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Sample records for aiaa joint propulsion

  1. Computational Simulations of Convergent Nozzles for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance F., III

    2014-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were completed for a series of convergent nozzles in participation of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The simulations were performed using the Wind-US flow solver. Discharge and thrust coefficients were computed for four axisymmetric nozzles with nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 1.4 to 7.0. The computed discharge coefficients showed excellent agreement with available experimental data; the computed thrust coefficients captured trends observed in the experimental data, but over-predicted the thrust coefficient by 0.25 to 1.0 percent. Sonic lines were computed for cases with NPR >= 2.0 and agreed well with experimental data for NPR >= 2.5. Simulations were also performed for a 25 deg. conic nozzle bifurcated by a flat plate at NPR = 4.0. The jet plume shock structure was compared with and without the splitter plate to the experimental data. The Wind-US simulations predicted the shock structure well, though lack of grid resolution in the plume reduced the sharpness of the shock waves. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) were performed at NPR = 1.6 for the 25 deg conic nozzle with splitter plate. The simulations predicted vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the splitter plate. However, the vortices of URANS and DES solutions appeared to dissipate earlier than observed experimentally. It is believed that a lack of grid resolution in the region of the vortex shedding may have caused the vortices to break down too soon

  2. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis; Dippold, Vance, III; Georgiadis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a series of convergent convergent nozzles for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. These configurations included a included a reference axisymmetric nozzle as well as 15deg , 25deg , and 40deg conical nozzles. Participants were also asked also asked to examine the plume shock structure for two cases where the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a bifurcated by a solid plate. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  3. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  4. Flow Control and Measurement in Electric Propulsion Systems: Towards an AIAA Reference Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Baldwin, Jeff; Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Hicks, Nathan S.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Singleton, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate control and measurement of propellant flow to a thruster is one of the most basic and fundamental requirements for operation of electric propulsion systems, whether they be in the laboratory or on flight spacecraft. Hence, it is important for the electric propulsion community to have a common understanding of typical methods for flow control and measurement. This paper addresses the topic of propellant flow primarily for the gaseous propellant systems which have dominated laboratory research and flight application over the last few decades, although other types of systems are also briefly discussed. While most flight systems have employed a type of pressure-fed flow restrictor for flow control, both thermal-based and pressure-based mass flow controllers are routinely used in laboratories. Fundamentals and theory of operation of these types of controllers are presented, along with sources of uncertainty associated with their use. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Finally, details of uncertainty calculations are presented for some common calibration methods and for the linear fits to calibration data that are commonly used.

  5. Atmospheric effects of chemical rocket propulsion - Report of an AIAA Workshop, Sacramento, CA, June 28, 29, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A careful evaluation of relevant studies conducted in the U.S., Europe, and the Soviet Union has established that the effects of chemical rocket propulsion on stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain, toxicity, air quality, and global warming were negligibly small by comparison with other anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. It is nevertheless acknowledged that environmental concern should remain on a level of importance comparable to rocket cost, performance, and reliability criteria, and that efforts should be made to reduce environmental effects. The International Astronautical Federation has been identified as the appropriate organization for regulatory efforts.

  6. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: A Joint NASA/DOE/DOD Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the joint NASA/DOE/DOD workshop on nuclear thermal propulsion are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: nuclear thermal propulsion programs; Rover/NERVA and NERVA systems; Low Pressure Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LPNTR); particle bed reactor nuclear rocket; hybrid propulsion systems; wire core reactor; pellet bed reactor; foil reactor; Droplet Core Nuclear Rocket (DCNR); open cycle gas core nuclear rockets; vapor core propulsion reactors; nuclear light bulb; Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF); mission analysis; propulsion and reactor technology; development plans; and safety issues.

  7. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  8. Joint torques in a freely walking insect reveal distinct functions of leg joints in propulsion and posture control.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Chris J; Dürr, Volker; Schmitz, Josef

    2016-01-27

    Determining the mechanical output of limb joints is critical for understanding the control of complex motor behaviours such as walking. In the case of insect walking, the neural infrastructure for single-joint control is well described. However, a detailed description of the motor output in form of time-varying joint torques is lacking. Here, we determine joint torques in the stick insect to identify leg joint function in the control of body height and propulsion. Torques were determined by measuring whole-body kinematics and ground reaction forces in freely walking animals. We demonstrate that despite strong differences in morphology and posture, stick insects show a functional division of joints similar to other insect model systems. Propulsion was generated by strong depression torques about the coxa-trochanter joint, not by retraction or flexion/extension torques. Torques about the respective thorax-coxa and femur-tibia joints were often directed opposite to fore-aft forces and joint movements. This suggests a posture-dependent mechanism that counteracts collapse of the leg under body load and directs the resultant force vector such that strong depression torques can control both body height and propulsion. Our findings parallel propulsive mechanisms described in other walking, jumping and flying insects, and challenge current control models of insect walking. PMID:26791608

  9. Joint Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory CSI experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neat, Gregory W.; O'Brien, John F.; Lurie, Boris J.; Garnica, Angel; Belvin, W. K.; Sulla, Jeff; Won, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Control Structure Interaction (CSI) experiment in which Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) damping devices were incorporated into the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Phase 0 Testbed. The goals of the effort were twofold: (1) test the effectiveness of the JPL structural damping methods in a new structure and (2) assess the feasibility of combining JPL local control methods with the LaRC multiple input multiple output global control methods. Six dampers (2 piezoelectric active members, 4 viscous dampers), placed in three different regions of the structure, produced up to 26 dB attenuation in target modes. The combined control strategy in which the JPL damping methods contributed local control action and the LaRC control scheme provided global control action, produced and overall control scheme with increased stability margins and improved performance. This paper presents an overview of the technologies contributed from the two centers, the strategies used to combine them, and results demonstrating the success of the damping and cooperative control efforts.

  10. JANNAF 35th Combustion Subcommittee and 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting: Joint Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of 15 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 1998 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1 998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include advanced ingredients and reaction kinetics in solid propellants and experimental diagnostic techniques.

  11. Nuclear rocket propulsion technology - A joint NASA/DOE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and the DOE have initiated critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for SEI human and robotic missions to the moon and to Mars. The activities and project plan of the interagency project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991 are summarized. The project plan includes evolutionary technology development for both nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  12. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  13. JANNAF 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee and 36th Combustion Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of three volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited-technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee and 36th Combustion Subcommittee held jointly with the 181 Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held on 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered include overviews of RBCC and PDE hypersonic technology, Hyper-X propulsion ground testing, development of JP-8 for hypersonic vehicle applications, numerical simulation of dual-mode SJ combustion, V&V of M&S computer codes, MHD SJ and Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch vehicle concepts, and Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) propulsion technology development including fundamental investigations, modeling, aerodynamics, operation and performance.

  14. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  15. Study of flexible fin and compliant joint stiffness on propulsive performance: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Kancharala, A K; Philen, M K

    2014-09-01

    The caudal fin is a major source of thrust generation in fish locomotion. Along with the fin stiffness, the stiffness of the joint connecting the fish body to the tail plays a major role in the generation of thrust. This paper investigates the combined effect of fin and joint flexibility on propulsive performance using theoretical and experimental studies. For this study, fluid-structure interaction of the fin has been modeled using the 2D unsteady panel method coupled with nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The compliant joint has been modeled as a torsional spring at the leading edge of the fin. A comparison of self-propelled speed and efficiency with parameters such as heaving and pitching amplitude, oscillation frequency, flexibility of the fin and the compliant joint is reported. The model also predicts the optimized stiffnesses of the compliant joint and the fin for maximum efficiency. Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of fin and joint stiffness on propulsive performance. Digital image correlation has been used to measure the deformation of the fins and the measured deformation is coupled with the hydrodynamic model to predict the performance. The predicted theoretical performance behavior closely matches the experimental values. PMID:24737004

  16. AIAA Survivability Technical Committee Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Jim; Williamson, Joel

    1997-01-01

    A relatively new area of interest in aerospace systems survivability is the growing threat of spacecraft penetration by orbital debris. Orbital debris, or "space junk", is composed of the man-made remnants of non-functioning spacecraft still orbiting the Earth. NASA estimates that there are currently over 100,000 orbital debris particles 1 centimeter in diameter or larger that cannot be tracked by existing radar, with the population growing at approximately 4% per year in low earth orbits. With an average velocity of over 8.7 km/sec, these projectiles can penetrate and disable many vulnerable spacecraft systems. Since the likelihood of spacecraft penetration increases with spacecraft surface area, large spacecraft (such as the International Space Station) and communication satellite fleets (such as Iridium) have begun to adopt survivability enhancement strategies similar to those employed by combat aircraft. Collision avoidance maneuvers are commonly practiced by the Space Shuttle and are planned by the International Space Station to decrease their susceptibility to impact by trackable orbital debris; likewise, improved shielding, internal equipment placement, and improved crew operations following penetration can reduce the vulnerability of spacecraft to loss following orbital debris impact. Computer simulations such as the Manned Spacecraft and Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) program at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center have recently been developed to quantify and reduce the likelihood of crew or spacecraft loss following orbital debris penetration. The AIAA Survivability Technical Committee is working to enable the transfer of military-developed survivability technologies to help the aerospace industry cope with this growing threat.

  17. A Study on the Propulsive Mechanism of a Double Jointed Fish Robot Utilizing Self-Excitation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Motomu; Ohgishi, Norifumi; Ono, Kyosuke

    This paper describes a numerical and experimental study of a double jointed fish robot utilizing self-excitation control. The fish robot is composed of a streamlined body and a rectangular caudal fin. The body length is 280mm and it has a DC motor to actuate its first joint and a potentiometer to detect the angle of its second joint. The signal from the potentiometer is fed back into the DC motor, so that the system can be self-excited. In order to obtain a stable oscillation and a resultant stable propulsion, a torque limiter circuit is employed. From the experiment, it has been found that the robot can stably propel using this control and the maximum propulsive speed is 0.42m/s.

  18. Nuclear propulsion technology development - A joint NASA/Department of Energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the conceptual development of spacecraft nuclear propulsion systems with DOE support, in order to establish the bases for Space Exploration Initiative lunar and Mars missions. This conceptual evolution project encompasses nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. A technology base exists for NTP in the NERVA program files; more fundamental development efforts are entailed in the case of NEP, but this option is noted to offer greater advantages in the long term.

  19. Echographic and Kinetic Changes in the Shoulder Joint after Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Under Two Different Workload Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; del-Ama Eng, Antonio J.; Pérez-Rizo, Enrique; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a high prevalence of shoulder pain due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers, and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with SCI while they performed high- and low-intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental). Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high-intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics. PMID:25566539

  20. Echographic and kinetic changes in the shoulder joint after manual wheelchair propulsion under two different workload settings.

    PubMed

    Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; Del-Ama Eng, Antonio J; Pérez-Rizo, Enrique; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a high prevalence of shoulder pain due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers, and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with SCI while they performed high- and low-intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental). Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high-intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics. PMID:25566539

  1. Advanced Propulsion for the XXIst Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    This document represents a poster presentation offered at the AIAA/CAS International Air & Space Symposium and Exposition from July 14-17, 2003 in Dayton Ohio. This presentation outlines advanced space propulsion concepts as well as associated research and industry activities during the 21st century.

  2. JANNAF 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S.; Becker, Dorothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Volume I, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meeting held jointly with the 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered include: a Keynote Address on Future Combat Systems, a review of the new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on Hyper-X propulsion development and verification; GTX airbreathing launch vehicles; Hypersonic technology development, including program overviews, fuels for advanced propulsion, ramjet and scramjet research, hypersonic test medium effects; and RBCC engine design and performance, and PDE and UCAV advanced and combined cycle engine technologies.

  3. Comparison of Aero/Propulsion Transition Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumowicz, Tim; Margason, Richard; Wardwell, Doug; Hange, Craig; Arledge, Tom; Olson, Lawerence E. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Ames conducted a series tests of a large-scale powered model of Lockheed Martin Skunk Works' JSF STOVL configuration at the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The model uses a modified version of an F-16 fighter engine (a Pratt & Whitney F100-229 engine). To provide vertical flight capability, the Lockheed aircraft incorporates a forward fuselage mounted vertical lift fan in addition to an aft mounted vectoring nozzle all driven by a single engine. The lift fan is driven off the engine by means of a shaft and gear system. The data presented is for STOVL configuration 140, a wing-body-canard planform. The main goal of this testing was to obtain propulsion induced data for evaluating differences between small- and large-scale model testing during the transition flight regime between jet- and wing-borne flight. The data presented is from aerodynamic testing of the model in both the unpowered (engine-off) and powered (engine running) configurations. This data, when combined with the propulsion system thrust calibration data from the NASA Ames' Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (OARF), is used to determine the propulsion induced effects during transition.

  4. Statistical Analysis of the AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop CFD Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The first AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW), held in June 2001, evaluated the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD codes. The code-to-code scatter was more than an order of magnitude larger than desired for design and experimental validation of cruise conditions for a subsonic transport configuration. The second AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2003, emphasized the determination of installed pylon-nacelle drag increments and grid refinement studies. The code-to-code scatter was significantly reduced compared to the first DPW, but still larger than desired. However, grid refinement studies showed no significant improvement in code-to-code scatter with increasing grid refinement. The third AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2006, focused on the determination of installed side-of-body fairing drag increments and grid refinement studies for clean attached flow on wing alone configurations and for separated flow on the DLR-F6 subsonic transport model. This report compares the transonic cruise prediction results of the second and third workshops using statistical analysis.

  5. Direct Energy Conversion for Nuclear Propulsion at Low Specific Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The project will continue the FY13 JSC IR&D (October-2012 to September-2013) effort in Travelling Wave Direct Energy Conversion (TWDEC) in order to demonstrate its potential as the core of a high potential, game-changing, in-space propulsion technology. The TWDEC concept converts particle beam energy into radio frequency (RF) alternating current electrical power, such as can be used to heat the propellant in a plasma thruster. In a more advanced concept (explored in the Phase 1 NIAC project), the TWDEC could also be utilized to condition the particle beam such that it may transfer directed kinetic energy to a target propellant plasma for the purpose of increasing thrust and optimizing the specific impulse. The overall scope of the FY13 first-year effort was to build on both the 2012 Phase 1 NIAC research and the analysis and test results produced by Japanese researchers over the past twenty years to assess the potential for spacecraft propulsion applications. The primary objective of the FY13 effort was to create particle-in-cell computer simulations of a TWDEC. Other objectives included construction of a breadboard TWDEC test article, preliminary test calibration of the simulations, and construction of first order power system models to feed into mission architecture analyses with COPERNICUS tools. Due to funding cuts resulting from the FY13 sequestration, only the computer simulations and assembly of the breadboard test article were completed. The simulations, however, are of unprecedented flexibility and precision and were presented at the 2013 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference. Also, the assembled test article will provide an ion current density two orders of magnitude above that available in previous Japanese experiments, thus enabling the first direct measurements of power generation from a TWDEC for FY14. The proposed FY14 effort will use the test article for experimental validation of the computer simulations and thus complete to a greater fidelity the

  6. LAVA Simulations for the AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housman, Jeffrey A.; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta , Shayan; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2014-01-01

    Computational simulations using the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework are presented for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop test cases. The framework is utilized with both structured overset and unstructured meshing approaches. The three workshop test cases include an axisymmetric body, a Delta Wing-Body model, and a complete low-boom supersonic transport concept. Solution sensitivity to mesh type and sizing, and several numerical convective flux discretization choices are presented and discussed. Favorable comparison between the computational simulations and experimental data of nearand mid-field pressure signatures were obtained.

  7. 1998 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 40 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 1998 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting (JPM), held 15-17 July 1998 at the Cleveland Marriott Downtown at Key Center and the Celebreeze Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio. The 1998 JPM was co-located with the 1998 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Joint Propulsion Conference. Specific subjects discussed include reusable liquid boosters, controllable solid propulsion, advanced propellants for the 2.75' rocket system, air-turbo-rocket propulsion, issues in gun propulsion, electric propulsion, liquid engine turbomachinery, and new liquid propulsion technology.

  8. AIAA Educator Academy: Enriching STEM Education for K-12 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagle, E.; Bering, E. A.; Longmier, B. W.; Henriquez, E.; Milnes, T.; Wiedorn, P.; Bacon, L.

    2012-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Mars Rover Celebration Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 3-8. Throughout this module, students learn about Mars and the solar system. Working with given design criteria, students work in teams to do basic research about Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. Then, students participate in the design and construction of a model of a mock-up Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. At the end of this project, students have the opportunity to participate in a regional capstone event where students share their rover designs and what they have learned. The Electric Cargo Plan Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 6-12. Throughout this module, students learn about aerodynamics and the four forces of flight. Working individually or in teams, students design and construct an electrically-powered model aircraft to fly a tethered flight of at least one lap without cargo, followed by a second tethered flight of one lap carrying as much cargo as possible. At the end of this project, students have the opportunity to participate in a regional capstone event where students share what they have learned and compete with their different cargo plane designs. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude

  9. AIAA Educator Academy: The Space Weather Balloon Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmier, B.; Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2013-12-01

    Educator Academy is a K-12 STEM curriculum developed by the STEM K-12 Outreach Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Consisting of three independent curriculum modules, K-12 students participate in inquiry-based science and engineering challenges to improve critical thinking skills and enhance problem solving skills. The Space Weather Balloon Curriculum Module is designed for students in grades 9-12. Throughout this module, students learn and refine physics concepts as well as experimental research skills. Students participate in project-based learning that is experimental in nature. Students are engaged with the world around them as they collaborate to launch a high altitude balloon equipped with HD cameras.The program leaders launch high altitude weather balloons in collaboration with schools and students to teach physics concepts, experimental research skills, and to make space exploration accessible to students. A weather balloon lifts a specially designed payload package that is composed of HD cameras, GPS tracking devices, and other science equipment. The payload is constructed and attached to the balloon by the students with low-cost materials. The balloon and payload are launched with FAA clearance from a site chosen based on wind patterns and predicted landing locations. The balloon ascends over 2 hours to a maximum altitude of 100,000 feet where it bursts and allows the payload to slowly descend using a built-in parachute. The payload is located using the GPS device. In April 2012, the Space Weather Balloon team conducted a prototype field campaign near Fairbanks Alaska, sending several student-built experiments to an altitude of 30km, underneath several strong auroral displays. To better assist teachers in implementing one or more of these Curriculum Modules, teacher workshops are held to give teachers a hands-on look at how this curriculum is used in the classroom. And, to provide further support, teachers are each

  10. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of the Gimbal Joint Flowliner Slots in the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Hydrogen Feedline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, Michael W.; Bryson, Craig C.

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue cracks were discovered in the STS-112 Liquid Hydrogen Feedline flowliners in 2002. This led to a development program aimed at providing nondestructive evaluation methods and techniques to verify the existence of these types of cracks in oval shaped slots cut into the ends of the feedlines above the bellows joints. These slots were used to improve flow dynamics and to facilitate cleaning in the bellow joint region. These types of fatigue cracks posed a possible metal debris ingestion threat for the Space Shuttle Main Engines, which attached to these particular joints. Results of this program produced three reliable inspection techniques utilizing the imaging of replisets with a Scanning Electron microscope, eddy current, and ultrasound. The program developed unique probes and fixtures and in the case of eddy current and ultrasound, provided qualification and certification of the particular techniques by various Design of Experiments and Probability of Detection studies utilizing multiple inspectors.

  12. Contributions to the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, S. D. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This report contains six papers presented by the Lincoln Laboratory Air Traffic Control Systems Group at the American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics (AIAA) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) conference on 6-9 August 2001 in Montreal, Canada. The work reported was sponsored by the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program and the FAA Free Flight Phase 1 (FFP1) program. The papers are based on studies completed at Lincoln Laboratory in collaboration with staff at NASA Ames Research Center. These papers were presented in the Air Traffic Automation Session of the conference and fall into three major areas: Traffic Analysis & Benefits Studies, Weather/Automation Integration and Surface Surveillance. In the first area, a paper by Andrews & Robinson presents an analysis of the efficiency of runway operations at Dallas/Ft. Worth using a tool called PARO, and a paper by Welch, Andrews & Robinson presents a delay benefit results for the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST). In the second area, a paper by Campbell, et al describes a new weather distribution systems for the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) that allows ingestion of multiple weather sources, and a paper by Vandevenne, Lloyd & Hogaboom describes the use of the NOAA Eta model as a backup wind data source for CTAS. Also in this area, a paper by Murphy & Campbell presents initial steps towards integrating weather impacted routes into FAST. In the third area, a paper by Welch, Bussolari and Atkins presents an initial operational concept for using surface surveillance to reduce taxi delays.

  13. Status of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Format Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    The current draft AIAA Standard for flight simulation models represents an on-going effort to improve the productivity of practitioners of the art of digital flight simulation (one of the original digital computer applications). This initial release provides the capability for the efficient representation and exchange of an aerodynamic model in full fidelity; the DAVE-ML format can be easily imported (with development of site-specific import tools) in an unambiguous way with automatic verification. An attractive feature of the standard is the ability to coexist with existing legacy software or tools. The draft Standard is currently limited in scope to static elements of dynamic flight simulations; however, these static elements represent the bulk of typical flight simulation mathematical models. It is already seeing application within U.S. and Australian government agencies in an effort to improve productivity and reduce model rehosting overhead. An existing tool allows import of DAVE-ML models into a popular simulation modeling and analysis tool, and other community-contributed tools and libraries can simplify the use of DAVE-ML compliant models at compile- or run-time of high-fidelity flight simulation.

  14. Summary of the Fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitcuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.

  15. JANNAF 25Th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37Th Combustion Subcommittee and 1St Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Becker, Dorothy L. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Hyper-X program: Propulsion development and verification. 2. GTX program: Airbreathing launch vehicles. 3. Hypersonic technology development: Technology program overviews. Ramjet/scramjet research. 4. Hypersonic test methods: Test medium effects. 5. Advanced propulsion: RBCC engine design and performance assessments. Advanced and combined cycle engine technology.

  16. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  17. AIAA Employment Workshops (September 1, 1970-December 31, 1971). Volume III, Workshop Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, NY.

    In response to growing unemployment among professional personnel in the aerospace industry, a series of 175 workshops were conducted by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) in 43 cities. Nearly 15,000 unemployed engineers and scientists attended the workshops and reviewed job counseling and placement services from…

  18. A Content Analysis of AIAA/ITEA/ITEEA Conference Special Interest Sessions: 1978-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Philip A.; LaPorte, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Associations routinely hold annual conferences to aid with professional development and actively promote the ideals of their membership and the profession they represent. The American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) was created in 1939 and has held an annual conference the past 76 years to further these goals (Starkweather, 1995). Throughout…

  19. Organization's Orderly Interest Exploration: Inception, Development and Insights of AIAA's Topics Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Jospeh R.; Morris, Allan T.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, AIAA's Computer Systems and Software Systems Technical Committees (TCs) have developed a database that aids technical committee management to map technical topics to their members. This Topics/Interest (T/I) database grew out of a collection of charts and spreadsheets maintained by the TCs. Since its inception, the tool has evolved into a multi-dimensional database whose dimensions include the importance, interest and expertise of TC members and whether or not a member and/or a TC is actively involved with the topic. In 2005, the database was expanded to include the TCs in AIAA s Information Systems Group and then expanded further to include all AIAA TCs. It was field tested at an AIAA Technical Activities Committee (TAC) Workshop in early 2006 through live access by over 80 users. Through the use of the topics database, TC and program committee (PC) members can accomplish relevant tasks such as: to identify topic experts (for Aerospace America articles or external contacts), to determine the interest of its members, to identify overlapping topics between diverse TCs and PCs, to guide new member drives and to reveal emerging topics. This paper will describe the origins, inception, initial development, field test and current version of the tool as well as elucidate the benefits and insights gained by using the database to aid the management of various TC functions. Suggestions will be provided to guide future development of the database for the purpose of providing dynamics and system level benefits to AIAA that currently do not exist in any technical organization.

  20. Numerical Simulation of One- and Two-Phase Flows in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Alexander, Casey; Thompson, Tyesha; Blankson, Isaiah M.; Shvets, Alexander I.; Gromov, Valery G.; Sakharov, Vladimir I.

    2001-01-01

    experimental tests at the Hampton University campus, NASA, and IM/MSU. The main outcomes during this reporting period are: (1) Publications: The AIAA Paper #01-1893 has been accepted for the AIAA/NAL-NASDA-ISAS 10th International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, 24-27 April 2001, Kyoto, Japan. The AIAA Paper #01-3204 has been accepted for presentation at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference being held on 08-11 July, in Salt Lake City, UT; (2) Grants and proposals: The HU/FM&AL was awarded the NASA grant NAG3-2495 in October 2000 and the CRDF award was granted to the NASA GRC-HU FM&AL and IM/MSU (Russia) in July 2000. A solicited proposal was submitted for the NASA NRA-01GRC-02 competition and two unsolicited proposals to NASA are in preparation; (3) Theory and numerical simulations: Analytical theory, numerical simulation, comparison of theoretical with experimental results, and modification of theoretical approaches, models, grids, etc. Such investigations have been conducted for three main problems: (a) Combustion efficiency optimization in the half-duct combustor system; (b) Drag reduction effects for blunt bodies with solid needles; and (c) Solid particle injection from the butt-end against a supersonic flow. The NASA CFL3D, HU/FM&AL, and IM/MSU GODUNOV codes were used and modified for solution of these problems. The codes are based on full Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers with and without nonequilibrium oxygen-nitrogen and air-hydrogen chemical reactions in laminar and turbulent gas flow regimes; (4) Experimental tests: In the IM/MSU supersonic wind tunnel, experimental tests were conducted with different number, location, and geometric parameters of solid needles mounted at the front of the butt-end in supersonic flow. Optimal parameters were determined that provide minimal butt-end drag in the stationary flow regime. Experimental and numerical simulation results are in good agreement; (5) Student Research Activity

  1. Numerical Simulation of One- and Two-Phase Flows in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Alexander, Casey; Thompson, Tyesha; Blankson, Isaiah M.; Shvets, Alexander I.; Gromov, Valery G.; Sakharov, Vladimir I.

    2001-01-01

    experimental tests at the Hampton University campus, NASA, and IM/MSU. The main outcomes during this reporting period are: (1) Publications: The AIAA Paper #01-1893 has been accepted for the AIAA/NAL-NASDA-ISAS 10th International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, 24-27 April 2001, Kyoto, Japan. The AIAA Paper #01-3204 has been accepted for presentation at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference being held on 08-11 July, in Salt Lake City, UT; (2) Grants and proposals: The HU/FM&AL was awarded the NASA grant NAG3-2495 in October 2000 and the CRDF award was granted to the NASA GRC-HU FM&AL and IM/MSU (Russia) in July 2000. A solicited proposal was submitted for the NASA NRA-01GRC-02 competition and two unsolicited proposals to NASA are in preparation; (3) Theory and numerical simulations: Analytical theory, numerical simulation, comparison of theoretical with experimental results, and modification of theoretical approaches, models, grids, etc. Such investigations have been conducted for three main problems: (a) Combustion efficiency optimization in the half-duct combustor system; (b) Drag reduction effects for blunt bodies with solid needles; and (c) Solid particle injection from the butt-end against a supersonic flow. The NASA CFL3D, HU/FM&AL, and IM/MSU GODUNOV codes were used and modified for solution of these problems. The codes are based on full Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers with and without nonequilibrium oxygen-nitrogen and air-hydrogen chemical reactions in laminar and turbulent gas flow regimes; (4) Experimental tests: In the IM/MSU supersonic wind tunnel, experimental tests were conducted with different number, location, and geometric parameters of solid needles mounted at the front of the butt-end in supersonic flow. Optimal parameters were determined that provide minimal butt-end drag in the stationary flow regime. Experimental and numerical simulation results are in good agreement; (5) Student Research Activity

  2. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  3. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  4. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-17

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  5. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-23

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  6. Assessment of the Draft AIAA S-119 Flight Dynamic Model Exchange Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Murri, Daniel G.; Hill, Melissa A.; Jessick, Matthew V.; Penn, John M.; Hasan, David A.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Falck, Robert D.; McCarthy, Thomas G.; Vuong, Nghia; Zimmerman, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a draft AIAA standard for flight dynamics model exchange, ANSI/AIAA S-119-2011, was conducted on behalf of NASA by a team from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The assessment included adding the capability of importing standard models into real-time simulation facilities at several NASA Centers as well as into analysis simulation tools. All participants were successful at importing two example models into their respective simulation frameworks by using existing software libraries or by writing new import tools. Deficiencies in the libraries and format documentation were identified and fixed; suggestions for improvements to the standard were provided to the AIAA. An innovative tool to generate C code directly from such a model was developed. Performance of the software libraries compared favorably with compiled code. As a result of this assessment, several NASA Centers can now import standard models directly into their simulations. NASA is considering adopting the now-published S-119 standard as an internal recommended practice.

