinfection during winter, the disinfectants that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target organism should be selected. PMID:24570425

  12. Comparison of three media for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Du, Xiang; Huang, Bao-Xu; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-09-15

    Detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is important for diagnosis, surveillance and control of avian influenza which is of great economic and public health significance. Proper transport and storage of samples is critical for the detection when the samples cannot be detected immediately. As recommended by some international or national authoritative entities and some publications, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS-glycerol and brain heart infusion broth (BHIB) are frequently used for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of AIVs worldwide. In this study, we compared these three media for transport and storage of simulated and authentic swab and feces samples collected for detection of AIVs using virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR. The results suggest that PBS-glycerol is superior to PBS and BHIB as the sample transport and storage media. The results also suggest that the samples collected for detection of AIVs should be detected as soon as possible because the virus concentration of the samples may decline rapidly during storage within days at 4 or -20°C. PMID:26159628

  13. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States

    PubMed Central

    Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

  14. Evaluation of a competitive ELISA for antibody detection against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Song, Dae Sub; Lee, Youn Jeong; Jeong, Ok Mi; Kim, Yong Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Yoo, Jung Eun; Jeon, Woo Jin; Kwon, Jun Hun; Ha, Gun Woo; Kang, Bo Kyu; Lee, Chul Seung; Kim, Hye Kwon; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Kim, Jae Hong; Oh, Jin Sik

    2009-12-01

    Active serologic surveillance is necessary to control the spread of the avian influenza virus (AIV). In this study, we evaluated a commercially-available cELISA in terms of its ability to detect AIV antibodies in the sera of 3,358 animals from twelve species. cELISA detected antibodies against reference H1- through H15-subtype AIV strains without cross reactivity. Furthermore, the cELISA was able to detect antibodies produced following a challenge of the AIV H9N2 subtype in chickens, or following vaccination of the AIV H9 or H5 subtypes in chickens, ducks and geese. Next, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA with sera from twelve different animal species, and compared these results with those obtained by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, the "gold standard" in AIV sera surveillance, a second commercially-available cELISA (IZS ELISA), or the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. Compared with the HI test, the sensitivities and specificities of cELISA were 95% and 96% in chicken, 86% and 88% in duck, 97% and 100% in turkey, 100% and 87% in goose, and 91% and 97% in swine, respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of the cELISA in this study were higher than those of IZS ELISA for the duck, turkey, goose, and grey partridge sera samples. The results of AGP test against duck and turkey sera also showed significant correlation with the results of cELISA (R-value >0.9). In terms of flock sensitivity, the cELISA correlated better with the HI test than with commercially-available indirect ELISAs, with 100% flock sensitivity. PMID:19934598

  15. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, C.R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, H.S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  16. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine (2006-2011)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...

  17. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  18. Comparison of pooling 11 or 5 oropharyngeal swabbings for detecting avian influenza virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pooling five or 11 orophyarngeal (O/P) swabbings on detecting avian influenza virus (AIV) by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) was evaluated. The model used for the evaluation was designed to minimize viral load and thus assess the effect of the pooli...

  19. Chimaeric VP2 proteins from infectious bursal disease virus containing the N-terminal M2e of H9 subtype avian influenza virus induce neutralizing antibody responses to both viruses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yinghua; Gong, Yuzhen; Wang, Yongwei; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Yamei; Lu, Jihu; Gao, Feng; Chen, Tao; Hou, Fengxiang; Hou, Jibo

    2013-01-01

    Subunit vaccines capable of inducing antibody against both infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and H9 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) were developed. The VP2 protein of IBDV was used as a cargo protein to display a 12-amino-acid immunodominant epitope derived from the N-terminal M2 extracellular domain (nM2e) of the H9 subtype AIV. Two chimaeric proteins were constructed by insertion of one copy of the nM2e into the PBC region (VP2BCnM2e(H9)) or by fusing four copies of nM2e to the carboxyl terminal (VP2-4nM2e(H9)) of VP2. Genes that encoded the VP2 chimaeras were subsequently cloned into a baculovirus vector and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The recombinant proteins were used to vaccinate chickens at day 0 and again after 4 weeks. Blood was collected at 2-week intervals after primary and secondary vaccination to detect the antibody titre against VP2 or the nM2e via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Virus neutralization tests were also performed to measure anti-IBDV or anti-H9 AIV neutralizing antibodies in chick embryo fibroblasts. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected 3, 5 and 7 days post H9 subtype AIV infection for virus isolation. Vaccination with VP2-4nM2e(H9) induced higher levels of antibody responses against IBDV or H9 subtype AIV, and provided better protection against an IBDV virulent challenge compared with vaccination with VP2BCnM2e(H9) vaccine, the wild-type VP2 subunit vaccine or the IBDV subunit commercial vaccines. Both chimaeric VP2 vaccines showed poor efficacy in inhibiting H9 virus replication post challenge. In summary, chimaeric proteins that contain the nM2e epitope were able to induce both IBDV and H9 subtype AIV-neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:23607544

  20. Multiplex nested RT-PCR for detecting avian influenza virus, infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Hong, Seung-Min; Seong, Won-Jin; Jang, Jin-Wook; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2013-03-01

    In this study, multiplex nested RT-PCR (mnRT-PCR) was applied to simultaneous detect multiplex PCR with the higher sensitivity of nested PCR that is required for avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease virus using two steps of amplification. For the first PCR, primers that were specific for each virus were newly designed from the nucleoprotein gene of AIV, the nucleocapsid protein gene of IBV and the fusion protein gene of NDV to amplify products of 665, 386 and 236 nucleotides, respectively. The multiplex PCR step provides mass amplification using common primers, which increased markedly the sensitivity of the test. Non-specific reactions were not observed when other viruses and bacteria were used for evaluating the mnRT-PCR. As a field application, 172 samples were tested by RT-PCR and mnRT-PCR. Among these samples, the concordance rates for mnRT-PCR and the single conventional RT-PCR showed 98.9% (kappa=0.98) and 98.8% (kappa=0.96) similarity for IBV and AIV, respectively. As a result, it is recommended the multiplex nested PCR as an effective tool for detecting and studying the molecular epidemiology of various mixed infections of one or more of these viruses in poultry. PMID:23261801

  1. Comparison of timed AI after synchronized ovulation to AI at estrus: reproductive and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, B A; Drillich, M; Surholt, R; Heuwieser, W

    2004-01-01

    A timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol using OvSynch was compared to artificial insemination (AI) at detected estrus in 2 large dairy herds differing in reproductive management. Cows were synchronized for TAI starting at 62 and 42 d in milk in herds 1 and 2, respectively. The OvSynch regimen included: GnRH (buserelin) at 0.02 mg (i.m.) on d 0; PGF2alpha (tiaprost) at 0.75 mg (i.m.) on d 7; buserelin at 0.02 mg (i.m.) on d 9; and TAI 16 to 20 h later. After TAI, cows seen in estrus received AI, whereas cows diagnosed not pregnant were resynchronized for TAI. Control cows received AI based on detected estrus after voluntary waiting periods of 72 d in herd 1 and 50 d in herd 2. An economic analysis included costs associated with days open, culling, AI, synchrony products, treatment, and examinations. A sensitivity analysis of those variables determined effects on total costs per pregnancy. Use of OvSynch reduced intervals to first AI and days open in both herds and reduced culling for infertility in herd 2. Conception rates for first AI at detected estrus were significantly higher compared to TAI in both herds and for overall AI at estrus in herd 2. For groups assigned to AI at estrus, mean 21-d submission rates over 200 d for AI were higher in herd 1 than in herd 2 (55.6 vs. 28.6%). Days open and culling were the major cost factors. Although OvSynch improved reproduction in both herds, AI based on detected estrus was economically superior in herd 1, whereas OvSynch was superior in herd 2. This was consistent across ranges of cost factors evaluated. Evaluation of synchrony protocols should include reproductive performance along with appropriate costs associated with treatments. Such costs may offset benefits to reproduction in herds with good estrous detection rates. PMID:14765814

  2. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

  3. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Muthanan A; Redig, Patrick T; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2010-01-01

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV. PMID:20667110

  4. Dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhong, Gongxun; Wang, Guojun; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhuo; Guan, Yuntao; Jiang, Yongping; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2010-01-01

    Replication of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in dogs may facilitate their adaptation in humans; however, the data to date on H5N1 influenza virus infection in dogs are conflicting. To elucidate the susceptibility of dogs to this pathogen, we infected two groups of 6 beagles with 106 50% egg-infectious dose of H5N1 AIV A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/05 (BHG/QH/3/05) intranasally (i.n.) and intratracheally (i.t.), respectively. The dogs showed disease symptoms, including anorexic, fever, conjunctivitis, labored breathing and cough, and one i.t. inoculated animal died on day 4 post-infection. Virus shedding was detected from all 6 animals inoculated i.n. and one inoculated i.t. Virus replication was detected in all animals that were euthanized on day 3 or 5 post-infection and in the animal that died on day 4 post-infection. Our results demonstrate that dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 AIV and may serve as an intermediate host to transfer this virus to humans. PMID:20580396

  5. Avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in vaccinated commercial and backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, M H; Arafa, A; Abdelwhab, E M; Selim, A; Khoulosy, S G; Hassan, M K; Aly, M M

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we describe results from a high-pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance program in previously H5-vaccinated commercial and family-backyard poultry flocks that was conducted from 2007 to 2008 by the Egyptian National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production. The real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to detect the influenza A virus matrix gene and detection of the H5 and N1 subtypes was accomplished using a commercially available kit real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. The virus was detected in 35/3,610 (0.97%) and 27/8,682 (0.31%) of examined commercial poultry farms and 246/816 (30%) and 89/1,723 (5.2%) of backyard flocks in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Positive flocks were identified throughout the year, with the highest frequencies occurring during the winter months. Anti-H5 serum antibody titers in selected commercial poultry ranged from <2 (negative) to 9.6 log(2) when determined in the hemagglutination inhibition test using a H5 AIV antigen. In conclusion, despite the nationwide vaccination strategy of poultry in Egypt to combat H5N1 AIV, continuous circulation of the virus in vaccinated commercial and backyard poultry was reported and the efficacy of the vaccination using a challenge model with the current circulating field virus should be revised. PMID:20634514

  6. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection and differentiation of avian influenza viruses and other poultry respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rashid, S; Naeem, K; Ahmed, Z; Saddique, N; Abbas, M A; Malik, S A

    2009-12-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the detection of type A influenza viruses, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7, H9, and H5 hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of 3 other poultry respiratory pathogens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Seven sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were used in this study for the M gene of AIV and hemagglutinin gene of subtypes H7, H9, and H5 of AIV. Three sets of other specific oligonucleotide primers were used for the detection of avian respiratory pathogens other than AIV. The mRT-PCR DNA products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consisted of DNA fragments of 1,023 bp for M gene of AIV, 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, and 647 bp for ILTV. The second set of primers used for m-RT-PCR of H7N3, H9N2, and H5N1 provided DNA products of 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The mRT-PCR products for the third format consisted of DNA fragments of 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, 647 bp for ILTV, 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The sensitivity and specificity of mRT-PCR was determined and the test was found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of AIV and other poultry respiratory pathogens. In this present study, multiplex PCR technique has been developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the 3 most important subtypes of AIV along with the 3 most common avian respiratory pathogens prevalent in poultry in Pakistan. Therefore, a mRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate between these pathogens will be very important for the control of disease transmission in poultry and in humans, along with the identification of 3 of the most common respiratory pathogens often seen as mixed infections in poultry, and hence economic losses will be reduced in poultry. PMID:19903950

  7. Research update on avian influenza viruses and H1N1 influenza virus in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory conducts research on many areas related to AI including pathogenesis and transmission studies, use of vaccination, virus ...

  8. Amino acid substitutions in the neuraminidase protein of an H9N2 avian influenza virus affect its airborne transmission in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Wei, Liangmeng; Yang, Yan; Wang, Bingxiao; Liang, Wei; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Lili; Cai, Yumei; Hou, Peiqiang; Yang, Huili; Wang, Airong; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jing; Chai, Tongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cases of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry are increasing throughout many Eurasian countries, and co-infections with other pathogens have resulted in high morbidity and mortality in poultry. Few studies have investigated the genetic factors of virus airborne transmission which determine the scope of this epidemic. In this study, we used specific-pathogen-free chickens housed in isolators to investigate the airborne transmissibility of five recombinant H9N2 AIV rescued by reverse genetic technology. The results show that airborne transmission of A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) virus was related to the neuraminidase (NA) gene, and four amino acid mutations (D368E, S370L, E313K and G381D) within the head region of the SD01 NA, reduced virus replication in the respiratory tract of chickens, reduced virus NA activity, and resulted in a loss of airborne transmission ability in chickens. Similarly, reverse mutations of these four amino acids in the NA protein of r01/NASS virus, conferred an airborne transmission ability to the recombinant virus. We conclude that these four NA residues may be significant genetic markers for evaluating potential disease outbreak of H9N2 AIV, and propose that immediate attention should be paid to the airborne transmission of this virus. PMID:25928577

  9. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import.

    PubMed

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  10. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A.; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  11. Surveillance, epidemiological, and virological detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in duck and poultry from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Wahedul Karim; Parvej, Md Shafiullah; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Jackson, Sally; Bustin, Stephen A; Ibrahim, Adel K; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Rahman, Md Tanvir; Zhang, Han; Khan, Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman; Ahamed, Md Mostakin; Rahman, Md Fasiur; Rahman, Marzia; Nazir, K H M Nazmul Hussain; Ahmed, Sultan; Hossen, Md Liakot; Kafi, Md Abdul; Yamage, Mat; Debnath, Nitish C; Ahmed, Graba; Ashour, Hossam M; Masudur Rahman, Md; Noreddin, Ayman; Rahman, Md Bahanur

    2016-09-25

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to pose a global threat. Waterfowl are the main reservoir and are responsible for the spillover of AIVs to other hosts. This study was conducted as part of routine surveillance activities in Bangladesh and it reports on the serological and molecular detection of H5N1 AIV subtype. A total of 2169 cloacal and 2191 oropharyngeal swabs as well as 1725 sera samples were collected from live birds including duck and chicken in different locations in Bangladesh between the years of 2013 and 2014. Samples were tested using virus isolation, serological tests and molecular methods of RT-PCR. Influenza A viruses were detected using reverse transcription PCR targeting the virus matrix (M) gene in 41/4360 (0.94%) samples including both cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples, 31 of which were subtyped as H5N1 using subtype-specific primers. Twenty-one live H5N1 virus isolates were recovered from those 31 samples. Screening of 1,868 blood samples collected from the same birds using H5-specific ELISA identified 545/1603 (34%) positive samples. Disconcertingly, an analysis of 221 serum samples collected from vaccinated layer chicken in four districts revealed that only 18 samples (8.1%) were seropositive for anti H5 antibodies, compared to unvaccinated birds (n=105), where 8 samples (7.6%) were seropositive. Our result indicates that the vaccination program as currently implemented should be reviewed and updated. In addition, surveillance programs are crucial for monitoring the efficacy of the current poultry vaccinations programs, and to monitor the circulating AIV strains and emergence of AIV subtypes in Bangladesh. PMID:27599930

  12. Destriping AIS data using Fourier filtering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometers (AIS) data collected in 1984 and 1985 showed pronounced striping in the vertical and horizontal directions. This striping reduced the signal to noise ratio so that features of the spectra of forest canopies were obscured or altered by noise. This noise was removed by application of a notch filter to the Fourier transform of the imagery in each waveband.

  13. AI-2 Quorum Sensing in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing response modulates many physiological attributes, such as bacterial virulence/pathogenesis, competence, and biofilm formation, when the bacterial population has reached a certain threshold. Among the various signaling compounds, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is produced by most bacterial spec...

  14. SNAP and AI Fuel Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lords, R.E.

    1994-08-01

    The SNAP and AI Fuel Summary Report provides a detailed overview of treatment and storage of these fuels from fabrication through current storage including design parameters and reactor history. Chemical and physical characteristics are described, and potential indicators of as-stored fuel conditions are emphasized.

  15. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  16. AI gamma-ray burst classification: Methodology/preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1998-05-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) classifiers can be used to classify unknowns, refine existing classification parameters, and identify/screen-out ineffectual parameters. We present an AI methodology for classifying gamma-ray bursts, along with some preliminary results.

  17. Characterization of Immune Responses to an Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus Vaccine Adjuvanted with Nanoparticles Containing CpG ODN.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Hodgins, Douglas C; Novy, Anastasia; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), a mucosal pathogen, gains entry into host chickens through respiratory and gastrointestinal routes. Most commercial AIV vaccines for poultry consist of inactivated, whole virus with adjuvant, delivered by parenteral administration. Recent advances in vaccine development have led to the application of nanoparticle emulsion delivery systems, such as poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. In chickens, the Toll-like receptor 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), have been demonstrated to be immunostimulatory. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant potential of CpG ODN 2007 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 when combined with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 virus, through intramuscular and aerosol delivery routes. Chickens were vaccinated at days 7 and 21 posthatch for the intramuscular route and at days 7, 21, and 35 for the aerosol route. Antibody-mediated responses were evaluated weekly in sera and lacrimal secretions in specific pathogen-free chickens. The results indicate that nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in inactivated AIV vaccines administered by the intramuscular route generated higher antibody responses compared to the encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 formulation by the same route. Additionally, encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in AIV vaccines administered by the aerosol route elicited higher mucosal responses compared to nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007. Future studies may be aimed at evaluating protective immune responses induced with PLGA encapsulation of AIV and adjuvants. PMID:27077969

  18. Fertility of holstein dairy heifers after synchronization of ovulation and timed AI or AI after removed tail chalk.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2004-07-01

    Nonlactating Holstein dairy heifers (n=352) 13 mo of age were managed using a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) breeding period in which they received AI after removed tail chalk evaluated once daily. At AI breeding period onset (d 0), heifers were randomly assigned to receive synchronization of ovulation (100 microg of GnRH, d 0; 25 mg of PGF2alpha, d 6; 100 microg of GnRH, d 8) and timed AI (TAI; d 8) and AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (GPG; n=175), or AI after removed tail chalk for the entire AI breeding period (TC; n=177). As expected, 17.7% (31/175) of GPG heifers received AI after removed tail chalk before scheduled TAI. Pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (PR/AI) at approximately 30 d after first AI tended to be greater for TC (46.5%) than for GPG (38.3%) heifers. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected; however, overall PR/AI was low for heifers in both treatments due to variation among the 3 inseminators (24.8, 30.0, and 58.0%). Pregnancy loss from approximately 30 to approximately 75 d after first AI was 10% and did not differ between treatments. Based on survival analysis, days to first AI was greater for TC than for GPG heifers, whereas days to pregnancy across the 42-d AI breeding period did not differ between treatments. Overall, 81.2% of GPG heifers receiving TAI synchronized luteal regression and ovulated within 48 h after the second GnRH injection. We conclude that this synchronization protocol can yield acceptable fertility in dairy heifers if AI to estrus is conducted between treatment with GnRH and PGF2alpha and AI efficiency is optimized. PMID:15328217

  19. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...

  20. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...

  1. Removal of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) inhibitors associated with cloacal swab samples and tissues for improved diagnosis of avian influenza virus by RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) is routinely used for the rapid detection of Avian Influenza virus (AIV) in clinical samples. The usefulness of diagnostic RRT-PCR can be limited, in part, by the inhibitory substances present in some clinical specimens, which can ...

  2. Development and bench validation of real time RT-PCR protocols for rapid detection of the subtypes H6, H9 and H11 of avian influenza viruses in experimental samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) is commonly used for the rapid detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV) from clinical samples. Samples are typically screened for type A influenza by targeting the matrix gene, and then positive samples are further tested for hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) su...

