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Sample records for aiaa guidance navigation

  1. Contributions to the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, S. D. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This report contains six papers presented by the Lincoln Laboratory Air Traffic Control Systems Group at the American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics (AIAA) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) conference on 6-9 August 2001 in Montreal, Canada. The work reported was sponsored by the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program and the FAA Free Flight Phase 1 (FFP1) program. The papers are based on studies completed at Lincoln Laboratory in collaboration with staff at NASA Ames Research Center. These papers were presented in the Air Traffic Automation Session of the conference and fall into three major areas: Traffic Analysis & Benefits Studies, Weather/Automation Integration and Surface Surveillance. In the first area, a paper by Andrews & Robinson presents an analysis of the efficiency of runway operations at Dallas/Ft. Worth using a tool called PARO, and a paper by Welch, Andrews & Robinson presents a delay benefit results for the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST). In the second area, a paper by Campbell, et al describes a new weather distribution systems for the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) that allows ingestion of multiple weather sources, and a paper by Vandevenne, Lloyd & Hogaboom describes the use of the NOAA Eta model as a backup wind data source for CTAS. Also in this area, a paper by Murphy & Campbell presents initial steps towards integrating weather impacted routes into FAST. In the third area, a paper by Welch, Bussolari and Atkins presents an initial operational concept for using surface surveillance to reduce taxi delays.

  2. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  3. Orion Cislunar Guidance and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Crain, Timothy; Clark, Fred C.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion vehicle is being designed to provide nominal crew transport to the lunar transportation stack in low Earth orbit, crew abort prior during transit to the moon, and crew return to Earth once lunar orbit is achieved. Design of guidance and navigation algorithms to perform maneuvers in support of these functions is dependent on the support provided by navigation infrastructure, the performance of the onboard GN&C system, and the choice of trajectory maneuver methodology for outbound and return mission phases. This paper documents the preliminary integrated analyses performed by members of the Orion Orbit GN&C System team investigating the navigation update accuracy of a modern equivalent to the Apollo era ground tracking network and the expected onboard dispersion and navigation errors during a lunar mission using a linear covariance error analysis technique.

  4. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Heather; Tamblyn, Scott; Jackson, William L.; Foster, Chris; Brazzel, Jack; Manning, Thomas R.; Clark, Fred; Spehar, Pete; Barrett, Jim D.; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    The Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Program (RPOP) is real-time guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) domain piloting-aid software that provides 3D Orbiter graphics and runs on the Space Shuttle's Criticality-3 Payload and General Support Computer (PGSC) in the crew cockpit. This software provides the crew with Situational Awareness during the rendezvous and proximity operations phases of flight. RPOP can be configured from flight to flight, accounting for mission-specific flight scenarios and target vehicles, via initialization load (I-load) data files. The software provides real-time, automated, closed-loop guidance recommendations and the capability to integrate the crew s manual backup techniques. The software can bring all relative navigation sensor data, including the Orbiter's GPC (general purpose computer) data, into one central application to provide comprehensive situational awareness of the rendezvous and proximity operations trajectory. RPOP also can separately maintain trajectory estimates (past, current, and predicted) based on certain data types and co-plot them, in order to show how the various navigation solutions compare. RPOP s best estimate of the relative trajectory is determined by a relative Kalman filter processing data provided by the sensor suite s most accurate sensor, the trajectory control sensor (TCS). Integrated with the Kalman filter is an algorithm that identifies the reflector that the TCS is tracking. Because RPOP runs on PC laptop computers, the development and certification lifecycles are more agile, flexible, and cheaper than those that govern the Orbiter FSW (flight software) that runs in the GPC. New releases of RPOP can be turned around on a 3- to 6-month template, from new Change Request (CR) to certification, depending on the complexity of the changes.

  5. Navigating through 'a labyrinth' of guidance.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Devising a strategy to deliver safe water to thousands of outlets spread across numerous buildings is always going to be a challenge, so how do you navigate your way through a bewildering labyrinth of sometimes contradictory guidance documents? Is there, in fact, simply too much guidance? Posing this question at a recent one-day conference on waterborne infections in healthcare facilities, Paul Nolan, authorised water engineer (AE), and operations manager for PFI provider, Lend Lease, took delegates through a review of the latest guidance and regulations, as Susan Pearson reports. PMID:25282983

  6. Aeroassist flight experiment guidance, navigation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Timothy J.; Engel, Albert G.

    1986-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment scheduled for the early 1990's will demonstrate the use of a low L/D lifting brake using aerodynamic drag to return a spacecraft from a high energy to a low earth orbit. The experimental vehicle will be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle Orbiter. This paper reviews some of the challenges, problems, and solutions encountered to date during guidance system development, with emphasis on technology advances which will benefit an operational Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). Key factors to be discussed include guidance alternatives, aerodynamic modeling, navigation requirements, the impact of atmospheric uncertainties, and flight profile alternatives considered during initial planning.

  7. The military space system technology model - A guidance, navigation and control perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, K.; Daly, K. C.; Dorroh, W. E.; Fosth, D.; Iwens, R.; Pelka, G.; Williamson, R. K.

    The Military Space Systems Technology Model (MSSTM) represents a systematic approach to identify future technology needs based on perceived mission requirements. In provides help in the planning of technology programs which support the mission of the Space Division, Air Force Systems Command. The MSSTM represents a broad range of information concerning the projected military space missions systems, and technology requirements for the next 20 years. In an attempt to obtain an industry view of the MSSTM, the AIAA was asked by Space Division to review this model. The activity was divided into 15 different functional areas. The present investigation is concerned with the Guidance Navigation and Control (GNC) results. Attention is given to attitude determination and navigation, acquisition, pointing, tracking, large space structure control, GNC space operations, and questions of systems design. It is concluded that new GNC technology is needed to enable 17 of the considered missions to be performed.

  8. 1999 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA Centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

  9. 2000 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

  10. Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2011-01-01

    G-View is a 3D visualization tool for supporting spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) simulations relevant to small-body exploration and sampling (see figure). The tool is developed in MATLAB using Virtual Reality Toolbox and provides users with the ability to visualize the behavior of their simulations, regardless of which programming language (or machine) is used to generate simulation results. The only requirement is that multi-body simulation data is generated and placed in the proper format before applying G-View.

  11. Guidance, navigation, and control for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilg, Mark Dean

    The United States Army is currently looking for new methods of guiding munitions, which would allow the military to employ guided munitions in place of traditional munitions. This will give the US Army an edge on the battle field and also allow the use of munitions in areas where traditional mortars and artillery cannot be used, including dense urban environments where collateral damage is not acceptable. In this thesis, an innovative approach to Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is developed for a spinning projectile that utilizes a single axis canard actuation system. Utilizing the projectiles spin, the controller can provide a full range of aerodynamic forces, over the 360° of rotation, that provides maneuverability using only one actuator. This technique minimizes the need for multiple actuators and maintains the inherent aerodynamic stability provided by the spin. The GN&C system design described in this thesis consists of a tracking regulator for sinusoidally oscillating the canard system, a nonlinear state estimator for attitude measurement, and a guidance law to guide the projectile to a target. By combining the three components, we can demonstrate a closed-loop guidance system that will hit a target accurately at distances normally not achieved by an unguided projectile.

  12. Recent Events in Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Bullman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes recent events in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in space, weapons and missiles, and aircraft. The section on space includes recent developments with the following NASA spacecraft and space vehicles: Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, Deep Space 1, Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Earth Observer-1, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the International Space Station, X-38, and X-40A. The section on weapons and missiles includes recent developments with the following missiles: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile, Storm Shadow/Scalp EG precision standoff missile, Hellfire missile, AIM-120C Advanced medium-range air-to-air missile, Derby missile, Arrow 2, and the Standard Missile SM-3. The section on aircraft includes recent developments with the following aircraft: Joint Strike Fighter, X-31, V-22, Couger/SUDer Puma Mk. 2, Predator B 001, and the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle.

  13. Guidance by odors in honeybee navigation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Randolf; Greggers, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Animal navigation is guided by multiple sensory cues. Here, we ask whether and how olfactory stimuli emanating from places other than the trained feeding site redirect the flight paths of honeybees. The flight trajectories of individual bees were registered using harmonic radar tracking. Sensory cues (compass direction, distance, visual cues en route and close to the feeding site) associated with the trained flight route dominated wayfinding, but a learned odorant carried by air flow induced excursions into the wind. These redirections were largely restricted to rather small deviations from the trained route (<60°, <200 m) and occurred only if the animal did not receive the trained odorant stimulus at the trained feeding site. Under certain conditions, larger excursions were observed. These findings are discussed in the context of odor guidance of honeybees over longer distances (>300 m from the hive). PMID:23974855

  14. Framework Based Guidance Navigation and Control Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's guidance navigation and control flight software development background. The contents include: 1) NASA/Goddard Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) Flight Software (FSW) Development Background; 2) GN&C FSW Development Improvement Concepts; and 3) GN&C FSW Application Framework.

  15. Apollo 13 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion and rupture of a liquid oxygen tank during the Apollo 13 mission provides lessons and insights for future spacecraft designers and operations personnel who may never, during their careers, have participated in saving a vehicle and crew during a spacecraft emergency. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) challenges were the reestablishment of attitude control after the oxygen tank incident, re-establishment of a free return trajectory, resolution of a ground tracking conflict between the LM and the Saturn V S-IVB stage, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) alignments, maneuvering to burn attitudes, attitude control during burns, and performing manual GNC tasks with most vehicle systems powered down. Debris illuminated by the Sun and gaseous venting from the Service Module (SM) complicated crew attempts to identify stars and prevented execution of nominal IMU alignment procedures. Sightings on the Sun, Moon, and Earth were used instead. Near continuous communications with Mission Control enabled the crew to quickly perform time critical procedures. Overcoming these challenges required the modification of existing contingency procedures.

  16. An onboard navigation system which fulfills Mars aerocapture guidance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Timothy J.; Fuhry, Douglas P.; Shepperd, Stanley W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a candidate autonomous onboard Mars approach navigation scheme capable of supporting aerocapture into Mars orbit is discussed. An aerocapture guidance and navigation system which can run independently of the preaerocapture navigation was used to define a preliminary set of accuracy requirements at entry interface. These requirements are used to evaluate the proposed preaerocapture navigation scheme. This scheme uses optical sightings on Deimos with a star tracker and an inertial measurement unit for instrumentation as a source for navigation nformation. Preliminary results suggest that the approach will adequately support aerocaputre into Mars orbit.

  17. Technical support for guidance, navigation and control space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A review of the guidance, navigation and control projects in support of the space shuttle program was conducted. The subjects considered include the following: (1) functional and performance requirements, (2) mission requirements, (3) operating systems software definition, (4) orbit navigation using various sensors, (5) fault detection, isolation and recovery, and (6) passive rendezvous sensors requirements definition.

  18. Autonomous RPRV Navigation, Guidance and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Donald E.; Myers, Thomas T.; Zellner, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Dryden Flight Research Center has the responsibility for flight testing of advanced remotely piloted research vehicles (RPRV) to explore highly maneuverable aircraft technology, and to test advanced structural concepts, and related aeronautical technologies which can yield important research results with significant cost benefits. The primary purpose is to provide the preliminary design of an upgraded automatic approach and landing control system and flight director display to improve landing performance and reduce pilot workload. A secondary purpose is to determine the feasibility of an onboard autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing capability for safe vehicle recovery in the event of loss of telemetry uplink communication with the vehicles. The current RPRV approach and landing method, the proposed automatic and manual approach and autoland system, and an autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing system concept which is based on existing operational technology are described.

  19. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Primary guidance, navigation, and control system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, M. D.; Swingle, W. L.; Bachman, S. L.; Leblanc, C. J.; Howard, H. T.; Biggs, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    The primary guidance, navigation, and control systems for both the lunar module and the command module are described. Development of the Apollo primary guidance systems is traced from adaptation of the Polaris Mark II system through evolution from Block I to Block II configurations; the discussion includes design concepts used, test and qualification programs performed, and major problems encountered. The major subsystems (inertial, computer, and optical) are covered. Separate sections on the inertial components (gyroscopes and accelerometers) are presented because these components represent a major contribution to the success of the primary guidance, navigation, and control system.

  20. A navigational guidance system in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2007-01-01

    Finding your way in large-scale space requires knowing where you currently are and how to get to your goal destination. While much is understood about the neural basis of one's current position during navigation, surprisingly little is known about how the human brain guides navigation to goals. Computational accounts argue that specific brain regions support navigational guidance by coding the proximity and direction to the goal, but empirical evidence for such mechanisms is lacking. Here, we scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they navigated to goal destinations in a highly accurate virtual simulation of a real city. Brain activity was then analyzed in combination with metric measures of proximity and direction to goal destinations that were derived from each individual subject's coordinates at every second of navigation. We found that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated, and activity in a right subicular/entorhinal region was negatively correlated with goal proximity. By contrast, activity in bilateral posterior parietal cortex was correlated with egocentric direction to goals. Our results provide empirical evidence for a navigational guidance system in the human brain, and define more precisely the contribution of these three brain regions to human navigation. In addition, these findings may also have wider implications for how the brain monitors and integrates different types of information in the service of goal-directed behavior in general. PMID:17492693

  1. A navigational guidance system in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2008-01-01

    Finding your way in large-scale space requires knowing where you currently are and how to get to your goal destination. While much is understood about the neural basis of one’s current position during navigation, surprisingly little is known about how the human brain guides navigation to goals. Computational accounts argue that specific brain regions support navigational guidance by coding the proximity and direction to the goal, but empirical evidence for such mechanisms is lacking. Here, we scanned subjects with functional MRI (fMRI) as they navigated to goal destinations in a highly accurate virtual simulation of a real city. Brain activity was then analysed in combination with metric measures of proximity and direction to goal destinations which were derived from each individual subject’s coordinates at every second of navigation. We found that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated, and activity in a right subicular/entorhinal region was negatively correlated with goal proximity. By contrast, activity in bilateral posterior parietal cortex was correlated with egocentric direction to goals. Our results provide empirical evidence for a navigational guidance system in the human brain, and define more precisely the contribution of these three brain regions to human navigation. In addition, these findings may also have wider implications for how the brain monitors and integrates different types of information in the service of goal-directed behaviour in general. PMID:17492693

  2. Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations. Volume 3: Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations are presented. The space-shuttle mission includes three relatively distinct guidance phases which are discussed; atmospheric boost, which is characterized by an adaptive guidance law; extra-atmospheric activities; and re-entry activities, where aerodynamic surfaces are the principal effectors. Guidance tasks include pre-maneuver targeting and powered flight guidance, where powered flight is defined to include the application of aerodynamic forces as well as thruster forces. A flow chart which follows guidance activities throughout the mission from the pre-launch phase through touchdown is presented. The main guidance programs and subroutines used in each phase of a typical rendezvous mission are listed. Detailed software requirements are also presented.

  3. Stochastically optimized monocular vision-based navigation and guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoko

    The objective of this thesis is to design a relative navigation and guidance law for unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, for vision-based control applications. The autonomous operation of UAVs has progressively developed in recent years. In particular, vision-based navigation, guidance and control has been one of the most focused on research topics for the automation of UAVs. This is because in nature, birds and insects use vision as the exclusive sensor for object detection and navigation. Furthermore, it is efficient to use a vision sensor since it is compact, light-weight and low cost. Therefore, this thesis studies the monocular vision-based navigation and guidance of UAVs. Since 2-D vision-based measurements are nonlinear with respect to the 3-D relative states, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied in the navigation system design. The EKF-based navigation system is integrated with a real-time image processing algorithm and is tested in simulations and flight tests. The first closed-loop vision-based formation flight between two UAVs has been achieved, and the results are shown in this thesis to verify the estimation performance of the EKF. In addition, vision-based 3-D terrain recovery was performed in simulations to present a navigation design which has the capability of estimating states of multiple objects. In this problem, the statistical z-test is applied to solve the correspondence problem of relating measurements and estimation states. As a practical example of vision-based control applications for UAVs, a vision-based obstacle avoidance problem is specially addressed in this thesis. A navigation and guidance system is designed for a UAV to achieve a mission of waypoint tracking while avoiding unforeseen stationary obstacles by using vision information. An EKF is applied to estimate each obstacles' position from the vision-based information. A collision criteria is established by using a collision-cone approach and a time-to-go criterion. A minimum

  4. Autonomous guidance, navigation and control bridging program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.; Doane, K. B.

    1991-01-01

    A four-center NASA team has undertaken to develop and demonstrate mature technologies applicable to autonomous guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) systems for application to the National Space Transportation System in full cognizance of its operational, safety, and performance requirements, as well as its cost constraints. Attention is to be given to GNC launch/landing weather assessment, ascent guidance, ascent load relief, and system failure during ascent. Preliminary results indicate that a ground-computed atmospheric steering profile can achieve near-optimum performance as well as high cost effectiveness.

  5. Navigation and guidance requirements for commercial VTOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Hollister, W. M.; Howell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has undertaken a research program to develop the navigation, guidance, control, and flight management technology base needed by Government and industry in establishing systems design concepts and operating procedures for VTOL short-haul transportation systems in the 1980s time period. The VALT (VTOL Automatic Landing Technology) Program encompasses the investigation of operating systems and piloting techniques associated with VTOL operations under all-weather conditions from downtown vertiports; the definition of terminal air traffic and airspace requirements; and the development of avionics including navigation, guidance, controls, and displays for automated takeoff, cruise, and landing operations. The program includes requirements analyses, design studies, systems development, ground simulation, and flight validation efforts.

  6. Recent Events in Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 3,600 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA Centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

  7. Problems and concepts of space station guidance, navigation, and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guha, A. K.; Craig, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Station System is defined as a network of space and ground assets which work together to support a variety of missions including commercial missions, science and applications missions, and technology development missions. The elements of the Space Station System include a Space Station Base, Space Platforms, Free Flyers, a Teleoperator Manuevering System (TMS), Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV), Orbiter Berthing Equipment, and Ground Support Equipment and Facilities. Guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) subsystem requirements are considered along with configuration trades.

  8. Stereotactic guidance for navigated percutaneous sacroiliac joint fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darrin J.; Kim, Sung-Bum; Rosenthal, Philip; Panchal, Ripul R.; Kim, Kee D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Arthrodesis of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) for surgical treatment of SIJ dysfunction has regained interest among spine specialists. Current techniques described in the literature most often utilize intraoperative fluoroscopy to aid in implant placement; however, image guidance for SIJ fusion may allow for minimally invasive percutaneous instrumentation with more precise implant placement. In the following cases, we performed percutaneous stereotactic navigated sacroiliac instrumentation using O-arm® multidimensional surgical imaging with StealthStation® navigation (Medtronic, Inc. Minneapolis, MN). Patients were positioned prone and an image-guidance reference frame was placed contralateral to the surgical site. O-arm® integrated with StealthStation® allowed immediate auto-registration. The skin incision was planned with an image-guidance probe. An image-guided awl, drill and tap were utilized to choose a starting point and trajectory. Threaded titanium cage(s) packed with autograft and/or allograft were then placed. O-arm® image-guidance allowed for implant placement in the SIJ with a small skin incision. However, we could not track the cage depth position with our current system, and in one patient, the SIJ cage had to be revised secondary to the anterior breach of sacrum.

  9. Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

  10. Economics of image guidance and navigation in spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khouja, Lutfi; Shweikeh, Faris; Pashman, Robert; Johnson, J. Patrick; Kim, Terrence T.; Drazin, Doniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Image-guidance and navigation in spinal surgery is becoming more widely utilized. Several studies have shown the use of this technology to increase accuracy of pedicle screw placement, decrease the rates of revision surgery, and minimize radiation exposure. In this paper, the authors analyze the economics of image-guided surgery (IGS) and navigation in spine surgery. Methods: A literature review was performed using PubMed, the CEA Registry, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Each article was screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria, including costs, reoperation, readmission rates, operating room time, and length of stay. Results: Thirteen studies were included in the analysis. Six studies were identified to meet the inclusion criteria for reporting costs and seven met the criteria for analysis of efficacy. Average costs ranged from $17,650 to $39,643. Pedicle screw misplacement rates using IGS ranged from 1.20% to 15.07% while reoperation rates ranged from 0% to 7.42%. Conclusion: There is currently an insufficient amount of studies reporting on the economics of spinal navigation to accurately conclude on its cost-effectiveness in clinical practice. Although a few of these studies showed less costs associated with intraoperative imaging, none were able to establish a statistically significant difference. Preliminary findings drawn from this study indicate a possible cost-effectiveness advantage with IGS, but more comprehensive data on costs need to be reported in order to validate its utilization. PMID:26167370

  11. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Considerations for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Guidance, navigation, and control of NTP may have some unique but manageable characteristics.

  12. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  13. Apollo Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Hardware Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic guidance, navigation and control (GNC) concepts, examines the Command and Service Module (CSM) and Lunar Module (LM) GNC organization and discusses the primary GNC and the CSM Stabilization and Control System (SCS), as well as other CSM-specific hardware. The LM Abort Guidance System (AGS), Control Electronics System (CES) and other LM-specific hardware are also addressed. Three subsystems exist on each vehicle: the computer subsystem (CSS), the inertial subsystem (ISS) and the optical subsystem (OSS). The CSS and ISS are almost identical between CSM and LM and each is designed to operate independently. CSM SCS hardware are highlighted, including translation control, rotation controls, gyro assemblies, a gyro display coupler and flight director attitude indicators. The LM AGS hardware are also highlighted and include the abort electronics assembly and the abort sensor assembly; while the LM CES hardware includes the attitude controller assembly, thrust/translation controller assemblies and the ascent engine arming assemble. Other common hardware including the Orbital Rate Display - Earth and Lunar (ORDEAL) and the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), a docking aid, are also highlighted.

  14. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) theory principles and applying them to the human element of project management and control is not a new concept. As both the literature on the subject and the real-world applications are neither readily available nor comprehensive with regard to how such principles might be applied, this paper has been written to educate the project manager on the "laws of physics" of his or her project (not to teach a GN&C engineer how to become a project manager) and to provide an intuitive, mathematical explanation as to the control and behavior of projects. This paper will also address how the fundamental principles of modern GN&C were applied to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) space suit project, ensuring the project was managed within cost, schedule, and budget. A project that is akin to a physical system can be modeled and managed using the same over arching principles of GN&C that would be used if that project were a complex vehicle, a complex system(s), or complex software with time-varying processes (at times nonlinear) containing multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. The classic GN&C theory approach could thus be applied to small, well-defined projects; yet when working with larger, multiyear projects necessitating multiple organizational structures, numerous external influences, and a multitude of diverse resources, modern GN&C principles are required to model and manage the project. The fundamental principles of a GN&C system incorporate these basic concepts: State, Behavior, Feedback Control, Navigation, Guidance and Planning Logic systems. The State of a system defines the aspects of the system that can change over time; e.g., position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, and temperature, etc. The Behavior of the system focuses more on what changes are possible within the system; this is denoted in the state

  15. Space shuttle guidance, navigation and control design equations. Volume 4: Deorbit and atmospheric operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. J.

    1971-01-01

    A baseline set of equations which fulfill the computation requirements for guidance, navigation, and control of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle is presented. All shuttle mission phases are covered from prelaunch through landing/rollout. The spacecraft flight mode and the aircraft flight mode are addressed. The baseline equations may be implemented in a single guidance, navigation, and control computer or may be distributed among several subsystem computers.

  16. Role of neural guidance signals in blood vessel navigation.

    PubMed

    Autiero, Monica; De Smet, Frederik; Claes, Filip; Carmeliet, Peter

    2005-02-15

    Despite the tremendous progress achieved in both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the last decade, little is still known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathfinding of blood vessels during their formation. However, emerging evidence shows that different axonal guidance cues, including members of the Slit and semaphorin families, are also involved in the blood vessel guidance, suggesting that blood vessels and nerves share common mechanisms in choosing and following specific paths to reach their respective targets. These promising findings open novel avenues not only in vascular biology but also in therapeutic angiogenesis. Indeed, the identification of new molecules involved in the guidance of blood vessels may be helpful in designing angiogenic strategies, which would insure both the formation of new blood vessels and their guidance into an organized and coordinated network. PMID:15664389

  17. Solar Dynamics Observatory Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mason, Paul A. C.; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Russo, Angela M.; Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was designed and built at the Goddard Space Flight Center, launched from Cape Canaveral on February 11, 2010, and reached its final geosynchronous science orbit on March 16, 2010. The purpose of SDO is to observe the Sun and continuously relay data to a dedicated ground station. SDO remains Sun-pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude control system (ACS) is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes sixteen coarse Sun sensors (CSSs), a digital Sun sensor (DSS), three two-axis inertial reference units (IRUs), and two star trackers (STs). The ACS also makes use of the four guide telescopes included as a part of one of the science instruments. Attitude actuation is performed using four reaction wheels assemblies (RWAs) and eight thrusters, with a single main engine used to provide velocity-change thrust for orbit raising. The attitude control software has five nominal control modes, three wheel-based modes and two thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude control electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. This paper details the final overall design of the SDO guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system and how it was used in practice during SDO launch, commissioning, and nominal operations. This overview will include the ACS control modes, attitude determination and sensor calibration, the high gain antenna (HGA) calibration, and jitter mitigation operation. The Solar Dynamics Observatory mission is part of the NASA Living With a Star program, which seeks to understand the changing Sun and its effects on the Solar System, life, and society. To this end, the SDO spacecraft carries three Sun

  18. A Design Study of Onboard Navigation and Guidance During Aerocapture at Mars. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhry, Douglas Paul

    1988-01-01

    The navigation and guidance of a high lift-to-drag ratio sample return vehicle during aerocapture at Mars are investigated. Emphasis is placed on integrated systems design, with guidance algorithm synthesis and analysis based on vehicle state and atmospheric density uncertainty estimates provided by the navigation system. The latter utilizes a Kalman filter for state vector estimation, with useful update information obtained through radar altimeter measurements and density altitude measurements based on IMU-measured drag acceleration. A three-phase guidance algorithm, featuring constant bank numeric predictor/corrector atmospheric capture and exit phases and an extended constant altitude cruise phase, is developed to provide controlled capture and depletion of orbital energy, orbital plane control, and exit apoapsis control. Integrated navigation and guidance systems performance are analyzed using a four degree-of-freedom computer simulation. The simulation environment includes an atmospheric density model with spatially correlated perturbations to provide realistic variations over the vehicle trajectory. Navigation filter initial conditions for the analysis are based on planetary approach optical navigation results. Results from a selection of test cases are presented to give insight into systems performance.

  19. System design impact of guidance and navigation analysis for a SEPS 1979 Encke flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, P.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline guidance and navigation strategy for an ecliptic projection of the Encke flyby mission consider solar electric propulsion stage parameters in generating optimized and targeted trajectory control. Results show the Encke relative approach error to be dominated by ephemerical uncertainties, particularly the velocity components.

  20. Space shuttle guidance, navigation and control design equations. Volume 3: Orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Revised specifications are presented of the equations necessary to perform the guidance, navigation, and control onboard computation functions for the space shuttle orbiter vehicle. The orbital operations covered include: (1) orbital coast, (2) orbital powered flight, (3) rendezvous mission phase, (4) station keeping mission phase, (5) docking and undocking, and (6) docked operations.

  1. A guide to onboard checkout. Volume 1: Guidance, navigation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of onboard checkout techniques, as they relate to space station subsystems, as a guide to those who may need to implement onboard checkout in similar subsystems. Guidance, navigation, and control subsystems, and their reliability and failure analyses are presented. Software and testing procedures are also given.

  2. NASA LaRC Workshop on Guidance, Navigation, Controls, and Dynamics for Atmospheric Flight, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Carey S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is a collection of materials presented at a NASA workshop on guidance, navigation, controls, and dynamics (GNC&D) for atmospheric flight. The workshop was held at the NASA Langley Research Center on March 18-19, 1993. The workshop presentations describe the status of current research in the GNC&D area at Langley over a broad spectrum of research branches. The workshop was organized in eight sessions: overviews, general, controls, military aircraft, dynamics, guidance, systems, and a panel discussion. A highlight of the workshop was the panel discussion which addressed the following issue: 'Direction of guidance, navigation, and controls research to ensure U.S. competitiveness and leadership in aerospace technologies.'

  3. Laser-Based Relative Navigation and Guidance for Space Shuttle Proximity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Brazzel, Jr. , Jack P.; Hinkel, Heather D.

    2003-01-01

    American manned spacecraft have used visual piloting techniques in the terminal phase of randezvous during the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle programs. In the last several years, space- shuttle astronauts have used the Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Program (RPOP), running; on a laptop computer, as a guidance and navigation aid during proximity operations. By processing measurements to the target satellite taken by a laser sensor, RPOP provides the shuttle crew with a more accurate relative position and velocity than from any other source. The inclusion of guidance algorithms allows RPOP to determine delta-velocities to fly very efficient, repeatable trajectories. This paper will focus on the guidance and navigation algorithms in RPOP, as well as results from simulation and flight. Although developed for shuttle proximity operations, the RPOP algorithms have potential applicability to an automated vehicle.

  4. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion Guidance Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch. We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool ("Critical Factors Tool" or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  5. Terminal Guidance Navigation for an Asteroid Impactor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Kennedy, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Near Earth Asteroids could potentially cause a great deal of devastation if one were to impact the Earth. If such an asteroid were found, the next step would be to mitigate the threat by one of several options, the most viable of which is to deflect the asteroids trajectory such that it misses the Earth by hitting it at a very high velocity with a spacecraft. The technology to perform such a deflection has been demonstrated by the Deep Impact (DI) mission, which successfully collided with comet Tempel 1 in July 2005 using an onboard autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav, for the terminal phase of the mission. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of AutoNav to impact a wide range of scenarios that an deflection mission could encounter, varying parameters such as the approach velocity, phase angle, size of the asteroid, and the determination of spacecraft attitude. Using realistic Monte Carlo simulations, we tabulated the probability of success of the deflection as a function of these parameters, and find the highest sensitivity to be due the spacecraft attitude determination mode. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  6. Closed loop terminal guidance navigation for a kinetic impactor spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Kennedy, Brian

    2014-10-01

    A kinetic impactor spacecraft is a viable method to deflect an asteroid which poses a threat to the Earth. The technology to perform such a deflection has been demonstrated by the Deep Impact (DI) mission, which successfully collided with comet Tempel 1 in July 2005 using an onboard autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav, for the terminal phase of the mission. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of AutoNav to impact a wider range of scenarios that a deflection mission could encounter, varying parameters such as the approach velocity, phase angle, size of the asteroid, and the attitude determination accuracy. In particular, we evaluated the capability of AutoNav to impact 100-300 m size asteroids at speeds between 7.5 and 20 km/s at various phase angles. Using realistic Monte Carlo simulations, we tabulated the probability of success of the deflection as a function of these parameters and find the highest sensitivity to be due to the spacecraft attitude determination error. In addition, we also specifically analyzed the impact probability for a proposed mission (called ISIS) which would send an impactor to the asteroid 1999RQ36. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  7. Closed Loop Terminal Guidance Navigation for a Kinetic Impactor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Kennedy, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A kinetic impactor spacecraft is a viable method to deflect an asteroid which poses a threat to the Earth. The technology to perform such a deflection has been demonstrated by the Deep Impact (DI) mission, which successfully collided with comet Tempel 1 in July 2005 using an onboard autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav, for the terminal phase of the mission. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of AutoNav to impact a wide range of scenarios that an deflection mission could encounter, varying parameters such as the approach velocity, phase angle, size of the asteroid, and the determination of spacecraft attitude. Using realistic Monte Carlo simulations, we tabulated the probability of success of the deflection as a function of these parameters, and the highest sensitivity to be due the spacecraft attitude determination mode. In addition, we also specifically analyzed the impact probability for a proposed mission which would send an impactor to the asteroid 1999RQ36. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  8. Emerging technologies for image guidance and device navigation in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Kagadis, George C; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C; Hendee, William R

    2012-09-01

    Recent developments in image-guidance and device navigation, along with emerging robotic technologies, are rapidly transforming the landscape of interventional radiology (IR). Future state-of-the-art IR procedures may include real-time three-dimensional imaging that is capable of visualizing the target organ, interventional tools, and surrounding anatomy with high spatial and temporal resolution. Remote device actuation is becoming a reality with the introduction of novel magnetic-field enabled instruments and remote robotic steering systems. Robots offer several degrees of freedom and unprecedented accuracy, stability, and dexterity during device navigation, propulsion, and actuation. Optimization of tracking and navigation of interventional tools inside the human body will be critical in converting IR suites into the minimally invasive operating theaters of the future with increased safety and unsurpassed therapeutic efficacy. In the not too distant future, individual image guidance modalities and device tracking methods could merge into autonomous, multimodality, multiparametric platforms that offer real-time data of anatomy, morphology, function, and metabolism along with on-the-fly computational modeling and remote robotic actuation. The authors provide a concise overview of the latest developments in image guidance and device navigation, while critically envisioning what the future might hold for 2020 IR procedures. PMID:22957641

  9. Guidance, Navigation and Control for Satellite Proximity Operations using Tschauner-Hempel Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okasha, Mohamed; Newman, Brett

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the development of relative navigation, guidance, and control algorithms of an autonomous space rendezvous and docking system are presented. These algorithms are based on using the analytical closed-form solution of the Tschauner-Hempel equations that is completely explicit in time. The navigation system uses an extended Kalman filter based on Tschauner-Hempel equations to estimate the relative position and velocity of the chaser vehicle with respect to the target vehicle and the chaser attitude and gyros biases. This filter uses the range and angle measurements of the target relative to the chaser from a simulated LIDAR system along with the star tracker and gyro measurements of the chaser. The corresponding measurement models, process noise matrix and other filter parameters are provided. The guidance and control algorithms are based on the glideslope used in the past for rendezvous and proximity operations of the Space Shuttle with other vehicles. These algorithms are used to approach, flyaround, and to depart form a target vehicle in elliptic orbits. The algorithms are general and able to translate the chaser vehicle in any direction, decelerate while approaching the target vehicle, and accelerate when moving away. Numerical nonlinear simulations that illustrate the relative navigation, attitude estimation, guidance, and control algorithms performance and accuracy are evaluated in the current paper. The analyses include the navigations errors, trajectory dispersions and attitude dispersions.

  10. Development of an integrated spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for automated proximity operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Peter Z.; Spencer, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation process of a highly automated Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for a small satellite on-orbit inspection application, enabling proximity operations without human-in-the-loop interaction. The paper focuses on the integration and testing of Guidance, Navigation, & Control software and the development of decision logic to address the question of how such a system can be effectively implemented for full automation. This process is unique because a multitude of operational scenarios must be considered and a set of complex interactions between subsystem algorithms must be defined to achieve the automation goal. The Prox-1 mission is currently under development within the Space Systems Design Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The mission involves the characterization of new small satellite component technologies, deployment of the LightSail 3U CubeSat, entering into a trailing orbit relative to LightSail using ground-in-the-loop commands, and demonstration of automated proximity operations through formation flight and natural motion circumnavigation maneuvers. Operations such as these may be utilized for many scenarios including on-orbit inspection, refueling, repair, construction, reconnaissance, docking, and debris mitigation activities. Prox-1 uses onboard sensors and imaging instruments to perform Guidance, Navigation, & Control operations during on-orbit inspection of LightSail. Navigation filters perform relative orbit determination based on images of the target spacecraft, and guidance algorithms conduct automated maneuver planning. A slew and tracking controller sends attitude actuation commands to a set of control moment gyroscopes, and other controllers manage desaturation, detumble, thruster firing, and target acquisition/recovery. All Guidance, Navigation, & Control algorithms are developed in a MATLAB/Simulink six degree-of-freedom simulation environment and are integrated using

  11. Integrated guidance, navigation and control verification plan primary flight system. [space shuttle avionics integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The verification process and requirements for the ascent guidance interfaces and the ascent integrated guidance, navigation and control system for the space shuttle orbiter are defined as well as portions of supporting systems which directly interface with the system. The ascent phase of verification covers the normal and ATO ascent through the final OMS-2 circularization burn (all of OPS-1), the AOA ascent through the OMS-1 burn, and the RTLS ascent through ET separation (all of MM 601). In addition, OPS translation verification is defined. Verification trees and roadmaps are given.

