Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439
Moss, Andrew; Jensen, Eric; Gusset, Markus
The United Nations Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 is a key initiative within global efforts to halt and eventually reverse the loss of biodiversity. The very first target of this plan states that "by 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably." Zoos and aquariums worldwide, attracting more than 700 million visits every year, could potentially make a positive contribution to this target. However, a global evaluation of the educational impacts of visits to zoos and aquariums is entirely lacking in the existing literature. To address this gap, we conducted a large-scale impact evaluation study. We used a pre- and postvisit repeated-measures survey design to evaluate biodiversity literacy-understanding of biodiversity and knowledge of actions to help protect it-of zoo and aquarium visitors worldwide. Ours was the largest and most international study of zoo and aquarium visitors ever conducted. In total, 5661 visitors to 26 zoos and aquariums from 19 countries around the globe participated in the study. Aggregate biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity both significantly increased over the course of zoo and aquarium visits. There was an increase from previsit (69.8%) to postvisit (75.1%) in respondents demonstrating at least some positive evidence of biodiversity understanding. Similarly, there was an increase from previsit (50.5%) to postvisit (58.8%) in respondents who could identify actions to help protect biodiversity that could be achieved at an individual level. Our results are the most compelling evidence to date that zoo and aquarium visits contribute to increasing the number of people who understand biodiversity and know actions they can take to help protect biodiversity.
Karasik, Rona J
Internships are an essential component of gerontological education. Harvesting the learning from internships, however, requires careful attention to assessing an intern's work. In addition to providing feedback to students, internship assessment can also yield data useful for academic program evaluation. Drawing on internship assessment data collected from undergraduate and graduate gerontology interns and their community preceptors over a period of seven semesters, this article explores (1) concerns regarding how to assess what interns are learning, (2) ways to provide students with additional opportunities for learning from their internships, and (3) how information from these student-learning outcomes may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the overall academic program.
Karasik, Rona J.
Internships are an essential component of gerontological education. Harvesting the learning from internships, however, requires careful attention to assessing an intern's work. In addition to providing feedback to students, internship assessment can also yield data useful for academic program evaluation. Drawing on internship assessment data…
The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.
Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)
Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.
Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong
Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources.
Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Goodman, Catherine; Ranney, Molly; Min, Jong Won; Takahashi, Nancy
California has actively engaged in the Hartford Geriatric Social Work Initiative. Subsequently, the California Social Work Education Center Aging Initiative conducted a university survey of gerontology education in California graduate social work schools ("N"?=?17). In 2005, students taking aging courses were 12% in comparison to a…
Clark, Phillip G; Weeks, Lori E; van Den Bergh, Graziella; Doucet, Shelley
The need for interprofessional teamwork and the global challenges for health care systems of dramatically increasing numbers of older adults have received increased recognition in gerontological and geriatrics education. The authors report on the pilot development of a hybrid course on aging and health for graduate-level health professions students from Norway, Canada, and the United States. International faculty from partnering universities developed, taught, and evaluated the course. Course assignments included online forum postings, reflections, and a problem-based learning group assignment and presentation. Directed readings and discussion included topics related to health care systems and services in the three participating countries, teamwork, and patient-centered care. To evaluate the course, quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Results indicate a significant impact on student learning outcomes, including understanding of issues in international aging and health, attitudes and skills in teamwork, and application to clinical practice. This course clearly established the importance of developing innovative interprofessional educational experiences that respond to the increasingly universal impacts of aging populations on health and social care systems around the world.
Kitajima, Masaaki; Gerba, Charles P.
Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. PMID:25996404
Tobón, Wolke; Urquiza-Haas, Tania; Koleff, Patricia; Schröter, Matthias; Ortega-Álvarez, Rubén; Campo, Julio; Lindig Cisneros, Roberto; Sarukhán, José; Bonn, Aletta
Ecological restoration has become an important conservation strategy to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystems services. To restore 15% of degraded ecosystems as stipulated by the CBD Aichi target 15, we developed a prioritization framework to identify potential priority sites for restoration in a megadiverse country. Based on a restoration planning approach and involving stakeholders and experts throughout the process, we used the most current data on biological and environmental information in Mexico to assess areas of biological importance and restoration feasibility at national scale. We integrated criteria reflecting these two components using a spatial multi-criteria evaluation and generated eleven different scenarios to test the effect of integrating the components with distinct weights. The identified priority scenario represents a clear spatial guide where restoration could potentially enhance the persistence of species of conservation concern and vulnerable ecosystems while maximizing the likelihood of restoration success. This spatial prioritization is a first step to inform policy makers and restoration planners where to focus efforts towards local and large scale restoration programs, which should further incorporate social and monetary cost-benefit considerations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pelham, Anabel; Schafer, Donna; Abbott, Pauline; Estes, Carroll
The aging of society requires more trained aging specialists. Are higher education institutions prepared? Results of a comparison of gerontology programs in 2000 and 2010 indicate that the number of programs has declined and that higher education is not prepared. To address this challenge, the authors propose that gerontology be professionalized. To do so will require the accreditation of gerontology programs, the credentialing of gerontology graduates, and the employment of professional gerontologists. The authors offer a model that describes these relationships. The authors make the case, using a symbolic interactionist approach, that the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education must accredit gerontology programs.
Yee, Darlene; Barley, Linda R.
An evaluation of the Bachelor of Science degree program in Gerontological Studies and Services (GSS) at York College of the City University of New York was undertaken. Participants in the study were enrolled in or had completed a gerontology course or had graduated with a GSS major. From a potential pool of 200 persons generated from alumni and…
Dubanoski, Joan Pabst; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Roberts, Ellen; Lenzer, Anthony M.
"Growing Old in a New Age," a Public Broadcasting Service telecourse, was evaluated by 40 faculty, 29 state aging administrators, 2 international public broadcasting users, and a training specialist. The course was generally considered effective, but improvements were recommended in content, integration of video and text, and updated…
Kricheldorff, Cornelia; Aner, Kirsten; Himmelsbach, Ines; Thiesemann, Rüdiger
Social gerontology is seen as a science-based but application-oriented subdiscipline of gerontology. It focuses particularly on social relationships in old age, social participation of elderly and old people and the protection of their individual needs. Self-determination and autonomy are important value orientations. Central issues are the quality of life and life satisfaction from the perspective of personal resources and biographical influences and the conditions of individual aging in the sense of differential gerontology. Against this background, in the first part of this article Kirsten Aner discusses the social construction of aging and in part two Ines Himmelsbach describes the typical life events and developmental tasks in the process of aging. The article concludes with a theoretical basis in which Cornelia Kricheldorff outlines social aging theories and derives a brief description of approaches and interventions.
Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.
Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…
Brunner, Eva; Kada, Olivia
Due to demographic changes and the growing demand for a nursing workforce in the gerontological field adequate nursing curricula are required. This paper describes the development of the international online gerontological master degree programme GEROM. Health and nursing science institutions from six European countries are collaborating in this EU-project. The project milestones as well as the study programme architecture are introduced. Furthermore, the evaluation concept is illustrated. Collaboration across the partners is affected by some problems; varying accreditation procedures and cultural differences inhibit the implementation of a joint degree. Institutional commitment and communication between the partners are essential for a successful process.
Ekerdt, David J
In his Kent Award lecture, Scott Bass called for a greater coherence of gerontology. This article proposes that the teaching of gerontology is one way to address the centrifugal tendencies of the field and economize its disciplinary sprawl. The instructional strategy is to concentrate attention to a limited number of focal visuals from which the exposition of gerontological knowledge can radiate out and to which it can circle back. The 5 images selected here synthesize numerous ideas about life course; senescence, development, and interventions in these processes; the long gestation of relative health and illness; the succession of cohorts and social change; and the question of preparing for and managing the uncertainties of adult life. The 5 pictures and charts show some common features, such as lifelong flows of time and a recurring arc-like shape that is used to depict them. A sixth image is suggested in order to counter the impression that aging is a process of diminishment. Most knowledge about aging is rooted in a core discipline, but the teaching of that knowledge beyond the discipline can integrate content in fruitful ways.
Pelham, Anabel; Schafer, Donna; Abbott, Pauline; Estes, Carroll
The aging of society requires more trained aging specialists. Are higher education institutions prepared? Results of a comparison of gerontology programs in 2000 and 2010 indicate that the number of programs has declined and that higher education is not prepared. To address this challenge, the authors propose that gerontology be professionalized.…
Haley, William E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Montgomery, Rhonda J. V.
The authors review widely accepted criteria for program accreditation and compare gerontology with well-established accredited fields including clinical psychology and social work. At present gerontology lacks many necessary elements for credible professional accreditation, including defined scope of practice, applied curriculum, faculty with…
Mellor, M. Joanna, Ed.; Ivry, Joann, Ed.
Chapters in this volume reflect a variety of issues related to education for gerontological social work. Chapters in section 1, "Geriatrics and Gerontology in Social Work Education," are: (1) "Social Work's Pursuit of a Common Professional Framework: Have We Reached a Milestone?" (Roberta Greene and Colleen Galambos); (2) "Basic Gerontological…
Yamashita, T; Sakae, K; Ishihara, Y; Isomura, S; Utagawa, E
Cytopathic small round virus (Aichi strain), isolated from a patient with oyster-associated gastroenteritis, showed no reaction in the polymerase chain reaction method for enteroviruses or in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the five serotypes of astroviruses. Our ELISA was sensitive in detecting the Aichi strain antigen in stool samples, but there was no reaction in this ELISA with any non-Aichi strains of enteric viruses, with such origins as enterovirus, rotavirus, Norwalk virus, calicivirus, or astrovirus. In the ELISA, 13 of 47 stool samples from adult patients in five of nine oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were positive, but only 1 of 397 pediatric stool samples in Aichi Prefecture was positive. The prevalence rate for Aichi strain antibody was found to be 7.2% for persons aged 7 months to 4 years. The prevalence rate for antibody to Aichi strain increased with age, to about 80% in persons 35 years old. On the basis of the results of the present study, it was hypothesized that Aichi strain could be a new type of small round virus that mainly produces diarrhea in patients in the 15- to 34-year-old age group, 50 to 76% of whom possess neutralizing antibody. Images PMID:8263178
Wangmo, Tenzin; Ewen, Heidi H.; Webb, Alicia K.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Russell Hatch, Laurie
This study examined elder mentors' and students' roles, functions, and satisfaction with the Elder Mentorship program at the Graduate Center for Gerontology, University of Kentucky. The Elder Mentorship program matches gerontology doctoral students with older adults in the community. Parallel surveys were constructed to evaluate the program from…
Haley, William E; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Montgomery, Rhonda J V
The authors review widely accepted criteria for program accreditation and compare gerontology with well-established accredited fields including clinical psychology and social work. At present gerontology lacks many necessary elements for credible professional accreditation, including defined scope of practice, applied curriculum, faculty with applied professional credentials, and resources necessary to support professional credentialing review. Accreditation with weak requirements will be dismissed as "vanity" accreditation, and strict requirements will be impossible for many resource-poor programs to achieve, putting unaccredited programs at increased risk for elimination. Accreditation may be appropriate in the future, but it should be limited to professional or applied gerontology, perhaps for programs conferring bachelor's or master's degrees. Options other than accreditation to enhance professional skills and employability of gerontology graduates are discussed.
Glock, Rosana Soibelmann; Goldim, Jose Roberto
The aim of this study was to assess the use and adequacy of informed consent in research involving the elderly in Brazil. Using a reading index, we observed that in 83% of informed consent forms, the text was considered difficult, and demanded a higher schooling level than that presented by the subjects. Whereas 100% of the investigators considered the text in informed consent forms accessible, 75% of the subjects considered it hard to understand. This difference was statistically significant. 94% percent of the elderly participating in research protocols made the decision to participate in the study before reading the term of consent. More attention should be given both to the writing of informed consent forms and to the entire informed consent process, which in gerontology research, should be reviewed at each encounter with study participants.
Peterson, David A.
Compares gerontology master's degree curricula for length, content, and requirements. Results showed they have great comparability and fall within established guidelines. Master's degree programs in gerontology appear to be sufficiently similar to allow for beginning discussions of accreditation. (JAC)
Kohlenberg, Eileen; Kennedy-Malone, Laurie; Crane, Patricia; Letvak, Susan
The inclusion of gerontology content in the nursing curriculum is paramount as our population of older adults grows. As one of 10 recipients of the John A. Hartford Foundation/AACN awards for Enhancing Gerontological and Geriatric Nursing Education for Advanced Practice Nursing Programs, we successfully integrated gerontological/ geriatric content throughout core courses for all concentrations taught at the master's level. The Nurse Practitioner and Clinical Nurse Specialist Competencies for Older Adult Care were used as a guide to integrate gerontological nursing content across the core courses. We present examples of content, strategies, and evaluation methods that demonstrate infusion of gerontology in a nursing theory course, research course, and healthcare law and policy course. Twenty-two of the competencies are addressed in these core courses and provide a foundation for further development in the support and specialty courses for the nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, nursing administrator, nurse educator, and nurse anesthetist. We also present helpful Web-based resources for older adult care.
Ray, R E
This article argues the need for research in a feminist gerontology that is informed by postmodern and poststructuralist theories. Feminist gerontology is defined and described as part of a larger movement in the field toward critical gerontology. A brief summary of postmodern thought is followed by questions for researchers in gerontology and guidelines for feminist research which is interpretive, interactive, critical, and change-oriented.
Funk, Stephan M; Conde, Dalia; Lamoreux, John; Fa, John E
Effective protection of the ~19 000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians. We show that AZEs&s can be protected feasibly and cost-effectively, but action is urgent. We argue that the Alliance, whose initial main aim was to identify AZEs&s, must be followed up by a second-generation initiative that directs and co-ordinates AZE conservation activities on the ground. The prominent role of zoos, conservation NGOs, and governmental institutions provides a combination of all-encompassing knowhow that can, if properly steered, maximize the long-term survival of AZEs&s.
Miller, Emily H.; Cutler, Neal E.
The complexity of information management in gerontology is affected by the multidisciplinary nature of the subject and the dispersion of relevant bibliographic materials. This paper presents a sampling of existing bibliographic resources in gerontology and reviews the problems and concerns of gerontological researchers. (Author)
Twigg, Julia; Martin, Wendy
Over the last decade, Cultural Gerontology has emerged as one of the most vibrant elements of writing about age (Twigg, J., & Martin, W. (Eds.) (2015). The Routledge handbook of cultural gerontology. London: Routledge). Reflecting the wider Cultural Turn, it has expanded the field of gerontology beyond all recognition. No longer confined to frailty, or the dominance of medical and social welfare perspectives, cultural gerontology addresses the nature and experience of later years in the widest sense. In this review, we will explore how the Cultural Turn, which occurred across the social sciences and humanities in the late 20th century, came to influence age studies. We will analyze the impulses that led to the emergence of the field and the forces that have inhibited or delayed its development. We will explore how cultural gerontology has recast aging studies, widening its theoretical and substantive scope, taking it into new territory intellectually and politically, presenting this in terms of 4 broad themes that characterize the work: subjectivity and identity; the body and embodiment; representation and the visual; and time and space. Finally, we will briefly address whether there are problems in the approach.
Ewen, Heidi H.; Rowles, Graham D.; Watkins, John F.
This article reports on the Gerontology Doctoral Student Assessment Model (GDSAM), a comprehensive web-based system premised on developing an evaluation mechanism attuned to the special requirements of advanced graduate education at the doctoral level. The system focuses on longitudinal tracking of selected dimensions of intellectual,…
Fulton, Amy E.; Walsh, Christine A.; Azulai, Anna; Gulbrandsen, Cari; Tong, Hongmei
Social work students and faculty are increasingly embracing online education and collaborative teaching. Yet models to support these activities have not been adequately developed. This paper describes how a team of instructors developed, delivered, and evaluated an undergraduate gerontological social work course using a collaborative online…
Galambos, Colleen; Curl, Angela L.; Woodbury, Karen
This article reports on the pilot delivery of an evaluation method to gauge student learning of gerontological competencies. Using a pretest and posttest design, data were collected on 46 students over 3 classes. Results indicated significant improvement in how students rated or perceived their competencies skill level between pretest and posttest…
Mwangi, Samuel M; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H; Manning, Lydia K; Kunkel, Suzanne R
The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education.
Achenbaum, W A; Bengtson, V L
While "disengagement theory" is today largely discounted, it has an important place in the history of gerontological explanation. First we analyze the historical context of this theory. Second, we examine its long-term contributions and deficiencies in terms of finer criteria--standards which we suggest should be used in evaluating current, and future, theories in social gerontology.
D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael
Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.
Development of Czech gerontology and geriatrics can be associated with the Prague gerontology, namely with the First Faculty of Medicine (formally the Faculty of General Medicine). Prague school of gerontology was established. The decisive events related to the subject are described. Paper is based on the already published information on the history of the specialization and on the personal memorials of personal observers in the last fifty years. Reflections on the origin and establishment of a new medical specialization conclude the paper.
Yurchuck, E R; Kee, C C
1. As the number of older adults in the US increases, nurse educators must be prepared to teach gerontological nursing to their students. A 3-year project addresses the need for faculty development in gerontological nursing. 2. A major objective of the project is to provide basic knowledge of gerontological nursing to regional nursing faculty through a series of 1-week workshops that include didactic content and clinical observation experiences. 3. All 1990 workshops were filled to capacity, with participants exhibiting wide variation in their gerontological knowledge base.
Kruger, Tina M; Pearl, Andrew J
Service-learning is a useful pedagogical tool and high-impact practice, providing multiple benefits. Gerontology (and other) courses frequently include service-learning activities but lack theory-based, intentional research on outcomes. Here, the authors define service-learning and contextualize it in higher education, provide an overview of research and assessment in service-learning and gerontology courses, demonstrate the shortcomings of program evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research to advance and generate theory.
T.S. Eliot once proposed that there were two sorts of problems in life. One prompted the question, 'What are we going to do about it?' and the other provoked the questions, 'What does it mean? How does one relate to it?' Geriatric medicine, an eminently practical specialty, has concentrated with good effect on the former but with notable exceptions has yet to devote significant time to the latter. Into this breach has developed an innovative and exciting movement in gerontology to provide a deeper and more comprehensive insight into the meaning of ageing. Largely encompassed by the terms of cultural, humanistic and narrative gerontology, their intent and methodologies in many ways mirror the relationship between the medical humanities, narrative medicine and medicine.
Coumé, Mamadou; Touré, Kamadore; Faye, Atoumane; Moreira, Therese Diop
Senegal is dealing positively with its demographic transition. On September 1st 2006, the Senegalese government introduced the "Plan Sesame", a national free health care program for elderly people aged 60 years and over. The University of Dakar academic authorities support the Sesame plan through an innovative training program in geriatrics and gerontology. Such programs aim to address the challenge of ageing in a developing country.
van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph
This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…
Students desiring specialized skills and knowledge in working with older adults frequently pursue gerontology certificates. This paper reports the results of a study of gerontology certificate graduates which examined their educational backgrounds, their employment status, the predictive factors which led to aging-related jobs, and their…
Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center was designed for industrial use following five years of discussion among academia, industry and local government in the Aichi area. Among the six beam lines constructed, those that facilitated X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis were given first priority. In addition to the hardware, attention was given to the development of operating procedures that were quick and user-friendly. The facility entered public service in March 2013. In the year 2013, 55% of the experiments involved XAFS analysis (hard X-ray, soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet regions) and in 2014 it was 57%. The range of research fields is very broad, emphasizing the importance of the XAFS beam lines.
Tinker, Anthea; Hussain, Labib; D'Cruz, Jack Lilly; Tai, William Yee Seng; Zaidman, Sebastian
The General Medical Council (GMC) provides a core curriculum for all medical degrees in the UK. However, these guidelines do not provide in-depth, specific learning outcomes for the various medical specialties. Recognising our ageing population, the British Geriatrics Society in 2013 published their own supplementary guidelines to encourage and further direct teaching on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine in medical school curricula. Although teaching on Geriatric Medicine, a sub-discipline of Gerontology, has reassuringly increased in UK medical schools, there are convincing arguments for greater emphasis to be placed on the teaching of another sub-discipline: Social Gerontology. Considering the skills and knowledge likely to be gained from the teaching of Social Gerontology, in this paper we argue for the greater universal adoption of its teaching. This would help ensure that the doctors of tomorrow are better equipped to manage more successfully and holistically the growing cohort of older patients.
Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.
The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…
Burrow, James L.; Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.
Outlines issues, teaching tips, things to avoid, problems, and advantages of using video/cable/interactive television for gerontology education. Presents concerns for learners, participation issues, and other factors related to teaching gerontology using the Internet. (SK)
Karasik, Rona J; Kishimoto, Kyoko
The older population in the United States is becoming more diverse, bringing increasing attention to the ways in which diversity and multiculturalism are addressed in gerontological education. Although diversity and multiculturalism have long been recognized as important components of the aging experience, our approach to understanding their significance and impact continues to grow and change. Anti-racist pedagogy represents one catalyst to stimulate such change. To evaluate the potential for anti-racist pedagogy in gerontology, this study explored gerontological educators' (N = 121) current practices and perspectives regarding the inclusion of diversity content in their courses, as well as the extent to which they are familiar with and/or use anti-racist pedagogy in their classes. The findings suggest that greater attention to issues of race, ethnicity, and multicultural diversity throughout the gerontological curriculum is needed and wanted. Although respondents were generally unfamiliar with the name anti-racist pedagogy, many indicated that their current teaching practices employed select components of it. Overall, the findings point toward the need for continued exploration of how anti-racist pedagogy may be brought into the gerontological classroom, as well as its implications for future research, policy, and practice.
Martin, Diane J; Gillen, Laura L
The historical roots of gerontology date to a time when old age was characterized as physical and mental decline. Nonetheless, Metchnikoff questioned the inevitability of this decline, believing that quality of life could be improved by broadening our understanding of the science of aging, a multifaceted concept that extends well beyond the biological science interpretation so prevalent in gerontology's history. This article examines foundational gerontological theories in an effort to unravel complex interactions that constitute physiological aging processes, the psychological manifestations of individual adaptation, and the importance of social and spiritual relationships in aging successfully. Evaluating these theories through an interdisciplinary lens will benefit scholars, researchers, and aging services professionals because it offers opportunities to extend gerontological concepts from theory to development of models that can ultimately be applied in common practice to promote successful aging, regardless of one's physical or cognitive health status. To that end, we propose the Spectrum Model of Aging. Utilizing components of game theory, we believe it offers a synergistic approach to improving quality of later life and thus promises to move the field of gerontology beyond disciplinary boundaries.
Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J
Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created.
Mauk, Kristen L; Mauk, James M
Rehabilitation nurses, particularly those who work in geriatrics, recognize that the elderly have become increasingly heterogeneous, with many remaining active well into their 80s and beyond. As the baby boomers enter older adulthood, the senior healthcare market will be greatly affected. The areas of finance, economics, and marketing are seeing new trends that combine the expertise of financial planners with healthcare advisors and advocates for seniors. One emerging specialty area is financial gerontology. This article defines financial gerontology, presents emerging trends and certifications related to the field, and discusses implications for the rehabilitation nurse.
Achenbaum, W. Andrew
Donald Peterson Kent believed that gerontology would grow through innovative inquiry, effective teaching, and well-evaluated policies and programs that benefited the elderly people. Because advances in research, education, and practice sustain each other, Kent's tripartite agenda continues to be instructive as globalization presents fresh…
Speulda, Raymond H.
The Gerontology Research Instructional Program (GRIP) wad developed and implemented in the Dallas, Oregon, Public School System to determine: (1) the feelings and concepts toward aging held by elementary and secondary school students; (2) the effectiveness of a variety of planned instructional activities in changing those feelings; and (3) the…
Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.
The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…
Bahr, Rose Therese
This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…
Pianosi, Birgit; Payne, Holly
Globally, the need for development of a competent workforce to serve the burgeoning older population is well documented. Persons with degrees in gerontology are prepared to fill positions in this labor market, yet they are not in demand. This research explores the path of professionalization of gerontologists in Canada as a means of increasing…
It is a challenge to attract undergraduate students into the gerontology field. Many do not believe the aging field is exciting and at the cutting edge. Students, however, can be convinced of the timeliness, relevance, and excitement of the field by, literally, bringing up today's headlines in class. The author collected over 250 articles during…
Holstein, Martha B.; Minkler, Meredith
The "new gerontology," built on the concept of successful aging, sets forth the preconditions for and the end product of the process of aging successfully. Focused on health and active participation in life, it vests largely within individuals the power to achieve this normatively desirable state. While acknowledging the contributions of the…
Bowen, Patricia R., Comp.; McHorney, Colleen A., Comp.
This selected bibliography of resources on gerontology, reflecting the holdings of the Western Kentucky University Libraries, is divided into five sections: (1) books and monographs; (2) educational resources center; (3) government documents; (4) microfilms; and (5) periodicals. The table of contents contains an alphabetical listing of all Library…
This article considers developments and directions for environmental gerontology drawing on the three papers in this Forum. The multidisciplinary field came of age during the 1960s with Powell Lawton's powerful environmental press paradigm and its applications to empirical research and building design. Recent theoretical developments in Europe and…
Sugiura, Shuji; Yagyu, Kiyoko; Obata, Yuki; Lin, Yingsong; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitarou; Tajima, Kazuo; Aoki, Kunio; Kikuchi, Shogo
Barbers have frequent occasion to come in contact with hair and beauty products that contain many chemical substances, which could have harmful effects on health. Subjects were barbers belonging to the Barbers' Union of Aichi Prefecture who responded to a questionnaire in 1976. Deaths from all sites of cancers in the subjects were observed over 27 years. Mortalities of several cancers in the subjects were compared with individuals in the Japanese population, calculating standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using the general Japanese population as a standard. Subjects included 8,360 people (4,674 men). There were a total of 551 deaths (469 men) during the follow-up period, and 277 deaths (211 men) from all cancers. The male and female SMRs (95% CI) were 0.62 (0.58-0.66) and 0.25 (0.16-0.34) for all deaths, 0.46 (0.39-0.53) and 0.41 (0.35-0.53) for all cancers combined, 0.49 (0.35-0.63) and 0.40 (0.12-0.68) for stomach, 0.40 (0.24-0.56) and 0.30 (0.10-0.70) for lung, 0.56 (0.39-0.73) and 0.26 (0.02-0.76) for liver, 0.38 (0.16-0.60) and 0.30 (0.07-0.67) for colon, and 0.48 (0.08-0.88) and 0.22 (0.04-0.79) for blood cancers, respectively, with significantly fewer deaths than in the general populace. The female SMRs were 0.90 (0.74-4.06) for breast and 0.55 (0.06-1.04) for ovarian, lacking significance. Thus, no excess mortality of any cancer sites was observed compared with the general population in both Japan and Aichi Prefecture.
Wood, Joan B
This article serves as an introduction to the special issue on learner-centered education in gerontology and geriatrics. The author discusses the origin of the special issue in a preconference workshop sponsored by the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America in 2006, introduces the concept of learner-centered education, and briefly describes the articles in the special issue.