  7. 7th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A.; Kennedy, B.; Guinn, J.; Williams, B.

    1997-01-01

    TOPEX/Poseidon is a joint American/French ocean topography experiment conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES)...Specifically, the paper first presents the present task configuration. Changes implemented after the prime mission are then discussed. Four areas of statistical performance are emhaszed and presented in detail...finally, the paper addresses problems encountered and lessons learned.

  8. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is operated jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. The activities at ICOMP during 1990 are described.

  9. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is operated jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. This report describes the activities at ICOMP during 1988.

  10. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is operated jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. Described are the activities of ICOMP during 1987.

  11. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Five viewgraphs are presented that outline the objectives and elements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program, mission considerations, propulsion technologies, and the logic flow path for nuclear propulsion development.

  12. Electromagnetic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The design and development of an Electromagnetic Propulsion is discussed. Specific Electromagnetic Propulsion Topics discussed include: (1) Technology for Pulse Inductive Thruster (PIT), to design, develop, and test of a multirepetition rate pulsed inductive thruster, Solid-State Switch Technology, and Pulse Driver Network and Architecture; (2) Flight Weight Magnet Survey, to determine/develop light weight high performance magnetic materials for potential application Advanced Space Flight Systems as these systems develop; and (3) Magnetic Flux Compression, to enable rapid/robust/reliable omni-planetary space transportation within realistic development and operational costs constraints.

  13. Hybrid Propulsion Testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andrew S.; Cash, Stephon F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid propulsion testing involving eleven and twenty-four inch motors performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from the early 1990's to the present are discussed. Topics covered include: Solid Propulsion Investigation Program, Joint NASA Industry Research and Development (JIRAD) program, Large Subscale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (LSSRCS), Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP), Hybrid Propulsion for Launch Vehicle Booster (HPTLV), Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage (PHUS) and Solid Fuel Torch (SFT).

  14. Preserving the nuclear option: The AIAA position paper on space nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Douglas M.; Bennett, Gary L.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Newhouse, Alan R.; Rose, M. Frank; Rovang, Richard D.

    1996-03-01

    In response to published reports about the decline in funding for space nuclear power, the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) approved a position paper in March 1995 that recommends (1) development and support of an integrated space nuclear power program by DOE, NASA and DoD; (2) Congressional support for the program; (3) advocacy of the program by government and industry leaders; and (4) continuation of cooperation between the U.S. and other countries to advance nuclear power source technology and to promote safety. This position paper has been distributed to various people having oversight of the U.S. space nuclear power program.

  15. Nuclear Propulsion Project Workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.; Clark, John S.; Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the planning and coordination of a joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Project which will investigate both nuclear electric and nuclear thermal concepts. The three-agency team has been tasked with the development of an Interagency Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding, as well as the drafting of a statement as to astronaut crew guidelines and values, the assessment of human-rating requirements, the development of an interagency safety and environmental assessment plan, and the development of test facility requirements. Attention is to be given to the role of SP-100 for nuclear-electric propulsion applications.

  16. Summary and Statistical Analysis of the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Morgenstern, John M.

    2014-01-01

    A summary is provided for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Workshop held 11 January 2014 in conjunction with AIAA SciTech 2014. Near-field pressure signatures extracted from computational fluid dynamics solutions are gathered from nineteen participants representing three countries for the two required cases, an axisymmetric body and simple delta wing body. Structured multiblock, unstructured mixed-element, unstructured tetrahedral, overset, and Cartesian cut-cell methods are used by the participants. Participants provided signatures computed on participant generated and solution adapted grids. Signatures are also provided for a series of uniformly refined workshop provided grids. These submissions are propagated to the ground and loudness measures are computed. This allows the grid convergence of a loudness measure and a validation metric (dfference norm between computed and wind tunnel measured near-field signatures) to be studied for the first time. Statistical analysis is also presented for these measures. An optional configuration includes fuselage, wing, tail, flow-through nacelles, and blade sting. This full configuration exhibits more variation in eleven submissions than the sixty submissions provided for each required case. Recommendations are provided for potential improvements to the analysis methods and a possible subsequent workshop.

  17. International cooperation in space transportation: Results of the AIAA Hawaii conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, J.

    In 1992, the International Committee of the AIAA sponsored a workshop in Hawaii entitled 'International Space Cooperation: Learning form the Past, Planning for the Future' which attempted to understand how the recent dramatic changes in the world situation might impact future international cooperation in space. This workshop formed the basis for a second workshop, also in Hawaii, entitled 'International Space Cooperation: Getting Serious about How' in December 1994. The second workshop built on the past findings and was designed to formulate approaches on how to make international cooperation work for a number of international space activities. A distinguished group of 65 experts from fifteen countries were organized into five working groups within the larger workshop to address five diverse areas: Global Space Systems Services, International Space Cooperation for Peacekeeping, Cooperative Human and Robotic Exploration of Space, International Cooperation in Space Transportation, and Solar Power to Earth dealing with near and longer term space projects where international cooperation might play a part. Work was conducted in both working group sessions and plenary sessions to stimulate and encourage the greatest exchange of ideas among the participants as possible. A report on the entire workship is available from the AIAA. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of the International Cooperation in Space Transporation topic.

  18. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the Third AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The first AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2001, evaluated the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD codes. The code-to-code scatter was more than an order of magnitude larger than desired for design and experimental validation of cruise conditions for a subsonic transport configuration. The second AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, held in June 2003, emphasized the determination of installed pylon-nacelle drag increments and grid refinement studies. The code-to-code scatter was significantly reduced compared to the first DPW, but still larger than desired. However, grid refinement studies showed no significant improvement in code-to-code scatter with increasing grid refinement. The third Drag Prediction Workshop focused on the determination of installed side-of-body fairing drag increments and grid refinement studies for clean attached flow on wing alone configurations and for separated flow on the DLR-F6 subsonic transport model. This work evaluated the effect of grid refinement on the code-to-code scatter for the clean attached flow test cases and the separated flow test cases.

  19. Propulsion controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkney, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Increased system requirements and functional integration with the aircraft have placed an increased demand on control system capability and reliability. To provide these at an affordable cost and weight and because of the rapid advances in electronic technology, hydromechanical systems are being phased out in favor of digital electronic systems. The transition is expected to be orderly from electronic trimming of hydromechanical controls to full authority digital electronic control. Future propulsion system controls will be highly reliable full authority digital electronic with selected component and circuit redundancy to provide the required safety and reliability. Redundancy may include a complete backup control of a different technology for single engine applications. The propulsion control will be required to communicate rapidly with the various flight and fire control avionics as part of an integrated control concept.

  20. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  1. Laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Putre, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The use of an earth-based high-power laser beam to provide energy for earth-launched rocket vehicle is investigated. The laser beam energy is absorbed in an opaque propellant gas and is converted to high-specific-impulse thrust by expanding the heated propellant to space by means of a nozzle. This laser propulsion scheme can produce specific impulses of several thousand seconds. Payload to gross-weight fractions about an order of magnitude higher than those for conventional chemical earth-launched vehicles appear possible. There is a potential for a significant reduction in cost per payload mass in earth orbit.

  2. Laser ablation with applied magnetic field for electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishcheva, Alla; Batishchev, Oleg; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    2012-10-01

    Using ultrafast lasers with tera-watt-level power allows efficient ablation and ionization of solid-density materials [1], creating dense and hot (˜100eV) plasma. We propose ablating small droplets in the magnetic nozzle configurations similar to mini-helicon plasma source [2]. Such approach may improve the momentum coupling compared to ablation of solid surfaces and facilitate plasma detachment. Results of 2D modeling of solid wire ablation in the applied magnetic field are presented and discussed. [4pt] [1] O. Batishchev et al, Ultrafast Laser Ablation for Space Propulsion, AIAA technical paper 2008-5294, -16p, 44th JPC, Hartford, 2008.[0pt] [2] O. Batishchev and J.L. Cambier, Experimental Study of the Mini-Helicon Thruster, Air Force Research Laboratory Report, AFRL-RZ-ED-TR-2009-0020, 2009.

  3. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  4. 49th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a collection of 15 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 49,h Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 14-16 December 1999 at the Sheraton El Conquistador Resort in Tucson, Arizona. Specific subjects discussed include solid propellants; solid propellant ingredients, hazards, and demilitarization/disposal; composite materials used in propulsion applications; and sensors.

  5. CEAS/AIAA/ICASE/NASA Langley International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics 1999. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jr., Woodrow (Editor); Todd, Emily N. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Confederation of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, D.C., and the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE), Hampton, Virginia, and held in Williamsburg, Virginia June 22-25, 1999 represent a collection of the latest advances in aeroelasticity and structural dynamics from the world community. Research in the areas of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity, structural modeling and optimization, active control and adaptive structures, landing dynamics, certification and qualification, and validation testing are highlighted in the collection of papers. The wide range of results will lead to advances in the prediction and control of the structural response of aircraft and spacecraft.

  6. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions From the Fifth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from North America, Europe, Asia, and South America using a common grid sequence and multiple turbulence models for the June 2012 fifth Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic configuration for this workshop was the Common Research Model subsonic transport wing-body previously used for the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with previous workshops.

  7. Plans and Example Results for the 2nd AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Chwalowski, Pawel; Schuster, David M.; Raveh, Daniella; Jirasek, Adam; Dalenbring, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the plans for the second AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop. The workshop is designed to assess the state-of-the-art of computational methods for predicting unsteady flow fields and aeroelastic response. The goals are to provide an impartial forum to evaluate the effectiveness of existing computer codes and modeling techniques, and to identify computational and experimental areas needing additional research and development. This paper provides guidelines and instructions for participants including the computational aerodynamic model, the structural dynamic properties, the experimental comparison data and the expected output data from simulations. The Benchmark Supercritical Wing (BSCW) has been chosen as the configuration for this workshop. The analyses to be performed will include aeroelastic flutter solutions of the wing mounted on a pitch-and-plunge apparatus.

  8. Overview and Summary of the Second AIAA High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Slotnick, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The second AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop was held in San Diego, California, in June 2013. The goals of the workshop continued in the tradition of the first high-lift workshop: to assess the numerical prediction capability of current-generation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology for swept, medium/high-aspect-ratio wings in landing/takeoff (high-lift) configurations. This workshop analyzed the flow over the DLR-F11 model in landing configuration at two different Reynolds numbers. Twenty-six participants submitted a total of 48 data sets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to grid density and Reynolds number were analyzed, and effects of support brackets were also included. This paper analyzes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

  9. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Russia using a variety of grid systems and turbulence models for the June 2009 4th Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic configuration for this workshop was a new subsonic transport model, the Common Research Model, designed using a modern approach for the wing and included a horizontal tail. The fourth workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and incremental drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal tail configurations. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with earlier workshops using the statistical framework.

  10. CFL3D Contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the CFL3D contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop, held in Orlando, Florida in January 2010. CFL3D is a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Four shock boundary layer interaction cases are computed using a one-equation turbulence model widely used for other aerodynamic problems of interest. Two of the cases have experimental data available at the workshop, and two of the cases do not. The effect of grid, flux scheme, and thin-layer approximation are investigated. Comparisons are made to the available experimental data. All four cases exhibit strong three-dimensional behavior in and near the interaction regions, resulting from influences of the tunnel side-walls.

  11. Summary of the First AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop (invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Long, M.; Stuever, R. A.; Wayman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop was held in Chicago in June 2010. The goals of the workshop included an assessment of the numerical prediction capability of current-generation CFD technology/ codes for swept, medium/high-aspect ratio wings in landing/take-off (high lift) configurations. 21 participants from 8 countries and 18 organizations, submitted a total of 39 datasets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to flap angle were analyzed, and effects of grid family, grid density, solver, and turbulence model were addressed. Some participants also assessed the effects of support brackets used to attach the flap and slat to the main wing. This invited paper describes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

  12. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  13. The 1993 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, Debra S.

    1993-11-01

    This volume, the second of six volumes, is a collection of 30 unclassified/unlimited distribution papers which were presented at the 1993 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 15-19 November 1993 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel and Conference Center and the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Specific subjects discussed include grain integrity, hybrid motors, liquid engines, turbopumps, reaction control systems, composite motor cases, continuous propellant mixing, nondestructive testing, solar propulsion, combustion chambers, and foreign propulsion technology.

  14. Kite propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Pontavice, Emmanuel; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2014-11-01

    Kite propulsion is one way to harvest wind energy. The typical force is 1 kilo Newton per square meter, which means that with kites in the range 100 to 1000 square meters, one is able to propel ships from the trawler to the tanker. Several scientific issues arise when trying to design kites of these sizes. They first need to take off and land autonomously. This leads to the use of kites with an inflatable structure that can be compact when stored but very rigid and light once in the air. For that matter, we studied the behavior of large inflatable structures under static and dynamic load. Then, the kite needs to stay in the air. However, it appears that under certain conditions, kites without active control tend to engage into large oscillations and eventually crash. Through wind tunnel experiments, we try to understand this flight behavior to find the conditions of stability.

  15. J. Preston Layton 1919-1992: A guiding light in nuclear space power and propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Yvonne C.

    An eventful, highly productive career ended with the death of James Preston ("Pres") Layton in December 1992. His career in rockets, which spanned 50 years, is a chronology of developments in the U.S. space program. Layton was instrumental in the development of rocket technologies ranging from the first jet-assisted take off (JATO) boosters used on aircraft to space nuclear power and propulsion. His work on JATOs, during World War II, involved both testing of solid-fueled units on naval aircraft in the Pacific and developing advanced liquid-fueled systems at the U.S. Naval Academy's laboratory under the direction of Robert H. Goddard, the father of American rocketry. It was Goddard who inspired Layton to devote his life to rocketry. In 1948, as chief of propulsion for the Glenn L. Martin company, he became crew chief in charge of testing the first big U.S. rocket, the Viking series. Layton subsequently joined the research faculty at Princeton University where he served from 1951 to 1976, taking a brief leave in 1955 to earn a Masters Degree at Purdue University under the direction of Maurice Zucrow, another American rocket pioneer. As Chief Engineer of Princeton's Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center, he created the nation's foremost university rocket research facilities, where he conducted the first experimental evaluation of liquid ozone as a rocket propellant. Later Layton led Princeton's Advanced Systems and Mission Analysis Laboratory, which conducted pioneering studies of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. During this period, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (on leave from Princeton), Layton helped develop and test the world's first and only nuclear ram-rocket. During his career, Layton performed many responsible consulting tasks for industry and government in the U.S.A. and abroad. He was chief technical consultant to Mathematica, Inc., whose analyses formed the basis for the current Space Shuttle design. He conducted an AIAA assessment of

  16. Solar Thermal Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Harnessing the Sun's energy through Solar Thermal Propulsion will propel vehicles through space by significantly reducing weight, complexity, and cost while boosting performance over current conventional upper stages. Another solar powered system, solar electric propulsion, demonstrates ion propulsion is suitable for long duration missions. Pictured is an artist's concept of space flight using solar thermal propulsion.

  17. Future of space propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.R.; Mackay, D.S. )

    1992-03-01

    A development status-and-prospects evaluation is presented for the range of spacecraft propulsion alternatives under consideration by the USAF's Phillips Laboratory, encompassing technologies broadly characterizable as 'conventional' (solid, storable liquid, cryogenic) and 'nonconventional'. Nonconventional spacecraft propulsion system types include arcjets, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, solar thermal propulsion, and nuclear propulsion. The prospects for high energy density materials' application to more coventional propulsion concepts are noted.

  18. 50th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 29 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 50th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 11-13 July 2001 at the Salt Lake City Marriott Hotel in Salt Lake City, Utah.

  19. Observations on CFD Verification and Validation from the AIAA Drag Prediction Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.; Kleb, Bil; Vassberg, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The authors provide observations from the AIAA Drag Prediction Workshops that have spanned over a decade and from a recent validation experiment at NASA Langley. These workshops provide an assessment of the predictive capability of forces and moments, focused on drag, for transonic transports. It is very difficult to manage the consistency of results in a workshop setting to perform verification and validation at the scientific level, but it may be sufficient to assess it at the level of practice. Observations thus far: 1) due to simplifications in the workshop test cases, wind tunnel data are not necessarily the “correct” results that CFD should match, 2) an average of core CFD data are not necessarily a better estimate of the true solution as it is merely an average of other solutions and has many coupled sources of variation, 3) outlier solutions should be investigated and understood, and 4) the DPW series does not have the systematic build up and definition on both the computational and experimental side that is required for detailed verification and validation. Several observations regarding the importance of the grid, effects of physical modeling, benefits of open forums, and guidance for validation experiments are discussed. The increased variation in results when predicting regions of flow separation and increased variation due to interaction effects, e.g., fuselage and horizontal tail, point out the need for validation data sets for these important flow phenomena. Experiences with a recent validation experiment at NASA Langley are included to provide guidance on validation experiments.

  20. Wind-US Code Contributions to the First AIAA Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    This report discusses the computations of a set of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock/boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Four turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Baseline and Shear Stress Transport k-omega two-equation models, and an explicit algebraic stress k-omega formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.

  1. Comparison of NTF Experimental Data with CFD Predictions from the Third AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Levy, David; Zickuhr, Tom; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Recently acquired experimental data for the DLR-F6 wing-body transonic transport con figuration from the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are compared with the database of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions generated for the Third AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-III). The NTF data were collected after the DPW-III, which was conducted with blind test cases. These data include both absolute drag levels and increments associated with this wing-body geometry. The baseline DLR-F6 wing-body geometry is also augmented with a side-of-body fairing which eliminates the flow separation in this juncture region. A comparison between computed and experimentally observed sizes of the side-of-body flow-separation bubble is included. The CFD results for the drag polars and separation bubble sizes are computed on grids which represent current engineering best practices for drag predictions. In addition to these data, a more rigorous attempt to predict absolute drag at the design point is provided. Here, a series of three grid densities are utilized to establish an asymptotic trend of computed drag with respect to grid convergence. This trend is then extrapolated to estimate a grid-converged absolute drag level.

  2. Cart3D Simulations for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (LBW1) are presented using an inviscid, embedded-boundary Cartesian mesh method. The method employs adjoint-based error estimation and adaptive meshing to automatically determine resolution requirements of the computational domain. Results are presented for both mandatory and optional test cases. These include an axisymmetric body of revolution, a 69deg delta wing model and a complete model of the Lockheed N+2 supersonic tri-jet with V-tail and flow through nacelles. In addition to formal mesh refinement studies and examination of the adjoint-based error estimates, mesh convergence is assessed by presenting simulation results for meshes at several resolutions which are comparable in size to the unstructured grids distributed by the workshop organizers. Data provided includes both the pressure signals required by the workshop and information on code performance in both memory and processing time. Various enhanced techniques offering improved simulation efficiency will be demonstrated and discussed.

  3. Summary of Data from the First AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David W.; Zickuhr, Tom; Vassberg, John; Agrawal, Shreekant; Wahls, Richard A.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The results from the first AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop are summarized. The workshop was designed specifically to assess the state-of-the-art of computational fluid dynamics methods for force and moment prediction. An impartial forum was provided to evaluate the effectiveness of existing computer codes and modeling techniques, and to identify areas needing additional research and development. The subject of the study was the DLR-F4 wing-body configuration, which is representative of transport aircraft designed for transonic flight. Specific test cases were required so that valid comparisons could be made. Optional test cases included constant-CL drag-rise predictions typically used in airplane design by industry. Results are compared to experimental data from three wind tunnel tests. A total of 18 international participants using 14 different codes submitted data to the workshop. No particular grid type or turbulence model was more accurate, when compared to each other, or to wind tunnel data. Most of the results overpredicted CLo and CDo, but induced drag (dCD/dCL2 agreed fairly well. Drag rise at high Mach number was underpredicted, however, especially at high CL. On average, the drag data were fairly accurate, but the scatter was greater than desired. The results show that well-validated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD methods are sufficiently accurate to make design decisions based on predicted drag.

  4. Summary of Data from the First AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, David W.; Zickuhr, Tom; Vassberg, John; Agrawal, Shreekant; Wahls, Richard A.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Hemsch, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The results from the first AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop are summarized. The workshop was designed specifically to assess the state-of-the-art of computational fluid dynamics methods for force and moment prediction. An impartial forum was provided to evaluate the effectiveness of existing computer codes and modeling techniques, and to identify areas needing additional research and development. The subject of the study was the DLR-F4 wing-body configuration, which is representative of transport aircraft designed for transonic flight. Specific test cases were required so that valid comparisons could be made. Optional test cases included constant-C(sub L) drag-rise predictions typically used in airplane design by industry. Results are compared to experimental data from three wind tunnel tests. A total of 18 international participants using 14 different codes submitted data to the workshop. No particular grid type or turbulence model was more accurate, when compared to each other, or to wind tunnel data. Most of the results overpredicted C(sub Lo) and C(sub Do), but induced drag (dC(sub D)/dC(sub L)(exp 2)) agreed fairly well. Drag rise at high Mach number was underpredicted, however, especially at high C(sub L). On average, the drag data were fairly accurate, but the scatter was greater than desired. The results show that well-validated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD methods are sufficiently accurate to make design decisions based on predicted drag.

  5. OTV Propulsion Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The statistical technology needs of aero-assist maneuvering, propulsion, and usage of cryogenic fluids were presented. Industry panels discussed the servicing of reusable space based vehicles and propulsion-vehicle interation.

  6. Beamed energy propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Beamed energy concepts offer an alternative for an advanced propulsion system. The use of a remote power source reduces the weight of the propulsion system in flight and this, combined with the high performance, provides significant payload gains. Within the context of this study's baseline scenario, two beamed energy propulsion concepts are potentially attractive: solar thermal propulsion and laser thermal propulsion. The conceived beamed energy propulsion devices generally provide low thrust (tens of pounds to hundreds of pounds); therefore, they are typically suggested for cargo transportation. For the baseline scenario, these propulsion system can provide propulsion between the following nodes: (1) low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit; (2) low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit; (3) low lunar orbit to low Mars orbit--only solar thermal; and (4) lunar surface to low lunar orbit--only laser thermal.

  7. Propulsion of nanowire diodes.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Windmiller, Joshua R; Dao, Cuong; Wang, Joseph

    2010-03-14

    The propulsion of semiconductor diode nanowires under external AC electric field is described. Such fuel-free electric field-induced nanowire propulsion offers considerable promise for diverse technological applications. PMID:20177595

  8. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  9. Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture is an artist's concept of an orbiting vehicle using the Electrodynamic Tethers Propulsion System. Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to push against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant.

  10. NASA spacecraft propulsion activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.; Sankovic, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.; Hamley, John A.; Patterson, Michael J.; Sovey, James S.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA's activities in the development of spacecraft propulsion systems are reviewed, with emphasis on program directions and recent progress made in this domain. The recent trends towards the use of smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles call for new onboard propulsion systems. The NASA's efforts are conducted within the framework of the onboard propulsion program. The research and development work carried out in relation to the different propulsion system technologies are considered: electromagnetic systems; electrostatic systems; electrothermal systems; bipropellant systems; and monopropellant systems.

  11. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  12. Directions in propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is research at NASA Lewis in the area of propulsion controls as driven by trends in advanced aircraft. The objective of the Lewis program is to develop the technology for advanced reliable propulsion control systems and to integrate the propulsion control with the flight control for optimal full-system control.

  13. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  14. Identification of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Guo, Ten-Huei; Duyar, Ahmet

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial on the use of model identification techniques for the identification of propulsion system models. These models are important for control design, simulation, parameter estimation, and fault detection. Propulsion system identification is defined in the context of the classical description of identification as a four step process that is unique because of special considerations of data and error sources. Propulsion system models are described along with the dependence of system operation on the environment. Propulsion system simulation approaches are discussed as well as approaches to propulsion system identification with examples for both air breathing and rocket systems.

  15. Summary of Data from the Fifth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, David W.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Vassberg, John C.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Rumsey, Chris; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Crippa, Simone; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Results from the Fifth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-V) are presented. As with past workshops, numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant geometry, methodology, and test cases. This workshop focused on force/moment predictions for the NASA Common Research Model wing-body configuration, including a grid refinement study and an optional buffet study. The grid refinement study used a common grid sequence derived from a multiblock topology structured grid. Six levels of refinement were created resulting in grids ranging from 0.64x10(exp 6) to 138x10(exp 6) hexahedra - a much larger range than is typically seen. The grids were then transformed into structured overset and hexahedral, prismatic, tetrahedral, and hybrid unstructured formats all using the same basic cloud of points. This unique collection of grids was designed to isolate the effects of grid type and solution algorithm by using identical point distributions. This study showed reduced scatter and standard deviation from previous workshops. The second test case studied buffet onset at M=0.85 using the Medium grid (5.1x106 nodes) from the above described sequence. The prescribed alpha sweep used finely spaced intervals through the zone where wing separation was expected to begin. Some solutions exhibited a large side of body separation bubble that was not observed in the wind tunnel results. An optional third case used three sets of geometry, grids, and conditions from the Turbulence Model Resource website prepared by the Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group. These simple cases were intended to help identify potential differences in turbulence model implementation. Although a few outliers and issues affecting consistency were identified, the majority of participants produced consistent results.

  16. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  17. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  18. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine.

  19. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  20. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  1. Overview of electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniłko, Dariusz

    2014-11-01

    Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT 1) was the first experiment in which electric propulsion device was sent into space. The present year marks the 50th anniversary of that particular mission that opened the door for the application of electric propulsion on board spacecrafts. We present an overview of existing electric propulsion technology along with the description of the most successful missions that followed the success of the SERT 1mission.

  2. Dynamic simulator for PEFC propulsion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, Masataka; Kaneda, Eiichi; Sato, Takao

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The work presented here focuses on a simulation study on PEFC propulsion plant performance, and particularly on the system response to changes in load. Using a dynamic simulator composed of system components including fuel cell, various simulations were executed, to examine the performance of the system as a whole and of the individual system components under quick and large load changes such as occasioned by maneuvering operations and by racing when the propeller emerges above water in heavy sea.

  3. Supersonic STOVL propulsion technology program: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, Bernard J.; Batterton, Peter G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning activities are continuing between NASA, DOD, and two foreign governments to develop the technology and to demonstrate the design capability for advanced, supersonic, short-takeoff and vertical-landing (STOVL) aircraft by the mid-1990s. As a result, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was established by the United Kingdom to jointly pursue the required technology; and an MOU with Canada is expected to be signed shortly. The NASA Lewis Research Center will play a lead role in the development of the required propulsion technologies which were identified as being critical to achieve viable STOVL aircraft. These planning activities have already resulted in initial research programs focused on technologies common to two or more of the proposed propulsion system concepts. An overview of the Lewis Research Center's role in the overall program plan and recent results in the development of the required propulsion technologies is presented.

  4. AIAA Educator Academy - Mars Rover Curriculum: A 6 week multidisciplinary space science based curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Curiosity mission has captured the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The AIAA and the University of Houston have developed a flexible curriculum program that offers children in-depth science and language arts learning culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students learn to research Mars in order to pick a science question about Mars that is of interest to them. They learn principles of spacecraft design in order to build a model of a Mars rover to carry out their mission on the surface of Mars. The model is a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the structure and organization of the 6 week curriculum. A set of 30 new 5E lesson plans have been written to support this project as a classroom activity. The challenge of developing interactive

  5. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  6. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  7. Optimal propulsive efficiency of vortex enhanced propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittlesey, Robert; Dabiri, John

    2013-11-01

    The formation of coherent vortex rings in the jet wake of a vehicle has been shown to increase the propulsive efficiency of self-propelled vehicles. However, the effect of varying vortex ring formation characteristics has not been explored for vehicles at Reynolds numbers comparable to autonomous or manned submersible vehicles. In this work, we considered a range of vortex ring formation characteristics and found a peak in the propulsive efficiency where the vortex rings generated are coincident with the onset of vortex ring pinch off. This peak corresponds to a 22% increase in the propulsive efficiency for the vortex-enhanced wake compared to a steady jet. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Office of Naval Research Grants N000140810918 and N000141010137.