  12. NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology Summer Workshop. Volume 3: Navigation, guidance and control panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    User technology requirements are identified in relation to needed technology advancement for future space missions in the areas of navigation, guidance, and control. Emphasis is placed on: reduction of mission support cost by 50% through autonomous operation, a ten-fold increase in mission output through improved pointing and control, and a hundred-fold increase in human productivity in space through large-scale teleoperator applications.

  13. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  14. Evaluation of the navigation performance of shipboard-VTOL-landing guidance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.; Steck, S. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Merz, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a VTOL aircraft landing approach navigation system that receives data (1) from either a microwave scanning beam (MSB) or a radar-transponder (R-T) landing guidance system, and (2) information data-linked from an aviation facility ship. State-of-the-art low-cost-aided inertial techniques and variable gain filters were used in the assumed navigation system. Compensation for ship motion was accomplished by a landing pad deviation vector concept that is a measure of the landing pad's deviation from its calm sea location. The results show that the landing guidance concepts were successful in meeting all of the current Navy navigation error specifications, provided that vector magnitude of the allowable error, rather than the error in each axis, is a permissible interpretation of acceptable performance. The success of these concepts, however, is strongly dependent on the distance measuring equipment bias. In addition, the 'best possible' closed-loop tracking performance achievable with the assumed point-mass VTOL aircraft guidance concept is demonstrated.

  15. Guidance, navigation & control systems for sounding rockets - flight results, current status and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunge, Lars

    2005-08-01

    At the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rockets and Balloons, two newly developed guidance and control systems by Saab Ericsson Space were presented: The S19D guidance and control system, which uses DS19 hardware to execute S19 type guidance and control. The GCS/DMARS guidance, navigation and control system, which is a modernisation of the GCS/RIINS. These two and the third recent system, the DS19, were developed as replacements for the analog S19 and the GCS/RIINS, both of which use very old technology. The design drivers or the DS19, the S19D and the GCS/DMARS are: User requirements. New technology with improved performance capability becoming available. Current technology becoming old and replacement parts hard to come by. This paper first lists some guidance related user requirements, and then discusses the performance that has been achieved in the various guidance systems, including the S19, for comparison. This is first done from a theoretical point of view and then by analyzing actual flight data. The ability of the systems to fulfil the user requirements is also discussed and finally, a look is taken into the future.

  16. A guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, C. J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles is described. A set of orbit elements, known as the equinoctial elements, are selected as the state variables. The uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time nominal trajectory is defined and the equation of motion and the measurement equation are linearized about this nominal trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback guidance law is derived to control the thrusting direction of the engine. Using this guidance law, the vehicle will fly in a trajectory neighboring the nominal trajectory. The extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. Finally a short mission using this system is simulated. The results indicate that this system is very efficient for short missions.

  17. Landmarks or panoramas: what do navigating ants attend to for guidance?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insects are known to rely on terrestrial landmarks for navigation. Landmarks are used to chart a route or pinpoint a goal. The distant panorama, however, is often thought not to guide navigation directly during a familiar journey, but to act as a contextual cue that primes the correct memory of the landmarks. Results We provided Melophorus bagoti ants with a huge artificial landmark located right near the nest entrance to find out whether navigating ants focus on such a prominent visual landmark for homing guidance. When the landmark was displaced by small or large distances, ant routes were affected differently. Certain behaviours appeared inconsistent with the hypothesis that guidance was based on the landmark only. Instead, comparisons of panoramic images recorded on the field, encompassing both landmark and distal panorama, could explain most aspects of the ant behaviours. Conclusion Ants navigating along a familiar route do not focus on obvious landmarks or filter out distal panoramic cues, but appear to be guided by cues covering a large area of their panoramic visual field, including both landmarks and distal panorama. Using panoramic views seems an appropriate strategy to cope with the complexity of natural scenes and the poor resolution of insects' eyes. The ability to isolate landmarks from the rest of a scene may be beyond the capacity of animals that do not possess a dedicated object-perception visual stream like primates. PMID:21871114

  18. Flight assessment of a data-link-based navigation-guidance concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.

    1983-01-01

    With the proposed introduction of a data-link provision into the Air-Traffic-control (ATC) system, the capability will exist to supplement the ground-air, voice (radio) link with digital, data-link information. Additionally, ATC computers could provide, via the data link guidance and navigation information to the pilot which could then be presented in much the same manner as conventional navigation information. The primary objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using 4-sec and 12-sec information updating to drive conventional cockpit-navigation-instrument formats for path-tracking guidance. A flight test, consisting of 19 tracking tasks, was conducted and, through the use of pilot questionnaires and performance data, the following results were obtained. From a performance standpoint, the 4-sec and 12-sec updating led to a slight degradation in path-tracking performance, relative to continuous updating. From the pilot's viewpoint, the 12-sec data interval was suitable for long path segments (greater than 2 min of flight time), but it was difficult to use on shorter segments because of higher work load and insufficient stabilization time. Overall, it was determined that the utilization of noncontinuous data for navigation was both feasible and acceptable for the prescribed task.

  19. Navigation errors encountered using weather-mapping radar for helicopter IFR guidance to oil rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 a joint NASA-FAA helicopter flight test was conducted to examine the use of weather-mapping radar for IFR guidance during landing approaches to oil rig helipads. The following navigation errors were measured: total system error, radar-range error, radar-bearing error, and flight technical error. Three problem areas were identified: (1) operational problems leading to pilot blunders, (2) poor navigation to the downwind final approach point, and (3) pure homing on final approach. Analysis of these problem areas suggests improvement in the radar equipment, approach procedure, and pilot training, and gives valuable insight into the development of future navigation aids to serve the off-shore oil industry.

  20. Sensors and sensor systems for guidance and navigation II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include aircraft guidance and navigation, optics for visual guidance of aircraft, spacecraft and missile guidance and navigation, lidar and ladar systems, microdevices, gyroscopes, cockpit displays, and automotive displays. Papers are presented on optical processing for range and attitude determination, aircraft collision avoidance using a statistical decision theory, a scanning laser aircraft surveillance system for carrier flight operations, star sensor simulation for astroinertial guidance and navigation, autonomous millimeter-wave radar guidance systems, and a 1.32-micron long-range solid state imaging ladar. Attention is also given to a microfabricated magnetometer using Young's modulus changes in magnetoelastic materials, an integrated microgyroscope, a pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope, self-scanned polysilicon active-matrix liquid-crystal displays, the history and development of coated contrast enhancement filters for cockpit displays, and the effect of the display configuration on the attentional sampling performance.

  1. Development and hardware-in-the-loop test of a guidance, navigation and control system for on-orbit servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, Heike; Rems, Florian; Boge, Toralf

    2014-09-01

    The rendezvous phase is one of the most important phases in future orbital servicing missions. To ensure a safe approach to a non-cooperative target satellite, a guidance, navigation and control system which uses measurements from optical sensors like cameras was designed and developed. During ground-based rendezvous, stability problems induced by delayed position measurements can be compensated by using a specially adapted navigation filter. Within the VIBANASS (VIsion BAsed NAvigation Sensor System) test campaign, hardware-in-the-loop tests on the terrestrial, robotic based facility EPOS 2.0 were performed to test and verify the developed guidance, navigation and control algorithms using real sensor measurements. We could demonstrate several safe rendezvous test cases in a closed loop mode integrating the VIBANASS camera system and the developed guidance, navigation and control system to a dynamic rendezvous simulation.

  2. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  3. The Development of the MSL Guidance, Navigation, and Control System for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    San Martin, A. Miguel; Lee, Steven W.; Wong, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission successfully delivered the Curiosity rover to its intended target. It was the most complex and ambitious landing in the history of the red planet. A key component of the landing system, the requirements for which were driven by the mission ambitious science goals, was the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system. This paper will describe the technical challenges of the MSL GN&C system, the resulting architecture and design needed to meet those challenges, and the development process used for its implementation and testing.

  4. An analysis of approach navigation accuracy and guidance requirements for the grand tour mission to the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    The navigation and guidance process for the Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus planetary encounter phases of the 1977 Grand Tour interior mission was simulated. Reference approach navigation accuracies were defined and the relative information content of the various observation types were evaluated. Reference encounter guidance requirements were defined, sensitivities to assumed simulation model parameters were determined and the adequacy of the linear estimation theory was assessed. A linear sequential estimator was used to provide an estimate of the augmented state vector, consisting of the six state variables of position and velocity plus the three components of a planet position bias. The guidance process was simulated using a nonspherical model of the execution errors. Computation algorithms which simulate the navigation and guidance process were derived from theory and implemented into two research-oriented computer programs, written in FORTRAN.

  5. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the guidance, navigation, and control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trahan, W. H.; Odonnell, R. A.; Pietz, K. C.; Hiott, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) is presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Subsystem hardware are documented. The function of the GNC hardware is to respond to guidance, navigation, and control software commands to effect vehicle control and to provide sensor and controller data to GNC software. Some of the GNC hardware for which failure modes analysis was performed includes: hand controllers; Rudder Pedal Transducer Assembly (RPTA); Speed Brake Thrust Controller (SBTC); Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU); Star Tracker (ST); Crew Optical Alignment Site (COAS); Air Data Transducer Assembly (ADTA); Rate Gyro Assemblies; Accelerometer Assembly (AA); Aerosurface Servo Amplifier (ASA); and Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC). The IOA analysis process utilized available GNC hardware drawings, workbooks, specifications, schematics, and systems briefs for defining hardware assemblies, components, and circuits. Each hardware item was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  6. The IXV guidance, navigation and control subsystem: Development, verification and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Victor; Contreras, Rafael; Sanchez, Raul; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Serrano, Daniel; Kerr, Murray; Fernandez, Vicente; Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo; Peñin, Luis F.; Ospina, Jose A.; De Zaiacomo, Gabriale; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Yague, Ricardo; Zaccagnino, Elio; Preaud, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) [1] is an ESA re-entry lifting body demonstrator built to verify in-flight the performance of critical re-entry technologies. The IXV was launched on February the 11th, 2015, aboard Europe's Vega launcher. The IXV´s flight and successful recovery represents a major step forward with respect to previous European re-entry experience with the Atmospheric Re-entry Demonstrator (ARD) [2], flown in October 1998. The increased in-flight manoeuvrability achieved from the lifting body solution permitted the verification of technologies over a wider re-entry corridor. Among other objectives, which included the characterisation of the re-entry environment through a variety of sensors, special attention was paid to Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) aspects, including the guidance algorithms for the lifting body, the use of the inertial measurement unit measurements with GPS updates for navigation, and the flight control by means of aerodynamic flaps and reaction control thrusters. This paper presents the overall Design, Development and Verification logic that has been successfully followed by the GNC and Flight Management (FM) subsystem of the IXV. It also focuses on the interactions between the GNC and the System, Avionics and OBSW development lifecycles and how an integrated and incremental verification process has been implemented by ensuring the maximum representativeness and reuse through all stages.

  7. Integrated software health management for aerospace guidance, navigation, and control systems: A probabilistic reasoning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaya, Timmy

    Embedded Aerospace Systems have to perform safety and mission critical operations in a real-time environment where timing and functional correctness are extremely important. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems substantially rely on complex software interfacing with hardware in real-time; any faults in software or hardware, or their interaction could result in fatal consequences. Integrated Software Health Management (ISWHM) provides an approach for detection and diagnosis of software failures while the software is in operation. The ISWHM approach is based on probabilistic modeling of software and hardware sensors using a Bayesian network. To meet memory and timing constraints of real-time embedded execution, the Bayesian network is compiled into an Arithmetic Circuit, which is used for on-line monitoring. This type of system monitoring, using an ISWHM, provides automated reasoning capabilities that compute diagnoses in a timely manner when failures occur. This reasoning capability enables time-critical mitigating decisions and relieves the human agent from the time-consuming and arduous task of foraging through a multitude of isolated---and often contradictory---diagnosis data. For the purpose of demonstrating the relevance of ISWHM, modeling and reasoning is performed on a simple simulated aerospace system running on a real-time operating system emulator, the OSEK/Trampoline platform. Models for a small satellite and an F-16 fighter jet GN&C (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) system have been implemented. Analysis of the ISWHM is then performed by injecting faults and analyzing the ISWHM's diagnoses.

  8. Preliminary Design of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control System of the Altair Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Ely, Todd; Sostaric, Ronald; Strahan, Alan; Riedel, Joseph E.; Ingham, Mitch; Wincentsen, James; Sarani, Siamak

    2010-01-01

    Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is the measurement and control of spacecraft position, velocity, and attitude in support of mission objectives. This paper provides an overview of a preliminary design of the GN&C system of the Lunar Lander Altair. Key functions performed by the GN&C system in various mission phases will first be described. A set of placeholder GN&C sensors that is needed to support these functions is next described. To meet Crew safety requirements, there must be high degrees of redundancy in the selected sensor configuration. Two sets of thrusters, one on the Ascent Module (AM) and the other on the Descent Module (DM), will be used by the GN&C system. The DM thrusters will be used, among other purposes, to perform course correction burns during the Trans-lunar Coast. The AM thrusters will be used, among other purposes, to perform precise angular and translational controls of the ascent module in order to dock the ascent module with Orion. Navigation is the process of measurement and control of the spacecraft's "state" (both the position and velocity vectors of the spacecraft). Tracking data from the Earth-Based Ground System (tracking antennas) as well as data from onboard optical sensors will be used to estimate the vehicle state. A driving navigation requirement is to land Altair on the Moon with a landing accuracy that is better than 1 km (radial 95%). Preliminary performance of the Altair GN&C design, relative to this and other navigation requirements, will be given. Guidance is the onboard process that uses the estimated state vector, crew inputs, and pre-computed reference trajectories to guide both the rotational and the translational motions of the spacecraft during powered flight phases. Design objectives of reference trajectories for various mission phases vary. For example, the reference trajectory for the descent "approach" phase (the last 3-4 minutes before touchdown) will sacrifice fuel utilization efficiency in order to

  9. Simulation of Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems for Formation Flying Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Rich; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Concepts for missions of distributed spacecraft flying in formation abound. From high resolution interferometry to spatially distributed in-situ measurements, these mission concepts levy a myriad of guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) requirements on the spacecraft/formation as a single system. A critical step toward assessing and meeting these challenges lies in realistically simulating distributed spacecraft systems. The Formation Flying TestBed (FFTB) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center is a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and development facility focused on GNC issues relevant to formation flying systems. The FFTB provides a realistic simulation of the vehicle dynamics and control for formation flying missions in order to: (1) conduct feasibility analyses of mission requirements, (2) conduct and answer mission and spacecraft design trades, and (3) serve as a host for GNC software and hardware development and testing. The initial capabilities of the FFTB are based upon an integration of high fidelity hardware and software simulation, emulation, and test platforms developed or employed at GSFC in recent years, including a high-fidelity Global Positioning System (GPS) simulator which has been a fundamental component of the GNC Center's GPS Test Facility. The FFTB will be continuously evolving over the next several years from a tool with capabilities in GPS navigation hardware/software-in-the-loop analysis and closed loop GPS-based orbit control algorithm assessment. Eventually, it will include full capability to support all aspects of multi-sensor, absolute and relative state determination and control, in all (attitude and orbit) degrees of freedom, as well as information management for satellite clusters and constellations. A detailed description of the FFTB architecture is presented in the paper.

  10. Design and integration of vision based sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles navigation and guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Bartel, Celia; Kaharkar, Anish; Shaid, Tesheen

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present a novel Navigation and Guidance System (NGS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on Vision Based Navigation (VBN) and other avionics sensors. The main objective of our research is to design a lowcost and low-weight/volume NGS capable of providing the required level of performance in all flight phases of modern small- to medium-size UAVs, with a special focus on automated precision approach and landing, where VBN techniques can be fully exploited in a multisensory integrated architecture. Various existing techniques for VBN are compared and the Appearance-based Navigation (ABN) approach is selected for implementation. Feature extraction and optical flow techniques are employed to estimate flight parameters such as roll angle, pitch angle, deviation from the runway and body rates. Additionally, we address the possible synergies between VBN, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electromechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors and also the use of Aircraft Dynamics Models (ADMs) to provide additional information suitable to compensate for the shortcomings of VBN sensors in high-dynamics attitude determination tasks. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is developed to fuse the information provided by the different sensors and to provide estimates of position, velocity and attitude of the platform in real-time. Two different integrated navigation system architectures are implemented. The first uses VBN at 20 Hz and GPS at 1 Hz to augment the MEMS-IMU running at 100 Hz. The second mode also includes the ADM (computations performed at 100 Hz) to provide augmentation of the attitude channel. Simulation of these two modes is performed in a significant portion of the Aerosonde UAV operational flight envelope and performing a variety of representative manoeuvres (i.e., straight climb, level turning, turning descent and climb, straight descent, etc.). Simulation of the first integrated navigation system architecture

  11. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technology Assessment for Future Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Pat; Cutts, James; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Wood, Lincoln J.; Riedel, Joseph E.; McHenry, Mike; Aung, MiMi; Cangahuala, Laureano A.; Volpe, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Future planetary explorations envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC's) report titled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, developed for NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD), seek to reach targets of broad scientific interest across the solar system. This goal requires new capabilities such as innovative interplanetary trajectories, precision landing, operation in close proximity to targets, precision pointing, multiple collaborating spacecraft, multiple target tours, and advanced robotic surface exploration. Advancements in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) and Mission Design in the areas of software, algorithm development and sensors will be necessary to accomplish these future missions. This paper summarizes the key GN&C and mission design capabilities and technologies needed for future missions pursuing SMD PSD's scientific goals.

  12. A guidance and navigation system for continuous low-thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack-Chingtse, C.

    1973-01-01

    A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles was developed. The equinoctial elements are the state variables. Uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time trajectory is defined; equations of motion and measurements are linearized about this trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback quidance law is derived. An extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. A short mission using this system is simulated. It is indicated that this system is efficient for short missions, but longer missions require accurate trajectory and ground based measurements.

  13. The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Hardware Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; Davis, Gary T.; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The on-orbit success of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Guidance, Navigation, and Control System can partially be attributed to the performance of a hardware suite chosen to meet the complex attitude determination and control requirements of the mission. To meet these requirements, a diverse set of components was used. The set included two Lockheed Martin AST-201 star trackers, two Kearfott Two-Axis Rate Assemblies mounted to provide X, Y and redundant Z-axis rates, two Adcole Digital Sun Sensor heads sharing one set of electronics, twelve Adcole Coarse Sun Sensor eyes, three Ithaco E-sized Reaction Wheel Assemblies, a Propulsion Subsystem that employed eight Primex Rocket Engine Modules, and a pair of Goddard-designed Attitude Control Electronics which connect all of the components to the spacecraft processor. The performance of this hardware is documented, as are some of the spacecraft accommodations and lessons learned that came from working with this particular set of hardware.

  14. Spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control requirements for an intelligent plug-n-play avionics (PAPA) architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh; Krishnakumar, Kalmaje

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design an intelligent plug-n-play avionics system that provides a reconfigurable platform for supporting the guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) requirements for different elements of the space exploration mission. The focus of this study is to look at the specific requirements for a spacecraft that needs to go from earth to moon and back. In this regard we will identify the different GN&C problems in various phases of flight that need to be addressed for designing such a plug-n-play avionics system. The Apollo and the Space Shuttle programs provide rich literature in terms of understanding some of the general GN&C requirements for a space vehicle. The relevant literature is reviewed which helps in narrowing down the different GN&C algorithms that need to be supported along with their individual requirements.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  16. A Multi-Function Guidance, Navigation and Control System for Future Earth and Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel; Dennehy, Neil; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center (GNCC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has actively engaged in the development of advanced GN&C technology to enable future Earth and Space science missions. The Multi-Function GN&C System (MFGS) design presented in this paper represents the successful coalescence of several discrete GNCC hardware and software technology innovations into one single highly integrated, compact, low power and low cost unit that simultaneously provides autonomous real time on-board attitude determination solutions and navigation solutions with accuracies that satisfy many future GSFC mission requirements. The MFGS is intended to operate as a single self-contained multifunction unit combining the functions now typically performed by a number of hardware units on a spacecraft. However, recognizing the need to satisfy a variety of future mission requirements, design provisions have been included to permit the unit to interface with a number of external remotely mounted sensors and actuators such as magnetometers, sun sensors, star cameras, reaction wheels and thrusters. The result is a highly versatile MFGS that can be configured in multiple ways to suit a realm of mission-specific GN&C requirements. It is envisioned that the MFGS will perform a mission enabling role by filling the microsat GN&C technology gap. In addition, GSFC believes that the MFGS could be employed to significantly reduce volume, power and mass requirements on conventional satellites.

  17. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance for the GOES-R Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapel, Jim; Stancliffe, Devin; Bevacqua, TIm; Winkler, Stephen; Clapp, Brian; Rood, Tim; Gaylor, David; Freesland, Doug; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites. The series represents a dramatic increase in Earth observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands. GOES-R also provides unprecedented availability, with less than 120 minutes per year of lost observation time. This paper presents the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) requirements necessary to realize the ambitious pointing, knowledge, and Image Navigation and Registration (INR) objectives of GOES-R. Because the suite of instruments is sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectral range, a high fidelity simulation of the vehicle has been created with modal content over 500 Hz to assess the pointing stability requirements. Simulation results are presented showing acceleration, shock response spectra (SRS), and line of sight (LOS) responses for various disturbances from 0 Hz to 512 Hz. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing and pointing stability requirements, with LOS jitter for the isolated instrument platform of approximately 1 micro-rad. Attitude and attitude rate knowledge are provided directly to the instrument with an accuracy defined by the Integrated Rate Error (IRE) requirements. The data are used internally for motion compensation. The final piece of the INR performance is orbit knowledge, which GOES-R achieves with GPS navigation. Performance results are shown demonstrating compliance with the 50 to 75 m orbit position accuracy requirements. As presented in this paper, the GN&C performance supports the challenging mission objectives of GOES-R.

  18. Guidance and Navigation Requirements for Unmanned Flyby and Swingby Missions to the Outer Planets. Volume 3; Low Thrust Missions, Phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned missions to the outer planets, assuming constant, low thrust, ion propulsion are discussed. The navigational capability of the ground based Deep Space Network is compared to the improvements in navigational capability brought about by the addition of guidance and navigation related onboard sensors. Relevant onboard sensors include: (1) the optical onboard navigation sensor, (2) the attitude reference sensors, and (3) highly sensitive accelerometers. The totally ground based, and the combination ground based and onboard sensor systems are compared by means of the estimated errors in target planet ephemeris, and the spacecraft position with respect to the planet.

  19. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 2: impulsive high thrust missions, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The impulsive, high thrust missions portion of a study on guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planet is presented. The proper balance between groundbased navigational capability, using the deep space network (DSN) alone, and an onboard navigational capability with and without supplemental use of DSN tracking, for unmanned missions to the outer planets of the solar system is defined. A general guidance and navigation requirements program is used to survey parametrically the characteristics associated with three types of navigation systems: (1) totally onboard, (2) totally Earth-based, and (3) a combination of these two.

  20. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance for the GOES-R Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Stancliffe, Devin; Bevacqua, Tim; Winkler, Stephen; Clapp, Brian; Rood, Tim; Gaylor, David; Freesland, Douglas C.; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015 and launch in early 2016. Relative to the current generation of GOES satellites, GOES-R represents a dramatic increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. GOES-R will also provide unprecedented availability, with less than 120 minutes per year of lost observation time. The Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) design requirements to achieve these expanded capabilities are extremely demanding. This paper first presents the pointing control, pointing stability, attitude knowledge, and orbit knowledge requirements necessary to realize the ambitious Image Navigation and Registration (INR) objectives of GOES-R. Because the GOES-R suite of instruments is sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectral range, a high fidelity simulation of the vehicle has been created with modal content over 500 Hz to assess the pointing stability requirements. Simulation results are presented showing acceleration, shock response spectrum (SRS), and line of sight responses for various disturbances from 0 Hz to 512 Hz. These disturbances include gimbal motion, reaction wheel disturbances, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, and internal instrument disturbances. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing and pointing stability requirements, with line of sight jitter of the isolated instrument platform of approximately 1 micro-rad. Low frequency motion of the isolated instrument platform is internally compensated within the primary instrument. Attitude knowledge and rate are provided directly to the instrument with an accuracy defined by the Integrated Rate Error (IRE) requirements. The allowable IRE ranges from 1 to 18

  1. Flight evaluation of two-segment approaches using area navigation guidance equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwind, G. K.; Morrison, J. A.; Nylen, W. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    A two-segment noise abatement approach procedure for use on DC-8-61 aircraft in air carrier service was developed and evaluated. The approach profile and procedures were developed in a flight simulator. Full guidance is provided throughout the approach by a Collins Radio Company three-dimensional area navigation (RNAV) system which was modified to provide the two-segment approach capabilities. Modifications to the basic RNAV software included safety protection logic considered necessary for an operationally acceptable two-segment system. With an aircraft out of revenue service, the system was refined and extensively flight tested, and the profile and procedures were evaluated by representatives of the airlines, airframe manufacturers, the Air Line Pilots Association, and the Federal Aviation Adminstration. The system was determined to be safe and operationally acceptable. It was then placed into scheduled airline service for an evaluation during which 180 approaches were flown by 48 airline pilots. The approach was determined to be compatible with the airline operational environment, although operation of the RNAV system in the existing terminal area air traffic control environment was difficult.

  2. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the guidance, navigation, and control subsystem FMEA/CIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trahan, W. H.; Odonnell, R. A.; Pietz, K. C.; Drapela, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GNC) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. The results of that comparison for the Orbiter GNC hardware is documented. The IOA product for the GNC analysis consisted of 141 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 24 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 148 FMEAs and 36 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all but 56 FMEAs which caused differences in zero CIL items.

  3. Guidance, navigation, and control subsystem equipment selection algorithm using expert system methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Enhanced engineering tools can be obtained through the integration of expert system methodologies and existing design software. The application of these methodologies to the spacecraft design and cost model (SDCM) software provides an improved technique for the selection of hardware for unmanned spacecraft subsystem design. The knowledge engineering system (KES) expert system development tool was used to implement a smarter equipment section algorithm than that which is currently achievable through the use of a standard data base system. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems of the SDCM software was chosen as the initial subsystem for implementation. The portions of the SDCM code which compute the selection criteria and constraints remain intact, and the expert system equipment selection algorithm is embedded within this existing code. The architecture of this new methodology is described and its implementation is reported. The project background and a brief overview of the expert system is described, and once the details of the design are characterized, an example of its implementation is demonstrated.

  4. Microgravity monitoring instrument development and application to vernier guidance, navigation, and vehicle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    The fact that a spacecraft traveling through the 'vacuum' of space conforms to the classical Keplerian ellipse has recently been disproven. It is now well known that such a vehicle is acted on by many external forces such as drag in the rarefied particle atmosphere, solar wind and particle impact. This paper discusses the development of sensors and sensor systems to measure these minute forces of acceleration/deceleration. Four systems will be discussed: a 10 exp -4 g system, a 10 exp -6 g system, a 10 exp -(6-8) g system and a 10 exp -9 g system. The design of each system will be explained along with the advantages/disadvantages of each. Various applications unique to each system will be discussed. Configurations, design schemes, test plans and calibration procedures, both in the ground laboratory and inflight, will be presented. The current design/development/operational status of each system will be examined and future plans discussed. Application to aerodynamic studies and vernier guidance, navigation, and vehicle control will also be examined.

  5. AIAA Survivability Technical Committee Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Jim; Williamson, Joel

    1997-01-01

    A relatively new area of interest in aerospace systems survivability is the growing threat of spacecraft penetration by orbital debris. Orbital debris, or "space junk", is composed of the man-made remnants of non-functioning spacecraft still orbiting the Earth. NASA estimates that there are currently over 100,000 orbital debris particles 1 centimeter in diameter or larger that cannot be tracked by existing radar, with the population growing at approximately 4% per year in low earth orbits. With an average velocity of over 8.7 km/sec, these projectiles can penetrate and disable many vulnerable spacecraft systems. Since the likelihood of spacecraft penetration increases with spacecraft surface area, large spacecraft (such as the International Space Station) and communication satellite fleets (such as Iridium) have begun to adopt survivability enhancement strategies similar to those employed by combat aircraft. Collision avoidance maneuvers are commonly practiced by the Space Shuttle and are planned by the International Space Station to decrease their susceptibility to impact by trackable orbital debris; likewise, improved shielding, internal equipment placement, and improved crew operations following penetration can reduce the vulnerability of spacecraft to loss following orbital debris impact. Computer simulations such as the Manned Spacecraft and Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) program at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center have recently been developed to quantify and reduce the likelihood of crew or spacecraft loss following orbital debris penetration. The AIAA Survivability Technical Committee is working to enable the transfer of military-developed survivability technologies to help the aerospace industry cope with this growing threat.

  6. Description of the attitude control, guidance and navigation space replaceable units for automated space servicing of selected NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chobotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.

  7. Mission Design, Guidance, and Navigation of a Callisto-Io-Ganymede Triple Flyby Jovian Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didion, Alan M.

    Use of a triple-satellite-aided capture maneuver to enter Jovian orbit reduces insertion DeltaV and provides close flyby science opportunities at three of Jupiter's four large Galilean moons. This capture can be performed while maintaining appropriate Jupiter standoff distance and setting up a suitable apojove for plotting an extended tour. This paper has three main chapters, the first of which discusses the design and optimization of a triple-flyby capture trajectory. A novel triple-satellite-aided capture uses sequential flybys of Callisto, Io, and Ganymede to reduce the DeltaV required to capture into orbit about Jupiter. An optimal broken-plane maneuver is added between Earth and Jupiter to form a complete chemical/impulsive interplanetary trajectory from Earth to Jupiter. Such a trajectory can yield significant fuel savings over single and double-flyby capture schemes while maintaining a brief and simple interplanetary transfer phase. The second chapter focuses on the guidance and navigation of such trajectories in the presence of spacecraft navigation errors, ephemeris errors, and maneuver execution errors. A powered-flyby trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) is added to the nominal trajectory at Callisto and the nominal Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) maneuver is modified to both complete the capture and target the Ganymede flyby. A third TCM is employed after all the flybys to act as a JOI cleanup maneuver. A Monte Carlo simulation shows that the statistical DeltaV required to correct the trajectory is quite manageable and the flyby characteristics are very consistent. The developed methods maintain flexibility for adaptation to similar launch, cruise, and capture conditions. The third chapter details the methodology and results behind a completely separate project to design and optimize an Earth-orbiting three satellite constellation to perform very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) as part of the 8th annual Global Trajectory Optimisation Competition (GTOC

  8. Configuring the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software for Automated Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Ryan G.; Siliwinski, Tomasz K.; King, Ellis T.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is being designed with greater automation capabilities than any other crewed spacecraft in NASA s history. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) flight software architecture is designed to provide a flexible and evolvable framework that accommodates increasing levels of automation over time. Within the GN&C flight software, a data-driven approach is used to configure software. This approach allows data reconfiguration and updates to automated sequences without requiring recompilation of the software. Because of the great dependency of the automation and the flight software on the configuration data, the data management is a vital component of the processes for software certification, mission design, and flight operations. To enable the automated sequencing and data configuration of the GN&C subsystem on Orion, a desktop database configuration tool has been developed. The database tool allows the specification of the GN&C activity sequences, the automated transitions in the software, and the corresponding parameter reconfigurations. These aspects of the GN&C automation on Orion are all coordinated via data management, and the database tool provides the ability to test the automation capabilities during the development of the GN&C software. In addition to providing the infrastructure to manage the GN&C automation, the database tool has been designed with capabilities to import and export artifacts for simulation analysis and documentation purposes. Furthermore, the database configuration tool, currently used to manage simulation data, is envisioned to evolve into a mission planning tool for generating and testing GN&C software sequences and configurations. A key enabler of the GN&C automation design, the database tool allows both the creation and maintenance of the data artifacts, as well as serving the critical role of helping to manage, visualize, and understand the data-driven parameters both during software development

  9. Supporting Development of Satellite's Guidance Navigation and Control Software: A Product Line Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; Stark, Michael; Leake, Stephen; White, Michael; Morisio, Maurizio; Travassos, Guilherme H.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch (FSB) is developing a Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Flight Software (FSW) product line. The demand for increasingly more complex flight software in less time while maintaining the same level of quality has motivated us to look for better FSW development strategies. The GNC FSW product line has been planned to address the core GNC FSW functionality very similar on many recent low/near Earth missions in the last ten years. Unfortunately these missions have not accomplished significant drops in development cost since a systematic approach towards reuse has not been adopted. In addition, new demands are continually being placed upon the FSW which means the FSB must become more adept at providing GNC FSW functionality's core so it can accommodate additional requirements. These domain features together with engineering concepts are influencing the specification, description and evaluation of FSW product line. Domain engineering is the foundation for emerging product line software development approaches. A product line is 'A family of products designed to take advantage of their common aspects and predicted variabilities'. In our product line approach, domain engineering includes the engineering activities needed to produce reusable artifacts for a domain. Application engineering refers to developing an application in the domain starting from reusable artifacts. The focus of this paper is regarding the software process, lessons learned and on how the GNC FSW product line manages variability. Existing domain engineering approaches do not enforce any specific notation for domain analysis or commonality and variability analysis. Usually, natural language text is the preferred tool. The advantage is the flexibility and adapt ability of natural language. However, one has to be ready to accept also its well-known drawbacks, such as ambiguity, inconsistency, and contradictions. While most domain analysis

  10. Navigation and flight director guidance for the NASA/FAA helicopter MLS curved approach flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Lee, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    The navigation and flight director guidance systems implemented in the NASA/FAA helicopter microwave landing system (MLS) curved approach flight test program is described. Flight test were conducted at the U.S. Navy's Crows Landing facility, using the NASA Ames UH-lH helicopter equipped with the V/STOLAND avionics system. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the feasibility of flying complex, curved and descending approaches to a landing using MLS flight director guidance. A description of the navigation aids used, the avionics system, cockpit instrumentation and on-board navigation equipment used for the flight test is provided. Three generic reference flight paths were developed and flown during the test. They were as follows: U-Turn, S-turn and Straight-In flight profiles. These profiles and their geometries are described in detail. A 3-cue flight director was implemented on the helicopter. A description of the formulation and implementation of the flight director laws is also presented. Performance data and analysis is presented for one pilot conducting the flight director approaches.

  11. Percutaneous transthoracic localization of pulmonary nodules under C-arm cone-beam CT virtual navigation guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Min; McAdams, H. Page; Kim, Young Tae; Goo, Jin Mo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to describe our initial experience with percutaneous transthoracic localization (PTL) of pulmonary nodules using a C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) virtual navigation guidance system. METHODS From February 2013 to March 2014, 79 consecutive patients (mean age, 61±10 years) with 81 solid or ground-glass nodules (mean size, 12.36±7.21 mm; range, 4.8–25 mm) underwent PTLs prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) excision under CBCT virtual navigation guidance using lipiodol (mean volume, 0.18±0.04 mL). Their procedural details, radiation dose, and complication rates were described. RESULTS All 81 target nodules were successfully localized within 10 mm (mean distance, 2.54±3.24 mm) from the lipiodol markings. Mean number of CT acquisitions was 3.2±0.7, total procedure time was 14.6±5.14 min, and estimated radiation exposure during the localization was 5.21±2.51 mSv. Postprocedural complications occurred in 14 cases (17.3%); complications were minimal pneumothorax (n=10, 12.3%), parenchymal hemorrhage (n=3, 3.7%), and a small amount of hemoptysis (n=1, 1.2%). All target nodules were completely resected; pathologic diagnosis included invasive adenocarcinoma (n=53), adenocarcinoma-in-situ (n=10), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (n=4), metastasis (n=7), and benign lesions (n=7). CONCLUSION PTL procedures can be performed safely and accurately under the guidance of a CBCT virtual navigation system. PMID:27015318

  12. SEPS guidance and navigation autonomy selection via mission analysis. [Solar Electric Propulsion Stage for Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.; Shenfish, K. L.; Wallace, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic rationale for selecting a cost-effective guidance and navigation (G & N) autonomy level for the solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS) vehicle is developed. After a definition of autonomy levels, a mission analysis is performed for representative SEPS missions using realistic G & N sensor hardware. Cost data for fabricating, integrating and refurbishing onboard avionics hardware and the ground costs corresponding to each autonomy level are generated. Results are presented that indicate performance of various G & N sensor hardware sets and the dominating factors which influence G & N autonomy level selection.