  3. Variation in protection of four divergent avian influenza virus vaccine seed strains against eight clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1. Egyptian H5N1 high pathogenicity variants in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) was introduced to Egyptian poultry in 2006 and has since become enzootic. Vaccination has been utilized as a control tool, but for a variety of reasons the disease has not been eradicated. In 2007, an antigenically divergent hemagglutinin sub-c...

  4. AI in space: Past, present, and possible futures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.

    1992-01-01

    While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.

  5. Intense circulation of A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses in Cambodian live-bird markets with serological evidence of sub-clinical human infections.

    PubMed

    Horm, Srey Viseth; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rith, Sareth; Ly, Sowath; Gambaretti, Juliette; Duong, Veasna; Y, Phalla; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Allal, Lotfi; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry and environmental samples was conducted in four live-bird markets in Cambodia from January through November 2013. Through real-time RT-PCR testing, AIVs were detected in 45% of 1048 samples collected throughout the year. Detection rates ranged from 32% and 18% in duck and chicken swabs, respectively, to 75% in carcass wash water samples. Influenza A/H5N1 virus was detected in 79% of samples positive for influenza A virus and 35% of all samples collected. Sequence analysis of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/H5N1 viruses, and full-genome analysis of six representative isolates, revealed that the clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus associated with Cambodian human cases during 2013 was the only A/H5N1 virus detected during the year. However, multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of HA and NA genes revealed co-circulation of at least nine low pathogenic AIVs from HA1, HA2, HA3, HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9, HA10 and HA11 subtypes. Four repeated serological surveys were conducted throughout the year in a cohort of 125 poultry workers. Serological testing found an overall prevalence of 4.5% and 1.8% for antibodies to A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Seroconversion rates of 3.7 and 0.9 cases per 1000 person-months participation were detected for A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Peak AIV circulation was associated with the Lunar New Year festival. Knowledge of periods of increased circulation of avian influenza in markets should inform intervention measures such as market cleaning and closures to reduce risk of human infections and emergence of novel AIVs. PMID:27436362

  6. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect fecal-oral route involving fecal-contaminated water. In this study, the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water was examined. A single cla...

  7. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered. PMID:25055621

  8. Evaluation of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect avian influenza virus antibodies in multiple experimentally infected avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, AI surveillance in wild birds has relied on virus detection strategies including virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction. To evaluate the efficacy of a commerc...

  9. Why Don't Accounting Students like AIS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Aoun, Chadi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The demand for Accounting Information Systems (AIS) knowledge has increased exponentially over the past two decades, but studying AIS has not proved easy for many accounting students. The aim of the study is to understand the challenges accounting students face in studying AIS through investigation of the factors which may be contributing…

  10. 47 CFR 80.393 - Frequencies for AIS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements for non-Federal Government ships. These requirements are codified at 33 CFR 164.46, 401.20. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for AIS stations. 80.393 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ais Stations § 80.393 Frequencies for AIS stations....

  11. The AI Interdisciplinary Context: Single or Multiple Research Bases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1992-01-01

    This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)

  12. Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: A strategy to capture viral diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a global threat to food animal production and distribution systems as well as human health. However, a sustained, comprehensive and coordinated global effort to monitor the continually changing genetic diversity of AI viruses (AIVs) circulating in nature is lacking. Two strai...

  13. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  14. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  15. Software development support for AI programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, C.V.; Shekhar, S.; Garg, V.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a growing branch of computer science that studies ways of enabling computers to do tasks that seem to require human intelligence. These tasks include game playing, expert problem solving, natural language understanding, and theorem proving. Many existing AI programs perform such tasks with varying degrees of success. Whereas a program that can understand natural language is still a dream, many chess-playing programs can beat expert human players. More successful AI programs include knowledge-based expert systems that are being applied to a wide spectrum of real-life problems from airline catering to oil exploration. These systems can acquire knowledge about a domain from a human expert and then use it to solve routine problems in that area. For example, expert systems can perform almost as well as human experts in the diagnosis of infectious diseases (MYCIN), finding the structure of chemical compounds (DENDRAL), and performing mathematical symbol manipulations (MACSYMA). These AI systems offer new capabilities to tackle several problems difficult to solve using the conventional algorithmic approach.

  16. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay. PMID:26456918

  17. Phylogenetic and biological characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (Vietnam 2005) in chickens and ducks virus research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus hemagglutinin (HA) genes shows a common origin, but the virus has evolved into at least three major clades (clades 0, 1, and 2) over the last 11 years. Previous reports of Vietnam viruses have documented predominantly clade 1 viruses. Unexpectedly,...

  18. Rapid molecular subtyping by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the neuraminidase gene of avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, S R; Starick, E; Grund, C; Globig, A; Mettenleiter, T C; Beer, M; Harder, T

    2009-03-30

    Accurate identification of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of influenza A viruses is an integral part of monitoring programs targeting avian influenza viruses (AIV). Use of highly sensitive molecular screening methods such as pan influenza-specific real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) yields an increasing number of samples which are positive for AIV RNA but negative by virus isolation and, therefore, require molecular, instead of serological, subtyping. We developed specific RT-PCR assays for all known nine AIV NA subtypes. Validation using 43 reference isolates from different animal species revealed good performance characteristics regarding sensitivity and specificity. On basis of serial tenfold dilution series of reference isolates a benchmark value of C(t) 32 in an M gene-specific rRT-PCR became evident below which all nine NA subtypes were readily detectable by the subtype-specific RT-PCRs. For subtypes N1, N2, N4 and N6 detection was extended to dilutions with C(t) values of up to 35. Diagnostic applicability of the whole set of conventional NA-specific RT-PCRs was evaluated by analysis of 119 different diagnostic samples from wild birds which proved to be positive for AIV by M gene-specific rRT-PCR. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was confirmed by sequencing NA amplicons from 41 field isolates generated from this set and by NA inhibition assays. A universal molecular HA/NA subtyping algorithm for rRT-PCR positive avian influenza virus monitoring samples is proposed which may complement classical serological subtyping of influenza A virus isolates. PMID:19028027

  19. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  20. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  1. Avian influenza A viruses in birds --an ecological, ornithological and virological view.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Hergarten, G; Yilmaz, A

    2005-12-01

    Avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are the causative agents of the presently most important poultry disease. Ten countries in Asia and several other countries in Eastern Europe suffer high losses from the lethal effects of these viruses of the H5N1 subtype. AIV of other subtypes cause in additional countries severe losses. The threat to health and well-being of the avifauna, domestic poultry and possibly mammals including humans are worldwide of major concern. The European Union reacted with a complete import ban on untreated meat, eggs, poultry products as well as free-living and pet birds. Extensive surveillance of free-living birds and domestic poultry that is maintained in free-range and close to open waters were initiated in an attempt to gather information on the current status of infection with these viruses and to target appropriate countermeasures for the protection of domestic poultry (in-house keeping) and to safeguard food production for humans. Since the monitoring of free-living birds is labour-intensive, costly, and time-consuming, only birds should be included in the monitoring programme that harboured in the past most if not all influenza A viruses. The birds of the order Anatiformes, family Anatidae, subfamilies Anserinae and Anatinae, provided 65.9 % of all avian AIV isolates. The cosmopolitan Common Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the dominant species with the highest rate of isolations among all bird species. Second in frequency is the North-American Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors). Consequently, free-living anatiform birds of the genera Anas and Spatula should comprise the main focus for the collection of cloacal and pharyngeal swabs. With the likely exception of the most recent H5N1 viruses, signs of disease were not recorded in AIV infected anatiform birds. AIV isolations were definitely less frequently obtained from birds of the orders Phasianiformes (including domestic chickens and turkeys), Charadriiformes (plovers and lapwings

  2. Avian influenza virus prevalence in migratory waterfowl in the United States, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Groepper, Scott R; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Vrtiska, Mark P; Pedersen, Kerri; Swafford, Seth R; Hygnstrom, Scott E

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed 155,535 samples collected for surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), in the United States from 2007 to 2009, from migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans). The goal was to elucidate patterns of prevalence by flyway and functional groups to determine targets for future surveillance. Apparent prevalence of AIV was highest in the Pacific Flyway in 2007-2008 (14.2% and 14.1%, respectively), in the Mississippi Flyway in 2009 (16.8%), and lowest each year in the Atlantic Flyway (range, 7.3%-8.9%). Dabbling ducks had higher apparent prevalence of AIV (12.8%-18.8%) than diving ducks (3.9%-6.0%) or geese and swans (3.6%-3.9%). We observed highest apparent prevalence in hatch-year waterfowl (15.6%-18.9%). We further analyzed 117,738 of the 155,535 samples to test the hypothesis mallard (Anasplatyrhynchos) had highest prevalence of AIV. We compared apparent prevalence and odds ratios for seven species of ducks and one species of goose commonly collected across the United States. Mallards had highest apparent prevalence (15%-26%) in half of comparisons made, whereas American green- winged teal (Anas creeca, 12%-13%), blue-winged teal (Anas discors, 13%-23%), northern pintail (Anas acuta, 16%-22%), or northern shoveler (Anas clypeata, 15%) had higher apparent prevalence in the remaining comparisons. The results of our research can be used to tailor future surveillance that targets flyways, functional groups, and species with the highest probability of detecting AIV. PMID:25618997

  3. Immune-related gene expression in response to H11N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chicken and Pekin duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean C; Xing, Zheng; Li, Jinling; Cardona, Carol J

    2009-05-01

    The duck and chicken are important hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV) with distinctive responses to infection. Frequently, AIV infections in ducks are asymptomatic and long-lasting in contrast to the clinically apparent and transient infections observed in chickens. These differences may be due in part to the host response to AIV infection. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined the expression of immune-related genes in response to low pathogenic AIV H11N9 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the blood of chickens and Pekin ducks. While chicken PBMC expressed IL-1beta and IL-6 at high levels similar to mammalian species, duck PBMC expression levels were minimal or unchanged. Similarly, duck IFN-beta expression was nearly unaffected, whereas chicken expression was highly upregulated. Chicken IFN-gamma was expressed to higher levels than duck IFN-gamma, while IFN-alpha was expressed similarly by both species. IL-2 was elevated early in infection in duck PBMC, but returned to baseline levels by the end of the experiment; in contrast, IL-2 was weakly induced in chicken PBMC at late time points. TLR-7 and MHC class I molecule expressions were conserved between species, whereas duck MHC class II expression was downregulated and chicken expression was unchanged. These results show distinct PBMC expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFNs between species. The differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine and IFN expression reflect the asymptomatic and lasting infection observed in ducks and the tendency towards clinical signs and rapid clearance seen in chickens. These results highlight important differences in the host response to AIV of two species thought to be critical in the genesis and maintenance of epidemic strains of AIV. PMID:19250679

  4. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV. PMID:22296733

  5. Integrating Vision and AI for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1990-03-01

    The article describes an extension to the well-established AI language Prolog. This allows Prolog to operate both an image processing system and a controller for a variety of electro-mechanical devices. The user can define his/her own pull-down menus and provides an interface to a speech synthesis package. The latter enables the user to follow the flow of a program, easily and in a natural way. The application of the software to food inspection is also discussed

  6. Bare PCB test method based on AI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aihua; Zhou, Huiyang; Wan, Nianhong; Qu, Liangsheng

    1995-08-01

    The shortcomings of conventional methods used for developing test sets on current automated printed circuit board (PCB) test machines consist of overlooking the information from CAD, historical test data, and the experts' knowledge. Thus, the generated test sets and proposed test sequence may be sub-optimal and inefficient. This paper presents a weighting bare PCB test method based on analysis and utilization of the CAD information. AI technique is applied for faults statistics and faults identification. Also, the generation of test sets and the planning of test procedure are discussed. A faster and more efficient test system is achieved.

  7. Will AI in pigs become more efficient?

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Parrilla, I; Bolarin, A; Martinez, E A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2016-07-01

    AI is commercially applied worldwide to breed pigs, yielding fertility outcomes similar to those of natural mating. However, it is not fully efficient, as only liquid-stored semen is used, with a single boar inseminating about 2000 sows yearly. The use of liquid semen, moreover, constrains international trade and slows genetic improvement. Research efforts, reviewed hereby, are underway to reverse this inefficient scenario. Special attention is paid to studies intended to decrease the number of sperm used per pregnant sow, facilitating the practical use of sexed frozen-thawed semen in swine commercial insemination programs. PMID:26723133

  8. Research needs for AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triscari, T., Jr.; Henghold, W. M.

    The Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories' Material Laboratory is charged with developing a research program for applications of artificial intelligence (AI) as it relates to manufacturing. As a part of program development, advisory input was sought from experts from industry, academia, and government. A structured methodology was employed which featured a top-down approach leading from concept level articulation, through application area goals and objectives, to project level detail. This paper documents the effort in terms of providing methodological background, application area goals and objectives, and results obtained from project generation and assessment. Emphasis is on project level results.

  9. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 attracts particular attention because of the risk of their potential pathogenicity in poultry. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is widely used as subtype specific test for serological diagnostics despite the laborious nature of this method. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are being explored as an alternative test method. H5 and H7 specific monoclonal antibodies were experimentally raised and used in the development of inhibition ELISAs for detection of serological response specifically directed against AIV subtypes H5 and H7. The ELISAs were evaluated with polyclonal chicken anti-AIV antibodies against AIV subtypes: H1N2, H5N2, H5N7, H7N1, H7N7, H9N9, H10N4 and H16N3. Results Both the H5 and H7 ELISA proved to have a high sensitivity and specificity and the ELISAs detected H5 and H7 antibodies earlier during experimental infection than the HI test did. The reproducibility of the ELISA’s performed at different times was high with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.96-0.98. Conclusions The ELISAs are a potential alternative to the HI test for screening of large amounts of avian sera, although only experimental sera were tested in this study. PMID:24256721

  10. The PA Protein Directly Contributes to the Virulence of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks▿ † ‖

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiasheng; Feng, Huapeng; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Dongming; Shi, Jianzhong; Li, Yanbing; Deng, Guohua; Jiang, Yongping; Li, Xuyong; Zhu, Pengyang; Guan, Yuntao; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2011-01-01

    During their circulation in nature, H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have acquired the ability to kill their natural hosts, wild birds and ducks. The genetic determinants for this increased virulence are largely unknown. In this study, we compared two genetically similar H5N1 AIVs, A/duck/Hubei/49/05 (DK/49) and A/goose/Hubei/65/05 (GS/65), that are lethal for chickens but differ in their virulence levels in ducks. To explore the genetic basis for this difference in virulence, we generated a series of reassortants and mutants of these two viruses. The virulence of the reassortant bearing the PA gene from DK/49 in the GS/65 background increased 105-fold relative to that of the GS/65 virus. Substitution of two amino acids, S224P and N383D, in PA contributed to the highly virulent phenotype. The amino acid 224P in PA increased the replication of the virus in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the amino acid 383D in PA increased the polymerase activity in duck embryo fibroblasts and delayed the accumulation of the PA and PB1 polymerase subunits in the nucleus of virus-infected cells. Our results provide strong evidence that the polymerase PA subunit is a virulence factor for H5N1 AIVs in ducks. PMID:21177821

  11. AI Based Personal Learning Environments: Directions for Long Term Research. AI Memo 384.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ira P.; Miller, Mark L.

    The application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to the design of personal learning environments is an enterprise of both theoretical and practical interest. In the short term, the process of developing and testing intelligent tutoring programs serves as a new experimental vehicle for exploring alternative cognitive and pedagogical…

  12. Impact of antigenic and genetic drift on the serologic surveillance of H5N2 avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Serologic surveillance of Avian Influenza (AI) viruses is carried out by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test using reference reagents. This method is recommended by animal health organizations as a standard test to detect antigenic differences (subtypes) between circulating influenza virus, vaccine- and/or reference- strains. However, significant discrepancies between reference antisera and field isolates have been observed during serosurveillance of influenza A viruses in pig and poultry farms. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of influenza virus genetic and antigenic drift on serologic testing using standard HI assays and reference reagents. Low pathogenic AI H5N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 1994 and 2008 were used for phylogenetic analysis of AI hemagglutinin genes and for serologic testing using antisera produced with year-specific AI virus isolates. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed significant divergence between early LPAI H5N2 viruses (1994 - 1998) and more recent virus field isolates (2002 - 2008). Results of the HI test were markedly influenced by the selection of the AI H5N2 virus (year of isolation) used as reference antigen for the assay. These analyses indicate that LPAI H5N2 viruses in Mexico are constantly undergoing genetic drift and that serosurveillance of AI viruses is significantly influenced by the antigen or antisera used for the HI test. Conclusions Reference viral antigens and/or antisera need to be replaced constantly during surveillance of AI viruses to keep pace with the AI antigenic drift. This strategy should improve the estimation of antigenic differences between circulating AI viruses and the selection of suitable vaccine strains. PMID:21172021

  13. Newcastle Disease Virus-Based Live Attenuated Vaccine Completely Protects Chickens and Mice from Lethal Challenge of Homologous and Heterologous H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jinying; Deng, Guohua; Wen, Zhiyuan; Tian, Guobing; Wang, Yong; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Xijun; Li, Yanbing; Hu, Sen; Jiang, Yongping; Yang, Chinglai; Yu, Kangzhen; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2007-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has continued to spread and poses a significant threat to both animal and human health. Current influenza vaccine strategies have limitations that prevent their effective use for widespread inoculation of animals in the field. Vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), however, have been used successfully to easily vaccinate large numbers of animals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to construct a NDV that expressed an H5 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). Both a wild-type and a mutated HA open reading frame (ORF) from the HPAIV wild bird isolate, A/Bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/2005 (H5N1), were inserted into the intergenic region between the P and M genes of the LaSota NDV vaccine strain. The recombinant viruses stably expressing the wild-type and mutant HA genes were found to be innocuous after intracerebral inoculation of 1-day-old chickens. A single dose of the recombinant viruses in chickens induced both NDV- and AIV H5-specific antibodies and completely protected chickens from challenge with a lethal dose of both velogenic NDV and homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIV. In addition, BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant NDV-based vaccine produced H5 AIV-specific antibodies and were completely protected from homologous and heterologous lethal virus challenge. Our results indicate that recombinant NDV is suitable as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine against both NDV and AIV infection in poultry. The recombinant NDV vaccine may also have potential use in high-risk human individuals to control the pandemic spread of lethal avian influenza. PMID:17050610

  14. New Reassortant H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Southern China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Cui, Jin; Song, Yafen; Song, Hui; Zhao, Zhishan; Wu, Siyu; Qu, Nannan; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    New reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Southern China in 2014. Our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. They were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. The viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. BLAST analysis revealed that their HA gene was most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), and their NA genes were most closely related to A/swine/Guangdong/K6/2010 (H6N6). The other genes had the highest identity with A/wild duck/Fujian/1/2011(H5N1). The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that their HA genes clustered into clade 2.3.4.4 of the H5N1 viruses and all genes derived from H5 were Mix-like or H6-like viruses. Thus, the new H5N6 viruses were reassortmented of H5N1 and H6N6 virus. Therefore, the circulation of the new H5N6 AIVs may become a threat to poultry and human health. PMID:27242767

  15. New Reassortant H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Southern China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Peirong; Cui, Jin; Song, Yafen; Song, Hui; Zhao, Zhishan; Wu, Siyu; Qu, Nannan; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    New reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Southern China in 2014. Our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. They were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. The viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. BLAST analysis revealed that their HA gene was most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), and their NA genes were most closely related to A/swine/Guangdong/K6/2010 (H6N6). The other genes had the highest identity with A/wild duck/Fujian/1/2011(H5N1). The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that their HA genes clustered into clade 2.3.4.4 of the H5N1 viruses and all genes derived from H5 were Mix-like or H6-like viruses. Thus, the new H5N6 viruses were reassortmented of H5N1 and H6N6 virus. Therefore, the circulation of the new H5N6 AIVs may become a threat to poultry and human health. PMID:27242767

  16. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  17. AI techniques in geomagnetic storm forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    This review deals with how geomagnetic storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict geomagnetic storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of geomagnetic storms.