Blank, Thomas O; Bellizzi, Keith M
Most people diagnosed with cancer are aged >65 years, and many diagnosed younger live to become older survivors. Geriatric oncology is becoming recognized as a specialty area within oncology. It focuses specifically on the functional impacts of the interplay of aging and cancer, including the role of comorbidities. Nevertheless, to the authors' knowledge, little attention has been given to cancer from a gerontologic and lifespan perspective, especially quality of life and psychologic impact. Research has shown that the amount and type of psychologic impact of cancer is highly variable and that part of that variation is related to age, in that older persons are often less affected in both negative and positive ways. Gerontologic concepts and empiric findings related to physical, psychologic, and social aging processes may serve as partial explanations for that age-related pattern. Important potential contributors include psychologic factors, such as changes in future time perspective and goals, as well as social ones, such as roles and previous experience. The result is a complex interplay of factors that vary across persons but are covaried with age. Empiric findings regarding 1-year to 8-year prostate cancer survivors illustrate the age differences and the differential impacts of age itself and comorbidity. The use of gerontologic concepts to explain the age-related impact of cancer will benefit both research and clinical practice by providing a means to target interventions more effectively by taking into account the psychologic and social changes that often accompany aging. .
Andrews, Gavin J; Cutchin, Malcolm; McCracken, Kevin; Phillips, David R; Wiles, Janine
Health and healthcare have always been central considerations in geographical gerontology. This paper reviews progress in this part of the field over the past decade (1995-2006) and also looks to the future. It demonstrates how geographical gerontology is currently constituted of multiple fields of empirical interest studied by multiple academic disciplines. Specifically, the continuation and development of traditional perspectives on older population health--in terms of dynamics, distributions and movements--are traced, as well as emerging post-modern perspectives and qualitative approaches that sensitively investigate the complex relationships between older people and the varied places within which they live and are cared for. Mirroring theoretical developments and diversity in the social sciences, the future research challenges that lie ahead will involve the articulation of varied and often hidden cultural practices and social processes, and hitherto taken-for-granted--as well as new--social and spatial relations, between older people, health and place. If however geographical gerontology is to meet these challenges most effectively, there has to be greater collaboration and communication within and between its constituent disciplines and diverse empirical areas. This will help it become recognized to a greater degree as a distinct discipline.
Maramaldi, Peter; Gardner, Daniel; Berkman, Barbara; Ireland, Kristen; D'Ambruoso, Sarah; Howe, Judith L
The John A. Hartford Foundation, in collaboration with the Gerontological Society of America, has developed new models to create geriatric faculty capacity within social work. The Faculty Scholars Program is building faculty leadership in academic geriatric social work through a strategic approach that includes long-distance national and institution- based mentoring. While mentoring models have proven to be effective means of career development, this is relatively new in academic social work and little is known about the impact of long-distance mentoring in association with sponsorship from a mentor at the scholar's home institution. This paper describes the mentoring model and its conceptual underpinnings. Evaluation data from an ongoing evaluation is presented in discussion of the strengths and limitations of the mentoring model.
Sabin, Charles; Füzik, Tibor; Škubník, Karel; Pálková, Lenka; Lindberg, A. Michael
ABSTRACT Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) is a human pathogen from the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. Worldwide, 80 to 95% of adults have antibodies against the virus. AiV-1 infections are associated with nausea, gastroenteritis, and fever. Unlike most picornaviruses, kobuvirus capsids are composed of only three types of subunits: VP0, VP1, and VP3. We present here the structure of the AiV-1 virion determined to a resolution of 2.1 Å using X-ray crystallography. The surface loop puff of VP0 and knob of VP3 in AiV-1 are shorter than those in other picornaviruses. Instead, the 42-residue BC loop of VP0 forms the most prominent surface feature of the AiV-1 virion. We determined the structure of AiV-1 empty particle to a resolution of 4.2 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. The empty capsids are expanded relative to the native virus. The N-terminal arms of capsid proteins VP0, which mediate contacts between the pentamers of capsid protein protomers in the native AiV-1 virion, are disordered in the empty capsid. Nevertheless, the empty particles are stable, at least in vitro, and do not contain pores that might serve as channels for genome release. Therefore, extensive and probably reversible local reorganization of AiV-1 capsid is required for its genome release. IMPORTANCE Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) is a human pathogen that can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. AiV-1 is identified in environmental screening studies with higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. Accordingly, 80 to 95% of adults worldwide have suffered from AiV-1 infections. We determined the structure of the AiV-1 virion. Based on the structure, we show that antiviral compounds that were developed against related enteroviruses are unlikely to be effective against AiV-1. The surface of the AiV-1 virion has a unique topology distinct from other related viruses from the Picornaviridae family. We also determined that AiV-1 capsids form compact shells
Yamashita, Teruo; Adachi, Hirokazu; Hirose, Emi; Nakamura, Noriko; Ito, Miyabi; Yasui, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko
Between 2001 and 2005, 207 raw sewage samples were collected at the inflow of a sewage treatment plant in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Of the 207 sewage samples, 137 (66.2 %) were found to be positive for amplification of Aichi virus (AiV) nucleotide using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with 10 forward and 10 reverse primers in the 3D region corresponding to the nucleotide sequence of all kobuviruses. AiV genotype A sequences were detected in all 137 samples. New sequences of AiV were detected in nine samples, exhibiting 83 % similarity with AiV A846/88, but 95 % similarity with canine kobuvirus (CKV) US-PC0082 in this region. The nucleotide sequences from the VP3 region to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of sewage sample Y12/2004 were determined. The number of nucleotides in each region was the same as that of CKV. The similarity of the nucleotide (amino acid) identity of a complete VP1 region was 90.5 % (94.8 %) between Y12/2004 and CKV US-PC0082. The phylogenic analyses based on the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of VP1 and 3D showed that Y12/2004 was independent from AiV, but closely related to CKV. These results suggested that CKV is present in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
Künemund, H; Schroeter, K R
Given the suggestion to establish gerontology as an independent scientific discipline, the paper discusses the options for further development. It is argued that multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are the only alternatives that should be explicitly highlighted as a special feature of gerontology and that advantages and disadvantages of these alternatives should be discussed further.
Reynolds, Sandra L.; Haley, William E.; Hyer, Kathryn
As state budget allocations for higher education decrease, "specialty" programs such as gerontology must continually demonstrate their productivity. State and private universities increasingly rely on student credit hours (SCH) or tuition generated, which is making it difficult for many gerontology programs to expand. The School of Aging Studies…
This article describes the situation of academic study programs in gerontology and geriatrics in Austria. University formation in these areas is at the very beginning. Due to the lack of institutionalization of gerontology and geriatrics at the university level, the study programs were developed by non-university institutions. The studies are mostly at the post-gradual level and are practice-oriented.
Parrott, Tonya M.; Grabinski, C. Joanne; Silverstein, Nina M.; Spencer, Marian; Takayanagi, Paul W.; Yee-Melichar, Darlene
This article presents an overview of the use of adjunct faculty generally and within gerontology programs and discusses the benefits, drawbacks and possible solutions for both adjunct faculty and gerontology programs to utilize part-time teaching staff. The benefits reported for being a part-time faculty member include wanting to be in academia…
Alkema, Gretchen E.; Alley, Dawn E.
Scholars have debated the legitimacy of gerontology as a discipline since Metchnikoff coined the term more than 100 years ago. Recent developments such as the emergence of interdisciplinary aging theories and consensus on longitudinal research methods suggest that gerontology is materializing as a unique discipline, rather than a subset of another…
Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Applebaum, Robert; Sterns, Harvey
For over three decades, there has been considerable discussion about the development of gerontology education in the United States. A debate about accreditation is a logical outgrowth in this evolution. The dialogue about accreditation raises some important questions and gives gerontology an opportunity to further define itself. Accreditation…
Lin, Yi-Yin; Huang, Chin-Shan
Policy on educational gerontology seems a relatively recent subfield in most countries' social policies. The concept of education for older adults did not appear in Taiwan's political discourse until 1980. The purposes of this paper are to provide an overall introduction to the development of educational gerontology policies and practices in…
Price, Christine A.; Brosi, Whitney A.
The unprecedented growth in the older adult population combined with increased scholarly interest in family dynamics has resulted in the gradual expansion of family gerontology as its own area of study. Consisting of both university faculty and practitioners, family gerontology educators integrate multiple disciplines in order to teach about later…
Siegal, Brittany; Kagan, Sarah H.
Matters of development and generation may create barriers in teaching millennial undergraduates psychological and social gerontology. We introduce strategy to mitigate these barriers by teaching psychological and social gerontology as undergraduate honors courses, augmented with the use of social networking tools. We detail honors programming,…
Peterson, David A.
Survey of graduates of 15 gerontology master's degree programs indicated that employment roles and agencies were primarily administrative, not direct service. Most graduates accepted positions immediately after graduate school; others moved into them after holding other positions. Gerontology degree holders appear to be finding appropriate…
Doron, Israel; Hoffman, Asaf
In the past, the law has not been considered as an important part of gerontological science. Historically, different sciences such as medicine, biology, psychology, and sociology have played far more important roles in the creation and crystallization of gerontological knowledge. This state of affairs is reflected in academic education and field…
Walker, Joanna, Ed.
This text makes explicit the links between education and gerontology and the academic base for preretirement education. "Concepts of Retirement in Historical Perspective" (Joanna Walker) looks at retirement as the following: event, period, social institution, the Third Age, a life stage, productive aging, and a subject of industrial gerontology.…
Mercer, Lorraine; Carter, Lorraine
This examination of early gerontology journals identifies the multidisciplinary backgrounds of contributors, methods of investigation, nascent theory development, and formative themes and controversies. Through use of content, thematic, and critical analyses of second year issues of "The Gerontologist," "Educational Gerontology," "Research on…
Shenk, Dena; Rowles, Graham D.; Peacock, James R.; Mitchell, Jim; Fisher, Bradley J.; Moore, Krista S.; Hare, Lyndall
Basic understanding of research methods is appropriate for associate degree gerontology education. Undergraduates need introduction to issues involved in elder research. Masters' students should develop in-depth understanding of gerontology research methods; doctoral students require knowledge and ability to apply methods. (Contains 24…
Brown, Pamela S.; Hanks, Roma S.
Assessment of student learning is a growing concern for programs in gerontology. This report focuses on the conception, design, funding, and implementation of an innovative online workshop to assess and improve writing skills of students enrolled in distance-learning gerontology classes. The approach is multidisciplinary and involves a…
Sprouse, Betsy M., Ed.
This directory, designed to inform educators, professionals, and students of the nature and location of gerontology-related courses, degree programs, research programs, educational services, and training programs, contains information on the gerontological activities of 1,275 colleges and universities in the United States. (Data were collected…
Folts, W. Edward; And Others
Imminent demographic changes require understanding of issues surrounding caring for family members while employed. Gerontology course offerings should focus on the caregiver role, and future corporate executives should be provided with basic gerontological education so that they will be able to understand and support their employees who are…
King, Sharon V.; Gachuhi, Mugo; Ice, Gillian; Cattell, Maria; Whittington, Frank
This article reprises four presentations on "Gerontology Education in Kenya," a seminar at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Association of Gerontology in Higher Education. It describes the process by which the Gerontology Institute of Georgia State University established a 3-year gerontology education and research partnership with Kenyatta…
Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Nagae, Takayuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Tomita, Ayana; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Tabuchi, Masao
The protein crystallography beamline BL2S1, constructed at one of the 5 T superconducting bending-magnet ports of the Aichi synchrotron, is available to users associated with academic and industrial organizations. The beamline is mainly intended for use in X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystals of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Diffraction measurements for crystals of other materials are also possible, such as inorganic and organic compounds. BL2S1 covers the energy range 7–17 keV (1.8–0.7 Å) with an asymmetric-cut curved single-crystal monochromator [Ge(111) or Ge(220)], and a platinum-coated Si mirror is used for vertical focusing and as a higher-order cutoff filter. The beamline is equipped with a single-axis goniometer, a CCD detector, and an open-flow cryogenic sample cooler. Lastly, high-pressure protein crystallography with a diamond anvil cell can also be performed using this beamline.
Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien
Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.
Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Nagae, Takayuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Tomita, Ayana; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Tabuchi, Masao
The protein crystallography beamline BL2S1, constructed at one of the 5 T superconducting bending-magnet ports of the Aichi synchrotron, is available to users associated with academic and industrial organizations. The beamline is mainly intended for use in X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystals of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Diffraction measurements for crystals of other materials are also possible, such as inorganic and organic compounds. BL2S1 covers the energy range 7–17 keV (1.8–0.7 Å) with an asymmetric-cut curved single-crystal monochromator [Ge(111) or Ge(220)], and a platinum-coated Si mirror is used for vertical focusing and as a higher-order cutoff filter. The beamline is equipped with a single-axis goniometer, a CCD detector, and an open-flow cryogenic sample cooler. High-pressure protein crystallography with a diamond anvil cell can also be performed using this beamline. PMID:28009576
Pesaitis, Patricia; Hays, Judith A.
Periodicals, indexes, and abstracts important to the interdisciplinary fields of gerontology and geriatrics which are currently available at the Wichita State University are discussed. The section on periodicals includes a discussion of why they are useful as an information source, along with a short description of the scope of 18 journals. The…
Sewlikar, Snigdha; D'Souza, Doris H
Viral foodborne illness continues to be a health-concern globally, with numerous fruit and juice outbreaks of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) reported worldwide. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging pathogen with limited epidemiological data. Both, HAV and AiV are resistant to low pH and can survive under adverse environmental conditions leading to transmission ease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of HAV and AiV in commercially-available cranberry-based juices (Cranberry juice cocktail, CJ and a 100% juice with cranberry, MJ) over 21 days at refrigeration (4 °C). Equal volumes of juice was mixed with each virus individually (final titer of 6 log PFU/mL) and stored at refrigeration over 21 days. At each time interval, the inoculated juices were serially diluted in cell culture media and infectious virus survival was determined by standard plaque assays. Each experiment was carried out in duplicate and replicated thrice. Reductions of 0.72 ± 0.06 (after day 1) to 2.3 ± 0.18 log PFU/mL (after day 21) and 0.63 ± 0.02 (after day 1) to 1.84 ± 0.14 log PFU/mL (after day 21) were obtained for AiV with MJ and CJ, respectively. Reductions ranging from 0.67 ± 0.03 (after day 1) to 1.09 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL (after day 21) and 0.93 ± 0.27 (after day1) to 1.49 ± 0.18 log PFU/mL (after day 21) were obtained for HAV at refrigeration in MJ and CJ, respectively. HAV showed greater survival than AiV in these juices over refrigerated storage. These results provide survival data of HAV and AiV in cranberry-based juices that can be used in risk-modeling and risk assessment studies.
Achenbaum, W. Andrew; Bengston, Vern L.
Although "disengagement theory" is today largely discounted, it has an important place in the history of gerontology. First, the historical context of this theory must be analyzed. Second, long-term contributions and deficiencies should be examined in terms of finer criteria-standards which are suggested for use in evaluation of current…
Bryant, Ashley Leak; Brody, Ab; Perez, Adriana; Shillam, Casey; Edelman, Linda S.; Bond, Stewart M.; Foster, Victoria; Siegel, Elena
Purpose In conjunction with the National Hartford Centers of Gerontological Nursing Excellence (NHCGNE), formerly known as the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Initiative (BAGNC), the Hartford Gerontological Nursing Leaders (HGNL) developed and executed a program beginning in 2011 to enhance both (a) the experience of newly selected scholars and fellows to the NHCGNE and (b) the ongoing professional development of the HGNL. The purpose of this article is to describe key strategies used to develop and execute the mentoring program and to present the formative and summative program evaluation. Design The program was launched in January 2011 with seven peer mentor and mentee matches. In June 2012, the peer mentoring committee solicited feedback on the development of the peer mentoring program and changes were made for the subsequent cohorts. Findings An additional 12 matches were made in the following 2 years (2012 and 2013), for a total of 31 matches to date. We have learned several key lessons from our three cohorts regarding how to structure, implement, and carefully evaluate a peer mentoring program. Conclusions Informal evaluation of our peer mentoring program noted several challenges for both peer mentors and mentees. Having knowledge of and addressing those challenges may increase the overall quality and effectiveness of peer mentoring programs and, in turn, benefit academic nursing by strengthening the faculty workforce. Clinical Relevance Findings from development and implementation of a peer mentoring program for gerontological faculty could lead to new and adaptable programs in a variety of clinical and education settings. PMID:25808927
Ito, Miyabi; Yamashita, Teruo; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Kabashima, Yuka; Hasegawa, Akiko; Nagaya, Satoko; Kawaguchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Fujiura, Akira; Sakae, Kenji; Minagawa, Hiroko
Between April 1999 and March 2008, a total of 4,976 stool specimens collected from patients with suspected viral infection through infectious agent surveillance in Aichi, Japan, were tested for the presence of human parechoviruses (HPeVs). We detected HPeVs in 110 samples by either cell culture, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), or both. Serotyping either by neutralization test or by nucleotide sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 region and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) regions revealed that 63 were HPeV type 1 (HPeV-1), followed by 44 HPeV-3 strains, 2 HPeV-4 strains, and 1 HPeV-6 strain. The high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of the Japanese HPeV-3 isolates in 2006 to the strains previously reported from Canada and Netherlands confirmed the worldwide prevalence of HPeV-3 infection. Ninety-seven percent of the HPeV-positive patients were younger than 3 years, and 86.2% younger than 12 months. The clinical diagnoses of HPeV-positive patients were gastroenteritis, respiratory illness, febrile illness, exanthema, "hand, foot, and mouth disease," aseptic meningitis, and herpangina. Among 49 HPeV-positive patients with gastroenteritis, 35 were positive with HPeV-1 and 12 with HPeV-3, and out of 25 with respiratory illness, 11 were positive with HPeV-1 and 14 with HPeV-3. HPeV-3 seemed to be an important etiological agent of respiratory infection of children. While HPeV-1 was detected predominantly during fall and winter, the majority of the HPeV-3 cases were detected during summer and fall. A different pattern of clinical manifestations as well as seasonality suggested that there are different mechanisms of pathogenesis between HPeV-1 and HPeV-3 infections.
Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy
Much of the literature on teaching gerontology derives from experiences in face-to-face settings. There is limited discussion of either the applicability of teaching techniques drawn from the traditional setting to the online environment or the development of novel strategies to engage distance students of aging. We developed and assessed an exercise designed to stimulate an online, asynchronous discussion of ageism in a Web-based social gerontology course. The exercise required students to analyze patterns found in sketches of elders drawn by themselves and their peers. The activity, which was favorably evaluated by our students, provided a springboard for discussion of the origins and consequences of ageism, as well as issues at the intersection of gender and age inequality.
Karasik, Rona J
Internships and similar applied opportunities have long been valued for providing students with opportunities for practical experience, career preparation, and personal growth. The need for applied experiences in gerontology and geriatrics is particularly salient. Creating and sustaining effective internship experiences, however, requires careful attention to a variety of concerns. Using examples and illustrations from an ongoing gerontology internship component (undergraduate and graduate) this article examines ways to anticipate and address the challenges that are common to a broad range of internship experiences, as well as those that are unique to applied learning in gerontology and geriatrics.
The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.
Van Dussen, Daniel J; Applebaum, Robert; Sterns, Harvey
For over three decades, there has been considerable discussion about the development of gerontology education in the United States. A debate about accreditation is a logical outgrowth in this evolution. The dialogue about accreditation raises some important questions and gives gerontology an opportunity to further define itself. Accreditation poses opportunities and challenges that must be addressed to have a valid and meaningful discussion about the future of gerontological education. This article examines the advantages and disadvantages of accreditation for gerontology using the lens of faculty members from these three different academic programs. The authors ask: Is accreditation a good idea for each program? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Is this the right time?
Kumar, V.; Khetrapal, K.
Problems of elderly persons in developing nations are rising. Identification and execution of research priorities and training in gerontology and geriatrics for medical, paramedical, and community personnel and older adults themselves would help achieve healthy aging. (SK)
Philosophy of science is the theoretical background of this article. Firstly, a definition of interdisciplinarity is given, integrating experiences from longitudinal studies in gerontology and arguing for rejecting the large vocable "interdisciplinarity", because of its overloaded meaning. Secondly, science-oriented, sociopsychological and practical barriers of interdisciplinary work in gerontology are presented, whereby the central statement is that interdisciplinarity is preconditionally dependent on a "culture of understanding". Thirdly, a model of interdisciplinarity in gerontology is shown. In general, this article does not focus on the question whether gerontology is a multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary discipline but how the requirement of interdisciplinarity can be successfully implemented. In conclusion, interdisciplinarity is not established due to the subject (of aging) or a methodological approach but evolves based on reciprocal contact between different disciplines, which can be entitled "fair cooperation."
Mikhal'skiĭ, A I
Current challenges facing theory and practice in ageing sciences need new methods of experimental data investigation. This is a result as of experimental basis developments in biological research, so of information technology progress. These achievements make it possible to use well proven in different fields of science and engineering data mining methods for tasks in gerontology and geriatrics. Some examples of data mining methods implementation in gerontology are presented.
Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy
In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.
The European Master's Program in Gerontology (EuMaG) started in September 2003 with support from the European Commission. The EuMaG is a modular, 2-year, part-time international training program about the aging process and its societal implications. The multidisciplinary curriculum comprises four domains of gerontology (i.e., social gerontology,…
Educational gerontology is increasingly becoming a global phenomenon. Taiwan, a small island in the western Pacific Ocean, has responded to its aging population with the development of the studies and practices of educational gerontology. This study, first, traces the development of educational gerontology in Taiwan, based on Peterson's definition…
Schäfer, D; Moog, F P
300 years ago, the lawyer Theodosius Schöpffer coined the notion gerontology. On this occasion, this paper offers terms and corresponding concepts of gerontology which arose in the western tradition: 1. From the Graeco-Roman antiquity until 1750, gerocomy (the care for the elderly) was defined as a branch of medicine, but in practice almost did not exist. Basically, it provided instructions for a way of life in conformity with the physiological circumstances of elderly people. Its implementation was left to the patient. Furthermore, in the early modern times medical treatises dealt more frequently with diseases of the elderly and their therapy. The gerokomia succeeded in evolving a specific technical literature. Yet it failed to get institutionalized. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ignaz Nascher interpreted geriatrics as a counterpart to pediatrics and opposed it to a clinical-pathological consideration of old age before 1900. He aimed at the exploration and treatment of old age as an autonomous physiological entity. Under the influence of the demographic transformation the institutionalization of geriatrics as a interdisciplinary branch within medicine could be realized relatively soon. 3. Around 1930, we experience the recreation of the notion gerontology, initially restricted to medical gerontology. However, with the integration of the non-medical sciences of old age the spectrum and the objectives changed. Today gerontology signifies on a international level a generic term or independent scientific discipline beside medicine. This evolution corresponds with the intentions pursued 300 years ago.
Bos, Angelo J G; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Bos, Antonio M G; Gómez, Fernando
Every year the proportion of elderly people increases at a greater rate compared with other age groups, changing the population structure of most countries. Latin America has been internationally known for its higher percentage of young compared with elderly persons. The United Nations predicts that the proportion of elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean will be more similar to world figures in 2020 and even higher in 2040. The increasing elderly population in Latin America has increased the demand for advanced degree professionals with gerontology training. Nevertheless, in spite of training efforts during the last decade, the number of gerontology professionals is still insufficient. In total, the authors were able to locate only ten gerontology programs in Latin America (four in Brazil, two in Argentina, and one each in Uruguay, Peru, Cuba, and Colombia). The programs currently available in Brazil and Colombia are described in an effort to share information on the common characteristics of Master's and PhD degree programs in gerontology in Latin America. The authors concluded that, in Latin America, programs focused exclusively on gerontology are scarce.
Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.
Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the
Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R
Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of
Karasik, Rona J
More and more students and community partners in the areas of gerontology and geriatrics are participating in service-learning experiences. The types of service-learning projects are wide-ranging, as are the potential benefits to students and community agencies. Harvesting such benefits, however, requires careful consideration and participation both from the academic institution and the community agencies. Effective collaborations begin with a shared understanding of the approach, open discussion of the expected outcomes, and a willingness to address potential challenges. In addition, special considerations (eg, working with older adults, HIPAA) need to be taken into account when developing and maintaining service-learning in gerontology and geriatrics. The following examines essential elements in each of these areas, with the goal of promoting positive service-learning outcomes in gerontology and geriatrics. Particular attention is paid to service-learning in long-term care and similar settings.
Hirst, Sandra P.; Lane, Annette M.; Stares, Brittany
Method A survey of gerontological content in nursing and social work programs across Canada (English speaking) was conducted. The survey tool was the competencies list developed for interprofessional gerontological education by the National Initiative for the Care of the Elderly (NICE). Deans or designates of English-speaking nursing and social work programs across Canada were contacted by e-mail. Data was collected by Zoomerang.com. Results Findings indicate that clear progress is being made in ensuring that students have the knowledge and skills needed to provide the care required by older adults in a variety of settings. PMID:23259012
Russell, Cherry; Mahony, Mary Jane; Hughes, Ian; Kendig, Hal
This paper provides an overview of opportunities for graduate education in Gerontology in the Asia-Oceania Region. It locates emerging demand in a demographic context, highlighting high rates of growth in the aged population within the Region and growing awareness of governments of the need for appropriate planning. An important component of…
Hills, William E.; Brallier, Sara A.; Palm, Linda J.; Graham, Jamie M.
This study compared Web-based and lecture-based Gerontology and Psychology of Aging courses in terms of student performance, demographic and academic characteristics of students enrolled in the courses, and extent to which these characteristics differentially predicted outcomes of learning in the two course types. Participants for this study were…
Masunaga, Hiromi; Peterson, David A.; Seymour, Rachel
Responses from 390 of the 704 graduates of the University of Southern California's School of Gerontology 1976-1885 indicated (1) 51% were employed full time in the field; (2) 58% earned over $40,000; (3) 68% were very satisfied with their jobs; and (4) 64% found their coursework useful. Master's graduates were significantly more likely than…
A number of RNs provide both direct care and leadership in geriatric-care facilities. In this specialized area of care, the contributions of the RN are not well recognized. In this issue, we focus on gerontological nursing and how NIC can be used to describe and communicate this highly specialized role.
Richardson, Daniel; McCulloch, B. Jan; Rowles, Graham D.
A gerontology doctoral program used the concepts of homeostasis and complexity to present biomedical and psychosocial issues. Data from 14 students showed that homeostasis was more useful for biomedical than psychosocial issues. Complexity helped in understanding interactions between the two. (SK)
Herbert, Mary Kennan
Poetry and gerontology are often not viewed as congenial or likely companions. Yet these two approaches to communication, creativity, and health may have much in common. I would like to present some of my own work, five poems in fact, in light of my personal history and as a teacher/facilitator. My goal here is to reveal ideas and directions that…
An overview of selection criteria and sources for the acquisition of gerontological materials is supplemented by a list of selection sources and a list of suppliers (non-federal and federal agencies) of free or low cost materials. Eight references are cited. (EJS)
Molinari, Victor; Ellis, Michelle L
The University of South Florida's master's degree in gerontology is a long-established program that focuses on a multidisciplinary approach to population aging. This study identifies graduate students' needs in preparation for a professional career in gerontology. An online survey was distributed to graduates and those currently enrolled (N = 56) in order to better understand expectations for the program, identify outcomes of graduation, and obtain program recommendations for future students. The program's 40 year history was well represented with participants ranging from the first graduating class to current students. Results indicated high satisfaction in students' expectations of the program, educational experience, and assessment of faculty. Further, 68% of graduates reported success in gaining age-related employment shortly after graduation. However, students echoed well-known barriers in gerontology, reporting tough competition for jobs versus those with licensure, and challenges in promoting their nonclinical gerontology degree to employers. Respondents recommended more applied coursework and assistance with career planning to enhance employment opportunities upon graduation. Implications of these findings are discussed in further detail.
Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.; Ingram, Jerry G.; Li, Han
This study examined outcomes for faculty and community partners of a gerontological curriculum enrichment effort at a midwestern state university. The study was supported by the John A. Hartford Foundation. Faculty from three academic centers around the state were involved in revising the foundation (core) curriculum. Community practitioners from…
The article explores paradigms for approaching course content to be studied in the classroom. These paradigms, or global views about what is of interest or importance and ways of knowing, relate to key questions in gerontology, such as what is the relevant domain/content to be studied, what is the central level of analysis or action, what are…
Karasik, Rona J.
Internships and similar applied opportunities have long been valued for providing students with opportunities for practical experience, career preparation, and personal growth. The need for applied experiences in gerontology and geriatrics is particularly salient. Creating and sustaining effective internship experiences, however, requires careful…
Wilma Donahue's book in 1955, "Education for Later Maturity", was considered the first major work to identify the educational needs of the aging person. Peterson considers it one of the earliest comprehensive surveys of older learners. However, the idea of educational gerontology was probably first used in 1970 at the University of…
Bradley, Dana Burr; Fitzgerald, Kelly
Quality assurance and accreditation are closely tied together. This article documents the work toward a unified and comprehensive national accreditation program in health education. By exploring the accreditation journey of another discipline, the field of gerontology should learn valuable lessons. These include an attention to inclusivity, a…
Shetterley, Karen; Malone, D. Michael; Poon, Leonard W.
Focus group and survey results were used to create a continuing education outreach program in gerontology. The model includes aging knowledge and interpersonal and organizational skills. Core areas included the structure, contexts, theories, and concepts of aging; stability and change; ethics; scholarship; and practice. (SK)
Englehardt, Jacqueline; Hash, Kristina M.; Mankowski, Mariann; Harper-Dorton, Karen V.; Pilarte, Ann E.
This article discusses the results of a school of social work survey assessing the geriatric training needs of social workers and other professionals in aging and the need for a gerontology practitioner's continuing education (CE) certificate program. A total of 391 professionals, the majority of whom were social workers, participated in an online…
Clark County School District, Las Vegas, NV.
A project was proposed to expand the gerontology program at Rancho High School (Las Vegas, Nevada) into the area of food services for the aged. Development of a course in food services for the elderly would meet the students' needs for field experiences and entry-level job skills. Objectives of the proposed program included the following: (1)…
Situates geragogy, the practice of teaching older adults, within critical gerontology. Explains principles of geragogy: embodiment of political rationale, commitment to transformation of ageism, refutation of myths of empowerment through education, outreach to all segments of the older population, emphasis on self-help culture, and engagement in…
Bradley, Dana Burr; Peacock, James R.; Shenk, Dena; Chapin, Meldrena
A teaching practicum for gerontology graduate students involves collaboration between faculty mentors and students, learning contracts, and performance strategies to ensure goals are met. Deliberate ambiguity about graduate students' role in the undergraduate classroom and the need to balance high-quality instruction and development of teaching…
Fitzpatrick, Tanya R.
Describes the development and content of a course on sexuality in aging for a gerontology master's program. Topics include physical health, AIDS, gay/lesbian issues, widows/widowers, marriage, ethnic issues, menopause, and impotence. Provides a 33-item bibliography. (SK)
A questionnaire concerning graduate offerings in psychology of aging was mailed to 238 departments of psychology throughout the United States. Of the 191 responses, 16 departments were found to offer a formal program of graduate study in gerontological psychology. Presented at the American Psychological Association meeting, Washington, September,…
Edinberg, Mark A.; And Others
This is a reprot of the genesis and evolution of an interdisciplinary health care experience for student teams in a gerontological setting. The student teams faced many of the same problems encountered by other interdisciplinary health care teams, including role definition, role negotiation, decision making, and conflict resolution. (Author)
Campbell-Detrixhe, Dia D; Grassley, Jane S; Zeigler, Vicki L
Examining the meanings of the experiences of advanced practice nurses (APNs) who chose to work with older adults and why they continue to work with this population was the focus of this hermeneutic qualitative research study. Twelve geriatric APNs currently practicing in two South Central states were interviewed using an open-ended interview guide. Using Gadamerian hermeneutics, the researchers identified Gerontology Found Me as the significant expression that reflected the fundamental meaning of the experience as a whole. Four themes emerged that further described the meanings of the participants' personal, educational, and professional experiences: Becoming a Gerontology Nurse, Being a Gerontology Nurse, Belonging to Gerontology, and Bringing Others to Gerontology. This study concluded that APNs' personal and professional experiences were more influential than educational experiences to become geriatric nurses, and having these personal and professional experiences of being in relationship with older individuals further contributed to their choice of gerontology.
von Kondratowitz, H J
Although disenchantment between "science" and "practice" and complaints about the inadequate utilization of gerontological knowledge are often articulated, the problem of utilization of this knowledge in fields of practice has rarely been the topic of empirical research. By referring to the actual sociological debate about "utilization" the contribution tries to shed light on the complexity of the problem. It is important to realize that for too long utilization of knowledge, quite naively, has been looked at as a process of merely transferring true results in a "right" way. Instead, from a sociological point of view, one has to learn that the most decisive filter in selecting knowledge is represented by the context of utilization and that such contexts display their own specific logic or rationality in processing knowledge. Based on interviews in three German municipalities with employees of department of social planning, state ministries of social affairs, welfare associations and local projects on counselling about old age problems, this thesis is examined in the case of gerontological knowledge. A first partial evaluation of the material from this on-going research project confirms the relevance of this assumption.
Behrend, C; Neumann, E-M; Schmidt-Wiborg, P
Our new five-semester MA course in gerontology has been designed as a programme of continuing education for professionals from various fields being confronted with hitherto unknown challenges by "the greying of societies". While many services are directed to meet the needs of older clients, the elderly also represent a huge potential of various resources indispensable to society. Coming from various fields of study and different positions (mainly management or self-employed), our students engage in an interdisciplinary discourse from the beginning which helps them acquire knowledge and competencies to later deal with the complex tasks requiring interdisciplinary problem solving skills and establish "best practice" models. Universities are expected to engage in continuing education, thus being the places of choice for postgraduate studies in gerontology, which also offer research opportunities. Universities of Applied Sciences, intended to foster regional development, integrate students into applied research projects thereby transferring knowledge and skills to reach out to the community. During the first four semesters, each student enrolled in the MA Gerontology course plans, implements and evaluates a project of his/her own. This ensures the integration of gerontological knowledge and research methods and helps to extend and improve practical skills. We support students by regular coaching and supervision.
Curl, Angela L; Tompkins, Catherine J; Rosen, Anita L; Zlotnik, Joan Levy
Our society is aging, and this demographic change necessitates that all social workers have basic competency in gerontology. This article describes the results of a competency survey conducted in 2000, and how these results helped transform basic social work curricula and enhance gerontology-related resources. Results were used to encourage and assist social work faculty to infuse gerontological content into social work curriculum, which helped practitioners to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to meet the needs of a growing aging population. This social work education framework can be replicated in an effort to infuse gerontology content throughout other disciplines.
Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-En; Lin, Ping-Yi
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing" found on pages 25-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the worldwide shortage of nurses specializing in
Kletemberg, Denise Faucz; Padilha, Maria Itayra
The objective of the present study was to identify the politic activities implemented by gerontological nursing in Brazil in the period spanning 1970 to 1996, which aimed at making it an effective specialty in elderly care. This descriptive-qualitative study was performed using a historical approach, using thematic oral history. Fourteen nurses, pioneers in the field, took part in the study. The following categories were identified: 1) Political organization of the field; and 2) Relationship between the field and the State. Results identified the following examples of political activities: traveling throughout Brazil, aimed at getting researchers interested in the theme; creating the Scientific Department of Gerontological Nursing; and assuming an effective participation in the creation of public policies in the country. The specialty is aware of the political relevance for its construction and has been making efforts to achieve recognition as a field of knowledge within the multidisciplinary team of elderly care.
Van Cleave, Janet H; Szanton, Sarah L; Shillam, Casey; Rose, Karen; Rao, Aditi D; Perez, Adriana; O'Connor, Melissa; Walker, Rachel; Buron, Bill; Boltz, Marie; Bellot, Jennifer; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa
In 2000, the John A. Hartford Foundation established the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program initiative, acknowledging nursing's key role in the care of the growing population of older adults. This program has supported 249 nurse scientists with pre- and postdoctoral awards. As a result of the program's success, several Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program awardees formed an alumni organization to continue to advance the quality care of older adults. This group of Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program awardees joined others receiving support from the John A. Hartford Foundation nursing initiatives to grow a formal organization, the Hartford Gerontological Nursing Leaders (HGNL). The purpose of this article is to present the development, accomplishments, and challenges of the HGNL, informing other professional nursing organizations that are experiencing similar accomplishments and challenges. This article also demonstrates the power of a funding initiative to grow an organization dedicated to impact gerontological health and health care through research, practice, education, and policy.
From 1960 to 2013, the population of Turkey increased almost threefold, with older adults aged 65 and older increasing almost sevenfold. In light of the demographic revolution in the age composition of world populations, we investigated the following research questions from the perspective of Turkish gerontologists: What are the conditions of older people based on sociological factors such as gender, partnership status, income, education, health, religion, and ethnicity? What should Turkey's gerontological agenda contain for the short term, mid-term, and long term, particularly in view of the rapidly changing nature of political, social, and economic life in the country? By 2025, adults (aged 40-65) will make up the largest population group in Turkey's history. It is time for Turkey to embrace this demographic gift and identify its own gerontological agenda to pave the way for social justice and social citizenship.
This article interprets two literary works--both about old women who have suffered strokes and are near death--and argues that literature can make essential contributions to gerontological research and education by developing sensitivity to theory, empathic understanding, and self-awareness. This article examines these fictional accounts against two theoretical perspectives--the political economy of aging and theories of personal meaning--and encourages epistemological experimentation.
Miller, Sally M
Journal writing, recognized as a valuable method to augment and enrich learning, has been used in adult education, higher education, and in the health care professions. Journal writing promotes reflective thought and increases awareness. This article describes how journal writing was used in the gerontology rotation of an associate degree nursing program to engage students in the content, encourage examination of personal beliefs, recognize biases, and reflect on perceptions about older adults.
Dolgova, V I
The paper presents an analysis of the characteristics of emotional stability in volunteers of gerontology programs (among the students of the Faculty of Psychology), depending on the structure of their life meaning and values, personal factors and professional important qualities. It is shown that the emotional stability of volunteers determines the main directions to explore the potential of the psyche of volunteers; modeling appropriate professiogram; organization of volunteer work in a particular program.
Hendricks, J; Leedham, C A
Literature provides rich resources for interpretations of the meaning of aging in cross-cultural and historical circumstances. A theoretically informed understanding of such literature should be rooted in contextual understanding of literature as an art form, including considerations of style, genre, intentions of authors, and of audiences; an awareness of perspectives of analysts; and explanatory frameworks drawn from gerontology. Early theories in gerontology focus on the individual level, taking structure as a given. Second generation models-modernization and age stratification-focus on structure excluding the individual. Recent frameworks, namely political economic approaches cognizant of intentionality, and structurally informed social psychological perspectives, address the confluence of individual and structural factors. A hermenutic-dialectical framework incorporates the dynamic interplay between structural factors, individual meaning-giving and action. To illustrate, five brief vignettes from cross-cultural literature are analyzed, drawing on recent gerontological theory. A hermeneutic-dialectical approach to literature provides a forum for debate, research, and theory-building, rather than an overarching model of aging in cross-cultural context.
Brown, Candace S.; Baker, Tamara A.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Harden, J. Taylor; Whitfield, Keith; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Phillips, Karon L.; Washington, Tiffany
The historical underpinnings in the field of gerontology rest on the contributions of scholars across a myriad of racial and ethnic backgrounds. With the increasing diversity of the adult population, there is a need to increase the number of researchers who study older adults from diverse racial and ethnic populations in general and Black elderly people in particular. Furthermore, it is important to document the participation of Black older adults in our earliest and continuing research efforts. Understanding the historical context and the foundational influence of Black scholars in this field is critical. To realize its humble beginnings, one must become aware of the contributions by Black scholars who have a vested interest in the aging process. With universal similarities and unique differences among older adults, there is a need to acknowledge the past and current scholarship of those who study the aging processes of Blacks while marveling over the future possibilities. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the legacy and current contributions, philosophies, and research of Black scholars in the field of gerontology. In addition, exploration of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks used to establish national and organizational initiatives is reviewed. The impetus in initiating and continuing this work requires a “knowledge of our roots” while moving into the future. It is important to learn the history and significance of Black scholars in gerontology, the contributions of older Blacks, and appreciate the resiliency and marveled life course of this unique population. PMID:24022695
This paper develops a critique of international gerontology through an ethnography and analysis of gerontological practice in India. The central theme of Indian gerontology - that of an imminent demographic and social explosion of an aging population who will tax the country's slender resources - misrepresents available data and fails to signify the experience of most Indian old people. Narrative and deconstructive techniques are deployed to examine the language of crisis and the complex sources of this misrepresentation. Three sources are explored: local disjunctions of class and gender in India, neocolonial biases in the structure of knowledge on aging central to international discourse, and subaltern strategies within India for subverting Western and elite Indian imperatives of what it means to be old. A variety of textual, ethnographic, and historical materials are examined: Indian and American literature pertaining to the 1982 World Assembly on Aging, a series of sociological texts each entitled "Aging in India," and four contemporary Indian institutions designed to meet the needs of old people: a social service agency, a geriatric clinic, a retirement community, and an old age home.
Navarro, Albert; Lynd, Frances E
The International Plan of Action on Aging 2002 emphasized the need to promote and develop research on aging, especially in underdeveloped countries. This article aims at describing the current situation with regard to the international scientific production in the field of geriatrics and gerontology. All articles published in journals included in the categories "Geriatrics and Gerontology" of the Science Citation Index or "Gerontology" of the Social Science Citation Index in 2002 were analyzed. There is unquestionable predomination by the United States, which participates in 53.8% of the articles analyzed, followed by the United Kingdom (9.66%) and Canada (6.66%). The production of the 15 European Union countries together is 31.2%. When adjustments are made for economic or population factors, other countries show their importance: Israel and Sweden, for example. Authors from richer countries participate in more than 95% of the articles, whereas those in less-developed countries tend to publish less, and when they do so, it is through collaboration with more-developed countries. In general, only 10.5% of the articles are written in collaboration with institutions from different countries. One of the keys to stimulating research in less wealthy countries would seem to be precisely through collaboration. This would aid the transfer of knowledge and experience, allowing researchers in these countries to obtain autonomy to perform their own studies independently and to provide them with the ability to gain access for their publications at the international level.
Suikkala, Arja; Kivelä, Eeva; Käyhkö, Pirjo
This study deals with student nurses' experiences of collaborative learning in gerontological clinical settings where aged people are involved as age-experts in students' learning processes. The data were collected in 2012 using the contents of students' reflective writing assignments concerning elderly persons' life history interviews and the students' own assessments of their learning experiences in authentic elder care settings. The results, analyzed using qualitative content analysis, revealed mostly positive learning experiences. Interaction and collaborative learning activities in genuine gerontological clinical settings contributed to the students' understanding of the multiple age-related and disease-specific challenges as well as the issues of functional decline that aged patients face. Three types of factors influenced the students' collaborative learning experiences in gerontological clinical settings: student-related, patient-related and learning environment-related factors. According to the results, theoretical studies in combination with collaboration, in an authentic clinical environment, by student nurses, elderly patients, representatives of the elder care staff and nurse educators provide a feasible method for helping students transform their experiences with patients into actual skills. Their awareness of and sensitivity to the needs of the elderly increase as they learn.
Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa
Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period.
Majeski, Robin; Stover, Merrily
Online learning has enjoyed increasing popularity in gerontology. This paper presents instructional strategies grounded in Fink's (2003) theory of significant learning designed for the completely asynchronous online gerontology classroom. It links these components with the development of mastery learning goals and provides specific guidelines for…
Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino
The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed…
In Europe, 47 gerontology programs offer academic degrees and 11 offer postvocational certificates. Diversity of terminology and qualifications suggests a need for coordination. European Union members are development a European Master Gerontology program with equally structured core modules. Coursework must account for different countries' social…
Higbee, Martin D.
A three-component geriatric-gerontology program developed at the University of Utah is described that consists of a lecture course, clinical clerkships, and a gerontology certificate program. This multidisciplinary approach enables students to gain a broad perspective in the complex health care of the elderly. (Author/MLW)
Hertz, Judith E.; Douglass, Carolinda; Johnson, Angela; Richmond, Shirley S.
Little is known about the organization, characteristics or services offered by academic interdisciplinary gerontology centers located in higher education institutions. This article presents a description and an emerging typology of academic interdisciplinary gerontology centers based on information collected from the Websites of 47 centers. The…
Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary; Moriello, Gabriele; Welleford, E. Ayn; Schuster, Kirsten
In this study, the effectiveness of an oral history assignment was assessed in a traditional gerontology class versus a distance education (DE) gerontology class. Attitudes toward older adults and the aging process were measured before and after students in the traditional (n = 29) and DE (n = 16) setting completed an oral history assignment.…
Olson, Mark D.
The unprecedented growth in the nation's older adult population has called attention to the increasing need for geriatric social workers. However, research suggests that social work students hold ageist attitudes that prevent many from pursuing careers in gerontology. The present study sought to identify student perceptions of gerontology content…
Anstee, Jaime L. K.; Harris, Susan G.; Pruitt, Keri D.; Sugar, Judith A.
Service-learning opportunities are prominent on many college campuses. The process of designing and implementing service-learning experiences, especially for students of gerontology, however, has rarely been addressed. The current article briefly reviews the background and utility of service-learning in gerontology courses, describes our…
VonDras, Dean D.
This article discusses self-assessment of gerontology teaching practice. Through a process of self-reflection one may find insight into their teaching and, concomitantly, develop best-practices for enhancing student learning in gerontology. A self-assessment framework is presented, illuminating best-practices in the areas of the lecture-discussion…
Curl, Angela L.; Tompkins, Catherine J.; Rosen, Anita L.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy
Our society is aging, and this demographic change necessitates that all social workers have basic competency in gerontology. This article describes the results of a competency survey conducted in 2000, and how these results helped transform basic social work curricula and enhance gerontology-related resources. Results were used to encourage and…
Lasda Bergman, Elaine M.
To determine the mix of resources used in social gerontology research, a citation analysis was conducted. A representative sample of citations was selected from three prominent gerontology journals and information was added to determine subject scatter and database coverage for the cited materials. Results indicate that a significant portion of…
Tsukada, Noriko; Tatara, Toshio
The development of gerontological education is lagging behind in Japan in spite of Japan's large population of elders. Nevertheless, there are signs that this may be changing. In this paper we discuss how gerontology education has evolved in Japan over the past 40 years. Specifically, we provide an overview of the development of academic societies…
Randall, William L; Kenyon, Gary M
Narrative approaches in the field of aging are receiving increasing attention by theorists and practitioners alike. This article draws on recent thinking in narrative gerontology to look at three aspects of aging on which a narrative perspective can shed further light. In relation to the temporal aspects, the notion of storytime is examined. Concerning its poetical aspects, the article considers the stages, styles, genres, contexts, and selves of self-storying. Under spiritual aspects, the topics of meaning and identity are explored. A discussion of these aspects may be seen to converge on the theme of wisdom and the possibility of wisdom environments.
Sacco, G; Turpin, JM; Marteu, A; Sakarovitch, C; Teboul, B; Boscher, L; Brocker, P; Robert, P; Guerin, O
Background and purpose Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP]) combined with specific software (BioVal [BV]), for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female]) were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and supination) for 24.3% (CI 95% 13.9–32.8) of the patients. Separately, the percentages of reliable measures were 59.7% (49.2–70.5) for flexion, 68.8% (58.4–79.5) for pronation, and 62.3% (51.2–73.1) for supination. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.15 (0.07–0.73), 0.46 (0.27–0.98), and 0.50 (0.31–40 0.98) for flexion, pronation, and supination, respectively. Conclusion This study shows the convenience of the MP-BV in terms of ease of use and of export of measured data. However, this instrument seems less reliable and valuable compared to the reference instruments used to measure elbow range of motion in gerontology. PMID:25759568
Nelson, E A; Dannefer, D
Studies examining age-related changes typically report findings as age-based generalizations that neglect the phenomenon of variability in gerontological research. This paper examines the degree of attention given in 185 studies to individual differences and the empirical patterns of variability reported in those studies that present measures of dispersion. Measures of dispersion were reported in 43% of the gerontological studies reviewed and in 24% of the developmental studies. Overall, a majority of all gerontological studies presenting data reported increases in variability with increasing age (65%). This pattern was more pronounced in longitudinal studies than in cross-sectional ones.
Ferguson, Alishia J; Schriver, Joe
The US population is aging. Traditional perspectives have emphasized that a substantial increase in the number of gerontological social workers is needed to care for this population. However, published evidence demonstrates that, along with population growth, economic and social factors must be taken into account before predicting future gerontological social work demand. Structural lag theory is introduced to explain how these factors affect the profession and may limit its presence in gerontological work settings. Recommendations are made to correct the lag, allowing the social work profession a more substantive voice in the aging enterprise.
Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara
There is an untapped potential of social work faculty to conduct aging research aimed at enhancing the well-being of older adults. To better exploit this resource, we have designed, implemented, and evaluated a postgraduate training program in aging research. The goal of the program is to build and sustain a community of social work faculty…
Hazzard, W R
Preventive gerontology is the study and practice of those elements of lifestyle, environment, and health care management that will provide the maximal longevity of highest quality for individuals and the population. As such, it focuses on a personalized hygiene agenda that varies in its emphasis according to a person's age, sex, and risk factor profile. It includes a matrix of strategies relating to diet, exercise, and the avoidance of substance abuse and adverse environmental exposure. Preventive gerontology carries differential emphases according to the life stage of a person, featuring long-term, low-cost, and low-risk lifestyle strategies in youth and middle age (generally to age 75) and more short-term, low-risk interventions in old age (> 75), especially secondary prevention, according to individualized estimates of risk, cost, and benefit. The aggregate effect of widespread application of this approach--especially insofar as it is coupled with a rising level of education and continued psychosocial development--will be progressive congruency between usual and successful aging. A by-product will also be an ever-advancing median age of the population and, inevitably, a growth in long-term health and social service needs. Responsible planning for this consequence of success in the 21st century will require a rededication of North Americans to care for those in need regardless of age. PMID:9348749
Dreher, H Michael; Cornelius, Fran; Draper, Judy; Pitkar, Harshad; Manco, Janet; Song, Il-Yeol
Phase I of our Gerontological Reasoning Informatics Project (GRIP) began in the summer of 2002 when all 37 senior undergraduate nursing students in our accelerated BSN nursing program were given PDAs. These students were oriented to use a digitalized geriatric nursing assessment tool embedded into their PDA in a variety of geriatric clinical agencies. This informatics project was developed to make geriatric nursing more technology oriented and focused on seven modules of geriatric assessment: intellect (I), nutrition (N), self-concept (S), physical activity (P), interpersonal functioning (I), restful sleep (R), and elimination (E)--INSPIRE. Through phase II and now phase III, the GRIP Project has become a major collaboration between the College of Nursing & Health Professions and College of Information Science and Technology at Drexel University. The digitalized geriatric nursing health assessment tool has undergone a second round of reliability and validity testing and is now used to conduct a 20 minute comprehensive geriatric health assessment on the PDA, making our undergraduate gerontology course the most high tech clinical course in our nursing curriculum.
Economos, A. C.
The use of altered gravity experimentation as a gerontological research tool is examined and a rationale for a systems approach to the adaptation to spaceflight is presented. The dependence of adaptation capacity on biological age is also discussed.
Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino
The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed that gerontological education was given in every Nordic country, in 31 universities and 60 other higher education institutions. Although separate aging-related courses and modules were relatively numerous, programs for majors were relatively few. Networking in the Nordic region offers a good example on how to further develop higher education in gerontology. Emphasis should be put on strengthening networking on the European and trans-Atlantic levels.
Describes Rosemary Rizzo Parse's Man-Living-Health theory that was used to describe how gerontological nursing knowledge could be developed through a nursing conceptual model that includes a defined practice and research methodology. (Author/JOW)
Caffrey, Rosalie A
Few nurses have the experience of developing an independent practice. This ethnographic study explores the process and challenges of becoming an entrepreneur as described by nurses developing independent practices in community care gerontologic nursing. The process included developing a legal contract, marketing strategies, and reimbursement amounts and strategies. Major barriers to implementing this role identified by the nurses included ignorance and confusion by others about their role, financial issues related to an uncertain income, time management, and legal concerns especially around delegation. These were experienced and dedicated nurses who were also risk-takers and enjoyed the independence of practicing nursing because they believed it was meant to be practiced. Suggestions for research, education, and practice are included.
Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya
Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p < .001). Three independent variables were significant (positive affect, β = .21; promotional chances, β = .21; and client acuity, β = -.18). The results suggest the importance of promoting strategies for enhancing job satisfaction, advancing promotional opportunities for social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians.
Kivnick, Helen Q
My own living and working through normative family transitions of parent care (as both a professional gerontologist and an intergenerational family member) facilitated five important kinds of growth: (a) providing parent care with optimal integrity; (b) understanding, elaborating, and teaching life-cycle theory with increasing depth; (c) using this theory to enrich practice approaches to long-term care; (d) identifying valuable new research directions; and (e) creating a multidimensional professional life that furthers theoretical development and identifies practice principles that promote individual, familial, and societal experiences of a "good old age." This reflective essay addresses these different kinds of growth, as they emerged from and contribute to the ever-developing gerontological domains of theory and practice.
Davies, Susan M; Reitmaier, Amy B; Smith, Linda Reveling; Mangan-Danckwart, Deborah
The benefits of intergenerational contact between older and young adults have been demonstrated; yet, nursing programs have underexplored the potential of such relationships for enhancing student learning. This article presents an analysis of student reflective journals as part of an evaluation of an undergraduate gerontological nursing course. The course aims to create positive learning experiences by involving older adults as partners in student learning. Older adults are recruited to receive visits from a designated student to share aspects of their life and experiences. Students write reflective journals based on these visits as a method of evaluating their learning. A framework analysis of 80 journals completed by 59 students identified four major themes representing the impact of these visits on student learning: becoming aware, making connections, seeing the unique person, and valuing intergenerational relationships. The analysis suggests the relevance of the concept of intergenerativity in illuminating shared benefits of the practicum experience.
Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter; Doll, Gayle; Pearson-Scott, Jean
The delivery of higher education in gerontology is changing; students are now able to receive an education solely online. Perhaps it is time to consider offering this option at the doctoral level. A needs assessment was conducted to assess whether a doctoral program in gerontology should be created in the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (GPIDEA) program. An online survey was sent to 247 students enrolled in the GPIDEA program and to students who had taken a GPIDEA course in gerontology but were not currently enrolled in the program. One hundred and twenty-three students began the survey, although only 120 students completed the survey. Findings indicated students are interested in a doctoral program in gerontology. Approximately 65% of students were interested in obtaining a PhD from a distance education program. However, an applied program focusing on community outreach and leadership was of most interest to students. Students were less interested in research-based programs or in research residency. Therefore, the development of distance education doctoral degree programs in gerontology may need to be created differently than "traditional" formats.
Moore, Keith Diaz
This article presents an emergent heuristic framework for the core environmental gerontology concept of "place." Place has been a central concern in the field since the 1970s (Gubrium, 1978) for its hypothesized direct relationship to identity, the self, and agency--suggestive of the appropriateness of lateral theoretical linkages with developmental science. The Ecological Framework of Place (EFP) defines place as a socio-physical milieu involving people, the physical setting, and the program of the place, all catalyzed by situated human activity and fully acknowledging that all four may change over time. The article begins with a concise overview of the EFP before moving on to consider it within three theoretical terrains: place theory, developmental science theory, and environmental gerontology theory. The EFP will be argued to be a place theory which subsumes themes of emergent environmental gerontology theories within a developmental science perspective. Implications for theory, method and practice are discussed. One of the strengths of the model is its ability to serve both research and practice, as is exhibited in its ability to incorporate applied design research and inform architectural decision-making so often lacking in other environmental gerontology models. Place should be viewed as an integrative concept providing opportunities for both environmental gerontology and developmental science to more critically concern the profound role places have in terms of agency, identity and sense of self over the life course.
Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L
There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium.
Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa
Background The main challenge of higher education institutions throughout the world is to develop professionals capable of understanding and responding to the current social priorities of our countries. Given the utmost importance of addressing the complex needs of an increasingly elderly population in Mexico, the National Autonomous University of Mexico has systematically incorporated modules dealing with primary gerontological health care into several of its undergraduate programs in health sciences. The objective of this study was to analyze teacher's and student's perceptions about the current educational practices on gerontology. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 26 teachers and 122 undergraduate students. Subjects were administered interviews and responded survey instrument. Results A vast proportion of the teachers (42%) reported students' attitudes towards their academic training as the most important factor affecting learning in the field of gerontology, whereas students reported that the main problems of education in gerontology were theoretical (32%) and methodological (28%). In addition, 41% of students considered education on ageing matters as an essential element for their professional development, as compared to 19% of teachers (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the teachers' perceptions about the low importance of education on ageing matters for the professional practice of health sciences could be a negative factor for gerontology teaching. PMID:17233923
Ewen, Heidi H; Carr, Dawn C; Reynolds, Courtney
This research seeks to examine the characteristics and goals of students enrolled in gerontology doctoral education. The authors seek to identify the unique characteristics of scholars enrolled in the interdisciplinary study of aging and elicit discussion on the ways in which these scholars will contribute to the growth and development of the field. This article describes results from an ongoing longitudinal study examining the relationship between gerontology doctoral education and overarching frameworks that define and advance the field. Four cohorts of first-year doctoral students were invited to participate in an online survey. Results reveal three distinct typologies of gerontology doctoral students: traditional academics, applied specialists, and general educators. Traditional academics are seeking postdoc and tenure-track faculty positions upon completion of the doctoral degree whereas the applied specialists intend to pursue careers in allied health fields or within a government setting. Educators plan to seek academic positions within teaching intensive or balanced teaching-research institutions. Gerontology doctoral students are being trained to serve as leaders in practice and research by linking and integrating multiple perspectives. Doctoral education will continue to facilitate applications of research to practice, identify the meaning of being a "gerontologist," and to advance the field of gerontology. However, students are entering with diverse academic and professional backgrounds and have varied career goals.
Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis
There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.
Armstrong, David G; Najafi, Bijan; Shahinpoor, Mohsen
Smart multifunctional materials can play a constructive role in addressing some very important aging-related issues. Aging affects the ability of older adults to continue to live safely and economically in their own residences for as long as possible. Thus, there will be a greater need for preventive, acute, rehabilitative, and long-term health care services for older adults as well as a need for tools to enable them to function independently during daily activities. The objective of this paper is, thus, to present a comprehensive review of some potential smart materials and their areas of applications to gerontology. Thus, brief descriptions of various currently available multifunctional smart materials and their possible applications to aging-related problems are presented. It is concluded that some of the most important applications to geriatrics may be in various sensing scenarios to collect health-related feedback or information and provide personalized care. Further described are the applications of wearable technologies to aging-related needs, including devices for home rehabilitation, remote monitoring, social well-being, frailty monitoring, monitoring of diabetes and wound healing and fall detection or prediction. It is also concluded that wearable technologies, when combined with an appropriate application and with appropriate feedback, may help improve activities and functions of older patients with chronic diseases. Finally, it is noted that methods developed to measure what one collectively manages in this population may provide a foundation to establish new definitions of quality of life.
This article attempts to briefly review the current status of knowledge of biogerontology as a basis for a beginning set of discussions on the potential roles of environmental agents in the modulation of rates of aging in man. The article has tried to summarize what the toxicologist should know about gerontology, whereas a companion review, by Dr. Jerry Williams, summarizes what the gerontologist should know about toxicity. The review begins by defining some basic terminology, including introduction of the term gerontogens for those putative environmental agents that may in fact modulate the times of onset and/or rates of development of specific aspects of the senescent phenotype. That phenotype is then briefly described from the level of populations to the level of molecules, including an organ systems approach with emphasis on what is observed in humans. Among the important points that emerge from this description are: the variety of phenotypic alterations; the multiplicity of phenotypic alterations in any one aged individual; the special vulnerability in humans of the arterial system; the loss of proliferative homeostasis; the decline in the efficiency of enzyme adaptation; the decline in protein synthesis; the increasing evidence of post-translational modifications of proteins and DNA; the evidence for chromosomal instability (and, therefore, the potential importance of environmental clastogens). Arguments for a genetic basis for differential rates of aging are then developed, and a number of genotropic theories of aging are tabulated. It is concluded that no single theory is supported by a preponderance of evidence. 155 references.
Carmel, Sara; Lowenstein, Ariela
Like other developed nations, Israel has rapidly aged. This demographic revolution has created new challenges for Israeli society. We describe the societal background, including the emerging societal needs, solutions, and problems, as well as the professional principles, which guided us in developing the first two Israeli academic programs in gerontology in Beer-Sheva and Haifa. We further discuss the structures of both programs and their accomplishments. Although both programs were guided by identical needs and principles, geared toward the same multidisciplinary target population, and are dynamic and responsive to the emerging needs and difficulties, they differ in structure. While Haifa's program is flexible, Beer-Sheva's program is structured and divided into three distinct programs, of which only one-the research track-is designed and tailored to the students' interest. The two programs have contributed to increasing interest and research in aging in Israel, enhancing professional cooperation within the universities and with the international scientific community, opening the labor market for the programs' graduates, creating fruitful collaborations with community services, and accelerating the improvement of elderly quality of care.
Kimbler, Kristopher J; Ehman, Anandi C
Service learning is a pedagogical technique that integrates traditional coursework with activities outside the classroom that meet the needs of the community. Gerontology-focused service learning has been incorporated into many courses that cover aging content and is believed to be beneficial to the learning process. Other research has demonstrated that service learning in general has benefits, regardless of the age of the service recipient. It is unclear whether benefits associated with gerontology-focused service learning are unique to experiences with older adults or are a product of the general benefits associated with this pedagogy. This study examined student responses to gerontology-focused service learning compared to youth-focused service learning. The results revealed that students working with older adults reported more negative expectations related to the assignment, more positive experiences interacting with the service recipients, and more reports of learning benefits attributed to service learning.
Oka, Hisao; Ito, Yuko; Goto, Tomomi; Minami, Tamae; Yamamoto, Isao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Yoshihisa; Tsuruta, Masukiyo; Hayashi, Itsuki
Animal kidneys were collected in order to survey the incidence of tetracycline (TC) antibiotics and sulfa (SA) drug residues in slaughtered animals that did not pass inspection for human consumption by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law and the Meat Inspection Law at the slaughterhouses in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, from April 1995 to March 2000. The kidneys were analyzed by AOAC Official Method 995.09 for TCs and our previously reported liquid chromatographic method for SAs. Among 292 animals (94 cattle and 198 pigs), 106 (36.6%) and 41 (14.0%) contained TCs and SAs, respectively, including chlortetracycline, 59 (20.2%); oxytetracycline, 47 (16.1%); sulfamonomethoxine, 35 (12.0%); sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole, each 2 (0.7%); and sulfamerazine and sulfisoxazole, each 1 (0.3%). A small number of animals (5 cattle and 9 pigs) contained more than one drug residue. The frequency of residue detections was significantly higher for TCs than SAs in both cattle and pig kidneys (p < 0.001).
Callender, Willard D., Jr.
A project was undertaken to introduce gerontological content into the professional preparation of adult educators in the master's program in adult education offered at the University of Southern Maine. After courses in the existing curriculum of the master's program were analyzed for the appropriateness and currency of their gerontological…
Texas Consortium of Geriatric Education Centers, Houston.
This manual was designed to aid undergraduate social work students working in a model field-site program for gerontological social work education. It is based on work completed on an Administration on Aging project in Texas entitled, "A Statewide Faculty Development Program for Undergraduate Social Work Educators in Elder Care." The…
Politynska, Barbara; van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Lewko, Jolanta; Philp, Ian; Figueiredo, Daniella; De Sousa, Lilliana
Quality assurance (QA) in gerontological and geriatric education programs is regarded as essential to maintain standards, strengthen accountability, improve readability of qualifications, and facilitate professional mobility. In this article the authors present a summary of international developments in QA and elaborate four international trends,…
Robbins, Emily J.; Kinney, Jennifer M.; Kart, Cary S.
With National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Aging (NIH/NIA) (R15/AREA) funding, the authors offered a four-credit hour undergraduate research course that was cross-listed in gerontology and sociology. This capstone course was aimed at providing students with the opportunity to (1) gain knowledge about diabetes and racial/ethnic…
This article describes the goals and methods of the international Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) movement in higher education, and WAC-enriched learning approaches that the author used in teaching a social work gerontology practice course and a sociological theories of aging course. The author's in-class, low-stakes, nongraded writing…
Beland, Robert; Kapes, Cory
Among 112 institutions offering recreation and leisure studies programs, 51.8% provided undergraduate-level aging courses, 11.6% graduate-level courses; 67% had an aging minor or gerontology certification. Therapeutic recreation was emphasized in 83% of programs, with required internships or practica. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)
Karcher, Barbara C.; Whittlesey, Valerie
Colleges and universities have failed to meet the long-recognized, growing need for nonacademic-credit gerontology education. With the explosive growth of the aging network, other organizations have readily responded to the fast-growing market. Results of two needs assessments over a 5-year period demonstrate employers' higher support for…
The older adult population in America will significantly increase in the future. Older adults have important needs for recreation and leisure services (Beland, 2002). The author taught a class titled "Leisure Services for Older Adults" for over 24 years at the University of Florida. He has taught gerontology and recreation by teaching…
The older adult population in America will significantly increase in the future. Older adults have important needs for recreation and leisure services (Beland, 2002). The author taught a class titled "Leisure Services for Older Adults" for over 24 years at the University of Florida. He has taught gerontology and recreation by teaching about life…
... extended care; recent VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care; and... gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the... on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs; aging research activities; training, recruitment...
... VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight... gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the... on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs, aging research activities, updates on VA's...
... VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight... pertaining to geriatrics and gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities... feature presentations and discussions on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs, aging...
... VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight... gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the... on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs, aging research activities, update on VA's...
Yancura, Loriena A.
One key to successful gerontological education lies in teaching students to integrate information from diverse academic disciplines into practical contexts. This article describes a project-based course within which students learn to integrate theories by working with older adult partners to make reminiscence movies based on an important event or…
Eshbaugh, Elaine; Gross, Patricia E.; Hillebrand, Kelsey; Davie, Josie; Henninger, William R.
The graying of the Baby Boomers has created a shortage of professionals in aging-related careers. However, colleges and universities with gerontology and aging programs face a challenge of recruiting students. The purpose of this study was to determine what students are looking for in a career and whether these attributes are congruent with…
This study attempted to build a predictive model of factors related to social work students' interest in gerontological social work. Bachelor's and Master's students from universities around Texas were surveyed to determine if knowledge about the aging process and related job opportunities, attitudes toward aging and professional or personal…
Ellis, R. Darin; And Others
Provides background on the World Wide Web, reasons for its growth, its potential usefulness to gerontologists, and the results of an exhaustive search of over 300 sites. Relevant information was discovered in five general categories of gerontology-related information: academic institutions, government agencies, biomedical and health research…
Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.
This article describes a gerontological enrichment model for institutionalizing and sustaining curricular change utilizing Rogers' (1995, 2003) diffusion of innovations approach to organizational change. The goal of the project, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, is to transform the social work curriculum at a major state university so…
Crabtree, M. Katherine; Stanley, Joan; Werner, Kathryn E.; Schmid, Emily
This document presents the nurse practitioner primary care competencies that a national panel of representatives of nine national organizations of the five primary care nurse practitioner specialties--adult, family, gerontological, pediatric, and women's health--identified as necessary for entry-level primary care nurse practitioners. Section 1…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.
Two days of hearings on training needs in gerontology were opened by Senator Lawton Chiles. Statements were made by Senators Frank Church, Harrison A. Williams, Jr., Jennings Randolph, and Edward Kennedy. Witnesses for the first day were J. E. Wilson, III, with George Ebra and Maeve H. Foster; Walter M. Beattie; Percil Stanford; Clavin Fields with…
Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Flores Cerqueda, Sergio; García Ramírez, José Carlos
Life expectancy is increasing in Mexico, creating new opportunities and challenges in different areas, including gerontology and geriatric education and research. Although in the European Union there are more than 3,000 institutions that focus on aging research, in Latin America there are only 250 programs where theoretical and practical knowledge is taught. In Mexico, the number of institutions that offer gerontology and geriatric education is relatively small. One of the major concerns is that Mexico is not adequately prepared to optimally deal with the aging of its population. Thus, the main challenge that Mexico faces is to train practitioners, researchers, and policy makers to be able to respond to the aging priorities of this country. The goal of this review is to investigate the literature regarding 60 years in the fields of gerontology and geriatrics in Mexico. Even when programs have evolved within the past decades, there are some challenges to gerontological and geriatric education and aging research in Mexico. The implications for Mexico are discussed, as well as opportunities for moving these fields forward.
Holody, Richard; Kolb, Patricia
The authors and their colleagues have sustained infusion of gerontological content across their social work curriculum since implementation of their CSWE-Hartford Foundation GeroRich project from 2002-2004. Based on experiences in our department, we recommend 10 steps that include (a) responding to anticipated faculty resistance, (b) identifying…
Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Leson, Suzanne M.; Emerick, Eric S.; Voytek, Joseph A.; Ewen, Heidi H.
Purpose of the Study: This project surveyed health care professionals from both urban and rural care settings in Ohio and examined differences in professionals' needs and interests in continuing gerontological education. Design and Methods: The survey data were analyzed for 766 health care professionals descriptively, using cross-tabulations and…
Gelman, Caroline Rosenthal
We present findings from interviews with 17 first-year MSWs assigned to gerontological placements undertaken before beginning--and again as they neared completion--of practicum. All respondents, even those most positive and negative at beginning of placement, report a reduction in stereotypes, improved appreciation of older adults' capacities and…
Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia
The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a…
Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Div. of Gerontology.
The activities of the Institute of Gerontology at The University of Michigan from 1975 through 1980 are examined. The Institute offers consultation and support services to instructional units for the development of post-baccalaureate educational programs and sponsors annual series of seminars and workshops for faculty members and professional…
Burgio, Louis D.; Burgio, Kathryn L.
The article discusses areas of behavioral gerontology that would profit from additional research, such as self-management, community caregiver training, and geriatric behavioral pharmacology. Considerations for adapting behavioral procedures for the elderly are discussed, and suggestions for expanding the role of behavior analysis in geriatric…
Ruiz-Adame Reina, Manuel
There has been an increase in the aging population in developed countries. This has led to a need for trained people in the gerontological field. The most common academic way of specializing in this field in Spain is via a master's program. It is well known that investing in human capital increases knowledge, productivity, and the probability of…
David, Debra; Ehrenpreis, Tobi
Expanding mental health services for the elderly are increasing the demand for trained paraprofessionals. Skills are identified which are needed by paraprofessionals providing psycho-social support services in a variety of gerontological settings in order to clarify appropriate paraprofessional functions and develop a model for competency-based…
Koren, Mary Elaine; Hertz, Judith; Munroe, Donna; Rossetti, Jeanette; Robertson, Julie; Plonczynski, Donna; Berent, Georgine; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda
The growing number of older adults with multiple healthcare needs underscores the importance of teaching gerontological content to students in healthcare fields. To effectively accomplish this educational goal, it is essential to consider students' attitudes and learning needs related to caring for elderly persons. The purpose of this study was to…
Barrett, Anne E.; Pai, Manacy
Much of the literature on teaching gerontology derives from experiences in face-to-face settings. There is limited discussion of either the applicability of teaching techniques drawn from the traditional setting to the online environment or the development of novel strategies to engage distance students of aging. We developed and assessed an…
Silverstein, Nina M.; Sullivan, Donna M.; Murtha, Jenai; Jawad, May H.
The Frank J. Manning Certificate Program in Gerontology at the University of Massachusetts Boston was established in 1979 as part of an Administration on Aging (AoA) grant to develop and expand services to the elderly citizens of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The program was designed to implement concepts associated with productive aging…
Sanders, Gregory F.
The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Carr, Dawn C.; Reynolds, Courtney
This research seeks to examine the characteristics and goals of students enrolled in gerontology doctoral education. The authors seek to identify the unique characteristics of scholars enrolled in the interdisciplinary study of aging and elicit discussion on the ways in which these scholars will contribute to the growth and development of the…
Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv; Schafer, Markus; Pallone, Karis
There has been a substantial increase in the number of aging-related educational programs in the United States over the last two decades. Many of these programs utilize an experiential-learning approach, such as intergenerational service-learning, to train gerontology students to work effectively with older adults. This paper presents a model of…
Haley, William E.; Zelinski, Elizabeth
The history and current status of graduate programs in gerontology in the United States are reviewed. Masters degree programs began in 1967, and currently exist at 57 universities in the United States. Challenges for these programs include maintaining enrollment and identifying employment for program graduates, given competition from graduates…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.
At the second day of hearings on training needs in gerontology the witnesses were Stephen Kurzman accompanied by Arthur S. Flemming, John Lapp, Gerald D. LaVeck; George Maddox; Elias Cohen; Wilma Donahue; Brin Hawkins with Lettie Graves and Yolanda Owens; and John B. Martin. (MS)
Hendricks, Jon; Applebaum, Robert; Kunkel, Suzanne
This article is based on the premise that there is inadequate attention to the link between theory and applied research in social gerontology. The article contends that applied research studies do not often or effectively employ a theoretical framework and that theory-based articles, including theory-based research, are not often focused on…
Maas, Meridean L.; Conn, Vicki; Buckwalter, Kathleen C.; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni
Purpose Research development and regional consortium strategies are described to assist schools in all countries extend their gerontological nursing research productivity. The strategies, collaboration and mentoring experiences, and outcomes are also shared to illustrate a highly successful approach in increasing faculty programs of nursing research in a focused area of inquiry. Design A case description of gerontological nursing research development and regional consortium strategies in schools of nursing is used. The regional consortium included 17 schools of nursing that are working to increase faculty programs of gerontological nursing research. Survey responses describing publications, presentations, and research funding awards from 65 of 114 total faculty participants in consortium opportunities (pilot and mentoring grant participants, participants in summer scholars’ grantsmanship seminars) were collected annually from 1995 through 2008 to describe outcomes. Findings From 1994 through 2008, faculty participants from the consortium schools who responded to the annual surveys reported a total of 597 gerontological nursing publications, 527 presentations at research conferences, funding of 221 small and internal grants, and 130 external grant awards, including 47R-series grants and 4 K awards. Conclusions There is an urgent need for more nurse faculty with programs of research to inform the health care of persons and support the preparation of nurse clinicians and faculty. The shortage of nurse scientists with active programs of gerontological research is especially serious and limits the number of faculty who are needed to prepare future gerontological nurses, particularly those with doctoral degrees who will assume faculty positions. Further, junior faculty with a gerontological nursing research foci often lack the colleagues, mentors, and environments needed to develop successful research careers. The outcomes of the development and regional consortium
This article describes the goals and methods of the international Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) movement in higher education, and WAC-enriched learning approaches that the author used in teaching a social work gerontology practice course and a sociological theories of aging course. The author's in-class, low-stakes, nongraded writing assignments facilitated students' development of knowledge about gerontological practice and sociological theories, as well as analytical thinking. The assignments are influenced by WAC's perspective that when students write their reactions to information, their understanding and retention of information improves; that writing can facilitate the application of new content to students' own lives and interests; and that increased frequency of writing increases writing comfort and maintenance and can result in the improvement of writing skills. The students' reactions to the assignments have been very positive.
Moye, Jennifer; Molinari, Victor A; Karel, Michele J; Naik, Aanand D; Sakai, Erin; Carpenter, Brian D
Geriatric educators face the challenge of attracting more clinicians, scientists, and educators into geriatrics and gerontology, and promoting involvement in gerontological societies. A survey of psychologists (N = 100) examined factors that attract students in clinical/counseling psychology to practice with older adults, as well as experiences in organizational service. For 58%, interest in aging began at the undergraduate level, but for others interest developed later. About half cited academic exposure such as mentorship (51%), research (47%), or coursework (45%) as sparking interest, along with family (68%) or work experience (61%). Involvement in professional organizations lags (58%), in part owing to misperceptions about what those activities require. A continued targeted effort at the undergraduate and graduate level is essential to attract students to careers in aging. To preserve vital professional organizations, enhanced outreach may be useful to dispel myths about service and encourage engagement.
Faria, Debra Fromm; Dauenhauer, Jason A; Steitz, David W
This article describes the development and qualitative student outcomes of an intergenerational service-learning course designed to promote social work gerontological competencies. Efforts focused on creating a learning environment to actively promote learning opportunities for students and older adults. The course was hosted at a local, private, not-for-profit senior housing location where older adults were invited to actively participate in the course activities. A total of 37 undergraduate and graduate students completed the course. Content and narrative analysis was conducted using text from a final structured reflective journal assignment. This analysis identified themes related to the "explicit" and "implicit" pedagogy of the course that details students' educational growth. The results of this study indicate that intergenerational service-learning coursework may help foster geriatric competencies among graduate and undergraduate students. The benefits of utilizing social work gerontological competencies to guide course objectives, content, and student outcomes are discussed.
Dassel, Kara Bottiggi; Ewen, Heidi; Carr, Dawn; Manning, Lydia; Leach, Corinne; Fitzgerald, Kelly
An endless number of career trajectories are possible for gerontologists. With a growing aging population, our skills and areas of expertise are of high value to numerous industries. The purpose of this study is to describe the professional development and career trajectories of alumni of U.S. doctoral gerontology programs obtained through the Gerontology Education Longitudinal Study (GELS). Specifically, the authors examine how professional identification, doctoral program career preparation, and perception of job prospects affect alumni decisions to pursue "traditional" (i.e., academic) versus "nontraditional" (i.e., non-academic) careers. Results from the GELS revealed a fairly even split in the alumni sample of careers in traditional and nontraditional settings. The decision to pursue a traditional versus nontraditional career was not significantly associated with personal identification, doctoral program career preparation, or perception of employment options. These results suggest that the skill set obtained in doctoral gerontology programs is useful and is in demand in a variety of careers; therefore, doctoral programs may want to consider tailoring training to meet students' future career goals in both academic and non-academic settings.
Kozina, L S
The article highlights basic facts about the foundation and activity of the Gerontology and Geriatrics Dissertation Council of St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology, which took invaluable part in chartered specialist training in this field of science that has actively developed in Russia in recent decades. Over the period from June, 2001 to December, 2013, a total of 41 doctoral dissertations were defended, of which 32 dissertations were on Medicine and 9 on Biological Sciences. Likewise, over the same period, a total of 186 candidate's dissertations were defended, of which 152 dissertations were on Medicine and 34 on Biological Sciences, the defenders coming from various regions of Russia and other countries. The defence-representative trend data acquired over the period of the Dissertation Council activities shows that the number of defended doctoral dissertations was relatively small within the period from 2002 to 2008, but it increased significantly in the years 2009 to 2013. The number of defended candidate's dissertations increased significantly over the same period, too. Among many others considered by the Dissertation Council, there were dissertations dedicated to basic research in the field of gerontology and geriatrics. The priority topics of a large number of dissertations performed in St. Petersburg and other Russian towns are age pathology mechanisms, geroprotective effects of regulatory peptides and effectiveness of their use in clinic.
Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia
The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a theoretical knowledge basis with well-justified priorities, functions, and long-term goals, in Latin America teams are arranged according to subjective interests on solving their problems. Three distinct approaches of interdisciplinary collaboration in gerontology are proposed. The first approach is grounded in the scientific rationalism of European origin. Denominated "logical-rational approach," its core is to identify the significance of knowledge. The second approach is grounded in pragmatism and is more associated with a North American tradition. The core of this approach consists in enhancing the skills and competences of each participant; denominated "logical-instrumental approach." The third approach denominated "logical-subjective approach" has a Latin America origin. Its core consists in taking into account the internal and emotional dimensions of the team. These conceptual frameworks based in geographical contexts will permit establishing the differences and shared characteristics of interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology to look for operational answers to solve the "complex problems" of older adults.
Maiden, Robert J; Horowitz, Beverly P; Howe, Judith L
This article summarizes data from the 2008 Symposium Charting the Future for New York State Workforce Training and Education in Aging: The Stakeholder Perspective and the 2009 report Workforce Training and Education: The Challenge for Academic Institutions. This research is the outcome of a collaborative State Society on Aging of New York and New York State Office for the Aging study on New York State's workforce training and education needs. Eight Listening Sessions were held across New York State to obtain input on topics including training, gerontology education, and credentialing and certification. Individual sessions highlighted the needs of urban, rural, and suburban communities. Key themes identified through content analysis included the need for education about aging in agencies serving older adults, education on human development, positive aspects of aging, disabilities, developmental disabilities, and greater opportunities for training and education for service providers. Lack of incentives was identified as a barrier to credentialing or certification. Education about growing older beginning in grade school was recommended. Lack of funding was identified as a barrier that limited support for employee education/training. Disconnects were identified between employers and academic institutions and state government and providers regarding gerontology/geriatric training and education. Consideration to how these themes may be addressed by the Association of Gerontology in Higher Education is offered.