  8. Electric Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having an annular discharge chamber housing an anode having a large surface area. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, a second electric propulsion thruster may be disposed in a cylindrical space disposed within an interior of the annulus.

  9. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  10. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  11. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  12. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-04-28

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community.

  13. Electric propulsion cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric cost model for mercury ion propulsion modules is presented. A detailed work breakdown structure is included. Cost estimating relationships were developed for the individual subsystems and the nonhardware items (systems engineering, software, etc.). Solar array and power processor unit (PPU) costs are the significant cost drivers. Simplification of both of these subsystems through applications of advanced technology (lightweight solar arrays and high-efficiency, self-radiating PPUs) can reduce costs. Comparison of the performance and cost of several chemical propulsion systems with the Hg ion module are also presented. For outer-planet missions, advanced solar electric propulsion (ASEP) trip times and O2/H2 propulsion trip times are comparable. A three-year trip time savings over the baselined NTO/MMH propulsion system is possible with ASEP.

  14. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster.

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion technologies - Overview of the NASA/DoE/DoD Nuclear Electric Propulsion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion technology offers substantial benefits to the ambitious piloted and robotic solar system exploration missions of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes a workshop jointly sponsored by NASA, DoE, and DoD to assess candidate nuclear electric propulsion technologies. Twenty-one power and propulsion concepts are reviewed. Nuclear power concepts include solid and gaseous fuel concepts, with static and dynamic power conversion. Propulsion concepts include steady state and pulsed electromagnetic engines, a pulsed electrothermal engine, and a steady state electrostatic engine. The technologies vary widely in maturity. The workshop review panels concluded that compelling benefits would accrue from the development of nuclear electric propulsion systems, and that a focused, well-funded program is required to prepare the technologies for SEI missions.

  16. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  17. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  18. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, A. M.; Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the initial operational capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion system (SSPS) to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. These objectives were met by analytical studies and by furnishing a propulsion test bed to the Marshall Space Flight Center for testing.

  19. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  20. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  1. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  2. Propulsion technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lee W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on propulsion technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis O2/H2 system; hydrazine system advancements; common technology; fluids disposal; and storable bipropellant system.

  3. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  4. Space propulsion technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical and electric propulsion technologies for operations beyond the shuttle's orbit with focus on future mission needs and economic effectiveness is discussed. The adequacy of the existing propulsion state-of-the-art, barriers to its utilization, benefit of technology advances, and the prognosis for advancement are the themes of the discussion. Low-thrust propulsion for large space systems is cited as a new technology with particularly high benefit. It is concluded that the shuttle's presence for at least two decades is a legitimate basis for new propulsion technology, but that this technology must be predicted on an awareness of mission requirements, economic factors, influences of other technologies, and real constraints on its utilization.

  5. Space propulsion technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses Shuttle-era, chemical and electric propulsion technologies for operations beyond the Shuttle's orbit with focus on future mission needs and economic effectiveness. The adequacy of the existing propulsion state-of-the-art, barriers to its utilization, benefit of technology advances, and the prognosis for advancement are the themes of the discussion. Low-thrust propulsion for large space systems is cited as a new technology with particularly high benefit. It is concluded that the Shuttle's presence for at least two decades is a legitimate basis for new propulsion technology, but that this technology must be predicated on an awareness of mission requirements, economic factors, influences of other technologies, and real constraints on its utilization.

  6. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  7. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  8. Advanced propulsion on a shoestring

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1990-05-01

    Consideration is given to propulsion concepts under study by NASA Advanced Propulsion Research Program. These concepts include fusion, antimatter-matter annihilation, microwave electrothermal, and electron cyclotron resonance propulsion. Results from programs to develop fusion technologies are reviewed, including compact fusion devices and inertial confinement experiments. Problems concerning both antimatter and fusion propulsion concepts are examined and the economic issues related to propulsion research are discussed.

  9. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  10. Vehicle propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, S.L.

    1981-11-17

    A hybrid vehicle propulsion system is disclosed which utilizes an internal combustion engine, an afterburner, and a steam engine in combination for improved efficiency and reduced emission of pollutants. The afterburner is provided to reduce the level of pollutants emitted and to increase the temperature of the exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine. The heat from the exhaust gases, together with the heat removed from the internal combustion cylinders, is then utilized in the steam engine to provide additional propulsion.

  11. Electric propulsion - Now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerpheide, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The state of the art of electric propulsion technology is discussed with a review of the many difficult engineering problems which must be resolved before the incorporation of electric propulsion in space missions. Interferences with the spacecraft and its scientific instrumentation, conducted and radiated electromagnetic interferences during the switching and processing of large electrical loads, and mercury and other eroded materials deposition on the spacecraft are indicated among the engineering and design challenges to be overcome and resolved.

  12. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  13. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  14. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  15. Transonic airframe propulsion integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coltrin, Robert E.; Sanders, Bobby W.; Bencze, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    This chart shows the time line for HSR propulsion/airframe integration program. HSR Phase 1 efforts are underway in both propulsion and aerodynamics. The propulsion efforts focus on cycles, inlets combustors and nozzles that will be required to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX) at cruise and noise at takeoff and landing to acceptable levels. The aerodynamic efforts concentrate on concepts that will reduce sonic booms and increase the lift/drag (L/D) ratio for the aircraft. The Phase 2 critical propulsion component technology program will focus on large scale demonstrators of the inlet, fan, combustor, and nozzle. The hardware developed here will feed into the propulsion system program which will demonstrate overall system technology readiness, particularly in the takeoff and supersonic cruise speed ranges. The Phase 2 aerodynamic performance and vehicle integration program will provide a validated data base for advanced airframe/control/integration concepts over the full HSR speed range. The results of this program will also feed into the propulsion system demonstration program, particularly in the critical transonic arena.

  16. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This image, taken during the test, depicts the light being concentrated into the focal point inside the vacuum chamber. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  17. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) fourth annual review, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is operated jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. The activities at ICOMP during 1989 are described.

  18. Overview 1993: Chemical propulsion at CSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical Propulsion at CSTAR continues to expand its activities and areas of interest. Several new initiatives are being developed which are extensions of, or replacements for, earlier projects. One current focus is on reassessing promising engine cycles and the enabling technologies for implementing them. These engine cycles which include advanced hybrids, and staged combustion cycles have the use of oxygen as a working fluid and coolant in common. Oxygen is used as a turbine drive gas, tank pressurant and as a cooling medium for combustion devices. CSTAR has interest in the propellant feed systems for advanced rocket engines, including propellant conditioning and tank pressurization, gas generators, and turbomachinery. CSTAR's interests also include propellant injection into the main chamber. These aspects of rocket propulsion embody a diverse range of technical disciplines and technologies, critical to the pursuit of low cost space access. The chemical propulsion program at CSTAR includes active projects investigating hybrid rocket engine oxygen feed systems, hybrid rocket injectors, gas fed hybrid rocket combustion, elements of main injectors for staged combustion devices. CSTAR is actively seeking industrial partners interested in joint participation in one or more phases of the analyses, design, development and application of propulsion technologies and related technical disciplines.

  19. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  20. Integrated propulsion technology demonstrator. Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA and Rockwell have embarked on a cooperative agreement to define, develop, fabricate, and operate an integrated propulsion technology demonstrator (IPTD) for the purpose of validating design, process, and technology improvements of launch vehicle propulsion systems. This program, a result of NRA8-11, Task Area 1 A, is jointly funded by both NASA and Rockwell and is sponsored by the Reusable Launch Vehicle office at NASA Marshall Space flight Center. This program plan provides to the joint NASA/Rockwell integrated propulsion technology demonstrator (IPTD) team a description of the activities within tasks / sub tasks and associated schedules required to successfully achieve program objectives. This document also defines the cost elements and manpower allocations for each sub task for purpose of program control. This plan is updated periodically by developing greater depth of direction for outyear tasks as the program matures. Updating is accomplished by adding revisions to existing pages or attaching page revisions to this plan. In either case, revisions will be identified by appropriate highlighting of the change, or specifying a revision page through the use of footnotes on the bottom right of each change page. Authorization for the change is provided by the principal investigators to maintain control of this program plan document and IPTD program activities.

  1. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  2. Gravitational Wave Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Giorgio

    2005-02-01

    There is only one experimental proof that gravitational waves exist. With such a limitation, it may seem premature to suggest the possibility that gravitational waves can became a preferred space propulsion technique. The present understanding of the problem indicates that this is not the case. The emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources has been confirmed by observation, the respective detection at large distance from the source is difficult and actually we have no confirmation of a successful detection. Therefore the required preliminary discovery has been already made. This opinion is enforced by many different proposals for building the required powerful gravitational wave generators that have recently appeared in the literature and discussed at conferences. It is no longer reasonable to wait for additional confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves to start a program for building generators and testing their possible application to space travel. A vast literature shows that gravitational waves can be employed for space propulsion. Gravitational wave rockets have been proposed, non-linearity of Einstein equations allows the conversion of gravitational waves to a static gravitational field and ``artificial gravity assist'' may become a new way of travelling in space-time. Different approaches to gravitational wave propulsion are reviewed and compared. Gravitational wave propulsion is also compared to traditional rocket propulsion and an undeniable advantage can be demonstrated in terms of efficiency and performance. Testing the predictions will require gravitational wave generators with high power and wavelength short enough for producing high energy densities. Detectors designed for the specific application must be developed, taking into account that non-linearity effects are expected. The study and development of Gravitational wave propulsion is a very challenging endeavor, involving the most complex theories, sophisticated

  3. Ion propulsion for communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    In a recent study of potential applications for electric propulsion, it was determined that ion propulsion can provide North-South stationkeeping (NSSK) for communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit with appreciably less mass than chemical propulsion. While this finding is not new, the margin of benefit over advanced chemical propulsion technology depends strongly on the ion propulsion system specifications. Full advantage must be taken of the under-utilized stored energy available from the communication satellite's batteries. This paper describes a methodology for evaluating the benefits obtained in using ion propulsion for NSSK, both in terms of the mass reduction and its economic value.

  4. 26th JANNAF Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 28 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 26th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) was held jointly with the 38th Combustion Subcommittee (CS), 20th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS), and 2nd Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee. The meeting was held 8-12 April 2002 at the Bayside Inn at The Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort and Eglin Air Force Base, Destin, Florida. Topics covered include: scramjet and ramjet R&D program overviews; tactical propulsion; space access; NASA GTX status; PDE technology; actively cooled engine structures; modeling and simulation of complex hydrocarbon fuels and unsteady processes; and component modeling and simulation.

  5. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  6. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  7. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  8. Efficiency of fish propulsion.

    PubMed

    Maertens, A P; Triantafyllou, M S; Yue, D K P

    2015-08-01

    The system efficiency of a self-propelled flexible body is ill-defined, hence we introduce the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the power needed to tow a body in rigid-straight condition over the power it requires for self-propulsion, both measured for the same speed. Through examples we show that the quasi-propulsive efficiency is a rational non-dimensional metric of the propulsive fitness of fish and fish-like mechanisms, consistent with the goal to minimize fuel consumption under size and velocity constraints. We perform two-dimensional viscous simulations and apply the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency to illustrate and discuss the efficiency of two-dimensional undulating foils employing first carangiform and then anguilliform kinematics. We show that low efficiency may be due to adverse body-propulsor hydrodynamic interactions, which cannot be accounted for by an increase in friction drag, as done previously, since at the Reynolds number Re = 5 000 considered in the simulations, pressure is a major contributor to both thrust and drag. PMID:26226349

  9. Nanosatellite Propulsion Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagosian, J. S.; Rhee, M. S.; Zakrzwski, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Earth-orbiting nanosatellite constellations are a unique and exciting means toward fulfilling part of the mission of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). These constellations, which may consist of several hundred 10-kg spacecraft, present unique challenges in the area of propulsion. Many mission concepts require significant delta-v and attitude control capability to reside in the nanosatellites. In response to requirements from mission feasibility studies, such as the Magnetospheric Constellation study, the GSFC has initiated industry and government partnerships to develop enabling propulsion technologies. The largest challenge has been to meet the power constraints of nanosatellites. These power issues, combined with the high thrust required by many of the missions studied, have led the GSFC to concentrate its efforts on chemical propulsion technology. Electric propulsion technologies capable of performing efficiently at very low power are also of interest to the GSFC as potential candidates for nanosatellite formation flying missions. This paper provides the status of specific industrial or government partnerships undertaken by the GSFC to develop nano/micro propulsion components. Three specific technologies are described in detail: 1) Nanosatellite Solid Rocket Motor Prototype 2) Ultra-Low-Power Cold Gas Thruster for Spin-Axis Precession 3) Micro-Machined Solid-Propellant Gas Generators.

  10. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sinko, John E.; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2010-10-08

    It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.

  11. Mechanisms of Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2004-11-01

    The technology of electric propulsion evolved to overcome the high propellant weight associated with propulsion by chemical means. As opposed to ejecting propellant at velocities of kilometers per second, exhaust velocities of plasma at tens of kilometers per second and more could be accomplished through electrical means. Although higher exhaust velocities require higher on-board power, the reduced propellant requirements facilitate a large variety of space transportation missions, such as orbit-raising, station-keeping, or other propulsion missions requiring the conservation of propellant mass such as interplanetary flight. To produce thrust by the application of electric forces, plasma can be accelerated directly, or ions can be accelerated and then neutralized to form flowing neutral plasma. The different mechanisms of acceleration are embodied in such thrust devices as ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, or arcjets. In each method of electric propulsion, different technological limitations arise from basic plasma properties. This talk reviews the basic acceleration mechanisms at play in contemporary means of electric propulsion within the broader context of accelerating plasma by any means.

  12. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  13. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) successfully demonstrated real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) main propulsion system (MPS). Specifically, the PITEX research project developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the MPS of the X-34 RLV, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The demonstration was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, the PITEX diagnostic system was subjected to numerous realistic effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. In all cases, the PITEX system performed as required. The research demonstrated potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  14. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  15. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gerard V; Gorby, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    First MTP joint arthrodesis continues to be a time-honored, effective, and valuable procedure as a primary or secondary surgery for various pathologies afflicting the first ray segment. Though commonly thought of as a salvage procedure, it has proven beneficial in the management of primary hallux limitus and rigidus, geriatric hallux valgus deformity, severe arthritis of any etiology, and conditions in which joint instability or deformity are not readily correctable by more traditional approaches. Since its initial description in the 1800s, the procedure has continued to be popular among orthopedic and podiatric surgeons. Success of the procedure is highly dependent on the position of fusion. Though surgeons are often fascinated and at times obsessed with a particular fixation technique, it cannot be over-emphasized that this takes a back seat to the importance of achieving proper position to meet the needs of an individual patient. Unlike joint resection or implant arthroplasty procedures, which commonly leave the hallux lacking stability and propulsion, first MPJ fusion has been shown to be effective during weight bearing and propulsion. The success enjoyed by the senior author continues to reinforce that motion is not necessary at the first MTP joint for good, pain-free function. PMID:15012033

  16. The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, S. D.; Frisbee, R. H.; Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts were selected for study because each offers the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability or enabling bold, ambitious new missions.

  17. Nuclear-electric propulsion - Manned Mars propulsion options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Brophy, John; King, David

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear-electric propulsion can significantly reduce the launch mass for manned Mars missions. By using high-specific-impulse (lsp) electric propulsion systems with advanced nuclear reactors, the total mass-to-orbit for a series of manned Mars flight is reduced. Propulsion technologies required for the manned Mars mission are described. Multi-megawatt Ion and Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic (MPD) propulsion thrusters, Power-Processing Units and nuclear power source are needed. Xenon (Xe)-Ion and MPD thruster performance are detailed. Mission analyses for several Mars mission options are addressed. Both MPD and Ion propulsion were investigated. A four-megawatt propulsion system power level was assumed. Mass comparisons for all-chemical oxygen/hydrogen propulsion missions and combined chemical and nuclear-electric propulsion Mars fleets are included. With fleets of small nuclear-electric vehicles, short trip times to Mars are also enabled.

  18. Computational Structures Technology for Airframes and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Housner, Jerrold M. (Compiler); Starnes, James H., Jr. (Compiler); Hopkins, Dale A. (Compiler); Chamis, Christos C. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This conference publication contains the presentations and discussions from the joint University of Virginia (UVA)/NASA Workshops. The presentations included NASA Headquarters perspectives on High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), goals and objectives of the UVA Center for Computational Structures Technology (CST), NASA and Air Force CST activities, CST activities for airframes and propulsion systems in industry, and CST activities at Sandia National Laboratory.

  19. P and W/GE propulsion systems studies introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilkey, Samual C.; Hines, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: Pratt and Whitney (P&W)/ General Electric (GE) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) collaboration - joint propulsion studies and parallel technical organization; HSCT engine concepts; engine cycle/design ground rules - 2005 entry into service; engine evaluation criteria; 1991 HSCT system studies plan; P&W NASA study tasks; and GE NASA study tasks.

  20. Electric Propulsion Applications and Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Frank M.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Most space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems are often dominant spacecraft mass drivers. Presently, on-board systems account for more than half the injected mass for commercial communications systems and even greater mass fractions for ambitious planetary missions. Anticipated trends toward the use of both smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles will likely increase pressure on the performance of on-board propulsion systems. The acceptance of arcjet thrusters for operational use on commercial communications satellites ushered in a new era in on-board propulsion and exponential growth of electric propulsion across a broad spectrum of missions is anticipated. NASA recognizes the benefits of advanced propulsion and NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology supports an aggressive On-Board Propulsion program, including a strong electric propulsion element, to assure the availability of high performance propulsion systems to meet the goals of the ambitious missions envisioned in the next two decades. The program scope ranges from fundamental research for future generation systems through specific insertion efforts aimed at near term technology transfer. The On-Board propulsion program is committed to carrying technologies to levels required for customer acceptance and emphasizes direct interactions with the user community and the development of commercial sources. This paper provides a discussion of anticipated missions, propulsion functions, and electric propulsion impacts followed by an overview of the electric propulsion element of the NASA On-Board Propulsion program.

  1. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  2. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  3. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  4. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  5. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  6. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  7. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-05-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  8. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  9. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  10. Supersonic laser propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rezunkov, Yurii; Schmidt, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    To produce supersonic laser propulsion, a new technique based on the interaction of a laser-ablated jet with supersonic gas flow in a nozzle is proposed. It is shown that such parameters of the jet, such as gas-plasma pressure and temperature in the ablation region as well as the mass consumption rate of the ablated solid propellant, are characteristic in this respect. The results of numerical simulations of the supersonic laser propulsion are presented for two types of nozzle configuration. The feasibility to achieve the momentum coupling coefficient of C(m)∼10(-3) N/W is shown. PMID:25402938

  11. Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedly, V. J.; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Litchford, R. J.; Garrison, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform (EPOP), of which the primary objective is to provide an instrumented platform for testing electric propulsion devices in space. It is anticipated that the first flight, EPOP-1, will take place on the Shuttle-deployed Wake Shield Facility in 1996, and will be designed around a commercial 1.8 kW arcjet system which will be operated on gaseous hydrogen propellant. Specific subsystems are described, including the arcjet system, the propellant and power systems, and the diagnostics systems.

  12. Electric propulsion: Experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes from electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  13. Electric Propulsion: Experimental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed LIF technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes form electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  14. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  15. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  16. JANNAF Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee and 35th Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document, CPIA Publication 682, Volume 1, is a compilation of 5 unclassified/unlimited technical papers (approved for public release) which were presented at the 1 998 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) and Combustion Subcommittee (CS) held jointly with the Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS). The meeting was held on 7-11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include HyTech technology development, hydrocarbon fuel development for hypersonic applications, pulse detonation propulsion system development and arc heaters for direct-connect scramjet testing.

  17. Nuclear thermal propulsion program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion program is described. The following subject areas are covered: lunar and Mars missions; national space policy; international cooperation in space exploration; propulsion technology; nuclear rocket program; and budgeting.

  18. The NASA Electric Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Byers, David C.; King, David Q.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA OAST Propulsion, Power, and Energy Division supports an electric propulsion program aimed at providing benefits to a broad class of missions. Concepts which have the potential to enable or significantly benefit space exploration and exploitation are identified and advanced toward application in the near and far term. This paper summarizes recent program progress in mission/system analysis; in electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic propulsion technologies; and in propulsion/spacecraft integration.

  19. SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

  20. SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

  1. Cold-Flow Propulsion Research Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An engineer at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Wind Tunnel Facility uses lasers to measure the velocity and gradient distortion across an eight inch curved pipe with joints and turning valves during a cold-flow propulsion research test; simulating the conditions found in the X-33's hydrogen feedline. Lasers are used because they are non-intrusive and do not disturb the flow like a probe would. The feedline supplies propellants to the turbo pump. The purpose of this project was to design the feedline to provide uniform flow into the turbo pump.

  2. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  3. Rarefaction wave gun propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathe, Eric Lee

    A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing results are juxtaposed by a simple interior ballistic model to place the experimental findings into a context within which they may better be understood. Rarefaction wave gun (RAVEN) propulsion is an original contribution to the field of armament engineering. No precedent is known, and no experimental results of such a gun have been published until now. Recoil reduction in excess of 50% was experimentally achieved without measured loss in projectile velocity. RAVEN achieves recoil reduction by means of a delayed venting of the breech of the gun chamber that directs the high enthalpy propellant gases through an expansion nozzle to generate forward thrust that abates the rearward momentum applied to the gun prior to venting. The novel feature of RAVEN, relative to prior recoilless rifles, is that sufficiently delayed venting results in a rarefaction wave that follows the projectile though the bore without catching it. Thus, the projectile exits the muzzle without any compromise to its propulsion performance relative to guns that maintain a sealed chamber.

  4. Turboprop Propulsion Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This instructional package consists of a plan of instruction, glossary, and student handouts and exercises for use in training Air Force personnel to become turboprop propulsion mechanics. Addressed in the individual lessons of the course are the following: common hand tools, hardware, measuring devices, and safety wiring; aircraft and engine…

  5. Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area is tasked to develop near and mid-term SEP technology to improve or enable science mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. The solar electric propulsion investments are primarily driven by SMD cost-capped mission needs. The technology needs are determined partially through systems analysis tasks including the recent "Re-focus Studies" and "Standard Architecture Study." These systems analysis tasks transitioned the technology development to address the near term propulsion needs suitable for cost-capped open solicited missions such as Discovery and New Frontiers Class missions. Major SEP activities include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), implementing a Standard Architecture for NSTAR and NEXT EP systems, and developing a long life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC). Lower level investments include advanced feed system development and xenon recovery testing. Future plans include completion of ongoing ISP development activities and evaluating potential use of commercial electric propulsion systems for SMD applications. Examples of enhanced mission capability and technology readiness dates shall be discussed.

  6. NASA Now: Propulsion

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll visit NASA’s Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, called B-2, at NASA Plum Brook Station. You’ll meet Dr. Louis Povinelli and Brian Jones who explain w...

  7. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, L.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the performance and reliability characteristics of chemical propulsion systems requires research and testing of higher-performance propellants, higher efficiency thrusters, cryogenics technology, lightweight components and advancements in propulsion system design and assessment. Propellants are being investigated to identify practical combinations with higher efficiencies and better thermal properties to reduce thermal control requirements. This includes combinations with modest increases, such as LOX-hydrazine, as well as a new evaluation of major improvements available from fluorine-bearing oxidizers. Practical ways of implementing cryogenic propulsion to further increase efficiency are also being studied. Some potential advances include small pump-fed engines, and improvements in cryocooler technology and tank pressure control. Gelled propellants will be tested to determine the practicality of letting propellants freeze at low environmental temperatures and thawing them only when required for use. The propellant tank is typically the single highest non-expendable mass in a chemical propulsion system. Lightweight tank designs, materials and methods of fabrication are being investigated. These are projected to offer a 45-50 percent decrease in tank mass, representing the potential inert system mass savings. Mission and systems analyses are being conducted to guide the technology research and set priorities for technology investment, based on estimated gains in payload and mission capabilities. This includes development of advanced assessment tools and analyses of specific missions selected from Science Missions' Directorate. The goal is to mature a suite of reliable advanced propulsion technologies that will promote more cost efficient missions through the reduction of interplanetary trip time, increased scientific payload mass fraction and longer on-station operations. This talk will review the Advanced Chemical technology development roadmap, current

  8. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  9. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability

  10. The Propulsion Center at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. Our mission is to move the nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft like access to earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space. Current efforts cover a wide range of exciting areas, including high-energy plasma thrusters, advanced fission and fusion engines, antimatter propulsion systems, beamed energy rockets and sails, and fundamental motive physics. Activities involve concept investigation, proof-of-concept demonstration, and breadboard validation of new propulsion systems. The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC provides an environment where NASA, national laboratories, universities, and industry researchers can pool their skills together to perform landmark propulsion achievements. We offer excellent educational opportunities to students and young researchers-fostering a wellspring of innovation that will revolutionize space transportation.

  11. Electric propulsion for communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, B. A.; Guman, W. J.; Herron, B. G.; Zafran, S.

    1978-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems derive their low overall mass, relative to chemical propulsion systems, from an optimized mix of independently controlled power and mass flow rate. A significant reduction in mass can be secured by substituting electric propulsion for conventional hydrazine systems for all the major propulsion tasks of a communications satellite. Additional advantages for all electric propulsion maneuvers are precision location and higher pointing accuracy. Three auxiliary electric propulsion systems are now available for application on communications satellites: the electrically augmented hydrazine system, the Teflon pulsed plasma system, and the mercury ion thruster system. Primary electric propulsion will be available in the mid to late 1980s as a spin-off of NASA's program of interplanetary exploration.

  12. The NASA Electric Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the NASA Electric Propulsion program is aimed at providing technology for auxiliary and primary propulsion functions for earth-orbital and planetary space missions. Efforts in electrostatic propulsion include analyses of ion propulsion for Geosynchronous (GEO) and planetary spacecraft, continued preflight efforts associated with the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), and research and technology for advanced and simplified ion thruster systems. In the area of electromagnetic propulsion, studies were conducted regarding the feasibility and impacts of the use of electromagnetic launchers. Research on magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, electromagnetic launchers, and Hall current thrusters was also performed. Studies in the electrothermal sector included an evaluation of electric propulsion options for the Space Station, taking into account also resistojets, a pulsed electrothermal thruster, and arc jets.

  13. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  14. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  15. STOL propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denington, R. J.; Koenig, R. W.; Vanco, M. R.; Sagerser, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and the characteristics of quiet, clean propulsion systems for STOL aircraft are discussed. Engines are evaluated for augmentor wing and externally blown flap STOL aircraft with the engines located both under and over the wings. Some supporting test data are presented. Optimum engines are selected based on achieving the performance, economic, acoustic, and pollution goals presently being considered for future STOL aircraft. The data and results presented were obtained from a number of contracted studies and some supporting NASA inhouse programs, most of which began in early 1972. The contracts include: (1) two aircraft and mission studies, (2) two propulsion system studies, (3) the experimental and analytic work on the augmentor wing, and (4) the experimental programs on Q-Fan. Engines are selected and discussed based on aircraft economics using the direct operating cost as the primary criterion. This cost includes the cost of the crew, fuel, aircraft, and engine maintenance and depreciation.

  16. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  17. CFD for hypersonic propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.

  18. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  19. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  20. CFD for hypersonic propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.

  1. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  2. Laser thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, D.; Elkins, R.; Peters, C.; Jones, L.