  18. A Three-dimensional Homology Model of Lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-IV Using Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Tubb, Matthew R.; Silva, R. A. Gangani D.; Fang, Jianwen; Tso, Patrick; Davidson, W. Sean

    2008-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a 46-kDa exchangeable plasma protein with many proposed functions. It is involved in chylomicron assembly and secretion, protection from atherosclerosis through a variety of mechanisms, and inhibition of food intake. There is little structural basis for these proposed functions due to the lack of a solved three-dimensional structure of the protein by x-ray crystallography or NMR. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that lipid-free apoA-IV exists in a helical bundle, like other apolipoprotein family members and that regions near the N and C termini may interact. Utilizing a homobifunctional lysine cross-linking agent, we identified 21 intramolecular cross-links by mass spectrometry. These cross-links were used to constrain the building of a sequence threaded homology model using the I-TASSER server. Our results indicate that lipid-free apoA-IV does indeed exist as a complex helical bundle with the N and C termini in close proximity. This first structural model of lipid-free apoA-IV should prove useful for designing studies aimed at understanding how apoA-IV interacts with lipids and possibly with unknown protein partners. PMID:18430727

  19. Quantifying the tracking capability of space-based AIS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauen, Andreas Nordmo

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has operated three Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in space. Two are on dedicated nano-satellites, AISSat-1 and AISSat-2. The third, the NORAIS Receiver, was installed on the International Space Station. A general method for calculating the upper bound on the tracking capability of a space-based AIS system has been developed and the results from the algorithm applied to AISSat-1 and the NORAIS Receiver individually. In addition, a constellation of AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 is presented. The tracking capability is defined as the probability of re-detecting ships as they move around the globe and is explained to represent and upper bound on a space-based AIS system performance. AISSat-1 and AISSat-2 operates on the nominal AIS1 and AIS2 channels, while the NORAIS Receiver data used are from operations on the dedicated space AIS channels, AIS3 and AIS4. The improved tracking capability of operations on the space AIS channels is presented.

  20. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T; Hill, Nichola J; Hussein, Islam T M; Ma, Eric J; Easterday, Bernard C; Halpin, Rebecca A; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David E; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Swartz, Michael D; Smith, Gavin J D; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:27166585

  1. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T.; Hill, Nichola J.; Hussein, Islam T. M.; Ma, Eric J.; Easterday, Bernard C.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David E.; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Swartz, Michael D.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:27166585

  2. Antigenic Cartography of H9 Avian Influenza Virus and Its Application to Vaccine Selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Davidson, Irit; Fouchier, Ron; Spackman, Erica

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the H9 subtype of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV), which is widespread in Asia and the Middle East. One of the most important factors for selecting an effective vaccine strain is the antigenic match between the hemagglutinin protein of the vaccine and the strain circulating in the field. To demonstrate the antigenic relationships among H9 AIVs, with a focus on Israeli H9 isolates, antigenic cartography was used to develop a map of H9 AIVs. Based on their antigenic diversity, three isolates from Israel were selected for vaccination-challenge studies: 1) the current vaccine virus, A/chicken/Israel/215/2007 H9N2 (Ck/215); 2) A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 H9N2 (Ck/1163); and 3) A/ostrich/Israel/1436/2003 (Os/1436). A 50% infective dose (ID50) model was used to determine the effect of the vaccines on susceptibility to infection by using a standardized dose of vaccine. Sera collected immediately prior to challenge showed that Ck/215 was the most immunogenic, followed by Ck/1163 and Os/1436. A significant difference in ID50 was only observed with Ck/215 homologous challenge, where the ID50 was increased by 2 log 10 per bird. The ID50 for Ck/1163 was the same, regardless of vaccine, including sham vaccination. The ID50 for Os/1436 was above the maximum possible dose and therefore could not be established. PMID:27309058

  3. An Impedance Aptasensor with Microfluidic Chips for Specific Detection of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jacob; Wang, Ronghui; Hargis, Billy; Tung, Steve; Bottje, Walter; Lu, Huaguang; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this research a DNA aptamer, which was selected through SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to be specific against the H5N1 subtype of the avian influenza virus (AIV), was used as an alternative reagent to monoclonal antibodies in an impedance biosensor utilizing a microfluidics flow cell and an interdigitated microelectrode for the specific detection of H5N1 AIV. The gold surface of the interdigitated microelectrode embedded in a microfluidics flow cell was modified using streptavidin. The biotinylated aptamer against H5N1 was then immobilized on the electrode surface using biotin–streptavidin binding. The target virus was captured on the microelectrode surface, causing an increase in impedance magnitude. The aptasensor had a detection time of 30 min with a detection limit of 0.0128 hemagglutinin units (HAU). Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the binding of the target virus onto the electrode surface. The DNA aptamer was specific to H5N1 and had no cross-reaction to other subtypes of AIV (e.g., H1N1, H2N2, H7N2). The newly developed aptasensor offers a portable, rapid, low-cost alternative to current methods with the same sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26230699

  4. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  5. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  6. Application of AIS Technology to Forest Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.

  7. The Ai project: historical and ecological contexts.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2003-12-01

    This paper aims to review a long-term research project exploring the chimpanzee mind within historical and ecological contexts. The Ai project began in 1978 and was directly inspired by preceding ape-language studies conducted in Western countries. However, in contrast with the latter, it has focused on the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of chimpanzees rather than communicative skills between humans and chimpanzees. In the original setting, a single chimpanzee faced a computer-controlled apparatus and performed various kinds of matching-to-sample discrimination tasks. Questions regarding the chimpanzee mind can be traced back to Wolfgang Koehler's work in the early part of the 20th century. Yet, Japan has its unique natural and cultural background: it is home to an indigenous primate species, the Japanese snow monkey. This fact has contributed to the emergence of two previous projects in the wild led by the late Kinji Imanishi and his students. First, the Koshima monkey project began in 1948 and became famous for its discovery of the cultural propagation of sweet-potato washing behavior. Second, pioneering work in Africa, starting in 1958, aimed to study great apes in their natural habitat. Thanks to the influence of these intellectual ancestors, the present author also undertook the field study of chimpanzees in the wild, focusing on tool manufacture and use. This work has demonstrated the importance of social and ecological perspectives even for the study of the mind. Combining experimental approaches with a field setting, the Ai project continues to explore cognition and behavior in chimpanzees, while its focus has shifted from the study of a single subject toward that of the community as a whole. PMID:14566577

  8. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  9. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of matrix gene of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and live bird markets in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Yogesh; Jindal, Naresh; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Stallknecht, David E.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Chander et al. (2012) Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of matrix gene of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and live bird markets in the USA. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(4), 513–520. Background  Wild birds are the natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAVs) and provide a niche for the maintenance of this virus. Objectives  This study was undertaken to analyze nucleotide sequences of the matrix (M) gene of AIVs isolated from wild birds and live bird markets (LBMs) to index the changes occurring in this gene. Methods  M‐gene of 229 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates obtained from wild birds and LBMs was amplified and sequenced. Full‐length sequences (∼900 nt.) thus obtained were analyzed to identify changes that may be associated with resistance to adamantanes. Phylogenetic analysis of all sequences was performed using clustalw, and evolutionary distances were calculated by maximum composite likelihood method using mega (ver. 5.0) software. Results  Twenty‐seven different viral subtypes were represented with H3N8 being the most dominant subtype in wild birds and H7N2 being the predominant subtype among isolates from LBMs. Phylogenetic analysis of the M‐gene showed a high degree of nucleotide sequence identity with US isolates of AIVs but not with those of Asian or European lineages. While none of the isolates from wild birds had any antiviral resistance–associated mutations, 17 LBM isolates carried polymorphisms known to cause reduced susceptibility to antiviral drugs (adamantanes). Of these 17 isolates, 16 had S31N change and one isolate had V27A mutation. Conclusions  These results indicate independent evolution of M‐gene in the absence of any antiviral drugs leading to mutations causing resistance indicating the need for continued active surveillance of AIVs. PMID:22958470

  10. The mRNA and Proteins Expression Levels Analysis of TC-1 Cells Immune Response to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Ning; Meng, Dan; Hao, Mengchan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Since 1994, the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has spread widely in mainland China, causing great economic losses to the poultry industry there. Subsequently, it was found that the H9N2 AIV had the ability to infect mammals, which gave rise to great panic. In order to investigate the immune response of a host infected with H9N2 AIV, TC-1 cells were set as a model in this research. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to study the expression changes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in AIV-infected TC-1 cells. Our research found that TC-1 cells had similar susceptibility to both CK/SD/w3 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W3/2012) and CK/SD/w4 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W4/2012) H9N2 isolates, while the CK/SD/w3 isolate had a stronger capability of replication in the TC-1 cells. At the same time, the expression of PRRs (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, MDA-5), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6], and chemokines [regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and interferon-γ-induced protein-10 kDa (IP-10)] were significantly up-regulated. These results indicated that MDA-5, IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES, and IP-10 might play important roles in the host immune response to H9N2 AIV infection. This study provided useful information for further understanding the interaction between H9N2 virus infection and host immunity, and had certain guiding significance for the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:27446066

  11. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus isolated from diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; El-Sabagh, I M; Al-Ankari, Abdul-Rahman

    2014-06-01

    During 2007, two outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) in backyard and commercial ostrich flocks were first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The infected ostriches suffered from depression, anorexia, and diarrhea and some exhibited sudden death. A rapid AIV-group antigen detection and real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rtRT-PCR) were initially performed on cloacal and tracheal swabs collected from diseased birds. Pools from positive-tested swabs for each flock were utilized for virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. H5N1 AIV was identified in the harvested allantoic fluids by hemagglutination followed by hemagglutination inhibition and rtRT-PCR. The viruses responsible for these two outbreaks were sequenced and characterized as HPAIV H5N1 (A/ostrich/Saudi Arabia/6732-3/2007 and A/ostrich/Saudi Arabia/3489-73VIR08/ 2007) from backyard and commercial flocks, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of both isolates revealed that the two viruses belong to clade 2.2 sublineage II and cluster with the HPAIV H5N1 isolated from falcons and turkeys during 2007 in KSA. PMID:25055639

  12. Immunization with Plant-Expressed Hemagglutinin Protects Chickens from Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, Donata; Giritch, Anatoli; Geisler, Katharina; Bettmann, Ulrike; Klimyuk, Victor; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a striking disease in susceptible poultry, which leads to severe economic losses. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccination programs. However, these vaccines interfere with the serological detection of wild-type AIV infections in immunized populations. The use of vaccines that allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA strategy) would stop current stamping-out policies. Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed to allow improved protection of animals and humans against HPAI virus (HPAIV) infection. The presented study analyzed for the first time the immunogenic capacity of plant-expressed full-length hemagglutinin (rHA0) of HPAIV H5N1 in several vaccine formulations within the highly relevant host species chicken. We were able to express plant-expressed rHA0 at high levels and could show that, when administered with potent adjuvants, it is highly immunogenic and can fully protect chicken against lethal challenge infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological tests demonstrated only marginally increased virus replication in animals vaccinated with plant-derived rHA0 compared to animals immunized with an inactivated reference vaccine. In addition, the use of plant-expressed rHA0 also allowed an easy serological differentiation of vaccinated from AIV-infected animals based on antibodies against the influenza virus NP protein. PMID:20810729

  13. Characterization of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Free-Living Mynah Birds (Acridotheres tristis) in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Body, Mohammad H; Alrarawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Alhubsy, Saif S; Saravanan, Nirmala; Rajmony, Sunil; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid

    2015-06-01

    A low pathogenic avian influenza virus was identified from free-living birds (mynah, Acridotheres tristis) of the starling family. Virus was isolated by inoculation of homogenized suspension from lung, tracheal, spleen, and cloacal swabs into the allantoic cavity of embryonated chicken eggs. Subtype of the isolate was characterized as H9N2 by hemagglutination inhibition test using monospecific chicken antisera to a wide range of influenza reference strain. Pathogenicity of the isolate was determined by intravenous pathogenicity index. The virus was reisolated from experimentally infected chicken. Additionally, the isolate was subjected to reverse transcriptase PCR using partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene-specific primers and yielded an amplicon of 487 bp. HA gene sequence analysis revealed 99% sequence homology among mynah and chicken isolates from Oman. On phylogenetic analysis, isolates from mynah (A/mynnah/Oman/AIVS6/2005) and chicken (A/chicken/Oman/AIVS3/2006; A/chicken/Oman/AIVS7/2006) clustered together tightly, indicating these free-flying birds may be a source of introduction of H9N2 subtype in poultry bird in Oman. Moreover, the HA gene of H9N2 isolates from Oman resembled those of viruses of the G1-like lineage and were very similar to those from United Arab Emirates. PMID:26473686

  14. Pedagogy and the PC: Trends in the AIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badua, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated the array of course topics in accounting information systems (AIS), as course syllabi embody. The author (a) used exploratory data analysis to determine the topics that AIS courses most frequently offered and (b) used descriptive statistics and econometric analysis to trace the diversity of course topics through time,…

  15. The Social Stratification of /aI/ in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, L. Ben

    This study is a sociolinguistic analysis of the variant pronunciation of /aI/, a selected phonological variable, by white informants in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 56 informants were interviewed to determine their pronunciation of /aI/. Informants were ranked according to education, income, and occupation to…

  16. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEMEN STORAGE AND AI TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkeys are the only commercial livestock species completely dependent upon artificial insemination (AI) for fertile egg production. Given that every breeder hen must be inseminated weekly during egg production, AI is both time and labor-intensive. Methods for the timing, frequency, semen dosage a...

  17. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  18. Influenza-A Viruses in Ducks in Northwestern Minnesota: Fine Scale Spatial and Temporal Variation in Prevalence and Subtype Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Knutsen, Gregory A.; Berdeen, James; Goekjian, Virginia; Poulson, Rebecca; Goyal, Sagar; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Cardona, Carol; Berghaus, Roy D.; Swayne, David E.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 AIV subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. Ten hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes were detected each year (i.e., H1, 3–8, and 10–12 during 2007; H1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008). All neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were detected during each year of the study. Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. Predominant subtypes during 2007 (comprising ≥5% of subtype diversity) included H1N1, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H7N3, H10N7, and H11N9. Predominant subtypes during 2008 included H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7. Additionally, within each HA subtype, the same predominant HA/NA subtype combinations were detected each year and included H1N1, H3N8, H4N6, H5N2, H6N1, H7N3, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N9. The H2N3 and H12N5 viruses also predominated within the H2 and H12 subtypes, respectively, but only were detected during a single year (H2 and H12 viruses were not detected during 2007 and 2008, respectively). Mallards were the predominant species sampled (63.7% of the total), and 531 AIV were isolated from this species (80.5% of the total isolates). Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity. PMID:21931636

  19. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  20. Identification of a Highly Conserved Epitope on Avian Influenza Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 Using a Peptide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xuexia; Bao, Hongmei; Shi, Lin; Tao, Qimeng; Jiang, Yongping; Zeng, Xianying; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Guobin; Zheng, Shimin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein. It is present at high levels in infected cells and can be used for AIV detection and diagnosis. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibody (MAb) D7 against AIV NS1 protein by immunization of BALB/c mice with purified recombinant NS1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Isotype determination revealed that the MAb was IgG1/κ-type subclass. To identify the epitope of the MAb D7, the NS1 protein was truncated into a total of 225 15-mer peptides with 14 amino acid overlaps, which were spotted for a peptide microarray. The results revealed that the MAb D7 recognized the consensus DAPF motif. Furthermore, the AIV NS1 protein with the DAPF motif deletion was transiently expressed in 293T cells and failed to react with MAb D7. Subsequently, the DAPF motif was synthesized with an elongated GSGS linker at both the C- and N-termini. The MAb D7 reacted with the synthesized peptide both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot assays. From these results, we concluded that DAPF motif is the epitope of MAb D7. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 4-mer epitope on the NS1 protein of AIV that can be recognized by MAb using a peptide microarray, which is able to simplify epitope identification, and that could serve as the basis for immune responses against avian influenza. PMID:26938453

  1. Newly Emergent Highly Pathogenic H5N9 Subtype Avian Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Xingbo; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hailong; Si, Weiying; Yang, Hui; Wu, Jiusheng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Guang; Sang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xiaopeng; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Yu, Xinfen; Pan, Jingcao; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) was demonstrated to cause severe human respiratory infections in China. Here, we examined poultry specimens from live bird markets linked to human H7N9 infection in Hangzhou, China. Metagenomic sequencing revealed mixed subtypes (H5, H7, H9, N1, N2, and N9). Subsequently, AIV subtypes H5N9, H7N9, and H9N2 were isolated. Evolutionary analysis showed that the hemagglutinin gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM227/2012 (H5N1), which belongs to clade 2.3.2.1. The neuraminidase gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from human-infective A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (H7N9). The six internal genes were similar to those of other H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 virus strains. The virus harbored the PQRERRRKR/GL motif characteristic of highly pathogenic AIVs at the HA cleavage site. Receptor-binding experiments demonstrated that the virus binds α-2,3 sialic acid but not α-2,6 sialic acid. Identically, pathogenicity experiments also showed that the virus caused low mortality rates in mice. This newly isolated H5N9 virus is a highly pathogenic reassortant virus originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes. Live bird markets represent a potential transmission risk to public health and the poultry industry. IMPORTANCE This investigation confirms that the novel H5N9 subtype avian influenza A virus is a reassortant strain originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes and is totally different from the H5N9 viruses reported before. The novel H5N9 virus acquired a highly pathogenic H5 gene and an N9 gene from human-infecting subtype H7N9 but caused low mortality rates in mice. Whether this novel H5N9 virus will cause human infections from its avian host and become a pandemic subtype is not known yet. It is therefore imperative to assess the risk of emergence of this novel reassortant virus with potential transmissibility to public health. PMID:26085150

  2. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Avian influenza virus monitoring in wintering waterbirds in Iran, 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Virological, molecular and serological studies were carried out to determine the status of infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) in different species of wild waterbirds in Iran during 2003-2007. Samples were collected from 1146 birds representing 45 different species with the majority of samples originating from ducks, coots and shorebirds. Samples originated from 6 different provinces representative for the 15 most important wintering sites of migratory waterbirds in Iran. Results Overall, AIV were detected in approximately 3.4% of the samples. However, prevalence was higher (up to 8.3%) at selected locations and for certain species. No highly pathogenic avian influenza, including H5N1 was detected. A total of 35 AIVs were detected from cloacal or oropharyngeal swab samples. These positive samples originated mainly from Mallards and Common Teals. Of 711 serum samples tested for AIV antibodies, 345 (48.5%) were positive by using a nucleoprotein-specific competitive ELISA (NP-C-ELISA). Ducks including Mallard, Common Teal, Common Pochard, Northern Shoveler and Eurasian Wigeon revealed the highest antibody prevalence ranging from 44 to 75%. Conclusion Results of these investigations provide important information about the prevalence of LPAIV in wild birds in Iran, especially wetlands around the Caspian Sea which represent an important wintering site for migratory water birds. Mallard and Common Teal exhibited the highest number of positives in virological and serological investigations: 43% and 26% virological positive cases and 24% and 46% serological positive reactions, respectively. These two species may play an important role in the ecology and perpetuation of influenza viruses in this region. In addition, it could be shown that both oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples contribute to the detection of positive birds, and neither should be neglected. PMID:20167132

  4. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 avian influenza viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine, with an overall virus isolation frequency of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from thr...

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ducks represent an important reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses and are partly responsible for the worldwide dissemination of AI. Due to the ability of some low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the hemagglutinin H7 subtype to mutate into a highly pathogenic form o...

  6. Variation in infectivity and adaptation of wild duck- and poultry-origin high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses vary in their adaptation which impacts transmission between and infection of different bird species. We determine the intranasal mean bird infectious doses (BID50) for 11 high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses for layer type chickens (LC), and three low pathogenicity (LP) A...