  13. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Simpson, James; Shah, Neerav

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle and into a direct insertion trajectory to the oon. LRO, which was designed, built, and operated by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, is gathering crucial data on the lunar environment that will help astronauts prepare for long-duration lunar expeditions. The mission has a nominal life of 1 year as its seven instruments find safe landing sites, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment, and test new technology. To date, LRO has been operating well within the bounds of its requirements and has been collecting excellent science data images taken from the LRO Camera Narrow Angle Camera of the Apollo landing sites appeared on cable news networks. A significant amount of information on LRO s science instruments is provided at the LRO mission webpage. LRO s Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem is made up of an onboard attitude control system (ACS) and a hardware suite of sensors and actuators. The LRO onboard ACS is a collection of algorithms based on high level and derived requirements, and reflect the science and operational events throughout the mission lifetime. The primary control mode is the Observing mode, which maintains the lunar pointing orientation and any offset pointing from this baseline. It is within this mode that all science instrument calibrations, slews and science data is collected. Because of a high accuracy requirement for knowledge and pointing, the Observing mode makes use of star tracker (ST) measurement data to determine an instantaneous attitude pointing. But even the star trackers alone do not meet the tight requirements, so a six-state Kalman Filter is employed to improve the noisy measurement data. The Observing mode obtains its rate information from an inertial reference unit (IRU) and in the

  14. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  15. Stated Preferences for Components of a Personal Guidance System for Nonvisual Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Marston, James R.; Loomis, Jack M.; Klatzky, Roberta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of the preferences of visually impaired persons for a possible personal navigation device. The results showed that the majority of participants preferred speech input and output interfaces, were willing to use such a product, thought that they would make more trips with such a device, and had some concerns about…

  16. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  17. Simulation, guidance and navigation of the B-737 for rollout and turnoff using MLS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.; Schmidt, S. F.; Mann, F.

    1975-01-01

    A simulation program is described for the B-737 aircraft in landing approach, a touchdown, rollout and turnoff for normal and CAT III weather conditions. Preliminary results indicate that microwave landing systems can be used in place of instrument landing systems landing aids and that a single magnetic cable can be used for automated rollout and turnoff. Recommendations are made for further refinement of the model and additional testing to finalize a set of guidance laws for rollout and turnoff.

  18. AutoNav Mark3: Engineering the Next Generation of Autonomous Onboard Navigation and Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, Joseph Ed; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Eldred, Dan B.; Gaskell, Robert A.; Grasso, Christopher A.; Kennedy, Brian; Kubitscheck, Daniel; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; Synnott, Stephen. P.; Vaughan, Andrew; Werner, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The success of JPL's AutoNav system at comet Tempel-1 on July 4, 2005, demonstrated the power of autonomous navigation technology for the Deep Impact Mission. This software is being planned for use as the onboard navigation, tracking and rendezvous system for a Mars Sample Return Mission technology demonstration, and several mission proposals are evaluating its use for rendezvous with, and landing on asteroids. Before this however, extensive re-engineering of AutoNav will take place. This paper describes the AutoNav systems-engineering effort in several areas: extending the capabilities, improving operability, utilizing new hardware elements, and demonstrating the new possibilities of AutoNav in simulations.

  19. A open loop guidance architecture for navigationally robust on-orbit docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Hung-Sheng

    1995-01-01

    The development of an open-hop guidance architecture is outlined for autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) missions to determine whether the Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used in place of optical sensors for relative initial position determination of the chase vehicle. Feasible command trajectories for one, two, and three impulse AR&D maneuvers are determined using constrained trajectory optimization. Early AR&D command trajectory results suggest that docking accuracies are most sensitive to vertical position errors at the initial conduction of the chase vehicle. Thus, a feasible command trajectory is based on maximizing the size of the locus of initial vertical positions for which a fixed sequence of impulses will translate the chase vehicle into the target while satisfying docking accuracy requirements. Documented accuracies are used to determine whether relative GPS can achieve the vertical position error requirements of the impulsive command trajectories. Preliminary development of a thruster management system for the Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) based on optimal throttle settings is presented to complete the guidance architecture. Results show that a guidance architecture based on a two impulse maneuvers generated the best performance in terms of initial position error and total velocity change for the chase vehicle.

  20. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN and C) Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  1. Static or Dynamic Navigation for Implant Placement-Choosing the Method of Guidance.

    PubMed

    Block, Michael S; Emery, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present report is to contrast and compare 2 methods of dental implant placement. One method uses computed tomography data for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to generate static guides for implant placement. The second method is a dynamic navigation system that uses a stereo vision computer triangulation setup to guide implant placement. A review of the published data was performed to provide evidence-based material to compare each method. Finally, the indications for each type of method are discussed. PMID:26452429

  2. Design, Development and Testing of the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) Guidance, Navigation and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, J.; Fredrickson, S.; Manning, T.; Jones, B.

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA Johnson Space Center have designed, developed, and tested a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spaceflight activities. The technology demonstration system, known as the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam), has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The primary focus has been to develop a system capable of providing external views of the International Space Station. The Mini AERCam system is spherical-shaped and less than eight inches in diameter. It has a full suite of guidance, navigation, and control hardware and software, and is equipped with two digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations. Tests have been performed in both a six degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation and on an air-bearing table. The Mini AERCam system can also be used as a test platform for evaluating algorithms and relative navigation for autonomous proximity operations and docking around the Space Shuttle Orbiter or the ISS.

  3. Space Shuttle Guidance, Navigation, and Rendezvous Knowledge Capture Reports. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This document is a catalog and readers guide to lessons learned, experience, and technical history reports, as well as compilation volumes prepared by United Space Alliance personnel for the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Dynamics Division.1 It is intended to make it easier for future generations of engineers to locate knowledge capture documentation from the Shuttle Program. The first chapter covers observations on documentation quality and research challenges encountered during the Space Shuttle and Orion programs. The second chapter covers the knowledge capture approach used to create many of the reports covered in this document. These chapters are intended to provide future flight programs with insight that could be used to formulate knowledge capture and management strategies. The following chapters contain descriptions of each knowledge capture report. The majority of the reports concern the Space Shuttle. Three are included that were written in support of the Orion Program. Most of the reports were written from the years 2001 to 2011. Lessons learned reports concern primarily the shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) upgrade and the knowledge capture process. Experience reports on navigation and rendezvous provide examples of how challenges were overcome and how best practices were identified and applied. Some reports are of a more technical history nature covering navigation and rendezvous. They provide an overview of mission activities and the evolution of operations concepts and trajectory design. The lessons learned, experience, and history reports would be considered secondary sources by historians and archivists.

  4. Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Design in a Mass Reduction Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, Timothy; Begly, Michael; Jackson, Mark; Broome, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Early Orion GN&C system designs optimized for robustness, simplicity, and utilization of commercially available components. During the System Definition Review (SDR), all subsystems on Orion were asked to re-optimize with component mass and steady state power as primary design metrics. The objective was to create a mass reserve in the Orion point of departure vehicle design prior to beginning the PDR analysis cycle. The Orion GN&C subsystem team transitioned from a philosophy of absolute 2 fault tolerance for crew safety and 1 fault tolerance for mission success to an approach of 1 fault tolerance for crew safety and risk based redundancy to meet probability allocations of loss of mission and loss of crew. This paper will discuss the analyses, rationale, and end results of this activity regarding Orion navigation sensor hardware, control effectors, and trajectory design.

  5. Endovascular Catheter for Magnetic Navigation under MR Imaging Guidance: Evaluation of Safety in Vivo at 1.5T

    PubMed Central

    Hetts, S.W.; Saeed, M.; Martin, A.J.; Evans, L.; Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.; Settecase, F.; Do, L.; Yee, E.J.; Losey, A.; Sincic, R.; Roy, S.; Arenson, R.L.; Wilson, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endovascular navigation under MR imaging guidance can be facilitated by a catheter with steerable microcoils on the tip. Not only do microcoils create visible artifacts allowing catheter tracking, but also they create a small magnetic moment permitting remote-controlled catheter tip deflection. A side product of catheter tip electrical currents, however, is the heat that might damage blood vessels. We sought to determine the upper boundary of electrical currents safely usable at 1.5T in a coil-tipped microcatheter system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alumina tubes with solenoid copper coils were attached to neurovascular microcatheters with heat shrink-wrap. Catheters were tested in carotid arteries of 8 pigs. The catheters were advanced under x-ray fluoroscopy and MR imaging. Currents from 0 mA to 700 mA were applied to test heating and potential vascular damage. Postmortem histologic analysis was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Several heat-mitigation strategies demonstrated negligible vascular damage compared with control arteries. Coil currents ≤300 mA resulted in no damage (0/58 samples) compared with 9 (25%) of 36 samples for > 300-mA activations (P = .0001). Tip coil activation ≤1 minute and a proximal carotid guide catheter saline drip > 2 mL/minute also had a nonsignificantly lower likelihood of vascular damage. For catheter tip coil activations ≤300 mA for ≤1 minute in normal carotid flow, 0 of 43 samples had tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS: Activations of copper coils at the tip of microcatheters at low currents in 1.5T MR scanners can be achieved without significant damage to blood vessel walls in a controlled experimental setting. Further optimization of catheter design and procedure protocols is necessary for safe remote control magnetic catheter guidance. PMID:23846795

  6. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 4: High thrust mission, part 2, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for a set of impulsive thrust missions involving one or more outer planets or comets. Specific missions considered include two Jupiter entry missions of 800 and 1200 day duration, two multiple swingby missions with the sequences Jupiter-Uranus-Neptune and Jupiter-Saturn-Pluto, and two comets rendezvous missions involving the short period comets P/Tempel 2 and P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak. Results show the relative utility of onboard and Earth-based DSN navigation. The effects of parametric variations in navigation accuracy, measurement rate, and miscellaneous constraints are determined. The utility of a TV type onboard navigation sensor - sighting on planetary satellites and comets - is examined. Velocity corrections required for the nominal and parametrically varied cases are tabulated.

  7. System Architectural Considerations on Reliable Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN and C) for Constellation Program (CxP) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2010-01-01

    This final report summarizes the results of a comparative assessment of the fault tolerance and reliability of different Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) architectural approaches. This study was proactively performed by a combined Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Draper Laboratory team as a GN&C "Discipline-Advancing" activity sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This systematic comparative assessment of GN&C system architectural approaches was undertaken as a fundamental step towards understanding the opportunities for, and limitations of, architecting highly reliable and fault tolerant GN&C systems composed of common avionic components. The primary goal of this study was to obtain architectural 'rules of thumb' that could positively influence future designs in the direction of an optimized (i.e., most reliable and cost-efficient) GN&C system. A secondary goal was to demonstrate the application and the utility of a systematic modeling approach that maps the entire possible architecture solution space.

  8. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 1: Navigation, guidance, control (E-1) A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The six themes identified by the Workshop have many common navigation guidance and control needs. All the earth orbit themes have a strong requirement for attitude, figure and stabilization control of large space structures, a requirement not currently being supported. All but the space transportation theme have need for precision pointing of spacecraft and instruments. In addition all the themes have requirements for increasing autonomous operations for such activities as spacecraft and experiment operations, onboard mission modification, rendezvous and docking, spacecraft assembly and maintenance, navigation and guidance, and self-checkout, test and repair. Major new efforts are required to conceptualize new approaches to large space antennas and arrays that are lightweight, readily deployable, and capable of precise attitude and figure control. Conventional approaches offer little hope of meeting these requirements. Functions that can benefit from increasing automation or autonomous operations are listed.

  9. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  10. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 3: A comparison of waypoint guidance algorithms for RNAV/MLS transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation carried out for the Langley Research Center Terminal Configured Vehicle Program are presented. The investigation generated and compared three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first, called the Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude error by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called the Tangent Path also eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude and choose a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called the Continued Track eliminates the discontinuity in cross track, altitude and track angle by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. A method is presented for providing a waypoint guidance path reconstruction which treats turns of less than, and greater than, 180 degrees in a uniform manner to construct the desired path.

  11. Design and flight evaluation of an integrated navigation and near-terrain helicopter guidance system for night-time and adverse weather operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Dearing, Munro G.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Clark, Raymond; Davis, Tom; Amatrudo, Gary; Zirkler, Andre

    1994-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army have designed, developed, and flight evaluated a Computer Aiding for Low Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. This system provides guidance to the pilot for near terrain covert helicopter operations. It automates the processing of precision navigation information, helicopter mission requirements, and terrain flight guidance. The automation is presented to the pilot through symbology on a helmet-mounted display. The symbology is a 'pilot-centered' design which preserves pilot flexibility and authority over the CALAHF system's automation. An extensive flight evaluation of the system has been conducted using the U.S. Army's NUH-60 STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) research helicopter. The evaluations were flown over a multiwaypoint helicopter mission in rugged mountainous terrain, at terrain clearance altitudes from 300 to 125 ft and airspeeds from 40 to 110 knots. The results of these evaluations showed that the pilots could precisely follow the automation symbology while maintaining a high degree of situational awareness.

  12. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plans for manned LM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 7: Erasable memory programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Erasable-memory programs (EMPs) designed for the guidance computers used in the command (CMC) and lunar modules (LGC) are described. CMC programs are designated COLOSSUS 3, and the associated EMPs are identified by a three-digit number beginning with 5. LGC programs are designated LUMINARY 1E, and the associated EMPs are identified, with one exception, by a three-digit number beginning with 1. The exception is EMP 99. The EMPs vary in complexity from a simple flagbit setting to a long and intricate logical structure. They all, however, cause the computer to behave in a way not intended in the original design of the programs; they accomplish this off-nominal behavior by some alteration of erasable memory to interface with existing fixed-memory programs to effect a desired result.

  13. German contribution to the X-38 CRV demonstrator in the field of guidance, navigation and control (GNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppa, Uwe; Görlach, Thomas; Roenneke, Axel Justus

    2005-04-01

    In the frame of the ESA/NASA cooperation on the X-38 project, different GNC-related contributions have been made by German industry and universities. First, the primary flight control software for the autonomous guidance and control of the X-38 parafoil descent and landing phase has been developed, integrated and successfully flown during the aerial drop test campaign conducted by NASA. In addition, a fault-tolerant computer similar to the one used onboard the ISS has been delivered to JSC. Together with an alternate re-entry GNC software using onboard flight path optimization for the guidance task and dynamic inversion methods for attitude control, this computer shall be flown as a flight experiment onboard the V201 space flight test vehicle. Finally, the German project team provided a real-time X-38 vehicle simulator, which was supposed to be used as an independent validation tool for the X-38 re-entry simulation and onboard software. This paper will focus on the European parafoil guidance and control software across the different phases of the X-38 mission. Flight test results from the X-38 aerial drop test campaigns will be presented and discussed. In addition, the flight experiment of the fault tolerant computer will be described briefly.

  14. Statistical Analysis of the AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop CFD Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The first AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW), held in June 2001, evaluated the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD codes. The code-to-code scatter was more than an order of magnitude larger than desired for design and experimental validation of cruise conditions for a subsonic transport configuration. The second AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2003, emphasized the determination of installed pylon-nacelle drag increments and grid refinement studies. The code-to-code scatter was significantly reduced compared to the first DPW, but still larger than desired. However, grid refinement studies showed no significant improvement in code-to-code scatter with increasing grid refinement. The third AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2006, focused on the determination of installed side-of-body fairing drag increments and grid refinement studies for clean attached flow on wing alone configurations and for separated flow on the DLR-F6 subsonic transport model. This report compares the transonic cruise prediction results of the second and third workshops using statistical analysis.

  15. German Contribution to the X-38 CRV Demonstrator in the Field of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppa, Uwe; Görlach, Thomas; Roenneke, Axel Justus

    2002-01-01

    As a solution to meet a safety requirement to the future full scale space station infrastructure, the Crew Return/Rescue Vehicle (CRV) was supposed to supply the return capability for the complete ISS crew of 7 astronauts back to earth in case of an emergency. A prototype of such a vehicle named X-38 has been developed and built by NASA with European partnership (ESA, DLR). An series of aerial demonstrators (V13x) for tests of the subsonic TAEM phase and the parafoil descent and landing system has been flown by NASA from 1998 to 2001. A full scale unmanned space flight demonstrator (V201) has been built at JSC Houston and although the project has been stopped for budgetary reasons in 2002, it will hopefully still be flown in near future. The X-38 is a lifting body with hypersonic lift to drag ratio about 0.9. In comparison to the Space Shuttle Orbiter, this design provides less aerodynamic maneuvrability and a different actuator layout (divided body flap and winglet rudders instead as combined aileron and elevon in addition to thrust- ers for the early re-entry phase). Hence, the guidance and control concepts used onboard the shuttle orbiter had to be adapted and further developed for the application on the new vehicle. In the frame of the European share of the X-38 project and also of the German TETRA (TEchnol- ogy for future space TRAnsportation) project different GNC related contributions have been made: First, the primary flight control software for the autonomous guidance and control of the X-38 para- foil descent and landing phase has been developed, integrated and successfully flown on multiple vehicles and missions during the aerial drop test campaign conducted by NASA. Second, a real time X-38 vehicle simulator was provided to NASA which has also been used for the validation of a European re-entry guidance and control software (see below). According to the NASA verification and validation plan this simulator is supposed to be used as an independent vali

  16. Design and flight test of a differential GPS/inertial navigation system for approach/landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallot, Lawrence; Snyder, Scott; Schipper, Brian; Parker, Nigel; Spitzer, Cary

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Langley has conducted a flight test program evaluating a differential GPS/inertial navigation system's (DGPS/INS) utility as an approach/landing aid. The DGPS/INS airborne and ground components are based on off-the-shelf transport aircraft avionics, namely a global positioning/inertial reference unit (GPIRU) and two GPS sensor units (GPSSUs). Systematic GPS errors are measured by the ground GPSSU and transmitted to the aircraft GPIRU, allowing the errors to be eliminated or greatly reduced in the airborne equipment. Over 120 landings were flown; 36 of these were fully automatic DGPS/INS landings.

  17. The real-world navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balabanovic, Marko; Becker, Craig; Morse, Sarah K.; Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    1994-01-01

    The success of every mobile robot application hinges on the ability to navigate robustly in the real world. The problem of robust navigation is separable from the challenges faced by any particular robot application. We offer the Real-World Navigator as a solution architecture that includes a path planner, a map-based localizer, and a motion control loop that combines reactive avoidance modules with deliberate goal-based motion. Our architecture achieves a high degree of reliability by maintaining and reasoning about an explicit description of positional uncertainty. We provide two implementations of real-world robot systems that incorporate the Real-World Navigator. The Vagabond Project culminated in a robot that successfully navigated a portion of the Stanford University campus. The Scimmer project developed successful entries for the AIAA 1993 Robotics Competition, placing first in one of the two contests entered.

  18. Observations on CFD Verification and Validation from the AIAA Drag Prediction Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.; Kleb, Bil; Vassberg, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The authors provide observations from the AIAA Drag Prediction Workshops that have spanned over a decade and from a recent validation experiment at NASA Langley. These workshops provide an assessment of the predictive capability of forces and moments, focused on drag, for transonic transports. It is very difficult to manage the consistency of results in a workshop setting to perform verification and validation at the scientific level, but it may be sufficient to assess it at the level of practice. Observations thus far: 1) due to simplifications in the workshop test cases, wind tunnel data are not necessarily the “correct” results that CFD should match, 2) an average of core CFD data are not necessarily a better estimate of the true solution as it is merely an average of other solutions and has many coupled sources of variation, 3) outlier solutions should be investigated and understood, and 4) the DPW series does not have the systematic build up and definition on both the computational and experimental side that is required for detailed verification and validation. Several observations regarding the importance of the grid, effects of physical modeling, benefits of open forums, and guidance for validation experiments are discussed. The increased variation in results when predicting regions of flow separation and increased variation due to interaction effects, e.g., fuselage and horizontal tail, point out the need for validation data sets for these important flow phenomena. Experiences with a recent validation experiment at NASA Langley are included to provide guidance on validation experiments.

  19. Guidance and Navigation for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations with a Non-Cooperative Spacecraft at Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent William; Carpenter, J. Russell; Heatwole, Scott; Markley, F. Landis; Moreau, Michael; Naasz, Bo J.; VanEepoel, John

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility and benefits of various spacecraft servicing concepts are currently being assessed, and all require that the servicer spacecraft perform rendezvous, proximity, and capture operations with the target spacecraft to be serviced. Many high-value spacecraft, which would be logical targets for servicing from an economic point of view, are located in geosynchronous orbit, a regime in which autonomous rendezvous and capture operations are not commonplace. Furthermore, existing GEO spacecraft were not designed to be serviced. Most do not have cooperative relative navigation sensors or docking features, and some servicing applications, such as de-orbiting of a non-functional spacecraft, entail rendezvous and capture with a spacecraft that may be non-functional or un-controlled. Several of these challenges have been explored via the design of a notional mission in which a nonfunctional satellite in geosynchronous orbit is captured by a servicer spacecraft and boosted into super-synchronous orbit for safe disposal. A strategy for autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and capture is developed, and the Orbit Determination Toolbox (ODTBX) is used to perform a relative navigation simulation to assess the feasibility of performing the rendezvous using a combination of angles-only and range measurements. Additionally, a method for designing efficient orbital rendezvous sequences for multiple target spacecraft is utilized to examine the capabilities of a servicer spacecraft to service multiple targets during the course of a single mission.

  20. The X-43A Hyper-X Mach 7 Flight 2 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Overview and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine; Baumann, Ethan; Martin, John; Bose, David; Beck, Roger E.; Strovers, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Hyper-X program was to flight demonstrate an airframe-integrated hypersonic vehicle. On March 27, 2004, the Hyper-X program team successfully conducted flight 2 and achieved all of the research objectives. The Hyper-X research vehicle successfully separated from the Hyper-X launch vehicle and achieved the desired engine test conditions before the experiment began. The research vehicle rejected the disturbances caused by the cowl door opening and the fuel turning on and off and maintained the engine test conditions throughout the experiment. After the engine test was complete, the vehicle recovered and descended along a trajectory while performing research maneuvers. The last data acquired showed that the vehicle maintained control to the water. This report will provide an overview of the research vehicle guidance and control systems and the performance of the vehicle during the separation event and engine test. The research maneuvers were performed to collect data for aerodynamics and flight controls research. This report also will provide an overview of the flight controls related research and results.

  1. LAVA Simulations for the AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housman, Jeffrey A.; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta , Shayan; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2014-01-01

    Computational simulations using the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework are presented for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop test cases. The framework is utilized with both structured overset and unstructured meshing approaches. The three workshop test cases include an axisymmetric body, a Delta Wing-Body model, and a complete low-boom supersonic transport concept. Solution sensitivity to mesh type and sizing, and several numerical convective flux discretization choices are presented and discussed. Favorable comparison between the computational simulations and experimental data of nearand mid-field pressure signatures were obtained.

  2. Micro Navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 1-81. Guidance for enforcement of the requirements of the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 (PTSA) pertaining to SBT, CBT, COW, IGS, steering gear, and navigation equipment for tank vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-18

    The purpose of this NVC and its enclosures is to provide guidance and information pertaining to: Enforcement of the Requirements of the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 (PTSA) Pertaining to SBT, CBT, COW systems, IGS, Steering Gear, and Navigation Equipment for Tank Vessels.

  4. Recent Experiences of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Guidance Navigation and Control (GN and C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independently funded NASA Program whose dedicated team of technical experts provides objective engineering and safety assessments of critical, high risk projects. NESC's strength is rooted in the diverse perspectives and broad knowledge base that add value to its products, affording customers a responsive, alternate path for assessing and preventing technical problems while protecting vital human and national resources. The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is one of fifteen such discipline-focused teams within the NESC organization. The TDT membership is composed of GN&C specialists from across NASA and its partner organizations in other government agencies, industry, national laboratories, and universities. This paper will briefly define the vision, mission, and purpose of the NESC organization. The role of the GN&C TDT will then be described in detail along with an overview of how this team operates and engages in its objective engineering and safety assessments of critical NASA.

  5. AIAA Educator Academy: Enriching STEM Education for K-12 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagle, E.; Bering, E. A.; Longmier, B. W.; Henriquez, E.; Milnes, T.; Wiedorn, P.; Bacon, L.

    2012-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Mars Rover Celebration Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 3-8. Throughout this module, students learn about Mars and the solar system. Working with given design criteria, students work in teams to do basic research about Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. Then, students participate in the design and construction of a model of a mock-up Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. At the end of this project, students have the opportunity to participate in a regional capstone event where students share their rover designs and what they have learned. The Electric Cargo Plan Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 6-12. Throughout this module, students learn about aerodynamics and the four forces of flight. Working individually or in teams, students design and construct an electrically-powered model aircraft to fly a tethered flight of at least one lap without cargo, followed by a second tethered flight of one lap carrying as much cargo as possible. At the end of this project, students have the opportunity to participate in a regional capstone event where students share what they have learned and compete with their different cargo plane designs. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude

  6. AIAA Educator Academy: The Space Weather Balloon Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmier, B.; Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2013-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based science and engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude balloon equipped with HD cameras.The program leaders launch high altitude weather balloons in collaboration with schools and students to teach physics concepts, experimental research skills, and to make space exploration accessible to students. A weather balloon lifts a specially designed payload package that is composed of HD cameras, GPS tracking devices, and other science equipment. The payload is constructed and attached to the balloon by the students with low-cost materials. The balloon and payload are launched with FAA clearance from a site chosen based on wind patterns and predicted landing locations. The balloon ascends over 2 hours to a maximum altitude of 100,000 feet where it bursts and allows the payload to slowly descend using a built-in parachute. The payload is located using the GPS device. In April 2012, the Space Weather Balloon team conducted a prototype field campaign near Fairbanks Alaska, sending several student-built experiments to an altitude of 30km, underneath several strong auroral displays. To better assist teachers in implementing one or more of these Curriculum Modules, teacher workshops are held to give teachers a hands-on look at how this curriculum is used in the classroom. And, to provide further support, teachers are each

  7. Status of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Format Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    The current draft AIAA Standard for flight simulation models represents an on-going effort to improve the productivity of practitioners of the art of digital flight simulation (one of the original digital computer applications). This initial release provides the capability for the efficient representation and exchange of an aerodynamic model in full fidelity; the DAVE-ML format can be easily imported (with development of site-specific import tools) in an unambiguous way with automatic verification. An attractive feature of the standard is the ability to coexist with existing legacy software or tools. The draft Standard is currently limited in scope to static elements of dynamic flight simulations; however, these static elements represent the bulk of typical flight simulation mathematical models. It is already seeing application within U.S. and Australian government agencies in an effort to improve productivity and reduce model rehosting overhead. An existing tool allows import of DAVE-ML models into a popular simulation modeling and analysis tool, and other community-contributed tools and libraries can simplify the use of DAVE-ML compliant models at compile- or run-time of high-fidelity flight simulation.

  8. Summary of the Fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitcuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.

  9. AIAA Employment Workshops (September 1, 1970-December 31, 1971). Volume III, Workshop Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, NY.

    In response to growing unemployment among professional personnel in the aerospace industry, a series of 175 workshops were conducted by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) in 43 cities. Nearly 15,000 unemployed engineers and scientists attended the workshops and reviewed job counseling and placement services from…

  10. A Content Analysis of AIAA/ITEA/ITEEA Conference Special Interest Sessions: 1978-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Philip A.; LaPorte, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Associations routinely hold annual conferences to aid with professional development and actively promote the ideals of their membership and the profession they represent. The American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) was created in 1939 and has held an annual conference the past 76 years to further these goals (Starkweather, 1995). Throughout…

  11. Organization's Orderly Interest Exploration: Inception, Development and Insights of AIAA's Topics Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Jospeh R.; Morris, Allan T.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, AIAA's Computer Systems and Software Systems Technical Committees (TCs) have developed a database that aids technical committee management to map technical topics to their members. This Topics/Interest (T/I) database grew out of a collection of charts and spreadsheets maintained by the TCs. Since its inception, the tool has evolved into a multi-dimensional database whose dimensions include the importance, interest and expertise of TC members and whether or not a member and/or a TC is actively involved with the topic. In 2005, the database was expanded to include the TCs in AIAA s Information Systems Group and then expanded further to include all AIAA TCs. It was field tested at an AIAA Technical Activities Committee (TAC) Workshop in early 2006 through live access by over 80 users. Through the use of the topics database, TC and program committee (PC) members can accomplish relevant tasks such as: to identify topic experts (for Aerospace America articles or external contacts), to determine the interest of its members, to identify overlapping topics between diverse TCs and PCs, to guide new member drives and to reveal emerging topics. This paper will describe the origins, inception, initial development, field test and current version of the tool as well as elucidate the benefits and insights gained by using the database to aid the management of various TC functions. Suggestions will be provided to guide future development of the database for the purpose of providing dynamics and system level benefits to AIAA that currently do not exist in any technical organization.

  12. Guidance and control, 1993; Annual Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference, 16th, Keystone, CO, Feb. 6-10, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, Robert D. (Editor); Bickley, George (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the sixteenth annual American Astronautical Society Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference are presented. The topics covered include the following: advances in guidance, navigation, and control; control system videos; guidance, navigation and control embedded flight control systems; recent experiences; guidance and control storyboard displays; and applications of modern control, featuring the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) performance enhancement study.

  13. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Johnson, B.; Swaminathan, N.

    1989-01-01

    Software and hardware assembled to support specific engineering activities. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation (SINW) is integrated computer workstation providing systems and engineering support functions for Space Shuttle guidance and navigation-system logistics, repair, and procurement activities. Consists of personal-computer hardware, packaged software, and custom software integrated together into user-friendly, menu-driven system. Designed to operate on IBM PC XT. Applied in business and industry to develop similar workstations.

  14. Assessment of the Draft AIAA S-119 Flight Dynamic Model Exchange Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Murri, Daniel G.; Hill, Melissa A.; Jessick, Matthew V.; Penn, John M.; Hasan, David A.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Falck, Robert D.; McCarthy, Thomas G.; Vuong, Nghia; Zimmerman, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a draft AIAA standard for flight dynamics model exchange, ANSI/AIAA S-119-2011, was conducted on behalf of NASA by a team from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The assessment included adding the capability of importing standard models into real-time simulation facilities at several NASA Centers as well as into analysis simulation tools. All participants were successful at importing two example models into their respective simulation frameworks by using existing software libraries or by writing new import tools. Deficiencies in the libraries and format documentation were identified and fixed; suggestions for improvements to the standard were provided to the AIAA. An innovative tool to generate C code directly from such a model was developed. Performance of the software libraries compared favorably with compiled code. As a result of this assessment, several NASA Centers can now import standard models directly into their simulations. NASA is considering adopting the now-published S-119 standard as an internal recommended practice.

  15. Binocular Goggle Augmented Imaging and Navigation System provides real-time fluorescence image guidance for tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping

    PubMed Central

    B. Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Liang, Kexian; Som, Avik; Akers, Walter J.; Fields, Ryan C.; Margenthaler, Julie; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The inability to identify microscopic tumors and assess surgical margins in real-time during oncologic surgery leads to incomplete tumor removal, increases the chances of tumor recurrence, and necessitates costly repeat surgery. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a wearable goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) that can provide accurate intraoperative visualization of tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in real-time without disrupting normal surgical workflow. GAINS projects both near-infrared fluorescence from tumors and the natural color images of tissue onto a head-mounted display without latency. Aided by tumor-targeted contrast agents, the system detected tumors in subcutaneous and metastatic mouse models with high accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98% ± 5% standard deviation). Human pilot studies in breast cancer and melanoma patients using a near-infrared dye show that the GAINS detected sentinel lymph nodes with 100% sensitivity. Clinical use of the GAINS to guide tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping promises to improve surgical outcomes, reduce rates of repeat surgery, and improve the accuracy of cancer staging. PMID:26179014

  16. Binocular Goggle Augmented Imaging and Navigation System provides real-time fluorescence image guidance for tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suman B; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P; Liang, Kexian; Som, Avik; Akers, Walter J; Fields, Ryan C; Margenthaler, Julie; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The inability to identify microscopic tumors and assess surgical margins in real-time during oncologic surgery leads to incomplete tumor removal, increases the chances of tumor recurrence, and necessitates costly repeat surgery. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a wearable goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) that can provide accurate intraoperative visualization of tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in real-time without disrupting normal surgical workflow. GAINS projects both near-infrared fluorescence from tumors and the natural color images of tissue onto a head-mounted display without latency. Aided by tumor-targeted contrast agents, the system detected tumors in subcutaneous and metastatic mouse models with high accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98% ± 5% standard deviation). Human pilot studies in breast cancer and melanoma patients using a near-infrared dye show that the GAINS detected sentinel lymph nodes with 100% sensitivity. Clinical use of the GAINS to guide tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping promises to improve surgical outcomes, reduce rates of repeat surgery, and improve the accuracy of cancer staging. PMID:26179014

  17. Binocular Goggle Augmented Imaging and Navigation System provides real-time fluorescence image guidance for tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Liang, Kexian; Som, Avik; Akers, Walter J.; Fields, Ryan C.; Margenthaler, Julie; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    The inability to identify microscopic tumors and assess surgical margins in real-time during oncologic surgery leads to incomplete tumor removal, increases the chances of tumor recurrence, and necessitates costly repeat surgery. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a wearable goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) that can provide accurate intraoperative visualization of tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in real-time without disrupting normal surgical workflow. GAINS projects both near-infrared fluorescence from tumors and the natural color images of tissue onto a head-mounted display without latency. Aided by tumor-targeted contrast agents, the system detected tumors in subcutaneous and metastatic mouse models with high accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98% ± 5% standard deviation). Human pilot studies in breast cancer and melanoma patients using a near-infrared dye show that the GAINS detected sentinel lymph nodes with 100% sensitivity. Clinical use of the GAINS to guide tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping promises to improve surgical outcomes, reduce rates of repeat surgery, and improve the accuracy of cancer staging.

  18. Preserving the nuclear option: The AIAA position paper on space nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Douglas M.; Bennett, Gary L.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Newhouse, Alan R.; Rose, M. Frank; Rovang, Richard D.

    1996-03-01

    In response to published reports about the decline in funding for space nuclear power, the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) approved a position paper in March 1995 that recommends (1) development and support of an integrated space nuclear power program by DOE, NASA and DoD; (2) Congressional support for the program; (3) advocacy of the program by government and industry leaders; and (4) continuation of cooperation between the U.S. and other countries to advance nuclear power source technology and to promote safety. This position paper has been distributed to various people having oversight of the U.S. space nuclear power program.

  19. Summary and Statistical Analysis of the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Morgenstern, John M.

    2014-01-01

    A summary is provided for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Workshop held 11 January 2014 in conjunction with AIAA SciTech 2014. Near-field pressure signatures extracted from computational fluid dynamics solutions are gathered from nineteen participants representing three countries for the two required cases, an axisymmetric body and simple delta wing body. Structured multiblock, unstructured mixed-element, unstructured tetrahedral, overset, and Cartesian cut-cell methods are used by the participants. Participants provided signatures computed on participant generated and solution adapted grids. Signatures are also provided for a series of uniformly refined workshop provided grids. These submissions are propagated to the ground and loudness measures are computed. This allows the grid convergence of a loudness measure and a validation metric (dfference norm between computed and wind tunnel measured near-field signatures) to be studied for the first time. Statistical analysis is also presented for these measures. An optional configuration includes fuselage, wing, tail, flow-through nacelles, and blade sting. This full configuration exhibits more variation in eleven submissions than the sixty submissions provided for each required case. Recommendations are provided for potential improvements to the analysis methods and a possible subsequent workshop.

  20. International cooperation in space transportation: Results of the AIAA Hawaii conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, J.