    1984-01-01

    Laser thermal propulsion (LTP) is studied for the case in which laser power is absorbed by a small very high-temperature plasma (about 20,000 K) and transferred to the remainder of the pure hydrogen propellant by radiation and mixing. This concept could lead to the realization of a lightweight orbital transfer vehicle propulsion system having a specific impulse in the range 1000-2000 s. Approximately 12 percent of the input power may be radiated to the thruster walls, and 15 percent of the total propellant flow must be heated to 20,000 K to provide a bulk temperature of 5000 K prior to expansion. Three principal research issues identified are: (1) conditions for hydrogen plasma ignition, (2) control of the plasma position within the laser beam, plasma stability, and plasma absorption efficiency, and (3) characterization of the mixing of the plasma and buffer flows.

  3. Plasmas for space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Plasma thrusters are challenging the monopoly of chemical thrusters in space propulsion. The specific energy that can be deposited into a plasma beam is orders of magnitude larger than the specific chemical energy of known fuels. Plasma thrusters constitute a vast family of devices ranging from already commercial thrusters to incipient laboratory prototypes. Figures of merit in plasma propulsion are discussed. Plasma processes and conditions differ widely from one thruster to another, with the pre-eminence of magnetized, weakly collisional plasmas. Energy is imparted to the plasma via either energetic electron injection, biased electrodes or electromagnetic irradiation. Plasma acceleration can be electrothermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. Plasma-wall interaction affects energy deposition and erosion of thruster elements, and thus is central for thruster efficiency and lifetime. Magnetic confinement and magnetic nozzles are present in several devices. Oscillations and turbulent transport are intrinsic to the performances of some thrusters. Several thrusters are selected in order to discuss these relevant plasma phenomena.

  4. Hypersonic missile propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmar, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Pratt and Whitney is developing the technology for hypersonic components and engines. A supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) database was developed using hydrogen fueled propulsion systems for space access vehicles and serves as a point of departure for the current development of hydrocarbon scramjets. The Air Force Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) Program has put programs in place to develop the technologies necessary to demonstrate the operability, performance and structural durability of an expendable, liquid hydrocarbon fueled scramjet system that operates from Mach 4 to 8. This program will culminate in a flight type engine test at representative flight conditions. The hypersonic technology base that will be developed and demonstrated under HyTech will establish the foundation to enable hypersonic propulsion systems for a broad range of air vehicle applications from missiles to space access vehicles. A hypersonic missile flight demonstration is planned in the DARPA Affordable Rapid Response Missile Demonstrator (ARRMD) program in 2001.

  5. Interstellar Propulsion Concepts Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is investigating the feasibility of conducting extra-solar and interstellar missions over the next 10 to 50 years. An assessment of technologies supporting these near and far term objectives is required. To help meet these objectives the Principal Investigator assessed the feasibility of candidate propulsion systems for the proposed 'Interstellar Probe', a mission to send a spacecraft to the Heliopause at 250 AU and beyond.

  6. Emerging Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) investment area is the newest area within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project and strives to bridge technologies in the lower Technology Readiness Level (TRL) range (2 to 3) to the mid TRL range (4 to 6). A prioritization process, the Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP), was developed and applied in FY01 to establish initial program priorities. The EPT investment area emerged for technologies that scored well in the IISTP but had a low technical maturity level. One particular technology, the Momentum-eXchange Electrodynamic-Reboost (MXER) tether, scored extraordinarily high and had broad applicability in the IISTP. However, its technical maturity was too low for ranking alongside technologies like the ion engine or aerocapture. Thus MXER tethers assumed top priority at EPT startup in FY03 with an aggressive schedule and adequate budget. It was originally envisioned that future technologies would enter the ISP portfolio through EPT, and EPT developed an EPT/ISP Entrance Process for future candidate ISP technologies. EPT has funded the following secondary, candidate ISP technologies at a low level: ultra-lightweight solar sails, general space/near-earth tether development, electrodynamic tether development, advanced electric propulsion, and in-space mechanism development. However, the scope of the ISPT program has focused over time to more closely match SMD needs and technology advancement successes. As a result, the funding for MXER and other EPT technologies is not currently available. Consequently, the MXER tether tasks and other EPT tasks were expected to phased out by November 2006. Presentation slides are presented which provide activity overviews for the aerocapture technology and emerging propulsion technology projects.

  7. NASA propulsion controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, F.

    1983-01-01

    Multivariable control theory is applied to the design of multiple input and output engine controls. Highly-accurate, real-time engine simulations are utilized for control development and checkout. Electro-optical control components are developed for use in electronic control systems having fiber optic data links. Integrated controls are developed for VSTOL and Rotorcraft propulsion systems. Post-stall models of engine systems are developed to aid in understanding and control of post-stall engine behavior.

  8. Resource Prospector Propulsion System Cold Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Addona, Brad; Trinh, Huu

    2015-01-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a NASA mission being led by NASA Ames Research Center with current plans to deliver a scientific payload package aboard a rover to the lunar surface. As part of an early risk reduction activity, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) have jointly developed a government-version concept of a lunar lander for the mission. The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission. The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen 70-lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas. Many of the major propulsion system components are heritage missile hardware obtained by NASA from the Air Force. In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. All design and

  9. STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

  10. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  11. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  12. The MAP Propulsion Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary T.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, integration, test, performance, and lessons learned of NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) propulsion subsystem. MAP was launched on a Delta-II launch vehicle from NASA's Kennedy Space Center on June 30, 2001. Due to instrument thermal stability requirements, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point was selected for the mission orbit. The L2 trajectory incorporated phasing loops and a lunar gravity assist. The propulsion subsystem's requirements are to manage momentum, perform maneuvers during the phasing loops to set up the lunar swingby, and perform stationkeeping at L2 for 2 years. MAP's propulsion subsystem uses 8 thrusters which are located and oriented to provide attitude control and momentum management about all axes, and delta-V in any direction without exposing the instrument to the sun. The propellant tank holds 72 kg of hydrazine, which is expelled by unregulated blowdown pressurization. Thermal management is complex because no heater cycling is allowed at L2. Several technical challenges presented themselves during I and T, such as in-situ weld repairs and in-situ bending of thruster tubes to accommodate late changes in the observatory CG. On-orbit performance has been nominal, and all phasing loop, mid-course correction, and stationkeeping maneuvers have been successfully performed to date.

  13. Geosynchronous earth orbit base propulsion - electric propulsion options

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electric propulsion and chemical propulsion requirements for a geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) base were analyzed. The base is resupplied from the Space Station's low earth orbit. Orbit-transfer Delta-Vs, nodal-regression Delta-Vs and orbit-maintenance Delta-Vs were considered. For resupplying the base, a cryogenic oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is currently-baselined. Comparisons of several electric propulsion options with the O2/H2 OTV were conducted. Propulsion requirements for missions related to the GEO base were also analyzed. Payload data for the GEO missions were drawn from current mission data bases. Detailed electric propulsion module designs are presented. Mission analyses and propulsion analyses for the GEO-delivered payloads are included. 23 references.

  14. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-space Propulsion Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The solar electric propulsion technology area has been investing in NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Current status and expected capabilities of the solar electric propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  15. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that attains the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and worm-holes, and superluminal quantum effects. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. The methods of the program and the results of the 1997 workshop are presented. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Embedded Wing Propulsion Conceptual Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Saunders, John D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of distributed propulsion work under NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts or RAC project, a new propulsion-airframe integrated vehicle concept called Embedded Wing Propulsion (EWP) is developed and examined through system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The idea behind the concept is to fully integrate a propulsion system within a wing structure so that the aircraft takes full benefits of coupling of wing aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of the EWP concept applied to large transport aircraft such as the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft. In this paper, some of early analysis and current status of the study are presented. In addition, other current activities of distributed propulsion under the RAC project are briefly discussed.

  17. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  18. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  19. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  20. Propulsion technologies for near term

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Gopal

    1991-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements and considerations; cost effective approach; booster recovery module; and commercial vehicles - evolutionary approach are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  1. A comparison of chemical propulsion, nuclear thermal propulsion, and multimegawatt electric propulsion for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Leifer, Stephanie D.

    1991-01-01

    Various propulsion systems are considered for a split-mission piloted exploration of Mars in terms of reducing total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) as well as trip time. Aerobraked nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), multimegawatt (MMW) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), and MMW solar electric propulsion (SEP) are discussed and compared to a baseline aerobraked chemical propulsion system. NTP offers low IMLEO, MMW NEP allows both low IMLEO and a short trip time, and both nuclear systems offer better mission characteristics than the chemical system. The MMW SEP is concluded to be less efficient in spite of a lower IMLEO because of the system's higher specific mass and nonconstant power production. It is recommended that MMW NEP and SEP systems be considered for application to Mars cargo missions. The NEP system is concluded to be the most effective propulsion configuration for piloted Mars missions and lunar base missions.

  2. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  3. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  4. Miniature propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John G.

    1992-07-01

    Miniature solenoid valves, check valves and a hydrazine gas generator typify the miniaturization used in the liquid propulsion system for the Army Light Weight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP). The pressure control subsystem uses a solenoid valve weighing 24 grams to control flow of helium to pressurize the propellant tanks. The attitude control subsystem uses a gas generator weighing 71 grams to produce decomposed hydrazine as the gaseous propellant for miniature 1 lbf ACS thrusters weighing 5.4 grams. The successful use of these miniature components in development tests and a hover test of the LEAP is described.

  5. Electromagnetic propulsion test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    A test facility for the exploration of electromagnetic propulsion concept is described. The facility is designed to accommodate electromagnetic rail accelerators of various lengths (1 to 10 meters) and to provide accelerating energies of up to 240 kiloJoules. This accelerating energy is supplied as a current pulse of hundreds of kiloAmps lasting as long as 1 millisecond. The design, installation, and operating characteristics of the pulsed energy system are discussed. The test chamber and its operation at pressures down to 1300 Pascals (10 mm of mercury) are described. Some aspects of safety (interlocking, personnel protection, and operating procedures) are included.

  6. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The programmatic objective is to establish the feasibility of propulsion technologies for vastly expanded space activity. The technical objective is a revolutionary performance sought, such as: (1) about 1 kg/kW specific mass; (2) specific impulse tailored to mission requirements; (3) ability to use in-situ resources; (4) round-trips to Mars in months; (5) round-trips to outer planets in 1 to 2 years; and (6) the capability for robotic mission beyond the solar system.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  8. Space propulsion technology and cryogenic fluid depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Information on space propulsion and technology and the cryogenic fluid depot is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer, electric propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, and program objectives.

  9. Hybrid propulsion systems for space exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darooka, D. K.

    1991-01-01

    Combinations of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), and chemical propulsion are discussed. Technical details are given in viewgraph form. The characteristics of each configuration are discussed, particularly thrust characteristics.

  10. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  11. Assessing Potential Propulsion Breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2005-01-01

    The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations into these goals have begun. From 1996 to 2002, NASA supported the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but kinetic energy can serve as a basis for comparison. In terms of kinetic energy, a hypothetical space drive could require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications, and (c) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

  12. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-09-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  13. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  14. Quality Issues in Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, John P.; Lyles, Garry M.

    1997-01-01

    Propulsion system quality is defined in this paper as having high reliability, that is, quality is a high probability of within-tolerance performance or operation. Since failures are out-of-tolerance performance, the probability of failures and their occurrence is the difference between high and low quality systems. Failures can be described at 3 levels: the system failure (which is the detectable end of a failure), the failure mode (which is the failure process), and the failure cause (which is the start). Failure causes can be evaluated & classified by type. The results of typing flight history failures shows that most failures are in unrecognized modes and result from human error or noise, i.e. failures are when engineers learn how things really work. Although the study based on US launch vehicles, a sampling of failures from other countries indicates the finding has broad application. The parameters of the design of a propulsion system are not single valued, but have dispersions associated with the manufacturing of parts. Many tests are needed to find failures, if the dispersions are large relative to tolerances, which could contribute to the large number of failures in unrecognized modes.

  15. Integrated airframe propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, R. E.; Black, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    Perturbation equations which describe flight dynamics and engine operation about a given operating point are combined to form an integrated aircraft/propulsion system model. Included in the model are the dependence of aerodynamic coefficients upon atmospheric variables along with the dependence of engine variables upon flight condition and inlet performance. An off-design engine performance model is used to identify interaction parameters in the model. Inclusion of subsystem interaction effects introduces coupling between flight and propulsion variables. To analyze interaction effects on control, consideration is first given to control requirements for separate flight and engine models. For the separate airframe model, feedback control provides substantial improvement in short period damping. For the integrated system, feedback control compensates for the coupling present in the model and provides good overall system stability. However, this feedback control law involves many non-zero gains. Analysis of suboptimal control strategies indicates that performance of the closed loop integrated system can be maintained with a feedback matrix in which the number of non-zero gains is small relative to the number of components in the feedback matrix.

  16. The NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear rocket propulsion project - FY 1991 status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning and critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative missions to the moon and to Mars. Interagency agreements are being negotiated between NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense for joint technology development activities. This paper summarizes the activities of the NASA project planning team in FY 1990 that led to the draft Nuclear Propulsion Project Plan, outlines the FY 1991 Interagency activities, and describes the current status of the project plan.

  17. Emergent Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakdi Sencianes, Andres

    2002-01-01

    almost an Engineer (2002 will be my last year as student) and the studies that I'm now ending here, in Girona, are closely related not only with science and technology subjects but with optimization and economic result obtention, too. Huge distances that separate us from everything in space have launched scientists and engineers into a new challenge: How to reach maximum speeds keeping high ratios payload/total spacecraft mass? The key limitation of chemical rockets is that their exhaust velocity is relatively low. Because achieving Earth orbit requires a high velocity change a rocket must carry far more propellant than payload. The answer to all this complications seems to stare in one way: electric propulsion systems and the possibility of taking advantatge of solar winds to thrust our crafts. possible solutions, some of them have been studied for years and now they are not a project but a reality; also newest theories bring us the possibility of dream. Improve of commom propellants, search of new ones: Investigators continued research on use of atomic species as high-energy-density propellants, which could increase the specific impulse of hydrogen/oxygen rockets by 50-150%. Nuclear fission propulsion: Centered in development of reactors for nearterm nuclear electric propulsion aplications. Multimegawatt systems based on vapor core reactors and magnetohydrodynamic power conversion. Engineers investigated new fuels for compact nuclear thermal propulsion systems. What is called plasma state?: When a gas is heated to tens of thousands or millions of degrees, atoms lose their electrons. The result is a "soup" of charged particles, or plasma, made up of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions. No known material can contain the hot plasma necessary for rocket propulsion, but specially designed magnetic fields can. Plasma rockets: This rockets are not powered by conventional chemical reactions as today's rockets are, but by electrical energy that heats

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear propulsion background; schedule for the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) project; NEP for the Space Exploration Initiative; NEP on-going systems tasks; 20KWe mission/system study; and agenda.

  19. Progress in NASA Rotorcraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reviews recent progress made under NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) propulsion research activities. Advances in engines, drive systems and optimized propulsion systems are discussed. Progress in wide operability compressors, modeling of variable geometry turbine performance, foil gas bearings and multi-speed transmissions are presented.

  20. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion.

  1. Nuclear propulsion for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    The results of some recent studies of the application of both nuclear electric and nuclear thermal propulsion systems in space exploration are presented. Issues that require further study and which have a significant effect on the propulsion system design and selection are identified. Attention is given to robotic missions, lunar piloted and cargo missions, and Mars missions.

  2. The NASA Electric Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, David C.; Wasel, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA OAST Propulsion, Power and Energy Division supports electric propulsion for a broad class of missions. Concepts with potential to significantly benefit or enable space exploration and exploitation are identified and advanced toward applications in the near to far term. Recent program progress in mission/system analyses and in electrothermal, ion, and electromagnetic technologies are summarized.

  3. The NASA Electric Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Lisa Wood; Curran, Francis M.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems typically have a major impact on spacecraft mass and cost. Electric propulsion systems offer major performance advantages over conventional chemical systems for many mission functions and the NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) supports an extensive effort to develop the technology for high-performance, on-board electric propulsion system options to enhance and enable near- and far-term US space missions. This program includes research and development efforts on electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic propulsion system technologies to cover a wide range of potential applications. To maximize expectations of technology transfer, the program emphasizes strong interaction with the user community through a variety of cooperative and contracted approaches. This paper provides an overview of the OSAT electric propulsion program with an emphasis on recent progress and future directions.

  4. Overview of space propulsion systems for identifying nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    The next generation of space propulsion systems will be designed to incorporate advanced health monitoring and nondestructive inspection capabilities. As a guide to help the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community impact the development of these space propulsion systems, several questions should be addressed. An overview of background and current information on space propulsion systems at both the programmatic and technical levels is provided. A framework is given that will assist the NDE community in addressing key questions raised during the 2 to 5 April 1990 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Nondestructive Evaluation Subcommittee (NDES).

  5. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  6. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-04-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  8. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  9. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  10. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  11. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  12. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots. PMID:26098511

  13. Pulsed hydrojet propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Torrey, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The pulsed hydrojet is a device in which the water ingested from the free stream is accelerated out of the exhaust pipe to produce thrust. In this report we describe and analyze a way of accelerating the stream of water with pockets of high pressure steam and gas generated inside the stream by an exothermal reaction of suitable propellant injected and dispersed in the water. The velocity increment that must be imparted to the water to produce a substantial thrust need not be very large because the density of the water is comparable to the average density of the accelerated body. Results of the numerical modeling of the proposed jet acceleration mechanism indicate that the hydrojet propulsion device is potentially capable of propelling underwater projectiles at speeds three to five times greater than those currently attainable. Several promising applications of the hydrojet thruster are discussed and evaluated.

  14. Physics of magnetic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulatov, V.

    2005-01-01

    The flight of a magnetic vehicle is expected at the expense of the electrodynamic lift and thrust force of interaction with the natural magnetic field and with the eddy currents in ground or water at low altitudes. It would present in future an alternative to rocketry and aviation owing to the expected better efficiency, constant mass and pure ecology. The principles of the magnetic propulsion (Prog Aerospace Sci 2001;37:245-61) allow to substantiate the proposed application and variant of design of the magnetic flight vehicle, to clarify its advantageous properties and to determine the main problems to be solved for its creation. The reviewed questions of its theory show a number of its important advantages. One of them is the possible performance of aerospace and interplanetary flights by the same unit. The proposed calculation basis for the numerical estimations and corresponding numerical examples would allow to image this vehicle structural features and to compare variants.

  15. Hypersonic propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton

    1990-01-01

    The development of technology for the modular airframe integrated scramjet has been the focus of hypersonic propulsion research for several years. An part of this research, a variety of inlet concepts have been explored and characterized. The emphasis of the inlet program has been the development of the short (light weight), fixed geometry, side wall compression inlets that operate efficiently over a wide Mach number range. As hypersonic combustion tunnels were developed, programs to study the parameters controlling fuel mixing and combustion with single and multiple strut models were conducted using direct connect test techniques. These various tests supported the design of subscale engine test hardware that integrated inlet and combustor technology and allowed the study of the effect of heat release on thrust and combustor/inlet interaction. A number of subscale engine tests have shown predicted performance levels at Mach 4 and 7 simulated flight conditions. A few of the highlights from this research program are summarized.

  16. Hypersonic propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has conducted hypersonic propulsion research since the 1960s. A variety of inlet concepts were explored and characterized. The emphasis of the inlet program was the development of the short (light weight), fixed geometry, side-wall-compression inlets that operate efficiently over a wide Mach number range. As hypersonic combustion tunnels were developed, programs to study the parameters controlling fuel mixing and combustion with single and multiple strut models were conducted using direct connect test techniques. These various tests supported the design of subscale engine test hardware that integrated inlet and combustor technology and allowed the study of the effect of heat release on thrust and combustor/inlet interaction. A number of subscale engine tests have demonstrated predicted performance levels at Mach 4 and 7 simulated flight conditions.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  18. The effects of rear-wheel camber on the kinematics of upper extremity during wheelchair propulsion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rear-wheel camber, defined as the inclination of the rear wheels, is usually used in wheelchair sports, but it is becoming increasingly employed in daily propulsion. Although the rear-wheel camber can increase stability, it alters physiological performance during propulsion. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of rear-wheel cambers on temporal-spatial parameters, joint angles, and propulsion patterns. Methods Twelve inexperienced subjects (22.3±1.6 yr) participated in the study. None had musculoskeletal disorders in their upper extremities. An eight-camera motion capture system was used to collect the three-dimensional trajectory data of markers attached to the wheelchair-user system during propulsion. All participants propelled the same wheelchair, which had an instrumented wheel with cambers of 0°, 9°, and 15°, respectively, at an average velocity of 1 m/s. Results The results show that the rear-wheel camber significantly affects the average acceleration, maximum end angle, trunk movement, elbow joint movement, wrist joint movement, and propulsion pattern. The effects are especially significant between 0° and 15°. For a 15° camber, the average acceleration and joint peak angles significantly increased (p < 0.01). A single loop pattern (SLOP) was adopted by most of the subjects. Conclusions The rear-wheel camber affects propulsion patterns and joint range of motion. When choosing a wheelchair with camber adjustment, the increase of joint movements and the base of support should be taken into consideration. PMID:23173938

  19. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph, taken at MSFC's Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility, shows a concentrator mirror, a combination of 144 mirrors forming this 18-ft diameter concentrator, and a vacuum chamber that houses the focal point. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-foot diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  20. Mars Earth Return Vehicle (MERV) Propulsion Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Fincannon, James; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Parkey, Thomas; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; Hemminger, Joseph; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS Team was tasked with the design of a Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The current Mars sample return mission is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with ESA contributing the launch vehicle for the Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The COMPASS Team ran a series of design trades for this Mars sample return vehicle. Four design options were investigated: Chemical Return /solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage outbound, all-SEP, all chemical and chemical with aerobraking. The all-SEP and Chemical with aerobraking were deemed the best choices for comparison. SEP can eliminate both the Earth flyby and the aerobraking maneuver (both considered high risk by the Mars Sample Return Project) required by the chemical propulsion option but also require long low thrust spiral times. However this is offset somewhat by the chemical/aerobrake missions use of an Earth flyby and aerobraking which also take many months. Cost and risk analyses are used to further differentiate the all-SEP and Chemical/Aerobrake options.

  1. A cyclic ground test of an ion auxiliary propulsion system: Description and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Kramer, Edward H.

    1988-01-01

    The Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) experiment is designed for launch on an Air Force Space Test Program satellite (NASA-TM-78859; AIAA Paper No. 78-647). The primary objective of the experiment is to flight qualify the 8 cm mercury ion thruster system for stationkeeping applications. Secondary objectives are measuring the interactions between operating ion thruster systems and host spacecraft, and confirming the design performance of the thruster systems. Two complete 8 cm mercury ion thruster subsystems will be flown. One of these will be operated for 2557 on and off cycles and 7057 hours at full thrust. Tests are currently under way in support of the IAPS flight experiment. In this test an IAPS thruster is being operated through a series of startup/run/shut-down cycles which simulate thruster operation during the planned flight experiment. A test facility description and operational considerations of this testing using an engineering model 8 cm thruster (S/N 905) is the subject of this paper. Final results will be published at a later date when the ground test has been concluded.

  2. Combined microwave science and propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined use of high-power active science instruments and high-power electric propulsion is investigated with a view to new science opportunities and measurements on future planetary missions. An example of a comet rendezvous mission that could benefit from this combination is discussed. It was found that, with electric propulsion, the launch mass of the comet spacecraft could be reduced by 61-68 percent over the chemical propulsion baseline mission. This high-power spacecraft is also capable of delivering a significant high-power radar science payload to the comet. 28 references.

  3. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  4. Manrating orbital transfer vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expended capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) which will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and men to geosynchronous orbit are discussed. The requirement to provide manrating offers challenges and opportunities to the propulsion system designers. The propulsion approaches utilized in previous manned space vehicles of the United States are reviewed. The principals of reliability analysis are applied to the Orbit Transfer Vehicle. Propulsion system options are characterized in terms of the test requirements to demonstrate reliability goals and are compared to earlier vehicle approaches.

  5. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  6. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  7. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  8. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  9. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  10. Shoulder model validation and joint contact forces during wheelchair activities

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melissa M.B.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Chronic shoulder impingement is a common problem for manual wheelchair users. The loading associated with performing manual wheelchair activities of daily living is substantial and often at a high frequency. Musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques can be used to estimate the joint contact forces occurring at the shoulder to assess the soft tissue loading during an activity and to possibly identify activities and strategies that place manual wheelchair users at risk for shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity musculoskeletal model and apply the model to wheelchair activities for analysis of the estimated joint contact forces. Upper extremity kinematics and handrim wheelchair kinetics were measured over three conditions: level propulsion, ramp propulsion, and a weight relief lift. The experimental data were used as input to a subject-specific musculoskeletal model utilizing optimization to predict joint contact forces of the shoulder during all conditions. The model was validated using a mean absolute error calculation. Model results confirmed that ramp propulsion and weight relief lifts place the shoulder under significantly higher joint contact loading than level propulsion. In addition, they exhibit large superior contact forces that could contribute to impingement. This study highlights the potential impingement risk associated with both the ramp and weight relief lift activities. Level propulsion was shown to have a low relative risk of causing injury, but with consideration of the frequency with which propulsion is performed, this observation is not conclusive. PMID:20840833

  11. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... too far. In children with hypermobility syndrome, those ligaments are loose or weak. This may lead to: Arthritis, which may develop over time Dislocated joints, which is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint Sprains and strains Children with hypermobile joints also often have flat ...

  12. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  13. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  14. Rotational propulsion enabled by inertia.

    PubMed

    Nadal, François; Pak, On Shun; Zhu, LaiLai; Brandt, Luca; Lauga, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The fluid mechanics of small-scale locomotion has recently attracted considerable attention, due to its importance in cell motility and the design of artificial micro-swimmers for biomedical applications. Most studies on the topic consider the ideal limit of zero Reynolds number. In this paper, we investigate a simple propulsion mechanism --an up-down asymmetric dumbbell rotating about its axis of symmetry-- unable to propel in the absence of inertia in a Newtonian fluid. Inertial forces lead to continuous propulsion for all finite values of the Reynolds number. We study computationally its propulsive characteristics as well as analytically in the small-Reynolds-number limit. We also derive the optimal dumbbell geometry. The direction of propulsion enabled by inertia is opposite to that induced by viscoelasticity. PMID:25034393

  15. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  16. Environmental benefits of chemical propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Joyce A.; Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Anderson, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies the necessity of chemical propulsion to satellite usage and some of the benefits accrued through monitoring global resources and patterns, including the Global Climate Change Model (GCM). The paper also summarized how the satellite observations are used to affect national and international policies. Chemical propulsion, like all environmentally conscious industries, does provide limited, controlled pollutant sources through its manufacture and usage. However, chemical propulsion is the sole source which enables mankind to launch spacecraft and monitor the Earth. The information provided by remote sensing directly affects national and international policies designed to protect the environment and enhance the overall quality of life on Earth. The resultant of chemical propulsion is the capability to reduce overall pollutant emissions to the benefit of mankind.

  17. Trajectory correction propulsion for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H. R.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A blowdown-pressurized hydrazine propulsion system was selected to provide trajectory correction impulse for outer planet flyby spacecraft as the result of cost/mass/reliability tradeoff analyses. Present hydrazine component and system technology and component designs were evaluated for application to the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS); while general hydrazine technology was adequate, component design changes were deemed necessary for TOPS-type missions. A prototype hydrazine propulsion system was fabricated and fired nine times for a total of 1600 s to demonstrate the operation and performance of the TOPS propulsion configuration. A flight-weight trajectory correction propulsion subsystem (TCPS) was designed for the TOPS based on actual and estimated advanced components.

  18. Propulsion issues, options and trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Doug J.

    1986-01-01

    Several different types of propulsion concepts are discussed: pulsed fission; continuous nuclear fission; chemical; and chemical boost with advanced nuclear fission. Some of the key characteristics of each type are provided, and typical concepts of each are shown.