  7. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  8. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I variants. Naturally occurring substitutions of proline residues affect plasma concentration of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    von Eckardstein, A; Funke, H; Henke, A; Altland, K; Benninghoven, A; Assmann, G

    1989-01-01

    Six unrelated families with genetically determined structural variants of apo A-I were found in the course of an electrophoretic screening program for apo A-I variants in dried blood samples of newborns. The following structural variations were identified by the combined use of HPLC, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and automated gas phase sequencing: Pro3----Arg (1x), Pro4----Arg (1x), and Pro165----Arg (4x). All variant carriers were heterozygous for their mutant of apo A-I. Subjects heterozygous for apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) (n = 12) were found to exhibit lower mean values for apo A-I (109 +/- 16 mg/dl) and HDL cholesterol (37 +/- 9 mg/dl) than unaffected family members (n = 9): 176 +/- 41 and 64 +/- 18 mg/dl, respectively (P less than 0.001). In 9 of 12 apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) variant carriers the concentrations of apo A-I were below the fifth percentile of sex-matched controls. By two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis as well as by densitometry the relative concentration of the variant apo A-I in heterozygous carriers of apo A-I(Pro165----Arg) was determined to account for only 30% of the total plasma apo A-I mass instead of the expected 50%. Thus, the observed apo A-I deficiency may be largely a consequence of the decreased concentration of the variant apo A-I. In the case of the apo A-I(Pro3----Arg) mutant, densitometry of HDL apolipoproteins demonstrated a distinctly increased concentration of the variant proapo A-I relative to normal proapo A-I. This phenomenon was not observed in the apo A-I(Pro4----Arg) mutant or in other mutants. This suggests that the interspecies conserved proline residue in position 3 of mature apo A-I is functionally important for the regular enzymatic conversion of proapo A-I to mature apo A-I. Images PMID:2512329

  10. Identification and genetic analysis of H3N8 subtype influenza viruses isolated from domestic pigeons in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong; Chen, Sunrui; Liu, Ziduo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-02-01

    A novel strain of H3N8 influenza virus was isolated from domestic pigeons during the avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in wet markets in Anhui, China, during 2013. The virus was characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent genetic comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NA gene of AIV mapped to the North American lineage, and the remaining seven genes belong to a Eurasian lineage. These findings indicated that this H3N8 virus is a novel nature reassortant virus. Comparison of the hemagglutinin amino acid sequences indicated 9 substitutions. One substitution caused the loss of a potential glycosylation site, and six substitutions were not previously observed in avian H3 isolates. Q226 and T228 at the receptor binding sites suggested that Anhui-08 preferentially binds to a-2,3-linked sialic acid receptors, and the cleavage site sequence showed a low pathogenic feature. Animal experiments further confirmed that A/pigeon/Anhui/08/2013 (H3N8) is low or in pigeons. The results improve our understanding of these viruses as they evolve and also provide important information to aid ongoing risk assessment analyses because these zoonotic influenza viruses continue to circulate and adapt to new hosts. PMID:26611442

  11. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Christina; Stallknecht, David; Swayne, David; Brown, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are believed to be transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect faecal–oral route involving contaminated water. This study examined the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water. Clams were placed into individual flasks with distilled water inoculated 1:100 with a low pathogenic (LP) AI virus (A/Mallard/MN/190/99 (H3N8)). Viral titres in water with clams were significantly lower at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation compared to LPAI-infected water without clams. To determine whether clams affected the infectivity of AI viruses, 18 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were divided into test groups and inoculated with a variety of treatments of clam supernatants, whole clams and water exposed to a high pathogenic (HP) AI (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1)). None of the wood ducks inoculated with HPAI-infected water that was filtered by clams or that was inoculated with or fed tissue from these clams exhibited morbidity or mortality. All wood ducks exposed to either HPAI-infected water without clams or the original viral inoculum died. These results indicate that filter-feeding bivalves can remove and reduce the infectivity of AI viruses in water and demonstrate the need to examine biotic environmental factors that can influence AI virus transmission. PMID:19656788

  12. Apolipoprotein A-I and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian-Daryoush, Maryam; DiDonato, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the predominant protein in plasma HDL, have long been the focus of intense studies in the field of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. ApoA-I, in large part, is responsible for HDL assembly and its main atheroprotective function, that of shuttling excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion (reverse cholesterol transport). Recently, a protective role for HDL in cancer was suggested from several large clinical studies where an inverse relationship between plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and risk of developing cancer was noted. This notion has now been tested and found to be supported in mouse tumor studies, where increasing levels of apoA-I/HDL were discovered to protect against tumor development and provision of human apoA-I was therapeutic against established tumors. This mini-review discusses the emerging role of apoA-I in tumor biology and its potential as cancer therapeutic. PMID:26617517

  13. Little Evidence of Avian or Equine Influenza Virus Infection among a Cohort of Mongolian Adults with Animal Exposures, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia’s migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective

  14. Differential growth of avian influenza virus in chicken and duck cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and chickens infected with AI viruses display clear differences in disease manifestation. To understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences we have determined the ability of several AI isolates to replicate in primary tracheal epithelial cells and fibroblasts from both species. Re...

  15. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus, a powerful tool for control of the disease, may result in issues related to surveillance programs and international trade of poultry and poultry products. The use of AI vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test...

  16. Immunohistochemical staining of avian influenza virus in tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunohistochemical methods are commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza (AI) virus by allowing the identification of sites of replication of the virus in infected tissues and the correlation with the histopathological changes observed. In this chapter, the materials and metho...

  17. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  18. Molecular analysis of hemagglutinin-1 fragment of avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Gusti N; Jonas, Melina; Murwijati, Theresia; Fitria, Nur; Suartha, I Nyoman; Suartini, I Gusti A A; Wibawan, I Wayan Teguh

    2016-04-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1) has been circulating in Indonesia since 2003. To understand the genetic diversity of these viruses, and to predict vaccine efficacy, the hemaglutinin-1 (HA-1) fragment of viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010 was sequenced and analyzed. The effects of these molecular changes were investigated in challenge experiments and HI assays of homologous and heterologous strains. Molecular analysis showed that these AIV-H5N1 isolates had evolved into three distinct sub-lineages from an ancestor circulating since 2003. Although no significant positive selection of residues was detected, 12 negatively selected sites were identified (p<0.05). Moreover, four sites showed evidence of significant episodic diversifying selection. The findings indicated complete protectivity and high HI titers with homologous strains, compared with protectivity ranging from 40 to 100% and lower HI titers with heterologous strains resulting from polymorphisms at antigenic sites. Our findings provide valuable insight into the molecular evolution of AIV and have important implications for vaccine efficacy and future vaccination strategies. PMID:27016757

  19. Creating an AI modeling application for designers and developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlette, Ryan; Fu, Daniel; Jensen, Randy

    2003-09-01

    Simulation developers often realize an entity's AI by writing a program that exhibits the intended behavior. These behaviors are often the product of design documents written by designers. These individuals, while possessing a vast knowledge of the subject matter, might not have any programming knowledge whatsoever. To address this disconnect between design and subsequent development, we have created an AI application whereby a designer or developer sketches an entity's AI using a graphical "drag and drop" interface to quickly articulate behavior using a UML-like representation of state charts. Aside from the design-level benefits, the application also features a runtime engine that takes the application's data as input along with a simulation or game interface, and makes the AI operational. We discuss our experience in creating such an application for both designer and developer.

  20. Quality measures and assurance for AI (Artificial Intelligence) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.

  1. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  2. Molecular characterization of H6 subtype influenza viruses in southern China from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Wenbing; Bai, Tian; Dong, Libo; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-01

    H6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries, have been isolated from pigs, a dog and a human. Routine virological surveillance at live poultry markets or poultry farms was conducted in southern China from 2009 to 2011. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characteristics, analyzed the receptor-binding properties and evaluated the kinetics of infectivity of the AIVs in A549, MDCK and PK15 cells. A total of 14 H6N6 and 2 H6N2 isolates were obtained from four provinces in southern China. Genetic analysis indicated two distinct hemagglutinin lineages of the H6 strains cocirculating in southern China, and these strains facilitated active evolution and reassortment among multiple influenza virus subtypes from different avian species in nature. None of these isolates grouped with the novel Taiwan H6N1 virus responsible for human infection. Receptor-binding specificity assays showed that five H6 AIVs may have acquired the ability to recognize human receptors. Growth kinetics experiments showed that EV/HB-JZ/02/10(H6N2) and EV/JX/15/10(H6N6) initially reproduced faster and achieved higher titers than other viruses, suggesting that enhanced binding to α-2,6-linked sialic acids correlated with increased viral replication in mammalian cells. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H6 outbreaks and extensive characterization of H6 isolates to better understand genetic changes and their implications. PMID:27436363

  3. Calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.

  4. Development of dual-function ELISA for effective antigen and antibody detection against H7 avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Outbreaks in poultry involving influenza virus from H7 subtype have resulted in human infections, thus causing a major concern for public health, as well as for the poultry industry. Currently, no efficient rapid test is available for large-scale detection of either antigen or antibody of H7 avian influenza viruses. Results In the present study, a dual function ELISA was developed for the effective detection of antigen and antibody against H7 AIVs. The test was established based on antigen-capture-ELISA and epitope blocking ELISA. The two Mabs 62 and 98 which were exploited in the assay were identified to recognize two conformational neutralizing epitopes on H7 HA1. Both of the epitopes exist in all of the human H7 strains, including the recent H7N9 strain from China and > 96.6% of avian H7 strains. The dual ELISA was able to detect all of the five H7 antigens tested without any cross reaction to other influenza subtypes. The antigen detection limit was less than 1 HA unit of H7. For antibody detection, the sensitivity and specificity of the dual ELISA was evaluated and compared to HI and microneutralization using immunized animal sera to different H7 strains and different subtypes of AIVs. Results indicated that antibodies to H7 were readily detected in immunized animal sera by the dual ELISA whereas specimens with antibodies to other AIVs yielded negative results. Conclusions This is the first dual-function ELISA reported for either antigen or antibody detection against H7 AIVs. The assay was highly sensitive and 100% specific in both functions rendering it effective for H7 diagnosis. PMID:24083616

  5. Neutrality, Cross-Immunity and Subtype Dominance in Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Vicki L.; Drake, John M.; Barton, Heather D.; Stallknecht, David E.; Brown, Justin D.; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are considered a threat for their potential to seed human influenza pandemics. Despite their acknowledged importance, there are significant unknowns regarding AIV transmission dynamics in their natural hosts, wild birds. Of particular interest is the difference in subtype dynamics between human and bird populations–in human populations, typically only two or three subtypes cocirculate, while avian populations are capable of simultaneously hosting a multitude of subtypes. One species in particular–ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres)–has been found to harbour a very wide range of AIV subtypes, which could make them a key player in the spread of new subtypes in wild bird populations. Very little is known about the mechanisms that drive subtype dynamics in this species, and here we address this gap in our knowledge. Taking advantage of two independent sources of data collected from ruddy turnstones in Delaware Bay, USA, we examine patterns of subtype diversity and dominance at this site. We compare these patterns to those produced by a stochastic, multi-strain transmission model to investigate possible mechanisms that are parsimonious with the observed subtype dynamics. We find, in agreement with earlier experimental work, that subtype differences are unnecessary to replicate the observed dynamics, and that neutrality alone is sufficient. We also evaluate the role of subtype cross-immunity and find that it is not necessary to generate patterns consistent with observations. This work offers new insights into the mechanisms behind subtype diversity and dominance in a species that has the potential to be a key player in AIV dynamics in wild bird populations. PMID:24586401

  6. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, D.E.; Suarez, D.L.; Senne, D.A.; Pedersen, J.C.; Killian, M.L.; Pasick, J.; Handel, K.; Pillai, S.P.S.; Lee, C.-W.; Stallknecht, D.; Slemons, R.; Ip, H.S.; Deliberto, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 10 5.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Characterization of low-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Senne, Dennis A.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pasick, John; Handel, Katherine; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha; Lee, Chang-Won; Stallknecht, David; Slemons, Richard; Ip, Hon S.; Deliberto, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American wild-bird-origin H5 subtype and 28 N1 subtype viruses were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank by phylogenetic analysis. Both HA and NA were phylogenetically distinct from those for viruses from outside of North America and from those for viruses recovered from mammals. Four of the H5N1 AI viruses were characterized as low pathogenicity by standard in vivo pathotyping tests. One of the H5N1 viruses, A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06, was shown to replicate to low titers in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. However, transmission of A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 was more efficient among ducks than among chickens or turkeys based on virus shed. The 50% chicken infectious dose for A/MuteSwan/MI/451072-2/06 and three other wild-waterfowl-origin H5 viruses were also determined and were between 105.3 and 107.5 50% egg infective doses. Finally, seven H5 viruses representing different phylogenetic clades were evaluated for their antigenic relatedness by hemagglutination inhibition assay, showing that the antigenic relatedness was largely associated with geographic origin. Overall, the data support the conclusion that North American H5 wild-bird-origin AI viruses are low-pathogenicity wild-bird-adapted viruses and are antigenically and genetically distinct from the highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 virus lineage.

  8. Comparison of 3 kinds of Toll-like receptor ligands for inactivated avian H5N1 influenza virus intranasal immunization in chicken.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinfeng; Fu, Jia; Kang, Haihong; Lin, Jian; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of co-administration of inactivated avian influenza H5N1 virus (IAIV) and different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in chickens, 10-d-old chickens were immunized intranasally with IAIV and TLR ligand [Bacillus subtilis spores, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), respectively]. The results showed that both anti-avian influenza virus (AIV) specific secretory IgA level in respiratory tract and anti-AIV specific IgG level in serum significantly increased, as well as the expressions of IL-12, interferon-γ, IL-6, and TLR in the nasal cavity and trachea after intranasal immunization with IAIV and TLR ligand. Among the used TLR ligands, B. subtilis spores as the adjuvant for nasal IAIV had the strongest effect on the expression of IL-6 and IL-12 (P < 0.01), whereas the CpG-ODN could present an advantageous effect on the induction of anti-AIV specific IgG and neutralization antibodies (P < 0.01). The chickens that were previously co-administrated with IAIV and B. subtilis spores could survive at an improved rate upon challenge by live AIV H5N1 virus. Our study suggested that B. subtilis spores, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, or CpG-ODN all could effectively enhance the local and systemic immune responses to IAIV in chickens. Considering of the effects and cost of these TLR ligands, we prospected that B. subtilis spores might serve as a more affordable and efficacious mucosal adjuvant for nasal IAIV in chickens. PMID:24046412

  9. Genotypic evolution and antigenicity of H9N2 influenza viruses in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Feifei; Li, Xin; Ju, Houbin; Yang, Dequan; Liu, Jian; Qi, Xinyong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xianchao; Qiu, Yafeng; Liu, Peihong; Zhou, Jinping

    2016-06-01

    H9N2 influenza viruses have been circulating in China since 1994, but a systematic investigation of H9N2 in Shanghai has not previously been undertaken. Here, using 14 viruses we isolated from poultry and pigs in Shanghai during 2002 and 2006-2014, together with the commercial vaccine A/chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98), we analyzed the evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in Shanghai and showed that all 14 isolates originated from Ck/SH/F/98 antigenically. We evaluated the immune protection efficiency of the vaccine. Our findings demonstrate that H9N2 viruses in Shanghai have undergone extensive reassortment. Various genotypes emerged in 2002, 2006 and 2007, while during 2009-2014 only one genotype was found. Four antigenic groups, A-D, could be identified among the 14 isolates and a variety of antigenically distinct H9N2-virus-derived avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulated simultaneously in Shanghai during this period. Challenge experiments using vaccinated chickens indicated that the vaccine prevented shedding of antigenic group A and B viruses, but not those of the more recent groups C and D. Genetic analysis showed that compared to the vaccine strain, representative viruses of antigenic groups C and D possess greater numbers of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein than viruses in antigenic groups A and B. Many of these substitutions are located in antigenic sites. Our results indicate that the persistence of H9N2 AIV in China might be due to incomplete vaccine protection and that the avian influenza vaccine should be regularly evaluated and updated to maintain optimal protection. PMID:26935915

  10. Synergistic effects of thymoquinone and curcumin on immune response and anti-viral activity against avian influenza virus (H9N2) in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Umar, S; Shah, M A A; Munir, M T; Yaqoob, M; Fiaz, M; Anjum, S; Kaboudi, K; Bouzouaia, M; Younus, M; Nisa, Q; Iqbal, M; Umar, W

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and curcumin (Cur) on immune-response and pathogenesis of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in turkeys. The experiment was performed on 75 non-vaccinated mixed-sex turkey poults, divided into 5 experimental groups (A, B, C, D, and E) of 15 birds each. Group A was kept as non-infected and a non-treated negative control (ctrl group) while group B was kept as infected and non-treated positive control (H9N2 group). Turkeys in groups A and B received normal commercial feed while turkeys in groups C and D received TQ, and Cur respectively, and group E concurrently received TQ and Cur from d one through the entire experiment period. All groups were challenged intra-nasally with H9N2 AIV (A/chicken/Pakistan/10RS3039-284-48/2010) at the fourth wk of age except group A. Infected turkeys showed clinical signs of different severity, showing the most prominent disease signs in turkeys in group B. All infected turkeys showed positive results for virus shedding; however, the pattern of virus shedding was different, and with turkeys in group B showing more pronounced virus secretion than the turkeys in the other groups receiving different levels of TQ and Cur. Moreover, significantly higher antibody titer against H9N2 AIV in turkeys shows the immunomodulatory nature of TQ and Cur. Similarly, increased cytokine gene expression suggests antiviral behavior of TQ and Cur especially in combination, leading to suppressed pathogenesis of H9N2 viruses. However, reduced virus shedding and enhanced immune responses were more pronounced in those turkeys receiving TQ and Cur concurrently. This study showed that supplements of TQ and Cur in combination would significantly enhance immune responsiveness and suppress pathogenicity of influenza viruses in turkeys. PMID:26944958

  11. 76 FR 44045 - Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... of Justice Programs Establishment of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee AGENCY: Office for... (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Initiative (``SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee'' or... (FACA), as amended, 5 U.S.C., App. 2. The SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee will provide the...

  12. Model to Track Wild Birds for Avian Influenza by Means of Population Dynamics and Surveillance Information

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Anna; Bicout, Dominique J.; Vidal, Francesc; Curcó, Antoni; Allepuz, Alberto; Napp, Sebastián; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Costa, Taiana; Casal, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Design, sampling and data interpretation constitute an important challenge for wildlife surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV). The aim of this study was to construct a model to improve and enhance identification in both different periods and locations of avian species likely at high risk of contact with AIV in a specific wetland. This study presents an individual-based stochastic model for the Ebre Delta as an example of this appliance. Based on the Monte-Carlo method, the model simulates the dynamics of the spread of AIV among wild birds in a natural park following introduction of an infected bird. Data on wild bird species population, apparent AIV prevalence recorded in wild birds during the period of study, and ecological information on factors such as behaviour, contact rates or patterns of movements of waterfowl were incorporated as inputs of the model. From these inputs, the model predicted those species that would introduce most of AIV in different periods and those species and areas that would be at high risk as a consequence of the spread of these AIV incursions. This method can serve as a complementary tool to previous studies to optimize the allocation of the limited AI surveillance resources in a local complex ecosystem. However, this study indicates that in order to predict the evolution of the spread of AIV at the local scale, there is a need for further research on the identification of host factors involved in the interspecies transmission of AIV. PMID:22952962

  13. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  14. The comparison of pathology in ferrets infected by H9N2 avian influenza viruses with different genomic features.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rongbao; Bai, Tian; Li, Xiaodan; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Yiwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Ye; Bo, Hong; Zou, Shumei; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-15

    H9N2 avian influenza virus circulates widely in poultry and has been responsible for sporadic human infections in several regions. Few studies have been conducted on the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV isolates that have different genomic features. We compared the pathology induced by a novel reassortant H9N2 virus and two currently circulating H9N2 viruses that have different genomic features in ferrets. The results showed that the three viruses can induce infections with various amounts of viral shedding in ferrets. The novel H9N2 induced respiratory infection, but no pathological lesions were observed in lung tissues. The other two viruses induced mild to intermediate pathological lesions in lung tissues, although the clinical signs presented mildly in ferrets. The pathological lesions presented a diversity consistent with viral replication in ferrets. PMID:26638019

  15. Maritime traffic monitoring using a space-based AIS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Torkild; Høye, Gudrun; Narheim, Bjørn; Meland, Bente Jensløkken

    2006-05-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime safety and vessel traffic system imposed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The system broadcasts position reports and short messages with information about the ship and the voyage. Using frequencies in the maritime VHF band, the coverage is similar to other VHF applications, and is essentially dependent on the altitude of the antenna. For ship-to-ship communications the range is typically 20 nautical miles and for ship-to-shore up to 40 nm. A space-based AIS receiver in low earth orbit will have a range to the horizon of more than 1000 nm, giving an excellent opportunity for large-area ocean surveillance. The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has performed a feasibility study on reception of AIS messages from space. The results show that a ship detection probability of near 100% can be obtained for up to 1000 ships within the coverage area, and that for a standard AIS receiver a signal power margin of 10-20 dB can be achieved. On this background, swath-width analyses for European scenarios are done. It is argued that space-based reception of AIS messages is a promising way of achieving long-range identification and tracking services at marginal cost.