This contribution formulates several key statements concerning a critical gerontology and is intended as a starting point for further thought and discussion from the perspective of critical social sciences. In terms of scientific theory, it follows a concept of normative universalism, distinguishing itself from a mere "science of order", which would be restricted to social self-observation. The assumptions focus on dealing with the social construct of age(ing) under the conditions of modern capitalist societies and on putting age(ing) into context with neo-liberal economic and social politics. This contribution explains some aspects of restructuring the German welfare state into an "activating state", a process accompanied by the casualisation of many older people's life circumstances. Moreover, some cultural perspectives of self-determined life in old age are demonstrated, which invariably should also be seen as a learning task. In this way, the complex interactions between gerontology and social and political practice in terms of praxeological and critical research are covered in their totality. At the same time, critical gerontology is oriented towards what is humanly possible and attempts to identify restrictions to a fulfilling life in old age and to suggest perspectives of how such restrictions can be overcome. The aim is to reflect on our own professional behaviour, to make it more compatible theoretically with critical scientific discourses on ageing and thus contribute to the emancipation of older people from discourses of dominance.
Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M; Lokon, Elizabeth J
We examined the effects of a gerontology course and an intergenerational service-learning project for people with dementia (PWD) on three dimensions of students' attitudes including attitudes toward older people, community service for older people, and working with PWD. Data consisted of a combination of pretest/posttest survey and review of journals that students maintained during the service-learning project. Results indicated that students who completed the gerontology course, and those who completed both the course and the service-learning project, reported significantly more positive attitudes toward older adults, whereas students in the course only had significantly less positive attitudes about working with PWD, and those in the other courses (sociology) showed no change in their attitudes. Students' journals are replete with reports of the satisfaction they derived from their experiences. The findings highlight opportunities and challenges that should be considered in future intergenerational service-learning programs and gerontological education.
Harden, J Taylor; Watman, Rachael A
The mission of the John A. Hartford Foundation is to improve the health of older Americans. This mission has been realized throughout the evolution of the National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence-an international collaboration between Schools of Nursing and Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing-whose goal is to support research, education, and practice to provide better nursing care for our aging society. The National Hartford Center is the focus of this supplement and an example of the Foundation's grant-making to prepare the nursing workforce to be competent to care for our aging society. This article traces the innovative origin and inception of the National Hartford Center, first as the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity (BAGNC) Initiative in 2000 under the leadership of two groundbreaking scholars in nursing and aging sciences: Claire M. Fagin, PhD, RN, and Patricia G. Archbold, DNSc. We continue through to today's leadership and culminate by describing the Center's influence on the gerontological nursing workforce and clinical practice; the paper also includes a brief introduction to the articles, highlighting advances in gerontological nursing science. With funding from the John A. Hartford Foundation, The Atlantic Philanthropies, The Mayday Fund, and a number of creative public and nonprofit partnerships, the National Hartford Center celebrates two decades and its greatest asset-the nearly 300 gerontological nursing leaders, including Archbold nursing pre-docs, Fagin nursing post-docs, and expert faculty, along with its Hartford Centers of Gerontological Nursing Excellence across the country. We trace the transition of BAGNC to the membership-based National Hartford Center and its move to The Gerontological Society of America to become a self-sustaining, autonomous unit. Current needs, challenges, lessons learned, and strategies of the National Hartford Center are examined within the context of sustainability
Van Sluytman, Laurens G; Torres, Denise
As longevity increases and marginalized communities achieve greater visibility in the United States, a content analysis of 64 articles in social work, health, medicine and nursing, and gerontology/psychology examined the extent to which the literature examines the needs and concerns of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) seniors of color (SOC). We found recognition of the distinct cultural needs of sexual orientation and gender minorities. However the distinctive needs of LGBT SOC remains underexplored and poorly documented. Gerontologists, social workers, policymakers, and advocates must support research that values the experience and multiple vulnerabilities of LGBT seniors and questions the structures preventing inclusion and participation.
Singleton, Judy L
In an effort to infuse gerontological content throughout a BSW curriculum, the College of Mount St. Joseph developed community partnerships with agencies that serve older adults. These partnerships led to specific "out-of-class" assignments in a macro social work practice class using a service-learning approach. The development and implementation of those assignments in the agency settings are described using Polvika's Conceptual Model for Community Interagency Collaboration. The successful outcomes are described in terms of the community partnership, services and benefits provided, and the degree of satisfaction by the agencies, students, and faculty with this pedagogical method.
Tolson, Debbie; Morley, John E; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno
Recognition of the urgent need to improve the provision of long-term care, as well as the known variations in standards of nursing home care around the world, prompted the International Association of Geriatrics and Gerontology (IAGG), in association with the World Health Organization (WHO), to form a task force. This task force was charged with the identification of the key concerns, research priorities, and actions that would enhance the care provided to older people in nursing homes. Nurses are equipped with the knowledge to take a leadership role in the IAGG/WHO initiative, and the task force eagerly seeks their input.
Torres-Gil, Fernando M
The fields of gerontology and geriatrics are facing unprecedented changes, pressures, and opportunities. The 21st century requires that we utilize contemporary approaches to modernizing these disciplines for new populations, new cohorts and new social, economic and political demands. This article draws on the authors professional, academic, and public policy experiences to suggest initiatives and paradigms that can set a road map to both change the last centuries' notions of longevity and social supports to one that accounts for technology, varied cohorts, a public/private sector divide, and the nexus of aging and diversity.
Burgio, L D; Burgio, K L
Elderly persons are under-represented in research and clinical applied behavior analysis, in spite of data suggesting that behavior problems are quite prevalent in both community dwelling and institutionalized elderly. Preliminary investigations suggest that behavioral procedures can be used effectively in treating various geriatric behavior problems. We discuss a number of areas within behavioral gerontology that would profit from additional research, including basic field study, self-management, community caregiver training, institutional staff training and management, and geriatric behavioral pharmacology. Special considerations for adapting behavioral procedures are discussed, and suggestions for expanding the role of behavior analysis in geriatric care are offered. PMID:3804865
Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Fillit Howard M Rockwood Kenneth and Young John Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology 1168pp £164.69 Elsevier 9780702061851 0702061859 [Formula: see text].
This, the eighth edition of a well-regarded textbook, has been revised to focus on frailty. Its contributors include several nurses and the book covers a wide range of topics, including biological, medical, psychological and social gerontology. It also covers all the main body systems, which means it should be useful to nurses across a range of specialties.
Wilson, Donna M; Low, Gail
It is commonly believed that older adults are often ill and therefore high users of health services. A pilot study involving adults 60 and older living in the Canadian province of Alberta was conducted to (a) raise interest in the concepts of lifelong health and health services use; (b) develop a lifelong health data collection tool; (c) obtain information about lifelong and recent health services use, and self-perceived lifelong and current health; and (d) reveal links (if any) between perceived health and lifelong health services use. A questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, and posted for completion by 100 volunteers. Most older adults reported good or very good current and lifelong health. Comorbidities and low finances were associated with higher health services use. These findings suggest community-dwelling older adults may be healthy currently and throughout their lives. Gerontological nursing research, practice, and advocacy are needed because myths about aging must be addressed to refocus attention on the importance of lifelong health promotion for older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(2), 28-32.].
van Dyk, Silke
The article deals with the re-negotiation of old age in current times of flexible capitalism and its analysis by Critical Gerontologists who criticize this process as age denial and midlife-imperialism. Starting out from the instructive critique of active ageing and consumer-based anti-ageing strategies, rooted in the heterogeneous field of Critical Gerontology, the here presented contribution aims at critically reviewing and discussing this critique. The article exposes theoretical pitfalls that make this critique run into a dead-end, since old age tends to be homogenized and sometimes even naturalized within Critical Gerontology: Though certainly often unintended, the appreciation of old age as being positively different from midlife ends up with sheltering "old people" as "the others" from the impositions of active society. After elaborating on this difference perspective and discussing its problems, I will finally sketch some conceptual ideas, inspired by poststructuralist thinking, on how to overcome the fruitless dichotomy of imperialism/sameness ("they have to be like us") and difference ("they are the others").
Johnson, Kimberly J; Mutchler, Jan E
The latter part of the 20th century was a period characterized by a fundamental transition in scholarship on activity and the aging process. Theory emphasizing the inevitable decline of human capacity was gradually replaced with concepts stressing positive, multidimensional views of aging. In this article, we highlight the key contributors and trace the origins and overlapping themes of successful aging, productive aging, and civic engagement in later life: 3 examples of scholarship representing a "positive" gerontology. Rowe and Kahn's model of successful aging highlights the interplay between social engagement with life, health, and functioning for a positive aging experience. Productive aging, led by Robert Butler, recognizes the previously underappreciated participation of older adults in activities such as volunteering, paid work, and caregiving, and generates interest in the individual and societal barriers to and benefits of participation. Civic engagement in later life raises public awareness about the need to involve older adults in the community, creates opportunities for participation, and generates further interest in the mutual benefit of participation for community beneficiaries and participants. Successful aging, productive aging, and civic engagement represent important contributions to the field of gerontology through applications to policy, advocacy, and theory development.
Khavinson, V Kh; Ryzhak, G A; Mikhaĭlova, O N
The article presents the results of the 20-years' long activity of the Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology founded to fulfill the basic and applied tasks in the sphere of gerontology and to integrate with medical practice new methods for preventing premature aging and age-related pathology by means of pharmaceuticals based on peptide bioregulators. Among the Institute main achievements are the scientific developments in the field of peptide regulation of aging, creation of a new medical domain--bioregulation therapy, and foundation of the Russian school of biogerontology. As a result of investigations, a key role of peptides in the regulation of aging process has been established, and a method of bioregulators complex application has been developed to increase organism resistance to various unfavorable factors and enhancement of human vital resource. At present 6 drugs and over 60 peptide bioregulators are widely used for prevention and treatment of many diseases. 9 new peptide preparations revealing geroprotective properties are submitted to the Russian Health Ministry to be registered as drugs.
Martinson, Marty; Berridge, Clara
Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to analyze the range of critiques of successful aging models and the suggestions for improvement as expressed in the social gerontology literature. Design and Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using the following criteria: journal articles retrieved in the Abstracts in Social Gerontology, published 1987–2013, successful aging/ageing in the title or text (n = 453), a critique of successful aging models as a key component of the article. Sixty-seven articles met the criteria. Qualitative methods were used to identify key themes and inductively configure meanings across the range of critiques. Results: The critiques and remedies fell into 4 categories. The Add and Stir group suggested a multidimensional expansion of successful aging criteria and offered an array of additions. The Missing Voices group advocated for adding older adults’ subjective meanings of successful aging to established objective measures. The Hard Hitting Critiques group called for more just and inclusive frameworks that embrace diversity, avoid stigma and discrimination, and intervene at structural contexts of aging. The New Frames and Names group presented alternative ideal models often grounded in Eastern philosophies. Implications: The vast array of criteria that gerontologists collectively offered to expand Rowe and Kahn’s original successful model is symptomatic of the problem that a normative model is by definition exclusionary. Greater reflexivity about gerontology’s use of “successful aging” and other normative models is needed. PMID:24814830
Goldberg, Lynette R.; Koontz, Jennifer Scott; Rogers, Nicole; Brickell, Jean
The health care needs of older adults can be complex and multifaceted. Safe, effective, equitable, and person-centered service provision relies on skilled interprofessional, team-based practice. Too often, students seeking a career specializing in gerontology are not exposed to such interprofessional, team-based learning and practice during their…
Pruski, Linda A.; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Cheryl L.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.
Preparing youngsters for an aging society requires teachers who keep pace with health science research. The Stealth Gerontology [TM] program educates teachers regarding aging-related issues. The design and assessment of the program are reported in this paper. Teachers attended sessions including direct instruction and hands-on participation (e.g.,…
Cianciolo, Patricia K.; Henderson, Tammy L.
Describes modules on Social Security and Medicare for gerontology policy courses. Discusses collaborative exercises in which students explore Internet resources on Social Security and health care finance, identity major concerns about reforms, and enact scenarios about retirees with varying degrees of income and health care security. (Contains 33…
Askham, Janet; Gilhooly, Mary; Parkatti, Terttu; Vega, Jose-Luis
Postgraduate education in gerontology is now widespread within European universities, but, even so, such developments remain very uneven. This paper outlines the variety of provision by describing Master's programmes in a sample of countries: England, Scotland, Finland, and Spain. These programmes illustrate some of the common problems: lack of…
Schmall, Vicki; Grabinski, C. Joanne; Bowman, Sally
Based on their experience as designers and/or users of games as a learner-centered strategy in gerontology, geriatric, and aging-related courses and training programs, the authors note multiple advantages of using games as a learning tool, list six relevant games (including order information), and suggest a variety of ways games can be used. They…
Burholt, Vanessa; Nash, Paul; Naylor, Dawn; Windle, Gill
In the UK, very few studies have engaged older people in two or more elements of the research process (design, conduct, dissemination). Although there is a body of work on educational gerontology, there are few publications that specifically focus on training older people as coresearchers. This paper reports upon the training program undertaken as…
Miakotnykh, V S
This article presents some problems of modern Russian gerontology and geriatrics by eyes of the scientist--the clinical physician having long-term experience in the field. Educational, scientific, practical aspects of gerontology and those stereotypes of understanding of problems of elderly which developed for years are subjected the certain criticism, decades, but in the modern world any more absolutely correspond to a today's reality. It is offered to transform the ideology of the major directions of gerontology, having put at the head of a corner not ideas of prolongation of life as that and carrying out basically actions in relation to seriously ill, but improvements of quality of life, preventive maintenance and treatment of set of the age-related diseases, overcoming of the developed practice of the relation to elderly and senile patients as to persons dependent and demanding the constant help. The author urges the public health governing bodies to reconsider the norms of the geriatric help existing for many years but not meeting modern requirements in the conditions of polyclinic and a hospital and to make more clear and claimed by a society the possibilities and achievements of gerontology.
Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F
This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.
Mann, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele
Without transparent reporting of how a randomised controlled trial was designed and conducted and of the methods used, its internal validity cannot be assessed by the reader. A congress abstract is often the only source providing information about a trial. In January 2008, an extended CONSORT statement on abstract reporting was published. Its impact has yet to be evaluated. Using a slightly modified CONSORT checklist comprising 17 items, we thus investigated the reporting quality of randomised controlled trials published in the book of abstracts presented at the World Congress of Geriatrics and Gerontology in Paris in July 2009. A total of n=4,416 abstracts was screened for inclusion; n=129 met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the abstracts was remarkably poor. The primary outcome was mentioned in 34/129 abstracts (26%), none of the abstracts reported on the procedure of random allocation of participants or clusters, 21/129 abstracts (16%) reported some kind of blinding, and the attrition rate was mentioned in only 12/129 abstracts (9%). The majority of abstracts fulfilled two items: description of intended intervention for each group (102/129; 79%) and general interpretation of results (107/129; 83%). Trial status was reported in all abstracts. Both journal editors and committees organising congresses are requested to define the use of the CONSORT statement as a prerequisite in their guidelines for authors and to instruct reviewers to conduct compliance checks. Medical associations should finally endorse the indispensability of the CONSORT statement and publish it in their journals. Otherwise the intended benefits cannot be fully generated.
Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María
Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups
Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T.; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R.; Czaja, Sara J.
Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this “Forum” position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area. PMID:25165042
Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R; Czaja, Sara J
Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this "Forum" position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area.
Diesfeldt, H F A
In 2008 the Dutch-language journal of gerontology and geriatrics goes into its 39th year of publication. Most of the scientific papers published by the Journal in 2007 serve a practical purpose. The Journal is oriented towards the scientific community of Dutch speaking geriatricians, nursing home physicians, psychologists, sociologists and other scientific professionals. Besides theory-driven empirical studies in gerontology and geriatrics, the Journal publishes comments and criticism on government policy on geriatric care and services for the elderly.
Wahl, H W; Tesch-Römer, C
This work is aimed at reviewing 20 years of gerontological intervention research within the social and behavioral domain in German speaking countries. Only controlled studies based on adequate measurement instruments are considered. Literature analyses reveal that the issue of cognitive intervention research is well-covered, underlining clear positive training effects in intellectual performance and memory. Also, studies on the limits of mental capacity represent a highlight of German cognitive training research. Another bunch of studies underlines the potential of different intervention to enhance independence in day-to-day function, social activity, and subjective well-being. Positive effects in self-concept, personal control, and attribution style are as well reported. A general discussion of this body of work leads to suggestions for future research priorities.
Gerdner, Linda A; Buckwalter, Kathleen C
Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often cared for within multigenerational families. More specifically, 26% of family caregivers have children younger than 18 living with them. This article describes an innovative model for translation of an evidence-based intervention into an engaging, realistic picture book that serves as a teaching tool for children and their families. The book, Musical Memories, focuses on the relationship between a granddaughter and her grandmother who has AD. The story applies basic principles of the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model to explain the underlying cause of grandmother's behaviors and models the evidence-based guideline "Individualized Music for Elders with Dementia" to empower the granddaughter in maintaining a relationship with her grandmother. Musical Memories is intended to serve as a valuable resource for families and the gerontological nurses who serve them.
Weinreich, Donna M
Student- or learner-centered teaching has an historical context--it is old and new. This article traces the path that has brought us full circle to once again concentrating on student learning instead of teacher teaching--from the era of learning being restricted to the wealthy and privileged, to today where learning institutions are inclusive. Three pressures are identified and discussed that have been the catalysts for reevaluating teaching methods in higher education: assessment of teaching and learning at the institutional level, generational differences between instructor and student, and a better understanding of how students learn. The rubric is examined as a method of assessing student progress in a student-centered environment. These are then related to the teaching of gerontology and geriatrics where students and teachers alike have a distinct edge over other content areas where the practicum experience is not part of the educational fabric.
Wion, Rachel K; Loeb, Susan J
Many older adults maintain interest in intimate partner relationships and actively seek dates. Online dating websites are gaining popularity as being a convenient way to link with potential dates, particularly for women and individuals who live in independent dwellings or rural areas. Several online dating websites market exclusively to individuals 50 and older. Although connecting with others via the Internet can decrease social isolation, there are potential risks involved in online dating. Health care providers do not always assess dating and sexual health in the older adult population. Nurses are in a position to assess the dating relationships of older patients and can ask targeted questions to determine if patients are in a potentially risky relationship. A non-judgmental attitude and compassionate approach is essential. Knowledge of safe practices, alerting red flags, and available resources are essential tools for gerontological nurses to possess.
Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu
Introduction The concept of integration, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in French public health policy. It must be linked with ‘coordination’, which is the base of most French public policies applied to geriatrics since the 1960s. Herein, we report the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology working group's findings according to three axes: definition of integration, objectives of this organisational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Discussion Integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, financing, interventions and action-reports on the latter. Integration must be accompanied by a local dedicated professional (the ‘pilot’). Results of recent experiments showed that it is possible to implement integrative dynamics in France. PMID:24868197
Karasik, Rona J
Gerontologists face a unique set of obstacles in attracting newcomers to the field. Despite demographic trends favorable to a wide range of employment opportunities and job security, aging is rarely top of mind for many students when it comes to career choices. For most gerontologists, aging is our passion. How do we share that passion with others who have yet to discover its interdisciplinary opportunities, or who may be held at bay by negative stereotypes of aging and older persons? This article explores various approaches to enhance engaged teaching and engaged learning that can help personalize and contextualize the field so that educators and students at all levels and disciplines can find their passion for gerontology and geriatrics.
McMullen, Tara L; Brown, Candace S; Canham, Sarah L; De Medeiros, Kate
Although doctorally trained gerontologists have unique types of expertise as a result of their interdisciplinary training, research exploring perceptions of their hirability in faculty positions is lacking. This exploratory study examined the perceptions of administrators and faculty at institutions identified as having a doctoral program in gerontology or a doctoral program in another aging-related area. A short, semistructured 27 question survey was disseminated online. Twenty-five (N = 25) deans, associate deans, or other faculty participated in this study. Results indicate varying views of the attractiveness of hiring doctorally trained gerontologists, who or what is a gerontologist, and the value of having a doctorally trained gerontologist as a faculty member.
Films often portray the complexities of real-life aging issues, showing how they are apparently handled outside of and around the law or legal issues. Furthermore, films considering the aged and the social issues associated with aging also reveal how the law actually functions as a framework around and within which people develop customs, habits, and behaviors related to the issue of old age. Exposing these hidden socio-legal boundaries allows us to better understand both the films concerned and the place of law within our aging society. In an attempt to better understand these issues, this article deconstructs five relatively modern and well-known films. All feature aged protagonists, and all tell their stories against a background of legal issues that are only alluded to, and remain hidden "behind the scenes." Two main questions are addressed by this analysis: First, to what extent does the reality of old age as described in the films considered here reflect familiar social phenomena identified by empirical studies? And, second, to what extent does the legal infrastructure embedded in the narrative of these films reflect the legal regulations that govern the aged in today's society. The conclusions that arose from the analysis of the cinematic and the legal reality expressed in the films demonstrate that the current level of discourse on major issues in social gerontology ignores the importance and relevance of law. Therefore, it behooves us to "bring the Law to the gerontological stage," where the current situation as it actually exists can be analyzed and perhaps even changed.
Odin, V I
The fundamentals of gerontology are not fundamental science and not dialectical materialism, but, in our opinion, particularly respect for elders. The very same attitude toward the elderly in the society has changed to the best party not so long ago, when the material ability had appeared to adequately support the elderly and implement the monotheistic values, such as the value to God of every life. Thanks to the presence in St. Petersburg at 1889 year well-organized places for medical care of oldster professor S. P. Botkin was able to implement the world's first large-scale complex research of old age, surveyed more than two thousand old people. Today's liberal model of providing education without upbringing is fraught with the most terrible consequences. We must not forget a number of artifacts in medicine, when the doctor in different civilizations ignored the Hippocratic Oath. These are Josef Mengele and Karl Brandt, the physicians of "Unit 731", Leiba Shatunovskii, the doctors of the clinic "Medicus", and many others. These facts force to carefully scrutinize the current time. So in the British newspapers the information appear about the dead from hunger and thirst old people in expensive nursing homes. It seems necessary to go back to the moral roots of medicine. The pride of the Russian medicine is a life-physician Eugene S. Botkin, who ascended to Calvary with his crowned patient, Emperor Nicholas II, because he could not change his word of honor. Thus, in the Russian tradition, glorious Hippocratic writings oath strengthened by noble honor. Knight code of the Russian nobleman, described us as "4D" (in Russian): duty, virtue, goodness and leisure, is the best formula for education and self-improvement noble doctor. Thus, it is proposed to pay attention to the unity of education and upbringing in preparing the next generation of doctors, which should strengthen the guarantees of the preservation of high moral relations to the old people and gains of
Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu
The concept of integrated services delivery, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in the French public health policy. To clarify the concept and its adaptation to the reality of the French systems of healthcare and social services, the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology established an interdisciplinary working group. This article reports the group's findings according to three axes: the definition of integration, the objectives of this organizational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Analysis of the literature indicated that integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, finance, interventions and feed-back on the latter. Indeed, this sharing is the ultimate proof of evolution towards integration. In this first part of the position paper, its authors analyzed integrated care definitions used in international literature in view of designing the most important components of integrated care. The examination of this concept must be articulated with the idea of "coordination" which has been the cornerstone of the majority of public policies applied to the field of geriatrics and gerontology since the 1960s in France. The components of integrated care highlight that it is an ambitious process leading to real systemic modification. The authors also have proposed to open up a dialogue between citizens' aspirations and integrated care objectives with the aim to verify that the latter respond to the needs as expressed by the targeted group.
In this day and age, we have been granted longevity--both a blessing and a curse. Longevity has resulted in new diseases, illnesses and long-term disabilities due to the shift from death caused by acute infectious diseases and by chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiac and vascular diseases, to morbidity caused by chronic cases of arthritis, Alzheimer's and sensory disabilities--auditory and visual. Chronic diseases are characterized by long-term illness and result in escalating reduction in functioning, with an increase in the elderly person's dependence on his family or society. What do we mean when we say 'longevity'? Do we add days to our lives or perhaps life to our days? What can we expect? How do we achieve longevity? I have looked into the Torah, into the words of the Sages and into the findings of geriatric research. I have found that, both in gerontology, and in the words of the Sages, longevity is accompanied by quality of life. In gerontology, 'quality of life' is measured as being active and independent, including the ability to carry out routine daily activities (ADL). Katz and his colleagues have used the terms 'active life expectancy' and 'dependent life expectancy'. The ability to predict active life expectancy is no less important than predicting mortality, and particularly how to achieve active life expectancy. The Sages praise longevity, accompanied by wisdom: "In the elderly, wisdom, and in wisdom, long life' (Job). In addition, they say: 'For longevity and years of life and peace shall be granted to you' (Proverbs), to teach the blessing of longevity accompanied by wisdom. To achieve longevity, one should maintain regular habits that reduce the risk of illness such as physical exercise, a balanced diet, no smoking, and have a relaxed attitude to self-importance and to financial matters, while emphasizing the routine and stable elements of one's daily life.
Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Triana, Federico Cuesta; Gómez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; López-Soto, Alfonso; Masanés, Ferran; Martín, Pilar Matía; Rexach, José Antonio Serra; Hidalgo, Domingo Ruiz; Salvà, Antoni; Viña, José; Formiga, Francesc
Sarcopenia is a common and prominent geriatric syndrome, of major interest for daily clinical practice of professionals working with older people. The number of affected individuals and its relation with disability, frailty, many chronic diseases, lifestyle and adverse outcomes are extremely relevant for geriatric care. Moreover, biological changes that lead to the loss of muscle mass and strength are intrinsically related to the mechanisms of aging. It is not therefore surprising that research in this field is growing exponentially in recent years, and sarcopenia has been placed in recent years in the forefront of research in geriatric medicine and gerontology. The Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology has recently created an Observatory of Sarcopenia, which aims to promote educational and research activities in this field. The first activity of the Observatory has been to offer the Spanish speaking scientific community a review of the current status of sarcopenia, that may allow unifying concepts and fostering interest in this promising field of geriatrics.
Goldberg, Lynette R; Koontz, Jennifer Scott; Rogers, Nicole; Brickell, Jean
The health care needs of older adults can be complex and multifaceted. Safe, effective, equitable, and person-centered service provision relies on skilled interprofessional, team-based practice. Too often, students seeking a career specializing in gerontology are not exposed to such interprofessional, team-based learning and practice during their coursework. This article details the core interprofessional collaborative competencies that need to be an integral component of any program providing quality education on issues in aging.