    In 1992, the International Committee of the AIAA sponsored a workshop in Hawaii entitled 'International Space Cooperation: Learning form the Past, Planning for the Future' which attempted to understand how the recent dramatic changes in the world situation might impact future international cooperation in space. This workshop formed the basis for a second workshop, also in Hawaii, entitled 'International Space Cooperation: Getting Serious about How' in December 1994. The second workshop built on the past findings and was designed to formulate approaches on how to make international cooperation work for a number of international space activities. A distinguished group of 65 experts from fifteen countries were organized into five working groups within the larger workshop to address five diverse areas: Global Space Systems Services, International Space Cooperation for Peacekeeping, Cooperative Human and Robotic Exploration of Space, International Cooperation in Space Transportation, and Solar Power to Earth dealing with near and longer term space projects where international cooperation might play a part. Work was conducted in both working group sessions and plenary sessions to stimulate and encourage the greatest exchange of ideas among the participants as possible. A report on the entire workship is available from the AIAA. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of the International Cooperation in Space Transporation topic.

  1. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the Third AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The first AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2001, evaluated the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD codes. The code-to-code scatter was more than an order of magnitude larger than desired for design and experimental validation of cruise conditions for a subsonic transport configuration. The second AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2003, emphasized the determination of installed pylon-nacelle drag increments and grid refinement studies. The code-to-code scatter was significantly reduced compared to the first DPW, but still larger than desired. However, grid refinement studies showed no significant improvement in code-to-code scatter with increasing grid refinement. The third Drag Prediction Workshop focused on the determination of installed side-of-body fairing drag increments and grid refinement studies for clean attached flow on wing alone configurations and for separated flow on the DLR-F6 subsonic transport model. This work evaluated the effect of grid refinement on the code-to-code scatter for the clean attached flow test cases and the separated flow test cases.

  2. CEAS/AIAA/ICASE/NASA Langley International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics 1999. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jr., Woodrow (Editor); Todd, Emily N. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Confederation of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, D.C., and the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE), Hampton, Virginia, and held in Williamsburg, Virginia June 22-25, 1999 represent a collection of the latest advances in aeroelasticity and structural dynamics from the world community. Research in the areas of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity, structural modeling and optimization, active control and adaptive structures, landing dynamics, certification and qualification, and validation testing are highlighted in the collection of papers. The wide range of results will lead to advances in the prediction and control of the structural response of aircraft and spacecraft.

  3. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions From the Fifth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from North America, Europe, Asia, and South America using a common grid sequence and multiple turbulence models for the June 2012 fifth Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic configuration for this workshop was the Common Research Model subsonic transport wing-body previously used for the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with previous workshops.

  4. Plans and Example Results for the 2nd AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Chwalowski, Pawel; Schuster, David M.; Raveh, Daniella; Jirasek, Adam; Dalenbring, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the plans for the second AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop. The workshop is designed to assess the state-of-the-art of computational methods for predicting unsteady flow fields and aeroelastic response. The goals are to provide an impartial forum to evaluate the effectiveness of existing computer codes and modeling techniques, and to identify computational and experimental areas needing additional research and development. This paper provides guidelines and instructions for participants including the computational aerodynamic model, the structural dynamic properties, the experimental comparison data and the expected output data from simulations. The Benchmark Supercritical Wing (BSCW) has been chosen as the configuration for this workshop. The analyses to be performed will include aeroelastic flutter solutions of the wing mounted on a pitch-and-plunge apparatus.

  5. Overview and Summary of the Second AIAA High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Slotnick, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The second AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop was held in San Diego, California, in June 2013. The goals of the workshop continued in the tradition of the first high-lift workshop: to assess the numerical prediction capability of current-generation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology for swept, medium/high-aspect-ratio wings in landing/takeoff (high-lift) configurations. This workshop analyzed the flow over the DLR-F11 model in landing configuration at two different Reynolds numbers. Twenty-six participants submitted a total of 48 data sets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to grid density and Reynolds number were analyzed, and effects of support brackets were also included. This paper analyzes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

  6. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Russia using a variety of grid systems and turbulence models for the June 2009 4th Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic configuration for this workshop was a new subsonic transport model, the Common Research Model, designed using a modern approach for the wing and included a horizontal tail. The fourth workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and incremental drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal tail configurations. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with earlier workshops using the statistical framework.

  7. CFL3D Contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the CFL3D contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop, held in Orlando, Florida in January 2010. CFL3D is a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Four shock boundary layer interaction cases are computed using a one-equation turbulence model widely used for other aerodynamic problems of interest. Two of the cases have experimental data available at the workshop, and two of the cases do not. The effect of grid, flux scheme, and thin-layer approximation are investigated. Comparisons are made to the available experimental data. All four cases exhibit strong three-dimensional behavior in and near the interaction regions, resulting from influences of the tunnel side-walls.

  8. Summary of the First AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop (invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Long, M.; Stuever, R. A.; Wayman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop was held in Chicago in June 2010. The goals of the workshop included an assessment of the numerical prediction capability of current-generation CFD technology/ codes for swept, medium/high-aspect ratio wings in landing/take-off (high lift) configurations. 21 participants from 8 countries and 18 organizations, submitted a total of 39 datasets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to flap angle were analyzed, and effects of grid family, grid density, solver, and turbulence model were addressed. Some participants also assessed the effects of support brackets used to attach the flap and slat to the main wing. This invited paper describes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

  9. Guidance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author shares and comments on early childhood educators' use of guidance to foster young children's development and learning. He defines guidance as the commitment a teacher makes to teaching children how to solve their problems, rather than punishing them for having problems they haven't yet learned how to solve. The focus of…

  10. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions. PMID:24110904

  11. Interplanetary navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of NASA's planetary navigation techniques is traced, and radiometric and optical data types are described. Doppler navigation; the Deep Space Network; differenced two-way range techniques; differential very long base interferometry; and optical navigation are treated. The Doppler system enables a spacecraft in cruise at high absolute declination to be located within a total angular uncertainty of 1/4 microrad. The two-station range measurement provides a 1 microrad backup at low declinations. Optical data locate the spacecraft relative to the target to an angular accuracy of 5 microrad. Earth-based radio navigation and its less accurate but target-relative counterpart, optical navigation, thus form complementary measurement sources, which provide a powerful sensory system to produce high-precision orbit estimates.

  12. Wind-US Code Contributions to the First AIAA Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    This report discusses the computations of a set of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock/boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Four turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Baseline and Shear Stress Transport k-omega two-equation models, and an explicit algebraic stress k-omega formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.

  13. Comparison of NTF Experimental Data with CFD Predictions from the Third AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Levy, David; Zickuhr, Tom; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Recently acquired experimental data for the DLR-F6 wing-body transonic transport con figuration from the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are compared with the database of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions generated for the Third AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-III). The NTF data were collected after the DPW-III, which was conducted with blind test cases. These data include both absolute drag levels and increments associated with this wing-body geometry. The baseline DLR-F6 wing-body geometry is also augmented with a side-of-body fairing which eliminates the flow separation in this juncture region. A comparison between computed and experimentally observed sizes of the side-of-body flow-separation bubble is included. The CFD results for the drag polars and separation bubble sizes are computed on grids which represent current engineering best practices for drag predictions. In addition to these data, a more rigorous attempt to predict absolute drag at the design point is provided. Here, a series of three grid densities are utilized to establish an asymptotic trend of computed drag with respect to grid convergence. This trend is then extrapolated to estimate a grid-converged absolute drag level.

  14. Cart3D Simulations for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (LBW1) are presented using an inviscid, embedded-boundary Cartesian mesh method. The method employs adjoint-based error estimation and adaptive meshing to automatically determine resolution requirements of the computational domain. Results are presented for both mandatory and optional test cases. These include an axisymmetric body of revolution, a 69deg delta wing model and a complete model of the Lockheed N+2 supersonic tri-jet with V-tail and flow through nacelles. In addition to formal mesh refinement studies and examination of the adjoint-based error estimates, mesh convergence is assessed by presenting simulation results for meshes at several resolutions which are comparable in size to the unstructured grids distributed by the workshop organizers. Data provided includes both the pressure signals required by the workshop and information on code performance in both memory and processing time. Various enhanced techniques offering improved simulation efficiency will be demonstrated and discussed.

  15. Summary of Data from the First AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David W.; Zickuhr, Tom; Vassberg, John; Agrawal, Shreekant; Wahls, Richard A.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The results from the first AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop are summarized. The workshop was designed specifically to assess the state-of-the-art of computational fluid dynamics methods for force and moment prediction. An impartial forum was provided to evaluate the effectiveness of existing computer codes and modeling techniques, and to identify areas needing additional research and development. The subject of the study was the DLR-F4 wing-body configuration, which is representative of transport aircraft designed for transonic flight. Specific test cases were required so that valid comparisons could be made. Optional test cases included constant-CL drag-rise predictions typically used in airplane design by industry. Results are compared to experimental data from three wind tunnel tests. A total of 18 international participants using 14 different codes submitted data to the workshop. No particular grid type or turbulence model was more accurate, when compared to each other, or to wind tunnel data. Most of the results overpredicted CLo and CDo, but induced drag (dCD/dCL2 agreed fairly well. Drag rise at high Mach number was underpredicted, however, especially at high CL. On average, the drag data were fairly accurate, but the scatter was greater than desired. The results show that well-validated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD methods are sufficiently accurate to make design decisions based on predicted drag.

  16. Summary of Data from the First AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, David W.; Zickuhr, Tom; Vassberg, John; Agrawal, Shreekant; Wahls, Richard A.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The results from the first AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop are summarized. The workshop was designed specifically to assess the state-of-the-art of computational fluid dynamics methods for force and moment prediction. An impartial forum was provided to evaluate the effectiveness of existing computer codes and modeling techniques, and to identify areas needing additional research and development. The subject of the study was the DLR-F4 wing-body configuration, which is representative of transport aircraft designed for transonic flight. Specific test cases were required so that valid comparisons could be made. Optional test cases included constant-C(sub L) drag-rise predictions typically used in airplane design by industry. Results are compared to experimental data from three wind tunnel tests. A total of 18 international participants using 14 different codes submitted data to the workshop. No particular grid type or turbulence model was more accurate, when compared to each other, or to wind tunnel data. Most of the results overpredicted C(sub Lo) and C(sub Do), but induced drag (dC(sub D)/dC(sub L)(exp 2)) agreed fairly well. Drag rise at high Mach number was underpredicted, however, especially at high C(sub L). On average, the drag data were fairly accurate, but the scatter was greater than desired. The results show that well-validated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD methods are sufficiently accurate to make design decisions based on predicted drag.

  17. Internet Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X.

    1999-01-01

    States that children need proper guidance and boundaries to reap the benefits of the Internet. Focuses on two issues: how parents can protect their children from the Internet's potential dangers and how they can help their children use the Internet to get work done. Includes suggestions for teachers to help parents meet these challenges. (VWC)

  18. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    Optical guidance vidicon test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, A. R.; Stanton, R. H.; Voge, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory and field test program was conducted to quantify the optical navigation parameters of the Mariner vidicons. A scene simulator and a camera were designed and built for vidicon tests under a wide variety of conditions. Laboratory tests characterized error sources important to the optical navigation process and field tests verified star sensitivity and characterized comet optical guidance parameters. The equipment, tests and data reduction techniques used are described. Key test results are listed. A substantial increase in the understanding of the use of selenium vidicons as detectors for spacecraft optical guidance was achieved, indicating a reduction in residual offset errors by a factor of two to four to the single pixel level.

  19. Solar electric propulsion for terminal flight to rendezvous with comets and asteroids. [using guidance algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A.

    1973-01-01

    A guidance algorithm that provides precise rendezvous in the deterministic case while requiring only relative state information is developed. A navigation scheme employing only onboard relative measurements is built around a Kalman filter set in measurement coordinates. The overall guidance and navigation procedure is evaluated in the face of measurement errors by a detailed numerical simulation. Results indicate that onboard guidance and navigation for the terminal phase of rendezvous is possible with reasonable limits on measurement errors.

    1. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 10-94. Guidance for determination and documentation of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) phase-out schedule for existing single hull vessels carrying oil in bulk. Final report

      SciTech Connect

      1994-12-22

      The purpose of this Circular is to provide guidance regarding the determination and documentation of phase-out dates for single hull vessels subject to chapter 37 of Title 46, U.S. Code, constructed or adapted to carry or that carry oil in bulk as cargo or cargo residue and operating on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

    2. Celestial Navigation

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rosenkrantz, Kurt

      2005-01-01

      In the unit described in this article, students discover the main principles of navigation, build tools to observe celestial bodies, and apply their new skills to finding their position on Earth. Along the way students see how science, mathematics, technology, and history are intertwined.

    3. Summary of Data from the Fifth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Levy, David W.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Vassberg, John C.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Rumsey, Chris; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Crippa, Simone; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

      2013-01-01

      Results from the Fifth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-V) are presented. As with past workshops, numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant geometry, methodology, and test cases. This workshop focused on force/moment predictions for the NASA Common Research Model wing-body configuration, including a grid refinement study and an optional buffet study. The grid refinement study used a common grid sequence derived from a multiblock topology structured grid. Six levels of refinement were created resulting in grids ranging from 0.64x10(exp 6) to 138x10(exp 6) hexahedra - a much larger range than is typically seen. The grids were then transformed into structured overset and hexahedral, prismatic, tetrahedral, and hybrid unstructured formats all using the same basic cloud of points. This unique collection of grids was designed to isolate the effects of grid type and solution algorithm by using identical point distributions. This study showed reduced scatter and standard deviation from previous workshops. The second test case studied buffet onset at M=0.85 using the Medium grid (5.1x106 nodes) from the above described sequence. The prescribed alpha sweep used finely spaced intervals through the zone where wing separation was expected to begin. Some solutions exhibited a large side of body separation bubble that was not observed in the wind tunnel results. An optional third case used three sets of geometry, grids, and conditions from the Turbulence Model Resource website prepared by the Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group. These simple cases were intended to help identify potential differences in turbulence model implementation. Although a few outliers and issues affecting consistency were identified, the majority of participants produced consistent results.

    4. Computational Simulations of Convergent Nozzles for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dippold, Vance F., III

      2014-01-01

      Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were completed for a series of convergent nozzles in participation of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The simulations were performed using the Wind-US flow solver. Discharge and thrust coefficients were computed for four axisymmetric nozzles with nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 1.4 to 7.0. The computed discharge coefficients showed excellent agreement with available experimental data; the computed thrust coefficients captured trends observed in the experimental data, but over-predicted the thrust coefficient by 0.25 to 1.0 percent. Sonic lines were computed for cases with NPR >= 2.0 and agreed well with experimental data for NPR >= 2.5. Simulations were also performed for a 25 deg. conic nozzle bifurcated by a flat plate at NPR = 4.0. The jet plume shock structure was compared with and without the splitter plate to the experimental data. The Wind-US simulations predicted the shock structure well, though lack of grid resolution in the plume reduced the sharpness of the shock waves. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) were performed at NPR = 1.6 for the 25 deg conic nozzle with splitter plate. The simulations predicted vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the splitter plate. However, the vortices of URANS and DES solutions appeared to dissipate earlier than observed experimentally. It is believed that a lack of grid resolution in the region of the vortex shedding may have caused the vortices to break down too soon

    5. Viking navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Oneil, W. J.; Rudd, R. P.; Farless, D. L.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Mitchell, R. T.; Rourke, K. H.; Euler, E. A.

      1979-01-01

      A comprehensive description of the navigation of the Viking spacecraft throughout their flight from Earth launch to Mars landing is given. The flight path design, actual inflight control, and postflight reconstruction are discussed in detail. The preflight analyses upon which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based are discussed. The inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions and, finally, the results of any postflight analyses are presented.

    6. Stereotaxy, navigation and the temporal concatenation.

      PubMed

      Apuzzo, M L; Chen, J C

      1999-01-01

      Nautical and cerebral navigation share similar elements of functional need and similar developmental pathways. The need for orientation necessitates the development of appropriate concepts, and such concepts are dependent on technology for practical realization. Occasionally, a concept precedes technology in time and requires periods of delay for appropriate development. A temporal concatenation exists where time allows the additive as need, concept and technology ultimately provide an endpoint of elegant solution. Nautical navigation has proceeded through periods of dead reckoning and celestial navigation to satellite orientation with associated refinements of instrumentation and charts for guidance. Cerebral navigation has progressed from craniometric orientation and burr hole mounted guidance systems to simple rectolinear and arc-centered devices based on radiographs to guidance by complex anatomical and functional maps provided as an amalgam of modern imaging modes. These maps are now augmented by complex frame and frameless systems which allow not only precise orientation, but also point and volumetric action. These complex technical modalities required and developed in part from elements of maritime navigation that have been translated to cerebral navigation in a temporal concatenation. PMID:10853057

    7. INL Autonomous Navigation System

      2005-03-30

      The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

    8. Patient navigation through the cancer care continuum: an overview.

      PubMed

      Hopkins, Janice; Mumber, Matthew P

      2009-07-01

      Technologic advances, medical specialization, novel payment structures, and an increased scientific knowledge base have resulted in a health care system requiring trained experts to deliver guidance as patients complete care plans: Enter the concept of patient navigation. PMID:20856626

    9. Station-keeping guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gustafson, D. E.; Kriegsman, B. A.

      1972-01-01

      The station-keeping guidance system is described, which is designed to automatically keep one orbiting vehicle within a prescribed zone fixed with respect to another orbiting vehicle. The active vehicle, i.e. the one performing the station-keeping maneuvers, is referred to as the shuttle. The other passive orbiting vehicle is denoted as the workshop. The passive vehicle is assumed to be in a low-eccentricity near-earth orbit. The primary navigation sensor considered is a gimballed tracking radar located on board the shuttle. It provides data on relative range and range rate between the two vehicles. Also measured are the shaft and trunnion axes gimbal angles. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is provided on board the orbiter. The IMU is used at all times to provide an attitude reference for the vehicle. The IMU accelerometers are used periodically to monitor the velocity-correction burns applied to the shuttle during the station-keeping mode. The guidance system is capable of station-keeping the shuttle in any arbitrary position with respect to the workshop by periodically applying velocity-correction pulses to the shuttle.

    10. AIAA Educator Academy - Mars Rover Curriculum: A 6 week multidisciplinary space science based curriculum

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.

      2013-12-01

      The Curiosity mission has captured the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The AIAA and the University of Houston have developed a flexible curriculum program that offers children in-depth science and language arts learning culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students learn to research Mars in order to pick a science question about Mars that is of interest to them. They learn principles of spacecraft design in order to build a model of a Mars rover to carry out their mission on the surface of Mars. The model is a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the structure and organization of the 6 week curriculum. A set of 30 new 5E lesson plans have been written to support this project as a classroom activity. The challenge of developing interactive

    11. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

      1999-01-01

      In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

    12. A STOL terminal area navigation system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Neuman, F.; Warner, D. N., Jr.

      1974-01-01

      The mechanization and performance of a STOL terminal area navigation system are described. The purpose of the navigation system is to allow flying with precision 4D-guidance along complex flight paths in the terminal area, and to develop requirements for STOL operations in the 1980s. The navigation aids include an experimental microwave landing system, MODILS. The systems description begins with the navigation aids. It is shown how the data are transformed and combined with other data to obtain position and velocity estimates. Also presented are some of the design changes and other features that were introduced as a result of flight testing. The various ways of displaying navigation-derived data are given. Finally, simulator and flight test results are discussed.

    13. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      D'Souza, Christopher

      2014-01-01

      This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

    14. Guidance and control of HOPE (H-II orbiting plane)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mineno, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Takizawa, Yoshisada

      The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been studying HOPE. Guidance and control technology is one of the most critical technologies to realize HOPE. Studies on guidance and control of HOPE have been done focused on system design and management, navigation, guidance and control, and onboard equipment. The reference configuration and the algorithm of guidance and control system are almost fixed by navigation analyses. We show that the flight path of HOPE can be realized by guidance analyses. A trial model of GCC (Guidance Control Computer), GPSR (GPS Receiver) and MLS (Microwave Landing System) receiver are currently being developed. Several experiments are planned. The MLS flight experiment is explained by an example.

    15. Relative Navigation of Formation Flying Satellites

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Long, Anne; Kelbel, David; Lee, Taesul; Leung, Dominic; Carpenter, Russell; Gramling, Cheryl; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

      2002-01-01

      The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous satellite navigation systems using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, an autonomous navigation system that uses celestial object sensor measurements is currently under development and has been successfully tested using real Sun and Earth horizon measurements.The GNCC has developed advanced spacecraft systems that provide autonomous navigation and control of formation flyers in near-Earth, high-Earth, and libration point orbits. To support this effort, the GNCC is assessing the relative navigation accuracy achievable for proposed formations using GPS, intersatellite crosslink, ground-to-satellite Doppler, and celestial object sensor measurements. This paper evaluates the performance of these relative navigation approaches for three proposed missions with two or more vehicles maintaining relatively tight formations. High-fidelity simulations were performed to quantify the absolute and relative navigation accuracy as a function of navigation algorithm and measurement type. Realistically-simulated measurements were processed using the extended Kalman filter implemented in the GPS Enhanced Inboard Navigation System (GEONS) flight software developed by GSFC GNCC. Solutions obtained by simultaneously estimating all satellites in the formation were compared with the results obtained using a simpler approach based on differencing independently estimated state vectors.

    16. A comparison of two commercial and the terminal configured vehicle area navigation systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Knox, C. E.; Hartnell, D.

      1976-01-01

      A comparison was made of some of the more important features of two commercially available area navigation systems and the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) area navigation system. Topics discussed included system design criteria, system elements, calculation of the navigation solution, and presentation of guidance information.

    17. Indoor magnetic navigation for the blind.

      PubMed

      Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Giudice, Nicholas A; Sheikh, Suneel I; Knuesel, Robert J; Kollmann, Daniel T; Hedin, Daniel S

      2012-01-01

      Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction of and evaluation of a navigation system that infers the users' location using only magnetic sensing. It is well known that the environments within steel frame structures are subject to significant magnetic distortions. Many of these distortions are persistent and have sufficient strength and spatial characteristics to allow their use as the basis for a location technology. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a prototype magnetic navigation system consisting of a wireless magnetometer placed at the users' hip streaming magnetic readings to a smartphone processing location algorithms. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance. PMID:23366303

    18. Autonomous landing guidance program

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brown, John A.

      1996-05-01

      The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

    19. Space optical navigation techniques: an overview

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rebordão, J. M.

      2013-11-01

      Optical or vision-based navigation is an enabling technology for satellite autonomous navigation associated to different navigation approaches such as cruising, fly-by, terrain relative navigation, landing, rendezvous and docking between spacecrafts, rigidity of multi-satellite constellations. Since 2001, in many different ESA projects, the author and his team (at INETI and currently at FCUL) have been associated to most of the developments of the optical components of autonomous navigation, in cooperation with space primes or GNC subsystems suppliers. A unique experience related to seemingly simple photonic concepts associated to computational vision, photonic noises, camera tradeoffs and system concepts has emerged, and deserves a synthesis especially because some of these concepts are being implemented in the ESA Proba 3 mission and ESA is currently updating the technology in view of forthcoming planetary missions to Jupiter, Jupiter moons and asteroids. It is important to note that the US have already flown several missions relying on autonomous navigation and that NASA experience is at least one decade old. System approaches, sources of difficulty, some tradeoffs in both (and between) hardware and software, critical interface issues between the imaging and GNC (Guidance, Navigation and Control) subsystems, image processing techniques, utilization of apriori or to be estimated information, uncertainties, simulation of the imaging chain and non-cooperative environments will be addressed synthetically for both passive (optical) and active (lidar) systems.

    20. Navigation simulator for the Space Tug vehicle

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Colburn, B. K.; Boland, J. S., III; Peters, E. G.

      1977-01-01

      A general simulation program (GSP) for state estimation of a nonlinear space vehicle flight navigation system is developed and used as a basis for evaluating the performance of a Space Tug navigation system. An explanation of the iterative guidance mode (IGM) guidance law, derivation of the dynamics, coordinate frames and state estimation routines are given in order to clarify the assumptions and approximations made. A number of simulation and analytical studies are used to demonstrate the operation of the Tug system. Included in the simulation studies are (1) initial offset vector parameter study; (2) propagation time vs accuracy; (3) measurement noise parametric study and (4) reduction in computational burden of an on-board implementable scheme. From the results of these studies, conclusions and recommendations concerning future areas of practical and theoretical work are presented.

    1. Elementary School Guidance Bibliography.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Biasco, Frank

      This bibliography lists articles and books dealing with elementary school guidance. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author. No annotations are given. Approximately 70 titles are given, covering most phases of elementary guidance. (KJ)

    2. Precision visual guidance for agricultural applicator aircraft

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hartt, Joseph R.; Bletzacker, Frank R.; Forgette, T. J.; Vetter, Alan A.

      1992-07-01

      The in-cockpit swath centerline identifier (SCI) for aerial applicators uses differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) signals to determine precise ground track of an aircraft and provide guidance to the pilot for flying patterns for aerial application of materials such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. Cross track distance from the swath centerline is provided by a heads up light bar display while detailed navigation, position, and status information is provided on an alphanumeric display on a panel mounted console. This system provides straight line guidance when executing a swath and turn-in guidance when proceeding from one swath to the next. It provides a record of the swaths which were sprayed and logs all of the associated navigation and operational data, including time. In addition, it provides navigation information from base to the fields, between fields, and return. The SCI eliminates the need for flaggers while providing improved accuracy of application. Reduced exposure to liability and improved quality control results as the position, altitude, time, and spray status are logged for post flight analysis. The SCI has been used in commercial agricultural applications. Demonstrations of the SCI showed better precision than anticipated.

    3. Unified powered flight guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

      1973-01-01

      A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

    4. Microcomputers and astronomical navigation.

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Robin-Jouan, Y.

      1996-04-01

      Experienced navigators remember ancient astronomical navigation and its limitations. Using microcomputers in small packages and selecting up-to-date efficient methods will overcome many of these limitations. Both features lead to focus on observations, and encourage an increase in their numbers. With no intention of competing with satellite navigation, sextant navigation in the open sea can then be accessed again by anybody. It can be considered for demonstrative use or as a complement to the GPS.

    5. Navigating the Internet.

      PubMed Central

      Powsner, S M; Roderer, N K

      1994-01-01

      Navigating any complex set of information resources requires tools for both browsing and searching. A number of tools are available today for using Internet resources, and more are being developed. This article reviews existing navigational tools, including two developed at the Yale University School of Medicine, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. A major shortcoming of the present Internet navigation methods is the lack of controlled descriptions of the available resources. As a result, navigating the Internet is very difficult. PMID:7841913

    6. Evolution of patient navigation.

      PubMed

      Shockney, Lillie D

      2010-08-01

      The role of nurses in patient navigation has evolved over more than four decades. Navigators in cancer care can guide patients through the physical, emotional, and financial challenges that come with a diagnosis of cancer and facilitate communication among healthcare providers. Navigation has the potential to improve patient outcomes and system efficiency. Oncology nurses are well suited to help patients with cancer navigate the healthcare system from diagnosis and treatment through survivorship and palliative care. PMID:20682496

    7. Bayesian Software Health Management for Aircraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schumann, Johann; Mbaya, Timmy; Menghoel, Ole

      2011-01-01

      Modern aircraft, both piloted fly-by-wire commercial aircraft as well as UAVs, more and more depend on highly complex safety critical software systems with many sensors and computer-controlled actuators. Despite careful design and V&V of the software, severe incidents have happened due to malfunctioning software. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) to monitor the health of the on-board software and sensor system, and to perform advanced on-board diagnostic reasoning. We will focus on the approach to develop reliable and robust health models for the combined software and sensor systems.

    8. Guidance, navigation, and control digital emulation technology laboratory

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      1994-07-01

      The tasks of a speed test on the rad-hard FPU chip developed by Harris and the development of an FPA Test System are reviewed. Georgia Tech got three hardened chips from Harris: FPU 1, FPU 2, and FPU 3. The third chip (FPU 3) gave erroneous results at any frequency. This may have been caused by inserting the chip into the socket incorrectly due to an incorrect pin diagram. FPU 2 was also inserted into the socket incorrectly; however, it did not stay in that configuration for very long and the only damage was a disabling of the fourth bit on the chip output. This was remedied by modifying the test software to mask out that bit. A commercial chip was designed on the Genesil silicon Compiler and fabricated by NCR using their 1.25 micron CMOS process. The rad-hard FPU chips were designed using a new version of the Genesil silicon compiler. The hardened chips, in a non-active mode, use about half the power of the commercial FPU chip. Tests were separated into 10 categories: logical, shift, integer addition, integer multiplication, floating point addition, floating point multiplication, pack exponent and float, generate speed, round or truncate a result, and sign manipulation. The FPA test system is being developed to analyze the characteristics and quality of an FPA sensor. It allows a user to study the effectiveness of the FPA sensor when using various signal and image processing functions. The primary features supported by the Georgia Tech system are the ability to: (1) interface a wide range of FPA's using a specification defined by USASSDC; (2) display the raw FPA image live on a color monitor to enable a user to visually locate bad detectors, and to compare and characterize the quality of an FPA sensor; (3) select or program any of the four signal/image filters provided (non-uniformity compensation, temporal filtering, spatial filtering, and thresholding); and (4) display the intermediate filtered frame outputs in real time, at a refresh rate that does not strain the eyes.

    9. Navigation and EDL for the Mars Exploration Rovers

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Watkins, Michael M.; Han, Dongsuk

      2006-01-01

      A viewgraph presentation on Deep Space Navigation, and Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL) for Mars Exploration Rovers is shown. The contents include: 1) JPL Spacecraft Operating across the Solar System; 2) 2003 - 2004: The Busiest Period in JPL's History; 3) Deep Space Navigation Will Enable Many of the New NASA Missions; 4) What Exactly is Navigation vs. GNC for Deep Space?; 5) Cruise and Approach: Why is Deep Space Navigation So Difficult?; 6) Project Importance of GNC: Landing Site Selection; 7) Planetary Communications and Tracking; 8) Tracking Data Types; 9) Delta Differential One-Way Range (deltaDOR); 10) All Solutions Leading up to TCM-4 Design; 11) Entry Flight Path Sensitivities; 12) MER Navigation Results; 13) Atmospheric Entry Targeting and Delivery; 14) Landing Ellipse Orientation; 15) MER Landing Site Trade Example; 16) Entry, Descent and Landing: Entry Guidance or What Things Do We NOT do for MER Landings (but we will later...); 17) Entering Martian Space 8:29 p.m. PST (ERT); 18) Entry, Descent and Landing; 19) Entry, Descent and Landing: Terminal Guidance; 20) The Challenge Going from 12,000 mph to Zero in Less Than Six Minutes; 21) Spirit Landing Location; 22) Entry, Descent and Landing: The Future; 23) Powered Descent Time-Line; and 24) Updated Sky Crane Maneuver Description. A short summary is also given on planetary guidance, navigation and control as it pertains to EDL systems

    10. Method for continuous guidance of endoscopy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Merritt, Scott A.; Rai, Lav; Gibbs, Jason D.; Yu, Kun-Chang; Higgins, William E.

      2007-03-01

      Previous research has indicated that use of guidance systems during endoscopy can improve the performance and decrease the skill variation of physicians. Current guidance systems, however, rely on computationally intensive registration techniques or costly and error-prone electromagnetic (E/M) registration techniques, neither of which fit seamlessly into the clinical workflow. We have previously proposed a real-time image-based registration technique that addresses both of these problems. We now propose a system-level approach that incorporates this technique into a complete paradigm for real-time image-based guidance in order to provide a physician with continuously-updated navigational and guidance information. At the core of the system is a novel strategy for guidance of endoscopy. Additional elements such as global surface rendering, local cross-sectional views, and pertinent distances are also incorporated into the system to provide additional utility to the physician. Phantom results were generated using bronchoscopy performed on a rapid prototype model of a human tracheobronchial airway tree. The system has also been tested in ongoing live human tests. Thus far, ten such tests, focused on bronchoscopic intervention of pulmonary patients, have been run successfully.

    11. Cell-Cell Interactions during pollen tube guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Daphne Preuss

      2009-03-31

      The long-term goal of this research is to identify the signaling molecules that mediate plant cell-cell interactions during pollination. The immediate goals of this project are to perform genetic and molecular analysis of pollen tube guidance. Specifically, we proposed to: 1. Characterize the pistil components that direct pollen tube navigation using the Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro pollen tube guidance system 2. Identify pistil signals that direct pollen tube guidance by a) using microarrays to profile gene expression in developing pistils, and b) employing proteomics and metabolomics to isolate pollen tube guidance signals. 3. Explore the genetic basis of natural variation in guidance signals, comparing the in vitro interactions between pollen and pistils from A. thaliana and its close relatives.

    12. Generating Navigation Models from Existing Building Data

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liu, L.; Zlatanova, S.

      2013-11-01

      Research on indoor navigation models mainly focuses on geometric and logical models .The models are enriched with specific semantic information which supports localisation, navigation and guidance. Geometric models provide information about the structural (physical) distribution of spaces in a building, while logical models indicate relationships (connectivity and adjacency) between the spaces. In many cases geometric models contain virtual subdivisions to identify smaller spaces which are of interest for navigation (e.g. reception area) or make use of different semantics. The geometric models are used as basis to automatically derive logical models. However, there is seldom reported research on how to automatically realize such geometric models from existing building data (as floor plans) or indoor standards (CityGML LOD4 or IFC). In this paper, we present our experiments on automatic creation of logical models from floor plans and CityGML LOD4. For the creation we adopt the Indoor Spatial Navigation Model (INSM) which is specifically designed to support indoor navigation. The semantic concepts in INSM differ from daily used notations of indoor spaces such as rooms and corridors but they facilitate automatic creation of logical models.

    13. Navigation of Construction and Agriculture Machinery

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Stempfhuber, Werner

      2008-09-01

      Over the last two decades terrestrial and global 3D measurement sensors in the field of engineering geodesy have seen a significant upturn. With modern measurement techniques, a 3D trajectory of a moving object can be determined within a few centimetres (mostly with Global Navigation Satellite Systems, GNSS), under certain circumstances and with an overall understanding of the applied method accuracies of within 5 to 10 millimetres can be achieved (tracking total station). New application areas have been now created in the fields of construction, mining and agriculture. The guidance or control of heavy machinery demands a navigation sensor with an appropriate measurement rate and accuracy, as well as stable and reliable performance. The 3D position, together with the orientation as well as the long and cross inclination information is hereby just one part of the absolute machine guidance or control unit. Data collection, verification, management and interaction of the position information with the 6 degrees of freedom, together and the machine controller, are needed for the overall system. Rotation ring sensors for height control or height guidance are well-known amongst construction jobs and have been in use for more than 20 years. The first GPS-based guidance system for yield mapping was used 15 years ago (Auernhammer 1995). Optimization and improvements in efficiency are the principal reasons for the current developments in the area of 3D-based machine control and guidance. This paper will describe the state-of-the-art and general approaches as well as the real-time 3D measurement techniques in construction and agriculture environment.

    14. Autonomous Navigation for Mobile Robots with Human-Robot Interaction

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ballantyne, James; Johns, Edward; Valibeik, Salman; Wong, Charence; Yang, Guang-Zhong

      Dynamic and complex indoor environments present a challenge for mobile robot navigation. The robot must be able to simultaneously map the environment, which often has repetitive features, whilst keep track of its pose and location. This chapter introduces some of the key considerations for human guided navigation. Rather than letting the robot explore the environment fully autonomously, we consider the use of human guidance for progressively building up the environment map and establishing scene association, learning, as well as navigation and planning. After the guide has taken the robot through the environment and indicated the points of interest via hand gestures, the robot is then able to use the geometric map and scene descriptors captured during the tour to create a high-level plan for subsequent autonomous navigation within the environment. Issues related to gesture recognition, multi-cue integration, tracking, target pursuing, scene association and navigation planning are discussed.

    15. Star/horizon simulator used to test space guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schmidt, W. C.

      1967-01-01

      Star/horizon simulator is used for alignment and optical plus photoelectric tests of the sextant for the Apollo guidance and navigation system optical unit assembly. The unit is basically a refractive collimator with a two inch objective lens system and a twenty-four inch focal length.

    16. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

      1982-01-01

      Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

    17. The Model of Domain Learning as a Framework for Understanding Internet Navigation

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Schrader, P. G.; Lawless, Kimberly; Mayall, Hayley

      2008-01-01

      When examined across studies and fields, navigation research is fragmented and inconsistent. In this article, we argue that this is the result of navigation research having generally been conducted without guidance from an overarching theoretical framework. In order to illustrate our position, we have included results from a very simple…

    18. Stressor Identification Guidance Document

      EPA Science Inventory

      EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance doc...