  16. Discovering Knowledge from AIS Database for Application in VTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng

    The widespread use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has had a significant impact on maritime technology. AIS enables the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) not only to offer commonly known functions such as identification, tracking and monitoring of vessels, but also to provide rich real-time information that is useful for marine traffic investigation, statistical analysis and theoretical research. However, due to the rapid accumulation of AIS observation data, the VTS platform is often unable quickly and effectively to absorb and analyze it. Traditional observation and analysis methods are becoming less suitable for the modern AIS generation of VTS. In view of this, we applied the same data mining technique used for business intelligence discovery (in Customer Relation Management (CRM) business marketing) to the analysis of AIS observation data. This recasts the marine traffic problem as a business-marketing problem and integrates technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), database management systems, data warehousing and data mining to facilitate the discovery of hidden and valuable information in a huge amount of observation data. Consequently, this provides the marine traffic managers with a useful strategic planning resource.

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  18. Temperature effects for high pressure processing of Picornaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the effects of pre-pressurization temperature on the high pressure inactivation for single strains of aichivirus (AiV), coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5) viruses, as well as human parechovirus -1 (HPeV), was performed. For CAV9, an average 1.99 log10 greater inactivation was ...

  19. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of avian leukosis virus p27 antigen.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bingling; Li, Delong; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Wen; Qin, Liting; Liu, Zaisi; Wu, Guan; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2013-02-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli. The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25 ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79)TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs. PMID:23201286

  20. Efficacy of commercial vaccines in chickens and ducks against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and have spread to other regions of the world. Though attempts at eradication of the viruses during various outbreaks have been successful for short periods of time, new strains of H5N1 viruses continue to emerge...

  1. Role of different genes in the pathogenesis of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The determinants of pathogenicity of Avian Influenza (AI) virus are not totally defined. Previous studies have pointed towards the importance of different influenza virus genes in determining virulence in various hosts. We used reverse genetics to generate recombinant viruses in order to better unde...

  2. Toward detecting California shrubland canopy chemistry with AIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Westman, Walter E.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS)-2 data of coastal sage scrub vegetation were examined for fine spectral features that might be used to predict concentrations of certain canopy chemical constituents. A Fourier notch filter was applied to the AIS data and the TREE and ROCK mode spectra were ratioed to a flat field. Portions of the resulting spectra resemble spectra for plant cellulose and starch in that both show reduced reflectance at 2100 and 2270 nm. The latter are regions of absorption of energy by organic bonds found in starch and cellulose. Whether the relationship is sufficient to predict the concentration of these chemicals from AIS spectra will require testing of the predictive ability of these wavebands with large field sample sizes.

  3. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  4. Can external quality control improve pig AI efficiency?

    PubMed

    Waberski, D; Petrunkina, A M; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    2008-11-01

    External quality control programmes carried out by central laboratories have been long established in human andrology with the aim of enhancing the accuracy and reproducibility of semen assessment. Compared to human, demands on boar semen assessment in AI stations are more complex, with the need both to identify boars with poor ejaculate quality and to monitor individual boar differences for semen storage. Additionally, appropriate assessment serves as a control instrument to ensure the security and efficiency of semen processing. Despite current limitations regarding the ability of sperm assays to estimate the potential fertility of males, it is evident that boar fertility is related to certain conventional semen tests, e.g. sperm morphology. In central studies carried out on stored semen from 11 AI stations, flow cytometric assessment of plasma and acrosome membrane integrity proved to be more sensitive in detecting sperm damage associated with ageing and temperature stress as compared to light microscopy. Membrane integrity of stored semen differed between AI stations indicating significant influences of semen processing on sperm quality. Thus external control of semen quality in reference laboratories may be useful to monitor the efficiency of internal semen quality control in individual AI stations, to identify males with lower semen quality and/or poor response to semen storage, and to verify the precision of sperm counting. The possibility that central laboratories with sufficient resources may be able to identify functionally different responding sperm subpopulations for better estimation of fertility is discussed. Ideally, external quality control schemes for AI stations would comprise application of validated tests with high relevance for fertility (including bacterial status), analysis of semen processing on the AI station, and training courses for laboratory personnel. PMID:18656253

  5. Avian influenza virus H9N2 seroprevalence and risk factors for infection in occupational poultry-exposed workers in Tai'an of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2016-08-01

    To determine risk factor for H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, a serological surveillance among both occupational poultry-exposed (OPE) workers and general humans was carried out using both haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays in Tai'an, China, between 2011 and 2013. At baseline, the positive rate of anti-H9 antibody (HI and MN titers ≥40) among OPE workers (51/600, 8.5%) was significantly higher than that among the general population (11/600, 1.8%). The result indicated that occupational exposure to chicken flocks was an important risk factor for H9N2 AIV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1453-1456, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26816053

  6. Diverter AI based decision aid, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Bayles, Scott J.; Patterson, Robert W.; Schulke, Duane A.; Williams, Deborah C.

    1989-01-01

    It was determined that a system to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) into airborne flight management computers is feasible. The AI functions that would be most useful to the pilot are to perform situational assessment, evaluate outside influences on the contemplated rerouting, perform flight planning/replanning, and perform maneuver planning. A study of the software architecture and software tools capable of demonstrating Diverter was also made. A skeletal planner known as the Knowledge Acquisition Development Tool (KADET), which is a combination script-based and rule-based system, was used to implement the system. A prototype system was developed which demonstrates advanced in-flight planning/replanning capabilities.

  7. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  8. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  9. Adaptive amino acid substitutions enhance the virulence of an H7N7 avian influenza virus isolated from wild waterfowl in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Yu, Zhijun; Sun, Weiyang; Li, Xue; Chai, Hongliang; Gao, Xiaolong; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Geng; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Wang, Tiecheng; Hua, Yuping

    2015-05-15

    Although H7N7 AIVs primarily circulate in wild waterfowl, documented cases of human infection with H7N7 viruses suggest they may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a wild waterfowl-origin H7N7 virus to identify adaptive changes that confer enhanced virulence in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the adapted variants were reduced >5000-fold compared to the parental virus. Mouse-adapted variants viruses displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and acquired the ability to replicate in extrapulmonary tissues. These observations suggest that enhanced growth characteristics and modified cell tropism may increase the virulence of H7N7 AIVs in mice. Genomic analysis of the adapted variant viruses revealed amino acid changes in the PB2 (E627K), PB1 (R118I), PA (L550M), HA (G214R), and NA (S372N) proteins. Our results suggest that these amino acid substitutions collaboratively enhance the ability of H7N7 virus to replicate and cause severe disease in mammals. PMID:25769645

  10. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera).

    PubMed

    Sá e Silva, Mariana; Mathieu-Benson, Christian; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E

    2011-09-01

    Two different wild duck species common in Chile and neighboring countries, Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera), were intranasally inoculated with 10(6) mean embryo infective dose (EID50) of the H7N3 low pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) (A/chicken/Chile/176822/02) or high pathogenicity (HP) AIV (A/chicken/Chile/ 184240-1/02), in order to study the infectivity and pathobiology of these viruses. None of the virus-inoculated ducks had clinical signs or died, but most seroconverted by 14 days postinoculation (DPI), indicating a productive virus infection. Both LPAIV and HPAIV were isolated from oral swabs from two of six Chiloe wigeons and from oral and/or cloacal swabs from all five of the cinnamon teal at 2 DPI. Both LPAIV and HPAIV were efficiently transmitted to cinnamon teal contacts but not to Chiloe wigeon contacts. This study demonstrates that the cinnamon teal and Chiloe wigeons were susceptible to infection with both Chilean H7N3 LPAIV and HPAIV, but only the cinnamon teal showed contact transmission of the virus between birds, suggesting that the cinnamon teal has the potential to be a reservoir for these viruses, especially the LPAIV, as was demonstrated in 2001 with isolation of a genetically related H7N3 LPAIV strain in a cinnamon teal in Bolivia. However, the definitive source of the H7N3 Chilean LPAIV still remains unknown. PMID:22017047

  11. Use of embryonated chicken egg as a model to study the susceptibility of avian influenza H9N2 viruses to oseltamivir carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Tare, Deeksha S; Pawar, Shailesh D

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza (AI) H9N2 viruses are endemic in many bird species, and human infections of H9N2 viruses have been reported. Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu(®)) is the available antiviral drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. There are no reports of use of embryonated chicken egg as a model to study susceptibility of AI viruses to oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), the active metabolite. The present study was undertaken to explore the use of embryonated chicken eggs as a model for testing OC against the AI H9N2 viruses. A total of three AI H9N2 viruses, isolated in poultry in India, were used. Various virus dilutions were tested against 14μg/ml of OC. Three methods, namely (1) the in vitro virus-drug treatment, (2) drug delivery and virus challenge by allantoic route, and (3) drug delivery by albumen route and virus challenge by allantoic route were explored. The viruses were also tested using the fluorescence-based neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) assay. There was significant inhibition (p<0.05) of the H9N2 viruses in presence of OC. The infectious virus titers as well as hemagglutination titers were significantly lower in presence of OC as compared to controls. The in vitro treatment of virus and drug; and drug and virus delivery at the same time by allantoic route showed significantly higher inhibition (p<0.05) of virus growth than that by the albumen route. In the NAI assay, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the H9N2 viruses were within the standard range for known susceptible reference virus. In conclusion, the H9N2 viruses used in the study were susceptible to OC. Embryonated chicken egg could be used as a model to study susceptibility of AI viruses to antiviral drugs. PMID:26297959

  12. In vitro responses of chicken macrophage-like monocytes following exposure to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli ghosts loaded with a rational design of conserved genetic materials of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Lagzian, Milad; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important viral diseases in the poultry industry. Therefore, new disease-fighting strategies, especially effective genetic vaccination, are in high demand. Bacterial Ghost (BG) is a promising platform for delivering genetic materials to macrophages, cells that are among the first to encounter these viruses. However, there is no investigation on the immune response of these macrophage-targeted treatments. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic materials of AIV and NDV on the gene expression profile of important pro-inflammatory cytokines, a chemokine, a transcription factor, major histocompatibility complexes, and the viability of the chicken macrophage-like monocyte cells (CMM). Our genetic construct contained the external domain of matrix protein 2 and nucleoprotein gene of AIV, and immunodominant epitopes of fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of NDV (hereinafter referred to as pAIV-Vax), delivered via the pathogenic and non-pathogenic BGs (Escherichia coli O78K80 and E. coli TOP10 respectively). The results demonstrated that both types of BGs were able to efficiently deliver the construct to the CMM, although the pathogenic strain derived BG was a significantly better stimulant and delivery vehicle. Both BGs were safe regarding LPS toxicity and did not induce any cell death. Furthermore, the loaded BGs were more powerful in modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines' responses and antigen presentation systems in comparison to the unloaded BGs. Nitric oxide production of the BG-stimulated cells was also comparable to those challenged by the live bacteria. According to the results, the combination of pAIV-Vax construct and E. coli O78K80 BG is promising in inducing a considerable innate and adaptive immune response against AIV-NDV and perhaps the pathogenic E. coli, provided that the current combination be a potential candidate for in vivo testing regarding the development of an

  13. Rapid PCR-Based Molecular Pathotyping of H5 and H7 Avian Influenza Viruses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, Mikael; Ullman, Karin; Thyselius, Susanna; Zohari, Siamak; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hanna, Amanda; Mahmood, Sahar; Banks, Jill; Slomka, Marek J.; Belák, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    While the majority of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes are classified as low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV), the H5 and H7 subtypes have the ability to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in poultry and therefore are the etiological agents of notifiable AIV (NAIV). It is of great importance to distinguish HPAIV from LPAIV variants during H5/H7 outbreaks and surveillance. To this end, a novel and fast strategy for the molecular pathotyping of H5/H7 AIVs is presented. The differentiation of the characteristic hemagglutinin (HA) protein cleavage sites (CSs) of HPAIVs and LPAIVs is achieved by a novel PCR method where the samples are interrogated for all existing CSs with a 484-plex primer mixture directly targeting the CS region. CSs characteristic for HP or LP H5/H7 viruses are distinguished in a seminested duplex real-time PCR format using plexor fluorogenic primers. Eighty-six laboratory isolates and 60 characterized NAIV-positive clinical specimens from poultry infected with H5/H7 both experimentally and in the field were successfully pathotyped in the validation. The method has the potential to substitute CS sequencing in the HA gene for the determination of the molecular pathotype, thereby providing a rapid means to acquire additional information concerning NAIV outbreaks, which may be critical to their management. The new assay may be extended to the LP/HP differentiation of previously unknown H5/H7 isolates. It may be considered for integration into surveillance and control programs in both domestic and wild bird populations. PMID:21900520

  14. Development and Validation of a Concentration Method for the Detection of Influenza A Viruses from Large Volumes of Surface Water▿

    PubMed Central

    Deboosere, Nathalie; Horm, Srey Viseth; Pinon, Anthony; Gachet, Jessica; Coldefy, Chloé; Buchy, Philippe; Vialette, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of lakes and ponds plays an essential role as a reservoir of avian influenza A virus (AIV) in the environment. A method to concentrate waterborne AIV is a prerequisite for the detection of virus present at low levels in water. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the concentration and detection of infectious AIV from large volumes of surface water samples. Two filtration systems, glass wool and electropositive NanoCeram filter, were studied. The individual effects of filtration-elution and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration parameters on the recovery efficiency of the H1N1 strain from 10-liter surface water samples were assessed. An ultimate 1% recovery rate of infectious viruses was achieved with the optimal protocol, corresponding to filtration through glass wool, followed by a viral elution step and then a PEG concentration. This method was validated for the detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 strains from artificially contaminated larger water volumes, from 10 to up to 50 liters, from different sources. The viral recovery efficiencies ranged from 0.01% to 7.89% and from 3.63% to 13.79% with lake water and rainwater, respectively. A theoretical detection threshold of 2.25 × 102 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) in the filtered volume was obtained for seeded lake waters by M gene reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Moreover, the method was used successfully in field studies for the detection of naturally occurring influenza A viruses in lake water in France. PMID:21498756

  15. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Subtype H3N8 Influenza Virus Infection among Pet Dogs in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, San; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lifang; Fu, Xinliang; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    The H3N8 virus and the H3N2 virus are the main subtypes of canine influenza virus (CIV). H3N8 CIV mainly circulates in America, and H3N2 CIV mainly circulates in Asia. However, there was an outbreak of the Asian H3N2 virus in the United States (US) in 2015. Thus, it is important to evaluate the presence of subtype H3N8 virus in dogs in China. From May 2015 to November 2015, 600 sera from pet dogs were collected from Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and microneutralization (MN) assays. Fifty-two (8.66%) of the 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N2 virus, which matched the previous reports. Five (0.83%) of 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N8 virus (H3N8 EIV or H3N8 AIV or H3N8 CIV), which is the first report of subtype H3N8 virus infection among dogs in China and remind us to play more attention to this subtype virus. Therefore, further serological and virological surveillance of influenza virus infection among dogs in China is imperative. PMID:27414031

  16. Comparisons of the Outcome Prediction Performance of Injury Severity Scoring Tools Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 90 Update 98 (AIS 98) and 2005 Update 2008 (AIS 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was revised in 2005 and updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to compare the outcome prediction performance of AIS-based injury severity scoring tools by using AIS 2008 and AIS 98. We used all major trauma patients hospitalized to the Royal Perth Hospital between 1994 and 2008. We selected five AIS-based injury severity scoring tools, including Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), modified Anatomic Profile (mAP), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). We selected survival after injury as a target outcome. We used the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC) as a performance measure. First, we compared the five tools using all cases whose records included all variables for the TRISS (complete dataset) using a 10-fold cross-validation. Second, we compared the ISS and NISS for AIS 98 and AIS 2008 using all subjects (whole dataset). We identified 1,269 and 4,174 cases for a complete dataset and a whole dataset, respectively. With the 10-fold cross-validation, there were no clear differences in the AUROCs between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based scores. With the second comparison, the AIS 98-based ISS performed significantly worse than the AIS 2008-based ISS (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based NISSs. Researchers should be aware of these findings when they select an injury severity scoring tool for their studies. PMID:22105401

  17. A Duck Enteritis Virus-Vectored Bivalent Live Vaccine Provides Fast and Complete Protection against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Ducks ▿ † §

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-01-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 106 PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks. PMID:21865383

  18. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  19. New directions for Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in optimum design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1989-01-01

    Developments and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in the design of structural systems is reviewed. Principal shortcomings in the current approach are emphasized, and the need for some degree of formalism in the development environment for such design tools is underscored. Emphasis is placed on efforts to integrate algorithmic computations in expert systems.

  20. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-04-25

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project.

  1. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  2. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  3. SPIKE: AI scheduling techniques for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1991-09-01

    AI (Artificial Intelligence) scheduling techniques for HST are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: domain; HST constraint timescales; HTS scheduling; SPIKE overview; SPIKE architecture; constraint representation and reasoning; use of suitability functions by scheduling agent; SPIKE screen example; advantages of suitability function framework; limiting search and constraint propagation; scheduling search; stochastic search; repair methods; implementation; and status.