Cotter, J James; Welleford, E Ayn; Drain, Cecil B
This article describes recent trends that have led to an emphasis on a learner-centered approach to gerontology and geriatrics education especially in distance-based education. A learner-centered approach to education has combined with technological advances to stimulate distance-enhanced education for students in geriatric and gerontology programs. The technological advances, especially the Internet, that have enhanced the capacity of educational programs to involve students in the learning process even though separated from the instructor by time and distance, are discussed. In response to the needs of health care professionals who were seeking to enhance their skills in research, education, and leadership in their respective professions, including gerontology, the learner-centered Doctoral Program in Health-Related Sciences (DPHRS) was established in the School of Allied Health Professions of Virginia Commonwealth University. The specifics of this distance-enhanced, learner-centered program are described. The article ends with strategies for encouraging a learner-centered experience with special focus on distance-based education.
Park, Hyung Wook
The intramural gerontological research program in the National Institutes of Health underwent a substantial growth after its creation within the precincts of the Baltimore City Hospitals in 1940. This paper analyzes its development and the associated problems of its early years. Gerontologists aimed at improving the social and economic life of the elderly through scientific research. With this aim in mind, they conducted various investigations using the indigent aged patients of the Baltimore City Hospitals. Yet the scientists of aging, who hoped to eliminate negative social factors that might bias their research and heighten the confusion between pathology and aging per se, eventually stopped using these patients in the hospital as human subjects. Instead they sought educated affluent subjects in order to eliminate the impact of poverty. By doing so, however, they introduced a new source of social bias to their work, especially within the novel project begun in 1958, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. This article thus examines the context of the development of gerontologists' research by analyzing their agenda, institutional environment, and research subjects in the 1940s and the 1950s.
Acute hospital has to have a good community relationship because of looking for a services and settings after discharge for elderly patients. In particular, physicians should have good relations with other physicians, visiting nurses, and care managers, because elderly patients had to go to facilities or nursing homes instead of their own homes. We must obtain information concerning care services and build networks between hospitals and the community in order to provide good services. To enable this we established a good discharge support team. We also have to educate the staff and care managers to take good care of patients. A comprehensive geriatrics and team approach is important for geriatric medicine in the community through care conference. So geriatricians must take part in care conferences and take a leadership role in networks for people with care needs. Finally our national center for geriatrics and gerontology has to take a role of the future achievement in geriatric field and provide information related research and clinical activity for the elderly.
The body is more than a biological basic condition; it is provided with social meanings and used for constructing, defining and describing age(ing) in different contexts. The social significance of the body can, for example, be seen by the fact that it is a bearer of age attributes, serves as a display surface and a knowledge bearer for the "normal" and "natural" aging process. Formal and informal chronological age limits are used to describe, divide etc. ageing, without expatiating that certain interpretations of physical attributes are the basis of this construction. In the scientific discourse and in everyday understanding, dichotomous views on the aging body "old means ill" and "successfully old means active" prevail. After a social constructivism and phenomenology discussion, about these socially significant connections of aging and body they are discussed exemplarily based on two interviews. It excerpts that the body-related significance of ageing turns out to be considerably more differentiated in everyday understanding. Therefore, a first intermediate conclusion for research and practice concerning the social significance of the body in the gerontological field has to be reached.
Fabbri, Elisa; Zoli, Marco; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Salive, Marcel E.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi
Aging is characterized by rising susceptibility to development of multiple chronic diseases and, therefore, represents the major risk factor for multimorbidity. From a gerontological perspective, the progressive accumulation of multiple diseases, which significantly accelerates at older ages, is a milestone for progressive loss of resilience and age-related multisystem homeostatic dysregulation. Because it is most likely that the same mechanisms that drive aging also drive multiple age-related chronic diseases, addressing those mechanisms may reduce the development of multimorbidity. According to this vision, studying multimorbidity may help to understand the biology of aging and, at the same time, understanding the underpinnings of aging may help to develop strategies to prevent or delay the burden of multimorbidity. As a consequence, we believe that it is time to build connections and dialogue between the clinical experience of general practitioners and geriatricians and the scientists who study aging, so as to stimulate innovative research projects to improve the management and the treatment of older patients with multiple morbidities. PMID:25958334
Politynska, Barbara; van Rijsselt, René J T; Lewko, Jolanta; Philp, Ian; Figueiredo, Daniella; De Sousa, Lilliana
Quality assurance (QA) in gerontological and geriatric education programs is regarded as essential to maintain standards, strengthen accountability, improve readability of qualifications, and facilitate professional mobility. In this article the authors present a summary of international developments in QA and elaborate four international trends, including the pros and cons of QA. Furthermore, the authors focus on accreditation and credit transfer opportunities in vocational and academic education programs for primary care practitioners, including nurses, home care workers, social workers, physiotherapists, and family doctors involved in the care of older people in nine European countries and highlight changes that have occurred over the last decade. Vocational education and professional training in elderly care at the basic and postgraduate specialization level remains extremely diversified, reflecting the lack of standardization for programs outside the higher education sector. The situation is ripe for the implementation of the European Qualifications Framework, which is intended to promote transparency, comparability and portability of qualifications at different levels and the introduction of a credit transfer system for vocational education to be established in 2012.
Of the myriad challenges that the new administration and 115th Congress will face, one of the most pressing will be establishing a sustainable long-term services and supports (LTSS) system responsive to the aging US population. Currently, the majority of LTSS is paid for with Medicaid and other public programs; an additional and sizeable burden falls on unpaid caregivers. Individuals generally have unrealistic expectations about their likelihood of needing LTSS and a minority of adults have made any concrete plans for their own care. With the aging of the US population, the current structure of LTSS will be unsustainable going forward. Past administrations have been unsuccessful in developing practical, sustainable solutions to address the impending LTSS crisis. The new administration will need to be creative and resourceful in finding new ways to address this issue. Involving gerontological social workers in facilitating private LTSS planning decisions and in informing public LTSS policy making is crucial, as social workers are intricately involved in LTSS now and have invaluable wisdom to share in the face of changing demographics and growing need going forward.
Nussey, Daniel H.; Froy, Hannah; Lemaitre, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Austad, Steve N.
That senescence is rarely, if ever, observed in natural populations is an oft-quoted fallacy within bio-gerontology. We identify the roots of this fallacy in the otherwise seminal works of Medawar and Comfort, and explain that under antagonistic pleiotropy or disposable soma explanations for the evolution of senescence there is no reason why senescence cannot evolve to be manifest within the life expectancies of wild organisms. The recent emergence of long-term field studies presents irrefutable evidence that senescence is commonly detected in nature. We found such evidence in 175 different animal species from 340 separate studies. Although the bulk of this evidence comes from birds and mammals, we also found evidence for senescence in other vertebrates and insects. We describe how high-quality longitudinal field data allow us to test evolutionary explanations for differences in senescence between the sexes and among traits and individuals. Recent studies indicate that genes, prior environment and investment in growth and reproduction influence aging rates in the wild. We argue that – with the fallacy that wild animals do not senesce finally dead and buried – collaborations between bio-gerontologists and field biologists can begin to test the ecological generality of purportedly ‘public’ mechanisms regulating aging in laboratory models. PMID:22884974
Hank, K; Jürges, H; Schupp, J; Wagner, G G
This paper shows that the measurement of hand grip strength provides a non-invasive and reliable objective health indicator for social science research and is easy to collect in general population surveys. Grip strength is not only a useful complement of self-reported indicators of health, but it also exhibits a considerable predictive power with regard to a number of further relevant variables for social gerontological research, such as mortality risks. New data from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the 2006 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) allow insightful methodological and very first substantive cross-sectional analyses of grip strength in Germany. The focus of the present study is on the analysis of individuals aged 50 or older. The experience of both surveys when measuring grip strength is consistently positive, particularly with regard to the respondents' feedback. Major determinants of isometric grip strength are - beyond the individual's gender - age, body size and weight. A multivariate analysis also provides evidence for a clear positive association between various health indicators and grip strength.
Van Houcke, Jessie; De Groef, Lies; Dekeyster, Eline; Moons, Lieve
Considering the increasing number of elderly in the world's population today, developing effective treatments for age-related pathologies is one of the biggest challenges in modern medical research. Age-related neurodegeneration, in particular, significantly impacts important sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, seriously constraining life quality of many patients. Although our understanding of the causal mechanisms of aging has greatly improved in recent years, animal model systems still have much to tell us about this complex process. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained enormous popularity for this research topic over the past decade, since their life span is relatively short but, like humans, they are still subject to gradual aging. In addition, the extensive characterization of its well-conserved molecular and cellular physiology makes the zebrafish an excellent model to unravel the underlying mechanisms of aging, disease, and repair. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in zebrafish gerontology, with special emphasis on nervous system aging. We review the evidence that classic hallmarks of aging can also be recognized within this small vertebrate, both at the molecular and cellular level. Moreover, we illustrate the high level of similarity with age-associated human pathologies through a survey of the functional deficits that arise as zebrafish age.
Coffey, Alice; Buckley, Catherine; Gaidys, Uta; Sasoni, Julita; Arola, Marjut; Deimante-Hartmane, Dagnija; Corvo, Elisabetta; Auer, Sabrina; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna; Tyrrell, Mark
An ageing population that is increasing does not necessarily mean an increase in people who require health and social care. However, it is predicted that a wide range of such services is likely to be needed. This demand is set against a shortage of skilled healthcare professionals and a lack of interest in working with older people. There is a particular shortage of skilled gerontological workers in the developed world, made worse by a perceived lack of professional esteem, economic reward and poor working environments in the specialism. Most studies recommend education to enable individuals to develop accurate knowledge about the ageing process and interest in working with older people. There is a discrepancy in the literature as to whether health and social care workers hold positive or negative attitudes towards older people. As attitudes are strongly linked with perceptions of working with older people, this article presents a review of the literature and discussion on attitudes of health and social care students to ageing and perceptions of working with older people.
Morozov, V G; Khavinson, V Kh
The article presents the results of the 10-years' long activity of the St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology of the North-Western Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences founded to fulfill the basic and applied aims in the sphere of bioregulation and gerontology and to integrate with medical practice new methods of preventing premature ageing and age-related pathology by means of pharmaceuticals based upon peptide bioregulators. Among the Institute main achievements are the theoretical developments in the field of peptide regulation of ageing, creation of a new medical domain--bioregulation therapy, and foundation of the Russian school of biogerontology.
Schmall, Vicki; Grabinski, C Joanne; Bowman, Sally
Based on their experience as designers and/or users of games as a learner-centered strategy in gerontology, geriatric, and aging-related courses and training programs, the authors note multiple advantages of using games as a learning tool, list six relevant games (including order information), and suggest a variety of ways games can be used. They offer guidelines to apply in selecting appropriate games and discuss key aspects of the instructor or facilitator's role in preparing learners for game playing, monitoring game play, and debriefing students once game play has ended. Outcomes for learners and course instructors are shared.
Duaso, Enric; Casas, Alvaro; Formiga, Francesc; Lázaro Del Nogal, Montserrat; Salvà, Antoni; Marcellán, Teresa; Navarro, Carmen
Since forming the Osteoporosis, Falls and Fractures Group of the Spanish Society (GOCF) of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SEGG) a review was performed of the epidemiology of falls, along with a description of measures that have shown a degree of effectiveness in prevention. We also present the proposal of a common basic model of action in fall prevention units, mainly addressed to the community. Finally, a consensus model falls register is presented, common to community level and institutional areas, with the objective of being useful and easy to fill in at any care level.
Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu
The concept of integrated services delivery, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in French public health policy. To clarify the concept and its adaptation to the reality of the French systems of healthcare and social services, the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology established an interdisciplinary working group. This article reports that group's findings according to three axes: the definition of integration, the objectives of this organizational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Analysis of the literature indicated that integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, finance, interventions and returns on the latter. Indeed, this sharing is the ultimate proof of evolution towards integration. In the second part of the position paper, its authors have developed arguments that could lead professionals and non-professional caregivers to adopt integrated care as an answer to their aspirations. Policy-maker perspectives and politicians are also analyzed. Bearing in mind that integrated care necessarily will always involve a human component which may find expression during individual case-management; relations between integration and case managements are clarified. Finally, lessons learned from national and international experiments are examined. Results suggest that integrated care must to be accompanied by a local pilot. Results of recent experiments have shown that it is possible to initiate a dynamic towards integrated care in France and hence join the international movement towards adapting our healthcare systems to new challenges.
Webb, Stephanie; Chonody, Jill; Ranzijn, Rob; Bryan, Janet; Owen, Mikaela
Recently there has been an increase in the population of older adults; however, this increase has not been reflected in the helping professions. The aim of this study was to qualitatively investigate barriers to working with older adults within the human service professions. An online survey was sent to students, academic faculty, and practitioners from the disciplines of social work and psychology throughout Australia, addressing issues related to work with older adults. Thematic analysis was used to extract themes and subthemes from the responses (N = 252). The most important finding was that a barrier to working with older adults appears to be a consequence of a perpetuating cycle among students, academic faculty, and professionals collectively. Faculty members did not feel knowledgeable in the area of gerontology and were therefore not able to educate students in this area appropriately, leading to students to enter the workforce as either faculty members and/or practitioners without expertise to work with older adults. This study highlighted the importance of including more comprehensive gerontological information within social sciences' curriculum, which may promote more realistic images of older adults and help alleviate barriers to working with this population.
Askham, Janet; Gilhooly, Mary; Parkatti, Terttu; Vega, Jose-Luis
Postgraduate education in gerontology is now widespread within European universities, but, even so, such developments remain very uneven. This paper outlines the variety of provision by describing Master's programmes in a sample of countries: England, Scotland, Finland, and Spain. These programmes illustrate some of the common problems: lack of funding for students, limited availability of academic staff, and reliance on a small core of dedicated teachers. They exhibit many strengths, including the breadth of curricula, high academic standards, high calibre and varied backgrounds of the students, the value of the qualification in employment, and meeting the demands of an ageing Europe. At the same time, these courses are faced with important issues about their sustainability. This paper argues that the demand for generalist courses such as gerontology taught Master's may fall in the coming years due to a combination of factors, such as employers' unwillingness to allow day release and demands by older people themselves for treatment and care by specialists. Generalist courses, this paper argues, may only survive in the biggest and best universities serving large populations and in cities able to attract overseas students.
Salvà, Antoni; Domingo, Àlex; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Serra-Rexach, José Antonio
Data is presented from the survey conducted by the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG) (Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology) among its members in order to assess their scientific production between 2006 and 2011, specifically articles in journals that are indexed in the Science Citation Index. The scientific quality of the publications was quantified using the number of times every article was cited and the journal's impact factor. A total of 162 out of the 2450 members responded (6.6%), reporting a total of 903 individual articles, 335 (37%) of them in geriatrics-specific journals, and 568 (63%) in other journals of other specialties. The number of publications increased yearly from 128 in 2006 to 201 in 2010. The scientific quality could be calculated for 530 articles. On average, publications have been cited 8.2 times (median: 2), with the range of citations being from 0 to 242. The average impact factor was 3.1 (median 2.4), ranging from 0 to 53.5. A number of articles have been published in some of the largest impact factor journals, in those of general-interest, as well as geriatrics-specific and basic science journals.
Harris, Leslie J.
The population of adults over age 65 must have competently prepared registered nurses to meet their current and future health care needs. There is a societal component in nursing to ensure that all nurses have the content, skills, and strategies, which includes a focus on basic gerontology preparation. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.
Hearing before the Senate Special Committee on Aging was held to consider the need for funds to provide professional training in the field of gerontology as authorized under the Older Americans Act. Provision for special skills training was made under title IV of the Act but no funds were included for it in the 1975 and 1976 budgets. A statement…
The rapidly growing older population has generated the need for more gerontological or geriatric care professionals. This study evaluated the undergraduate programs offered by the departments of medicine, nursing studies and social work at a university in Hong Kong, based on the data of a recent alumni survey. It also identified factors that…
Chapin, Rosemary K; Sellon, Alicia; Wendel-Hummell, Carrie
The practice-to-research gap has been attributed to many factors, including differing goals and priorities, differing knowledge bases and skill sets, and lack of recognition of limits of agency and community resources. Although many scholars have called for more collaboration between educators, researchers, and practitioners, these challenges can make collaboration difficult. The authors illustrate how the application of the strengths perspective, by acknowledging and building on the strengths and goals of researchers, practitioners, and educators, can help to mitigate some of the barriers that contribute to the research--practice gap and to create more relevant research. The Reclaiming Joy Peer Support Program is offered as a case study in gerontological social work to demonstrate how the strengths perspective can be applied in a real-life research setting.
Baerga Duperoy, Rachel; Castro Rojas, Nydia; Orta Rodríguez, Brenda; González Caraballo, Enid; Cruz González, Angel; Vázquez Fernández, José; Oliver Vázquez, Marlén
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and identify the basic training needs of nursing home staff, in terms of attitudes, knowledge and skills required to work effectively with geriatric patients. Three focus groups were performed, two groups of employees, and a group of elderly residents of the institution, in order to explore issues pertaining to the following topics: personal attributes required to work with geriatric patients, basic knowledge and skills needed to provide effective services. Group discussions were transcribed and themes were extracted through consensus reached by the investigators. Results indicated that the interviewed staff lack of formal preparation or continuing education in gerontology or geriatrics. Needs identified were the following: the aging process, caring behaviors, management of common health conditions, administration of medications, transference and mobility of residents, among others. Finding were use to design an educational program aimed in assisting nursing home staff in providing an effective service to their geriatric patients.
Camina-Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Redondo-Del-Río, María Paz
Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, as elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología [SEGG]) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition, or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories is intended to help in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment, combined with laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is for further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status, which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics.
Blumenthal, Sandra; Bruns, Florian
The fact that, due to demographic changes, gerontology and geriatrics are gaining ever more importance gives rise to more questions regarding the history of the science of aging. Based on unpublished sources and relevant publications by Max Bürger, the doyen of gerontological research in Germany, our contributions trace the beginnings of age research in Germany. Our results confirm Bürger as the dominant expert in this field in the first decades of its emergence. Bürger was primarily interested in basic medical-scientific research, and less in clinical geriatrics. His scientific goal was not to establish a medicine for the elderly but a theory of life changes ("biomorphosis"). From the start, he saw aging as a physiological process--a view that is still valid today. His concept of "biomorphosis", however, did not catch on and reveals a constriction in Bürger's thinking, which was to some extent influenced by Hans Driesch's vitalism. Interdisciplinary approaches are noticeable in the natural sciences rather than the humanities or social sciences. Bürger's research was also influenced by the political system he lived in. During National Socialism, which Bürger joined--at least formally--in 1937, his research into labour economics and aging met with considerable interest in connection with the general mobilisation of resources. East Germany also had an interest in questions of labour productivity in old age and the extension of the working life, which meant that Bürger remained a sought-after physician and scientist up into the 1960s. As he grew older himself, Bürger's initially deficit-oriented view of old age gave way to a more positive presentation that attached greater weight to the resources of old age.
Camina-Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, J Antonio; Redondo-del-Río, M Paz
Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, because elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, SEGG) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories seeks to aid in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment associated to laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is to further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics.
Tolson, Debbie; Rolland, Yves; Andrieu, Sandrine; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Beard, John; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Coll-Planas, Laura; Dong, Birong; Forette, Françoise; Franco, Alain; Franzoni, Simone; Salvà, Antoni; Swagerty, Daniel; Trabucchi, Marco; Vellas, Bruno; Volicer, Ladislav; Morley, John E
A workshop charged with identifying the main clinical concerns and quality of care issues within nursing homes was convened by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, with input from the World Health Organization. The workshop met in Toulouse, France, during June 2010. Drawing on the latest evidence and mindful of the international development agenda and specific regional challenges, consensus was sought on priority actions and future research. The impetus for this work was the known variation in the quality of nursing home care experiences of older people around the world. The resulting Task Force recommendations include instigation of sustainable strategies designed to enhance confidence among older people and their relatives that the care provided within nursing homes is safe, mindful of their preferences, clinically appropriate, and delivered with respect and compassion by appropriately prepared expert doctors, registered nurses, administrators, and other staff. The proposals extend across 4 domains (Reputational Enhancement and Leadership, Clinical Essentials and Care Quality Indicators, Practitioner Education, and Research) that, in concert, will enhance the reputation and status of nursing home careers among practitioners, promote effective evidence-informed quality improvements, and develop practice leadership and research capabilities.
As baby boomers age, social work leaders predict there will be a significant shortage of gerontological social workers to care for the older population. Research to explore this predicted shortage has focused on reasons why social work students do not appear interested in working with the older population. Most reasons cluster around three broad research constructs that include: (a) attitudes toward the older population, (b) knowledge about the older population, and (c) personal and professional experience with the older population. In this article the author presents a systematic review of current research to determine what we do and do not know about social work student interest in working with the older population.
González Ramírez, Alfonso; Calvo Aguirre, Juan José; Lekuona Ancizar, Pilar; González Oliveras, Juan Luis; Marcellán Benavente, Teresa; Ruiz de Gordoa Armendia, Ana; Salvá Casanovas, Antoni; Alcalde Tirado, Pablo; González Alonso, Teresa; Padilla Clemente, Reyes; Clerencia Sierra, Mercedes; Ubis Diez, Elena
The Workshop on Osteoporosis, Falls and Fractures (GCOF) of The Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society (SEGG) formed a committee in order to review the state of the art on the detection, risk factors and assessment tools for falls, and intervention protocols when falls occurs in nursing homes, long-term hospitals or medium-stay units. The different patient profiles are described in order to make a comprehensive approach to this heterogeneous topic and population, offering a risk classification and specific advice according to these categories.
As Baby Boomers reach 65 years of age and methods of studying older populations are becoming increasingly varied (e.g., including mixed methods designs, on-line surveys, and video-based environments), there is renewed interest in evaluating methodologies used to collect data with older persons. The goal of this article is to examine…
Emlet, Charles A.
The rapid increase in the number of older adults in the United States, coupled with new accreditation standards based on competencies, requires social workers to show competence in working with older clients. This teaching note reports on the development and use of a standardized patient (SP) role-play to teach and evaluate the ability of graduate…
Linking Research to Policy, Practice, and Education: Lessons Learned, Tasks Ahead. Program Abstracts. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (53rd, Washington, DC, November 17-21, 2000).
This publication contains abstracts from the 53rd annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America. The abstracts are arranged numerically by the session number in which they appear. Several abstracts are listed under each of the 388 sessions. Although the sessions are not limited to one topic, the dominant theme is education concerning all…
Rolland, Yves; Benetos, Athanase; Gentric, Armelle; Ankri, Joël; Blanchard, François; Bonnefoy, Marc; de Decker, Laure; Ferry, Monique; Gonthier, Régis; Hanon, Olivier; Jeandel, Claude; Nourhashemi, Fathi; Perret-Guillaume, Christine; Retornaz, Frédérique; Bouvier, Hélène; Ruault, Geneviève; Berrut, Gilles
Frailty in the older population is a clinical syndrome which evaluate a risk level. The Frailty syndrome defines a reduction of the adaptation capacity to a stress. It can be modulated by physical, psychological and social factors. The screening of the frailty syndrome is relevant for older people without disability for basic activities of daily living. The clinical criteria of frailty must be predictive of the risk of functional decline and adverse outcomes, consensual at the international level, and easy to perform in primary care as well as in the clinical researches.
Martinez, Iveris L; Mora, Jorge Camilo
Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences. This approach is intended to expose students to older adults from diverse communities and adequately prepare students to address the complex and individual needs of these patients. Initial results indicate proficiency in the minimum geriatric competencies covered. The growth and diversity of the older adult population makes it important to integrate and evaluate geriatrics education in undergraduate medical education.
Treaster, Stephen B.; Chaudhuri, Asish R.; Austad, Steven N.
Background Comparative aging studies, particularly those that include species of exceptional resistance to aging processes, can potentially illuminate novel senescence-retarding mechanisms. In recent years, protein homeostasis (proteostasis) has been implicated in fundamental aging processes. Here we further evaluate the relationship between proteostasis and longevity in a selection of bivalve mollusks and mammals with maximum longevities ranging from 3 to 507 years. Methods & Results We experimentally examined proteostasis using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a reporter, as it is ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved, and conveniently assayed. The ability to maintain this enzymatic function was tested with increasing concentrations of the chaotropic agent urea, revealing a robust relationship with longevity in bivalves and mice. While our shortest-lived mollusk and mouse lost all activity by 2.5 and 3.5 M urea respectively, the longest-lived mollusk species, Arctica islandica, still preserved 45% of its basal function even at 6 M urea. To confirm that GAPDH proteostasis has a broad association with longevity, we also investigated a selection of primate species ranging in maximum longevity from 22 to 122 years. They outperformed the mouse at all concentrations, but among the primates results were variable at low urea doses. Still, at 6 M urea baboon and human samples retained 10% of their activity while both mouse and marmoset samples had no activity. Mechanism of Exceptional Stress Resistance To explore possible mechanisms of the exceptional stress resistance of A. islandica GAPDH we enzymatically removed post-translational glycosylation, but observed no decrease in stability. We also removed molecules smaller than 30 kDa, which includes most small heat shock proteins, but again did not compromise the exceptional stress resistance of Arctica GAPDH. Conclusion While the mechanism underlying A. islandica’s exceptional stress resistance
Rodríguez, Daniel; Formiga, Francesc; Fort, Isabel; Robles, María José; Barranco, Elena; Cubí, Dolors
Dementia in general--and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular--are bound to loom large among the most acute healthcare, social, and public health problems of the 21st century. AD shows a degenerative progression that can be slowed down--yet not halted--by today's most widely accepted specific treatments (those based on cholinesterase inhibitors as well as those using memantine). There is enough evidence to consider these treatments advisable for the mild, moderate and severe phases of the illness. However, in the final stage of the disease, a decision has to be made on whether to withdraw such treatment or not. In this paper, the Working Group on Dementia for the Catalan Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology reviews the use of these specific pharmacological treatments for AD, and, drawing on the scientific evidence thus gathered, makes a series of recommendations on when, how, and for how long, the currently existing specific pharmacological treatments should be used.
Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata
Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907
Jones, Jean Ellen, Ed.
Reviews research on the place of the arts in programs for the elderly. In nine articles deals with characteristics and attitudes of adult students in art and music, dance therapy, and creativity. Discusses the aging advocacy movement and suggests it can be useful to program planners and gerontologists. (JAC)
Advocating vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older in Western Europe: statement by the Joint Vaccine Working Group of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region.
Michel, Jean-Pierre; Chidiac, Christian; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Johnson, Robert W; Lambert, Paul Henri; Maggi, Stefania; Moulias, Robert; Nicholson, Karl; Werner, Hans
Vaccines are an underused public health strategy for healthy aging. Considering the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases and the current low vaccine coverage rates in older European citizens, the two European geriatric and gerontological societies (European Union Geriatric Medicine Society [EUGMS] and International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region [IAGG-ER]) convened a Joint Vaccine Working Group to develop a consensus document advocating routine vaccination of aging populations. The mandate of this Working Group was to improve the uptake of routine vaccinations in adults aged 60 years and over. The consensus statement underlines the need to establish, strengthen, and harmonize European policies that continue routine vaccinations to adulthood and that will include older populations. Improved vaccination rates will promote healthy aging by reducing the burden of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in older populations, a population that is rapidly increasing in Europe.