    19. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

      1998-01-01

      A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

    20. Evaluating Guidance Activities.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sanborn, Marshall P.

      This report discusses one of the consistent problems in school counseling and guidance-that of furnishing concrete evidence concerning the effects of counseling and guidance activities on the development of children. The following causal factors are discussed: (1) the difficulty of pinning down abstractly stated goals in an operational manner at…

    1. Corporate information management guidance

      SciTech Connect

      1997-08-01

      At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

    2. Ascent Guidance Comparisons

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hanson, John M.; Shrader, M. Wade; Cruzen, Craig A.

      1995-01-01

      This paper contains results from ascent guidance studies conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The studies include investigation of different guidance schemes for a variety of potential launch vehicles. Criteria of a successful ascent guidance scheme are low operations cost, satisfaction of load indicator constraints, and maximization of performance. Results show that open-loop designs as a function of altitude or velocity are preferable to designs that are functions of time. Optimized open-loop trajectories can increase performance while maintaining load indicators within limits. Closed-loop atmospheric schemes that involve linear tangent steering or feedback of velocity terms for trajectory modification did not yield any improvement. Early release of vacuum closed-loop guidance, including use during solid rocket booster operation, yields some improvements. Evaluation of a closed-loop optimization scheme for flying through the atmosphere shows no advantages over open-loop optimization. Dispersion study results for several potential guidance schemes and launch vehicles are included in the paper and are not a discriminator between guidance schemes. The primary cost driver is mission operations philosophy, not choice of guidance scheme. More autonomous guidance schemes can help in movement towards a philosophy that would reduce operations costs.

    3. Guidance for Total Development.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Van Hoose, William H.

      Elementary guidance, deriving much of its content from the developmental phenomena of middle childhood, is viewed as the maximization of human potentiality in the total range of the population. Included in the list of elementary school guidance objectives are (1) aiding academic development, (2) helping children develop health self-concepts, (3)…

    4. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

      1992-01-01

      The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

    5. Shuttle entry guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

      1978-01-01

      This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

    6. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 0-97. Index of Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars (NVICS). Final report

      SciTech Connect

      1996-11-21

      This Circular provides the current listing of Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars (NVICS). NVICs are issued by Coast Guard Headquarters in the form of duplicated circulars. Their purpose is to inform the public of Coast Guard guidance, requirements or information regarding marine safety activities.

    7. Navigator program risk management

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

      2004-01-01

      In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

    8. Maps and navigation methods

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Duval, A

      1922-01-01

      Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

    9. Oncology nurse navigator.

      PubMed

      Case, Mary Ann B

      2011-02-01

      The purpose of this integrative review is to explore the presence of the oncology nurse as navigator on measurable patient outcomes. Eighteen primary nursing research studies were found using combinations of the following key words: advocate, cancer, case manager, coach, certification, guide, navigator, nurse, oncology, patient navigator, pivot nurse, and continuity of care. Nurse researchers identified nursing-sensitive patient outcomes related to the time to diagnosis and appropriate treatment, effect on mood states, satisfaction, support, continuity of care, and cost outcomes. Navigator roles are expanding globally, and nurses should continue to embrace opportunities to ensure the safe passage of patients with cancer along the entire trajectory of illness and to evaluate the implications for educational preparation, research, and practice of navigators of all kinds. PMID:21278039

    10. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

      1975-01-01

      The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

    11. Civil air navigation using GNSS enhanced by wide area satellite based augmentation systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dautermann, Thomas

      2014-05-01

      Advancement in augmented satellite navigation enables a new class of instrument approach procedures for aircraft. These approaches are based on regional augmentation systems which broadcast corrections via a geostationary satellite. The enhanced GNSS navigation solution using the corrections from the satellite provides the necessary accuracy and integrity to perform approaches with vertical and lateral angular guidance to a given runway threshold. This enables cost effective and simple procedure generation with low descent minima even for small airports. Moreover, it supports high precision en-route navigation and future high precision flight guidance applications.

    12. The effect of navigation state selection on fuel dispersions for powered lunar descent

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Anderson, Jessica Thornley

      A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to study the performance of the closed-loop guidance, navigation, and control system of a lunar lander in powered descent. The simulation includes six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics, an extended Kalman filter, guidance based upon modified Apollo methods, an attitude control system, and several different types of sensors. Sensors included in the sensor suite include accelerometers, gyroscopes, a star camera, an altimeter, a velocimeter, and a radio navigation system. The simulation is used to examine the effects of sensor errors and the number of navigation states on total fuel use.

    13. MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

      1998-04-01

      Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

    14. Fuzzy logic and guidance algorithm design

      SciTech Connect

      Leng, G.

      1994-12-31

      This paper explores the use of fuzzy logic for the design of a terminal guidance algorithm for an air to surface missile against a stationary target. The design objectives are (1) a smooth transition, at lock-on, (2) large impact angles and (3) self-limiting acceleration commands. The method of reverse kinematics is used in the design of the membership functions and the rule base. Simulation results for a Mach 0.8 missile with a 6g acceleration limit are compared with a traditional proportional navigation scheme.

    15. An indoor navigation system to support the visually impaired.

      PubMed

      Riehle, T H; Lichter, P; Giudice, N A

      2008-01-01

      Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. A small portable personal navigation device that provides current position, useful contextual wayfinding information about the indoor environment and directions to a destination would greatly improve access and independence for people with low vision. This paper describes the construction of such a device which utilizes a commercial Ultra-Wideband (UWB) asset tracking system to support real-time location and navigation information. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by comparing target-finding performance between blindfolded subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance, and blindfolded subjects who only received speech information about their local surrounds but no route guidance information (similar to that available from a long cane or guide dog). A normal vision control condition was also run. The time and distance traveled was measured in each trial and a point-back test was performed after goal completion to assess cognitive map development. Statistically significant differences were observed between the three conditions in time and distance traveled; with the navigation system and the visual condition yielding the best results, and the navigation system dramatically outperforming the non-guided condition. PMID:19163698

    16. Energy Navigation: Simulation Evaluation and Benefit Analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Williams, David H.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lewis, Elliot T.

      2011-01-01

      This paper presents results from two simulation studies investigating the use of advanced flight-deck-based energy navigation (ENAV) and conventional transport-category vertical navigation (VNAV) for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, and the subsequent Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO) research focus area of the Airspace Project. A piloted simulation study addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for high density terminal operations. The procedures and charts were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC.

    17. Indoor waypoint navigation via magnetic anomalies.

      PubMed

      Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Condon, John P; Sheikh, Suneel I; Hedin, Daniel S

      2011-01-01

      A wide assortment of technologies have been proposed to construct indoor navigation services for the blind and vision impaired. Proximity-based systems and multilateration systems have been successfully demonstrated and employed. Despite the technical success of these technologies, broad adoption has been limited due to their significant infrastructure and maintenance costs. An alternative approach utilizing the indoor magnetic signatures inherent to steel-frame buildings solves the infrastructure cost problem; in effect the existing building is the location system infrastructure. Although magnetic indoor navigation does not require the installation of dedicated hardware, the dedication of resources to produce precise survey maps of magnetic anomalies represents a further barrier to adoption. In the present work an alternative leader-follower form of waypoint-navigation system has been developed that works without surveyed magnetic maps of a site. Instead the wayfarer's magnetometer readings are compared to a pre-recorded magnetic "leader" trace containing magnetic data collected along a route and annotated with waypoint information. The goal of the navigation system is to correlate the follower's magnetometer data with the leader's to trigger audio cues at precise points along the route, thus providing location-based guidance to the user. The system should also provide early indications of off-route conditions. As part of the research effort a smartphone based application was created to record and annotate leader traces with audio and numeric data at waypoints of interest, and algorithms were developed to determine (1) when the follower reaches a waypoint and (2) when the follower goes off-route. A navigation system utilizing this technology would enable a low-cost indoor navigation system capable of replaying audio annotations at precise locations along pre-recorded routes. PMID:22255538

    18. Astrodynamics 1989; Proceedings of the AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Conference, Stowe, VT, Aug. 7-10, 1989. Parts 1 2

      SciTech Connect

      Thornton, C.L.; Proulx, R.J.; Prussing, J.E.; Hoots, F.R.

      1990-01-01

      The conference focuses of analytical and numerical aspects of astrodynamics and celestial mechanics with emphasis on planetary mission design, trajectory analysis and design, orbit determination, attitude determination and control, guidance systems, and dynamics and control of large flexible space structures. Trajectory computation techniques, satellite dynamics, and geocentric satellite orbit analysis are presented, along with earth orbiter mission analysis, trajectory optimization applications, planetary spacecraft orbit determination, and orbiting debris considerations. Neutral upper-atmosphere density is addressed, and guidance analysis, planetary mission design and analysis, trajectory analysis, estimation/identification techniques are discussed in addition to the dynamics and control of space structures or multi-body systems.

    19. Algorithm for navigated ESS.

      PubMed

      Baudoin, T; Grgić, M V; Zadravec, D; Geber, G; Tomljenović, D; Kalogjera, L

      2013-12-01

      ENT navigation has given new opportunities in performing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) and improving surgical outcome of the patients` treatment. ESS assisted by a navigation system could be called Navigated Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (NESS). As it is generally accepted that the NESS should be performed only in cases of complex anatomy and pathology, it has not yet been established as a state-of-the-art procedure and thus not used on a daily basis. This paper presents an algorithm for use of a navigation system for basic ESS in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The algorithm includes five units that should be highlighted using a navigation system. They are as follows: 1) nasal vestibule unit, 2) OMC unit, 3) anterior ethmoid unit, 4) posterior ethmoid unit, and 5) sphenoid unit. Each unit has a shape of a triangular pyramid and consists of at least four reference points or landmarks. As many landmarks as possible should be marked when determining one of the five units. Navigated orientation in each unit should always precede any surgical intervention. The algorithm should improve the learning curve of trainees and enable surgeons to use the navigation system routinely and systematically. PMID:24260766

    20. Navigation lights color study

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

      2015-05-01

      The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

    1. Mars Science Laboratory Navigation Results

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Kruizingas, Gerhard L.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Wong, Mau C.; Abilleira, Fernando

      2012-01-01

      The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), carrying the Curiosity rover to Mars, was launched on November 26, 2011, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The target for MSL was selected to be Gale Crater, near the equator of Mars, with an arrival date in early August 2012. The two main interplanetary navigation tasks for the mission were to deliver the spacecraft to an entry interface point that would allow the rover to safely reach the landing area, and to tell the spacecraft where it entered the atmosphere of Mars, so it could guide itself accurately to close proximity of the landing target. MSL used entry guidance as it slowed down from the entry speed to a speed low enough to allow for a successful parachute deployment, and this guidance allowed shrinking the landing ellipse to a 99% conservative estimate of 7 by 20 kilometers. Since there is no global positioning system in Mars, achieving this accuracy was predicated on flying a trajectory that closely matched the reference trajectory used to design the guidance algorithm, and on initializing the guidance system with an accurate Mars-relative entry state that could be used as the starting point to integrate the inertial measurement unit data during entry and descent. The pre-launch entry flight path angle (EFPA) delivery requirement was +/- 0.20 deg, but after launch a smaller threshold of +/- 0.05 deg was used as the criteria for late trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) decisions. The pre-launch requirement for entry state knowledge was 2.8 kilometers in position error and 2 meters per second in velocity error, but also smaller thresholds were defined after launch to evaluate entry state update opportunities. The biggest challenge for the navigation team was to accurately predict the trajectory of the spacecraft, so the estimates of the entry conditions could be stable, and late trajectory correction maneuvers or entry parameter updates could be waved off. As a matter of fact, the prediction accuracy was such that the last

    2. Navigation Systems for Ablation

      PubMed Central

      Wood, B. J.; Kruecker, J.; Abi-Jaoudeh, N; Locklin, J.; Levy, E.; Xu, S.; Solbiati, L.; Kapoor, A.; Amalou, H.; Venkatesan, A.

      2010-01-01

      Navigation systems, devices and intra-procedural software are changing the way we practice interventional oncology. Prior to the development of precision navigation tools integrated with imaging systems, thermal ablation of hard-to-image lesions was highly dependent upon operator experience, spatial skills, and estimation of positron emission tomography-avid or arterial-phase targets. Numerous navigation systems for ablation bring the opportunity for standardization and accuracy that extends our ability to use imaging feedback during procedures. Existing systems and techniques are reviewed, and specific clinical applications for ablation are discussed to better define how these novel technologies address specific clinical needs, and fit into clinical practice. PMID:20656236

    3. Spatial cognition and navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Aretz, Anthony J.

      1989-01-01

      An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

    4. Inertial/multisensor navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Alikiotis, Dimitri

      1987-01-01

      A Multisensor Navigation System as proposed by the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is illustrated. The proposed system incorporates radio (Lorac-C), satellite (Global Positioning System) and an inertial navigation system (INS). The inertial part of the system will be of a low grade since the INS will be used primarily for filtering the GPS data and for short term stability. Loran-C and GPS will be used for long term stability.

    5. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1979-01-01

      The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

    6. Navigation, robotics, and intraoperative imaging in spinal surgery.

      PubMed

      Ringel, Florian; Villard, Jimmy; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Meyer, Bernhard

      2014-01-01

      Spinal navigation is a technique gaining increasing popularity. Different approaches as CT-based or intraoperative imaging-based navigation are available, requiring different methods of patient registration, bearing certain advantages and disadvantages. So far, a large number of studies assessed the accuracy of pedicle screw implantation in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, elucidating the advantages of image guidance. However, a clear proof of patient benefit is missing, so far. Spinal navigation is closely related to intraoperative 3D imaging providing an imaging dataset for navigational use and the opportunity for immediate intraoperative assessment of final screw position giving the option of immediate screw revision if necessary. Thus, postoperative imaging and a potential revision surgery for screw correction become dispensable.Different concept of spinal robotics as the DaVinci system and SpineAssist are under investigation. PMID:24309918

    7. Odometry and insect navigation.

      PubMed

      Wolf, Harald

      2011-05-15

      Animals have needed to find their way about almost since a free-living life style evolved. Particularly, if an animal has a home--shelter or nesting site--true navigation becomes necessary to shuttle between this home and areas of other activities, such as feeding. As old as navigation is in the animal kingdom, as diverse are its mechanisms and implementations, depending on an organism's ecology and its endowment with sensors and actuators. The use of landmarks for piloting or the use of trail pheromones for route following have been examined in great detail and in a variety of animal species. The same is true for senses of direction--the compasses for navigation--and the construction of vectors for navigation from compass and distance cues. The measurement of distance itself--odometry--has received much less attention. The present review addresses some recent progress in the understanding of odometers in invertebrates, after outlining general principles of navigation to put odometry in its proper context. Finally, a number of refinements that increase navigation accuracy and safety are addressed. PMID:21525309

    8. Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gysbers, Norman C.; And Others

      This monograph describes how the comprehensive guidance model is transforming elementary-secondary school guidance and counseling programs in schools across the country. It incorporates the ideas and experiences of 12 guidance program developers in the actual use of the comprehensive guidance model in diverse school and cultural settings. The book…

    9. Evaluation of Mars Entry Reconstructured Trajectories Based on Hypothetical 'Quick-Look' Entry Navigation Data

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Pastor, P. Rick; Bishop, Robert H.; Striepe, Scott A.

      2000-01-01

      A first order simulation analysis of the navigation accuracy expected from various Navigation Quick-Look data sets is performed. Here quick-look navigation data are observations obtained by hypothetical telemetried data transmitted on the fly during a Mars probe's atmospheric entry. In this simulation study, navigation data consists of 3-axis accelerometer sensor and attitude information data. Three entry vehicle guidance types are studied: I. a Maneuvering entry vehicle (as with Mars 01 guidance where angle of attack and bank angle are controlled); II. Zero angle-of-attack controlled entry vehicle (as with Mars 98); and III. Ballistic, or spin stabilized entry vehicle (as with Mars Pathfinder);. For each type, sensitivity to progressively under sampled navigation data and inclusion of sensor errors are characterized. Attempts to mitigate the reconstructed trajectory errors, including smoothing, interpolation and changing integrator characteristics are also studied.

    10. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and procedure. 209.325 Section 209.325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation...

    11. Investigations of Fluid-Structure-Coupling and Turbulence Model Effects on the DLR Results of the Fifth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Keye, Stefan; Togiti, Vamish; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Rivers, Melissa B.

      2013-01-01

      The accurate calculation of aerodynamic forces and moments is of significant importance during the design phase of an aircraft. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been strongly developed over the last two decades regarding robustness, efficiency, and capabilities for aerodynamically complex configurations. Incremental aerodynamic coefficients of different designs can be calculated with an acceptable reliability at the cruise design point of transonic aircraft for non-separated flows. But regarding absolute values as well as increments at off-design significant challenges still exist to compute aerodynamic data and the underlying flow physics with the accuracy required. In addition to drag, pitching moments are difficult to predict because small deviations of the pressure distributions, e.g. due to neglecting wing bending and twisting caused by the aerodynamic loads can result in large discrepancies compared to experimental data. Flow separations that start to develop at off-design conditions, e.g. in corner-flows, at trailing edges, or shock induced, can have a strong impact on the predictions of aerodynamic coefficients too. Based on these challenges faced by the CFD community a working group of the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee initiated in 2001 the CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW) series resulting in five international workshops. The results of the participants and the committee are summarized in more than 120 papers. The latest, fifth workshop took place in June 2012 in conjunction with the 30th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference. The results in this paper will evaluate the influence of static aeroelastic wing deformations onto pressure distributions and overall aerodynamic coefficients based on the NASA finite element structural model and the common grids.

    12. Missile Guidance Law Design via μ-Synthesis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ochi, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Kouhei; Kanai, Kimio

      A new design method of a robust guidance law for missiles is presented. It has two features. One is that the guidance law is designed based on the heuristic idea that keeping the line-of-sight angular rate small can make the miss distance small. The other is that a linear robust control method, i.e., the μ-synthesis, is employed. When these are incorporated, uncertainties and disturbances in the homing system can explicitly be taken into account in the design to achieve the control or guidance objective. Specifically, the uncertainties and disturbances considered here include time delays in the missile dynamics, range variation between missile and target, measurement noise of the line-of-sight angular rate, and normal target acceleration. The guidance law obtained by this approach is a 4th order dynamic compensator requiring the line-of-sight angular rate as the only measurement. The miss distance is evaluated through nonlinear simulation. The simulation study shows that the proposed guidance law is generally superior to the proportional navigation guidance law and is also superior or equivalent to the suboptimal guidance law in miss distance.

    13. Vocational Guidance and the Labour Market: Guidance to Transform or Guidance to Domesticate?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kann, Ulla

      1988-01-01

      Explores the conflict in guidance arising from the desire to consider the needs of society while guaranteeing individual freedom of choice. Discusses the theoretical basis of vocational guidance. Gives examples of "domestication" and "transformation" approaches to guidance and discusses the consequences of viewing guidance as a change strategy.(KO)

    14. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mendeck, Gavin F.; McGrew, Lynn Craig

      2012-01-01

      The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory was the first successful Mars mission to attempt a guided entry which safely delivered the rover to a final position approximately 2 km from its target within a touchdown ellipse of 19.1 km x 6.9 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range error while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Key dispersions driving deploy ellipse and altitude performance are identified. Performance sensitivities including attitude initialization error and the velocity of transition from range control to heading alignment are presented. Just prior to the entry and landing of MSL in August 2012, the EDL team examined minute tuning of the reference trajectory for the selected landing site, analyzed whether adjustment of bank reversal deadbands were necessary, the heading alignment velocity trigger was in union with other parameters to balance the EDL risks, and the vertical L/D command limits. This paper details a preliminary postflight assessment of the telemetry and trajectory reconstruction that is being performed, and updates the information presented in the former paper Entry Guidance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission (AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference; 8-11 Aug. 2011; Portland, OR; United States)

    15. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Slack, Marc G.

      1991-07-01

      Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

    16. Voyager navigation strategy and accuracy

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Jones, J. B.; Mcdanell, J. P.; Bantell, M. H., Jr.; Chadwick, C.; Jacobson, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Synnott, S. P.; Van Allen, R. E.

      1977-01-01

      The paper presents the results of the prelaunch navigation studies conducted for the Mariner spacecraft launched toward encounters with the giant planets. The navigation system and the strategy for using this system are described. The requirements on the navigation system demanded by the goals of the project are mentioned, and the predicted navigational capability relative to each of the requirements is discussed. Baseline navigation results for three possible trajectories are analyzed.

    17. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Slack, Marc G.

      1991-01-01

      Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

    18. Spinal Navigation and Imaging: History, Trends, and Future.

      PubMed

      Helm, Patrick A; Teichman, Robert; Hartmann, Steven L; Simon, David

      2015-08-01

      The clinical practice of spine navigation has rapidly grown with the development of image-based guidance. In this paper, a brief history of spinal navigation is presented and a review of clinical outcomes for 12,622 pedicle screws placed using the latest technology in the sacral, lumbar and thoracic regions. The clinical evidence demonstrate that intraoperative 3D image guided surgery has a 96.8% success rate. A concluding section detailing existing barriers that limit more widespread adoption and future development efforts is presented. PMID:25594965

    19. Reliability history of the Apollo guidance computer

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hall, E. C.

      1972-01-01

      The Apollo guidance computer was designed to provide the computation necessary for guidance, navigation and control of the command module and the lunar landing module of the Apollo spacecraft. The computer was designed using the technology of the early 1960's and the production was completed by 1969. During the development, production, and operational phase of the program, the computer has accumulated a very interesting history which is valuable for evaluating the technology, production methods, system integration, and the reliability of the hardware. The operational experience in the Apollo guidance systems includes 17 computers which flew missions and another 26 flight type computers which are still in various phases of prelaunch activity including storage, system checkout, prelaunch spacecraft checkout, etc. These computers were manufactured and maintained under very strict quality control procedures with requirements for reporting and analyzing all indications of failure. Probably no other computer or electronic equipment with equivalent complexity has been as well documented and monitored. Since it has demonstrated a unique reliability history, it is important to evaluate the techniques and methods which have contributed to the high reliability of this computer.

    20. Aerocapture navigation at Neptune

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Haw, Robert J.

      2003-01-01

      A proposed Neptune orbiter Aerocapture mission will use solar electric propulsion to send an orbiter to Neptune. Navigation feasibility of direct-entry aerocapture for orbit insertion at Neptune is shown. The navigation strategy baselines optical imaging and (delta)VLBI measurement in order to satisfy the flight system's atmosphere entry flight path angle, which is targeted to enter Neptune with an entry flight path angle of -11.6 . Error bars on the entry flight path angle of plus/minus0.55 (3(sigma)) are proposed. This requirement can be satisfied with a data cutoff 3.2 days prior to arrival. There is some margin in the arrival template to tighten (i.e. reduce) the entry corridor either by scheduling a data cutoff closer to Neptune or alternatively, reducing uncertainties by increasing the fidelity of the optical navigation camera.

    1. Mariner 9 navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

      1973-01-01

      A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

    2. Cassini tour navigation strategy

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Roth, Duane; Alwar, Vijay; Bordi, John; Goodson, Troy; Hahn, Yungsun; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jones, Jeremy; Owen, William; Pojman, Joan; Roundhill, Ian; Santos, Shawna; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

      2003-01-01

      The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 as a joint NASA/ESA mission to explore Saturn. After a 7 year cruise the spacecraft will enter orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004 for a 4 year investigation of the Saturnian system. The Cassini Navigation Team is responsible for designing the reference trajectory and conducting operations to realize this design. This paper describes the strategy for achieving project requirements, the characteristics of the Cassini navigation challenge, and the underlying assumptions.

    3. Relative Navigation for Spacecraft Formation Flying

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hartman, Kate R.; Gramling, Cheryl J.; Lee, Taesul; Kelbel, David A.; Long, Anne C.

      1998-01-01

      The Goddard Space Flight Center Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) is currently developing and implementing advanced satellite systems to provide autonomous control of formation flyers. The initial formation maintenance capability will be flight-demonstrated on the Earth-Orbiter-1 (EO-l) satellite, which is planned under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Millennium Program to be a coflight with the Landsat-7 (L-7) satellite. Formation flying imposes relative navigation accuracy requirements in addition to the orbit accuracy requirements for the individual satellites. In the case of EO-1 and L-7, the two satellites are in nearly coplanar orbits, with a small difference in the longitude of the ascending node to compensate for the Earth's rotation. The GNCC has performed trajectory error analysis for the relative navigation of the EO-1/L-7 formation, as well as for a more advanced tracking configuration using cross- link satellite communications. This paper discusses the orbit determination and prediction accuracy achievable for EO-1 and L-7 under various tracking and orbit determination scenarios and discusses the expected relative separation errors in their formation flying configuration.

    4. Relative navigation for spacecraft formation flying

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hartman, Kate R.; Gramling, Cheryl J.; Lee, Taesul; Kelbel, David A.; Long, Anne C.

      1998-01-01

      The Goddard Space Flight Center Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) is currently developing and implementing advanced satellite systems to provide autonomous control of formation flyers. The initial formation maintenance capability will be flight-demonstrated on the Earth-Orbiter-1 (EO-1) satellite, which is planned under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Millennium Program to be a coflight with the Landsat-7 (L-7) satellite. Formation flying imposes relative navigation accuracy requirements in addition to the orbit accuracy requirements for the individual satellites. In the case of EO-1 and L-7, the two satellites are in nearly coplanar orbits, with a small difference in the longitude of the ascending node to compensate for the Earth's rotation. The GNCC has performed trajectory error analysis for the relative navigation of the EO-1/L-7 formation, as well as for a more advanced tracking configuration using cross-link satellite communications. This paper discusses the orbit determination and prediction accuracy achievable for EO-1 and L-7 under various tracking and orbit determination scenarios and discusses the expected relative separation errors in their formation flying configuration.

    5. Exploring Goals. Career Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

      Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to enable senior high school students to relate their abilities scores from the Developed Abilities Performance (DAP) instrument to actual vocational areas and Long Range [occupational] Goals (LRG) for later indepth study. The length of the unit is six 55-minute periods. Instructional…

    6. Regulatory guidance document

      SciTech Connect

      1994-05-01

      The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

    7. Differentiating Classroom Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Akos, Patrick; Cockman, Caroline R.; Strickland, Cindy A.

      2007-01-01

      To differentiate is to make different, distinct, or specialized (Costello, 1994). Differentiation has become popular in education as an instructional philosophy aimed at equitably meeting the learning needs of all students in the classroom. Differentiated planning and delivery of classroom guidance is also necessary for appropriate school…

    8. The Counseling & Guidance Curriculum.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ediger, Marlow

      Counseling and guidance services are vital in any school curriculum. Counselors may themselves be dealing with students of diverse abilities and handicaps. Counselors may have to work with students affected by drug addiction, fetal alcohol syndrome, homelessness, poverty, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and divorce. Students may present…

    9. Primary Guidance Activities.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hauck, Ruth, Comp.

      Designed for the primary grades, the guidance activities in this document cover thirty-three topical areas: capabilities, changes, cooperation, criticism, differences, family, feelings, free time, friends, following directions, handicaps, honesty, improving environment, kindness, patience, paying attention, problem solving, rejection,…

    10. Developmental Guidance Program Implementation.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Vernon, Ann; Strub, Richard

      This packet of materials was developed for workshops provided to teams of school counselors and administrators for the purpose of developing knowledge and competencies in the delivery of a comprehensive, sequential, developmental guidance program. Section I contains a rationale, definition, and description of program components. In section II…

    11. Quality in Careers Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Plant, Peter

      This paper examines quality issues in career guidance, counseling, and information services in Europe and elsewhere from a range of different perspectives related to economic, ethical, and/or effectiveness criteria. Selected examples from the European Union member states, Canada, and the United States are used to illustrate how quality is…

    12. Vocational Development and Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

      The vocational education volume considers questions of career development, the role of guidance in the school, vocational training, the relation of self-concept to vocational choice, and occupational information. Twenty-six papers deal with theories of vocational behavior, the success of vocational education programs, and testing information.…

    13. IEEE/AIAA/NASA Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 9th, Virginia Beach, VA, Oct. 15-18, 1990, Proceedings

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1990-01-01

      The present conference on digital avionics discusses vehicle-management systems, spacecraft avionics, special vehicle avionics, communication/navigation/identification systems, software qualification and quality assurance, launch-vehicle avionics, Ada applications, sensor and signal processing, general aviation avionics, automated software development, design-for-testability techniques, and avionics-software engineering. Also discussed are optical technology and systems, modular avionics, fault-tolerant avionics, commercial avionics, space systems, data buses, crew-station technology, embedded processors and operating systems, AI and expert systems, data links, and pilot/vehicle interfaces.

    14. Navigating between the Dimensions

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker

      2011-01-01

      Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…

    15. Astronomy and Navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pimenta, Fernando

      Different people, seafaring in different parts of the world, used strategies well adapted to their environment with the purpose of safely reaching their destination. Astronomical elements, present in their navigation "toolkit" for orientation, calendar purposes, and time reckoning, contributed to their conceptualization of space and time and were eventually integrated in their ritual, social organization, and social power structure.

    16. Learning for autonomous navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

      2005-01-01

      Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

    17. Navigation for everyday life

      SciTech Connect

      Fu, D.D.; Hammond, K.J.; Swain, M.J.

      1996-12-31

      Past work in navigation has worked toward the goal of producing an accurate map of the environment. While no one can deny the usefulness of such a map, the ideal of producing a complete map becomes unrealistic when an agent is faced with performing real tasks. And yet an agent accomplishing recurring tasks should navigate more efficiently as time goes by. We present a system which integrates navigation, planning, and vision. In this view, navigation supports the needs of a larger system as opposed to being a task in its own right. Whereas previous approaches assume an unknown and unstructured environment, we assume a structured environment whose organization is known, but whose specifics are unknown. The system is endowed with a wide range of visual capabilities as well as search plans for informed exploration of a simulated store constructed from real visual data. We demonstrate the agent finding items while mapping the world. In repeatedly retrieving items, the agent`s performance improves as the learned map becomes more useful.

    18. Modeling and controlling a robotic convoy using guidance laws strategies.

      PubMed

      Belkhouche, Fethi; Belkhouche, Boumediene

      2005-08-01

      This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling a robotic convoy. Guidance laws techniques are used to provide a mathematical formulation of the problem. The guidance laws used for this purpose are the velocity pursuit, the deviated pursuit, and the proportional navigation. The velocity pursuit equations model the robot's path under various sensors based control laws. A systematic study of the tracking problem based on this technique is undertaken. These guidance laws are applied to derive decentralized control laws for the angular and linear velocities. For the angular velocity, the control law is directly derived from the guidance laws after considering the relative kinematics equations between successive robots. The second control law maintains the distance between successive robots constant by controlling the linear velocity. This control law is derived by considering the kinematics equations between successive robots under the considered guidance law. Properties of the method are discussed and proven. Simulation results confirm the validity of our approach, as well as the validity of the properties of the method. Index Terms-Guidance laws, relative kinematics equations, robotic convoy, tracking. PMID:16128462

    19. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation. Level C requirements for the shuttle mission control center orbital guidance software

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Langston, L. J.

      1976-01-01

      The formulation of Level C requirements for guidance software was reported. Requirements for a PEG supervisor which controls all input/output interfaces with other processors and determines which PEG mode is to be utilized were studied in detail. A description of the two guidance modes for which Level C requirements have been formulated was presented. Functions required for proper execution of the guidance software were defined. The requirements for a navigation function that is used in the prediction logic of PEG mode 4 were discussed. It is concluded that this function is extracted from the current navigation FSSR.

    20. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

      1980-01-01

      Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

    1. Terrain-Relative and Beacon-Relative Navigation for Lunar Powered Descent and Landing

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Christensen, D.; Geller, D.

      2011-01-01

      As NASA prepares to return humans to the Moon and establish a long-term presence on the surface, technologies must be developed to access previously unvisited terrain regardless of the condition. Among these technologies is a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system capable of safely and precisely delivering a spacecraft, whether manned or robotic, to a predetermined landing area. This article presents a detailed study of both terrain-relative navigation using a terrain-scanning instrument and radiometric navigation using beacons in lunar orbit or on the surface of the Moon. The models for these sensors are developed along with a baseline sensor suite that includes an IMU, star-camera, altimeter, and velocimeter. Linear covariance analysis is used to rapidly perform the trade studies relevant to this problem and to provide the navigation performance data necessary to determine how each navigation method can be used to support a 100 m 3-σ navigation requirement on landing.

    2. Needed Concepts in Elementary Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Warner, Tom, Ed.

      School administrators and developmental guidance is the topic of the first speech. Developmental guidance, concerned with personalizing the educational experience, should be available to each child to gain self-understanding. Major responsibilities of the elementary guidance department are pupil appraisal, consultation, and developmental…

    3. New Interpretations of Guidance Role

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kerlan, Julius H.; Ryan, Charles W.

      1972-01-01

      A panoramic view of Guidance Division general sessions and workshops covering some exemplary career guidance programs, as well as such topics as career choice, leadership, evaluation, and program development and management. Presented at the Guidance division session of the American Vocational Association 1971 annual meeting. (Editor/MU)

    4. Trajectory shaping rendezvous guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Klumpp, A. R.

      The Space Station will bring a great increase in rendezvous traffic. Formerly, rendezvous has been expensive in terms of time and crew involvement. Multiple trajectory adjustments on separate orbits have been required to meet safety, lighting, and geometry requirements. This paper describes a new guidance technique in which the approach trajectory is shaped by a sequence of velocity increments in order to satisfy multiple constraints within a single orbit. The approach phase is planned before the mission, leaving a group of free parameters that are optimized by onboard guidance. Fuel penalties are typically a few percent, compared to unshaped Hohmann transfers, and total fuel costs can be less than those of more time-consuming ways of meeting the same requirements.

    5. Bronchoscopy guidance system based on bronchoscope-motion measurements

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Cornish, Duane C.; Higgins, William E.

      2012-02-01

      Bronchoscopy-guidance systems assist physicians during bronchoscope navigation. However, these systems require an attending technician and fail to continuously track the bronchoscope. We propose a real-time technicianfree bronchoscopy-guidance system that employs continuous tracking. For guidance, our system presents directions on virtual views that are generated from the bronchoscope's tracked location. The system achieves bronchoscope tracking using a strategy that is based on a recently proposed method for sensor-based bronchoscope-motion tracking.1 Furthermore, a graphical indicator notifies the physician when he/she has maneuvered the bronchoscope to an incorrect branch. Our proposed system uses the sensor data to generate virtual views through multiple candidate routes and employs image matching in a Bayesian framework to determine the most probable bronchoscope pose. Tests based on laboratory phantoms validate the potential of the system.

    6. Implementation of an optimum profile guidance system on STOLAND

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Flanagan, P. F.

      1978-01-01

      The implementation on the STOLAND airborne digital computer of an optimum profile guidance system for the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft is described. Major tasks were to implement the guidance and control logic to airborne computer software and to integrate the module with the existing STOLAND navigation, display, and autopilot routines. The optimum profile guidance system comprises an algorithm for synthesizing mimimum fuel trajectories for a wide range of starting positions in the terminal area and a control law for flying the aircraft automatically along the trajectory. The avionics software developed is described along with a FORTRAN program that was constructed to reflect the modular nature and algorthms implemented in the avionics software.

    7. Integrated Navigation System for the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2002-01-01

      An array of components in a laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is being tested by the Flight Mechanics Office to develop an integrated navigation system for the second generation reusable launch vehicle. The laboratory is testing Global Positioning System (GPS) components, a satellite-based location and navigation system, and Inertial Navigation System (INS) components, sensors on a vehicle that determine angular velocity and linear acceleration at various points. The GPS and INS components work together to provide a space vehicle with guidance and navigation, like the push of the OnStar button in your car assists you with directions to a specific address. The integration will enable the vehicle operating system to track where the vehicle is in space and define its trajectory. The use of INS components for navigation is not new to space technology. The Space Shuttle currently uses them. However, the Space Launch Initiative is expanding the technology to integrate GPS and INS components to allow the vehicle to better define its position and more accurately determine vehicle acceleration and velocity. This advanced technology will lower operational costs and enhance the safety of reusable launch vehicles by providing a more comprehensive navigation system with greater capabilities. In this photograph, Dr. Jason Chuang of MSFC inspects an INS component in the laboratory.