  4. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  5. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  6. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-specific goose TLR21 initiates an anti-viral immune response against NGVEV but not AIV strain H9N2 infection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yulin; Yan, Bing; Chen, Shun; Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Sun, Kunfeng; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Jing, Bo; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize components of pathogens and mediate the host innate immune response. TLR21 is a TLR that specifically recognizes exogenous double-stranded DNA and rapidly signals to downstream innate immune factors. This study reports the cDNA of goose TLR21 and identifies its immune characteristics. The goose TLR21 is 3161 base pairs and encodes a 975 amino acid protein. As predicted, the goose transmembrane protein TLR21 has a signal peptide, leucine-rich repeat regions, a transmembrane domain, and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses showed that goose TLR21 has homology to chicken TLR21. The tissue distribution of TLR21 suggested that it has high transcript levels in immune-associated tissues, especially in the bursa of Fabricius, the Hadrian gland, and the thymus. After challenge with agonist ODN2006 and new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV), significant induction of TLR21 production, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and interferons were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both synthetic DNA (ODN2006) and viral DNA (NGVEV) can be recognized by goose TLR21, which leads to a rapid up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-viral molecules. In vivo, avian influenza A virus H9N2 and NGVEV were used to infect goslings, which was followed by a significant up-regulation of TLR21 mRNA transcripts in multiple tissues of NGVEV-infected geese. In general, goose TLR21 plays an important role in binding invading pathogenic DNA viruses, which subsequently triggers an innate immune response; furthermore, it acts as a functional homologue of mammalian TLR9, as TLR21 recognizes a mammalian TLR9 agonist. PMID:26621545

  7. Space-based detection of spoofing AIS signals using Doppler frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanzeng

    2014-05-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a self-reporting system based on VHF radio to transmit a vessel's identity, position, speed, heading and other parameters to improve maritime domain awareness. However, AIS information can be programmatically spoofed by terrorists or other criminals, who often choose to masquerade as innocent civilians and exploit the vulnerabilities of military and civilian infrastructures for their purposes. Therefore, detecting and localizing a spoofing AIS ship become a critical and challenging issue for maritime security. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and geolocalize a spoofing AIS emitter using space-based AIS signals with its Doppler frequency. With an AIS signal sensor on a fast orbiting satellite, the measured AIS Doppler frequency of an AIS emitter can be used to define a double-napped cone of which the satellite is at its vertex and satellite velocity coincides with its axis, such that the theoretical Doppler frequency derived from the radial velocity to the AIS emitter matches the measured Doppler frequency. All such matches can only lie on either cone extending out from the satellite, which cuts the Earth's surface in two curves, so we know that the AIS emitter must lie somewhere on these curves. Two such AIS Doppler frequency measurements for the same stationary AIS emitter produce two valid curves which intersect at the position of the AIS emitter. Multiple Doppler frequency measurements can be used to better estimate the position fix of an AIS emitter, hence determine the spoofing AIS ship if the estimated position fix unreasonably differs from the position carried in its AIS message. A set of formulas are derived which relate an AIS emitter position to its Doppler frequency measurements.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans. PMID:27382195

  9. Detection of autoinducer (AI-2)-like activity in food samples.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Pillai, Suresh D

    2011-01-01

    The contamination, survival, and possible foodborne disease outbreaks are major issues confronting the food industry. However, from a microbial perspective, any food whether natural or processed is just another environmental niche that is available for colonization. Quorum sensing or cell-cell communication is a process by which microorganisms are thought to communicate with each other using a variety of small molecules termed autoinducers. The autoinducer AI-2 is thought to be a universal signaling molecule due to its ability to modulate the gene expression of a number of different bacterial species and genera. Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, Streptococcus sp., and Burkholderia cepacia form biofilms on a variety of man-made and natural surfaces using cell-cell mechanisms. It is important to detect and study autoinducers and their activities in foods, since a better understanding of these molecules in food and food ingredients may help in designing new approaches to thwart microbial persistence and biofilm formation. The autoinducer AI-2 is thought to be involved in microbial attachment and biofilm formation leading to food spoilage. To better understand microbial cell-cell signaling in foods especially as it relates to pathogen persistence, biofilm formation, and food spoilage, methods to process, extract, and purify autoinducer molecules need to be developed. This chapter details methods to process food samples to obtain cell-free supernatants (CFS), which could subsequently be tested for the presence of AI-2 or "AI-2-like activity" in the extracted CFS using autoinducer bioassays. Additionally, the method of synthesizing AI-2 in the laboratory is also provided. The methods that are presented in this chapter are based on previously published research articles from the authors' laboratory. PMID:21031305

  10. Avian influenza surveillance reveals presence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry during 2009-2011 in the West Bengal State, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction More than 70 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have been reported in poultry in the western and north-eastern parts of India. Therefore, in view of the recent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry, active AI surveillance encompassing wild, resident, migratory birds and poultry was undertaken during 2009–2011 in the State of West Bengal. Methods A total of 5722 samples were collected from West Bengal; 3522 samples (2906 fecal droppings + 616 other environmental samples) were from migratory birds and 2200 samples [1604 tracheal, cloacal swabs, environmental samples, tissue samples + 596 blood (serum)] were from domestic ducks and poultry. All tracheal, cloacal and environmental samples were processed for virus isolation. Virus isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial region of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes was done. Intravenous pathogenicity index assays were performed in chickens to assess pathogenicity of AI virus isolates. Serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies against AI viruses using HI assay. Results A total of 57 AI H9N2, 15 AI H4N6 and 15 Newcastle Disease (NDV) viruses were isolated from chickens, from both backyard and wet poultry markets; AI H4N6 viruses were isolated from backyard chickens and domestic ducks. Characterization of AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses revealed that they were of low pathogenicity. Domestic ducks were positive for antibodies against H5 and H7 viruses while chickens were positive for presence of antibodies against AI H9N2 and NDV. Conclusions In the current scenario of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in West Bengal, this report shows presence of low pathogenic AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses in chickens and domestic ducks during the period 2009–2011. This is the first report of isolation of H4N6 from India

  11. Evidence that Life History Characteristics of Wild Birds Influence Infection and Exposure to Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (<0.70%). Contrary to findings in ducks, the highest incidence of infected birds was in late spring when birds first arrived from staging and wintering areas. Despite low prevalence, most geese were previously exposed to AI viruses, as indicated by high levels of seroprevalence during late summer (47%–96% across species; n = 541). Seroprevalence was >95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age. PMID:23469210

  12. 77 FR 68150 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN...) Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Initiative (``SANE/SART...

  13. Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F.

    2009-01-01

    The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the ‘well-known’ reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

  14. Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F

    2009-09-27

    The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the 'well-known' reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

  15. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens in South China from 2012 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Han-Qin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zeng, Fan-Gui; Liao, Chang-Tao; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2015-01-01

    As part of our ongoing influenza surveillance program in South China, 19 field strains of H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from dead or diseased chicken flocks in Guangdong province, South China, between 2012 and 2013. Hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these strains were sequenced and analyzed and phylogenic analysis showed that 12 of the 19 isolates belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5, while the other seven belonged to h9.4.2.6. Specifically, we found that all of the viruses isolated in 2013 belonged to lineage h9.4.2.5. The lineage h9.4.2.5 viruses contained a PSRSSR↓GLF motif at HA cleavage site, while the lineage h9.4.2.6 viruses contained a PARSSR↓GLF at the same position. Most of the isolates in lineage h9.4.2.5 lost one potential glycosylation site at residues 200-202, and had an additional one at residues 295-297 in HA1. Notably, 19 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor binding site, which indicated that the viruses had potential affinity of binding to human like receptor. The present study shows the importance of continuing surveillance of new H9N2 strains to better prepare for the next epidemic or pandemic outbreak of H9N2 AIV infections in chicken flocks. PMID:25643797

  16. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Kulak, M V; Ilinykh, F A; Zaykovskaya, A V; Epanchinzeva, A V; Evstaphiev, I L; Tovtunec, N N; Sharshov, K A; Durimanov, A G; Penkovskaya, N A; Shestopalov, A M; Lerman, A I; Drozdov, I G; Swayne, D E

    2010-09-01

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood, especially for the H5N1 high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) viruses. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 AI viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine with an overall frequency of virus recovery of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from three species of dabbling ducks: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (Anas penelope), and garganey (Anas querquedula), making the frequency of virus recovery for dabbling ducks 6.3%. The viruses were predominantly isolated during the fall sampling period. All viruses were genetically and antigenically characterized. No H5N1 HPAI viruses were isolated, but other HA and NA subtypes were identified including H3N1 (2), H3N6 (3), H3N8 (4), H4N6 (6), H5N2 (3), H7N8 (1), and H10N6 (1) subtypes. All isolates were of low pathogenicity, as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00. For H5N2 and H7N8 isolates, the HA gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecologic connections of the Crimea region with AI viruses from Siberia and Europe. No influenza A isolates were recovered from other Anseriformes (diving ducks [two species of pochards] and graylag geese), Columbiformes (collared doves), Gruiformes (coot), and Galliformes (gray partridges). PMID:20945793

  17. Strategies and challenges for eliciting immunity against avian influenza virus in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged during the past two decades as essential tools in avian influenza (AI) control for poultry because they: increase resistance to infection, prevent illness and death, reduce virus replication and shed from respiratory and alimentary tracts, and reduce virus trans...

  18. Pathobiology of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and other wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza type A viruses which normally are nonpathogenic in these birds. However, the Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have evolved from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing se...

  19. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop better control measures against avian influenza (AI) it’s necessary to understand how the virus transmits in poultry. In a previous study in which the infectivity and transmissibility of the pandemic H1N1influenza virus was examined in different poultry species, we found that no ...

  20. 78 FR 17232 - Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the SANE/SART AI/AN Initiative Committee AGENCY: Office for Victims of... Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)--Sexual Assault Response Team (SART..., victim-centered responses to sexual violence within AI/AN communities. DATES AND LOCATIONS: The...

  1. 47 CFR 80.231 - Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.231 Section 80.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 80.231 Technical Requirements for Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. (a) Class B Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment must meet the technical requirements of...

  2. Apolipoprotein AI levels are increased in part as a consequence of reduced catabolism in nephrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, G A; Hoye, E; Jones, H

    1995-03-01

    Apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) synthesis, measured as the turnover of 125I-labeled apo AI-labeled high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was increased significantly in rats with Heymann nephritis (HN) vs. control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. However, fractional apo AI catabolic rate was also significantly less in HN vs. SD. We used 125I-apo AI tyramine cellobiose HDL, a marker retained at the catabolic site, to establish where apo AI catabolism decreased in six HN rats, seven rats with adriamycin (Adria)-induced nephrosis, and six control SD. Total renal apo AI catabolism, plus urinary losses, were the same in all three groups, despite significant urinary apo AI in HN and Adria rats. Apo AI catabolism was reduced in skin in both nephrotic groups, accounting for approximately 44% of reduced in apo AI catabolism. Thus a significant fraction of apo AI is catabolized in skin of normal male rats. Reduced apo AI catabolism in skin contributes to increased plasma levels in nephrotic rats. PMID:7900854

  3. Ictalurus punctatus apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1) mRNA, complete cds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete coding sequence of channel catfish apolipoprotein A-I is 777 bp in length, encoding 258 amino acids. The publishing of this coding sequence will also allow phylogenetic comparison between catfish ApoAI and ApoAI genes from other species. The availability of this complete coding sequence...

  4. Efficacy of commercial vaccines in protecting chickens and ducks against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and have spread to other regions of the world. Though attempts at eradication of the viruses during various outbreaks have been successful for short periods of time, new strains of H5N1 viruses continue to emerge...

  5. Technology integration and synergies: radar, optics, and AIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellard, J. N.; Chen, Y.; Gonzalez Chevere, D.; Shahid, H.

    2015-05-01

    Various technologies were used to detect, track, and classify vessels on the Hudson River. Broadband radar was used to detect and track vessels. Visible light cameras, infrared cameras, and image processing techniques were used to detect, track, and classify vessels. Automatic Identification System (AIS) was used to track and classify vessels. The technologies, collectively referred to as the Integrated Technology System (ITS), were used in conjunction with each other to achieve synergies and to overcome individual system limitations. These limitations included a narrow field of view, false alarms, and misdetections. The suite of technologies successfully fulfilled its purpose. The radar was effective despite some errors. The cameras allowed for software development including automatic slewing and image processing. While AIS was considered the most reliable tool, it was determined not to be infallible. Future work includes integration of passive acoustics into the system and wake analysis for vessel detection.

  6. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  7. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  8. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged frommore » 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.« less

  9. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AI series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-10

    A series of adsorbent (AI10 through AI17) were successfully developed at ORNL by radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) (at different mole/mole ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fiber, with higher degree of grafting which ranges from 110 300%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by reaction with 10 wt% hydroxylamine at 80 C for 72 hours. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 171-187 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. The performance of the adsorbents for uranium adsorption in natural seawater was also carried out using flow-through-column at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The three hours KOH conditioning was better for higher uranium uptake than one hour. The adsorbent AI11 containing AN and VPA at the mole ration of 3.52, emerged as the potential candidate for higher uranium adsorption (3.35 g-U/Kg-ads.) after 56 days of exposure in the seawater in the flow-through-column. The rate vanadium adsorption over uranium was linearly increased throughout the 56 days exposure. The total vanadium uptake was ~5 times over uranium after 56 days.

  10. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  11. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  12. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  13. [Development of a GeXP assay for simultaneous differentiation of six chicken respiratory viruses].

    PubMed

    Luo, Si-Si; Xie, Zhi-Xun; Xie, Li-Ji; Pang, Yao-Shan; Fan, Qing; Deng, Xian-Wen; Liu, Jia-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Qin

    2013-05-01

    A GeXP based multiplex PCR assay was developed to simultaneously detect six different chicken respiratory viruses including H5, H7, H9 subtypes of avian influenza virus(AIV), new castle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus(ILTV). According to the conserved sequences of genes of each pathogen, seven pairs of specific primers were designed, and the reaction conditions were optimized. The specificity and accuracy of GeXP were examined using samples of single and mixed infections of virus. The sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial 10-fold dilutions of cloned plasmids. To further evaluate the reliability, thirty-four clinical samples were detected by GeXP. The corresponding specific fragments of genes were amplified. The detection limit of GeXP was 10(2) copies/microL when all of 7 pre-mixed plasmids containing target genes of six chicken respiratory viruses were present. In the detection of thirty-four clinical samples, the results of GeXP were accorded with the viral isolation completely. In conclusion, this GeXP assay is a rapid, specific, sensitive and high-throughput method for the detection of chicken respiratory virus infections. It can be applied in rapid differential diagnosis for clinical samples, and also provide an effective tool to prevent and control chicken respiratory diseases with similar clinical symptoms. PMID:23905467

  14. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  15. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  16. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Humm, John R; Stadter, Gregory W; Curry, William H; Brasel, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990-1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m(2). Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  17. Reassortant H5N1 avian influenza viruses containing PA or NP gene from an H9N2 virus significantly increase the pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoli; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Jiongjiong; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Yunpeng; Li, Qunhui; He, Dongchang; Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Xu, Xiulong; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-30

    Reassortment between different influenza viruses is a crucial way to generate novel influenza viruses with unpredictable virulence and transmissibility, which may threaten the public health. As currently in China, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes are endemic in poultry in many areas, while they are prone to reassort with each other naturally. In order to evaluate the risk of the reassortment to public health, A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 [GS/10(H5N1)] virus was used as a backbone to generate a series of reassortants, each contained a single internal gene derived from the predominant S genotype of the A/Chicken/Jiangsu/WJ57/2012 [WJ/57(H9N2)]. We next assessed the biological characteristics of these assortments, including pathogenicity, replication efficiency and polymerase activity. We found that the parental WJ/57(H9N2) and GS/10(H5N1) viruses displayed high genetic compatibility. Notably, the H5N1 reassortants containing the PA or NP gene from WJ/57(H9N2) virus significantly increased virulence and replication ability in mice, as well as markedly enhanced polymerase activity. Our results indicate that the endemicity of H9N2 and H5N1 in domestic poultry greatly increases the possibility of generating new viruses by reassortment that may pose a great threat to poultry industry and public health. PMID:27527770

  18. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the Order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine...

  19. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...

  20. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  1. Abiotic Factors Affecting the Persistence of Avian Influenza Virus in Surface Waters of Waterfowl Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Cressler, Alan M.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) virus can remain infectious in water for months, and virus-contaminated surface water is considered to be a source of infection within wild waterfowl populations. Previous work has characterized the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on viral persistence in water, but most of that work was done with modified distilled water. The objective of this study was to identify the abiotic factors that influence the duration of AI virus persistence in natural surface water. Surface water samples were collected from 38 waterfowl habitats distributed across the United States. Samples were submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for chemical analysis and the University of Georgia for viral reduction time analysis. Samples were filtered with 0.22-μm filters, and the durations of persistence of three wild-bird-derived influenza A viruses within each water sample at 10, 17, and 28°C were determined. The effects of the surface water physicochemical factors on the duration of AI viral persistence in laboratory experiments were evaluated by multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors. The duration of AI virus persistence was determined to be longest in filtered surface water with a low temperature (<17°C), a neutral-to-basic pH (7.0 to 8.5), low salinity (<0.5 ppt), and a low ammonia concentration (<0.5 mg/liter). Our results also highlighted potential strain-related variation in the stability of AI virus in surface water. These results bring us closer to being able to predict the duration of AI virus persistence in surface water of waterfowl habitats. PMID:24584247

  2. Testicular Feminization or Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) in Iran: a Retrospective Analysis of 30-Year Data

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush. D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan; SADIGHI, Hosein; ZANDVAKILI, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) or testicular feminization is a partial or complete inability of cell response to androgen. The cause is enzymatic defect in synthesis of testosterone, resulting sexually immature phenotypically female, with primary amenorrhea. There are three categories of AIS, complete, partial and mild, depending on the degree of external genital masculinization. The aim of this study was to find out chromosomal abnormalities, and correlation between AIS and maternal/paternal age, parents’ consanguineous marriage, family history and clinical observation, in Iranian AIS patients. Method: This study includes a retrospective data analysis of 72,000 families’ medical records in the Genetic Clinic in Tehran, during a 30-yr period (1984–2014). The essential basis for the patients’ referral to the clinic by gynecologists was primary amenorrhea. Cytogenetic abnormalities has been confirmed by chromosome G-banding and conventional staining methods. Results: Seventy AIS female patients with 46XY pattern were cytogenetically diagnosed and the frequency of AIS syndrome was estimated about 0.05% (∼70/140000). The results showed no association between AIS and maternal or paternal age nor were the marital pattern of the parents. The clinical findings illustrated that primary amenorrhea had the highest indication for referral of AIS patients for genetic counseling and cytogenetic study. Conclusion: No correlation was observed between AIS and maternal or paternal age or consanguineous marriages. Amenorrhea is the most clinically observed sign of AIS patients. PMID:27057514

  3. Analysis of SSME inspection imagery using AI approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegan, Michael K., Jr.; Wee, W. G.

    The automated analysis of SSME injector assemblies has been investigated for the cases of LOX post surface defects and injector-baffle deterioration. Defects are isolated via 2D feature extraction from borescope and camera images; temporal-frequency transforms are then used to create a multiresolution set of feature vectors representing image contents. The potential flaws thus discriminated are then segmented and classified according to known categories. AI is applied in the form of a blackboard architecture that is controlled by a rule-based production system.

  4. AiResearch QCGAT engine: Acoustic test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisner, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    The noise levels of the quiet, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) engine were measured in ground static noise tests. The static noise levels were found to be markedly lower than the demonstrably quiet AiResearch model TFE731 engine. The measured QCGAT noise levels were correlated with analytical noise source predictions to derive free-field component noise predictions. These component noise sources were used to predict the QCGAT flyover noise levels at FAR Part 36 conditions. The predicted flyover noise levels are about 10 decibels lower than the current quietest business jets.

  5. An AIS-Based E-mail Classification Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Jinjian; Mao, Ruilong; Bie, Rongfang; Gao, Xiao-Zhi

    This paper proposes a new e-mail classification method based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS), which is endowed with good diversity and self-adaptive ability by using the immune learning, immune memory, and immune recognition. In our method, the features of spam and non-spam extracted from the training sets are combined together, and the number of false positives (non-spam messages that are incorrectly classified as spam) can be reduced. The experimental results demonstrate that this method is effective in reducing the false rate.

  6. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  7. Urban, Forest, and Agricultural AIS Data: Fine Spectral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) near Lafayette, IN, Ely, MN, and over the Stanford University campus, CA were analyzed for fine spectral structure using two techniques: the ratio of radiance of a ground target to the radiance of a standard and also the correlation coefficient of radiances at adjacent wavelengths. The results show ramp like features in the ratios. These features are due to the biochemical composition of the leaf and to the optical scattering properties of its cuticle. The size and shape of the ramps vary with ground cover.

  8. STAR - A computer language for hybrid AI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    Constructing Artificial Intelligence application systems which rely on both symbolic and non-symbolic processing places heavy demands on the communication of data between dissimilar languages. This paper describes STAR (Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning), a computer language for the development of AI application systems which supports the transfer of data structures between a symbolic level and a non-symbolic level defined in languages such as FORTRAN, C and PASCAL. The organization of STAR is presented, followed by the description of an application involving STAR in the interpretation of airborne imaging spectrometer data.