  19. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

  20. Investigations of Fluid-Structure-Coupling and Turbulence Model Effects on the DLR Results of the Fifth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keye, Stefan; Togiti, Vamish; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Rivers, Melissa B.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate calculation of aerodynamic forces and moments is of significant importance during the design phase of an aircraft. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been strongly developed over the last two decades regarding robustness, efficiency, and capabilities for aerodynamically complex configurations. Incremental aerodynamic coefficients of different designs can be calculated with an acceptable reliability at the cruise design point of transonic aircraft for non-separated flows. But regarding absolute values as well as increments at off-design significant challenges still exist to compute aerodynamic data and the underlying flow physics with the accuracy required. In addition to drag, pitching moments are difficult to predict because small deviations of the pressure distributions, e.g. due to neglecting wing bending and twisting caused by the aerodynamic loads can result in large discrepancies compared to experimental data. Flow separations that start to develop at off-design conditions, e.g. in corner-flows, at trailing edges, or shock induced, can have a strong impact on the predictions of aerodynamic coefficients too. Based on these challenges faced by the CFD community a working group of the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee initiated in 2001 the CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW) series resulting in five international workshops. The results of the participants and the committee are summarized in more than 120 papers. The latest, fifth workshop took place in June 2012 in conjunction with the 30th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference. The results in this paper will evaluate the influence of static aeroelastic wing deformations onto pressure distributions and overall aerodynamic coefficients based on the NASA finite element structural model and the common grids.

  1. Theory for Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    2009-11-01

    Electrical propulsion of rockets is developing potentially into the use of 3 different thrusters for future long-distance space missions that primarily involve plasma dynamics. These are the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster, the Plasma Induction Thruster (PID), and the VASIMIR Thruster. The history of the development of electrical propulsion into these prospects and the current research of particularly the VASIMIR Thruster are reviewed. Theoretical questions that need to be addressed in that development are explored.

  2. Selecting hydrocarbon rocket propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the dry weight of future earth-to-orbit vehicles can be reduced by the combined use of hydrogen and hydrocarbon propulsion compared to all-hydrogen propulsion. This paper shows that the use of certain hydrocarbon engines with hydrogen engines produces the lowest vehicle dry mass. These hydrocarbon engines use propane or RP-1 fuel, hydrogen cooling, and hydrogen-rich gas generators. Integration of the hydrogen and hydrocarbon nozzles is also beneficial.

  3. Propulsion Induced Effects Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark; Bencze, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane and design variations through computational analysis and experimental subsonic through supersonic wind tunnel testing. The Milestone will generate a comprehensive CFD and wind tunnel data base of the baseline, and design variations. Emphasis will be placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the Technology Concept Airplane with all appropriate wind tunnel corrections.

  4. The NASA Electric Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Brophy, John R.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA has defined and undertaken an evolutionary technology program for high performance electric propulsion systems, which could greatly affect the logistics weight requirements for such large space structures as Space Station Freedom. Attention is presently given to the development status of hydrazine and high power arcjets, resistojets, the characterization of rocket flows and plumes, electrostatic and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and development programs aimed at the determination of opportune technology-insertion activities.

  5. Nuclear space propulsion critical technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S.; Borowski, S.K.; Doherty, M.P. )

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has actively pursued technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for possible use on lunar outpost missions, for exploration missions to Mars, and for outer planet and other solar system exploration missions. A number of these technologies have been broadly identified by the ANS National Critical Technologies Panel, as well as the Department of Commerce as [open quotes]Critical Technologies.[close quotes] A Nuclear Propulsion Office was established at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, to lead nuclear propulsion development for NASA and to establish appropriate interagency working relationships with the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories for nuclear technology development and with the Department of Defense (DoD). The NASA intercenter and interagency teams and NASA contractors have initiated conceptual design activities and other trade studies that provide the focus for appropriate critical technology development for both nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. Critical technology issues have been identified and are discussed in this paper. For NTP systems, the heat generated in the nuclear reactor is used to simply heat a propellant such as hydrogen, and then the high-temperature propellant expands through a nozzle to produce thrust. Specific impulse for NTP systems should be on the order of 900 to 950 s-approximately double the best chemical propulsion systems.

  6. Space and transatmospheric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles; Stangeland, Maynard L.; Brown, James R.; Mccarty, John P.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Northam, G. Burton; Zukoski, Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    This report focuses primarily on Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and propulsion for spaceplane and related transatmospheric areas. It refers briefly to Japan's solid rocket programs and to new supersonic air-breathing propulsion efforts. The panel observed that the Japanese had a carefully thought-out plan, a broad-based program, and an ambitious but achievable schedule for propulsion activity. Japan's overall propulsion program is behind that of the United States at the time of this study, but the Japanese are gaining rapidly. The Japanese are at the forefront in such key areas as advanced materials, enjoying a high level of project continuity and funding. Japan's space program has been evolutionary in nature, while the U.S. program has emphasized revolutionary advances. Projects have typically been smaller in Japan than in the United States, focusing on incremental advances in technology, with an excellent record of applying proven technology to new projects. This evolutionary approach, coupled with an ability to take technology off the shelf from other countries, has resulted in relatively low development costs, rapid progress, and enhanced reliability. Clearly Japan is positioned to be a world leader in space and transatmospheric propulsion technology by the year 2000.

  7. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph shows a fully assembled solar thermal engine placed inside the vacuum chamber at the test facility prior to testing. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move theNation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  8. LISA propulsion module separation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Ahmad, A.; Hyde, T. T.; Sweetser, T.; Ziemer, J.; Conkey, S.; Kelly, W., III; Shirgur, B.

    2005-05-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three sciencecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each sciencecraft is delivered to its operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently included in the sciencecraft design are micronewton level thrusters, such as field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30 40 µN of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the sciencecraft. Due to these thrusters' limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a study of the propulsion module separation system requirements that are necessary to safely deliver the three LISA sciencecraft to their final operational orbits.

  9. Electric propulsion for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael; Zhuang, Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Teel, George; Chiu, Dereck; Lukas, Joseph; Haque, Samudra; Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Propulsion is required for satellite motion in outer space. The displacement of a satellite in space, orbit transfer and its attitude control are the task of space propulsion, which is carried out by rocket engines. Electric propulsion uses electric energy to energize or accelerate the propellant. The electric propulsion, which uses electrical energy to accelerate propellant in the form of plasma, is known as plasma propulsion. Plasma propulsion utilizes the electric energy to first, ionize the propellant and then, deliver energy to the resulting plasma leading to plasma acceleration. Many types of plasma thrusters have been developed over last 50 years. The variety of these devices can be divided into three main categories dependent on the mechanism of acceleration: (i) electrothermal, (ii) electrostatic and (iii) electromagnetic. Recent trends in space exploration associate with the paradigm shift towards small and efficient satellites, or micro- and nano-satellites. A particular example of microthruster considered in this paper is the micro-cathode arc thruster (µCAT). The µCAT is based on vacuum arc discharge. Thrust is produced when the arc discharge erodes some of the cathode at high velocity and is accelerated out the nozzle by a Lorentz force. The thrust amount is controlled by varying the frequency of pulses with demonstrated range to date of 1-50 Hz producing thrust ranging from 1 µN to 0.05 mN.

  10. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  11. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  12. Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis X.; Melcher, Cory; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For over eighty years, it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.

  13. Peroxide Propulsion at the Turn of the Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William E.; Butler, Kathy; Crocket, Dave; Lewis, Tim; McNeal, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    A resurgence of interest in peroxide propulsion has occurred in the last years of the 21st Century. This interest is driven by the need for lower cost propulsion systems and the need for storable reusable propulsion systems to meet future space transportation system architectures. NASA and the Air Force are jointly developing two propulsion systems for flight demonstration early in the 21st Century. One system will be a development of Boeing's AR2-3 engine, which was successfully fielded in the 1960s. The other is a new pressure-fed design by Orbital Sciences Corporation for expendable mission requirements. Concurrently NASA and industry are pursuing the key peroxide technologies needed to design, fabricate, and test advanced peroxide engines to meet the mission needs beyond 2005. This paper will present a description of the AR2-3, report the status of its current test program, and describe its intended flight demonstration. This paper will then describe the Orbital 10K engine, the status of its test program, and describe its planned flight demonstration. Finally the paper will present a plan, or technology roadmap, for the development of an advanced peroxide engine for the 21st Century.

  14. Propulsion Technology Needs for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of currently planned exploration efforts, as well as those further in the future, require significant advancements in propulsion technologies. The current Lunar exploration architecture has set goals and mission objectives that necessitate the use of new systems and the extension of existing technologies beyond present applications. In the near term, the majority of these technologies are the result of a need to apply high performing cryogenic propulsion systems to long duration in-space applications. Advancement of cryogenic propulsion to these applications is crucial to provide higher performing propulsion systems that reduce the vehicle masses; enhance the safety of vehicle systems and ground operations; and provide a path for In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU).Use of a LOX/LH2 main propulsion system for Lunar Lander Descent is a top priority because more conventional storable propellants are far from meeting the performance needs of the current architecture. While LOX/LH2 pump feed engines have been used in flight applications for many years, these engines have limited throttle capabilities. Engines that are capable of much greater throttling while still meeting high performance goals are a necessity to achieving exploration goals. Applications of LOX/CH4 propulsion to Lander ascent propulsion systems and reaction control systems are also if interest because of desirable performance and operations improvements over conventional storable systems while being more suitable for use of in-situ produced propellants. Within the current lunar architecture, use of cryogenic propulsion for the Earth Departure Stage and Lunar Lander elements also necessitate the need for advanced Cryogenic Fluid Management technologies. These technologies include long duration propellant storage/distribution, low-gravity propellant management, cryogenic couplings and disconnects, light weight composite tanks and support structure, and subsystem integration. In addition to

  15. Static tests of the propulsion system. [Propfan Test Assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withers, C. C.; Bartel, H. W.; Turnberg, J. E.; Graber, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced, highly-loaded, high-speed propellers, called propfans, are promising to revolutionize the transport aircraft industry by offering a 15- to 30-percent fuel savings over the most advanced turbofans without sacrificing passenger comfort or violating community noise standards. NASA Lewis Research Center and industry have been working jointly to develop the needed propfan technology. The NASA-funded Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program represents a key element of this joint program. In PTA, Lockheed-Georgia, working in concert with Hamilton Standard, Rohr Industries, Gulfstream Aerospace, and Allison, is developing a propfan propulsion system which will be mounted on the left wing of a modified Gulfstream GII aircraft and flight tested to verify the in-flight characteristics of a 9-foot diameter, single-rotation propfan. The propfan, called SR-7L, was designed and fabricated by Hamilton Standard under a separate NASA contract. Prior to flight testing, the PTA propulsion system was static tested at the Rohr Brown Field facility. In this test, propulsion system operational capability was verified and data was obtained on propfan structural response, system acoustic characteristics, and system performance. This paper reports on the results of the static tests.

  16. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  19. Megawatt Electromagnetic Plasma Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James; Lapointe, Michael; Mikellides, Pavlos

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center program in megawatt level electric propulsion is centered on electromagnetic acceleration of quasi-neutral plasmas. Specific concepts currently being examined are the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). In the case of the MPD thruster, a multifaceted approach of experiments, computational modeling, and systems-level models of self field MPD thrusters is underway. The MPD thruster experimental research consists of a 1-10 MWe, 2 ms pulse-forming-network, a vacuum chamber with two 32 diffusion pumps, and voltage, current, mass flow rate, and thrust stand diagnostics. Current focus is on obtaining repeatable thrust measurements of a Princeton Benchmark type self field thruster operating at 0.5-1 gls of argon. Operation with hydrogen is the ultimate goal to realize the increased efficiency anticipated using the lighter gas. Computational modeling is done using the MACH2 MHD code, which can include real gas effects for propellants of interest to MPD operation. The MACH2 code has been benchmarked against other MPD thruster data, and has been used to create a point design for a 3000 second specific impulse (Isp) MPD thruster. This design is awaiting testing in the experimental facility. For the PIT, a computational investigation using MACH2 has been initiated, with experiments awaiting further funding. Although the calculated results have been found to be sensitive to the initial ionization assumptions, recent results have agreed well with experimental data. Finally, a systems level self-field MPD thruster model has been developed that allows for a mission planner or system designer to input Isp and power level into the model equations and obtain values for efficiency, mass flow rate, and input current and voltage. This model emphasizes algebraic simplicity to allow its incorporation into larger trajectory or system optimization codes. The systems level approach will be extended to the pulsed inductive

  20. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 9th, Baltimore, MD, Sept. 23-25, 1991, Technical Papers. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on aplied aerodynamics encompasses computational fluid dynamics, drag prediction/analysis, experimental aerodynamics, high angles of attack, rotor/propeller aerodynamics, super/hypersonic aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, vortex physics, high-speed civil-transport aeroacoustics, and airfoil/wing aerodynamics. Specific issues addressed include high-speed civil-transport air-breathing propulsion, generic hypersonic inlet-module analysis, an investigation on spoiler effects, high-alpha vehicle dynamics, space-station resource node flow-field analysis, a numerical simulation of sabot discard aerodynamics, and vortex control using pneumatic blowing. Also addressed are Navier-Stokes solutions for the F/A-18 Wing-LEX fuselage, tail venting for enhanced yaw damping at spinning conditions, an investigation of rotor wake interactions with a body in low-speed forward flight, and multigrid calculations of 3D viscous cascade flows.

  1. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  2. Basic research for future electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the evolution of electric propulsion over the past two and a half decades has been constrained by the interaction of three broad factors, including the physics and dynamics of the propellants, the dynamical and logistical requirements of the mission, and the technological realities of materials, power sources, and thermal management. A projection of the future of electric propulsion requires, therefore, a simultaneous reassessment of all three factors. Aspects of mission specification and power systems are discussed, and basic research needed for future electric propulsion applications is considered. Attention is given to electrostatic propulsion, electrothermal propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrids, novel concepts, and ancillary concerns.

  3. Nuclear thermal propulsion technology: Results of an interagency panel in FY 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Mcdaniel, Patrick; Howe, Steven; Helms, Ira; Stanley, Marland

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC was selected to lead nuclear propulsion technology development for NASA. Also participating in the project are NASA MSFC and JPL. The U.S. Department of Energy will develop nuclear technology and will conduct nuclear component, subsystem, and system testing at appropriate DOE test facilities. NASA program management is the responsibility of NASA/RP. The project includes both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology development. This report summarizes the efforts of an interagency panel that evaluated NTP technology in 1991. Other panels were also at work in 1991 on other aspects of nuclear propulsion, and the six panels worked closely together. The charters for the other panels and some of their results are also discussed. Important collaborative efforts with other panels are highlighted. The interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) NTP Technology Panel worked in 1991 to evaluate nuclear thermal propulsion concepts on a consistent basis. Additionally, the panel worked to continue technology development project planning for a joint project in nuclear propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Five meetings of the panel were held in 1991 to continue the planning for technology development of nuclear thermal propulsion systems. The state-of-the-art of the NTP technologies was reviewed in some detail. The major technologies identified were as follows: fuels, coatings, and other reactor technologies; materials; instrumentation, controls, health monitoring and management, and associated technologies; nozzles; and feed system technology, including turbopump assemblies.

  4. LISA Propulsion Module Separation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each spacecraft is delivered to it operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently baselined for the sciencecraft are micronewton level thrusters, such as FEEP or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30-40 microN of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the spacecraft. Due to these thrusters limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a design study of the propulsion module separation system that is shown to safely deliver the LISA sciencecraft to its final operational orbit.

  5. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  6. Propulsion System Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Jimmy C. M.; McClure, Erin K.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Burg, Cecile

    2002-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at the School of Aerospace Engineering in Georgia Institute of Technology has developed a core competency that enables propulsion technology managers to make technology investment decisions substantiated by propulsion and airframe technology system studies. This method assists the designer/manager in selecting appropriate technology concepts while accounting for the presence of risk and uncertainty as well as interactions between disciplines. This capability is incorporated into a single design simulation system that is described in this paper. This propulsion system design environment is created with a commercially available software called iSIGHT, which is a generic computational framework, and with analysis programs for engine cycle, engine flowpath, mission, and economic analyses. iSIGHT is used to integrate these analysis tools within a single computer platform and facilitate information transfer amongst the various codes. The resulting modeling and simulation (M&S) environment in conjunction with the response surface method provides the designer/decision-maker an analytical means to examine the entire design space from either a subsystem and/or system perspective. The results of this paper will enable managers to analytically play what-if games to gain insight in to the benefits (and/or degradation) of changing engine cycle design parameters. Furthermore, the propulsion design space will be explored probabilistically to show the feasibility and viability of the propulsion system integrated with a vehicle.

  7. Swimming & Propulsion in Viscoelastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Many microorganisms have evolved within complex fluids, which include soil, intestinal fluid, and mucus. The material properties or rheology of such fluids can strongly affect an organism's swimming behavior. A major challenge is to understand the mechanism of propulsion in media that exhibit both solid- and fluid-like behavior, such as viscoelastic fluids. In this talk, we present experiments that explore the swimming behavior of biological organisms and artificial particles in viscoelastic media. The organism is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a roundworm widely used for biological research that swims by generating traveling waves along its body. Overall, we find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion compared to Newtonian fluids due to the enhanced resistance to flow near hyperbolic points for viscoelastic fluids. As fluid elasticity increases, the nematode's propulsion speed decreases. These results are consistent with recent theoretical models for undulating sheets and cylinders. In order to gain further understanding on propulsion in viscoelastic media, we perform experiments with simple reciprocal artificial `swimmers' (magnetic dumbbell particles) in polymeric and micellar solutions. We find that self-propulsion is possible in viscoelastic media even if the motion is reciprocal.

  8. Power feature required for PEFC powered electric propulsion ship

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Isao; Oka, Masaru

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC system for ship propulsion, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns an analysis of the load-following performance required and estimated of a PEFC system to power the envisaged ship. The analysis proved that difficulty should be expected of the fuel supply circuit in following with adequate rapidity the sharp changes of load on fuel cell under certain conditions. Further integrated experiments and simulation exercises are currently in progress to further analyze the response characteristics of the fuel supply circuit-particularly of the methanol reformer and gas reservoir-to determine the best measure to be adopted for overcoming the expected difficulty.

  9. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  10. Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

    2007-01-01

    The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

  11. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1996-01-01

    In 1996, a team of government, university and industry researchers proposed a program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that can approach and, if possible, circumvent light speed, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Because the breakthrough goals are beyond existing science, a main emphasis of this program is to establish metrics and ground rules to produce near-term credible progress toward these incredible possibilities. An introduction to the emerging scientific possibilities from which such solutions can be sought is also presented.

  12. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  13. Nuclear thermal propulsion workshop overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is planning an Exploration Technology Program as part of the Space Exploration Initiative to return U.S. astronauts to the moon, conduct intensive robotic exploration of the moon and Mars, and to conduct a piloted mission to Mars by 2019. Nuclear Propulsion is one of the key technology thrust for the human mission to Mars. The workshop addresses NTP (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) technologies with purpose to: assess the state-of-the-art of nuclear propulsion concepts; assess the potential benefits of the concepts for the mission to Mars; identify critical, enabling technologies; lay-out (first order) technology development plans including facility requirements; and estimate the cost of developing these technologies to flight-ready status. The output from the workshop will serve as a data base for nuclear propulsion project planning.

  14. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  15. Space Station Freedom propulsion activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The technical highlights and accomplishments made at NASA LeRC in the development of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) propulsion system are discussed. The objectives are as follows: develop and characterize resistojet-thruster components and assemblies; develop and characterize hydrogen-oxygen thruster components; and conduct system trade studies. The research projects primarily characterize propulsion performance and life. Other tests include environmental impacts, such as exhaust gas profiles and electromagnetic interference. The technical activities that are highlighted are being conducted at LeRC within the Aerospace Technology and Space Station Freedom directorates. These activities include the following: derivation of design analysis models; trade studies of design options; propulsion system impact studies; and component testing for characterization and design verification.

  16. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  17. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  18. Workshop on Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David; Marvin, Dean

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the discussion at the workshop on solar electric propulsion (SEP) is presented. The purpose of ELITE SEP flight experiment is to demonstrate operation of solar array powered electric thrusters for raising spacecraft from parking orbit to higher altitudes, leading to definition of an operational SEP orbit transfer vehicles (OTV) for Air Force missions. Many of the problems or potential problems that may be associated with SEP are not well understood nor clearly identified, and system level phenomena such as interaction of thruster plume with the solar arrays cannot be simulated in a ground test. Therefore, an end-to-end system flight test is required to demonstrate solar electric propulsion.

  19. TOPS attitude propulsion subsystem technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1971-01-01

    The thermoelectric outer-planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem effort is summarized. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of anhydrous hydrazine as the propellant, and a brief description of three types of 0.445-N (100-mlbf) thrusters that were purchased for in-house evaluation. A discussion is also included of the 0.2224-N (50-mlbf)-developed thrusters and their integration with a portable, completely enclosed, propulsion module that was designed and developed to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests in the celestarium.

  20. CFD Techniques for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The symposium was composed of the following sessions: turbomachinery computations and validations; flow in ducts, intakes, and nozzles; and reacting flows. Forty papers were presented, and they covered full 3-D code validation and numerical techniques; multidimensional reacting flow; and unsteady viscous flow for the entire spectrum of propulsion system components. The capabilities of the various numerical techniques were assessed and significant new developments were identified. The technical evaluation spells out where progress has been made and concludes that the present state of the art has almost reached the level necessary to tackle the comprehensive topic of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation for propulsion.

  1. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  2. Electrolysis Propulsion Provides High-Performance, Inexpensive, Clean Spacecraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolysis propulsion system consumes electrical energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are stored in separate tanks and used when needed in gaseous bipropellant thrusters for spacecraft propulsion. The propellant and combustion products are clean and nontoxic. As a result, costs associated with testing, handling, and launching can be an order of magnitude lower than for conventional propulsion systems, making electrolysis a cost-effective alternative to state-of-the-art systems. The electrical conversion efficiency is high (>85 percent), and maximum thrust-to-power ratios of 0.2 newtons per kilowatt (N/kW), a 370-sec specific impulse, can be obtained. A further advantage of the water rocket is its dual-mode potential. For relatively high thrust applications, the system can be used as a bipropellant engine. For low thrust levels and/or small impulse bit requirements, cold gas oxygen can be used alone. An added innovation is that the same hardware, with modest modifications, can be converted into an energy-storage and power-generation fuel cell, reducing the spacecraft power and propulsion system weight by an order of magnitude.

  3. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  4. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Nontoxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for nontoxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of nontoxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of nontoxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of nontoxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that nontoxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  5. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Non-Toxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for non-toxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of non-toxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of non-toxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of non-toxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that non-toxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  6. Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciepluch, C. C.; Abbott, J. M.; Moore, R. D.; Sellers, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Propulsion problems and advanced technology requirements of VTOL aircraft are discussed. Specific topics covered include inlets with high angle of attack capability, rapid thrust modulation fans, and propulsion-system/aircraft-control integration.

  7. Nuclear propulsion technology advanced fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Walter A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced fuels technology are presented. Topics covered include: nuclear thermal propulsion reactor and fuel requirements; propulsion efficiency and temperature; uranium fuel compounds; melting point experiments; fabrication techniques; and sintered microspheres.

  8. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  9. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are an accumulation of the presentations provided at the meeting along with annotations provided by authors. The proceedings cover system concepts, technology development, and system modeling for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The test facilities required for the development of the nuclear propulsion systems are also discussed.

  10. Test facilities for high power electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Vetrone, Robert H.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Myers, Roger M.; Parkes, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Electric propulsion has applications for orbit raising, maneuvering of large space systems, and interplanetary missions. These missions involve propulsion power levels from tenths to tens of megawatts, depending upon the application. General facility requirements for testing high power electric propulsion at the component and thrust systems level are defined. The characteristics and pumping capabilities of many large vacuum chambers in the United States are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high power electric propulsion testing.

  11. The Future of Spacecraft Nuclear Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  12. Advanced NSTS propulsion system verification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The merits of propulsion system development testing are discussed. The existing data base of technical reports and specialists is utilized in this investigation. The study encompassed a review of all available test reports of propulsion system development testing for the Saturn stages, the Titan stages, and the Space Shuttle main propulsion system. The knowledge on propulsion system development and system testing available from specialists and managers was also 'tapped' for inclusion.

  13. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  14. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in the 1994 annual report for the NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center's Sixth Annual Symposium. This conference covered: (1) Combustors and Nozzles; (2) Turbomachinery Aero- and Hydro-dynamics; (3) On-board Propulsion systems; (4) Advanced Propulsion Applications; (5) Vaporization and Combustion; (6) Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics; and (7) Atomization and Sprays.

  15. NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Robinson, J.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space - the maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and they are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, ``propellantless" because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, aeroassist, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA's plans for advancing them as part of the \\$60M per year In-Space Propulsion Technology Program. Solar sails and aerocapture are candidates for flight validation as early as 2008 in partnership with NASA's New Millennium Program.

  16. A fusion based plasma propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Anderson, B.; Bryant, D.; Creese, C.; Djordjevic, V.; Peddicord, K. L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fusion Plasma Propulsion System scoping study was performed to investigate the possibilities of a fusion powered plasma propulsion system for space applications. Specifically, it was to be compared against existing electric propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission. Design parameters consist of 1000 N thrust for 500 days, and the minimum mass possible. This investigation is briefly presented and conclusions drawn.

  17. Applications of nuclear propulsion to Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Reck, Gregory M.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic features of a piloted mission to Mars is described, and it is shown how nuclear propulsion can improve upon the various performance measures of such a mission. An overview of the history and types of nuclear propulsion in the U.S. is presented. Current planning to develop nuclear propulsion technology for the Space Exploration Initiative is addressed.

  18. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  19. Some Interplanetary Missions Using IEC Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Brandon, Larry B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    IEC fusion offers the possibility of very efficient space propulsion with substantial thrust, examine human travel to the planets in order to determine the impact this technology could have reduced travel time and reduced fuel mass, travel via IEC propulsion is from earth orbit to another planetary orbit. Propulsion to a planet's or moon's surface assumed separate.

  20. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 8th, Portland, OR, Aug. 20-22, 1990, Technical Papers. Parts 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in CFD methods and their validation, vortices and vortical flows, STOL/VSTOL aerodynamics, boundary layer transition and separation, wing airfoil aerodynamics, laminar flow, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, CFD for wing airfoil and nacelle applications, wind tunnel testing, flight testing, missile aerodynamics, unsteady flow, configuration aerodynamics, and multiple body/interference flows. Attention is given to the numerical simulation of vortical flows over close-coupled canard-wing configuration, propulsive lift augmentation by side fences, road-vehicle aerodynamics, a shock-capturing method for multidimensional flow, transition-detection studies in a cryogenic environment, a three-dimensional Euler analysis of ducted propfan flowfields, multiple vortex and shock interaction at subsonic and supersonic speeds, and a Navier-Stokes simulation of waverider flowfields. Also discussed are the induced drag of crescent-shaped wings, the preliminary design aerodynamics of missile inlets, finite wing lift prediction at high angles-of-attack, optimal supersonic/hypersonic bodies, and adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional Euler equations.

  1. Multi-Thruster Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having a discharge chamber housing a large surface area anode. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, at least a second thruster may be disposed radially offset from the ion thruster.

  2. MAP Propulsion System Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) had stringent requirements that made the thermal design unique. To meet instrument stability requirements the system had to be designed to keep temperatures of all components within acceptable limits without heater cycling. Although the spacecraft remains at a fixed 22 sun angle at L2, the variations in solar constant, property degradation, and bus voltage range all significantly affect the temperature. Large portions of the fuel lines are external to the structure and all components are mounted to non-conductive composite structure. These two facts made the sensitivity to the MLI effective emissivity and bus temperature very high. Approximately two years prior to launch the propulsion system was redesigned to meet MAP requirements. The new design utilized hardware that was already installed in order to meet schedule constraints. The spacecraft design and the thermal requirements were changed to compensate for inadequacies of the existing hardware. The propulsion system consists of fuel lines, fill and drain lines/valve, eight thrusters, a HXCM, and a propulsion tank. A voltage regulator was added to keep critical components within limits. Software was developed to control the operational heaters. Trim resistors were put in series with each operational heater circuits and the tank survival heater. A highly sophisticated test program, which included real time model correlation, was developed to determine trim resistors sizes. These trim resistors were installed during a chamber break and verified during thermal balance testing.