McAnany, Emile G.; And Others
Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…
Baker, Hallie E; Brown, Pamela Pitman
The three-legged stool concept is widely used in gerontological and geriatric education as an explanation on how one should fiscally approach his or her retirement. Financial managers, planners, retirees, business owners, even the Social Security Administration uses this metaphor of fiscal soundness in retirement planning. Gerontologists are moving away from the "tripod of retirement income" and "three-legged stool" term, as more often market work is needed for financial security. This activity focuses on the tripod or three-legged stool concepts of retirement planning using active learning, allowing the students to work collaboratively in a group, reflect upon the activity, and most importantly have fun. The game also allows for an expansion of the tripod concepts into the four pillars of economic security, broaching the use of personal assets and the possible need for longer employment. Game scenarios also emphasize macro- and microlevel forces, such as race, gender, health status, education, or marital status, which can influence timing of retirement or the level of retirement income available. The authors include instructions on how to set up the learning experience including worksheets, as well as reflection questions posed throughout the process.
Albert, Steven M; Roth, Thomas; Toscani, Michael; Vitiello, Michael V; Zee, Phyllis
Getting a good night's sleep can be challenging for older adults with chronic medical conditions, which often interfere with sleep. As a result, many older adults turn to over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids, that is, products with diphenhydramine or doxylamine. However, these products are indicated only for occasional difficulty with sleep, not for chronic use; and their safety and efficacy has not been well established in general and in older adults specifically. To engage national stakeholders in a discussion of OTC sleep aids in older adults, the Gerontological Society of America (GSA) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup. The Workgroup examined differences between younger and older adults in sleep health and use of OTC sleep aids using data from the National Health and Wellness Survey; assessed the pharmacologic properties and medication effects of OTC sleep aids; and worked with stakeholders to promote strategies for safe and effective use. Older adults are more likely to take diphenhydramine or doxylamine products 15 or more days in a month, an indicator of inappropriate use. The Workgroup recommends research to investigate the ways older people use OTC sleep aids. The goal should be reduction in inappropriate use and associated risks, such as daytime sedation, compromised cognitive function, and falls. In addition, the Workgroup recommends a greater role for community pharmacists in counseling older adults on appropriate use of OTC sleep aids.
Biological bulk specimens can be prepared by the freeze-fracture freeze-drying method, which is suitable for quantitative X-ray microanalysis of intracellular components. Although the spatial resolution of this analytic technique does not allow us to analyze smaller cellular compartments than the nucleus and cytoplasm it may deliver useful results for answering questions of experimental biology. Bulk specimens are also suitable for determination of intracellular water and dry mass contents under certain conditions. Applications of the bulk specimen X-ray microanalysis for experimental gerontology revealed an age dependent increase of the intracellular potassium content of the postmitotic cells, a diminution of intracellular water content during aging and delivered indirect proof for the decrease of the passive potassium permeability of the cell membrane in old hepatocytes and giant neurons. The bulk specimen method of X-ray microanalysis has been applied also in cancer research: it proved to be helpful in the determination of intracellular Na+-contents and Na+/K+ ratios in various human and experimental animal tumors as well as in other models of cell proliferation. These data gain a certain weight in light of the recent developments on the regulation of mitogenesis.
Mallers, Melanie H; Claver, Maria; Lares, Lisa A
A key concept driving the field of both clinical and applied gerontology is that of personal control. Seminal work conducted in the late 1970s to early 1980s by Ellen Langer and Judith Rodin, who examined the effect of choice and enhanced responsibility on older adults, not only contributed to the discussion of the relevance of control in contemporary theories and practices of aging but also aided in the development of today's philosophy of how to serve and care for older adults in ways that are passionate, humanistic, and empowering. In their early research, residents at a nursing home were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1 group was told they could arrange their furniture as they wanted, go where they wanted, spend time with whom they wanted, and so forth and were given a plant to care for; the other group was told that the staff was there to take care of and help them, including watering a plant given to each of them. During this study, and 18 months later, residents who were given control and personal responsibility had improved health; among those for whom control had not changed, a greater proportion had died. Since these original studies, research has continued to support the need for personal control as we age. This paper presents a brief overview of literature informed by Langer and Rodin's seminal findings, as well as the role of control to theory, policy, and practice.
Christensen, Mary Ann
Developed as part of an evaluation of the feasibility of establishing a continuing education program for nursing home staff at Butler County Community College (BCCC), this report provides an overview of continuing education in the field at national, state, and local levels. Section I introduces the demographic, social, and economic trends that…
The educational needs of elderly people (those over 60 years) around the world are examined in this paper. First, brief attention is given to the changing demographic structure in various regions of the world, and emphasis is placed on the dramatic increases in the proportion of elderly in the world's population. Particular references are made to…
Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; Smith, Deborah; Stachura, Max E; McDonough, JoEllen; Hunter, Carol; Thompson, Darrell; Richter, Sally; Jones, Gail
The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate the Video Analysis Tool (VAT) system, a tool for capturing and analyzing video evidence of students' clinical performance. Through the VAT system, nursing student dyads from 4 universities used a video camera, a computer, and a tripod in the residences of older adults to record interactions and psychosocial assessments of older adult clients. Using their recordings to compare their clinical activities with predefined clinical objectives derived from gerontological nursing standards, they made video clips of their assessments to demonstrate the required outcomes. Use of the VAT system received positive evaluations from students, faculty, and residents in multiple clinical sites. The process has significant implications for assessing clients and health care providers in their interactions in a variety of settings, including on home visits. It has additional applications for documenting performance measures of nurses and team members as they provide client care.
Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios
The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital
Fiset, Valerie; Luciani, Tracy; Hurtubise, Alyssa; Grant, Theresa L
The main objective of the current case study was to investigate the perceived leadership learning needs and feasibility of delivering leadership education to registered staff involved in direct care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, and participants included RNs, registered practical nurses, and nursing administrators. Phase 1 bilingual web-based survey and bilingual focus group needs assessment data supported a preference for external training along with in-house mentoring to support sustainability. An intervention designed using insights gained from Phase 1 data was delivered via a 2-day, in-person workshop. Phases 2 and 3 evaluation survey data identified aspects of leadership training for LTC that require ongoing refinement. Findings suggest that communication skills and managing day-to-day nursing demands in the context of regulatory frameworks were areas of particular interest for leadership training in the LTC setting. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(4), 49-56.].
Mentes, Janet; Cadogan, Mary; Woods, Lynn; Phillips, Linda
There is a "perfect storm" brewing in nursing. We are faced with a growing number of older patients, while at the same time nurses with expertise in gerontological nursing are aging and retiring. This critical shortage is most evident for nurses with research-intensive preparation needed to replenish actual and anticipated nurse faculty vacancies across the United States, especially those in underrepresented minority groups. We describe one solution to this problem; the Nurses Caring for Older Adults Young Scholars Program (YSP) that selects promising, ethnically diverse students and offers them a 1- to 3-year mentorship experience with the focus on students continuing to PhD studies on completion of their basic nursing studies. The YSP has mentored 15 prelicensure students with an identified interest in gerontological nursing research, with 8 young scholars (53%) going on to pursue doctoral studies. Program elements are described as well as philosophical and practical challenges of program implementation. Formative evaluations including student and faculty perceptions of the program as well as summative evaluation including admission success rate, student products, and progression in the doctoral program are discussed. Students indicate that establishing a strong mentor relationship with opportunities to participate in their mentor's research activities leading to the generation of a commitment to a research topic is the strongest factor in young scholars following through with enrollment into a doctoral program. A synergistic outcome of the YSP was the development of a critical mass of students interested in pursuing PhD studies that further extended the impact of the program.
Mertz, Linda K P; Fortune, Anne E; Zendell, Anna L
Social workers are being called upon to utilize a wide range of skills in practice including not only skills of working directly with clients, but also skills related to practice in organizations such as program management, inter-organizational cooperation, research and evaluation. This article describes an innovative geriatric field education program that prepares social workers with leadership skills in both direct service and management, and engages community agencies as both sites for student learning and as beneficiaries of their professional development projects. Case examples are provided and benefits and challenges to the model are discussed.
Hanon, Olivier; Assayag, Patrick; Belmin, Joel; Collet, Jean Philippe; Emeriau, Jean Paul; Fauchier, Laurent; Forette, Françoise; Friocourt, Patrick; Gentric, Armelle; Leclercq, Christophe; Komajda, Michel; Le Heuzey, Jean Yves
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and serious condition in the elderly. AF affects between 600,000 and one million patients in France, two-thirds of whom are aged above 75 years. AF is a predictive factor for mortality in the elderly and a major risk factor for stroke. Co-morbidities are frequent and worsen the prognosis. The management of AF in the elderly should involve a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), which analyses both medical and psychosocial elements, enabling evaluation of the patient's functional status and social situation and the identification of co-morbidities. The CGA enables the detection of "frailty" using screening tools assessing cognitive function, risk of falls, nutritional status, mood disorders, autonomy and social environment. The objectives of AF treatment in the elderly are to prevent AF complications, particularly stroke, and improve quality of life. Specific precautions for treatment must be taken because of the co-morbidities and age-related changes in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Preventing AF complications relies mainly on anticoagulant therapy. Anticoagulants are recommended in patients with AF aged 75 years or above after assessing the bleeding risk using the HEMORR2HAGES or HAS-BLED scores. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are promising treatments, especially due to a lower risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. However, their prescriptions should take into account renal function (creatinine clearance assessed with Cockcroft formula) and cognitive function (for adherence to treatment). Studies including frail patients in "real life" are necessary to evaluate tolerance of NOACs. Management of AF also involves the treatment of underlying cardiomyopathy and heart rate control rather than a rhythm-control strategy as first-line therapy for elderly patients, especially if they are paucisymptomatic. Antiarrhythmic drugs should be used carefully in elderly patients because of the frequency of metabolic abnormalities and
Hanon, Olivier; Assayag, Patrick; Belmin, Joel; Collet, Jean Philippe; Emeriau, Jean Paul; Fauchier, Laurent; Forette, Françoise; Friocourt, Patrick; Gentric, Armelle; Leclercq, Christophe; Komajda, Michel; Le Heuzey, Jean Yves
The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increase with ageing. In France AF affects between 400,000 to 660,000 people aged 75 years or more. In the elderly, AF is a major risk factor of stroke and a predictive factor for mortality. Comorbidities are frequent and worsen the prognosis of AF. They can be the cause or the consequence of AF and their management is a major therapeutic objective. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), is required to analyse both medical and psychosocial elements, and to identify co-morbidities and geriatrics syndrome as cognitive disorders, risk of falls, malnutrition, mood disorders, and lack of dependency and social isolation. The objectives of AF treatment in the elderly are to prevent AF complications, particularly stroke, and to improve quality of life. Specific precautions for treatment must be taken because of the co-morbidities and age-related changes in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Preventing AF complications relies mainly on anticoagulant therapy. Anticoagulants are recommended in patients with AF aged ≥ 75 years after assessing the bleeding risk using Hemorr2hages or HAS-BLED scores. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are promising treatments especially due to a lower risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. However, their prescriptions should take into account renal function (creatinine clearance assessed with Cockcroft formula) and cognitive function (for adherence to treatment). Studies including very old patients with several comorbidities in 'real life' are necessary to evaluate tolerance of NOACs in this population. The management of AF also involves the treatment of underlying cardiomyopathy and heart rate control rather than rhythm control strategy as first-line therapy in the elderly.
Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Yazawa, Aki; Shirai, Kokoro; Amemiya, Airi; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Fujiwara, Takeo
Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men. PMID:27716825
Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro
We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.
Ansello, Edward F.
The thrust of human development over the life course is individuation. Birth groups grow more heterogeneous with age. Aside from there being a number of commonalities among members of cohorts, the stamp of life lived tends to increase individual differences, whether these be in organ functioning or other physical measures or social, psychological…
New treatments and treatment protocols for diseases affecting the elderly are evolving as we strive to meet the needs of an aging society. To help you keep up to date with the latest advances worldwide on all aspects of drug therapy and patient management, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the rapid drug news alerting service Inpharma Weekly. Each issue contains easy-to-read summaries of the most important research and development news, clinical studies, treatment guidelines, and pharmacoeconomic news.
Putney, Norella M.; Alley, Dawn E.; Bengtson, Vern L.
Burawoy (2005) argues that sociology needs to re-establish a public sociology oriented toward society's problems and the practice of its unique knowledge if it is to again be taken seriously by the public, policymakers, and others. Yet, it is unclear how best to achieve these goals. We argue that the relatively young field of social gerontology…
Bocharova, O A; Davydov, M I; Baryshnikov, A Iu; Klimenkov, A A; Matveev, V B; Pozharitskaia, M M; Ivanova-Smolenskaia, I A; Karpova, R V; Gorozhanskaia, E G; Sheĭchenko, O P; Sukhanov, B P; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Bykov, V A; Tutel'ian, V A; Vorob'ev, A A; Kniazhev, V A
The article describes results of research devoted to Phytomix-40, a mixture of plant adaptogens. It focuses on immunobiological criteria for its formulation, chemical composition and manufacture procedures, biological standartization tests, in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies, clinical trials in patients with non-malignant tumours (benign prostatic hyperplasia), precancer (oral leukoplakia), advanced cancer (malignant gastric cancer), and age-related neurodegenerative disease (parkinsonism). Prospects for the development of other plant preparations for non-toxic prevention and treatment of cancer and prolongation of life span of the affected subjects are discussed.
Brown, Pamela Pitman; Brown, Candace S.
Mezirow (1978) applied and used Transformative Learning Theoretical (TLT) processes while studying women who reentered academics during the 1970s. Similar to Mezirow's original 1975 work, we identify "factors that impeded or facilitated" participants' progress to obtain their undergraduate degree during the traditional student…
As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…
Darling-Hammond, Linda; Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Haertel, Edward; Rothstein, Jesse
There is a growing consensus that evidence of teachers' contributions to student learning should be a component of teacher evaluation systems, along with evidence about the quality of teachers' practice. Value-added models (VAMs), designed to evaluate student test score gains from one year to the next are often promoted as tools to accomplish this…
Anderson, Lucy G.; White, Piran C. L.; Stebbing, Paul D.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Dunn, Alison M.
Invasive non-native species (INNS) endanger native biodiversity and are a major economic problem. The management of pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment is a key target in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020. Freshwater environments are particularly susceptible to invasions as they are exposed to multiple introduction pathways, including non-native fish stocking and the release of boat ballast water. Since many freshwater INNS and aquatic pathogens can survive for several days in damp environments, there is potential for transport between water catchments on the equipment used by recreational anglers and canoeists. To quantify this biosecurity risk, we conducted an online questionnaire with 960 anglers and 599 canoeists to investigate their locations of activity, equipment used, and how frequently equipment was cleaned and/or dried after use. Anglers were also asked about their use and disposal of live bait. Our results indicate that 64% of anglers and 78.5% of canoeists use their equipment/boat in more than one catchment within a fortnight, the survival time of many of the INNS and pathogens considered in this study and that 12% of anglers and 50% of canoeists do so without either cleaning or drying their kit between uses. Furthermore, 8% of anglers and 28% of canoeists had used their equipment overseas without cleaning or drying it after each use which could facilitate both the introduction and secondary spread of INNS in the UK. Our results provide a baseline against which to evaluate the effectiveness of future biosecurity awareness campaigns, and identify groups to target with biosecurity awareness information. Our results also indicate that the biosecurity practices of these groups must improve to reduce the likelihood of inadvertently spreading INNS and pathogens through these activities. PMID:24717714
Yoloye, E. Ayotunde
Focuses on issues in evaluating educational change. Topics include what should be evaluated, management of reform and evaluation, evaluation as a threat, attitudes toward evaluation, factors in drawing up an evaluation plan, management information systems, evaluation techniques, financing evaluation, and indicators of success. (KC)
Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Cable, Noriko; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro
Previous studies reported that social disorganization/fragmentation could predict mental well-being of residents in a community. The aim of this study is to examine how area and individual level of social distance could predict likelihood of mental health among older people in Japan. We empirically derived an index of "social distance" by taking averaged differences in sociodemographic characteristics that are income, education, hometown of origin, the duration of residency, and life stage, between the study participants and their neighbors. We used the study participants (n = 9147) from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study, which targeted residents with aged 65 years or over in a central part in Japan. Depressive symptoms of the study participants were assessed using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). We also tested if area-level social capital would moderate the association between social distance and depressive symptoms. Using multilevel analyses, we found that higher social distance from neighbors was associated with increased depressive symptoms, independently of respondents' own values of income and educational attainment. At the individual level, each standard deviation in income-based and education-based social distance was associated with an odds ratio for depressive symptoms of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01-1.30) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.32), respectively. However, the area-aggregated indices of social distance were not associated with depressive symptoms. Additionally, area-level social capital indicating higher levels of trust between neighbors and social participation, buffered the adverse effect of social distance on depressive risk. In an instance of the "dark side" of social capital, we also found that stronger social cohesion increased depressive symptoms for residents whose hometown of origin differed from the communities where they currently resided.
Kanamori, Satoru; Kai, Yuko; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hirai, Hiroshi; Shirai, Kokoro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kayo
Background We examined the relationship between incident functional disability and social participation from the perspective of number of types of organizations participated in and type of social participation in a prospective cohort study. Method The study was based on the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) Cohort Study data. We followed 13,310 individuals aged 65 years or older for 4 years. Analysis was carried out on 12,951 subjects, excluding 359 people whose information on age or sex was missing. Social participation was categorized into 8 types. Results Compared to those that did not participate in any organizations, the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73–0.95) for participation in one, 0.72 (0.61–0.85) for participation in two, and 0.57 (0.46–0.70) for participation in three or more different types of organizations. In multivariable adjusted models, participation in the following types of organization was protective for incident disability: local community organizations (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76–0.96), hobby organizations (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64–0.87), and sports organizations (HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54–0.81). Conclusion Social participation may decrease the risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan. This effect may be strengthened by participation in a variety of different types of organizations. Participating in a local community, hobby, or sports group or organization may be especially effective for decreasing the risk of disability. PMID:24923270
In German, this article asserts that present concepts of evaluation are too narrow for curriculum evaluation. Research must differentiate different forms and roles of evaluation, produce a curriculum evaluation model, and resolve problems of values and judgement. The second section discusses the different forms and roles of evaluation: formative…
The speaker discusses Congressional program evaluation. From the Congressional perspective, good evaluators understand the political, social, and economic processes; are familiar with various evaluation methods; and know how to use authority and power within their roles. Program evaluation serves three major purposes: to anticipate social impact…
Brethower, Karen S.; Rummler, Geary A.
Presents general systems models (ballistic system, guided system, and adaptive system) and an evaluation matrix to help in examining training evaluation alternatives and in deciding what evaluation is appropriate. Includes some guidelines for conducting evaluation studies using four designs (control group, reversal, multiple baseline, and…
This article examines why teachers should be evaluated, how teacher evaluation is perceived, and how teacher evaluation can be approached, focusing on the improvement of teacher competency rather than defining a teacher as "good" or "bad." Since the primary professional activity of a teacher is teaching, the major concern of teacher evaluation is…
Hopson, Rodney K.
This commentary reviews "Negotiating Researcher Roles in Ethnographic Program Evaluation" and discusses the changing field of evaluation. It situates postmodern deliberations in evaluation anthropology and ethnoevaluation, two concepts that explore the interdisciplinary merger in evaluation, ethnography, and anthropology. Reflecting on Hymes's…
Sanders, Sara; Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Ingram, Jerry G.
There is a national shortage of social workers who have the knowledge and skill competencies needed for practice with our rapidly growing older adult population. In the last decade, research has identified many reasons for the lack of interest in gerontological social work and steps that could be pursued within social work education to remedy the…
Braden, Roberts A.; Walker, Alice D.
The synthesis of historical definitions presented in this paper was designed to trace the development of the process of evaluation, showing how modern educational evaluation has evolved and identifyinq some points of confusion. The importance of the integration of evaluation into the overall educational process is emphasized. (Author/RAO)
Stone, James C., Ed.; James, Raymond A., Ed.
"Qualitative evaluation" is the theme of this issue of the California Journal of Teacher Education. Ralph Tyler states that evaluation is essentially descriptive, and using numbers does not solve basic problems. Martha Elin Vernazza examines the issue of objectivity in history and its implications for evaluation. She posits that the…
Smith, Nick L.
As with many forms of evaluation, empowerment evaluation can be viewed as an ideology that promotes a particular set of social and professional values. Judging the quality and utility of empowerment evaluation thus requires a critical appraisal of the implications of adopting those values.
Stake, Robert E.
In this paper, the author talks about some recent developments in the methodology of program evaluation and about what he calls "responsive evaluation." He discusses two models for program evaluation, namely (1) informal study or self-study; and (2) the pretest/posttest model. Then, he describes an approach that he has been working on, which will…
Mandel, G.; Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuarke, W. F.
Technological survey summarizes accumulated knowledge of nondestructive-evaluation (NDE) testing methodology application and reliability as it is presented in literature covering time period from 1962 to 1975.
Infeld, Donna Lind; Adams, William C.
Older adults, students, professionals, and the general public increasingly turn to the Internet and to Wikipedia for information. Wikipedia, the world's sixth most used website, is by far the most widely used open-source information site. Among its nearly four million English-language encyclopedia articles, how thorough is coverage of key…
Caffrey, Rosalie A
Rural elderly individuals are an underserved population with limited access to health care. There is an increasing need for independent community care nurses to provide assistance to home-based elderly individuals with chronic illnesses to prevent unnecessary medical and placement decisions and, thus, allow them to maintain independence and quality of life. This article describes the rural setting and why community care nurses are needed, and explores strategies for implementing the role of the independent nurse entrepreneur in caring for community-based elderly individuals in rural settings.
Bos, Angelo J. G.; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Bos, Antonio M. G.; Gomez, Fernando
Every year the proportion of elderly people increases at a greater rate compared with other age groups, changing the population structure of most countries. Latin America has been internationally known for its higher percentage of young compared with elderly persons. The United Nations predicts that the proportion of elderly persons in Latin…
Characteristics of Older Adults..................................................... 9 Nursing Care of the Older Adult...in Air Force facilities. Nursing care of the elderly is different due to several factors; (1) the cumulative effect of multiple chronic illness, (2...retiree utilization of Air Force hospitals and clinics (especially elderly retirees), and identify some unique nursing care needs of the elderly. The
Morozov, V G; Khavinson, V Kh
Available are the results of experimental and clinical study of a new class of peptide bioregulators--cytomedines. Mechanism of action of these substances is considered. Cytomedines-based drugs can be used for prevention and treatment of age pathology and premature aging. A new trend in clinical medicine--bioregulation therapy--is grounded.
This review contains five sections dealing with the following: biological sciences; behavioral and social sciences; health and clinical practices; policy and planning; and social and community services. It also contains an author index and subject index. (DAD)
Hahn, Joan Earle; Aronow, Harriet Udin
Background: Persons with an intellectual and developmental disability frequently face barriers in accessing preventive services in community-based health care systems. As they age into middle years, they are at increased risk for functional decline. This paper presents a description of an advanced practice nurse (APN) intervention used in a pilot…
Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Nishida, Kensei; Rokutan, Kazuhito
Gene expression patterns change dramatically in aging and age-related events. The DNA microarray is now recognized as a useful device in molecular biology and widely used to identify the molecular mechanisms of aging and the biological effects of drugs for therapeutic purpose in age-related diseases. Recently, numerous technological advantages have led to the evolution of DNA microarrays and microarray-based techniques, revealing the genomic modification and all transcriptional activity. Here, we show the step-by-step methods currently used in our lab to handling the oligonucleotide microarray and miRNA microarray. Moreover, we introduce the protocols of ribonucleoprotein [RNP] immunoprecipitation followed by microarray analysis (RIP-chip) which reveal the target mRNA of age-related RNA-binding proteins.
Rubinstein, Robert L; de Medeiros, Kate
This article is a critique of the successful aging (SA) paradigm as described in the Rowe and Kahn book, Successful Aging (1998). The major point of this article is that two key ideas in the book may be understood as consonant with neoliberalism, a social perspective that came into international prominence at the same time the SA paradigm was initially promoted. These two key ideas are (a) the emphasis on individual social action applied to the nature of the aging experience and (b) the failure to provide a detailed policy agenda for the social and cultural change being promoted and, particularly, for older adults who may be left behind by the approach to change the book suggests. The article provides no evidence for a direct connection between SA and neoliberalism, but rather shows how similarities in their approaches to social change characterize both of them. In sum, the article shows (a) how the implicit social theory developed in the book, in a manner similar to neoliberalism, elevates the individual as the main source of any changes that must accompany the SA paradigm and (b) the focus on SA as individual action does not provide for those older adults who do not or will not age "successfully." This, we conclude, implicitly sets up a two-class system of older adults, which may not be an optimal means of addressing the needs of all older adults. The article also reviews a number of studies about SA and shows how these, too, may emphasize its similarities to neoliberalism and other issues that the SA paradigm does not adequately address.
Carmel, Sara; Lowenstein, Ariela
Like other developed nations, Israel has rapidly aged. This demographic revolution has created new challenges for Israeli society. We describe the societal background, including the emerging societal needs, solutions, and problems, as well as the professional principles, which guided us in developing the first two Israeli academic programs in…
Jarrett, William H.
Proposals have been developed to clarify physician responsibility in withholding treatment to terminally ill patients. These proposals seek to provide a legal shield against malpractice proceedings and to reduce confusion over how to resolve high medical costs through standardizing procedures for withholding treatment. When first published,…
Wernet, Stephen P.; Singleton, Judy L.
This study addresses factors associated with sustainability and institutionalization of change in the 67 Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) projects, and the ways innovations introduced became institutionalized at the respective colleges and universities. An unobtrusive qualitative-descriptive research design was used to…
Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.
Patton, Michael Quinn
Developmental evaluation is proposed as a term to describe certain long-term partnering relationships with clients who are, themselves, engaged in ongoing program development. Rather than a model, developmental evaluation is a relationship founded on a shared purpose and is a way of being useful in innovative settings. (SLD)
The Broad content of this text will appeal to foundation nursing and those at higher levels of practice. There is a lot of valuable information that is rarely covered in UK texts; for example, the chapter on 'safe medication use' offers a succinct module of pharmacology for the uninitiated and a useful revision for the more advanced.
Hulka, Barbara S.; And Others
The objective of research in contraceptive evaluation is to improve the ability of individuals to choose contraceptive methods best suited to their needs and circumstances and to provide information that will lead to the development of safer and more effective methods. There are usually three considerations in judging the importance of a method of…
Germanis, Peter; Besharov, Douglas J.
Describes the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and reviews and assesses research on its impact. Recommends policy reforms and randomized experiments to evaluate the program and any changes made to it. Weaknesses in research to date make the real impacts of WIC unclear. (Contains 79 references.) (SLD)
Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.
The services of the Regional Prescriptive Instruction Center are evaluated using varied approaches. Student performance measures will be obtained in the areas of reading, spelling and mathematic skills, as well as behavior ratings in terms of classroom adjustments. These measures will be administered in a pre-post test fashion with a 60 school day…
various testing methodologies for the evaluation and characterization of Transmit /Receive (T/R) modules for phased array radars. Discussed are techniques...for characterizing T/R modules in transmit and receive modes under ideal and emulated operation environments. Further, techniques for life testing...characteristics of T/R modules developed during the early and mid 1980’s. Data provided shows the performance in terms of gain and phase for both transmit
Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.