  9. The use of a handheld Raman system for virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunyuan; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Cui, Yiping; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    The combination of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a handheld Raman system would lead to a powerful portable device for defense and security applications. The Thermo Scientific FirstDefender RM instrument is a 785-nm handheld Raman spectrometer intended for rapid field identification of unknown solid and liquid samples. Its sensitivity and effectiveness for SERS-based detection was initially confirmed by evaluating detection of 1,2-di(4- pyridyl)ethylene as a reporter molecule on a silver nanorod (AgNR) substrate, and the results are comparable to those from a confocal Bruker Raman system. As avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are recognized as an important emerging threat to public health, this portable handheld Raman spectrometer is used, for the first time, to detect and identify avian influenza A viruses using a multi-well AgNR SERS chip. The SERS spectra obtained had rich peaks which demonstrated that the instrument can be effectively used for SERS-based influenza virus detection. According to the SERS spectra, these different influenza viruses were distinguished from the negative control via the principal component analysis and by partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Together, these results show that the combination effective SERS substrates when combined with a portable Raman spectrometer provides a powerful field device for chemical and biological sensing.

  10. Age at infection affects the pathogenicity of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have changed from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing systemic disease and death. Differences in pathogenicity between four of these viruses as well as the effect of host age on the outcome of infection were...

  11. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  12. Design of Multiplexed Detection Assays for Identification of Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Pathogenic to Humans by SmartCycler Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Ren, Peijun; Mardi, Sek; Hou, Lili; Tsai, Cheguo; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheng, Peter; Sheng, Jun; Buchy, Philippe; Sun, Bing; Toyoda, Tetsuya; Lim, Wilina; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Zhou, Paul; Deubel, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for identification of the IAV M and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from six known AIVs infecting pigs, birds, and humans. IAV M1 gene-positive samples tested by single-step rRT-PCR and a fluorogenic Sybr green I detection system were further processed for H5 subtype identification by using two-primer-set multiplex and Sybr green I rRT-PCR assays. H5 subtype-negative samples were then tested with either a TaqMan assay for subtypes H1 and H3 or a TaqMan assay for subtypes H2, H7, and H9 and a beacon multiplex rRT-PCR identification assay. The four-tube strategy was able to detect 10 RNA copies of the HA genes of subtypes H1, H2, H3, H5, and H7 and 100 RNA copies of the HA gene of subtype H9. At least six H5 clades of H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia and China were detected by that test. Using rRT-PCR assays for the M1 and HA genes in 202 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from children with acute respiratory infections, we identified a total of 39 samples positive for the IAV M1 gene and subtypes H1 and H3. When performed with a portable SmartCycler instrument, the assays offer an efficient, flexible, and reliable platform for investigations of IAV and AIV in remote hospitals and in the field. PMID:18971359

  13. Effect of vaccine use in the evolution of Mexican lineage H5N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Won; Senne, Dennis A; Suarez, David L

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (AI) caused by a low-pathogenic H5N2 type A influenza virus began in Mexico in 1993 and several highly pathogenic strains of the virus emerged in 1994-1995. The highly pathogenic virus has not been reported since 1996, but the low-pathogenic virus remains endemic in Mexico and has spread to two adjacent countries, Guatemala and El Salvador. Measures implemented to control the outbreak and eradicate the virus in Mexico have included a widespread vaccination program in effect since 1995. Because this is the first case of long-term use of AI vaccines in poultry, the Mexican lineage virus presented us with a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of type A influenza virus circulating in poultry populations where there was elevated herd immunity due to maternal and active immunity. We analyzed the coding sequence of the HA1 subunit and the NS gene of 52 Mexican lineage viruses that were isolated between 1993 and 2002. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of multiple sublineages of Mexican lineage isolates at the time vaccine was introduced. Further, most of the viruses isolated after the introduction of vaccine belonged to sublineages separate from the vaccine's sublineage. Serologic analysis using hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests showed major antigenic differences among isolates belonging to the different sublineages. Vaccine protection studies further confirmed the in vitro serologic results indicating that commercial vaccine was not able to prevent virus shedding when chickens were challenged with antigenically different isolates. These findings indicate that multilineage antigenic drift, which has not been observed in AI virus, is occurring in the Mexican lineage AI viruses and the persistence of the virus in the field is likely aided by its large antigenic difference from the vaccine strain. PMID:15254209

  14. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David

    2015-01-01

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (P <0.01) at 4 days post inoculation (dpi). Co-infection didn’t affect the number of birds shedding LPAIV, but more LPAIV was shed at 2 dpi (P <0.0001) from ducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (P <0.05) compared to the ducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. PMID:25759292

  15. Discrimination of Coastal Vegetation and Biomass Using AIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over a coastal wetlands region near Lewes, Delaware, adjacent to the Delaware Bay on 16 August 1984. Using the AIS data, it was possible to discriminate between four different types of wetland vegetation canopies: (1) trees; (2) broadleaf herbaceous plants (e.g., Acnida cannabina, Hisbiscus moscheutos); (3) the low marsh grass Spartina alterniflora; and (4) the high marsh grasses Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens. The single most useful region of the spectrum was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns, where slopes of portions of the radiance curve and ratios of radiance at particular wavelengths were significantly different for the four canopy types. The ratio between the highest digital number in the 1.40 to 1.90 microns and .84 to .94 microns regions and a similar ratio between the peaks in radiance in the 1.12 to 1.40 microns and .84 to .94 microns spectral regions were also very effective at discriminating between vegetation types. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass.

  16. Building distributed rule-based systems using the AI Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain C.

    1990-01-01

    The AI Bus software architecture was designed to support the construction of large-scale, production-quality applications in areas of high technology flux, running heterogeneous distributed environments, utilizing a mix of knowledge-based and conventional components. These goals led to its current development as a layered, object-oriented library for cooperative systems. This paper describes the concepts and design of the AI Bus and its implementation status as a library of reusable and customizable objects, structured by layers from operating system interfaces up to high-level knowledge-based agents. Each agent is a semi-autonomous process with specialized expertise, and consists of a number of knowledge sources (a knowledge base and inference engine). Inter-agent communication mechanisms are based on blackboards and Actors-style acquaintances. As a conservative first implementation, we used C++ on top of Unix, and wrapped an embedded Clips with methods for the knowledge source class. This involved designing standard protocols for communication and functions which use these protocols in rules. Embedding several CLIPS objects within a single process was an unexpected problem because of global variables, whose solution involved constructing and recompiling a C++ version of CLIPS. We are currently working on a more radical approach to incorporating CLIPS, by separating out its pattern matcher, rule and fact representations and other components as true object oriented modules.

  17. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  18. Interpretation of AIS Images of Cuprite, Nevada Using Constraints of Spectral Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is outlined that tests the hypothesis Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image spectra are produced by mixtures of surface materials. This technique allows separation of AIS images into concentration images of spectral endmembers (e.g., surface materials causing spectral variation). Using a spectral reference library it was possible to uniquely identify these spectral endmembers with respect to the reference library and to calibrate the AIS images.

  19. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H5, H6 and H9 avian influenza viruses circulating in live bird markets with intervention in the center part of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Chu, Duc-Huy; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Keita; Hiono, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Kohei; Nguyen, Lam Thanh; Van Nguyen, Long; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; Nguyen, Thuy Thu; Van Pham, Dong; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Tho Dang; To, Thanh Long; Van Nguyen, Hung; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-30

    A total of 3,045 environmental samples and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy poultry have been collected at three live bird markets (LBMs) at which practices were applied to reduce avian influenza (AI) virus transmission (intervention LBMs) and six conventional LBMs (non-intervention LBMs) in Thua Thien Hue province in 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention LBMs. The 178 AI viruses, including H3 (19 viruses), H4 (2), H5 (8), H6 (30), H9 (114), and H11 (5), were isolated from domestic ducks, muscovy ducks, chickens, and the environment. The prevalence of AI viruses in intervention LBMs (6.1%; 95% CI: 5.0-7.5) was similar to that in non-intervention LBMs (5.6%; 95% CI: 4.5-6.8; χ(2)=0.532; df=1; P=0.53) in the study area. Eight H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were isolated from apparently healthy ducks, muscovy ducks, and an environmental sample in an intervention LBM. The hemagglutinin genes of the H5N6 HPAI viruses belonged to the genetic clade 2.3.4.4, and the antigenicity of the H5N6 HPAI viruses differed from the H5N1 HPAI viruses previously circulating in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H6 and H9 viruses isolated in both types of LBMs revealed that they were closely related to the viruses isolated from domestic birds in China, Group II of H6 viruses and Y280 lineage of H9 viruses. These results indicate that the interventions currently applied in LBMs are insufficient to control AI. A risk analysis should be conducted to identify the key factors contributing to AI virus prevalence in intervention LBMs. PMID:27527783

  20. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event. PMID:10334486

  1. Analysis of AIS data of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were acquired in 1985 over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska for the analysis of canopy characteristics including biochemistry. Concurrent with AIS overflights, foliage from fifteen coniferous and deciduous forest stands were analyzed for a variety of biochemical constituents including nitrogen, lignin, protein, and chlorophyll. Preliminary analysis of AIS spectra indicates that the wavelength region between 1450 to 1800 namometers (nm) displays distinct differences in spectral response for some of the forest stands. A flat field subtraction (forest stand spectra - flat field spectra) of the AIS spectra assisted in the interpretation of features of the spectra that are related to biology.

  2. Development of single-chain Fv against the nucleoprotein of type A influenza virus and its use in ELISA.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Devyani; Shaikh, Asma; Bhatia, S; Pateriya, A K; Khandia, R; Sood, R; Prakash, A; Pattnaik, B; Pradhan, H K

    2014-11-01

    Single chain fragment variable (ScFv) antibodies specific to the nucleoprotein (NP) of avian influenza virus (AIV) were developed using a phage display system. The variable heavy (VH) and the variable light (VL) chain gene fragments were derived from spleen cells of Balb/c mouse immunized with a recombinant NP (rNP) antigen (∼63 kDa) of H5N1 influenza virus. The VH and the VL DNA fragments were assembled through a flexible linker DNA to generate ScFv DNA that was cloned subsequently in a phagemid to express ScFv protein in Escherichia coli cells. The specific reactivity of the ScFv with the rNP antigen and viral antigen (H5N1) was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. A competitive inhibition ELISA (CI-ELISA) was developed using the rNP and the anti-NP ScFv for detection of type-specific antibodies to AIV in chicken sera. The ScFv based CI-ELISA was compared with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test over 850 sera. Sensitivity of the CI-ELISA was 100% with HI and AGID and specificity was 98.7% with HI and 100% with AGID. PMID:25152529

  3. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  4. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of neuraminidase genes of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from commercial broiler chicken in Iran (2008 and 2009).

    PubMed

    Soltanialvar, Masoud; Shoushtari, Hamid; Bozorgmehrifard, Mohamadhasan; Charkhkar, Saeed; Akbarnejad, Farshad

    2012-03-01

    A total of 512 tissue samples collected from 30 farms located in various states of Iran during 2008-2009 as part of a program to monitor avian influenza viruses (AIVs) infection in Iran's poultry population. To determine the genetic relationship of Iranian viruses, neuraminidase (NA) genes from ten isolates of H9N2 viruses isolated from commercial chickens in Iran during 2008-2009 were amplified and sequenced. The viruses' neuraminidase gene was >90% similar to those of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2) sublineage. The neuraminidase stalk regions in these Viruses had no deletion as compared to that of chicken/Beijing/1/94 sublineage (Beijing-like viruses) and the two human isolates A/HK/1073/99, A/HK/1074/99. Phylogenetic analysis of neuraminidase (NA) gene showed that it shares a common ancestor A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 isolate which had contributed the internal genes of the H5N1 virus. The results of this study indicated that No (Beijing-like) virus and (Korean-like) virus were found in chickens in Iran, and the NA genes of H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in Iran during the past years were well conserved and the earlier Iranian isolates may be considered to represent such a progenitor. PMID:21744029

  5. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  6. Highly Pathogenic Eurasian H5N8 Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Two Commercial Poultry Flocks in California.

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone; Chin, Richard; Crossley, Beate; Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, C; Bickford, Arthur; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Breitmeyer, Richard; Jones, Annette; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-09-01

    In January 2015, a highly pathogenic Eurasian lineage H5N8 avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) was detected in a commercial meat turkey flock in Stanislaus County, CA. Approximately 3 wk later, a similar case was diagnosed in commercial brown layers from a different company located in Kings County, CA. Five 14-wk-old turkey hens were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (CAHFS), Turlock, and eleven 12-wk-old chickens were submitted to CAHFS, Tulare laboratory due to an acute increase in flock mortality. Gross lesions included enlarged and mottled pale spleens and pancreas in turkeys and chickens. Histologically, the major lesions observed in turkeys and chickens were splenitis, pancreatitis, encephalitis, and pneumonia. In both cases, diagnosis was based on real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR), sequencing, and virus isolation from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Confirmatory diagnosis and AIV characterization was done at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, IA. The sequence of the AIV from both cases was 99% identical to an H5N8 AI virus (A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014) isolated from a captive gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) from Washington State in December 2014. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various tissues from both cases indicated a widespread AIV tissue distribution. Except for minor variations, the tissue distribution of the AI antigen was similar in the chickens and turkeys. There was positive IHC staining in the brain, spleen, pancreas, larynx, trachea, and lungs in both chickens and turkeys. Hearts, ovaries, and air sacs from the turkeys were also positive for the AI antigen. The liver sections from the chickens had occasional AI-positive staining in mononuclear cells, but the IHC on liver sections from the turkeys were negative. The bursa of Fabricius, small intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle sections were negative for the AI antigen in both chickens and turkeys. PMID:27610732

  7. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  8. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies. PMID:26958713

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, G.W.; Castle, C.K.

    1989-07-01

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD (apo A-I(50 kD)), whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range (apo A-I(LDL)). The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species.

  10. Role of thyroid hormones in apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, W; Gorder, N L; Lin-Lee, Y C; Gotto, A M; Patsch, W

    1990-01-01

    To study the regulation of hepatic apo A-I gene expression, we measured synthesis and abundance of cellular apo A-I mRNA and its nuclear precursors in livers of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats. In hypothyroid animals, both synthesis and abundance of apo A-I mRNA was reduced to half of control values. After injection of a receptor-saturating dose of triiodothyronine into euthyroid rats, apo A-I gene transcription increased at 20 min, reached a maximum of 179% of control (P less than 0.01) at 3.5 h, and remained elevated for up to 48 h. The abundance of nuclear and total cellular apo A-I mRNA increased at 1 and 2 h, respectively, and exceeded the levels expected from enhanced transcription more than two fold at 24 h after hormone injection. Upon chronic administration of thyroid hormones, levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic apo A-I mRNA remained elevated but transcription of the apo A-I gene fell to 42% of control (P less than 0.01). Thus, thyroid hormones rapidly stimulate apo A-I gene transcription. Posttranscriptional events leading to increased stability of nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors become the principal mechanism for enhanced gene expression in chronic hyperthyroidism and may cause feedback inhibition of apo A-I gene transcription. Our results furthermore imply that the majority of hepatic nuclear apo A-I RNA precursors are degraded in euthyroid animals. Images PMID:2107206

  11. Antiviral activity of the oseltamivir and Melissa officinalis L. essential oil against avian influenza A virus (H9N2).

    PubMed

    Pourghanbari, Gholamhosein; Nili, Hasan; Moattari, Afagh; Mohammadi, Ali; Iraji, Aida

    2016-06-01

    Lemon balm derivatives are going to acquire a novelty as natural and potent remedy for treatment of viral infections since the influenza viruses are developing resistance to the current antivirals widely. Oseltamivir, Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) and their synergistic efficacy against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 were evaluated in vitro in MDCK cells at different time exposure by using TCID50, HA, Real Time PCR and HI assay. The results showed that MOEO could inhibit replication of AVI through the different virus replication phase (P ≤ 0.05). Also the highest antiviral activity of MOEO was seen when AIV incubated with MOEO before cell infection. The TCID50/ml was reduced 1.3-2.1, 2.3-2.8, 3.7-4.5 log 10 than control group (5.6 log 10), HAU/50 µl was decreased 85-94, 71.4-94, 71.4-94 % and viral genome copy number/µl was brought down 68-95, 90-100, 89.6-99.9 % at pre-infection, post-infection and simultaneous stage, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition result showed the MOEO was not able to inhibit agglutination of the chicken red blood cell (cRBC). Replication of the AVI was suppressed by the different concentration of oseltamivir completely or near 100 %. Also oseltamivir showed a synergistic activity with MOEO especially when oseltamivir concentration reduced under 0.005 mg/ml. The chemical composition was examined by GC-MS analysis and Its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b. In conclusion, the findings of the study showed that lemon balm essential oil could inhibit influenza virus replication through different replication cycle steps especially throughout the direct interaction with the virus particles. PMID:27366768

  12. AI approach to optimal var control with fuzzy reactive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Shahidehpour, S.M.; Daneshdoost, M.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to the optimal reactive power (var) control problem. The method incorporates the reactive load uncertainty in optimizing the overall system performance. The artificial neural network (ANN) enhanced by fuzzy sets is used to determine the memberships of control variables corresponding to the given load values. A power flow solution will determine the corresponding state of the system. Since the resulting system state may not be feasible in real-time, a heuristic method based on the application of sensitivities in expert system is employed to refine the solution with minimum adjustments of control variables. Test cases and numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Simplicity, processing speed and ability to model load uncertainties make this approach a viable option for on-line var control.

  13. Visualizing the ai5γ group IIB intron

    PubMed Central

    Somarowthu, Srinivas; Legiewicz, Michal; Keating, Kevin S.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    It has become apparent that much of cellular metabolism is controlled by large well-folded noncoding RNA molecules. In addition to crystallographic approaches, computational methods are needed for visualizing the 3D structure of large RNAs. Here, we modeled the molecular structure of the ai5γ group IIB intron from yeast using the crystal structure of a bacterial group IIC homolog. This was accomplished by adapting strategies for homology and de novo modeling, and creating a new computational tool for RNA refinement. The resulting model was validated experimentally using a combination of structure-guided mutagenesis and RNA structure probing. The model provides major insights into the mechanism and regulation of splicing, such as the position of the branch-site before and after the second step of splicing, and the location of subdomains that control target specificity, underscoring the feasibility of modeling large functional RNA molecules. PMID:24203709

  14. Parallaxis: A Flexible Parallel Programming Environment For AI Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeunl, Thomas

    1989-03-01

    A parallel language has to match or reflect the hardware underneath to use these resources efficiently. Though every parallel language has to have some kind of parallel machine model, no existing language states this explicitly. The Parallaxis parallel programming environment introduces a different approach. The system comprises the specification of the parallel algorithm and the parallel hardware as well. Parallaxis has been designed for single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) system architectures, consisting of identical processing elements (PEs) with local memory. Data exchange is handled by message passing through a local network. In Parallaxis, the hardware structure is specified in the beginning of each program to establish the environment for coding the parallel algorithm. This is necessary for actually arranging this topology using a reconfigurable system, but it is also profitable for performing a simulation, or just stating the used topology. Parallelizable AI applications that demonstrate Parallaxis' usefulness include computer vision, productions systems, neural networks and robot control.