    8. Environmental guidance regulatory bulletin

      SciTech Connect

      1997-01-31

      This document describes the background on expanding public participation in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and DOE`s response. The bulletin also describes the changes made by the final rule to existing regulations, guidance provided by EPA in the preamble and in the revised RCRA Public Participation Manual, the relationship between public participation and environmental justice, and DOE`s recent public participation and environmental justice initiatives.

    9. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

      2013-05-01

      Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

    10. Terrain-Adaptive Navigation Architecture

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Helmick, Daniel M.; Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry H.; Helmick, Daniel M.

      2008-01-01

      A navigation system designed for a Mars rover has been designed to deal with rough terrain and/or potential slip when evaluating and executing paths. The system also can be used for any off-road, autonomous vehicles. The system enables vehicles to autonomously navigate different terrain challenges including dry river channel systems, putative shorelines, and gullies emanating from canyon walls. Several of the technologies within this innovation increase the navigation system s capabilities compared to earlier rover navigation algorithms.

    11. 3D Reconfigurable MPSoC for Unmanned Spacecraft Navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dekoulis, George

      2016-07-01

      This paper describes the design of a new lightweight spacecraft navigation system for unmanned space missions. The system addresses the demands for more efficient autonomous navigation in the near-Earth environment or deep space. The proposed instrumentation is directly suitable for unmanned systems operation and testing of new airborne prototypes for remote sensing applications. The system features a new sensor technology and significant improvements over existing solutions. Fluxgate type sensors have been traditionally used in unmanned defense systems such as target drones, guided missiles, rockets and satellites, however, the guidance sensors' configurations exhibit lower specifications than the presented solution. The current implementation is based on a recently developed material in a reengineered optimum sensor configuration for unprecedented low-power consumption. The new sensor's performance characteristics qualify it for spacecraft navigation applications. A major advantage of the system is the efficiency in redundancy reduction achieved in terms of both hardware and software requirements.

    12. A goggle navigation system for cancer resection surgery

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Xu, Junbin; Shao, Pengfei; Yue, Ting; Zhang, Shiwu; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Xu, Ronald

      2014-02-01

      We describe a portable fluorescence goggle navigation system for cancer margin assessment during oncologic surgeries. The system consists of a computer, a head mount display (HMD) device, a near infrared (NIR) CCD camera, a miniature CMOS camera, and a 780 nm laser diode excitation light source. The fluorescence and the background images of the surgical scene are acquired by the CCD camera and the CMOS camera respectively, co-registered, and displayed on the HMD device in real-time. The spatial resolution and the co-registration deviation of the goggle navigation system are evaluated quantitatively. The technical feasibility of the proposed goggle system is tested in an ex vivo tumor model. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using a goggle navigation system for intraoperative margin detection and surgical guidance.

    13. Coastal Piloting & Charting: Navigation 101.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Osinski, Alison

      This curriculum guide for a beginning course on marine navigation describes marine navigation (the art of and science of determining position of a ship and its movement from one position to another in order to keep track of where the ship is and where it is going) and defines dead reckoning, piloting, electronic navigation, and celestial…

    14. Self-navigating robot

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Thompson, A. M.

      1978-01-01

      Rangefinding equipment and onboard navigation system determine best route from point to point. Research robot has two TV cameras and laser for scanning and mapping its environment. Path planner finds most direct, unobstructed route that requires minimum expenditure of energy. Distance is used as measure of energy expense, although other measures such as time or power consumption (which would depend on the topography of the path) may be used.

    15. Multisensor robot navigation system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

      2002-02-01

      Almost all robot navigation systems work indoors. Outdoor robot navigation systems offer the potential for new application areas. The biggest single obstacle to building effective robot navigation systems is the lack of accurate wide-area sensors for trackers that report the locations and orientations of objects in an environment. Active (sensor-emitter) tracking technologies require powered-device installation, limiting their use to prepared areas that are relative free of natural or man-made interference sources. The hybrid tracker combines rate gyros and accelerometers with compass and tilt orientation sensor and DGPS system. Sensor distortions, delays and drift required compensation to achieve good results. The measurements from sensors are fused together to compensate for each other's limitations. Analysis and experimental results demonstrate the system effectiveness. The paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strapdown-IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DGPS combination, with data processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost ISA (Inertial Sensor Assembly) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory. The scope of this experiment was to test the feasibility of an integrated DGPS/IMU system of this type and to develop a field evaluation procedure for such a combination.

    16. Navigation in virtual environments

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arthur, Erik; Hancock, Peter A.; Telke, Susan

      1996-06-01

      Virtual environments show great promise in the area of training. ALthough such synthetic environments project homeomorphic physical representations of real- world layouts, it is not known how individuals develop models to match such environments. To evaluate this process, the present experiment examined the accuracy of triadic representations of objects having learned them previously under different conditions. The layout consisted of four different colored spheres arranged on a flat plane. These objects could be viewed in either a free navigation virtual environment condition (NAV) or a single body position virtual environment condition. The first condition allowed active exploration of the environment while the latter condition allowed the participant only a passive opportunity to observe form a single viewpoint. These viewing conditions were a between-subject variable with ten participants randomly assigned to each condition. Performance was assessed by the response latency to judge the accuracy of a layout of three objects over different rotations. Results showed linear increases in response latency as the rotation angle increased from the initial perspective in SBP condition. The NAV condition did not show a similar effect of rotation angle. These results suggest that the spatial knowledge acquisition from virtual environments through navigation is similar to actual navigation.

    17. Development of a GPS/INS/MAG navigation system and waypoint navigator for a VTOL UAV

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Meister, Oliver; Mönikes, Ralf; Wendel, Jan; Frietsch, Natalie; Schlaile, Christian; Trommer, Gert F.

      2007-04-01

      Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used for versatile surveillance and reconnaissance missions. If a UAV is capable of flying automatically on a predefined path the range of possible applications is widened significantly. This paper addresses the development of the integrated GPS/INS/MAG navigation system and a waypoint navigator for a small vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned four-rotor helicopter with a take-off weight below 1 kg. The core of the navigation system consists of low cost inertial sensors which are continuously aided with GPS, magnetometer compass, and a barometric height information. Due to the fact, that the yaw angle becomes unobservable during hovering flight, the integration with a magnetic compass is mandatory. This integration must be robust with respect to errors caused by the terrestrial magnetic field deviation and interferences from surrounding electronic devices as well as ferrite metals. The described integration concept with a Kalman filter overcomes the problem that erroneous magnetic measurements yield to an attitude error in the roll and pitch axis. The algorithm provides long-term stable navigation information even during GPS outages which is mandatory for the flight control of the UAV. In the second part of the paper the guidance algorithms are discussed in detail. These algorithms allow the UAV to operate in a semi-autonomous mode position hold as well an complete autonomous waypoint mode. In the position hold mode the helicopter maintains its position regardless of wind disturbances which ease the pilot job during hold-and-stare missions. The autonomous waypoint navigator enable the flight outside the range of vision and beyond the range of the radio link. Flight test results of the implemented modes of operation are shown.

    18. Autonomous navigation - The ARMMS concept

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wood, L. J.; Jones, J. B.; Mease, K. D.; Kwok, J. H.; Goltz, G. L.; Kechichian, J. A.

      1984-08-01

      A conceptual design is outlined for the navigation subsystem of the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS). The principal function of this navigation subsystem is to maintain the spacecraft over a specified equatorial longitude to within + or - 3 deg. In addition, the navigation subsystem must detect and correct internal faults. It comprises elements for a navigation executive and for orbit determination, trajectory, maneuver planning, and maneuver command. Each of these elements is described. The navigation subsystem is to be used in the DSCS III spacecraft.

    19. The navigation system of the JPL robot

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Thompson, A. M.

      1977-01-01

      The control structure of the JPL research robot and the operations of the navigation subsystem are discussed. The robot functions as a network of interacting concurrent processes distributed among several computers and coordinated by a central executive. The results of scene analysis are used to create a segmented terrain model in which surface regions are classified by traversibility. The model is used by a path planning algorithm, PATH, which uses tree search methods to find the optimal path to a goal. In PATH, the search space is defined dynamically as a consequence of node testing. Maze-solving and the use of an associative data base for context dependent node generation are also discussed. Execution of a planned path is accomplished by a feedback guidance process with automatic error recovery.

    20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 40: Technical communications in aerospace education: A study of AIAA student members

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

      1994-01-01

      This paper describes the preliminary analysis of a survey of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) student members. In the paper we examine (1) the demographic characteristics of the students, (2) factors that affected their career decisions, (3) their career goals and aspirations, and (4) their training in technical communication and techniques for finding and using aerospace scientific and technical information (STI). We determine that aerospace engineering students receive training in technical communication skills and the use of STI. While those in the aerospace industry think that more training is needed, we believe the students receive the appropriate amount of training. We think that the differences between the amount of training students receive and the perception of training needs is related partially to the characteristics of the students and partially to the structure of the aerospace STI dissemination system. Overall, we conclude that the students' technical communication training and knowledge of STI, while limited by external forces, makes it difficult for students to achieve their career goals.

    1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 26: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering students: Results of the phase 3 AIAA National Student Survey

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

      1994-01-01

      This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey was undertaken as a phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance; use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

    2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

      1995-01-01

      The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

    3. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

    4. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

    5. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

    6. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

    7. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

      2016-04-01

      An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

    8. microRNAs in axon guidance

      PubMed Central

      Iyer, Archana N.; Bellon, Anaïs; Baudet, Marie-Laure

      2014-01-01

      Brain wiring is a highly intricate process in which trillions of neuronal connections are established. Its initial phase is particularly crucial in establishing the general framework of neuronal circuits. During this early step, differentiating neurons extend axons, which reach their target by navigating through a complex environment with extreme precision. Research in the past 20 years has unraveled a vast and complex array of chemotropic cues that guide the leading tip of axons, the growth cone, throughout its journey. Tight regulation of these cues, and of their receptors and signaling pathways, is necessary for the high degree of accuracy required during circuit formation. However, little is known about the nature of regulatory molecules or mechanisms fine-tuning axonal cue response. Here we review recent, and somewhat fragmented, research on the possibility that microRNAs (miRNAs) could be key fine-tuning regulatory molecules in axon guidance. miRNAs appear to shape long-range axon guidance, fasciculation and targeting. We also present several lines of evidence suggesting that miRNAs could have a compartmentalized and differential action at the cell soma, and within axons and growth cones. PMID:24672429

    9. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

    10. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

    11. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

    12. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

    13. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

    14. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

    15. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

    16. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

    17. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35...

    18. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

    19. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

      SciTech Connect

      Jorgensen, C.C.

      1985-09-20

      This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

    20. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Stiller, A. H.

      The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

    1. Guidance of Nonlinear Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Meyer, George

      1997-01-01

      The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordinatization, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.

    2. Bilinear tangent yaw guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brusch, R. G.

      1979-01-01

      This paper presents a parametric yaw steering law which has been used to provide closed-loop yaw guidance for the launch of the HEAO (High Energy Astronomy Observatory) satellite mission using the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle. This bilinear tangent steering law provides near optimal yaw steering for maneuvers requiring insertion into orbits with a specified inclination and node. Bilinear tangent steering is shown to be optimal in both the pitch and yaw planes when a uniform gravitational field is assumed. The conditions under which the general bilinear tangent laws degenerate into linear tangent and constant attitude laws are presented. The flight computer implementation of these laws in a rotating coordinate system using real-time integration of the equations of motion is detailed. Explicit solution of the parametric guidance equations requires the inflight solution of (2x2) two-point boundary value problems in the pitch and yaw planes. Excellent results are obtained even for very large (greater than 50 deg) out-of-plane steering angles.

    3. In-flight trajectory planning and guidance for autonomous parafoils

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rademacher, Branden James

      We present a framework for on-board trajectory planning and guidance for a large class of autonomously guided parafoils. The problem is for the parafoil to reach a given location at a specified altitude with a specified final heading. Through appropriate change of the independent variable, the trajectory planning problem is converted from a three-dimensional free-final time problem to a two-dimensional fixed-final time problem. Using the well-known Dubins path synthesis and known parafoil performance parameters a concept of altitude margin is developed as a quantitative measure of the available maneuvering energy for use in trajectory planning. A hybrid strategy using two methods to generate kinematically feasible fixed-time trajectories is presented, each targeting different range of initial values of the altitude margin. The trajectory can be re-planned on-board in every guidance cycle, making the guidance effectively closed loop, or re-planned whenever the deviation of the actual condition from the reference trajectory exceeds a threshold. The proposed planning and guidance algorithm applies to a large class of parafoil canopies and payloads which encompasses wide variations in the lift-to-drag ratio, wing loading, and maximum turn rate. The guidance logic requires no tuning to accommodate variations in canopy performance. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm with dispersions in canopy performance, loading, wind profile errors, navigation uncertainty, using lateral control only and with both longitudinal and lateral control.

    4. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

      SciTech Connect

      Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

      2009-12-10

      On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a

    5. Partial stabilization-based guidance.

      PubMed

      Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

      2012-01-01

      A novel nonlinear missile guidance law against maneuvering targets is designed based on the principles of partial stability. It is demonstrated that in a real approach which is adopted with actual situations, each state of the guidance system must have a special behavior and asymptotic stability or exponential stability of all states is not realistic. Thus, a new guidance law is developed based on the partial stability theorem in such a way that the behaviors of states in the closed-loop system are in conformity with a real guidance scenario that leads to collision. The performance of the proposed guidance law in terms of interception time and control effort is compared with the sliding mode guidance law by means of numerical simulations. PMID:21963401

    6. Navigation performance of the Triscan concept for shipboard VTOL aircraft operations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mcgee, L. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Miyashiro, S. K.

      1978-01-01

      The paper deals with the Triscan concept - a dual-antenna microwave landing guidance system, using triangulation for close-in accuracy - developed to facilitate the landing of VTOL aircraft on ships in all-weather conditions. Analysis of the navigation performance of an onboard system receiving data from Triscan and data-linked information regarding the motion of the ship showed that the approach navigation performance depends on the approach path profile flown, the magnitude of the measurement bias error, and the navigation system's knowledge of the shipboard landing pad motion, which was implemented through the concept of a landing pad deviation vector.

    7. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Eaton, H N

      1923-01-01

      This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

    8. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

      2005-01-01

      Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

    9. Ionospheric modelling for navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Aragon Angel, M. A.

      Signals transmitted to and from satellites for communication and navigation purposes must pass through the ionosphere Ionospheric irregularities most common at equatorial latitudes although they could occur anywhere can have a major impact on system performance and reliability and commercial navigation service satellite-based providers need to account for their effects For a GNSS single-frequency receiver the Slant Total Electron Content STEC must be known by the user through broadcast corrections In this context there are several sets of broadcast parameters that can be defined to take into account this ionospheric term The chosen model to generate the ionospheric correction coefficients for the present study is the NeQuick model although with a number of adaptations intended to improve effective ionospheric effect modelling performances The aim of this study is to describe a possible adaptation to the NeQuick model for real time purposes and suitable for single frequency users Therefore it will be necessary to determine the performance of this modified NeQuick model in correcting the ionospheric delay In order to generate the ionospheric corrections for single frequency receivers using the NeQuick model a certain approach should be followed to adapt the performance of NeQuick since this model was originally developed to provide TEC using averaged monthly information of the solar activity and not daily one Thus to use NeQuick for real time applications as an ionospheric broadcasted model such as Klobuchar solar daily information at the user point

    10. A New Optimal Guidance Law for Air-to-Air Missiles against Evasive Targets

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tsao, Lu-Ping; Lin, Ching-Show

      A new optimal guidance law (OPG) for air-to-air missiles, based on the design concept of decreasing the acceleration requirement commanded in the final phase of engagement, is presented. The closed-form solution of the OPG is derived analytically from the time-varying linear state equations composed of the line-of-sight angle and line-of-sight rate. The optimal proportional navigation law and augmented proportional navigation law, where both the navigation constants are 3, have been proven to be simplified versions of the OPG. The performance of the OPG is evaluated and compared with that of the true proportional navigation law (TPN) and augmented proportional navigation law (APN) in terms of the miss distance, interception time and energy expenditure.

    11. Space Shuttle Orbiter descent navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Montez, M. N.; Madden, M. F.

      1982-01-01

      The entry operational sequence (OPS 3) begins approximately 2 hours prior to the deorbit maneuver and continues through atmospheric entry, terminal area energy management (TAEM), approach and landing, and rollout. During this flight phase, the navigation state vector is estimated by the Space Shuttle Orbiter onboard navigation system. This estimate is computed using a six-element sequential Kalman filter, which blends inertial measurement unit (IMU) delta-velocity data with external navaid data. The external navaids available to the filter are tactical air navigation (TACAN), barometric altimeter, and microwave scan beam landing system (MSBLS). Attention is given to the functional design of the Orbiter navigation system, the descent navigation sensors and measurement processing, predicted Kalman gains, correlation coefficients, and current flights navigation performance.

    12. Beyond Discipline to Guidance: A Primer on the Guidance Alternative.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gartrell, Dan

      As early childhood teachers apply principles of guidance rather than punishment in their classrooms, they face the challenge of avoiding a slippage into traditional discipline practices and transcending the punitive aspects of discipline. Guidance is designed to teach children democratic life skills and therefore goes beyond discipline. Teachers…

    13. Flight evaluation of differential GPS aided inertial navigation systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mcnally, B. David; Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Warner, David N., Jr.

      1992-01-01

      Algorithms are described for integration of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data with Inertial Navigation System (INS) data to provide an integrated DGPS/INS navigation system. The objective is to establish the benefits that can be achieved through various levels of integration of DGPS with INS for precision navigation. An eight state Kalman filter integration was implemented in real-time on a twin turbo-prop transport aircraft to evaluate system performance during terminal approach and landing operations. A fully integrated DGPS/INS system is also presented which models accelerometer and rate-gyro measurement errors plus position, velocity, and attitude errors. The fully integrated system was implemented off-line using range-domain (seventeen-state) and position domain (fifteen-state) Kalman filters. Both filter integration approaches were evaluated using data collected during the flight test. Flight-test data consisted of measurements from a 5 channel Precision Code GPS receiver, a strap-down Inertial Navigation Unit (INU), and GPS satellite differential range corrections from a ground reference station. The aircraft was laser tracked to determine its true position. Results indicate that there is no significant improvement in positioning accuracy with the higher levels of DGPS/INS integration. All three systems provided high-frequency (e.g., 20 Hz) estimates of position and velocity. The fully integrated system provided estimates of inertial sensor errors which may be used to improve INS navigation accuracy should GPS become unavailable, and improved estimates of acceleration, attitude, and body rates which can be used for guidance and control. Precision Code DGPS/INS positioning accuracy (root-mean-square) was 1.0 m cross-track and 3.0 m vertical. (This AGARDograph was sponsored by the Guidance and Control Panel.)

    14. Endangerment assessment guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1985-11-22

      The directive clarifies the requirement that an endangerment assessment be developed to support all administrative and judicial enforcement actions under Section 106 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Before taking enforcement action under these provisions to abate the hazards or potential hazards at a site, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must be able to properly document and justify its assertion that an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare or the environment may exist. The endangerment assessment provides this documentation and justification. The endangerment assessment is not necessary to support Section 104 actions. It also provides guidance on the content, timing, level of detail, format, and resources required for the preparation of endangerment assessments.

    15. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

    16. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

    17. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

    18. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

    19. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

    20. Computer guidance system for single-incision bimanual robotic surgery.

      PubMed

      Carbone, Marina; Turini, Giuseppe; Petroni, Gianluigi; Niccolini, Marta; Menciassi, Arianna; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Ferrari, Vincenzo

      2012-01-01

      The evolution of surgical robotics is following the progress of developments in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), which is moving towards Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) procedures. The complexity of these techniques has favored the introduction of robotic surgical systems. New bimanual robots, which are completely inserted into the patient's body, have been proposed in order to enhance the surgical gesture in SILS procedures. However, the limited laparoscopic view and the focus on the end-effectors, together with the use of complex robotic devices inside the patient's abdomen, may lead to unexpected collisions, e.g., between the surrounding anatomical organs not involved in the intervention and the surgical robot. This paper describes a computer guidance system, based on patient-specific data, designed to provide intraoperative navigation and assistance in SILS robotic interventions. The navigator has been tested in simulations of some of the surgical tasks involved in a cholecystectomy, using a synthetic anthropomorphic mannequin. The results demonstrate the usability and efficacy of the navigation system, underlining the importance of avoiding unwanted collisions between the robot arms and critical organs. The proposed computer guidance software is able to integrate any bimanual surgical robot design. PMID:22687053

    1. Narrowing the College Opportunity Gap: Helping Students and Families Navigate the Financial Aid Process

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Owen, Laura

      2012-01-01

      The number of students enrolling in post-secondary institutions in the U.S. has slowly been rising over the last 10 years, yet gaps continue to exist in terms of who attends college and persists through graduation. Minority and low income students often lack the guidance needed to navigate the college enrollment process and as a result, remain…

    2. Study of industry information requirements for flight control and navigation systems of STOL aircraft

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gorham, J. A.

      1976-01-01

      Answers to specific study questions are used to ascertain the data requirements associated with a guidance, navigation and control system for a future civil STOL airplane. Results of the study were used to recommend changes for improving the outputs of the STOLAND flight experiments program.

    3. Geophysical flight line flying and flight path recovery utilizing the Litton LTN-76 inertial navigation system

      SciTech Connect

      Mitkus, A.F.; Cater, D.; Farmer, P.F.; Gay, S.P. Jr.

      1981-11-01

      The Litton LTN-76 Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) with Inertial Track guidance System (ITGS) software is geared toward the airborne survey industry. This report is a summary of tests performed with the LTN-76 designed to fly an airborne geophysical survey as well as to recover the subsequent flight path utilizing INS derived coordinates.

    4. Advancements in Orthopedic Intervention: Retrograde Drilling and Bone Grafting of Osteochondral Lesions of the Knee Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Seebauer, Christian J.; Bail, Hermann J.; Rump, Jens C. Walter, Thula Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M.

      2010-12-15

      Computer-assisted surgery is currently a novel challenge for surgeons and interventional radiologists. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided procedures are still evolving. In this experimental study, we describe and assess an innovative passive-navigation method for MRI-guided treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. A navigation principle using a passive-navigation device was evaluated in six cadaveric knee joint specimens for potential applicability in retrograde drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions using MRI guidance. Feasibility and accuracy were evaluated in an open MRI scanner (1.0 T Philips Panorama HFO MRI System). Interactive MRI navigation allowed precise drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions of the knee. All lesions were hit with an accuracy of 1.86 mm in the coronal plane and 1.4 mm the sagittal plane. Targeting of all lesions was possible with a single drilling. MRI allowed excellent assessment of correct positioning of the cancellous bone cylinder during bone grafting. The navigation device and anatomic structures could be clearly identified and distinguished throughout the entire drilling procedure. MRI-assisted navigation method using a passive navigation device is feasible for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee under MRI guidance and allows precise and safe drilling without exposure to ionizing radiation. This method may be a viable alternative to other navigation principles, especially for pediatric and adolescent patients. This MRI-navigated method is also potentially applicable in many other MRI-guided interventions.

    5. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 1: GPS aided navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Matchett, G. A.; Vogel, M. A.; Macdonald, T. J.

      1980-01-01

      Analytical studies related to space shuttle navigation are presented. Studies related to the addition of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System user equipment to the shuttle avionics suite are presented. The GPS studies center about navigation accuracy covariance analyses for both developmental and operational phases of GPS, as well as for various orbiter mission phases.

    6. Comprehension of Navigation Directions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Healy, Alice F.; Schneider, Vivian I.

      2002-01-01

      Subjects were shown navigation instructions varying in length directing them to move in a space represented by grids on a computer screen. They followed the instructions by clicking on the grids in the locations specified. Some subjects repeated back the instructions before following them, some did not, and others repeated back the instructions in reduced form, including only the critical words. The commands in each message were presented simultaneously for half of the subjects and sequentially for the others. For the longest messages, performance was better on the initial commands and worse on the final commands with simultaneous than with sequential presentation. Instruction repetition depressed performance, but reduced repetition removed this disadvantage. Effects of presentation format were attributed to visual scanning strategies. The advantage for reduced repetition was attributable either to enhanced visual scanning or to reduced output interference. A follow-up study with auditory presentation supported the visual scanning explanation.

    7. Automated satellite image navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bassett, Robert M.

      1992-12-01

      The automated satellite image navigation method (Auto-Avian) developed and tested by Spaulding (1990) at the Naval Postgraduate School is investigated. The Auto-Avian method replaced the manual procedure of selecting Ground Control Points (GCP's) with an autocorrelation process that utilizes the World Vector Shoreline (WVS) provided by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) as a string of GCP's to rectify satellite images. The automatic cross-correlation of binary reference (WVS) and search (image) windows eliminated the subjective error associated with the manual selection of GCP's and produced accuracies comparable to the manual method. The scope of Spaulding's (1990) research was expanded. The worldwide application of the Auto-Avian method was demonstrated in three world regions (eastern North Pacific Ocean, eastern North Atlantic Ocean, and Persian Gulf). Using five case studies, the performance of the Auto-Avian method on 'less than optimum' images (i.e., islands, coastlines affected by lateral distortion and/or cloud cover) was investigated.

    8. Comprehension of Navigation Directions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schneider, Vivian I.; Healy, Alice F.

      2000-01-01

      In an experiment simulating communication between air traffic controllers and pilots, subjects were given navigation instructions varying in length telling them to move in a space represented by grids on a computer screen. The subjects followed the instructions by clicking on the grids in the locations specified. Half of the subjects read the instructions, and half heard them. Half of the subjects in each modality condition repeated back the instructions before following them,and half did not. Performance was worse for the visual than for the auditory modality on the longer messages. Repetition of the instructions generally depressed performance, especially with the longer messages, which required more output than did the shorter messages, and especially with the visual modality, in which phonological recoding from the visual input to the spoken output was necessary. These results are explained in terms of the degrading effects of output interference on memory for instructions.

    9. Sensory bases of navigation.

      PubMed

      Gould, J L

      1998-10-01

      Navigating animals need to know both the bearing of their goal (the 'map' step), and how to determine that direction (the 'compass' step). Compasses are typically arranged in hierarchies, with magnetic backup as a last resort when celestial information is unavailable. Magnetic information is often essential to calibrating celestial cues, though, and repeated recalibration between celestial and magnetic compasses is important in many species. Most magnetic compasses are based on magnetite crystals, but others make use of induction or paramagnetic interactions between short-wavelength light and visual pigments. Though odors may be used in some cases, most if not all long-range maps probably depend on magnetite. Magnetitebased map senses are used to measure only latitude in some species, but provide the distance and direction of the goal in others. PMID:9778524

    10. Dynamic Transportation Navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

      Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.

    11. Stardust Navigation Covariance Analysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Menon, Premkumar R.

      2000-01-01

      The Stardust spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta-II rocket. Mission participants include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and the University of Washington. The primary objective of the mission is to collect in-situ samples of the coma of comet Wild-2 and return those samples to the Earth for analysis. Mission design and operational navigation for Stardust is performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper will describe the extensive JPL effort in support of the Stardust pre-launch analysis of the orbit determination component of the mission covariance study. A description of the mission and it's trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the covariance procedure and models. Predicted accuracy's will be examined as they relate to navigation delivery requirements for specific critical events during the mission. Stardust was launched into a heliocentric trajectory in early 1999. It will perform an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) on January 15, 2001 to acquire an orbit for the eventual rendezvous with comet Wild-2. The spacecraft will fly through the coma (atmosphere) on the dayside of Wild-2 on January 2, 2004. At that time samples will be obtained using an aerogel collector. After the comet encounter Stardust will return to Earth when the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) will separate and land at the Utah Test Site (UTTR) on January 15, 2006. The spacecraft will however be deflected off into a heliocentric orbit. The mission is divided into three phases for the covariance analysis. They are 1) Launch to EGA, 2) EGA to Wild-2 encounter and 3) Wild-2 encounter to Earth reentry. Orbit determination assumptions for each phase are provided. These include estimated and consider parameters and their associated a-priori uncertainties. Major perturbations to the trajectory include 19 deterministic and statistical maneuvers

    12. Magellan aerobrake navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Giorgini, Jon; Wong, S. Kuen; You, Tung-Han; Chadbourne, Pam; Lim, Lily

      1995-01-01

      The Magellan spacecraft has been aerobraked into a 197 x 541 km near-circular orbit around Venus from which it is conducting a high-resolution gravity mapping mission. This was the first interplanetary aerobrake maneuver and involved flying the spacecraft through the upper reaches of the Venusian atmosphere 730 times over a 70 day period. Round-trip light-time varied from 9.57 to 18.83 minutes during this period. Navigation for this dynamic phase of the Magellan mission was planned and executed in the face of budget-driven down-sizing with all spacecraft safe modes disabled and a flight-team one-third the size of comparable interplanetary missions. Successful execution of this manuever using spacecraft hardware not designed to operate in a planetary atmosphere, demonstrated a practical cost-saving technique for both large and small future interplanetary missions.

    13. Application of the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid Navier-Stokes Solver to the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop Cases

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

      2010-01-01

      FUN3D Navier-Stokes solutions were computed for the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop grid convergence study, downwash study, and Reynolds number study on a set of node-based mixed-element grids. All of the baseline tetrahedral grids were generated with the VGRID (developmental) advancing-layer and advancing-front grid generation software package following the gridding guidelines developed for the workshop. With maximum grid sizes exceeding 100 million nodes, the grid convergence study was particularly challenging for the node-based unstructured grid generators and flow solvers. At the time of the workshop, the super-fine grid with 105 million nodes and 600 million elements was the largest grid known to have been generated using VGRID. FUN3D Version 11.0 has a completely new pre- and post-processing paradigm that has been incorporated directly into the solver and functions entirely in a parallel, distributed memory environment. This feature allowed for practical pre-processing and solution times on the largest unstructured-grid size requested for the workshop. For the constant-lift grid convergence case, the convergence of total drag is approximately second-order on the finest three grids. The variation in total drag between the finest two grids is only 2 counts. At the finest grid levels, only small variations in wing and tail pressure distributions are seen with grid refinement. Similarly, a small wing side-of-body separation also shows little variation at the finest grid levels. Overall, the FUN3D results compare well with the structured-grid code CFL3D. The FUN3D downwash study and Reynolds number study results compare well with the range of results shown in the workshop presentations.

    14. Guidance for the New Millenium?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      McLaren, David J.

      1996-01-01

      Reviews the "Guidance Arrangements" consultation document issued with "Higher Still" (proposed new Scottish upper secondary curricula). Argues that the paper ignores the full implications for educational change in Higher Still and misses the opportunity for timely modernization of school guidance. Advocates a cross-curricular model of guidance…

    15. Push drill guidance indication apparatus

      SciTech Connect

      Bockhorst, R.W.; Elenburg, J.H.

      1984-06-05

      The present invention relates to a program controlled apparatus for providing rapid calibration and update of sensor parameters in a push drill guidance apparatus which is remotely controllable from microprocessor circuitry. A special calibration program is set into nonvolatile memory for coaction with the control processor to compute sensor parameters for storage and recall during normal programmed guidance operation.

    16. Guidance in the Secondary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kumar, V. Jurist Lional

      2010-01-01

      Secondary School Students face a lot of problems in their body as well as in mind due to puberty that tends to adolescence stage. Adolescence has peculiar characters of their own. They need proper Guidance and Counselling to tackle their own problems. Guidance is described as a counselling service to assist the individual in achieving self…

    17. Discussing Diverse Perspectives on Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Shareef, Intisar

      2005-01-01

      Ideas about discipline and guidance get extremely complex when they intersect with culture and oppression. Some groups of people who are targets of racism have to protect their children from the oppressive practices of racist individuals and institutions. Their methods of guidance and discipline may be different from those of groups for whom…

    18. Automated Guidance for Student Inquiry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gerard, Libby F.; Ryoo, Kihyun; McElhaney, Kevin W.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Rafferty, Anna N.; Linn, Marcia C.

      2016-01-01

      In 4 classroom experiments we investigated uses for technologies that automatically score student generated essays, concept diagrams, and drawings in inquiry curricula. We used the automatic scores to assign typical and research-based guidance and studied the impact of the guidance on student progress. Seven teachers and their 897 students…

    19. Guidance: Agent of the Counterculture.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Patouillet, Raymond A.; Marin, Roselyn L.

      1979-01-01

      This article was an introduction to a convention program presented at the Florida Personnel and Guidance Association Convention (Tampa, Nov., 1977) by Raymond Patouillet, shortly before his sudden death. It encapsulates his guidance philosophy, his understanding of the human condition, and his faith in the crucial role of the caring profession.…

    20. Innovative Approaches to Career Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Freeman, Andrew R.

      A key part of a broad-based approach to career education in Australian schools is vocational/career guidance. Various vocational guidance programs have been developed for specific groups in Australian society, including work experience, caravans, and micrographics technology for the handicapped; pre-employment courses and a family education center…

    1. Marxist Guidance: A Dialectic Lesson

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Drapela, Victor J.

      1971-01-01

      Based on primary sources published in the Soviet Bloc, this article compares the stated goals of Marxist guidance with actual outcomes, and identifies the foundations of guidance in the Soviet Bloc in terms of Marxist philosophy and social doctrine. Current symptoms of ideological unrest in socialist society as exemplified by the suppressed reform…

    2. Signaling from axon guidance receptors.

      PubMed

      Bashaw, Greg J; Klein, Rüdiger

      2010-05-01

      Determining how axon guidance receptors transmit signals to allow precise pathfinding decisions is fundamental to our understanding of nervous system development and may suggest new strategies to promote axon regeneration after injury or disease. Signaling mechanisms that act downstream of four prominent families of axon guidance cues--netrins, semaphorins, ephrins, and slits--have been extensively studied in both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. Although details of these signaling mechanisms are still fragmentary and there appears to be considerable diversity in how different guidance receptors regulate the motility of the axonal growth cone, a number of common themes have emerged. Here, we review recent insights into how specific receptors for each of these guidance cues engage downstream regulators of the growth cone cytoskeleton to control axon guidance. PMID:20452961

    3. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions LLC

      2008-01-12

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

    4. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions LLC

      2006-11-07

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

    5. Air Navigation. Aerospace Education II.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gromling, F. C.; Mackin, T. E.

      This book, which can be used only in the Air Force ROTC program, elucidates ideas about air navigation techniques. The book is divided into two main parts. The first part describes the earth's surface and different components of navigation. A chapter on charts provides ideas about different kinds of charts and a variety of symbols used in…

    6. Introductory Course on Satellite Navigation

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Giger, Kaspar; Knogl, J. Sebastian

      2012-01-01

      Satellite navigation is widely used for personal navigation and more and more in precise and safety-critical applications. Thus, the subject is suited for attracting the interest of young people in science and engineering. The practical applications allow catching the students' attention for the theoretical background. Educational material on the…

    7. A Navigation Compendium. Revised Edition.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

      This unit of instruction was prepared for use in navigation study at the Officer Candidate School, the various Naval ROTC Units, and within the fleet. It is considered a naval text. It covers a wide and expanding subject area with brevity. Basic and elementary navigational terms and instruments are presented and described. The use of charts and…

    8. An investigation of automatic guidance concepts to steer a VTOL aircraft to a small aviation facility ship

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.; Phatak, A. V.; Schmidt, S. F.

      1980-01-01

      A detailed system model of a VTOL aircraft approaching a small aviation facility ship was developed and used to investigate several approach guidance concepts. A preliminary anaysis of the aircraft-vessel landing guidance requirements was conducted. The various subelements and constraints of the flight system are described including the landing scenario, lift fan aircraft, state rate feedback flight control, MLS-based navigation, sea state induced ship motion, and wake turbulence due to wind-over-deck effects. These elements are integrated into a systems model with various guidance concepts. Guidance is described in terms of lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes steering modes and approach and landing phases divided by a nominal hover (or stationkeeping) point defined with respect to the landing pad. The approach guidance methods are evaluated, and the two better steering concepts are studied by both single pass and Monte Carlo statistical simulation runs. Four different guidance concepts are defined for further analysis for the landing phase of flight.