  3. Innovative electric propulsion thruster modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model and evaluate advanced nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system concepts as an aid to the performance of NEP mission benefits studies. The two primary goals are as follows: (1) provide scaling relationships for mass, power, and efficiency, as functions of Isp, propellant type, and other important quantities. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  4. In-space nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, C.; Dujarric, C.

    2013-02-01

    The past and the recent status of nuclear propulsion (NP) for application to space mission is presented. The case for using NP in manned space missions is made based on fundamental physics and on the necessity to ensure safe radiation doses to future astronauts. In fact, the presence of solar and galactic-cosmic radiation poses substantial risks to crews traveling for months in a row to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. Since passive or active shields would be massive to protect against the more energetic part of the radiation energy spectrum, the only alternative is to reduce dose by traveling faster. Hence the importance of propulsion systems with much higher specific impulse than that of current chemical systems, and thus the use of nuclear propulsion. Nuclear-thermal and nuclear-electric propulsions are then discussed in view of their potential application to missions now in the preliminary planning stage by space agencies and industries and being considered by the ISECG international panel. In this context, recent ideas for future use of the ISS that may require NP are also presented.

  5. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Gabriel I.; Dudley, Scott C.

    2004-10-01

    The cinema industry can sometimes prove to be an ally when searching for material with which to motivate students to learn physics. Consider, for example, the electromagnetic force on a current in the presence of a magnetic field. This phenomenon is at the heart of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion systems. A submarine employing this type of propulsion was immortalized in the movie Hunt for Red October. While mentioning this to students certainly gets their attention, it often elicits comments that it is only fiction and not physically possible. Imagine their surprise when a working system is demonstrated! It is neither difficult nor expensive to construct a working system that can be demonstrated in the front of a classroom.2 In addition, all aspects of the engineering hurdles that must be surmounted and myths concerning this "silent propulsion" system are borne out in a simple apparatus. This paper details how to construct an inexpensive MHD propulsion boat that can be demonstrated for students in the classroom.

  7. Standard Practices for Usage of Inductive Magnetic Field Probes with Application to Electric Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hill, Carrie S.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive magnetic field probes (also known as B-dot probes and sometimes as B-probes or magnetic probes) are useful for performing measurements in electric space thrusters and various plasma accelerator applications where a time-varying magnetic field is present. Magnetic field probes have proven to be a mainstay in diagnosing plasma thrusters where changes occur rapidly with respect to time, providing the means to measure the magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents and even an indirect measure of the plasma current density through the application of Ampère's law. Examples of applications where this measurement technique has been employed include pulsed plasma thrusters and quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. The Electric Propulsion Technical Committee (EPTC) of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) was asked to assemble a Committee on Standards (CoS) for Electric Propulsion Testing. The assembled CoS was tasked with developing Standards and Recommended Practices for various diagnostic techniques used in the evaluation of plasma thrusters. These include measurements that can yield either global information related to a thruster and its performance or detailed, local data related to the specific physical processes occurring in the plasma. This paper presents a summary of the standard, describing the preferred methods for fabrication, calibration, and usage of inductive magnetic field probes for use in diagnosing plasma thrusters. Inductive magnetic field probes (also called B-dot probes throughout this document) are commonly used in electric propulsion (EP) research and testing to measure unsteady magnetic fields produced by time-varying currents. The B-dot probe is relatively simple in construction, and requires minimal cost, making it a low-cost technique that is readily accessible to most researchers. While relatively simple, the design of a B-dot probe is not trivial and there are many opportunities for errors in

  8. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  9. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: gout (especially ...

  10. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  11. NASA safety program activities in support of the Space Exploration Initiatives Nuclear Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Panels have been used as the basis for the current development of safety policies and requirements for the Space Exploration Initiatives (SEI) Nuclear Propulsion Technology development program. The Safety Division of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Quality has initiated efforts to develop policies for the safe use of nuclear propulsion in space through involvement in the joint agency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG), encouraged expansion of the initial policy development into proposed programmatic requirements, and suggested further expansion into the overall risk assessment and risk management process for the NASA Exploration Program. Similar efforts are underway within the Department of Energy to ensure the safe development and testing of nuclear propulsion systems on Earth. This paper describes the NASA safety policy related to requirements for the design of systems that may operate where Earth re-entry is a possibility. The expected plan of action is to support and oversee activities related to the technology development of nuclear propulsion in space, and support the overall safety and risk management program being developed for the NASA Exploration Program.

  12. Advanced technology for future space propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Larry A.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Project Pathfinder contains programs to provide technologies for future transfer vehicles including those powered by both advanced chemical and electric propulsion rockets. This paper discusses the Chemical Transfer Propulsion and Cargo Vehicle Propulsion elements of Pathfinder. The program requirements and goals for both elements are discussed, and technical activities which are planned or underway are summarized. Recent progress in programs which support or proceed the Pathfinder activities is detailed. In particular, the NASA Program for Advanced Orbital Transfer Vehicle Propulsion, which acted as the precursor for the Chemical Transfer Propulsion element of Pathfinder is summarized.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 40: Technical communications in aerospace education: A study of AIAA student members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary analysis of a survey of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) student members. In the paper we examine (1) the demographic characteristics of the students, (2) factors that affected their career decisions, (3) their career goals and aspirations, and (4) their training in technical communication and techniques for finding and using aerospace scientific and technical information (STI). We determine that aerospace engineering students receive training in technical communication skills and the use of STI. While those in the aerospace industry think that more training is needed, we believe the students receive the appropriate amount of training. We think that the differences between the amount of training students receive and the perception of training needs is related partially to the characteristics of the students and partially to the structure of the aerospace STI dissemination system. Overall, we conclude that the students' technical communication training and knowledge of STI, while limited by external forces, makes it difficult for students to achieve their career goals.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 26: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering students: Results of the phase 3 AIAA National Student Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey was undertaken as a phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance; use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

  16. Investigation of Super*Zip separation joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation to determine the most likely cause of two failures of five tests on 79 inch diameter Lockheed Super*Zip spacecraft separation joints being used for the development of a Shuttle/Centaur propulsion system. This joint utilizes an explosively expanded tube to fracture surrounding prenotched aluminum plates to achieve planar separation. A test method was developed and more than 300 tests firings were made to provide an understanding of severance mechanisms and the functional performance effects of system variables. An approach for defining functional margin was developed, and specific recommendations were made for improving existing and future systems.

  17. WSTF Propulsion and Pyrotechnics Corrective Action Test Program Status-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, R.; Ramirez, J.; Julien, H. L.; Hart, M.; Smith, W.; Bement, L.; Meagher, N. E.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive propulsion and pyrotechnic testing has been in progress at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) since 1995. This started with the Mars Observer Propulsion and Pyrotechnics Corrective Action Test Program (MOCATP). The MOCATP has concluded, but extensive pyrovalve testing and research and development has continued at WSTF. The capability to accurately analyze and measure pyrovalve combustion product blow-by, evaluate propellant explosions initiated by blow-by, and characterize pyrovalve operation continues to be used and improved. This paper contains an overview of testing since MOCATP inception, but focuses on accomplishments since the status was last reported at the 35th Joint Propulsion Conference, June, 1999. This new activity includes evaluation of 3/8 inch Conax pyrovalves; development and testing of advanced pyrovalve technologies; investigation of nondestructive evaluation techniques to inspect pyrotechnically induced hydrazine explosions both through testing and modeling. Data from this collection of projects are now being formatted into a pyrovalve applications and testing handbook and consensus standard to benefit pyrovalve users and spacecraft designers. The handbook is briefly described here and in more detail in a separate paper. To increase project benefit, pyrovalve manufacturers are encouraged to provide additional valves for testing and consideration, and feedback is encouraged in all aspects of the pyrotechnic projects.

  18. A Summary of the NASA Fusion Propulsion Workshop 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Turchi, Peter J.; Santarius, John F.; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A NASA Fusion Propulsion Workshop was held on Nov. 8 and 9, 2000 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. A total of 43 papers were presented at the Workshop orally or by posters, covering a broad spectrum of issues related to applying fusion to propulsion. The status of fusion research was reported at the Workshop showing the outstanding scientific research that has been accomplished worldwide in the fusion energy research program. The international fusion research community has demonstrated the scientific principles of fusion creating plasmas with conditions for fusion burn with a gain of order unity: 0.25 in Princeton TFTR, 0.65 in the Joint European Torus, and a Q-equivalent of 1.25 in Japan's JT-60. This research has developed an impressive range of physics and technological capabilities that may be applied effectively to the research of possibly new propulsion-oriented fusion schemes. The pertinent physics capabilities include the plasma computational tools, the experimental plasma facilities, the diagnostics techniques, and the theoretical understanding. The enabling technologies include the various plasma heating, acceleration, and the pulsed power technologies.

  19. Propulsion Flight Research at NASA Dryden From 1967 to 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.; Conners, Timothy R.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1997-01-01

    From 1967 to 1997, pioneering propulsion flight research activities have been conceived and conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Many of these programs have been flown jointly with the United States Department of Defense, industry, or the Federal Aviation Administration. Propulsion research has been conducted on the XB-70, F-111 A, F-111E, YF-12, JetStar, B-720, MD-11, F-15, F- 104, Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology, F-14, F/A-18, SR-71, and the hypersonic X-15 airplanes. Research studies have included inlet dynamics and control, in-flight thrust computation, integrated propulsion controls, inlet and boattail drag, wind tunnel-to-flight comparisons, digital engine controls, advanced engine control optimization algorithms, acoustics, antimisting kerosene, in-flight lift and drag, throttle response criteria, and thrust-vectoring vanes. A computer-controlled thrust system has been developed to land the F-15 and MD-11 airplanes without using any of the normal flight controls. An F-15 airplane has flown tests of axisymmetric thrust-vectoring nozzles. A linear aerospike rocket experiment has been developed and tested on the SR-71 airplane. This paper discusses some of the more unique flight programs, the results, lessons learned, and their impact on current technology.

  20. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Technology - Summary of FY 1991 Interagency Panel Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Mcdaniel, Patrick; Howe, Steven; Stanley, Marland

    1991-01-01

    An Interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) technical panel has been working in 1991 to evaluate nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts on a consistent basis, and to continue technology development project planning for a joint project in nuclear propulsion for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper summarizes the efforts of the panel to date and summarizes the technology plans defined for NTP. Concepts were categorized based on probable technology readiness data, and innovative 'proof-of-concept' tests and analyses were defined. While further studies will be required to provide a consistent comparison of all of the NTP concepts, the current status of the studies is presented.

  1. Broad Search Solar Electric Propulsion Trajectories to Saturn with Gravity Assists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Try; Landau, Damon; Strange, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories to Saturn using multiple gravity assists are explored for the joint NASA and ESA Titan Saturn System Mission study. Results show that these new trajectories enable greater performance compared to chemical propulsion with similar gravity assists or SEP without gravity assists. This paper describes the method used in finding these interplanetary trajectories and examines variations in the performance for different SEP systems, flight times, and flyby sequences. The benefits of the SEP trajectories for a mission to Saturn are also discussed.

  2. Wormhole Formation in RSRM Nozzle Joint Backfill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J.

    2000-01-01

    The RSRM nozzle uses a barrier of RTV rubber upstream of the nozzle O-ring seals. Post flight inspection of the RSRM nozzle continues to reveal occurrence of "wormholes" into the RTV backfill. The term "wormholes", sometimes called "gas paths", indicates a gas flow path not caused by pre-existing voids, but by a little-understood internal failure mode of the material during motor operation. Fundamental understanding of the mechanics of the RSRM nozzle joints during motor operation, nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of the RTV backfill material, identification of the conditions that predispose the RTV to form wormholes, and screening of candidate replacement materials is being pursued by a joint effort between Thiokol Propulsion, NASA, and the Army Propulsion & Structures Directorate at Redstone Arsenal. The performance of the RTV backfill in the joint is controlled by the joint environment. Joint movement, which applies a tension and shear load on the material, coupled with the introduction of high pressure gas in combination create an environment that exceeds the capability of the material to withstand the wormhole effect. Little data exists to evaluate why the material fails under the modeled joint conditions, so an effort to characterize and evaluate the material under these conditions was undertaken. Viscoelastic property data from characterization testing will anchor structural analysis models. Data over a range of temperatures, environmental pressures, and strain rates was used to develop a nonlinear viscoelastic model to predict material performance, develop criteria for replacement materials, and quantify material properties influencing wormhole growth. Three joint simulation analogs were developed to analyze and validate joint thermal barrier (backfill) material performance. Two exploratory tests focus on detection of wormhole failure under specific motor operating conditions. A "validation" test system provides data to "validate" computer models and

  3. Laser Ablation Propulsion A Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Sayed A.; Ugalatad, Akshata C.

    Laser Ablation Propulsion (LAP) will serve as an alternative propulsion system for development of microthrusters. The principle of LAP is that when a laser (pulsed or continuous wave) with sufficient energy (more than the vaporization threshold energy of material) is incident on material, ablation or vaporization takes place which leads to the generation of plasma. The generated plasma has the property to move away from the material hence pressure is generated which leads to the generation of thrust. Nowadays nano satellites are very common in different space and defence applications. It is important to build micro thruster which are useful for orienting and re-positioning small aircraft (like nano satellites) above the atmosphere. modelling of LAP using MATLAB and Mathematica. Schematic is made for the suitable optical configuration of LAP. Practical experiments with shadowgraphy and self emission techniques and the results obtained are analysed taking poly (vinyl-chloride) (PVC) as propellant to study the

  4. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald-Tenenbaum, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several decades, a variety of laser diagnostic techniques have been developed and applied to diagnose spacecraft propulsion devices. Laser diagnostics are inherently non-intrusive, and provide the opportunity to probe properties such as temperature, concentration or number density of plume species, and plume velocities in the harsh environments of combustion and plasma discharges. This presentation provides an overview of laser diagnostic capabilities for spacecraft propulsion devices such as small monopropellant thrusters, arcjets, ion engines and Hall thrusters. Particular emphasis is placed on recent developments for time-resolved ion velocity measurements in Hall thruster plumes. Results are presented for one such diagnostic method, a time-synchronized CW-laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique based on a sample hold scheme. This method is capable of correlating measured fluorescence excitation lineshapes with high frequency current fluctuations in the plasma discharge of a Hall thruster and is tolerant of natural drifting in the current oscillation frequency.

  5. Attitude propulsion technology for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem (APS) effort is discussed. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of an anhydrous hydrazine baseline system, followed by a discussion of the 0.22 N thruster and its integration into a portable, self-contained propulsion module that was designed, developed, and man rated to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests. The results of a cold-start feasibility demonstration with a modified thruster are presented. A description of three types of 0.44 thrusters that were procured for in-house evaluation is included along with the results of the test program. This is followed by a description of the APS feed system components, their evaluations, and a discussion of an evaluation of elastomeric material for valve seat seals. A list of new technology items which will be of value for application to future systems of this type is included.

  6. OTV propulsion tecnology programmatic overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1984-04-01

    An advanced orbit transfer vehicles (OTV) which will be an integral part of the national space transportation system to carry men and cargo between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit will perform planetary transfers and deliver large acceleration limited space structures to high Earth orbits is reviewed. The establishment of an advanced propulsion technology base for an OTV for the mid 1990's is outlined. The program supports technology for three unique engine concepts. Work is conducted to generic technologies which benefit all three concepts and specific technology which benefits only one of the concepts. Concept and technology definitions to identify propulsion innovations, and subcomponent research to explore and validate their potential benefits are included.

  7. OTV propulsion tecnology programmatic overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced orbit transfer vehicles (OTV) which will be an integral part of the national space transportation system to carry men and cargo between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit will perform planetary transfers and deliver large acceleration limited space structures to high Earth orbits is reviewed. The establishment of an advanced propulsion technology base for an OTV for the mid 1990's is outlined. The program supports technology for three unique engine concepts. Work is conducted to generic technologies which benefit all three concepts and specific technology which benefits only one of the concepts. Concept and technology definitions to identify propulsion innovations, and subcomponent research to explore and validate their potential benefits are included.

  8. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  9. NASA electrothermal auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Electrothermal auxiliary propulsion systems provide high performance options which can have major mission benefits. There are several electrothermal concepts which offer a range of characteristics and benefits. Resistojets are the highest thrust to power option and are currently operational at mission average values of specific impulse, I sub sp approximately 295 sec. Long life, multipropellant resistojets are being developed for the space station, and resistojet technology advancements are being pursued to improve the I sub sp by more than 20 percent for resistojets used in satellite applications. Direct current arcjets have the potential of I sub sp over 400 sec with storable propellants and should provide over 1000 sec with hydrogen. Advanced concepts are being investigated to provide high power density options and possible growth to primary propulsion applications. Broad based experimental and analytical research and technology programs of NASA are summarized and recent significant advances are reviewed.

  10. Space Shuttle Propulsion Safety Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, William Randy, Jr.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the proposed upgrades to the Space Shuttle Propulsion system, to improve safety, and reduce significant hazards. The goals of the program are to reduce the risk of a catastrophe in ascent, to achieve significant reduction in orbital and entry systems, and to improve the crew cockpit situational awareness for managing the critical operational situations. The document reviews the upgrades to the propulsion system which are planned to improve the safety. These include modifications to the Advanced Thrust Vector Control, modifications to the Space Shuttle Main Engine Block III, improvement in the Advanced Health Management System, the use of Friction Stir welding on the external tank, which is expected to improve mechanical properties, and reduce defect rate, and the modification of the propellant grains geometry.

  11. Squirming propulsion in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Corato, Marco; Greco, Francesco; Maffettone, Pier Luca

    2015-11-01

    The locomotion of organisms in Newtonian fluids at low-Reynolds numbers displays very different features from that at large Reynolds numbers; indeed, in this regime the viscous forces are dominant over the inertial ones and propulsion is possible only with non-time-reversible swimming strokes. In many situations of biological interest, however, small organisms are propelling themselves through non-Newtonian fluids such as mucus or biofilms, which display highly viscoelastic properties. Fluid viscoelasticity affects in a complex way both the micro-organisms' swimming velocity and dissipated power, possibly affecting their collective behavior. In our work, we employ the so called ``squirmer'' model to study the motion of spherical ciliated organisms in a viscoelastic fluid. We derive analytical formulas for the squirmer swimming velocity and dissipated power that show a complex interplay between the fluid constitutive behavior and the propulsion mechanism.

  12. An assessment of liquid propulsion in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, John P.; Murphy, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the status of liquid propulsion capability and technology in the U.S. today versus where it needs to be to satisfy proposed near and long term goals. Attention is given to four areas of liquid propulsion: earth-to-orbit propulsion, orbital transfer propulsion, on-orbit and planetary propulsion, and advanced propulsion. Recommendations on improving the state of liquid propulsion in the U.S. are presented.

  13. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  14. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  15. Impeller for Water Jet Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center engineers helped North American Marine Jet (NAMJ), Inc. improve the proposed design of a new impeller for jet propulsion system. With a three-dimensional computer model of the new marine jet engine blades, engineers were able to quickly create a solid ploycarbonate model of it. The rapid prototyping allowed the company to avoid many time-consuming and costly steps in creating the impeller.

  16. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  17. Space Shuttle Propulsion Finishing Strong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.; Singer, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the SRB's on STS-4 and shutdown of an SSME during ascent on STS- 51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired to release the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early Program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. Human rating of solid rocket motors was truly achieved. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. These major events and lessons for the future are discussed. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The propulsion system elements evolved to high reliability and heavy lift capability. The Shuttle system, though not a operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS) and provided significant logistics and down mass for ISS operations. By the end of the Program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and is a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. The story of this amazing system is discussed in detail in the paper.

  18. Development of Liquid Propulsion Systems Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald; Nelson, Graham

    2016-01-01

    As NASA, the Department of Defense and the aerospace industry in general strive to develop capabilities to explore near-Earth, Cis-lunar and deep space, the need to create more cost effective techniques of propulsion system design, manufacturing and test is imperative in the current budget constrained environment. The physics of space exploration have not changed, but the manner in which systems are developed and certified needs to change if there is going to be any hope of designing and building the high performance liquid propulsion systems necessary to deliver crew and cargo to the further reaches of space. To further the objective of developing these systems, the Marshall Space Flight Center is currently in the process of formulating a Liquid Propulsion Systems testbed, which will enable rapid integration of components to be tested and assessed for performance in integrated systems. The manifestation of this testbed is a breadboard engine configuration (BBE) with facility support for consumables and/or other components as needed. The goal of the facility is to test NASA developed elements, but can be used to test articles developed by other government agencies, industry or academia. Joint government/private partnership is likely the approach that will be required to enable efficient propulsion system development. MSFC has recently tested its own additively manufactured liquid hydrogen pump, injector, and valves in a BBE hot firing. It is rapidly building toward testing the pump and a new CH4 injector in the BBE configuration to demonstrate a 22,000 lbf, pump-fed LO2/LCH4 engine for the Mars lander or in-space transportation. The value of having this BBE testbed is that as components are developed they may be easily integrated in the testbed and tested. MSFC is striving to enhance its liquid propulsion system development capability. Rapid design, analysis, build and test will be critical to fielding the next high thrust rocket engine. With the maturity of the

  19. National Rocket Propulsion Materials Plan: A NASA, Department of Defense, and Industry Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA, Department of Defense, and rocket propulsion industry representatives are working together to create a national rocket propulsion materials development roadmap. This "living document" will facilitate collaboration among the partners, leveraging of resources, and will be a highly effective tool for technology development planning. The structuring of the roadmap, and development plan, which will combine the significant efforts of the Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) Program, and NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), is being lead by the IHPRPT Materials Working Group (IMWG). The IHPRPT Program is a joint DoD, NASA, and industry effort to dramatically improve the nation's rocket propulsion capabilities. This phased program is structured with increasingly challenging goals focused on performance, reliability, and cost to effectively double rocket propulsion capabilities by 2010. The IHPRPT program is focused on three propulsion application areas: Boost and Orbit Transfer (both liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors), Tactical, and Spacecraft. Critical to the success of this initiative is the development and application of advanced materials, processes, and manufacturing technologies. NASA's ISTP is a comprehensive strategy focusing on the aggressive safety, reliability, and affordability goals for future space transportation systems established by the agency. Key elements of this plan are the 2 nd and 3 d Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The affordability and safety goals of these generational systems are, respectively, 10X cheaper and 100X safer by 2010, and 100X cheaper and 10,000X safer by 2025. Accomplishment of these goals requires dramatic and sustained breakthroughs, particularly in the development and the application of advanced material systems. The presentation will provide an overview of the IHPRPT materials initiatives, NASA's 2nd and 3 rd Generation RLV propulsion materials projects, and the

  20. Antimatter propulsion, status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Hynes, Michael V.

    1986-01-01

    The use of advanced propulsion techniques must be considered if the currently envisioned launch date of the manned Mars mission were delayed until 2020 or later. Within the next thirty years, technological advances may allow such methods as beaming power to the ship, inertial-confinement fusion, or mass-conversion of antiprotons to become feasible. A propulsion system with an ISP of around 5000 s would allow the currently envisioned mission module to fly to Mars in 3 months and would require about one million pounds to be assembled in Earth orbit. Of the possible methods to achieve this, the antiproton mass-conversion reaction offers the highest potential, the greatest problems, and the most fascination. Increasing the production rates of antiprotons is a high priority task at facilities around the world. The application of antiprotons to propulsion requires the coupling of the energy released in the mass-conversion reaction to thrust-producing mechanisms. Recent proposals entail using the antiprotons to produce inertial confinement fusion or to produce negative muons which can catalyze fusion. By increasing the energy released per antiproton, the effective cost, (dollars/joule) can be reduced. These proposals and other areas of research can be investigated now. These short term results will be important in assessing the long range feasibility of an antiproton powered engine.

  1. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  2. HSCT integrated propulsion control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Christopher M.

    1992-01-01

    The propulsion control system affects the economics of the HSCT through the mechanisms indicated. Weight reduction is paramount in an aircraft of this type. Significant reductions are possible relative to the SST or even current technology if improvements are made in areas such as high temperature electronics. Dependability is an increasingly important parameter in all aircraft, but the higher capital cost of the HSCT makes it doubly important. Conversely the more difficult HSCT design problem makes it more difficult to achieve. Integration of propulsion controls will make it possible to improve both the static and dynamic performance of the HSCT propulsion system. Noise and emissions requirements may introduce novel control system requirements such as automatically programmed takeoff thrust for noise abatement. Control system development technology is evolving. For HSCT, highly automated and thoroughly validated tools will be required to reliably achieve desired system performance at introduction, and to reduce development costs. A technology plan was developed to prepare for HSCT development. This presentation addresses the portion of the plan required to demonstrate technology readiness for the HSCT in the late 1990's rather than the technology development currently in progress.

  3. NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2003-01-01

    In order to implement the ambitious science and exploration missions planned over the next several decades, improvements in in-space transportation and propulsion technologies must be achieved. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs. Future missions will require 2 to 3 times more total change in velocity over their mission lives than the NASA Solar Electric Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) demonstration on the Deep Space 1 mission. New opportunities to explore beyond the outer planets and to the stars will require unparalleled technology advancement and innovation. NASA's In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Program is investing in technologies to meet these needs. The ISP technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5-10 kW range, to advanced cryogenic propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, propellantless because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar and plasma sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aeroassist and aerocapture. An overview of both propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies, and NASA s plans for advancing them, will be provided.

  4. Solar Thermal : Solar Electric Propulsion Hybrid Orbit Transfer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, Keith A.

    2000-07-01

    This effort examined the payoffs associated with the joint application of solar thermal propulsion (STP) and electric propulsion (EP) for orbit raising. The combined use of STP (800 second specific impulse) and EP (1800 second specific impulse) for a single orbit transfer mission is motivated by the desire to leverage the higher thrust of STP with the higher specific impulse of EP to maximize mission capability. The primary objectives of this analysis were to quantify the payload, mission duration, and hydrogen propellant to payload mass ratio for a range of combined STP and EP orbit transfer missions to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), and contrast them to results for STP only. For STP, the hydrogen propellant to payload mass ratio is of particular interest due to payload fairing size constraints and the relatively low density of liquid hydrogen, which limit the mass of the STP propellant, and therefore the amount of payload that can be delivered. The results of the analysis include an 18% payload improvement associated with STP-EP hybrid propulsion over STP alone. The trip time needed for the STP-EP transfer varied from 101 to 143 days, compared to 41 days for the Solar only case. In addition, the amount of hydrogen propellant needed to accomplish the orbit raising to GEO per unit mass of payload decreased by 29% when the Solar Thermal - Solar Electric hybrid was used. While comprehensive comparisons of STP-EP to chemical propulsion (CP) only and to CP with EP orbit topping were also of interest, they were beyond the scope of this effort. However, a comparison of reference missions was performed. In comparison to the reference CP (328 second specific impulse) and CP-EP missions the STP-EP system provided 67% and 39% payload increases. respectively. The trip time for the CP-EP cases varied from 55 to 106 days.

  5. An advanced optical system for laser ablation propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstue, Grant; Fork, Richard; Reardon, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel space-based ablation driven propulsion engine concept utilizing transmitted energy in the form of a series of ultra-short optical pulses. Key differences are generating the pulses at the transmitting spacecraft and the safe delivery of that energy to the receiving spacecraft for propulsion. By expanding the beam diameter during transmission in space, the energy can propagate at relatively low intensity and then be refocused and redistributed to create an array of ablation sites at the receiver. The ablation array strategy allows greater control over flight dynamics and eases thermal management. Research efforts for this transmission and reception of ultra-short optical pulses include: (1) optical system design; (2) electrical system requirements; (3) thermal management; (4) structured energy transmission safety. Research has also been focused on developing an optical switch concept for the multiplexing of the ultra-short pulses. This optical switch strategy implements multiple reflectors polished into a rotating momentum wheel device to combine the pulses from different laser sources. The optical system design must minimize the thermal load on any one optical element. Initial specifications and modeling for the optical system are being produced using geometrical ray-tracing software to give a better understanding of the optical requirements. In regards to safety, we have advanced the retro-reflective beam locking strategy to include look-ahead capabilities for long propagation distances. Additional applications and missions utilizing multiplexed pulse transmission are also presented. Because the research is in early development, it provides an opportunity for new and valuable advances in the area of transmitted energy for propulsion as well as encourages joint international efforts. Researchers from different countries can cooperate in order to find constructive and safe uses of ordered pulse transmission for propulsion in future space

  6. Advanced propulsion concepts study: Comparative study of solar electric propulsion and laser electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) and laser electric propulsion (LEP) was compared. The LEP system configuration consists of an 80 kW visible laser source on earth, transmitting via an 8 m diameter adaptively controlled phased array through the atmosphere to a 4 m diameter synchronous relay mirror that tracks the LEP spacecraft. The only significant change in the SEP spacecraft for an LEP mission is the replacement of the two 3.7 m by 33.5 m solar cell arrays with a single 8 m diameter laser photovoltaic array. The solar cell array weight is decreased from 320 kg to 120 kg for an increase in payload of 200 kg and a decrease in specific mass of the power system from 20.5 kg/kW to 7.8 kg/kW.