  15. Silver nanoparticles coated graphene electrochemical sensor for the ultrasensitive analysis of avian influenza virus H7.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoling; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Huang, Li; Fan, Qing; Zhang, Yanfang; Wang, Sheng; Zeng, Tingting

    2016-03-24

    A new, highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor with a sandwich-type immunoassay format was designed to quantify avian influenza virus H7 (AIV H7) by using silver nanoparticle-graphene (AgNPs-G) as trace labels in clinical immunoassays. The device consists of a gold electrode coated with gold nanoparticle-graphene nanocomposites (AuNPs-G), the gold nanoparticle surface of which can be further modified with H7-monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The immunoassay was performed with H7-polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) that were attached to the AgNPs-G surface (PAb-AgNPs-G). This method of using PAb-AgNPs-G as detection antibodies shows high signal amplification and exhibits a dynamic working range of 1.6 × 10(-3)∼16 ng/mL, with a low detection limit of 1.6 pg/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3σ. In summary, we showed that this novel immunosensor is highly specific and sensitive to AIV H7, and the established assay could potentially be applied to rapidly detect other pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26944996

  16. Effects of fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus on conception rate in smallholder zebu and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double PGF2α administration.

    PubMed

    Gugssa, Tadesse; Ashebir, Gebregiorgis; Yayneshet, Tesfay

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate estrus response, time to the onset of estrus, and conception rate at fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus in local and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double administration of PGF2α. One hundred twenty local (heifers, n = 27; cows, n = 33) and crossbreds (heifers, n = 21; cows, n = 39) were used for the study. About 63 and 85.7 % of the local and crossbred heifers, respectively, exhibited estrus. Similarly, all crossbred cows and 90.9 % of local cows showed estrus. Most heifers came to estrus between 48 and 72 h while cows exhibited behavioral signs of estrus between 72 and 96 h. AI at detected estrus resulted in higher conception rate than fixed time AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination was higher in AI at detected estrus than fixed time AI. Accurate estrus detection followed by insemination are crucial factors in maximizing pregnancy, and this study has demonstrated that conception rate in smallholder heifers and cows should be inseminated following estrus detection to maximize the conception rate of the animals. PMID:27184042

  17. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS)...

  18. 47 CFR 80.275 - Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment. 80.275 Section 80.275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Compulsory Ships § 80.275 Technical Requirements for Class A Automatic Identification System (AIS)...

  19. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  20. Health Information in French (français): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) PDF Healthy Roads Media HIV/AIDS - Signs & Symptoms - English VIH/SIDA – Signes & Symptômes - français (French) Multimedia Healthy Roads ...

  1. Regulation of the promoter of rat apolipoprotein A-I gene in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Y.; Pan, T.; Wu, T.; Hao, Q.; Yamin, T.; Kroon, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to study the regulation of the promoter of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene, they joined the 5' end of rat apo A-I gene (1.9 Kb) to the coding region of bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. The chimeric gene produced high levels of CAT activity in both mouse L cells and Hep G2 cells in transient expression assays. Ethanol increased the levels of rat apo A-I promoter activity in both cells. However, dexamethasone increased rat apo A-I promoter activity only in Hep G2 cells. Similar results were obtained in stable expression cell lines. Nucleotide deletion experiments showed DNA sequences between -149 and -469 base pairs upstream from the rat apo A-I transcription site are required for the high level of expression and that the regulatory sequences are located further upstream. These data demonstrated that the 5' end of rat apo A-I gene contains sequences which are responsible for the regulation of apo A-I expression by ethanol and dexamethasone and that the expression and regulation of rat apo A-I promoter are cell specific.

  2. Teaching AI Search Algorithms in a Web-Based Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grivokostopoulou, Foteini; Hatzilygeroudis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of teaching AI search algorithms in a web-based adaptive educational system. Teaching is based on interactive examples and exercises. Interactive examples, which use visualized animations to present AI search algorithms in a step-by-step way with explanations, are used to make learning more attractive. Practice…

  3. Novel AI-2 quorum sensing inhibitors in Vibrio harveyi identified through structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Peng, Hanjing; Ni, Nanting; Wang, Binghe; Li, Minyong

    2012-10-15

    In this letter, a high-throughput virtual screening was accomplished to identify potent inhibitors against AI-2 quorum sensing on the basis of Vibrio harveyi LuxPQ crystal structure. Seven compounds were found to inhibit AI-2 quorum sensing with IC(50) values in the micromolar range, and presented low cytotoxicity or no cytotoxicity in V. harveyi. PMID:22963763

  4. Real time magnetic resonance imaging of apo AI metabolism in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) plays a key role in maintaining cardiovascular health and constitutes the major lipoprotein component in high density lipoproteins (HDL). It metabolism, however, follows a complex pathway. Synthesized in the liver and intestines, its becomes lipidated by its interaction w...

  5. Health Information in French (français): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Instructions de prévention: Vous pouvez prévenir les risques d'exposition au monoxyde de carbone - français (French) ... AIDS - Reducing Your Sexual Risk - English Réduction des risques sexuels - français (French) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media HIV/ ...

  6. Effects of different CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with inactivated avian H5N1 influenza virus on mucosal immunity of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jia; Liang, Jinfeng; Kang, Haihong; Lin, Jian; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-11-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) has been proved to be a potent and safe vaccine adjuvant. However, the application of CpG-ODN in poultry vaccines was limited because of its high cost to benefit ratio. The objective of this study was to identify the CpG-ODN with efficient adjuvant activity and low cost in chickens. Four sequences of CpG-ODN were designed based on CpG-ODN 2006, which was used as a template and positive sequence in our study. In the current study, in vitro observations revealed that the designed CpG-ODN had efficient immunostimulatory effects on chicken splenic lymphocytes. The in vivo results showed that the mRNA expressions of IL-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 in upper respiratory tract tissues increased significantly in the early period after intranasal immunization with inactivated avian H5N1 influenza virus (IAIV) and CpG-ODN (P < 0.01). In addition, the avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific secretory IgA antibody level in the lavage fluid of upper respiratory tract increased significantly after intranasal immunization with IAIV and CpG-ODN, so did AIV-specific IgG in serum (P < 0.01). Among all the designed CpG-ODN, CpG-ODN F3 with an addition of poly-guanosine strings at the 3'-end not only had the best enhancement on local mucosal immune response but also showed an effective induction of systemic immune response. Most importantly, the virus challenge study showed that prior administration of IAIV with CpG-ODN F3 could protect chickens effectively against live AIV H5N1 challenge. Additionally, among all the CpG-ODN in our study, the cost of the designed CpG-ODN F3 was the lowest because of the partially phosphorothioate backbone. Therefore, we speculated that CpG-ODN F3 with efficient adjuvant activity and a big cost advantage over CpG-ODN F1 (CpG-ODN 2006) might serve as an efficient and affordable nasal adjuvant for inactivated AIV vaccine in chicken. PMID:24135589

  7. Crystal structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I suggests a lipid-bound conformation

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, David W.; Rogers, Danise P.; Engler, Jeffrey A.; Brouillette, Christie G.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high density lipoprotein, has been determined at 4-Å resolution. The crystals comprise residues 44–243 (exon 4) of apo A-I, a fragment that binds to lipid similarly to intact apo A-I and that retains the lipid-bound conformation even in the absence of lipid. The molecule consists almost entirely of a pseudo-continuous, amphipathic α-helix that is punctuated by kinks at regularly spaced proline residues; it adopts a shape similar to a horseshoe of dimensions 125 × 80 × 40 Å. Four molecules in the asymmetric unit associate via their hydrophobic faces to form an antiparallel four-helix bundle with an elliptical ring shape. Based on this structure, we propose a model for the structure of apo A-I bound to high density lipoprotein. PMID:9356442

  8. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  9. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  10. Reproductive performance of dairy cows resynchronized after pregnancy diagnosis at 31 (±3 days) after artificial insemination (AI) compared with resynchronization at 31 (±3 days) after AI with pregnancy diagnosis at 38 (±3 days) after AI

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R. V.; Caixeta, L. S.; Giordano, J. O.; Guard, C. L.; Bicalho, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    An important part of reproductive management programs on dairy farms is identification of nonpregnant cows and early re-insemination to achieve higher pregnancy rates. The objective of this study was to compare the effect on reproductive performance and pregnancy loss of 2 pregnancy diagnosis protocols: (1) pregnancy diagnosis performed 31 ± 3 d after artificial insemination (AI) by ultrasonography (ULTRA), and (2) resynchronization started 31 ± 3 d after AI but with pregnancy diagnosis performed 38 ± 3 d after AI by palpation per rectum (PALP). Cows were randomly allocated into 1 of the 2 management programs. For cows enrolled in ULTRA, the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) was performed by transrectal ultrasonography at 31 ± 3 d after AI, and nonpregnant cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive timed AI (TAI). For cows enrolled in PALP, the Ovsynch protocol for resynchronization of ovulation to receive TAI was initiated at 31 ± 3 d after AI regardless of pregnancy status, with the initial pregnancy diagnosis (P1) performed by palpation per rectum at 38 ± 3 d after AI. For both groups, reconfirmation of pregnancy was performed by palpation per rectum at 63 ± 3 d after AI (P2). Cows were inseminated after detection of estrus by use of activity monitors at any time during the study. Two levels of activity were used as a reference for cows AI after detection of estrus based on activity: an activity level of ≥2 when a cow was coded in DairyComp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA) as open (nonpregnant) and an activity level of ≥3 when the pregnancy status of the cow was unknown. Our findings showed that the odds of pregnancy loss cows in ULTRA was 2 times higher between P1 and P2 compared with that of cows in PALP. Furthermore, pregnancy diagnosis method (ULTRA vs. PALP) did not have a significant effect on the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy at P2. The occurrence of assisted parturition

  11. Apolipoprotein AI Deficiency Inhibits Serum Opacity Factor Activity against Plasma High Density Lipoprotein via a Stabilization Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Corina; Patel, Niket; Gillard, Baiba K.; Yelamanchili, Dedipya; Yang, Yaliu; Courtney, Harry S.; Santos, Raul D.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of Streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) produces a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), a smaller neo HDL that is apolipoprotein (apo) AI-poor, and lipid-free apo AI. SOF is active vs. both human and mouse plasma HDL. In vivo injection of SOF into mice reduces plasma cholesterol ~40% in 3 hours while forming the same products observed in vitro, but at different ratios. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that labile apo AI is required for the SOF reaction vs. HDL. Here we further tested that hypothesis by studies of SOF against HDL from apo AI-null mice. When injected into apo AI-null mice, SOF reduced plasma cholesterol ~35% in three hours. The reaction of SOF vs. apo AI-null HDL in vitro produced a CERM and neo HDL, but no lipid-free apo. Moreover, according to the rate of CERM formation, the extent and rate of the SOF reaction vs. apo AI-null mouse HDL was less than that against wild-type (WT) mouse HDL. Chaotropic perturbation studies using guanidine hydrochloride showed that apo AI-null HDL was more stable than WT HDL. Human apo AI added to apo AI-null HDL was quantitatively incorporated, giving reconstituted HDL. Both SOF and guanidine hydrochloride displaced apo AI from the reconstituted HDL. These results support the conclusion that apo AI-null HDL is more stable than WT HDL because it lacks apo AI, a labile protein that is readily displaced by physico-chemical and biochemical perturbations. Thus, apo AI-null HDL is less SOF-reactive than WT HDL. The properties of apo AI-null HDL can be partially restored to those of WT HDL by the spontaneous incorporation of human apo AI. It remains to be determined what other HDL functions are affected by apo AI deletion. PMID:25790332

  12. Apolipoprotein AI deficiency inhibits serum opacity factor activity against plasma high density lipoprotein via a stabilization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Corina; Patel, Niket; Gillard, Baiba K; Yelamanchili, Dedipya; Yang, Yaliu; Courtney, Harry S; Santos, Raul D; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2015-04-14

    The reaction of Streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) produces a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), a smaller neo HDL that is apolipoprotein (apo) AI-poor, and lipid-free apo AI. SOF is active versus both human and mouse plasma HDL. In vivo injection of SOF into mice reduces plasma cholesterol ∼40% in 3 h while forming the same products observed in vitro, but at different ratios. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that labile apo AI is required for the SOF reaction vs HDL. Here we further tested that hypothesis by studies of SOF against HDL from apo AI-null mice. When injected into apo AI-null mice, SOF reduced plasma cholesterol ∼35% in 3 h. The reaction of SOF vs apo AI-null HDL in vitro produced a CERM and neo HDL, but no lipid-free apo. Moreover, according to the rate of CERM formation, the extent and rate of the SOF reaction versus apo AI-null mouse HDL were less than that against wild-type (WT) mouse HDL. Chaotropic perturbation studies using guanidine hydrochloride showed that apo AI-null HDL was more stable than WT HDL. Human apo AI added to apo AI-null HDL was quantitatively incorporated, giving reconstituted HDL. Both SOF and guanidine hydrochloride displaced apo AI from the reconstituted HDL. These results support the conclusion that apo AI-null HDL is more stable than WT HDL because it lacks apo AI, a labile protein that is readily displaced by physicochemical and biochemical perturbations. Thus, apo AI-null HDL is less SOF-reactive than WT HDL. The properties of apo AI-null HDL can be partially restored to those of WT HDL by the spontaneous incorporation of human apo AI. It remains to be determined what other HDL functions are affected by apo AI deletion. PMID:25790332

  13. Juveniles and migrants as drivers for seasonal epizootics of avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G.B.; Hoye, Bethany J.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Nolet, Bart A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Similar to other infectious diseases, the prevalence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) has been seen to exhibit marked seasonal variation. However, mechanisms driving this variation in wild birds have yet to be tested. We investigated the validity of three previously suggested drivers for the seasonal dynamics in LPAIV infections in wild birds: (1) host density, (2) immunologically-naïve young, and (3) increased susceptibility in migrants.To address these questions, we sampled a key LPAIV host species, the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, on a small spatial scale, comprehensively throughout a complete annual cycle, measuring both current and past infection (i.e. viral and seroprevalence respectively).We demonstrate a minor peak in LPAIV prevalence in summer, a dominant peak in autumn, during which half of the sampled population was infected, and no infections in spring. Seroprevalence of antibodies to a conserved gene-segment of AIV peaked in winter and again in spring.The summer peak of LPAIV prevalence coincided with the entrance of unfledged naïve young in the population. Moreover, juveniles were more likely to be infected, shed higher quantities of virus, and were less likely to have detectable antibodies to AIV than adult birds. The arrival of migratory birds, as identified by stable hydrogen isotope analysis, appeared to drive the autumn peak in LPAIV infection, with both temporal coincidence and higher infection prevalence in migrants. Remarkably, seroprevalence in migrants was substantially lower than viral prevalence throughout autumn migration, further indicating that each wave of migrants amplified local AIV circulation. Finally, while host abundance increased throughout autumn, it peaked in winter, showing no direct correspondence with either of the LPAIV infection peaks.At an epidemiologically-relevant spatial scale, we provide strong evidence for the role of migratory birds as key drivers for seasonal epizootics of LPAIV

  14. LuxS-independent formation of AI-2 from ribulose-5-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Tavender, Timothy J; Halliday, Nigel M; Hardie, Kim R; Winzer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Background In many bacteria, the signal molecule AI-2 is generated from its precursor S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme LuxS. However, generation of AI-2-like activity has also been reported for organisms lacking the luxS gene and the existence of alternative pathways for AI-2 formation in Escherichia coli has recently been predicted by stochastic modelling. Here, we investigate the possibility that spontaneous conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate could be responsible for AI-2 generation in the absence of luxS. Results Buffered solutions of ribulose-5-phosphate, but not ribose-5-phosphate, were found to contain high levels of AI-2 activity following incubation at concentrations similar to those reported in vivo. To test whether this process contributes to AI-2 formation by bacterial cells in vivo, an improved Vibrio harveyi bioassay was used. In agreement with previous studies, culture supernatants of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus luxS mutants were found not to contain detectable levels of AI-2 activity. However, low activities were detected in an E. coli pgi-eda-edd-luxS mutant, a strain which degrades glucose entirely via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with ribulose-5-phosphate as an obligatory intermediate. Conclusion Our results suggest that LuxS-independent formation of AI-2, via spontaneous conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate, may indeed occur in vivo. It does not contribute to AI-2 formation in wildtype E. coli and S. aureus under the conditions tested, but may be responsible for the AI-2-like activities reported for other organisms lacking the luxS gene. PMID:18564424

  15. Suboptimal protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam in ducks vaccinated with commercial poultry vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and other regions of the world. Vaccination is used as part of H5N1 HPAI control programs in many countries; however, eradication of the disease has not been possible due to the emergence and spread of new viruses...

  16. Efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines for protection of poultry against the H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in China during 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent outbreak in China of avian influenza (AI) H7N9 in birds and humans underscores the interspecies movement of these viruses. Interestingly, the genetic composition of these H7N9 viruses appears to be solely of avian origin and of low pathogenicity in birds. Although few isolations of these ...

  17. Evaluation of homologous inactivated influenza vaccine for protection of chickens against the H7N9 virus isolated in Anhui, China during 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent outbreak of avian influenza (AI) H7N9 in humans in China in 2013 has resulted in approximately 30 % mortality. The genetic composition of these H7N9 viruses appears to be solely of avian origin. Although few isolations of these viruses have been demonstrated on poultry farms, the correlat...

  18. Homo- and Heterosubtypic Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure on H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Taiana P.; Brown, Justin D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in multiple domestic avian species, but few studies have addressed this effect in wild birds. In this study, the effect of pre-exposure to homosubtypic (homologous hemagglutinin) and heterosubtypic (heterologous hemagglutinin) low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses on the outcome of a H5N1 HPAI virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was evaluated. Pre-exposure of wood ducks to different LPAI viruses did not prevent infection with H5N1 HPAI virus, but did increase survival associated with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. The magnitude of this effect on the outcome of the H5N1 HPAI virus infection varied between different LPAI viruses, and was associated both with efficiency of LPAI viral replication in wood ducks and the development of a detectable humoral immune response. These observations suggest that in naturally occurring outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI, birds with pre-existing immunity to homologous hemagglutinin or neuraminidase subtypes of AI virus may either survive H5N1 HPAI virus infection or live longer than naïve birds and, consequently, could pose a greater risk for contributing to viral transmission and dissemination. The mechanisms responsible for this protection and/or the duration of this immunity remain unknown. The results of this study are important for surveillance efforts and help clarify epidemiological data from outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI virus in wild bird populations. PMID:21253608

  19. Avian influenza A viruses in birds of the order Psittaciformes: reports on virus isolations, transmission experiments and vaccinations and initial studies on innocuity and efficacy of oseltamivir in ovo.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Blanco Peña, K M; Yilmaz, A; Redmann, T; Hofheinz, S

    2007-07-01

    Birds of the order Psittaciformes are - besides chickens, turkeys and other birds - also susceptible to infection with avian influenza A viruses (AIV) and succumb following severe disease within one week. Published data prove that various parakeets, amazons, cockatoos, African grey parrots and budgerigars (genera Barnardius, Psittacula, Cacatua, Eolophus, Amazona, Myiopsitta, Psittacus and Melopsittacus) were found dead following natural infections. Natural infections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 cause severe disease and high rates of mortality. Experimental transmission studies with AlVs of the subtypes H5 and H7 confirm these data. Viruses of the subtypes H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H11N6 and H11N8 may cause also clinical signs and occasionally losses in naturally infected psittacine birds. Clinical signs and losses were also noted following experimental infection of budgerigars with a H4N6 virus. In the EU and in other countries, vaccination of exposed exotic and rare birds and poultry is a possible and an acceptable measure to provide protection. Currently, the EU Commission accepts inactivated adjuvanted vaccines whereas in some other countries recently developed vector vaccines are applied. However, birds remain susceptible during the time interval between application of any vaccine and the development of immunity. This critical period can be bridged with antiviral drugs. Our in ovo studies demonstrate that the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is non-toxic for chicken embryos at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg body weight. These dosages prevented entirely the replication of a HPAIV of the subtype H7N1 when this drug is given shortly prior to, simultaneously or soon after inoculation of chicken embryos with this AIV. Thus, we speculate that exposed valuable birds such as psittacines at risk can be successfully treated. PMID:17724934

  20. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Zika Virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Areas with Zika Countries and territories with active Zika virus transmission... Mosquito Control Prevent mosquito bites, integrated mosquito ...