    9. Second messenger networks for accurate growth cone guidance.

      PubMed

      Akiyama, Hiroki; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki

      2015-04-01

      Growth cones are able to navigate over long distances to find their appropriate target by following guidance cues that are often presented to them in the form of an extracellular gradient. These external cues are converted into gradients of specific signaling molecules inside growth cones, while at the same time these internal signals are amplified. The amplified instruction is then used to generate asymmetric changes in the growth cone turning machinery so that one side of the growth cone migrates at a rate faster than the other side, and thus the growth cone turns toward or away from the external cue. This review examines how signal specification and amplification can be achieved inside the growth cone by multiple second messenger signaling pathways activated downstream of guidance cues. These include the calcium ion, cyclic nucleotide, and phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways. PMID:24285606

    10. An integrated design for missile guidance/control/tracking system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Xu, Yefeng; Qiu, Haitao

      2008-10-01

      An integrated information system (IIS) which contains strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), automatic pilot and terminal guidance seeker is proposed. Using rotating modulation approach, the performance of the low cost MEMS inertial sensor is improved by 20-30 times. The precision of the modulated MEMS gyro is available for strapdown navigation system and autopilot. The IIS gyros replace gimbal-based gyros are used in the line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization system. The seeker's LOS angular rate is estimated by combining the missile-fixed gyro information with gimbal coordinate rate information. The indirect LOS stabilization control loop is elaborately designed according to the gimbal kinematical relationship and dynamics models. The study and analysis results show that the compensation torque is available to null the disturbance and make the LOS stabilization. The proposed IIS saves two sets of gyros and make the SINS, autopilot, seeker integrated designing. It owns many advantages such as compact configuration, prominent low cost etc.

    11. The navigation of homing pigeons: Do they use sun Navigation?

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Walcott, C.

      1972-01-01

      Experiments to determine the dependence of homing pigeons on the sun as a navigational cue are discussed. Various methods were employed to interrupt the circadian rhythms of the pigeons prior to release. It was determined that the sun may serve as a compass, but that topographic features are more important for navigation. The effects of a magnetic field produced by electric equipment carried by the bird were also investigated. It was concluded that magnetic fields may have a small effect on the homing ability. The exact nature of the homing pigeon's navigational ability is still unknown after years of elaborate experimentation.

    12. Image guidance improves localization of sonographically occult colorectal liver metastases

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leung, Universe; Simpson, Amber L.; Adams, Lauryn B.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.; Kingham, T. Peter

      2015-03-01

      Assessing the therapeutic benefit of surgical navigation systems is a challenging problem in image-guided surgery. The exact clinical indications for patients that may benefit from these systems is not always clear, particularly for abdominal surgery where image-guidance systems have failed to take hold in the same way as orthopedic and neurosurgical applications. We report interim analysis of a prospective clinical trial for localizing small colorectal liver metastases using the Explorer system (Path Finder Technologies, Nashville, TN). Colorectal liver metastases are small lesions that can be difficult to identify with conventional intraoperative ultrasound due to echogeneity changes in the liver as a result of chemotherapy and other preoperative treatments. Interim analysis with eighteen patients shows that 9 of 15 (60%) of these occult lesions could be detected with image guidance. Image guidance changed intraoperative management in 3 (17%) cases. These results suggest that image guidance is a promising tool for localization of small occult liver metastases and that the indications for image-guided surgery are expanding.

    13. The navigation toolkit

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rich, William F.; Strom, Stephen W.

      1994-01-01

      This report summarizes the experience of the authors in managing, designing, and implementing an object-oriented applications framework for orbital navigation analysis for the Flight Design and Dynamics Department of the Rockwell Space Operations Company in Houston, in support of the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA's Johnson Space Center. The 8 person year project spanned 1.5 years and produced 30,000 lines of C++ code, replacing 150,000 lines of Fortran/C. We believe that our experience is important because it represents a 'second project' experience and generated real production-quality code - it was not a pilot. The project successfully demonstrated the use of 'continuous development' or rapid prototyping techniques. Use of formal methods and executable models contributed to the quality of the code. Keys to the success of the project were a strong architectural vision and highly skilled workers. This report focuses on process and methodology, and not on a detailed design description of the product. But the true importance of the object-oriented paradigm is its liberation of the developer to focus on the problem rather than the means used to solve the problem.

    14. Titan Probe navigation analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vijayaraghavan, A.; Wood, L. J.

      1986-01-01

      In the proposed Cassini mission, a combined Saturn Orbiter/Titan Probe spacecraft will be launched from the Space Shuttle to arrive at Saturn around 2002, by means of a delta-VEGA trajectory. After Saturn-orbit insertion and a pericrone raise maneuver, the probe will be released to enter the Titan atmosphere and impact onto its surface. During its descent phase and impact onto Titan, the probe will maintain radio contact with the orbiter. Since the Titan-probe experimental phase lasts for only about four hours, probe-orbiter geometry and probe-delivery accuracy are critical to successful completion of this part of the mission. From a preliminary navigation analysis for probe delivery accuracy, it seems feasible to deliver the probe within 50 km (1-sigma value) of the desired aim-point in the Titan B-plane. The covariance study, however, clearly indicates the need for optical data, in addition to radio metric data. A Monte Carlo study indicates that a Delta-V capability of 98 m/sec for trajectory correction maneuvers will be sufficient to cover 99 percent of all contingencies during the segment from Saturn-orbit insertion to Titan-probe release.

    15. Sensor footprints and homing range of terminal guidance munition

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leuthaeuser, K. D.; Wessel, H.

      The footprints of terminal guidance projectiles were analyzed. These footprints, which correspond to the accessible target range on the surface, depend on the vision range of the sensor and on the homing range of the projectile. The sensor vision range is calculated as a function of trajectory parameters, sensor aperture, and sensor range. The extent of the homing range is determined for the special case of circular trajectories, i.e., proportional navigation, in dependence of flight height, angle of incidence, and maximal transverse acceleration. The resulting footprints are represented in overlay diagrams.

    16. Unmanned Vehicle Guidance Using Video Camera/Vehicle Model

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Sutherland, T.

      1999-01-01

      A video guidance sensor (VGS) system has flown on both STS-87 and STS-95 to validate a single camera/target concept for vehicle navigation. The main part of the image algorithm was the subtraction of two consecutive images using software. For a nominal size image of 256 x 256 pixels this subtraction can take a large portion of the time between successive frames in standard rate video leaving very little time for other computations. The purpose of this project was to integrate the software subtraction into hardware to speed up the subtraction process and allow for more complex algorithms to be performed, both in hardware and software.

    17. Micro guidance and control synthesis: New components, architectures, and capabilities

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

      1993-01-01

      New GN&C (guidance, navigation and control) system capabilities are shown to arise from component innovations that involve the synergistic use of microminiature sensors and actuators, microelectronics, and fiber optics. Micro-GN&C system and component concepts are defined that include micro-actuated adaptive optics, micromachined inertial sensors, fiber-optic data nets and light-power transmission, and VLSI microcomputers. The thesis is advanced that these micro-miniaturization products are capable of having a revolutionary impact on space missions and systems, and that GN&C is the pathfinder micro-technology application that can bring that about.

    18. Uprated fine guidance sensor study

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1984-01-01

      Future orbital observatories will require star trackers of extremely high precision. These sensors must maintain high pointing accuracy and pointing stability simultaneously with a low light level signal from a guide star. To establish the fine guidance sensing requirements and to evaluate candidate fine guidance sensing concepts, the Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly was used as the reference optical system. The requirements review was separated into three areas: Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), Fine Guidance Sensing and astrometry. The results show that the detectors should be installed directly onto the focal surface presented by the optics. This would maximize throughput and minimize point stability error by not incoporating any additional optical elements.

    19. The Hippocampus and Entorhinal Cortex Encode the Path and Euclidean Distances to Goals during Navigation

      PubMed Central

      Howard, Lorelei R.; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Yu, Yichao; Mill, Ravi D.; Morrison, Laura C.; Knight, Rebecca; Loftus, Michelle M.; Staskute, Laura; Spiers, Hugo J.

      2014-01-01

      Summary Background Despite decades of research on spatial memory, we know surprisingly little about how the brain guides navigation to goals. While some models argue that vectors are represented for navigational guidance, other models postulate that the future path is computed. Although the hippocampal formation has been implicated in processing spatial goal information, it remains unclear whether this region processes path- or vector-related information. Results We report neuroimaging data collected from subjects navigating London’s Soho district; these data reveal that both the path distance and the Euclidean distance to the goal are encoded by the medial temporal lobe during navigation. While activity in the posterior hippocampus was sensitive to the distance along the path, activity in the entorhinal cortex was correlated with the Euclidean distance component of a vector to the goal. During travel periods, posterior hippocampal activity increased as the path to the goal became longer, but at decision points, activity in this region increased as the path to the goal became closer and more direct. Importantly, sensitivity to the distance was abolished in these brain areas when travel was guided by external cues. Conclusions The results indicate that the hippocampal formation contains representations of both the Euclidean distance and the path distance to goals during navigation. These findings argue that the hippocampal formation houses a flexible guidance system that changes how it represents distance to the goal depending on the fluctuating demands of navigation. PMID:24909328

    20. Image navigation as a means to expand the boundaries of fluorescence-guided surgery.

      PubMed

      Brouwer, Oscar R; Buckle, Tessa; Bunschoten, Anton; Kuil, Joeri; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Wendler, Thomas; Valdés-Olmos, Renato A; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

      2012-05-21

      Hybrid tracers that are both radioactive and fluorescent help extend the use of fluorescence-guided surgery to deeper structures. Such hybrid tracers facilitate preoperative surgical planning using (3D) scintigraphic images and enable synchronous intraoperative radio- and fluorescence guidance. Nevertheless, we previously found that improved orientation during laparoscopic surgery remains desirable. Here we illustrate how intraoperative navigation based on optical tracking of a fluorescence endoscope may help further improve the accuracy of hybrid surgical guidance. After feeding SPECT/CT images with an optical fiducial as a reference target to the navigation system, optical tracking could be used to position the tip of the fluorescence endoscope relative to the preoperative 3D imaging data. This hybrid navigation approach allowed us to accurately identify marker seeds in a phantom setup. The multispectral nature of the fluorescence endoscope enabled stepwise visualization of the two clinically approved fluorescent dyes, fluorescein and indocyanine green. In addition, the approach was used to navigate toward the prostate in a patient undergoing robot-assisted prostatectomy. Navigation of the tracked fluorescence endoscope toward the target identified on SPECT/CT resulted in real-time gradual visualization of the fluorescent signal in the prostate, thus providing an intraoperative confirmation of the navigation accuracy. PMID:22547491

    1. Image navigation as a means to expand the boundaries of fluorescence-guided surgery

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brouwer, Oscar R.; Buckle, Tessa; Bunschoten, Anton; Kuil, Joeri; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Wendler, Thomas; Valdés-Olmos, Renato A.; van der Poel, Henk G.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

      2012-05-01

      Hybrid tracers that are both radioactive and fluorescent help extend the use of fluorescence-guided surgery to deeper structures. Such hybrid tracers facilitate preoperative surgical planning using (3D) scintigraphic images and enable synchronous intraoperative radio- and fluorescence guidance. Nevertheless, we previously found that improved orientation during laparoscopic surgery remains desirable. Here we illustrate how intraoperative navigation based on optical tracking of a fluorescence endoscope may help further improve the accuracy of hybrid surgical guidance. After feeding SPECT/CT images with an optical fiducial as a reference target to the navigation system, optical tracking could be used to position the tip of the fluorescence endoscope relative to the preoperative 3D imaging data. This hybrid navigation approach allowed us to accurately identify marker seeds in a phantom setup. The multispectral nature of the fluorescence endoscope enabled stepwise visualization of the two clinically approved fluorescent dyes, fluorescein and indocyanine green. In addition, the approach was used to navigate toward the prostate in a patient undergoing robot-assisted prostatectomy. Navigation of the tracked fluorescence endoscope toward the target identified on SPECT/CT resulted in real-time gradual visualization of the fluorescent signal in the prostate, thus providing an intraoperative confirmation of the navigation accuracy.

    2. ULTOR passive pose and position engine for spacecraft relative navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hannah, S. Joel

      2008-04-01

      The ULTOR® Passive Pose and Position Engine (P3E) technology, developed by Advanced Optical Systems, Inc (AOS), uses real-time image correlation to provide relative position and pose data for spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control. Potential data sources include a wide variety of sensors, including visible and infrared cameras. ULTOR® P3E has been demonstrated on a number of host processing platforms. NASA is integrating ULTOR® P3E into its Relative Navigation System (RNS), which is being developed for the upcoming Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4). During SM4 ULTOR® P3E will perform realtime pose and position measurements during both the approach and departure phases of the mission. This paper describes the RNS implementation of ULTOR® P3E, and presents results from NASA's hardware-in-the-loop simulation testing against the HST mockup.

    3. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Precision Navigation of Spacecrafts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Petway, Larry; Hines, Glenn; Lockhard, George; Barnes, Bruce

      2011-01-01

      A fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar, utilizing an FMCW technique, has been developed and its capabilities demonstrated through two successful helicopter flight test campaigns. This Doppler lidar is expected to play a critical role in future planetary exploration missions because of its ability in providing the necessary data for soft landing on the planetary bodies and for landing missions requiring precision navigation to the designated location on the ground. Compared with radars, the Doppler lidar can provide significantly higher precision velocity and altitude data at a much higher rate without concerns for measurement ambiguity or target clutter. Future work calls for testing the Doppler lidar onboard a rocket-powered free-flyer platform operating in a closed-loop with the vehicle s guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) unit.

    4. Situationally driven local navigation for mobile robots. Ph.D. Thesis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Slack, Marc Glenn

      1990-01-01

      For mobile robots to autonomously accommodate dynamically changing navigation tasks in a goal-directed fashion, they must employ navigation plans. Any such plan must provide for the robot's immediate and continuous need for guidance while remaining highly flexible in order to avoid costly computation each time the robot's perception of the world changes. Due to the world's uncertainties, creation and maintenance of navigation plans cannot involve arbitrarily complex processes, as the robot's perception of the world will be in constant flux, requiring modifications to be made quickly if they are to be of any use. This work introduces navigation templates (NaT's) which are building blocks for the construction and maintenance of rough navigation plans which capture the relationship that objects in the world have to the current navigation task. By encoding only the critical relationship between the objects in the world and the navigation task, a NaT-based navigation plan is highly flexible; allowing new constraints to be quickly incorporated into the plan and existing constraints to be updated or deleted from the plan. To satisfy the robot's need for immediate local guidance, the NaT's forming the current navigation plan are passed to a transformation function. The transformation function analyzes the plan with respect to the robot's current location to quickly determine (a few times a second) the locally preferred direction of travel. This dissertation presents NaT's and the transformation function as well as the needed support systems to demonstrate the usefulness of the technique for controlling the actions of a mobile robot operating in an uncertain world.

    5. In-Flight Assessment of a Pursuit Guidance Display Format for Manually Flown Precision Instrument Approaches

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Moralez, Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Hindson, William S.; Frost, Chad R.; Hardy, Gordon H.

      2004-01-01

      In-flight evaluations of a pursuit guidance display system for manually flown precision instrument approaches were performed. The guidance system was integrated into the RASCAL JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The applicability of the pursuit guidance disp1aFs to the operation of Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) is made evident because the displays allow the pilot to fly a complex, multi-segment, descending, decelerating approach trajectory. The complex trajectory chosen for this in-flight assessment began from a downwind abeam position at 110 knots and was hand-flown to a 50 ft decision altitude at 40 knots using a rate-command/attitude-hold plus turn-coordination control system. The elements of the pursuit guidance format displayed on a 10-inch liquid crystal display (LCD) flat panel consisted of a flightpath vector and a "leader" aircraft as the pursuit guidance element. Approach guidance was based primarily on carrier-phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and secondarily on both medium accuracy inertial navigation unit states and air data computer states. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concepts were applied to the construction of display elements such as lateral/vertical deviation indicators and a tunnel that indicated to the pilot, in real-time, the performance with respect to RNP error bounds. The results of the flight evaluations of the guidance display show that precise path control for operating within tight RNP boundaries (RNP 0.007NM/24ft for initial approach, RNP 0.008NM/19ft for intermediate approach, and RNP 0.002NM/9ft for final approach) is attainable with minimal to moderate pilot workload.

    6. The Development of an Electronic Aircraft Taxi Navigation Display

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Andre, Anthony D.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

      1997-01-01

      This paper describes the development of an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display as part of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The impetus for the development of this specific display, and the TAP program as a whole, is the current bottleneck in surface operations experienced during low-visibility operations. Simply stated, while modern aircraft are equipped to fly and land in low-visibility conditions, they lack the related technology required to allow them to efficiently and safely navigation from the runway to the gate. Pilots under such conditions consequently taxi slower, sometimes get lost and have to stop, and occasionally collide with other aircraft. Based on a review of available display and navigation sensor technologies, and a one-year information requirements study conducted aboard several commercial aircraft flights, it was determined that an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display was the most viable option for improving the efficiency of low-visibility taxi operations. Based on flight deck observations and pilot interviews, previous map display research, other taxi map display efforts, and part-task taxi map research, an advanced taxi navigation display has been developed and is currently being tested. The taxi navigation display is presented as a head-down cockpit display and includes a track-up perspective airport surface view, taxiway, gate and runway labels, ownship position, traffic icons and collision annunciation, graphical route guidance, heading indicator, rotating compass, RVR wedge, stop bars, zoom control, and datalink message window. The development and support for each of the features will be discussed in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

    7. Astrodynamics. Volume 1 - Orbit determination, space navigation, celestial mechanics.

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Herrick, S.

      1971-01-01

      Essential navigational, physical, and mathematical problems of space exploration are covered. The introductory chapters dealing with conic sections, orientation, and the integration of the two-body problem are followed by an introduction to orbit determination and design. Systems of units and constants, as well as ephemerides, representations, reference systems, and data are then dealt with. A detailed attention is given to rendezvous problems and to differential processes in observational orbit correction, and in rendezvous or guidance correction. Finally, the Laplacian methods for determining preliminary orbits, and the orbit methods of Lagrange, Gauss, and Gibbs are reviewed.

    8. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging and Multimodal Surgical Navigation Using Goggle System.

      PubMed

      Mela, Christopher A; Papay, Francis A; Liu, Yang

      2016-01-01

      Intraoperative imaging is an invaluable tool in many surgical procedures. We have developed a wearable stereoscopic imaging and display system entitled Integrated Imaging Goggle, which can provide real-time multimodal image guidance. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, wide field-of-view fluorescence imaging is tracked and registered with intraoperative ultrasound imaging and preoperative tomography-based surgical navigation, to provide integrated multimodal imaging capabilities in real-time. Herein we describe the system instrumentation and the methods of using the Integrated Imaging Goggle to guide surgeries. PMID:27283420

    9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

      2003-08-25

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

    10. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

      2009-01-01

      The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

    11. Video guidance sensor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Howard, Richard

      1991-01-01

      A Martin-Marietta study comparing the application of laser, video, or RF sensors was conducted in 1982. The study concluded that video was the most attractive sensor (the video also could be used for operator monitoring). The Retro-Reflector field Tracker from the Solar Array Flight Experiment was chosen as a 'first generation' sensor and integrated with guidance algorithms for evaluation on the air-bearing vehicle. Results indicated that this sensor was not applicable for the noise environment posed by the multi-layer insulation used on most spacecraft. A 'second generation' sensor was developed to be used with a modified RMS target. This sensor utilized two sets of laser diodes to acquire three optically filtered targets. The targets were illuminated first with a 780 nanometer diode, followed by illumination with a 830 nm diode. The second digitized picture was subtracted from the first to get a low-noise image. The centroids of the retroreflectors were used then to uniquely derive target attitude and range. The sensor presently operates to 80 feet and within +/- 40 degrees in pitch and yaw. Sensor operability is a concern if the sun is within a +/- 40 degree cone angle to the target. The present sensor performance characteristics are less than 1 percent range error and less than 1 degree angle error. Future sensor development is anticipated to extend the operating range to 150 feet and reduce the cone angle of sensor inoperability to within +/- 10 degrees of direct sunlight. Performance improvements also are anticipated. TRW currently is developing a system that utilizes dual cameras with simultaneous diode illumination. Although further development is being pursued, the basic system has proven sound, and the sensor is essentially ready for application.

    12. Navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery: perspectives and limitations.

      PubMed

      Baumhauer, Matthias; Feuerstein, Marco; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Rassweiler, J

      2008-04-01

      Despite rapid developments in the research areas of medical imaging, medical image processing, and robotics, the use of computer assistance in surgical routine is still limited to diagnostics, surgical planning, and interventions on mostly rigid structures. In order to establish a computer-aided workflow from diagnosis to surgical treatment and follow-up, several proposals for computer-assisted soft tissue interventions have been made in recent years. By means of different pre- and intraoperative information sources, such as surgical planning, intraoperative imaging, and tracking devices, surgical navigation systems aim to support surgeons in localizing anatomical targets, observing critical structures, and sparing healthy tissue. Current research in particular addresses the problem of organ shift and tissue deformation, and obstacles in communication between navigation system and surgeon. In this paper, we review computer-assisted navigation systems for soft tissue surgery. We concentrate on approaches that can be applied in endoscopic thoracic and abdominal surgery, because endoscopic surgery has special needs for image guidance due to limitations in perception. Furthermore, this paper informs the reader about new trends and technologies in the area of computer-assisted surgery. Finally, a balancing of the key challenges and possible benefits of endoscopic navigation refines the perspectives of this increasingly important discipline of computer-aided medical procedures. PMID:18366319

    13. An embedded omnidirectional vision navigator for automatic guided vehicles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Cao, Zuoliang; Zong, Xiaoning

      2011-01-01

      Omnidirectional vision appears the definite significance since its advantage of acquiring full 360° horizontal field of vision information simultaneously. In this paper, an embedded original omnidirectional vision navigator (EOVN) based on fish-eye lens and embedded technology has been researched. Fish-eye lens is one of the special ways to establish omnidirectional vision. However, it appears with an unavoidable inherent and enormous distortion. A unique integrated navigation method which is conducted on the basis of targets tracking has been proposed. It is composed of multi-target recognition and tracking, distortion rectification, spatial location and navigation control. It is called RTRLN. In order to adapt to the different indoor and outdoor navigation environments, we implant mean-shift and dynamic threshold adjustment into the Particle Filter algorithm to improve the efficiency and robustness of tracking capability. RTRLN has been implanted in an independent development embedded platform. EOVN likes a smart crammer based on COMS+FPGA+DSP. It can guide various vehicles in outdoor environments by tracking the diverse marks hanging in the air. The experiments prove that the EOVN is particularly suitable for the guidance applications which need high requirements on precision and repeatability. The research achievements have a good actual applied inspection.

    14. The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

      1997-01-01

      The goal of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Low-Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) subelement is to improve the efficiency of airport surface operations for commercial aircraft operating in weather conditions to Category IIIB while maintaining a high degree of safety. Currently, surface operations are one of the least technologically sophisticated components of the air transport system, being conducted in the 1990's with the same basic technology as in the 1930's. Pilots are given little or no explicit information about their current position, and routing information is limited to ATC communications and airport charts. In TAP/LVLASO, advanced technologies such as satellite navigation systems, digital data communications, advanced information presentation technology, and ground surveillance systems will be integrated into flight deck displays to enable expeditious and safe traffic movement on the airport surface. The cockpit display suite is called the T-NASA (Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness) System. This system has three integrated components: 1) Moving Map track-up airport surface display with own-ship, traffic and graphical route guidance 2) Scene-Linked Symbology - route/taxi information virtually projected via a Head-up Display (HUD) onto the forward scene; and, 3) 3-D Audio Ground Collision Avoidance and Navigation system - spatially-localized auditory traffic and navigation alerts. In the current paper, the design philosophy of the T-NASA system will be presented, and the T-NASA system display components described.

    15. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

    16. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

    17. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

    18. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

    19. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with §...

    20. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

      2015-07-01

      Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network.

    1. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games.

      PubMed

      Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

      2015-01-01

      Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network. PMID:26138277

    2. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

      PubMed Central

      Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

      2015-01-01

      Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network. PMID:26138277

    3. Navigational Efficiency of Nocturnal Myrmecia Ants Suffers at Low Light Levels

      PubMed Central

      Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Raderschall, Chloé A.

      2013-01-01

      Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available. PMID:23484052

    4. Experiment D009: Simple navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Silva, R. M.; Jorris, T. R.; Vallerie, E. M., III

      1971-01-01

      Space position-fixing techniques have been investigated by collecting data on the observable phenomena of space flight that could be used to solve the problem of autonomous navigation by the use of optical data and manual computations to calculate the position of a spacecraft. After completion of the developmental and test phases, the product of the experiment would be a manual-optical technique of orbital space navigation that could be used as a backup to onboard and ground-based spacecraft-navigation systems.

    5. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mckenna, J. J.

      1976-01-01

      The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

    6. Navigation/Prop Software Suite

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

      2012-01-01

      Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

    7. GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS

      EPA Science Inventory

      This guidance provides recommendations intended to assist in the development, evaluation and application of high quality environmental models that the Environmental Protection Agency uses to address environmental problems and to support regulatory activities. These guidelines wi...

    8. Bore hole navigator

      SciTech Connect

      Hoffman, G.J.

      1987-09-29

      A bore hole navigator is described comprising a two axis platform for lowering down a bore hole on a cable with its longitudinal axis parallel to the local bore hole direction. The two axis platform has an outer gimbal, bearing supported on the outer gimbal axis for rotation about the longitudinal axis of the platform, and an inner gimbal axis orthogonal the the outer gimbal axis. The inner gimbal axis has multiple axis segments spaced along the longitudinal axis of the platform and each bearing supported on the outer gimbal. The inner gimbal axis segment has a two axis gyro mounted thereon with its spin axis orthogonal to the respective inner gimbal axis segment, a first gyro sensitive axis parallel to the respective inner gimbal axis segment and a second gyro sensitive axis orthogonal to the spin axis. The second inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch torquer thereon operative to provide a controllable torque about the respective inner gimbal axis segment. The third inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch resolver thereon operative to measure rotation of the respective inner gimbal axis segment with respect to the outer gimbal. The first, second and third inner gimbal axis segments are coupled to rotate together. The outer gimbal has a yaw torquer thereon to provide a controllable torque about the outer gimbal axis, and a yaw resolver thereon to measure rotation of the outer gimbal about the outer gimbal axis. The outer gimbal also has a single axis accelerometer therein having its sensitive axis orthogonal to the outer gimbal axis and the inner gimbal axis segments.

    9. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

      PubMed

      Schipper, Harvey

      2016-02-01

      Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

    10. Wellborne inertial navigation system

      SciTech Connect

      Kelsey, J.R.

      1983-01-01

      A phototype wireline tool which includes a downhole inertial platform and a surface computer to spatially map a well is described. The hardware consists of a single-gimbaled inertial platform with accelerometers and gyros to obtain three-axis motion information. The gyroscope and accelerometer outputs are transmitted to a computer at the surface which calculates probe attitude relative to north, east, and vertical. Double integration of the accelerometer data provides the position information. A conventional 7-conductor wireline is used for the system data transmission. System accuracy is enhanced by advances made in the computer software which processes the data received from the tool. The software uses statistical sampling estimation to obtain optimal estimates of the system errors. Measurement errors are determined by periodically stopping the tool during the logging procedure and observing the indicated velocity measurements. This procedure, known as Kalman filtering, results in increased accuracy of the data. Present mapping systems have an X-Y-Z location accuracy of +- 100 to +- 200 feet for a typical well depth of 10,000 feet. Test results show that the new system is accurate to about +- 1 foot per 1000 feet of well depth. Unlike conventional systems, the inertial navigator does not require any sort of projection of the cable length (which may not be accurately known). Also this system provides continuous data throughout the wellbore and logging speeds on the order of 10 ft/sec appear possible. The hardware and software associated with this mapping system are described and the recent field test results are reported.

    11. Geographos asteroid flyby and autonomous navigation study

      SciTech Connect

      Ng, L.C.; Pines, D.J.; Patz, B.J.; Perron, D.C.

      1993-02-22

      Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE), also known as Clementine, is a collection of science experiments conducted in near-earth with the goal of demonstrating Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) developed technologies. The 785 lb (fully fueled) spacecraft will be launched into low Earth orbit in February 1994 together with a Star 37 solid kick motor and interstage. After orbit circulation using Clementine`s 110 lb Delta-V thruster, the Star 37 will execute a trans-lunar injection burn that will send the spacecraft toward lunar obit. The 110-lb will then be used in a sequence of burns to insert Clementine into a trimmed, polar orbit around the moon. After a two month moon mapping mission, Clementine will execute burns to leave lunar orbit, sling-shot around Earth, and flyby the moon on a 9.4 million km journey toward the asteroid Geographos. After about three months in transit, Clementine will attempt a flyby with a closest point of approach of 100 km from the asteroid on August 31, 1994. During its approach to Geographos, Clementine will be tracked by the Deep Space Network (DSN) and receive guidance updates. The last update and correction burn will occur about one day out of the flyby. Multiple experiments will be performed at key events during the mission that utilize Clementine`s SDIO-derived resources, including its Star Trackers, UV/Vis camera, infrared sensors (NWIR and LWIR), and high resolution laser radar (HIRes/LIDAR). In addition to the evaluation of SDIO algorithms and sensors, high resolution imagery will be obtained while the spacecraft is in Earth orbit, lunar obit and during the Geographos flyby. This paper describes the results of a study on the precision guidance, navigation, and intercept strategy for the flyby mission.

    12. NES: How to Navigate the Virtual Campus

      NASA Video Gallery

      This video describes how to navigate the NASA Explorer Schools public website. Information includes descriptions of the left navigation, using the breadcrumbs, understanding the various announcemen...

    13. Experimental and simulation study results of an Adaptive Video Guidance System /AVGS/

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.

      1975-01-01

      Studies relating to stellar-body exploration programs have pointed out the need for an adaptive guidance scheme capable of providing automatic real-time guidance and site selection capability. For the case of a planetary lander, without such guidance, targeting is limited to what are believed to be generally benign areas in order to ensure a reasonable landing-success probability. Typically, the Mars Viking Lander will be jeopardized by obstacles exceeding 22 centimers in diameter. The benefits of on-board navigation and real-time selection of a landing site and obstacle avoidance have been demonstrated by the Apollo lunar landings, in which man performed the surface sensing and steering functions. Therefore, an Adaptive Video Guidance System (AVGS) has been developed, bread-boarded, and flown on a six-degree-of-freedom simulator.

    14. Navigating the Rockets Educator Guide

      NASA Video Gallery

      In this brief video overview, learn how to navigate the Rockets Educator Guide. Get a glimpse of the resources available in the guide, including a pictorial history, an overview of the physics cont...

    15. Almanac services for celestial navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nelmes, S.; Whittaker, J.

      2015-08-01

      Celestial navigation remains a vitally important back up to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and relies on the use of almanac services. HM Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) provides a number of these services. The printed book, The Nautical Almanac, produced yearly and now available as an electronic publication, is continuously being improved, making use of the latest ideas and ephemerides to provide the user with their required data. HMNAO also produces NavPac, a software package that assists the user in calculating their position as well as providing additional navigational and astronomical tools. A new version of NavPac will be released in 2015 that will improve the user experience. The development of applications for mobile devices is also being considered. HMNAO continues to combine the latest improvements and theories of astrometry with the creation of books and software that best meet the needs of celestial navigation users.

    16. Potential applications of satellite navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schaenzer, G.

      The applicability of Navstar GPS to civil air navigation is discussed. The accuracy of current air-navigation systems is reviewed; the basic principle and accuracy of GPS navigation are characterized; the relatively low cost of GPS receiving equipment is pointed out; and particular attention is given to hybrid systems combining GPS with inertial navigation. It is predicted that CAT III landings will be possible using such hybrid systems when the GPS satellites are fully deployed, even without access to the military GPS code. Techniques for GPS-based precision landings, reduced-noise landings, landings on parallel runways, control of taxiing maneuvers, and aircraft-based geodetic measurements are briefly described and illustrated with diagrams.

    17. Autonomous navigation using lunar beacons

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Khatib, A. R.; Ellis, J.; French, J.; Null, G.; Yunck, T.; Wu, S.

      1983-01-01

      The concept of using lunar beacon signal transmission for on-board navigation for earth satellites and near-earth spacecraft is described. The system would require powerful transmitters on the earth-side of the moon's surface and black box receivers with antennae and microprocessors placed on board spacecraft for autonomous navigation. Spacecraft navigation requires three position and three velocity elements to establish location coordinates. Two beacons could be soft-landed on the lunar surface at the limits of allowable separation and each would transmit a wide-beam signal with cones reaching GEO heights and be strong enough to be received by small antennae in near-earth orbit. The black box processor would perform on-board computation with one-way Doppler/range data and dynamical models. Alternatively, GEO satellites such as the GPS or TDRSS spacecraft can be used with interferometric techniques to provide decimeter-level accuracy for aircraft navigation.

    18. SEXTANT: Navigating by Cosmic Beacon

      NASA Video Gallery

      Imagine a technology that would allow space travelers to transmit gigabytes of data per second over interplanetary distances or to navigate to Mars and beyond using powerful beams of light emanatin...

    19. Visual Navigation in Nocturnal Insects.

      PubMed

      Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

      2016-05-01

      Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to visually navigate at night. Whereas some use moonlight or the stars as celestial compass cues to maintain a straight-line course, others use visual landmarks to navigate to and from their nest. These impressive abilities rely on highly sensitive compound eyes and specialized visual processing strategies in the brain. PMID:27053732

    20. The navigation of space probes

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Fliegel, H. F.; Ohandley, D. A.; Zielenbach, J. W.

      1974-01-01

      A new navigational method combining electronic measurement procedures and celestial mechanics makes it possible to conduct a space probe very close to a desired point in the neighborhood of a remote planet. Approaches for the determination of the position of the space probe in space are discussed, giving attention to the effects of errors in the employed data. The application of the navigational methods in a number of space missions is also considered.

    1. FLASH LIDAR Based Relative Navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brazzel, Jack; Clark, Fred; Milenkovic, Zoran

      2014-01-01

      Relative navigation remains the most challenging part of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. In recent years, flash LIDARs, have been increasingly selected as the go-to sensors for proximity operations and docking. Flash LIDARS are generally lighter and require less power that scanning Lidars. Flash LIDARs do not have moving parts, and they are capable of tracking multiple targets as well as generating a 3D map of a given target. However, there are some significant drawbacks of Flash Lidars that must be resolved if their use is to be of long-term significance. Overcoming the challenges of Flash LIDARs for navigation-namely, low technology readiness level, lack of historical performance data, target identification, existence of false positives, and performance of vision processing algorithms as intermediaries between the raw sensor data and the Kalman filter-requires a world-class testing facility, such as the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC). Ground-based testing is a critical step for maturing the next-generation flash LIDAR-based spacecraft relative navigation. This paper will focus on the tests of an integrated relative navigation system conducted at the SOSC in January 2014. The intent of the tests was to characterize and then improve the performance of relative navigation, while addressing many of the flash LIDAR challenges mentioned above. A section on navigation performance and future recommendation completes the discussion.