  7. Joint lubrication.

    PubMed

    McCutchen, C W

    1983-01-01

    The fine-pored, easily compressed articular cartilage provides animal joints with self-pressurized hydrostatic (weeping) lubrication. The solid skeletons of the cartilages press against each other, but so lightly that their rubbing is lubricated successfully by synovial fluid--a boundary lubricant too weak to lubricate ordinary bearings. PMID:6317095

  8. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  9. Components of the Solar Thermal Propulsion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. This photograph shows components for the thermal propulsion engine being laid out prior to assembly. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  10. Certification Testing Approach for Propulsion System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Popp, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The Certification of Propulsion Systems is costly and complex, involving development and qualification testing. The desire of the certification process is to assure all requirements can be demonstrated to be compliant. The purpose of this paper is to address the technical design concerns of certifying a propulsion system for flight. Presented are Pressurization, Tankage, Feed System and Combustion Instability concerns. Propulsion System Engineers are challenged with the dilemma for testing new systems to specific levels to reduce risk yet maintain budgetary targets. A methodical approach is presented to define the types of test suitable to address the technical issues for qualifying systems for retiring the risk levels. Experience of the lessons learned from supporting the Shuttle Program for Main Propulsion and On Orbit Propulsions Systems as well as previous collaborations on design concerns for certifying propulsion systems are utilized to address design concerns and verification approaches.

  11. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  12. In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the rationale and content for Solar Sail Propulsion (SSP), the on-going project to advance solar technology from technology readiness level 3 to 6 will be provided. A descriptive summary of the major and minor component efforts underway will include identification of the technology providers and a listing of anticipated products Recent important results from major system ground demonstrators will be provided. Finally, a current status of all activities will provided along with the most recent roadmap for the SSP technology development program.

  13. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  14. User interactive electric propulsion software design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Martha B.; Aston, Graeme; Brophy, John R.

    1989-01-01

    As electric propulsion technology matures from laboratory development to flight application, mission planners and spacecraft designers are increasingly required to determine the benefits and integration issues of using this propulsion capability. A computer software tool for supporting these analyses is presented. This tool combines detailed analytical models describing electric propulsion engine performance and subsystem design, and a software structure that is highly user interactive and adaptable. The software design methodology used to develop this software tool is presented in this paper.

  15. Microwave electric propulsion for orbit transfer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sercel, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A Microwave Electric Propulsion (MEP) concept is developed for an unmanned Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). The concept is based on the use of beamed microwave power and on an extrapolation of ion thruster technology. Beamed microwave power transmission is discussed in terms of its relationship to spacecraft propulsion. Characteristics of an MEP OTV are determined and performance is evaluated by comparison to a variety of alternative propulsion systems for the completion of a ten-year mission model.

  16. Electric Propulsion Electronics Activities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollor, Matthias; Weinberg, Simon; Galantini, Paolo; Boss, Michael; Bourguignon, Eric; de la Cruz, Frederico

    2008-09-01

    For European space missions the importance of electric propulsion is growing strongly. The initial drivers of this development were programs of the European Space Agency and projects of the European national space agencies. In addition, electric propulsion is getting more and more acceptance from European commercial satellite manufacturers. European space industry, represented by individual companies, has developed specific and broad-use solutions for the electronics dedicated to powering and controlling electric propulsion systems.

  17. Nuclear gas core propulsion research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the nuclear gas core propulsion research program are presented. The objectives of this research are to develop models and experiments, systems, and fuel elements for advanced nuclear thermal propulsion rockets. The fuel elements under investigation are suitable for gas/vapor and multiphase fuel reactors. Topics covered include advanced nuclear propulsion studies, nuclear vapor thermal rocket (NVTR) studies, and ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuels and materials studies.

  18. A Conceptual Tree of Laser Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Sinko, John E.

    2008-04-28

    An original attempt to develop a conceptual tree for laser propulsion is offered. The tree provides a systematic view for practically all possible laser propulsion concepts and all inter-conceptual links, based on propellant phases and phase transfers. It also helps to see which fields of laser propulsion have been already thoroughly explored, where the next effort must be applied, and which paths should be taken with proper care or avoided entirely.

  19. Application of the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid Navier-Stokes Solver to the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    FUN3D Navier-Stokes solutions were computed for the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop grid convergence study, downwash study, and Reynolds number study on a set of node-based mixed-element grids. All of the baseline tetrahedral grids were generated with the VGRID (developmental) advancing-layer and advancing-front grid generation software package following the gridding guidelines developed for the workshop. With maximum grid sizes exceeding 100 million nodes, the grid convergence study was particularly challenging for the node-based unstructured grid generators and flow solvers. At the time of the workshop, the super-fine grid with 105 million nodes and 600 million elements was the largest grid known to have been generated using VGRID. FUN3D Version 11.0 has a completely new pre- and post-processing paradigm that has been incorporated directly into the solver and functions entirely in a parallel, distributed memory environment. This feature allowed for practical pre-processing and solution times on the largest unstructured-grid size requested for the workshop. For the constant-lift grid convergence case, the convergence of total drag is approximately second-order on the finest three grids. The variation in total drag between the finest two grids is only 2 counts. At the finest grid levels, only small variations in wing and tail pressure distributions are seen with grid refinement. Similarly, a small wing side-of-body separation also shows little variation at the finest grid levels. Overall, the FUN3D results compare well with the structured-grid code CFL3D. The FUN3D downwash study and Reynolds number study results compare well with the range of results shown in the workshop presentations.

  20. Space Exploration Initiative Fuels, Materials and Related Nuclear Propulsion Technologies Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C.; Cooper, R.; Matthews, R. B.; Walter, C.; Titran, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts.

  1. Green space propulsion: Opportunities and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.; Stanojev, Johann; Demairé, Alain; Anflo, Kjell; Persson, Mathias; Wingborg, Niklas; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-11-01

    Currently, toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine propellants are commonly used in spacecraft propulsion. These propellants impose distinctive environmental challenges and consequential hazardous conditions. With an increasing level of future space activities and applications, the significance of greener space propulsion becomes even more pronounced. In this article, a selected number of promising green space propellants are reviewed and investigated for various space missions. In-depth system studies in relation to the aforementioned propulsion architectures further unveil possible approaches for advanced green propulsion systems of the future.

  2. Low-thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for large structures in high orbit is reported in terms of the many mission opportunities which require such structures. Mission and transportation options for large structures are presented, and it is shown that low-thrust propulsion is an enabling requirement for some missions and greatly enhancing to many others. Electric and low-thrust chemical propulsion are compared, and the need for an requirements of low-thrust chemical propulsion are discussed in terms of the interactions that are perceived to exist between the propulsion system and the large structure.

  3. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting (NP-TIM-92) was sponsored and hosted by the Nuclear Propulsion Office at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are a compilation of the presentations given at the meeting (many of the papers are presented in outline or viewgraph form). Volume 1 covers the introductory presentations and the system concepts and technology developments related to nuclear thermal propulsion.

  4. Explosive propulsion applications. [to future unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Varsi, G.; Back, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility and application of an explosive propulsion concept capable of supporting future unmanned missions in the post-1980 era were examined and recommendations made for advanced technology development tasks. The Venus large lander mission was selected as the first in which the explosive propulsion concept can find application. A conceptual design was generated and its performance, weight, costs, and interaction effects determined. Comparisons were made with conventional propulsion alternatives. The feasibility of the explosive propulsion system was verified for planetology experiments within the dense atmosphere of Venus as well as the outer planets. Additionally, it was determined that the Venus large lander mission could be augmented ballistically with a significant delivery margin.

  5. Electric Propulsion Platforms at DFRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraaclough, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is a world-class flight research facility located at Edwards AFB, CA. With access to a 44 sq. mile dry lakebed and 350 testable days per year, it is the ideal location for flight research. DFRC has been undertaking aircraft research for approximately six decades including the famous X-aircraft (X-1 through X-48) and many science and exploration platforms. As part of this impressive heritage, DFRC has garnered more hours of full-sized electric aircraft testing than any other facility in the US, and possibly the world. Throughout the 80 s and 90 s Dryden was the home of the Pathfinder, Pathfinder Plus, and Helios prototype solar-electric aircraft. As part of the ERAST program, these electric aircraft achieved a world record 97,000 feet altitude for propeller-driven aircraft. As a result of these programs, Dryden s staff has collected thousands of man-hours of electric aircraft research and testing. In order to better answer the needs of the US in providing aircraft technologies with lower fuel consumption, lower toxic emissions (NOx, CO, VOCs, etc.), lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and lower noise emissions, NASA has engaged in cross-discipline research under the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). As a part of this overall effort, Mark Moore of LaRC has initiated a cross-NASA-center electric propulsion working group (EPWG) to focus on electric propulsion technologies as applied to aircraft. Electric propulsion technologies are ideally suited to overcome all of the obstacles mentioned above, and are at a sufficiently advanced state of development component-wise to warrant serious R&D and testing (TRL 3+). The EPWG includes participation from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). Each of the center participants provides their own unique expertise to support the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft

  6. Propulsion Technology Lifecycle Operational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a focused effort performed by the members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) Functional Requirements Sub-team to develop propulsion data to support Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This is a spreadsheet application to analyze the impact of technology decisions at a system-of-systems level. Results are summarized in an Excel workbook we call the Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides data for technology performance, operations, and programmatic parameters in the form of a library of technical information to support analysis tools and/or models. The lifecycle of technologies can be analyzed from this data and particularly useful for system operations involving long running missions. The propulsion technologies in this paper are listed against Chemical Rocket Engines in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) format. The overall effort involved establishing four elements: (1) A general purpose Functional System Breakdown Structure (FSBS). (2) Operational Requirements for Rocket Engines. (3) Technology Metric Values associated with Operating Systems (4) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of Chemical Rocket Engines The list of Chemical Rocket Engines identified in the WBS is by no means complete. It is planned to update the TTB with a more complete list of available Chemical Rocket Engines for United States (US) engines and add the Foreign rocket engines to the WBS which are available to NASA and the Aerospace Industry. The Operational Technology Metric Values were derived by the SPST Sub-team in the form of the TTB and establishes a database for users to help evaluate and establish the technology level of each Chemical Rocket Engine in the database. The Technology Metric Values will serve as a guide to help determine which rocket engine to invest technology money in for future development.

  7. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  8. Antiproton Driven Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ricky; Kammash, Terry; Gallimore, Alec

    A fusion propulsion system in which the plasma is heated to thermonuclear temperature by antiproton annihilation reactions is proposed. It makes use of an open-ended magnetic confinement device known as the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) in which the plasma - such as deuteriumtritium (DT) - is confined long enough to be heated before being ejected through one mirror (serving as a magnetic nozzle) to produce thrust. The heating process is based on recent theoretical and experimental physics research which revealed that "at rest" annihilation of antiprotons in uranium-238 targets causes fission at nearly 100% efficiency. Thus, heating in the proposed system can be achieved by inserting U238 targets (in the form of foils or atomic beams) in the proper position and then striking them with antiprotons released from a trap attached to one end of the asymmetric GDM device. The resulting fission fragments and annihilation products, namely pions and muons, are highly ionizing and energetic and could readily heat the background plasma to very high temperatures leading to its ignition. We have examined in detail the various phenomena that underlie the operation of such a propulsion system, ranging from the propagation of antiprotons in plasma, to the confinement of the various species by the mirror-type magnetic field, to the role of ambipolar potential in accelerating the plasma, as well as other relevant processes, and have concluded that the proposed system is capable of producing very impressive propulsive capabilities such as specific impulse and thrust. When applied to a round trip mission to Mars, as an example, we find that it can be accomplished in about 59 days and requires less than 4 micrograms of antiprotons. Although roughly nanograms of antiprotons are currently produced annually, it is expected that hundreds of milligrams or possibly several grams will be produced annually in the next decade or so when Mars missions might be contemplated.

  9. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  10. Space storable propulsion components development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The current development status of components to control the flow of propellants (liquid fluorine and hydrazine) in a demonstration space storable propulsion system is discussed. The criteria which determined the designs for the pressure regulator, explosive-actuated valves, propellant shutoff valve, latching solenoid-actuated valve and propellant filter are presented. The test philosophy that was followed during component development is outlined. The results from compatibility demonstrations for reusable connectors, flange seals, and CRES/Ti-6Al4V transition tubes and the evaluations of processes for welding (hand-held TIG, automated TIG, and EB), cleaning for fluorine service, and decontamination after fluorine exposure are described.

  11. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  12. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

    2005-04-01

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  13. CFD propels NASP propulsion progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Green, Michael J.

    1990-07-01

    The most complex aerothermodynamics encountered in the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) propulsion system are associated with the fuel-mixing and combustion-reaction flows of its combustor section; adequate CFD tools must be developed to model shock-wave systems, turbulent hydrogen/air mixing, flow separation, and combustion. Improvements to existing CFD codes have involved extension from two dimensions to three, as well as the addition of finite-rate hydrogen-air chemistry. A novel CFD code for the treatment of reacting flows throughout the NASP, designated GASP, uses the most advanced upwind-differencing technology.

  14. Low thrust propulsion literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Darrel

    1989-01-01

    A literature search was performed to investigate the area of low thrust propulsion. In an effort to evaluate this technology, a number of articles, obtained through the use of the NASA-RECON database, were collected and categorized. The study indicates that although much was done, particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, more can be done in the area of practical navigation and guidance. It is suggested that the older studies be reinvestigated to see what potential there exists for future low thrust applications.

  15. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Mitchell, Sonny; Kim, Tony; Borowski, Stan; Power, Kevin; Scott, John; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steve

    2015-01-01

    HEOMD's (Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate) AES (Advanced Exploration Systems) Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project is making significant progress. First of four FY 2015 milestones achieved this month. Safety is the highest priority for NTP (as with other space systems). After safety comes affordability. No centralized capability for developing, qualifying, and utilizing an NTP system. Will require a strong, closely integrated team. Tremendous potential benefits from NTP and other space fission systems. No fundamental reason these systems cannot be developed and utilized in a safe, affordable fashion.

  16. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Cryogenic Solid Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, Harry; Lo, Roger; Knecht, Thomas; Reinbold, Georg-Friedrich; Poller, Sascha

    2002-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the German Aerospace Center DLR, Cryogenic Solid Propulsion (CSP) is now in its 6th year of R&D. The development proceeds as a joint international university-, small business-, space industry- and professional research effort (Berlin University of Technology / AI: Aerospace Institute, Berlin / Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia / ASTRIUM GmbH, Bremen / Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Berghausen). This paper aims at introducing CSP as a novel type of chemical propellant that uses frozen liquids as Oxygen (SOX) or Hydrogen Peroxide (SH2O2) inside of a coherent solid Hydrocarbon (PE, PU or HTPB) matrix in solid rocket motors. Theoretically any conceivable chemical rocket propellant combination (including any environmentally benign ,,green propellant") can be used in solid rocket propellant motors if the definition of solids is not restricted to "solid at ambient temperature". The CSP concept includes all suitable high energy propellant combinations, but is not limited to them. Any liquid or hybrid bipropellant combination is (Isp-wise) superior to any conventional solid propellant formulation. While CSPs do share some of the disadvantages of solid propulsion (e.g. lack of cooling fluid and preset thrust-time function), they definitely share one of their most attractive advantages: the low number of components that is the base for high reliability and low cost of structures. In this respect, CSPs are superior to liquid propellant rocket motors with whom, they share the high Isp performance. High performance, low cost, low pollution CSP technology could bring about a near term improvement for chemical Earth-to-orbit high thrust propulsion. In the long run it could surpass conventional chemical propulsion because it is better suited for applying High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) than any other mode of propulsion. So far, ongoing preliminary analyses have not shown any insuperable problems in areas of concern, such as

  17. Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. K.

    1993-06-01

    Current requirements for missile systems increasingly stress the need for stealth capability. For the majority of missile systems and missions, the exhaust plume is likely to be the major contributor to overall missile signature, especially considering the recent developments in low emission and low Radar Cross Section coatings for motor bodies. This implies the need for the lowest possible rocket exhaust signature over a wide range of frequencies from the UV through visible and IR to microwave and radio frequencies. The choice of propellant type, Double Base; Composite etc, plays a significant part in determining the exhaust signature of the rocket motor as does the selection of inert materials for liners, inhibitors, and nozzles. It is also possible with certain propellants to incorporate additives which reduce exhaust signature either by modifying the chemistry or the afterburning plume or more significantly by suppressing secondary combustion and hence dramatically reducing plume temperature. The feasibility of plume signature control on the various missions envisaged by the missile designer is considered. The choice of propellant type and hardware components to give low signature is discussed together with performance implications. Signature reduction results obtained over a wide range of frequencies are also presented.

  18. The relationship between consistency of propulsive cycles and maximum angular velocity during wheelchair racing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos Dino; Xu, Dali

    2008-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the consistency of wheelchair athletes' upper-limb kinematics in consecutive propulsive cycles and to investigate the relationship between the maximum angular velocities of the upper arm and forearm and the consistency of the upper-limb kinematical pattern. Eleven elite international wheelchair racers propelled their own chairs on a roller while performing maximum speeds during wheelchair propulsion. A Qualisys motion analysis system was used to film the wheelchair propulsive cycles. Six reflective markers placed on the right shoulder, elbow, wrist joints, metacarpal, wheel axis, and wheel were automatically digitized. The deviations in cycle time, upper-arm and forearm angles, and angular velocities among these propulsive cycles were analyzed. The results demonstrated that in the consecutive cycles of wheelchair propulsion the increased maximum angular velocity may lead to increased variability in the upper-limb angular kinematics. It is speculated that this increased variability may be important for the distribution of load on different upper-extremity muscles to avoid the fatigue during wheelchair racing. PMID:18843158

  19. In-Space Propulsion for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop-Behel, Karen; Johnson, Les

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Science and Exploration. The topics include: 1) In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview; 2) In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Status; 3) Solar Electric Propulsion; 4) Next Generation Electric Propulsion; 5) Aerocapture Technology Alternatives; 6) Aerocapture; 7) Advanced Thermal Protection Systems Developed and Being Tested; 8) Solar Sails; 9) Advanced Chemical Propulsion; 10) Momentum Exchange Tethers; and 11) Momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost (MXER) Tether Basic Operation.

  20. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  1. High Energy Plasma Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's challenge on advanced concept activity in the propulsion area, we initiated a new program entitled "High Energy Plasma Space Propulsion Studies" within the current cooperative agreement in 1998. The goals of this work are to gain further understanding of the engine of the AIMStar spacecraft, a concept which was developed at Penn State University, and to develop a prototype concept for the engine. The AIMStar engine concept was developed at Penn State University several years ago as a hybrid between antimatter and fusion technologies. Because of limited amounts of antimatter available, and concurrently the demonstrated ability for antiprotons to efficiently ignite nuclear fusion reactions, it was felt that this was a very good match. Investigations have been made concerning the performance of the reaction trap. This is a small Penning-like electromagnetic trap, which is used to simultaneously confine antiprotons and fusion fuels. Small DHe3 or DT droplets, containing a few percent molar of a fissile material, are injected into the trap, filled with antiprotons. We have found that it is important to separate the antiprotons into two adjacent wells, to inject he droplet between them and to simultaneously bring the antiprotons to the center of the trap, surrounding the droplet. Our previous concept had the droplet falling onto one cloud of antiprotons. This proved to be inefficient, as the droplet tended to evaporate away from the cloud as it interacted on its surface.

  2. Fiberoptics for propulsion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    In aircraft systems with digital controls, fiberoptics has advantages over wire systems because of its inherent immunity to electromagnetic noise (EMI) and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). It also offers a weight benefit when metallic conductors are replaced by optical fibers. To take full advantage of the benefits of optical waveguides, passive optical sensors are also being developed to eliminate the need for electrical power to the sensor. Fiberoptics may also be used for controlling actuators on engine and airframe. In this application, the optical fibers, connectors, etc. will be subjected to high temperature and vibrations. This paper discussed the use of fiberoptics in aircraft propulsion systems together with the optical sensors and optically controlled actuators being developed to take full advantage of the benefits which fiberoptics offers. The requirements for sensors and actuators in advanced propulsion systems are identified. The benefits of using fiberoptics in place of conventional wire systems are discussed as well as the environmental conditions under which the optical components must operate.

  3. Gasdynamic mirror fusion propulsion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrich, William J.

    2001-02-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger L/D ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high L/D ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more like a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with ``loss cone'' microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000. .

  4. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

  5. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  6. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Sikes, W.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  7. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrich, Bill

    2000-10-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies without requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma ``b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

  8. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

  9. Space station propulsion-ECLSS interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Scott M.

    1986-01-01

    The benefits of the utilization of effluents of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system are examined. Various ECLSS-propulsion system interaction options are evaluated and compared on the basis of weight, volume, and power requirements. Annual propulsive impulse to maintain station altitude during a complete solar cycle of eleven years and the effect on station resupply are considered.

  10. Advanced Space Propulsion: A Research Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron; Cole, John; Rodgers, Steve; Sackheim, Bob

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on spacecraft propulsion research. The organizational and management principals needed for the research are stated. The presentation recommends a space propulsion research program. It also states some of the factors which drive research in the field, as well as the desired goals, objectives, and focus of the research.

  11. NASA Technology Area 1: Launch Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul; Femminineo, Mark; Koelfgen, Syri; Lepsch, Roger; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology advancements plans for the NASA Technology Area 1, Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA). The draft roadmap reviews various propulsion system technologies that will be developed during the next 25 + years. This roadmap will be reviewed by the National Research Council which will issue a final report, that will include findings and recommendations.

  12. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) was established at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. The activities at ICOMP during 1992 are described.

  13. In-Space Transportation Propulsion Architecture Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Almost all space propulsion development and application has been chemical. Aerobraking has been used at Venus and Mars, and for entry at Jupiter. One electric propulsion mission has been flown (DS-1) and electric propulsion is in general use by commercial communications satellites for stationkeeping. Gravity assist has been widely used for high-energy missions (Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, etc.). It has served as a substitute for high-energy propulsion but is limited in energy gain, and adds mission complexity as well as launch opportunity restrictions. It has very limited value for round trip missions such as humans to Mars and return. High-energy space propulsion has been researched for many years, and some major developments, such as nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), undertaken. With the exception of solar electric propulsion at a scale of a few kilowatts, high-energy space propulsion has never been used on a mission. Most mission studies have adopted TRL 6 technology because most have looked for a near-term start. The current activity is technology planning aimed at broadening the options available to mission planners. Many of the illustrations used in this report came from various NASA sources; their use is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. SPE (tm) electrolyzers for space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE electrolyzers for space propulsion are presented. Topics covered include: SPE electrochemical cell reactions; SPE fuel cell/electrolyzer features; SPE cell life capability; SPE cell voltage stability; state-of-the-art SPE cell structure; electrolysis cell stack; electrolysis system; integrated propulsion test article-electrolyzer module components; and oxygen generator module.

  15. US in-space electric propulsion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocky, John F.; Vondra, Robert; Sutton, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    Arcjet and ion propulsion offer potentially significant reductions in the mass of propulsion systems required for Earth orbiting satellites and planetary spacecraft. For this reason, they have been the subject of validation and demonstration programs. After examining the benefits of electric propulsion, this paper discusses the technology base for the Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) arcjet demonstration experiment and the NASA Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) ion propulsion validation program. As part of the Advanced Research Global Observation Spacecraft (ARGOS), ESEX will perform ten 15-min firings of a 30-kW ammonia arcjet. NASA's validation program, NSTAR, consists of two major elements: a ground-test element and an in-space experiment. The ground element will validate the life, integrability, and performance of low-power ion propulsion. The in-space element will demonstrate the feasibility of integrating and flying an ion propulsion system. The experiment will measure the interactions among the ion propulsion system, the host spacecraft, and the surrounding space plasma. It will provide a quantitative assessment of the ability of ground testing to replicate the in-space performance ion thrusters. By involving industry in NSTAR, a commercial source for this technology will be ensured. Furthermore, the successful completion of the NSTAR validation program will stimulate commercial and government (both civilian and military) uses of this technology.

  16. Integrated Propulsion Data System Public Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    The Integrated Propulsion Data System's (IPDS) focus is to provide technologically-advanced philosophies of doing business at SSC that will enhance the existing operations, engineering and management strategies and provide insight and metrics to assess their daily impacts, especially as related to the Propulsion Test Directorate testing scenarios for the 21st Century.

  17. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have—...

  18. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have—...

  19. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have—...

  20. Propulsion subsystem design for KOREASAT spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Young K.; Kim, Hee D.; Young, M.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the functional design and structure of the propulsion subsystem for the KOREASAT spacecraft. The KOREASAT program consists of two geostationary communication satellites for Korea presently scheduled to be launched in April and October 1995. The spacecraft propulsion subsystem consists of a hydrazine monopropellant blowdown reaction control subsystem, a STAR 30E solid apogee kick motor (AKM) and associated electronics and electrical hardware. The propulsion subsystem for KOREASAT provides the propulsive force and torque required for attitude and orbit attainment and maintenance. The thrusters used on the propulsion subsystem are 12 conventional catalytic decomposition rocket engine assemblies (REAs) with 0.9 N (0.2 lbf) thrust, and four electrothermal hydrazine thrusters (EHTs) with 0.4 N (0.1 Ibf) thrust. REAs are operated in steady-state mode or pulsed mode. EHTs are utilized only for north/south stationkeeping in steady-state mode operation, with limitation of its use during eclipse and eclipse season to conserve power. The basic functions and design requirements for propulsion mechanical and electrical components are also described. The analyses required to evaluate the propulsion subsystem performance are briefly mentioned. Propulsion component and subsystem testing are described.

  1. Various challenging aspects of hybrid propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, O.; Theil, D.; Saramago, J.; Amand, P. G.; Dauch, F.; Gautier, P.

    2011-10-01

    The hybrid technology appears as an innovative, high performance, and promising propulsion technique in a number of space missions. By combining functions and advantages taken from both solid and liquid propulsion, this technology is expected to provide mainly high performance with throttleability and stop-restart capabilities. The safety conditions of engine operation and design reliability almost similar to solid propulsion increase the interest to this technology. However, the standard fuels (mainly based on a carbon polymer) exhibit low regression rates that require complex grain shapes and low loading ratio. Thanks to a dedicated study supported by the European Space Agency (ESA), SNPE in collaboration with Avio and University of Naples (DIAS department) performed an exhaustive state-of-the-art and a market survey of accomplishments in hybrid propulsion. Based on the resulting tradeoff study on potential future launchers and spacecraft applications, the most promising applications are selected to conduct preliminary designs. These applications can also be seen as the vector of hybrid propulsion development. This study concentrates on hybrid propulsion systems with advanced hybrid fuels for Lander platform and Upper Stage. High throttleability and high propulsive performance associated with stop and restart capability are needed to meet mission requirements for Lander and Upper Stage, respectively. Preliminary design shows the advantages provided by hybrid propulsion: a significant payload mass increase for the upper stage case and a soft landing for the Lander case.

  2. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is operated by the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. This report describes the accomplishments and activities at ICOMP during 1993.

  3. Electrostatic Propulsion Using C60 Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Stephanie D.; Saunders, Winston A.