    2. Multi-aircraft dynamics, navigation and operation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Houck, Sharon Wester

      Air traffic control stands on the brink of a revolution. Fifty years from now, we will look back and marvel that we ever flew by radio beacons and radar alone, much as we now marvel that early aviation pioneers flew by chronometer and compass alone. The microprocessor, satellite navigation systems, and air-to-air data links are the technical keys to this revolution. Many airports are near or at capacity now for at least portions of the day, making it clear that major increases in airport capacity will be required in order to support the projected growth in air traffic. This can be accomplished by adding airports, adding runways at existing airports, or increasing the capacity of the existing runways. Technology that allows use of ultra closely spaced (750 ft to 2500 ft) parallel approaches would greatly reduce the environmental impact of airport capacity increases. This research tackles the problem of multi aircraft dynamics, navigation, and operation, specifically in the terminal area, and presents new findings on how ultra closely spaced parallel approaches may be accomplished. The underlying approach considers how multiple aircraft are flown in visual conditions, where spacing criteria is much less stringent, and then uses this data to study the critical parameters for collision avoidance during an ultra closely spaced parallel approach. Also included is experimental and analytical investigations on advanced guidance systems that are critical components of precision approaches. Together, these investigations form a novel approach to the design and analysis of parallel approaches for runways spaced less than 2500 ft apart. This research has concluded that it is technically feasible to reduce the required runway spacing during simultaneous instrument approaches to less than the current minimum of 3400 ft with the use of advanced navigation systems while maintaining the currently accepted levels of safety. On a smooth day with both pilots flying a tunnel

    3. Resources for Guidance Program Improvement. Volume 2.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Frenza, Mary C., Comp.; and Others

      This guide, for guidance personnel and teachers, is designed to provide ready access to current, practical programs, activities, and references for improving guidance programs. The resources are organized in four sections representing areas of basic concern for guidance personnel. Section 1 presents selected portions of guidance programs from…

    4. Information Paper 18: Guidance in Secondary Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ashton, Terry

      1986-01-01

      Traces impetus for introduction of structured guidance into Scottish secondary schools. Identifies 1968 "Orange Paper" as first attempt to set out rationale for guidance. Describes how guidance is organized; outlines tasks of guidance teachers; and presents current developments, training requirements, and trends. (NEC)

    5. Books for Professionals: Discipline and Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      King, Margaret A.

      1994-01-01

      Reviews two books that promote a view of discipline as teaching and guidance. "Guiding Young Children" (Verna Hildebrand) offers specific child guidance techniques and a discussion of general issues affecting child guidance. "Constructive Guidance and Discipline: Preschool and Primary Education" (Majorie V. Fields and Cindy Boesser) focuses on…

    6. Measuring Client Progression in Adult Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hearne, Lucy

      2007-01-01

      Currently, in the field of guidance, relevant stakeholders including guidance practitioners, educators and policy makers, have identified progression for adults in education and employment as one of the key outcomes of educational guidance. Lifelong guidance is now inextricably linked with lifelong learning as a mechanism to enhance individual…

    7. Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

      2011-03-01

      Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

    8. Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital missions using program SKYLARK 1. Section 4: Operational modes

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dunbar, J. C.

      1972-01-01

      The operational modes for the guidance system operations plan for Program SKYLARK 1 are presented. The procedures control the guidance and navigation system interfaces with the flight crew and the mission control center. The guidance operational concept is designed to comprise a set of manually initiated programs and functions which may be arranged by the flight crew to implement a large class of flight plans. This concept will permit both a late flight plan definition and a capability for real time flight plan changes.

    9. See and avoidance behaviors for autonomous navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lee, Dah-Jye; Beard, Randal W.; Merrell, Paul C.; Zhan, Pengcheng

      2004-12-01

      Recent advances in many multi-discipline technologies have allowed small, low-cost fixed wing unmanned air vehicles (UAV) or more complicated unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) to be a feasible solution in many scientific, civil and military applications. Cameras can be mounted on-board of the unmanned vehicles for the purpose of scientific data gathering, surveillance for law enforcement and homeland security, as well as to provide visual information to detect and avoid imminent collisions for autonomous navigation. However, most current computer vision algorithms are highly complex computationally and usually constitute the bottleneck of the guidance and control loop. In this paper, we present a novel computer vision algorithm for collision detection and time-to-impact calculation based on feature density distribution (FDD) analysis. It does not require accurate feature extraction, tracking, or estimation of focus of expansion (FOE). Under a few reasonable assumptions, by calculating the expansion rate of the FDD in space, time-to-impact can be accurately estimated. A sequence of monocular images is studied, and different features are used simultaneously in FDD analysis to show that our algorithm can achieve a fairly good accuracy in collision detection. In this paper we also discuss reactive path planning and trajectory generation techniques that can be accomplished without violating the velocity and heading rate constraints of the UAV.

    10. Optical Navigation Image of Ganymede

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1996-01-01

      NASA's Galileo spacecraft, now in orbit around Jupiter, returned this optical navigation image June 3, 1996, showing that the spacecraft is accurately targeted for its first flyby of the giant moon Ganymede on June 27. The missing data in the frame is the result of a special editing feature recently added to the spacecraft's computer to transmit navigation images more quickly. This is first in a series of optical navigation frames, highly edited onboard the spacecraft, that will be used to fine-tune the spacecraft's trajectory as Galileo approaches Ganymede. The image, used for navigation purposes only, is the product of new computer processing capabilities on the spacecraft that allow Galileo to send back only the information required to show the spacecraft is properly targeted and that Ganymede is where navigators calculate it to be. 'This navigation image is totally different from the pictures we'll be taking for scientific study of Ganymede when we get close to it later this month,' said Galileo Project Scientist Dr. Torrence Johnson. On June 27, Galileo will fly just 844 kilometers (524 miles) above Ganymede and return the most detailed, full-frame, high-resolution images and other measurements of the satellite ever obtained. Icy Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system and three-quarters the size of Mars. It is one of the four large Jovian moons that are special targets of study for the Galileo mission. Of the more than 5 million bits contained in a single image, Galileo performed on-board editing to send back a mere 24,000 bits containing the essential information needed to assure proper targeting. Only the light-to-dark transitions of the crescent Ganymede and reference star locations were transmitted to Earth. The navigation image was taken from a distance of 9.8 million kilometers (6.1 million miles). On June 27th, the spacecraft will be 10,000 times closer to Ganymede.

    11. Simulation development of a forward sensor-enhanced low-altitude guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Zelenka, Richard E.; Swenson, Harry N.; Dearing, Munro G.; Hardy, Gordon H.

      1993-01-01

      The requirement to operate aircraft at low-altitude near the terrain is common in the military community and essential for helicopters. The risk and crew workload in this flight regime is severe, with navigation, guidance, and obstacle avoidance demanding high attention. A guidance system relying on digitized terrain elevation maps has been developed that employs airborne navigation, mission requirements, aircraft performance limits, and radar altimeter returns to generate a valley-seeking, low-altitude trajectory between waypoints for display to the pilot. This system has been flight demonstrated to 150 ft above ground level altitude, and is primarily limited by the ability of the pilot to perform obstacle detection and avoidance. In this study, a wide field of view forward sensor has been modeled and incorporated in the guidance system for the purpose of relieving the pilot of the obstacle avoidance duty. The results of a piloted, motion-based simulation of this enhanced low-altitude guidance system is presented. Simulated flights to 50 ft altitude in the presence of obstacles were demonstrated while maintaining situational awareness and close tracking of the guidance trajectory.

    12. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

      SciTech Connect

      Larry Stolarczyk

      2008-08-08

      The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

    13. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

    14. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

    15. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

    16. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

    17. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

    18. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

    19. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

    20. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

    1. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

    2. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-10-01

      ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

    3. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

    4. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

    5. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

    6. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

    7. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

    8. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35 Section 66.10-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights....

    9. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance

      PubMed Central

      Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

      2015-01-01

      Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements. PMID:26063820

    10. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance.

      PubMed

      Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

      2015-07-01

      Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements. PMID:26063820

    11. Motion-adapted catheter navigation with real-time instantiation and improved visualisation

      PubMed Central

      Kwok, Ka-Wai; Wang, Lichao; Riga, Celia; Bicknell, Colin; Cheshire, Nicholas; Yang, Guang-Zhong

      2014-01-01

      The improvements to catheter manipulation by the use of robot-assisted catheter navigation for endovascular procedures include increased precision, stability of motion and operator comfort. However, navigation through the vasculature under fluoroscopic guidance is still challenging, mostly due to physiological motion and when tortuous vessels are involved. In this paper, we propose a motion-adaptive catheter navigation scheme based on shape modelling to compensate for these dynamic effects, permitting predictive and dynamic navigations. This allows for timed manipulations synchronised with the vascular motion. The technical contribution of the paper includes the following two aspects. Firstly, a dynamic shape modelling and real-time instantiation scheme based on sparse data obtained intra-operatively is proposed for improved visualisation of the 3D vasculature during endovascular intervention. Secondly, a reconstructed frontal view from the catheter tip using the derived dynamic model is used as an interventional aid to user guidance. To demonstrate the practical value of the proposed framework, a simulated aortic branch cannulation procedure is used with detailed user validation to demonstrate the improvement in navigation quality and efficiency. PMID:24744817

    12. Strategies for microwave thermal treatment planning, navigation, and assessment

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ryan, Thomas P.

      2011-03-01

      Thermal treatment is commonly performed interstitially in either surgical or percutaneous procedures, using microwave antenna sources at 915 or 2540 MHz. There are a number of tools or aids as well as challenges for clinicians performing these procedures in the course of patient treatment. These challenges will be present whether the procedure is surgical, laparoscopic, or percutaneous, and include treatment planning, image guidance, navigation, coregistration in 3D, and treatment assessment. Treatment planning has been used historically in hyperthermia for microwave antenna arrays, but has yet to be properly applied in thermal ablation. Image assessment of thermal treatment is not typically performed in real time, although these tools will provide the clinician with further information to understand the extent of treatment and whether further treatment is needed. 3D imaging is available, but not coregistered to patient space. Navigation has been used in many medical specialties, but is also not in the clinician's toolbox in thermal treatment. Although treatment planning will lay out the skin entry and trajectory for each antenna placed, subsequently, each antenna needs to be tracked to accurately show placement in the patient and overlaid in patient space, along with the tumor target location. Some patient treatments may consist of multiple, but sequential single placements of an antenna, and guidance is even more critical to track positions and plan for the next insertion. Lastly, real-time image assessment will show the extent and shape of the coagulated lesion and which targets may have been undertreated. If used synchronously in arrays, MW power steering may also aid in filling in the ablation as the treatment progresses. This paper will analyze the present state-of-the art as well as a strategy to incorporate the various facets of planning, guidance, and assessment of treatment. The integration of thermal treatment planning, navigation and guidance, robotics

    13. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mendeck, G.; McGrew, L.

      2013-01-01

      Mars Science Laboratory landed Curiosity in Gale Crater on 5 Aug 2012. Curiosity landed successfully only 2.2 km away from the expected target given the onboard navigation state. Better than the average Apollo capsule splashdown miss distance. A late bank reversal and a suspected tail wind contributed to this slight miss. Entry guidance is derived from the Apollo capsule "final phase" logic and adjusts the range flown during entry by varying the direction of the lift vector (i.e., bank angle). Refinement of the guidance gains and alternative parachute deploy triggers to reduce the ellipse size will be studied for future Mars landing missions.

    14. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      1997-04-01

      The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

    15. Autonomous navigation system. [gyroscopic pendulum for air navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Merhav, S. J. (Inventor)

      1981-01-01

      An inertial navigation system utilizing a servo-controlled two degree of freedom pendulum to obtain specific force components in the locally level coordinate system is described. The pendulum includes a leveling gyroscope and an azimuth gyroscope supported on a two gimbal system. The specific force components in the locally level coordinate system are converted to components in the geographical coordinate system by means of a single Euler transformation. The standard navigation equations are solved to determine longitudinal and lateral velocities. Finally, vehicle position is determined by a further integration.

    16. Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Hanna, Robert A.; Mossey, Michael P.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.; Martin Mur, Tomas J.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

      2009-01-01

      MONTE (Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment) Release 7.3 is an extensible software system designed to support trajectory and navigation analysis/design for space missions. MONTE is intended to replace the current navigation and trajectory analysis software systems, which, at the time of this reporting, are used by JPL's Navigation and Mission Design section. The software provides an integrated, simplified, and flexible system that can be easily maintained to serve the needs of future missions in need of navigation services.

    17. Guidance for state attainment plans

      SciTech Connect

      Strait, R.

      1994-06-01

      Title I of the Clean Air act Amendments of 1990 significantly changed requirements for regulatory agencies to prepare state implementation plans that demonstrate attainment of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. State agencies now are required to submit plans that show how they will meet the standards by their attainment date. EPA has published a series of guidance documents to assist states in preparing their plans. In addition, the agency is developing software to assist states in projecting emissions and tracking reductions. This article summarizes the guidance documents and software program.

    18. Effects of Optical Artifacts in a Laser-Based Spacecraft Navigation Sensor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      LeCroy, Jerry E.; Hallmark, Dean S.; Howard, Richard T.

      2007-01-01

      Testing Of the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) used for proximity operations navigation on the Orbital Express ASTRO spacecraft exposed several unanticipated imaging system artifacts and aberrations that required correction, to meet critical navigation performance requirements. Mitigation actions are described for a number of system error sources, including lens aberration, optical train misalignment, laser speckle, target image defects, and detector nonlinearity/noise characteristics. Sensor test requirements and protocols are described, along with a summary ,of test results from sensor confidence tests and system performance testing.

    19. Effects of Optical Artifacts in a Laser-Based Spacecraft Navigation Sensor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      LeCroy, Jerry E.; Hallmark, Dean S.; Howard, Richard T.

      2006-01-01

      Testing of the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) used for proximity operations navigation on the Orbital Express ASTRO spacecraft exposed several unanticipated imaging system artifacts and aberrations that required correction to meet critical navigation performance requirements. Mitigation actions are described for a number of system error sources, including lens aberration, optical train misalignment, laser speckle, target image defects, and detector nonlinearity/noise characteristics. Sensor test requirements and protocols are described, along with a summary of test results from sensor confidence tests and system performance testing.

    20. Effects of Optical Artifacts in a Laser-Based Spacecraft Navigation Sensor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      LeCroy, Jerry E.; Howard, Richard T.; Hallmark, Dean S.

      2007-01-01

      Testing of the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) used for proximity operations navigation on the Orbital Express ASTRO spacecraft exposed several unanticipated imaging system artifacts and aberrations that required correction to meet critical navigation performance requirements. Mitigation actions are described for a number of system error sources, including lens aberration, optical train misalignment, laser speckle, target image defects, and detector nonlinearity/noise characteristics. Sensor test requirements and protocols are described, along with a summary of test results from sensor confidence tests and system performance testing.

    1. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

    2. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

    3. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

    4. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

    5. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-01-01

      ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of...

    6. Gamma guidance of trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Miele, A.; Wang, T.

      1990-01-01

      The optimization and guidance of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from high Earth orbit (HEO) to low Earth orbit (LEO) are examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that at most three impulses are employed: one at HEO exit, one at atmospheric exit, and one at LEO entry. It is also assumed that, during the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient. The presence of upper and lower bounds on the lift coefficient is considered. First, optimal trajectories are computed by minimizing the total velocity impulse (hence, the propellant consumption) required for AOT transfer. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is used for optimal control problems. The optimal trajectory is shown to include two branches: a relatively short descending flight branch (branch 1) and a long ascending flight branch (branch 2). Next, attention is focused on guidance trajectories capable of approximating the optimal trajectories in real time, while retaining the essential characteristics of simplicity, ease of implementation, and reliability. For the atmospheric pass, a feedback control scheme is employed and the lift coefficient is adjusted according to a two-stage gamma guidance law. Further improvements are possible via a modified gamma guidance which is more stable with respect to dispersion effects arising from navigation errors, variations of the atmospheric density, and uncertainties in the aerodynamic coefficients than gamma guidance trajectory. A byproduct of the studies on dispersion effects is the following design concept. For coplaner aeroassisted orbital transfer, the lift-range-to-weight ratio appears to play a more important role than the lift-to-drag ratio. This is because the lift-range-to-weight ratio controls mainly the minimum

    7. Behavioral Mapless Navigation Using Rings

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Monroe, Randall P.; Miller, Samuel A.; Bradley, Arthur T.

      2012-01-01

      This paper presents work on the development and implementation of a novel approach to robotic navigation. In this system, map-building and localization for obstacle avoidance are discarded in favor of moment-by-moment behavioral processing of the sonar sensor data. To accomplish this, we developed a network of behaviors that communicate through the passing of rings, data structures that are similar in form to the sonar data itself and express the decisions of each behavior. Through the use of these rings, behaviors can moderate each other, conflicting impulses can be mediated, and designers can easily connect modules to create complex emergent navigational techniques. We discuss the development of a number of these modules and their successful use as a navigation system in the Trinity omnidirectional robot.

    8. Navigation systems. [for interplanetary flight

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Jordan, J. F.

      1985-01-01

      The elements of the measurement and communications network comprising the global deep space navigation system (DSN) for NASA missions are described. Among the measurement systems discussed are: VLBI, two-way Doppler and range measurements, and optical measurements carried out on board the spacecraft. Processing of navigation measurement is carried out using two modules: an N-body numerical integration of the trajectory (and state transition partial derivatives) based on pre-guessed initial conditions; and partial derivatives of simulated observables corresponding to each actual observation. Calculations of velocity correction parameters is performed by precise modelling of all physical phenomena influencing the observational measurements, including: planetary motions; tracking station locations, gravity field structure, and transmission media effects. Some of the contributions to earth-relative orbit estimate errors for the Doppler/range system on board Voyager are discussed in detail. A line drawing of the DSN navigation system is provided.

    9. A semi-analytical guidance algorithm for autonomous landing

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lunghi, Paolo; Lavagna, Michèle; Armellin, Roberto

      2015-06-01

      One of the main challenges posed by the next space systems generation is the high level of autonomy they will require. Hazard Detection and Avoidance is a key technology in this context. An adaptive guidance algorithm for landing that updates the trajectory to the surface by means of an optimal control problem solving is here presented. A semi-analytical approach is proposed. The trajectory is expressed in a polynomial form of minimum order to satisfy a set of boundary constraints derived from initial and final states and attitude requirements. By imposing boundary conditions, a fully determined guidance profile is obtained, function of a restricted set of parameters. The guidance computation is reduced to the determination of these parameters in order to satisfy path constraints and other additional constraints not implicitly satisfied by the polynomial formulation. The algorithm is applied to two different scenarios, a lunar landing and an asteroidal landing, to highlight its general validity. An extensive Monte Carlo test campaign is conducted to verify the versatility of the algorithm in realistic cases, by the introduction of attitude control systems, thrust modulation, and navigation errors. The proposed approach proved to be flexible and accurate, granting a precision of a few meters at touchdown.

    10. Percutaneous needle placement using laser guidance: a practical solution

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Xu, Sheng; Kapoor, Ankur; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Imbesi, Kimberly; Hong, Cheng William; Mazilu, Dumitru; Sharma, Karun; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

      2013-03-01

      In interventional radiology, various navigation technologies have emerged aiming to improve the accuracy of device deployment and potentially the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive procedures. While these technologies' performance has been explored extensively, their impact on daily clinical practice remains undetermined due to the additional cost and complexity, modification of standard devices (e.g. electromagnetic tracking), and different levels of experience among physicians. Taking these factors into consideration, a robotic laser guidance system for percutaneous needle placement is developed. The laser guidance system projects a laser guide line onto the skin entry point of the patient, helping the physician to align the needle with the planned path of the preoperative CT scan. To minimize changes to the standard workflow, the robot is integrated with the CT scanner via optical tracking. As a result, no registration between the robot and CT is needed. The robot can compensate for the motion of the equipment and keep the laser guide line aligned with the biopsy path in real-time. Phantom experiments showed that the guidance system can benefit physicians at different skill levels, while clinical studies showed improved accuracy over conventional freehand needle insertion. The technology is safe, easy to use, and does not involve additional disposable costs. It is our expectation that this technology can be accepted by interventional radiologists for CT guided needle placement procedures.

    11. Targetting and guidance program documentation. [a user's manual

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Harrold, E. F.; Neyhard, J. F.

      1974-01-01

      A FORTRAN computer program was developed which automatically targets two and three burn rendezvous missions and performs feedback guidance using the GUIDE algorithm. The program was designed to accept a large class of orbit specifications and to automatically choose a two or three burn mission depending upon the time alignment of the vehicle and target. The orbits may be specified as any combination of circular and elliptical orbits and may be coplanar or inclined, but must be aligned coaxially with their perigees in the same direction. The program accomplishes the required targeting by repeatedly converging successively more complex missions. It solves the coplanar impulsive version of the mission, then the finite burn coplanar mission, and finally, the full plane change mission. The GUIDE algorithm is exercised in a feedback guidance mode by taking the targeted solution and moving the vehicle state step by step ahead in time, adding acceleration and navigational errors, and reconverging from the perturbed states at fixed guidance update intervals. A program overview is presented, along with a user's guide which details input, output, and the various subroutines.

    12. Surgical navigation in oral implantology.

      PubMed

      Miller, Robert J; Bier, Jurgen

      2006-03-01

      The ability to generate 3-dimensional volumetric images of the maxillofacial area has allowed surgeons to evaluate anatomy before surgery and plan for the placement of implants in ideal positions. However, the ability to transfer that information to surgical reality has been the most challenging part of implant dentistry. With the advent of computer-assisted surgery, the surgeon may now navigate through the entire implant procedure with extremely high accuracy. A new portable laptop navigated system for oral implantology is discussed as an adjunct for complex implant cases. PMID:16569960

    13. Navigation: traveling the water highways!

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Fisher, Marion; Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

      1996-01-01

      NAVIGATION is travel or transportation over water. Many different kinds of boats and ships are used on rivers and oceans to move people and products from one place to another. Navigation was extremely important for foreign and domestic trade and travel in the early days of our country before cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes were invented. In those days, rivers were used as "roads" to connect inland settlements to river and coastal ports. Communities established at these commercial ports became important economic, cultural, and social hubs in the development of our Nation.

    14. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

      Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

    15. A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

      2013-01-01

      We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to more subtle details of locality, which is more emphasized in case of unrestricted connections when the edge crossing is allowed.

    16. A model of ant route navigation driven by scene familiarity.

      PubMed

      Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

      2012-01-01

      In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

    17. A projective surgical navigation system for cancer resection

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gan, Qi; Shao, Pengfei; Wang, Dong; Ye, Jian; Zhang, Zeshu; Wang, Xinrui; Xu, Ronald

      2016-03-01

      Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique can provide precise and real-time information about tumor location during a cancer resection surgery. However, many intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are based on wearable devices or stand-alone displays, leading to distraction of the surgeons and suboptimal outcome. To overcome these limitations, we design a projective fluorescence imaging system for surgical navigation. The system consists of a LED excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, a mini projector and a CMOS camera. A software program is written by C++ to call OpenCV functions for calibrating and correcting fluorescence images captured by the CCD camera upon excitation illumination of the LED source. The images are projected back to the surgical field by the mini projector. Imaging performance of this projective navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex-vivo chicken tissue model. In all the experiments, the projected images by the projector match well with the locations of fluorescence emission. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed projective navigation system can be a powerful tool for pre-operative surgical planning, intraoperative surgical guidance, and postoperative assessment of surgical outcome. We have integrated the optoelectronic elements into a compact and miniaturized system in preparation for further clinical validation.

    18. A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity

      PubMed Central

      Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

      2012-01-01

      In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

    19. Theater As A Guidance Technique

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wolpert, William

      1973-01-01

      Guidance-drama activity provides (a) crisp definitions of selected issues; (b) potent modeling from the characters in the play, the students actively engaged in the play, and the students involved in the discussions that follow the play; and (c) a technique for peer-led discussions on sensitive issues. This article gives precise definition to the…

    20. Humanizing Education Through Guidance Counseling.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Accola, W. V.

      A computerized information retrieval system has been designed to support the secondary school counseling effort. The system, entitled Total Guidance Information Support System (TGISS), runs on an IBM System/360 Model 65 facility and uses the IBM 2848 Display Control Unit. The software consists of an interactive communications program developed in…

    1. THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      EPA Science Inventory

      THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      Susan M. Cormier, ORD/NRMRL, Susan B. Norton, ORD/NCEA, Glenn W. Suter, II ORD/NCEA, William Swietlik, OW lOST

      Science Question(s):

      MYP Science Question: How can multiple and possibly related causes of biological ...

    2. Reading Guidance: Death and Grief.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Alice Gullen

      1989-01-01

      Gives guidelines for the librarian using reading guidance (similar to bibliotherapy). Provides a nine-item annotated bibliography of novels for children and adolescents on the subject of death and grief. Appends an embryo list of categories suitable for content analysis of any file librarians might wish to keep on books suitable for use in this…

    3. The revised HSE fatigue guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Stacey, A.; Sharp, J.V.

      1995-12-31

      Fatigue cracking has been a principal cause of damage to North Sea structures and consequently considerable attention has been given to the development of guidance for the prediction of fatigue performance. The fatigue guidance of the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was recently revised and published, following a significant offshore industry review in the period 1987 to 1990, and is based on the results of a considerable amount of research and development work on the fatigue behavior of welded tubular and plated joints. As a result of this review, the revised fatigue guidance incorporates several new clauses and recommendations. The revised recommendations apply to joint classification, basic design S-N curves for welded joints and cast or forged steel components, the thickness effect, the effects of environment and the treatment of low and high stress ranges. Additionally, a new appendix on the derivation of stress concentration factors is included. The new clauses cover high strength steels, bolts and threaded connectors, moorings, repaired joints and the use of fracture mechanics analysis. This paper presents an overview of the revisions to the fatigue guidance, the associated background technical information and aspects of the fatigue behavior of offshore structures which are considered to require further investigation. 67 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

    4. Career Guidance in Singapore Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tan, Esther

      2002-01-01

      Reviews the history and stages of development for career guidance in Singapore schools. Asserts that to meet the challenges of the new millennium, there is a need to train professional career counselors, develop indigenous resource materials, and promote a new concept of career development among students. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

    5. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

      1997-01-01

      Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

    6. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Kirkpatrick, T.D.

      1995-01-01

      This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

    7. Optogenetic activation of axon guidance receptors controls direction of neurite outgrowth

      PubMed Central

      Endo, M.; Hattori, M.; Toriyabe, H.; Ohno, H.; Kamiguchi, H.; Iino, Y.; Ozawa, T.

      2016-01-01

      Growth cones of extending axons navigate to correct targets by sensing a guidance cue gradient via membrane protein receptors. Although most signaling mechanisms have been clarified using an in vitro approach, it is still difficult to investigate the growth cone behavior in complicated extracellular environment of living animals due to the lack of tools. We develop a system for the light-dependent activation of a guidance receptor, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), using Arabidopsis thaliana Cryptochrome 2, which oligomerizes upon blue-light absorption. Blue-light illumination transiently activates DCC via its oligomerization, which initiates downstream signaling in the illuminated subcellular region. The extending axons are attracted by illumination in cultured chick dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, light-mediated navigation of the growth cones is achieved in living Caenorhabditis elegans. The photo-manipulation system is applicable to investigate the relationship between the growth cone behavior and its surrounding environment in living tissue. PMID:27052670

    8. A new paradigm in optimal missile guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Morgan, Robert W.

      2007-12-01

      This dissertation investigates advanced concepts in terminal missile guidance. The terminal phase of missile guidance usually lasts less than ten seconds and calls for very accurate maneuvering to ensure intercept. Technological advancements have produced increasingly sophisticated threats that greatly reduce the effectiveness of traditional approaches to missile guidance. Because of this, terminal missile guidance is, and will remain, an important and active area of research. The complexity of the problem and the desire for an optimal solution has resulted in researchers focusing on simplistic, usually linear, models. The fruit of these endeavors has resulted in some of the world's most advanced weapons systems. Even so, the resulting guidance schemes cannot possibly counter the evolving threats that will push the system outside the linear envelope for which they were designed. The research done in this dissertation greatly extends previous research in the area of optimal missile guidance. Herein it is shown that optimal missile guidance is fundamentally a pairing of an optimal guidance strategy and an optimal control strategy. The optimal guidance strategy is determined from a missile's information constraints, which are themselves largely determined from the missile's sensors. The optimal control strategy is determined by the missile's control constraints, and works to achieve a specified guidance strategy. This dichotomy of missile guidance is demonstrated by showing that missiles having different control constraints utilize the same guidance strategy so long as the information constraints are the same. This concept has hitherto been unrecognized because of the difficulty in developing an optimal control for the nonlinear set of equations that result from control constraints. Having overcome this difficulty by indirect means, evidence of the guidance strategy paradigm emerged. The guidance strategy paradigm is used to develop two advanced guidance laws. The new

    9. Self-Navigating THE TERRAIN

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Anyaso, Hilary Hurd

      2008-01-01

      There's some good news in the academy regarding Black women: They occupy a number of high-profile executive posts in higher education. But whether Black women scholars want to follow in their footsteps or continue in a teaching or research capacity, the bad news is that many feel they are left to navigate the personal and professional politics of…

    10. Navigation - Project CAPE Teaching Module.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Caldwell, Nadine; May, Charlaron

      Ten lessons are included in this interdisciplinary unit on navigation, designed to supplement fifth and sixth grade social studies and science curricula. Each lesson includes: (1) lesson concepts; (2) competency goals; (3) objectives; (4) materials; (5) list of key vocabulary words; (6) background information; (7) teacher preparation; (8) list of…

    11. Evaluation of STOL navigation avionics

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dunn, W. R., Jr.

      1977-01-01

      Research projects, including work on a vector magnetometer for aircraft attitude measurement, are summarized. The earth's electric field phenomena was investigated in its application to aircraft control and navigation. Research on electronic aircraft cabin noise suppression is reviewed and strapdown inertial reference unit technical support is outlined.

    12. Multiple source navigation signal generator

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bojda, Petr

      2010-09-01

      The paper presents a FPGA based digital VOR/LOC signal generator. It provides the composite signal, which consists of the particular signals of several predefined navigation sources - VOR beacons. Design of the generator is implemented into the two different FPGA DSP platforms.

    13. SMALL CRAFT OPERATION AND NAVIGATION.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

      THIS REFERENCE TEXTBOOK WAS PREPARED FOR USE IN THE FIRST PART OF A TWO-PART COURSE IN MARINE NAVIGATION AND SMALL CRAFT OPERATION ON INLAND AND INTERNATIONAL WATERS. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INDIVIDUAL AUTHOR FOR USE IN TRADE SCHOOL PREPARATORY AND EXTENSION CLASSES FOR MALE ADULTS WHO PLAN TO OPERATE BOATS. IT IS MAINLY CONCERNED WITH…

    14. Synchronous navigation for CT colonography

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Huang, Adam; Summers, Ronald M.; Roy, Dave

      2006-03-01

      We present a synchronous navigation module for CT colonography (CTC) reading. The need for such a system arises because most CTC protocols require a patient to be scanned in both supine and prone positions to increase sensitivity in detecting colonic polyps. However, existing clinical practices are limited to reading one scan at a time. Such limitation is due to the fact that building a reference system between scans for the highly flexible colon is a nontrivial task. The conventional centerline approach, generating only the longitudinal distance along the colon, falls short in providing the necessary orientation information to synchronize the virtual navigation cameras in both scanned positions. In this paper we describe a synchronous navigation system by using the teniae coli as anatomical references. Teniae coli are three parallel bands of longitudinal smooth muscle on the surface of the colon. They are morphologically distinguishable and form a piecewise triple helix structure from the appendix to the sigmoid colon. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal references to synchronize virtual cameras in both scanned positions. Our new navigation system consists of two side-by-side virtual colonoscopic view panels (for the supine and prone data sets respectively) and one single camera control unit (which controls both the supine and prone virtual cameras). The capability to examine the same colonic region simultaneously in both scanned images can raise an observer's confidence in polyp identification and potentially improve the performance of CT colonography.

    15. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

      1993-01-01

      The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

    16. Feasibility Study of Needle Placement in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Guidance Versus Conventional Fluoroscopy

      SciTech Connect

      Braak, Sicco J.; Zuurmond, Kirsten Aerts, Hans C. J.; Leersum, Marc van Overtoom, Timotheus T. Th. Heesewijk, Johannes P. M. van Strijen, Marco J. L. van

      2013-08-01

      ObjectiveTo investigate the accuracy, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and dose area product (DAP) of needle placement during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance versus fluoroscopy.Materials and MethodsOn 4 spine phantoms with 11 vertebrae (Th7-L5), 4 interventional radiologists (2 experienced with CBCT guidance and two inexperienced) punctured all vertebrae in a bipedicular fashion. Each side was randomization to either CBCT guidance or fluoroscopy. CBCT guidance is a sophisticated needle guidance technique using CBCT, navigation software, and real-time fluoroscopy. The placement of the needle had to be to a specific target point. After the procedure, CBCT was performed to determine the accuracy, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and DAP. Analysis of the difference between methods and experience level was performed.ResultsMean accuracy using CBCT guidance (2.61 mm) was significantly better compared with fluoroscopy (5.86 mm) (p < 0.0001). Procedure time was in favor of fluoroscopy (7.39 vs. 10.13 min; p = 0.001). Fluoroscopy time during CBCT guidance was lower, but this difference is not significant (71.3 vs. 95.8 s; p = 0.056). DAP values for CBCT guidance and fluoroscopy were 514 and 174 mGy cm{sup 2}, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in favor of experienced CBCT guidance users regarding accuracy for both methods, procedure time of CBCT guidance, and added DAP values for fluoroscopy.ConclusionCBCT guidance allows users to perform PVP more accurately at the cost of higher patient dose and longer procedure time. Because procedural complications (e.g., cement leakage) are related to the accuracy of the needle placement, improvements in accuracy are clinically relevant. Training in CBCT guidance is essential to achieve greater accuracy and decrease procedure time/dose values.

    17. Spaceflight mechanics 1992; Proceedings of the 2nd AAS/AIAA Meeting, Colorado Springs, CO, Feb. 24-26, 1992. Pts. 1 & 2

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Diehl, Roger E. (Editor); Schinnerer, Ralph G. (Editor); Williamson, Walton E. (Editor); Boden, Daryl G. (Editor)

      1992-01-01

      The present conference discusses topics in orbit determination, tethered satellite systems, celestial mechanics, guidance optimization, flexible body dynamics and control, attitude dynamics and control, Mars mission analyses, earth-orbiting mission analysis/debris, space probe mission analyses, and orbital computation numerical analyses. Attention is given to electrodynamic forces for control of tethered satellite systems, orbiting debris threats to asteroid flyby missions, launch velocity requirements for interceptors of short range ballistic missiles, transfers between libration-point orbits in the elliptic restricted problem, minimum fuel spacecraft reorientation, orbital guidance for hitting a fixed point at maximum speed, efficient computation of satellite visibility periods, orbit decay and reentry prediction for space debris, and the determination of satellite close approaches.

    18. Study for incorporating time-synchronized approach control into the CH-47/VALT digital navigation system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mcconnell, W. J., Jr.

      1979-01-01

      Techniques for obtaining time synchronized (4D) approach control in the VALT research helicopter is described. Various 4D concepts and their compatibility with the existing VALT digital computer navigation and guidance system hardware and software are examined. Modifications to various techniques were investigated in order to take advantage of the unique operating characteristics of the helicopter in the terminal area. A 4D system is proposed, combining the direct to maneuver with the existing VALT curved path generation capability.

    19. Visual control of navigation in insects and its relevance for robotics.

      PubMed

      Srinivasan, Mandyam V

      2011-08-01

      Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food source, and orchestrate flawless landings. It also outlines the ways in which these insights are now being used to develop novel, biologically inspired strategies for the guidance of autonomous, airborne vehicles. PMID:21689925

    20. Engineering Guidance: A Human Resource Development.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Snarponis, Joseph M.; Prien, John D.

      1979-01-01

      Describes the role of The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) in providing guidance activities for students. Discusses structional organization, goals, and guidance activities for engineering and technical and professional societies. (MA)

    1. Activity Group Guidance: A Developmental Approach

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hillman, Bill W.; And Others

      1975-01-01

      Illustrates the content, process, and group dynamics of Activity Group Guidance. Describes and evaluates a comprehensive Activity Group Guidance program. Gives specific suggestions to counselors who wish to start Activity Groups. (Author)

    2. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

    3. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

    4. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

    5. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

    6. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

    7. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

    8. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

    9. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

    10. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

    11. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

    12. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

    13. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under...

    14. 33 CFR 164.11 - Navigation under way: General.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation under way: General. 164.11 Section 164.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.11 Navigation under way:...

    15. 33 CFR 164.11 - Navigation under way: General.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation under way: General. 164.11 Section 164.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.11 Navigation under way:...

    16. 33 CFR 164.11 - Navigation under way: General.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation under way: General. 164.11 Section 164.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.11 Navigation under way:...

    17. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under...

    18. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

    19. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

    20. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...