    1993-01-01

    Report proposes use of C60 as propellant material in electrostatic propulsion system of spacecraft. C60, C70, and similar molecules, have recently been found to have characteristics proving advantageous in electrostatic propulsion. Report discusses these characteristics and proposes experiments to determine feasibility of concept.

  4. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr. (Editor); Balog, Karen (Editor); Povinelli, Louis A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is operated by the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and funded under a cooperative agreement by the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Thee purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. This report describes the activities at ICOMP during 1996.

  5. Lander Propulsion Overview and Technology Requirements Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar lander propulsion requirements. It includes discussion on: Lander Project Overview, Project Evolution/Design Cycles, Lunar Architecture & Lander Reference Missions, Lander Concept Configurations, Descent and Ascent propulsion reviews, and a review of the technology requirements.

  6. Overview of DOE space nuclear propulsion programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Department of Energy space nuclear propulsion programs is presented in outline and graphic form. DOE's role in the development and safety assurance of space nuclear propulsion is addressed. Testing issues and facilities are discussed along with development needs and recent research activities.

  7. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  8. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  9. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  10. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  11. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  12. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have—...

  13. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have—...

  14. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is a combined activity of Case Western Reserve University, Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and NASA Lewis. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. The activities at ICOMP during 1991 are described.

  15. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) program are presented. The objective of the research is to develop advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology based on the particle bed reactor concept. A strong philosophical commitment exists in the industry/national laboratory team to emphasize testing in development activities. Nuclear testing currently underway to support development of SNTP technology is addressed.

  16. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is operated by the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and funded under a cooperative agreement by the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. This report describes the activities at ICOMP during 1994.

  17. Artist's Concept of NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  18. Fluorine-Hydrazine Propulsion Technology update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, D. L.; Appel, M. A.; Kruger, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the fluorine hydrazine propulsion system development is discussed. Progress on the components, rocket engine, and system design is presented. A detailed look at a fluorine hydrazine system as a potential propulsion option for the Galileo Project (Jupiter orbiter) is delineated and the results of safety and technical reviews which were accomplished to verify the feasibility of this option are summarized.

  19. Resource Prospector Propulsion Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Pederson, Kevin; Dervan, Melanie; Holt, Kimberly; Jernigan, Frankie; Trinh, Huu; Flores, Sam

    2014-01-01

    For the past year, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center have been working on a government version of a lunar lander design for the Resource Prospector Mission. A propulsion cold flow test system, representing an early flight design of the propulsion system, has been fabricated. The primary objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the Resource Prospector propulsion system operation through water flow testing and obtain data for anchoring analytical models. This effort will also provide an opportunity to develop a propulsion system mockup to examine hardware integration to a flight structure. This paper will report the work progress of the propulsion cold flow test system development and test preparation. At the time this paper is written, the initial waterhammer testing is underway. The initial assessment of the test data suggests that the results are as expected and have a similar trend with the pretest prediction. The test results will be reported in a future conference.

  20. Certification Testing Approach for Propulsion System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Popp, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The Certification of Propulsion Systems is costly and complex which involves development and qualification testing. The desire of the certification process is to assure all requirements can be demonstrated to be compliant. The purpose of this paper is to address the technical design concerns of certifying a system for flight. The authors of this paper have experience the lessons learned from supporting the Shuttle Program for Main Propulsion and On Orbit Propulsions Systems. They have collaborated design concerns for certifying propulsion systems. Presented are Pressurization, Tankage, Feed System and Combustion Instability concerns. Propulsion System Engineers are challenged with the dilemma for testing new systems to specific levels to reduce risk yet maintain budgetary targets. A methodical approach is presented to define the types of test suitable to address the technical issues for qualifying systems for retiring the risk levels.

  1. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On 8-9 Sep. 1993, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center (PERC) at The Pennsylvania State University held its Fifth Annual Symposium. PERC was initiated in 1988 by a grant from the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology as a part of the University Space Engineering Research Center (USERC) program; the purpose of the USERC program is to replenish and enhance the capabilities of our Nation's engineering community to meet its future space technology needs. The Centers are designed to advance the state-of-the-art in key space-related engineering disciplines and to promote and support engineering education for the next generation of engineers for the national space program and related commercial space endeavors. Research on the following areas was initiated: liquid, solid, and hybrid chemical propulsion, nuclear propulsion, electrical propulsion, and advanced propulsion concepts.

  2. Exploring the notion of space coupling propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    All existing methods of space propulsion are based on expelling a reaction mass (propellant) to induce motion. Alternatively, 'space coupling propulsion' refers to speculations about reacting with space-time itself to generate propulsive forces. Conceivably, the resulting increases in payload, range, and velocity would constitute a breakthrough in space propulsion. Such speculations are still considered science fiction for a number of reasons: (1) it appears to violate conservation of momentum; (2) no reactive media appear to exist in space; (3) no 'Grand Uniform Theories' exist to link gravity, an acceleration field, to other phenomena of nature such as electrodynamics. The rationale behind these objectives is the focus of interest. Various methods to either satisfy or explore these issues are presented along with secondary considerations. It is found that it may be useful to consider alternative conventions of science to further explore speculations of space coupling propulsion.

  3. Solar Electric Propulsion for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Kurt J.

    1998-01-01

    Highly propellant-efficient electric propulsion is being combined with advanced solar power technology to provide a non-nuclear transportation option for the human exploration of Mars. By virtue of its high specific impulse, electric propulsion offers a greater change in spacecraft velocity for each pound of propellant than do conventional chemical rockets. As a result, a mission to Mars based on solar electric propulsion (SEP) would require fewer heavy-lift launches than a traditional all-chemical space propulsion scenario would. Performance, as measured by mass to orbit and trip time, would be comparable to the NASA design reference mission for human Mars exploration, which utilizes nuclear thermal propulsion; but it would avoid the issues surrounding the use of nuclear reactors in space.

  4. Characterization of an acoustic actuation mechanism for robotic propulsion in low Reynolds number environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Christopher; Armstrong, Jenelle; Burkhardt, John; Firebaugh, Samara

    2014-06-01

    With the end goal of medical applications such as non-invasive surgery and targeted drug delivery, an acoustically driven resonant structure is proposed for microrobotic propulsion. At the proposed scale, the low Reynolds number environment requires non-reciprocal motion from the robotic structure for propulsion; thus, a "flapper" with multiple, flexible joints, has been designed to produce excitation modes that involve the necessary flagella-like bending for non-reciprocal motion. The key design aspect of the flapper structure involves a very thin joint that allows bending in one (vertical) direction, but not the opposing direction. This allows for the second mass and joint to bend in a manner similar to a dolphin's "kick" at the bottom of their stroke, resulting in forward thrust. A 130 mm x 50 mm x 0.2 mm prototype of a swimming robot that utilizes the flapper was fabricated out of acrylic using a laser cutter. The robot was tested in water and in a water-glycerine solution designed to mimic microscale fluid conditions. The robot exhibited forward propulsion when excited by an underwater speaker at its resonance mode, with velocities up to 2.5 mm/s. The robot also displayed frequency selectivity, leading to the possibility of exploring a steering mechanism with alternatively tuned flappers. Additional tests were conducted with a robot at a reduced size scale.

  5. Plasma propulsion for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchtman, Amnon

    2000-04-01

    The various mechanisms for plasma acceleration employed in electric propulsion of space vehicles will be described. Special attention will be given to the Hall thruster. Electric propulsion utilizes electric and magnetic fields to accelerate a propellant to a much higher velocity than chemical propulsion does, and, as a result, the required propellant mass is reduced. Because of limitations on electric power density, electric thrusters will be low thrust engines compared with chemical rockets. The large jet velocity and small thrust of electric thrusters make them most suitable for space applications such as station keeping of GEO communication satellites, low orbit drag compensation, orbit raising and interplanetary missions. The acceleration in the thruster is either thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. The arcjet is an electrothermal device in which the propellant is heated by an electric arc and accelerated while passing through a supersonic nozzle to a relatively low velocity. In the Pulsed Plasma Thruster a solid propellant is accelerated by a magnetic field pressure in a way that is similar in principle to pulsed acceleration of plasmas in other, very different devices, such as the railgun or the plasma opening switch. Magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters also employ magnetic field pressure for the acceleration but with a reasonable efficiency at high power only. In an ion thruster ions are extracted from a plasma through a double grid structure. Ion thrusters provide a high jet velocity but the thrust density is low due to space-charge limitations. The Hall thruster, which in recent years has enjoyed impressive progress, employs a quasi-neutral plasma, and therefore is not subject to a space-charge limit on the current. An applied radial magnetic field impedes the mobility of the electrons so that the applied potential drops across a large region inside the plasma. Methods for separately controlling the profiles of the electric and the magnetic fields will

  6. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael; Mitchell, Sonny; Kim, Tony; Borowski, Stanley; Power, Kevin; Scott, John; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space fission power systems can provide a power rich environment anywhere in the solar system, independent of available sunlight. Space fission propulsion offers the potential for enabling rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. One type of space fission propulsion is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). NTP systems operate by using a fission reactor to heat hydrogen to very high temperature (>2500 K) and expanding the hot hydrogen through a supersonic nozzle. First generation NTP systems are designed to have an Isp of approximately 900 s. The high Isp of NTP enables rapid crew transfer to destinations such as Mars, and can also help reduce mission cost, improve logistics (fewer launches), and provide other benefits. However, for NTP systems to be utilized they must be affordable and viable to develop. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) NTP project is a technology development project that will help assess the affordability and viability of NTP. Early work has included fabrication of representative graphite composite fuel element segments, coating of representative graphite composite fuel element segments, fabrication of representative cermet fuel element segments, and testing of fuel element segments in the Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET). Near-term activities will include testing approximately 16" fuel element segments in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES), and ongoing research into improving fuel microstructure and coatings. In addition to recapturing fuels technology, affordable development, qualification, and utilization strategies must be devised. Options such as using low-enriched uranium (LEU) instead of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) are being assessed, although that option requires development of a key technology before it can be applied to NTP in the thrust range of interest. Ground test facilities will be required, especially if NTP is to be used in conjunction with high value or

  7. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    Over the past year, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center at The Pennsylvania State University continued its progress toward meeting the goals of NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers (USERC) program. The USERC program was initiated in 1988 by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to provide an invigorating force to drive technology advancements in the U.S. space industry. The Propulsion Center's role in this effort is to provide a fundamental basis from which the technology advances in propulsion can be derived. To fulfill this role, an integrated program was developed that focuses research efforts on key technical areas, provides students with a broad education in traditional propulsion-related science and engineering disciplines, and provides minority and other under-represented students with opportunities to take their first step toward professional careers in propulsion engineering. The program is made efficient by incorporating government propulsion laboratories and the U.S. propulsion industry into the program through extensive interactions and research involvement. The Center is comprised of faculty, professional staff, and graduate and undergraduate students working on a broad spectrum of research issues related to propulsion. The Center's research focus encompasses both current and advanced propulsion concepts for space transportation, with a research emphasis on liquid propellant rocket engines. The liquid rocket engine research includes programs in combustion and turbomachinery. Other space transportation modes that are being addressed include anti-matter, electric, nuclear, and solid propellant propulsion. Outside funding supports a significant fraction of Center research, with the major portion of the basic USERC grant being used for graduate student support and recruitment. The remainder of the USERC funds are used to support programs to increase minority student enrollment in engineering, to maintain Center

  8. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Over the past year, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center at The Pennsylvania State University continued its progress toward meeting the goals of NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers (USERC) program. The USERC program was initiated in 1988 by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to provide an invigorating force to drive technology advancements in the U.S. space industry. The Propulsion Center's role in this effort is to provide a fundamental basis from which the technology advances in propulsion can be derived. To fulfill this role, an integrated program was developed that focuses research efforts on key technical areas, provides students with a broad education in traditional propulsion-related science and engineering disciplines, and provides minority and other under-represented students with opportunities to take their first step toward professional careers in propulsion engineering. The program is made efficient by incorporating government propulsion laboratories and the U.S. propulsion industry into the program through extensive interactions and research involvement. The Center is comprised of faculty, professional staff, and graduate and undergraduate students working on a broad spectrum of research issues related to propulsion. The Center's research focus encompasses both current and advanced propulsion concepts for space transportation, with a research emphasis on liquid propellant rocket engines. The liquid rocket engine research includes programs in combustion and turbomachinery. Other space transportation modes that are being addressed include anti-matter, electric, nuclear, and solid propellant propulsion. Outside funding supports a significant fraction of Center research, with the major portion of the basic USERC grant being used for graduate student support and recruitment. The remainder of the USERC funds are used to support programs to increase minority student enrollment in engineering, to maintain Center

  9. Solar Electric Propulsion Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Mission Architectures with a slant towards power system technologies and challenges. The low-mass, high-performance attributes of SEP systems have attracted spacecraft designers and mission planners alike and have led to a myriad of proposed Earth orbiting and planetary exploration missions. These SEP missions are discussed from the earliest missions in the 1960's, to first demonstrate electric thrusters, to the multi-megawatt missions envisioned many decades hence. The technical challenges and benefits of applying high-voltage arrays, thin film and low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) photovoltaics, gossamer structure solar arrays, thruster articulating systems and microsat systems to SEP spacecraft power system designs are addressed. The overarching conclusion from this review is that SEP systems enhance, and many times enable, a wide class of space missions.

  10. The Case of Nuclear Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koroteev, Anatoly S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nicolai N.; Smetannikov, Vladimir P.; Gafarov, Albert A.; Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky

    2003-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. Successful utilization will simultaneously develop the infrastructure and experience necessary for developing even higher power and performance systems. To be successful, development programs must devise strategies for rapidly converting paper reactor concepts into actual flight hardware. One approach to accomplishing this is to design highly testable systems, and to structure the program to contain frequent, significant hardware milestones. This paper discusses ongoing efforts in Russia and the United States aimed at enabling near-term utilization of space fission systems.

  11. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  12. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  13. Fusion power for space propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

    1972-01-01

    Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

  14. Propulsion Research at the Propulsion Research Center of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, John; Rodgers, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The Propulsion Research Center of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is engaged in research activities aimed at providing the bases for fundamental advancement of a range of space propulsion technologies. There are four broad research themes. Advanced chemical propulsion studies focus on the detailed chemistry and transport processes for high-pressure combustion, and on the understanding and control of combustion stability. New high-energy propellant research ranges from theoretical prediction of new propellant properties through experimental characterization propellant performance, material interactions, aging properties, and ignition behavior. Another research area involves advanced nuclear electric propulsion with new robust and lightweight materials and with designs for advanced fuels. Nuclear electric propulsion systems are characterized using simulated nuclear systems, where the non-nuclear power source has the form and power input of a nuclear reactor. This permits detailed testing of nuclear propulsion systems in a non-nuclear environment. In-space propulsion research is focused primarily on high power plasma thruster work. New methods for achieving higher thrust in these devices are being studied theoretically and experimentally. Solar thermal propulsion research is also underway for in-space applications. The fourth of these research areas is advanced energetics. Specific research here includes the containment of ion clouds for extended periods. This is aimed at proving the concept of antimatter trapping and storage for use ultimately in propulsion applications. Another activity in this involves research into lightweight magnetic technology for space propulsion applications.

  15. Electric Propulsion Requirements and Mission Analysis Under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard a.; Pencil, Eric J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project (ISPT) is currently NASA's sole investment in electric propulsion technologies. This project is managed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The objective of the electric propulsion project area is to develop near-term and midterm electric propulsion technologies to enhance or enable future NASA science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Systems analysis activities sponsored by ISPT seek to identify future mission applications in order to quantify mission requirements, as well as develop analytical capability in order to facilitate greater understanding and application of electric propulsion and other propulsion technologies in the ISPT portfolio. These analyses guide technology investments by informing decisions and defining metrics for technology development to meet identified mission requirements. This paper discusses the missions currently being studied for electric propulsion by the ISPT project, and presents the results of recent electric propulsion (EP) mission trades. Recent ISPT systems analysis activities include: an initiative to standardize life qualification methods for various electric propulsion systems in order to retire perceived risk to proposed EP missions; mission analysis to identify EP requirements from Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship classes of missions; and an evaluation of system requirements for radioisotope-powered electric propulsion. Progress and early results of these activities is discussed where available.

  16. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photograph shows an overall view of the Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The 20-by 24-ft heliostat mirror, shown at the left, has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror (right). The concentrator mirror then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber, shown at the front of concentrator mirror. Researchers at MSFC have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than chemical a combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propell nt. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  17. Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress placed on this joint during activities of daily living, training and competition. The overall purpose of this narrative review was to use the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to examine how various constraints acting upon the wheelchair-user interface may alter hand rim wheelchair performance during sporting activities, and to a lesser extent, their injury risk. As we found no studies involving Paralympic athletes that have directly utilised the dynamical systems approach to interpret their data, we have used this approach to select some potential constraints and discussed how they may alter wheelchair performance and/or injury risk. Organism constraints examined included player classifications, wheelchair setup, training and intrinsic injury risk factors. Task constraints examined the influence of velocity and types of locomotion (court sports vs racing) in wheelchair propulsion, while environmental constraints focused on forces that tend to oppose motion such as friction and surface inclination. Finally, the ecological validity of the research studies assessing wheelchair propulsion was critiqued prior to recommendations for practice and future research being given. PMID:23557065

  18. Linking wheelchair kinetics to glenohumeral joint demand during everyday accessibility activities.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Catherine S; Symonds, Andrew; Suzuki, Tatsuto; Gall, Angela; Smitham, Peter; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if push-rim kinetics could be used as markers of glenohumeral joint demand during manual wheelchair accessibility activities; demonstrating a method of biomechanical analysis that could be used away from the laboratory. Propulsion forces, trunk and upper limb kinematics and surface electromyography were recorded during four propulsion tasks (level, 2.5% cross slope, 6.5% incline and 12% incline). Kinetic and kinematic data were applied to an OpenSim musculoskeletal model of the trunk and upper limb, to enable calculation of glenohumeral joint contact force. Results demonstrated a positive correlation between propulsion forces and glenohumeral joint contact forces. Both propulsion forces and joint contact forces increased as the task became more challenging. Participants demonstrated increases in trunk flexion angle as the requirement for force application increased, significantly so in the 12% incline. There were significant increases in both resultant glenohumeral joint contact forces and peak and mean normalized muscle activity levels during the incline tasks. This study demonstrated the high demand placed on the glenohumeral joint during accessibility tasks, especially as the gradient of incline increases. A lightweight instrumented wheelchair wheel has potential to guide the user to minimize upper limb demand during daily activity. PMID:26736796

  19. A Review of Laser Ablation Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, Claude; Bohn, Willy; Lippert, Thomas; Sasoh, Akihiro; Schall, Wolfgang; Sinko, John

    2010-10-08

    Laser Ablation Propulsion is a broad field with a wide range of applications. We review the 30-year history of laser ablation propulsion from the transition from earlier pure photon propulsion concepts of Oberth and Saenger through Kantrowitz's original laser ablation propulsion idea to the development of air-breathing 'Lightcraft' and advanced spacecraft propulsion engines. The polymers POM and GAP have played an important role in experiments and liquid ablation fuels show great promise. Some applications use a laser system which is distant from the propelled object, for example, on another spacecraft, the Earth or a planet. Others use a laser that is part of the spacecraft propulsion system on the spacecraft. Propulsion is produced when an intense laser beam strikes a condensed matter surface and produces a vapor or plasma jet. The advantages of this idea are that exhaust velocity of the propulsion engine covers a broader range than is available from chemistry, that it can be varied to meet the instantaneous demands of the particular mission, and that practical realizations give lower mass and greater simplicity for a payload delivery system. We review the underlying theory, buttressed by extensive experimental data. The primary problem in laser space propulsion theory has been the absence of a way to predict thrust and specific impulse over the transition from the vapor to the plasma regimes. We briefly discuss a method for combining two new vapor regime treatments with plasma regime theory, giving a smooth transition from one regime to the other. We conclude with a section on future directions.

  20. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-01-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  1. Resistojet propulsion for large spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Resistojet propulsion systems have characteristics that are ideally suited for the on-orbit and primary propulsion requirements of large spacecraft systems. These characteristics which offer advantages over other forms of propulsion are reviewed and presented. The feasibility of resistojets were demonstrated in space whereas only a limited number of ground life tests were performed. The major technology issues associated with these ground tests are evaluated. The past performance of resistojets is summarized and, looks into the present day technology status is reviewed. The material criteria, along with possible concepts, needed to attain high performance resistojets are presented.

  2. Application of propfan propulsion to general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awker, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of advanced propfan propulsion systems have shown significant reductions in fuel consumption of 15-30 percent for transport class aircraft. This paper presents the results of a study which examined applying propfan propulsion to General Aviation class aircraft to determine if similar improvements could be achieved for business aircraft. In addition to the potential performance gains, this paper also addresses the cost aspects of propfan propulsion on General Aviation aircraft emphasizing the significant impact that the cost of capital and tax aspects have on determining the total cost of operation for business aircraft.

  3. Propulsion issues for advanced orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid to late 1990s expanded capabilities for orbital transfer vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possibly men to geosynchronous orbit. Discussion and observations relative to the propulsion system issues of space basing, aeroassist compatibility, man ratability and enhanced payload delivery capability are presented. These issues will require resolution prior to the development of a propulsion system for the advanced OTV. The NASA program in support of advanced propulsion for an OTV is briefly described along with conceptual engine design characteristics.

  4. The Pathfinder Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, Ned P.; Berkopec, Frank D.; Zurawski, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Pathfinder is a research and technology initiative by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) intended to strengthen the technology base of the United States civil space program in preparation for future space exploration missions. Pathfinder begins in FY-89. One of the four major thrusts is the Chemical Transfer Propulsion program which will provide the propulsion technology for high performance, liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen expander cycle engines which are expected to be operated and maintained in space. These advanced engines will enhance or enable a variety of future space exploration missions. The goals and objectives, management, technical plan, and technology transfer for the Chemical Transfer Propulsion element of Pathfinder are described.

  5. Electrostatic propulsion using C60 molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Stephanie D.; Rapp, Donald; Saunders, Winston A.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the potential benefits of C60 molecules as a basis for ion propulsion. Because C60 is storable, its use may result in a larger usable propellant fraction than previous methods of cluster ion propulsion. C60 may also relax such engineering constraints as grid spacing, which restrict the performance of noble gas ion propulsion. The behavior of C60 in a plasma discharge environment, as well as various electron impact cross sections of the molecule, will greatly afftect the feasibility of the concept.

  6. In-Tube Laser Propulsion Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sukyum; Urabe, Naohide; Torikai, Hiroyuki; Sasoh, Akihiro; Jeung, In-Seuck

    2003-05-01

    Laser propulsion research activities at Shock Wave Research Center, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, focus themselves on `in-tube' configurations. The thrust is enhanced in a confined acceleration region. Other advantages are obtained from the viewpoint of practical application. We are now investigating various extensions of the Laser-driven In-Tube Accelerator (LITA) (1) ablative in-tube propulsion, (2) thrust enhancement using applied magnetic field, (3) plasma pre-generation using a pilot laser irradiation, (4) demonstration of supersonic laser propulsion. The progresses in these subjects are presented.

  7. OEPSS operationally efficient propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A final report on the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) is presented. A review of Launch Site Operations, OEPSS objectives, operations support structure, OEPSS Concerns List, and scope of OEPSS are summarized, along with goals of OEPSS technologies, and operations technology levels. Air-augmented ejector/rocket, flash boiling tank pressurization technology, and advanced LH2 turbopump are described. Launch facilities, operations-driven propulsion system architecture, integrated booster propulsion module, turbopump operating conditions, and payload capability using integrated engine elements are addressed among other topics.

  8. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  9. Interplanetary spacecraft design using solar electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.; Paul, G. M.

    1974-01-01

    Emphasis of the electric propulsion technology program is now on the application of solar electric propulsion to scientific missions. Candidate planetary, cometary, and geosynchronous missions are being studied. The object of this paper is to describe a basic spacecraft design proposed as the means to accomplish (1) a comet Encke slow flyby, (2) a comet Encke rendezvous, and (3) an out-of-the-ecliptic mission. The discussion includes design differences foreseen for the various missions and indicates those areas where spacecraft design commonality is possible. Particular emphasis is placed on a solar electric propulsion module design which permits an attractive degree of design inheritance from mission to mission.

  10. Evaluation of propfan propulsion applied to general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awker, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Propfan propulsion on business aircraft was evaluated. Comparisons, in terms of cost and performance, were made between propfan propulsion systems and conventional turbofan propulsion systems on a typical business aircraft. In addition, configuration and cost sensitivity studies were conducted to further assess the potential of propfan propulsion.

  11. Study of Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) propulsion requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, N. H.; Tischer, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of various propulsion technologies for shuttle-launched multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) missions was determined with special attention to the potential role of ion propulsion. The primary criterion chosen for comparison for the different types of propulsion technologies was the total propulsion related cost, including the Shuttle charges, propulsion module costs, upper stage costs, and propulsion module development. In addition to the cost comparison, other criteria such as reliability, risk, and STS compatibility are examined. Topics covered include MMS mission models, propulsion technology definition, trajectory/performance analysis, cost assessment, program evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  13. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Roland Antonius; Herdrich, Georg

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a summary of past efforts in the development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems for space transportation. First, the generic principle of thermal propulsion is outlined: a propellant is directly heated by a power source prior to being expanded which creates a thrusting force on the rocket. This enables deriving a motivation for the use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) relying on nuclear power sources. Then, a summary of major families of NTP systems is established on the basis of a literature survey. These families are distinguished by the nature of their power source, the most important being systems with radioisotope, fission, and fusion cores. Concepts proposing to harness the annihilation of matter and anti-matter are only touched briefly due to their limited maturity. For each family, an overview of physical fundamentals, technical concepts, and - if available - tested engines' propulsion parameters is given.

  14. Propulsion Options for the LISA Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Marr, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The LISA mission is a constellation of three spacecraft operating at 1 AU from the Sun in a position trailing the Earth. After launch, a propulsion module provides the AV necessary to reach this operational orbit, and separates from the spacecraft. A second propulsion system integrated with the spacecraft maintains the operational orbit and reduces nongravitational disturbances on the instruments. Both chemical and electrical propulsion systems were considered for the propulsion module, and this trade is presented to show the possible benefits of an EP system. Several options for the orbit maintenance and disturbance reduction system are also briefly discussed, along with several important requirements that suggest the use of a FEEP thruster system.

  15. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1997-01-01

    In August, 1997, a NASA workshop was held to assess the prospects emerging from physics that might lead to creating the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, attaining the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis was to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. Experiments and theories were discussed regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and wormholes, and superluminal quantum tunneling. Preliminary results of this workshop are presented, along with the status of the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program that conducted this workshop.

  16. Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Gasdynamic Mirror, or GDM, is an example of a magnetic mirror-based fusion propulsion system. Its design is primarily consisting of a long slender solenoid surrounding a vacuum chamber that contains plasma. The bulk of the fusion plasma is confined by magnetic field generated by a series of toroidal-shaped magnets in the center section of the device. the purpose of the GDM Fusion Propulsion Experiment is to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to demonstrate many of the operational characteristics of a full-size plasma can be confined within the desired physical configuration and still reman stable. This image shows an engineer from Propulsion Research Technologies Division at Marshall Space Flight Center inspecting solenoid magnets-A, an integrate part of the Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment.

  17. Propulsive matrix of a helical flagellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He-Peng; Liu, Bin; Bruce, Rodenborn; Harry, L. Swinney

    2014-11-01

    We study the propulsion matrix of bacterial flagella numerically using slender body theory and the regularized Stokeslet method in a biologically relevant parameter regime. All three independent elements of the matrix are measured by computing propulsive force and torque generated by a rotating flagellum, and the drag force on a translating flagellum. Numerical results are compared with the predictions of resistive force theory, which is often used to interpret micro-organism propulsion. Neglecting hydrodynamic interactions between different parts of a flagellum in resistive force theory leads to both qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between the theoretical prediction of resistive force theory and the numerical results. We improve the original theory by empirically incorporating the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and propose new expressions for propulsive matrix elements that are accurate over the parameter regime explored.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  19. Safe, Affordable, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Doughty, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  20. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).