Tucker, Robin C.; Adams-Price, Carolyn E.
Ethics codes from gerontology-related disciplines were evaluated regarding mentoring guidelines. General "do no harm" statements were most common; clear, explicit guidelines were less frequent. Explicit guidelines focused on the use/misuse of power in mentoring relationships. (SK)
Martz, H E
The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal is to provide cutting-edge technologies, that show promise for quantitative inspection and characterization tools two to three years into the future. The NDE thrust area supports a multidisciplinary team, consisting of mechanical and electronics engineers, physicists, materials and computer scientists, chemists, technicians, and radiographers. These team members include personnel that cross departments within LLNL, and some are from academia and industry, within the US and abroad. This collaboration brings together the necessary and diver disciplines to provide the key scientific and technological advancements required to meet LLNL programmatic and industrial NDE challenges. The primary contributions of the NDE thrust area this year are described in these five reports: (1) Image Recovery Techniques for X-Ray Computed Tomography for Limited-Data Environments; (2) Techniques for Enhancing Laser Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation; (3) Optical Inspection of Glass-Epoxy Bonds; (4) Miniature X-Ray Source Development; and (5) Improving Computed Tomography Design and Operation Using Simulation Tools.
My response to Engelmann (2008) will be based on several questions that will allow both its author and the general reader to determine whether the assumptions I make as an interpreter of this complex paper are congruent or incongruent with their own interpretations of the text. The interpretations by the writer, by any commentator, and the diverse interpretations of a general audience together with my own interpretations will, I hope, facilitate some fruitful 'comparative evaluations.' I articulate my inferences of the most dense part of the paper, namely the 'concrete immediate Consciousness and the developing absent outside.' My hope is to address Engelmann's question: "Am I in a better disposition to judge modern theories of consciousness?" The last section of my response spells out more personal comments to my all too brief and single encounter with Arno Engelmann. It is there that Arno Engelmann's fascinating statement "I am a citizen of the world" is addressed through its counterparts in my life.
This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.
Stufflebeam, Daniel L.
Good evaluation requires that evaluation efforts themselves be evaluated. Many things can and often do go wrong in evaluation work. Accordingly, it is necessary to check evaluations for problems such as bias, technical error, administrative difficulties, and misuse. Such checks are needed both to improve ongoing evaluation activities and to assess…
Patton, Michael Quinn
Refutes three evaluation myths--(1) evaluation is findings; (2) outcomes are hard to measure; and (3) evaluation is an add-on--with three principles: (1) evaluation is a learning process; (2) soft data about important issues are better than hard data about unimportant issues; and (3) meaningful evaluation is integrated into teaching and learning.…
Caro, Francis G.
Weakness in evaluations often can be traced to structural limitations in the positions of evaluation researchers. Conventional human relations techniques often are an insufficient basis for securing strong support for evaluation research. Strategies for increasing evaluation research leverage are reviewed. Alignment of evaluation research with…
Poliakoff, Lorraine L.
This document, an evaluation of school personnel, is based on a review of the literature on evaluation in the ERIC system. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of school administrators, teacher evaluation by students, and the teacher's role in evaluation. A 23-item bibliography is included. (MJM)
Cooksy, Leslie J.; Mark, Melvin M.
Attention to evaluation quality is commonplace, even if sometimes implicit. Drawing on her 2010 Presidential Address to the American Evaluation Association, Leslie Cooksy suggests that evaluation quality depends, at least in part, on the intersection of three factors: (a) evaluator competency, (b) aspects of the evaluation environment or context,…
These resources list tools to help you conduct evaluations, find organizations outside of EPA that are useful to evaluators, and find additional guides on how to do evaluations from organizations outside of EPA.
Smit, David W.
Contributes to the knowledge of portfolio systems for writing evaluation by sharing evaluative procedures and their results. Reports on the results of a survey of students evaluated using a portfolio system. Finds that students preferred the portfolio system. (RS)
View the Vulnerability Evaluation Framework, which provides policy-makers, stakeholders, industry, and the public with a transparent framework to evaluate vulnerabilities associated with geologic sequestration sites.
Waltz, C F
This chapter presents a discussion of the specific steps undertaken when the Waltz approach is employed for the evaluation of nursing programs. Discussion is organized in terms of: (1) who is responsible for the evaluation; (2) why the evaluation is conducted, (3) what is evaluated, (4) how judgments are made on the basis of findings, (5) how the evaluation proceeds, (6) when evaluation occurs, (7) reporting and recording findings and results, and (8) evaluating the evaluation. Specific strategies and techniques for developing and implementing the Master Plan for Evaluation and for managing the conduct of the ongoing evaluation are described. Specific topics regarding "who" include the following: establishing and maintaining the internal evaluator role, operationalizing the internal evaluator role, ethical and political aspects of the role, essential characteristics of internal evaluators, maintaining an outsider perspective in the insider role, and determining significant others to be involved. In the section on "why," attention is given to explaining the purposes for the evaluation and identifying the potential audiences for results. Regarding "what," the focus is on examining program inputs, processes, outcomes, and the setting in which the evaluation occurs, rendering goals and objectives measurable, and explicating questions of concern to the respective audiences. Attention in the section on "how" emphasizes the following: establishing a procedure for decision making, constructing a variable matrix, categorizing evaluation activities, assigning responsibility for evaluation activities using responsibility charting, determining the cost of evaluation activities via engineering cost analysis, and establishing priorities. Gantt Charts are discussed in terms of "when," and essential components and considerations in reporting and recording are elaborated. Meta-evaluation, evaluating the evaluation, is discussed as it relates to the Master Plan, the implementation
This article on evaluation perspectives and procedures is divided into six sections. The first section briefly discusses qualitative and quantitative research and evaluation. In the second section there is an exploration of the utility and validity of a checklist that can be used to evaluate products, as an instrument for evaluating producers, for…
Skolits, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Burr, Erin Mehalic
The current evaluation literature tends to conceptualize evaluator roles as a single, overarching orientation toward an evaluation, an orientation largely driven by evaluation methods, models, or stakeholder orientations. Roles identified range from a social transformer or a neutral social scientist to that of an educator or even a power merchant.…
Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott
Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…
Thawabieh, Ahmad M.
This study aimed to investigate how students evaluate their faculty and the effect of gender, expected grade, and college on students' evaluation. The study sample consisted of 5291 students from Tafila Technical University Faculty evaluation scale was used to collect data. The results indicated that student evaluation of faculty was high (mean =…
Short, N. J.
These 4 questionnaires are designed to elicit teacher and parent evaluations of the Prescriptive Instruction Center (PIC) program. Included are Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (14 items), M & M Evaluation of Program Implementation (methods and materials specialists; 11 items), Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness--Case Study…
In this article I reflect on a recent development currently shaping programme evaluation as field, which makes the case for evaluators facilitating evaluation training evaluees to self-evaluate and improve the programmes they teach. Fetterman argues persuasively that the practice was incipient in the field and required formalization and acceptance…
Caulley, Darrel N.
Like any other person, Albert Einstein was an informal evaluator, engaged in placing value on various aspects of his life, work, and the world. Based on Einstein's own statements, this paper speculates about what Einstein would have been like as a connoisseur evaluator, a conceptual evaluator, or a responsive evaluator. (Author/BW)
Baggaley, P. Jonathan, Ed.; And Others
Eleven articles on the evaluation of educational television (ETV) in South Africa are provided. Under the heading "Theory" are: (1) "The Meaning of Evaluation and Its Practice" (D. Nevo); (2) "Criteria for Evaluating ETV: A Theoretical Framework" (R. Israeli); and (3) "Sources of Evaluation Criteria in Education,…
Hayden, David L.
Intended for administrators and evaluators, the manual identifies models useful in evaluating special education programs in Maryland. An introduction to program evaluation, defines the concept of educational program evaluation, notes its purpose, and addresses its current status in the field of special education. Chapter 2 goes into greater depth…
Council for Community Services in Metropolitan Chicago, IL.
This manual presents instruments for evaluating the program and facilities of day care centers and family day care homes serving nonhandicapped children aged 3-5. Chapter 1 discusses child care evaluation in general and outlines the rationale underlying this evaluation system (including the principle that day care evaluation should assess program…
Rozsnafszky, Jane; Hendel, Darwin D.
The present report describes the results of an evaluation study of the first course in the new Women's Studies program at the University of Minnesota and the resistance of the teaching assistants for the course to the evaluation. A hypothesis to explain this resistance is that an outside evaluator may face inherent difficulties in evaluating new…
House, Ernest R.
Drug studies are often cited as the best exemplars of evaluation design. However, many of these studies are seriously biased in favor of positive findings for the drugs evaluated, even to the point where dangerous effects are hidden. In spite of using randomized designs and double blinding, drug companies have found ways of producing the results…
Reynolds, Glenda P.; Kitchens, Helen
The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a webpage evaluation for embedding technology in classes for teaching school counseling and counseling program development. The instructors created the Website Evaluation Form to help students recognize qualities of webpages that would enhance the school counseling program, broaden their…
impact on unit operational readiness. The TSARC, as a decision-making body for the Army, recommends OT and FDT/E priorities, coordinates troop...environmental impacts of the acquisition system. (See AR 200–2.) p. Joint test and evaluation generally involves two or more Services together evaluating...requiring HQDA approval and OSD approval. g. Oversee the development, updating, and accreditation of T&E related models and simulations. h. Coordinate
Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P.
During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.
Litwin, Howard; Auslander, Gail K.
Dilemmas inherent in the attempt to measure and evaluate informal supports available to individuals in need of social care are illustrated through a study of 400 elderly persons in Jerusalem. Practical guidelines for evaluation are presented. (SLD)
Patton, Michael Quinn
Explores some opportunities open to evaluators as practitioners of organizational development and the advantages and competencies evaluators can bring to such initiatives. Presents eight examples of such opportunities. (SLD)
Smith, Carl B.; Farr, Roger
The preparation of this simulation material package is guided by the concept of an evaluator as a decision-maker, based on the definition of evaluation as a continuous assessment concerned with answering decision-making questions. The continuous concept of evaluation is based on the model created by Egon Guba and Daniel Stufflebeam, named by its…
The author discusses student evaluation in relation to adult and continuing education programs offered by the Department of Adult Education, University College, Cork. He highlights the need for a more individualized and interactive approach to evaluation, allowing the student to benefit from qualitative feedback in the process of being evaluated.…
Blood, Richard W.
Based on an analysis of online search evaluation forms collected from all types of U.S. libraries, and a pilot test of a draft evaluation form in selected federal research libraries, this report presents the work of the American Library Association's (ALA's) Machine-Assisted Reference Section (MARS) Committee on Measurement and Evaluation. The…
Long, James P.
Stresses the importance of evaluating occupational programs on a regular basis. Offers a brief explanation of the approaches to program evaluation taken at the Dallas County Community College District (TX), South Puget Sound Community College (WA), and Triton College (IL). Offers a list of references on program evaluation. (CBC)
Samuels, Maurice; Ryan, Katherine
The emergence of and the attention given to culture in the evaluation field over the last decade has created a heightened awareness of and need for evaluators to understand the complexity and multidimensionality of evaluations within multicultural, multiracial, and cross-cultural contexts. In this article, the authors discuss how cultural…
Baker, Eva L., Ed.
A series of papers was developed by the authors as part of their deliberations as members of the National Research Council's Committee of Program Evaluation in Education. The papers provide a broad range of present evaluative thinking. The conflict between preferences in evaluation methodology comes through in these papers. The selections include:…
Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013
The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…
Stokking, K.; van Aert, L.; Meijberg, W.; Kaskens, A.
This book is the English version of "Evaluating Environmental Education" which was developed and financed by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the purpose of evaluation, evaluation of environmental education programs, and outlines the 13-step…
Patty, Willard W.
This 1949 paper considers the evaluation of health education outcomes. It describes the nature of health education, discusses whether it is possible to measure all health education outcomes, then examines how to evaluate student health habits and skills, health attitudes, and health knowledge. It concludes that it is important to evaluate health…
House, Ernest R.; Howe, Kenneth R.
Presents a framework for judging evaluations on the basis of their potential for democratic deliberation that includes the interrelated requirements of inclusion, dialogue, and deliberation. Operationalizes these requirements in 10 questions to guide evaluation and meta-evaluation from a democratic viewpoint. (SLD)
Gast, Clyde W.
The Granite City (Illinois) Steel apprentices are under a performance evaluation from entry to graduation. Federally approved, the program is guided by joint apprenticeship committees whose monthly meetings include performance evaluation from three information sources: journeymen, supervisors, and instructors. Journeymen's evaluations are made…
Jonassen, David H.
Addresses problems in evaluation that are raised by constructivism. Highlights include a comparison of objectivism and constructivism; constructivistic criteria, including goal-free evaluation, which focus on authentic tasks, knowledge construction, context-driven evaluation, the appropriate stages of knowledge acquisition, and multiple…
This report discusses the importance of five types of evaluation in science and science education. First, evaluation must be recognized as a key process within science, both pure and applied, and must be taught as an integral part of science education. Second, the applications of science must be evaluated not only as a social responsibility and a…
Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Abma, Tineke; Bustelo, María; Irimia, Roxana; Kosunen, Sonja; Kravchuk, Iryna; Minina, Elena; Segerholm, Christina; Shiroma, Eneida; Stame, Nicoletta; Tshali, Charlie Kabanga
The issue of translatability is pressing in international evaluation, in global transfer of evaluative instruments, in comparative performance management, and in culturally responsive evaluation. Terms that are never fully understood, digested, or accepted may continue to influence issues, problems, and social interactions in and around and after…
Neumeister, Kristie Speirs; Burney, Virginia Hays
Faced with significant budget challenges, many districts cannot afford to hire an outside consultant to conduct a formal evaluation of their gifted programs. As an interim solution, districts may wish to conduct their own in-house program evaluation. "Gifted Program Evaluation: A Handbook for Administrators and Coordinators" is designed to assist…
Teter, Richard B.
The purpose of this research and development study was to design and develop an affordable, computer-based, pre-service teacher assessment and reporting system to allow teacher education institutions and supervising teachers to efficiently enter evaluation criteria, record pre-service teacher evaluations, and generate evaluation reports. The…
Schleyer, Titus K L; Johnson, Lynn A
Evaluation is an important component of developing educational software. Ideally, such evaluation quantifies and qualifies the effects of a new educational intervention on the learning process and outcomes. Conducting meaningful and rigorous educational evaluation is difficult, however. Challenges include defining and measuring educational outcomes, accounting for media effects, coping with practical problems in designing studies, and asking the right research questions. Practical considerations that make the design of evaluation studies difficult include confounding, potentially small effect sizes, contamination effects, and ethics. Two distinct approaches to evaluation are objectivist and subjectivist. These two complement each other in describing the whole range of effects a new educational program can have. Objectivist demonstration studies should be preceded by measurement studies that assess the reliability and validity of the evaluation instrument(s) used. Many evaluation studies compare the performance of learners who are exposed to either the new program or a more traditional approach. However, this method is problematic because test or exam performance is often a weak indicator of competence and may fail to capture important nuances in outcomes. Subjectivist studies are more qualitative in nature and may provide insights complementary to those gained with objectivist studies. Several published examples are used in this article to illustrate different evaluation methods. Readers are encouraged to contemplate a wide range of evaluation study designs and explore increasingly complex questions when evaluating educational software.
After some 65 years of international development assistance, it is still difficult to show the effectiveness of aid in ways that are fully convincing. In part, this reflects inadequacies in the evaluation systems of the bilateral, multilateral, and global organizations that provide official development aid. Underlying these weaknesses often are a…
Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.
This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.
tracking in usability evaluation : A practitioner’s guide. In J. Hyönä, R. Radach, & H. Deubel. (Eds.), The mind’s eye: Cognitive and applied...Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods Terence S. Andre, Lt Col, USAF Margaret Schurig, Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Co...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT
Describes the importance of evaluating if air quality programs are achieving the desired results to inform environmental program managers, regulated industry and the public, and provides EPA examples.
Barchet, W.R. ); Dennis, R.L. ); Seilkop, S.K. ); Banic, C.M.; Davies, D.; Hoff, R.M.; Macdonald, A.M.; Mickle, R.E.; Padro, J.; Puckett, K. ); Byun, D.; McHenry, J.N.
The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.
Sonnichsen, Richard C.
As evaluations are more often implemented by internal staff, internal evaluators must begin to assume decision-making and advocacy tasks. This advocacy evaluation concept is described using the Federal Bureau of Investigation evaluation staff as a model. (TJH)
McConnell, C R
The focus of much performance appraisal in the coming decade or so will likely be on the level of customer satisfaction achieved through performance. Ultimately, evaluating the evaluator--that is, appraising the supervisor--will likely become a matter of assessing how well the supervisor's department meets the needs of its customers. Since meeting the needs of one's customers can well become the strongest determinant of organizational success or failure, it follows that relative success in ensuring these needs are met can become the primary indicator of one's relative success as a supervisor. This has the effect of placing the emphasis on supervisory performance exactly at the point it belongs, right on the bottom-line results of the supervisor's efforts.
Welty, Gordon A.
The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…
Vranish, Paul L.
The evaluation of a superintendent is often a stressful, unpleasant experience for both the superintendent and the members of the school board. Typical board trustees have little experience in evaluating CEOs. Worse yet, they are hamstrung by the limitations inherent to their roles. They lack the advantage of a day-to-day working relationship with…
Tucker, Susan A.; Dempsey, John V.
The semiotic interpretative context is extended to program evaluation. Assumptions about the semiotic process of constructing, describing, and judging reality are examined in terms of the viability of the process in explicating a perception-based evaluation model. Models from which inspiration was drawn include R. W. Tyler's instructional…
Systematic program evaluations of adolescent catechesis curricula are seldom completed and rarely published. This makes it very challenging to understand what is working and what is not. This case study describes the findings of a program evaluation of the Youth in Theology and Ministry curriculum of Saint John's School of Theology and Seminary in…
Alexander, H. A.
A group of defenses of qualitative evaluation methods is examined, based on a hard relativistic interpretation of the work of Thomas Kuhn. A promising defense of qualitative evaluation may be found in a soft-relativist interpretation of Kuhn's analysis of the nature of scientific discovery. (Author/LMO)
Marx, Gary E.
The No Child Left Behind emphasis on teacher quality and its relationship to student achievement has made teacher evaluation an area of increased concern for today's high school principal. Numerous problems associated with the evaluation of teachers have been cited in the literature, including lack of agreement on what constitutes good teaching,…
The most familiar form of evaluation in Western theatrical dance is aesthetic judgement, which considers dance performances as objects of art. This is how dance critics usually approach dance. However, there is more to evaluation than this. It also plays an integral part in learning: it can help a student develop skills in choreography as well as…
As evaluators, we are often asked to determine whether policies and programs provide value for the resources invested. Addressing that question can be a quandary, and, in some cases, evaluators question whether cost-benefit analysis is fit for this purpose. With increased interest globally in social enterprise, impact investing, and social impact…
Many board of education members question the importance of superintendent evaluations. Others consider it a thankless job. During the author's 28 years as a member of the school board of the 3,300-student Fitzgerald Public Schools in Warren, Michigan, he has participated in several evaluations and can attest to their value. In this article, the…
A high-strength, thick-section, graphite/epoxy composite was identified. The purpose of this development effort was to evaluate candidate materials and provide LANL with engineering properties. Eight candidate materials (Samples 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, and 1700) were chosen for evaluation. The Sample 1700 thermoplastic material was the strongest overall.
Arguing that there is a current tendency among librarians to talk more about the evaluation of bibliographic instruction than to actually do anything about it, this paper examines limitations of and considerations pertaining to evaluation and includes: (1) a brief discussion of the history of bibliographic instruction; (2) discussion of types of…
Costanzo, Nancy L.
A distinction is made between program evaluation and project evaluation. The former is used to determine the effectiveness of a particular program or to compare programs. The latter is used in the initial stages of program development to define and monitor progress; to identify problems at an early stage; to record what is done and why; and to…
The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…
Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.
Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…
Snider, Jean; Martin, Florence
Web usability focuses on design elements and processes that make web pages easy to use. A website for college students was evaluated for underutilization. One-on-one testing, focus groups, web analytics, peer university review and marketing focus group and demographic data were utilized to conduct usability evaluation. The results indicated that…
Bolding, James T.
In American schools, the classroom teacher must act in two conflicting capacities: as a facilitator of learning and as an evaluator of his own facilitating activities. To avoid problems inherent in this, the evaluator role could be assigned elsewhere, as in the Boy Scouts' merit badge system. (SJL)
Although some argue that distinctions between "evaluation" and "development evaluation" are increasingly superfluous, it is important to recognize that some distinctions still matter. The severe vulnerabilities and power asymmetries inherent in most developing country systems and societies make the task of evaluation…
Leshem, Shosh; Bar-Hama, Rivka
The evaluation of observed lessons has been the subject of much debate in the field of teacher training. Teacher trainers have tried to define quality in relation to teaching and to find ways to measure it in a reliable way. Can we evaluate the quality of teaching by observable behaviour and measurable components, in which case, can the lesson be…
Kurfman, Dana G., Ed.
This second yearbook of the National Council for Geographic Education presents recent thinking about the formulation and assessment of the educational outcomes of geography. Dana G. Kurfman overviews "Evaluation Developments Useful in Geographic Education" relating evaluation to decision making, objectives, data gatherings, and data…
The Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) is a computer-based system for obtaining student ratings of instructors and courses. To use ICES, an instructor will choose 23 evaluative items from an item catalog. These items are then printed on a standard form. Students respond to these items using a five position scale. On the back of the…
Huetteman, Julie Doidge; Benson, RoseAnn
A comprehensive Instrument for Curriculum Evaluation (ICE) was developed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate curriculum materials. The instrument contains 115 statements for assessing 11 aspects of curriculum: philosophy, needs assessment, theme, goals, learning objectives and standards, scope and sequence, field testing, instructor…
O'Hanlon, James; Mortensen, Lynn
A well-designed plan for the evaluation of teaching can serve purposes of both improving instruction and making administrative decisions about pay, rank, and tenure. Five approaches to the evaluation of teaching are presented, which are consistent with six principles derived from an analysis of current research and practice. (Author/MLW)
Nunes, Evelyn H., Ed.
This Learning Resources Evaluation Manual (LREM) contains evaluations of 140 instructional products listed in the 1994 supplement to Virginia's Adult Education Curricula Resource Catalog. A table of contents lists topics/subjects and page numbers. Some titles that are useful under more than one category are cross-listed for easy reference. These…
Three polyamides, nylon 11, nylon 12, and a transparent nylon, were evaluated by physical testing, characterization and analytical methods, and injection molding. None of the materials proved to be clearly superior to the others. Results of the evaluation will be used to determine applications for the materials in future production programs.
Norris, John M.
Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…
Arthur, Linet; Cox, Elaine
Traditionally there has been a tension between evaluation research and so-called pure research which has resulted in evaluation research seldom being recognized by the UK Research Assessment Exercises. The newly configured Research Excellence Framework (REF) will use similar criteria to judge research, notwithstanding the introduction of…
Della-Piana, Gabriel M.; Endo, George T.
Third stream evaluation, the fusing of the ecological perspective with experimental or quasi-experimental evaluation design, is described. The ecological perspective necessitates that the conceptualization and analysis of a setting and the design of the study emphasize the interdependent relations among organisms, behavior and environment in…
Kanis, Ira B.
In 1985, participants in the Second International Science Study developed and evaluated hands-on problem-solving activities and gave students the opportunity to demonstrate mastery of science process skills. Six evaluation stations for fifth and sixth graders are presented: Blowing in a Liquid, Compare and Contrast, Electrical Circuit, Hot and…
Stake's concept of responsive evaluation is designed to provide various decision makers with the kind of information desired and in the form most helpful for making decisions. Compared with formal research procedures, this approach has both advantages and disadvantages. It may also provide a valuable supplement to formal evaluation. (CTM)
Little, Priscilla M.
Well-implemented afterschool programs can promote a range of positive learning and developmental outcomes. However, not all research and evaluation studies have shown the benefits of participation, in part because programs and their evaluation were out of sync. This chapter provides practical guidance on how to foster that alignment between…
Tokheim, Collin J.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Karchin, Rachel
Sequencing has identified millions of somatic mutations in human cancers, but distinguishing cancer driver genes remains a major challenge. Numerous methods have been developed to identify driver genes, but evaluation of the performance of these methods is hindered by the lack of a gold standard, that is, bona fide driver gene mutations. Here, we establish an evaluation framework that can be applied to driver gene prediction methods. We used this framework to compare the performance of eight such methods. One of these methods, described here, incorporated a machine-learning–based ratiometric approach. We show that the driver genes predicted by each of the eight methods vary widely. Moreover, the P values reported by several of the methods were inconsistent with the uniform values expected, thus calling into question the assumptions that were used to generate them. Finally, we evaluated the potential effects of unexplained variability in mutation rates on false-positive driver gene predictions. Our analysis points to the strengths and weaknesses of each of the currently available methods and offers guidance for improving them in the future. PMID:27911828
Tokheim, Collin J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Karchin, Rachel
Sequencing has identified millions of somatic mutations in human cancers, but distinguishing cancer driver genes remains a major challenge. Numerous methods have been developed to identify driver genes, but evaluation of the performance of these methods is hindered by the lack of a gold standard, that is, bona fide driver gene mutations. Here, we establish an evaluation framework that can be applied to driver gene prediction methods. We used this framework to compare the performance of eight such methods. One of these methods, described here, incorporated a machine-learning-based ratiometric approach. We show that the driver genes predicted by each of the eight methods vary widely. Moreover, the P values reported by several of the methods were inconsistent with the uniform values expected, thus calling into question the assumptions that were used to generate them. Finally, we evaluated the potential effects of unexplained variability in mutation rates on false-positive driver gene predictions. Our analysis points to the strengths and weaknesses of each of the currently available methods and offers guidance for improving them in the future.
Lathi, Ruth B; Gray Hazard, Florette K; Heerema-McKenney, Amy; Taylor, Joanne; Chueh, Jane Tsung
Miscarriage is a relatively common occurrence for otherwise healthy women. Despite its frequency, evaluation for cause is rare. The most common cause of miscarriage is sporadic chromosome errors. Chromosomal analysis of the miscarriage offers an explanation in at least 50% of cases. Conventional cytogenetic evaluation can only be done on fresh tissue, so it is critical that the treating physician consider genetic testing at the time of the miscarriage. Ultrasound can estimate the gestational age at the time of miscarriage and identify major abnormalities in some embryos. A careful pathological examination can add to the evaluation by ruling out rare disorders with the highest recurrence risk. A multidisciplinary approach to miscarriage evaluation is essential to understanding the cause and risk of recurrence. A thorough evaluation of a miscarriage, in combination with emotional support, can often provide the necessary reassurance and confidence as the patient prepares for her next pregnancy.
Patton, Michael Quinn
Presents an external review of the evaluation process involved in evaluating the national 4-H program. Focuses on issues and lessons relevant to evaluation and research in general. Discusses specific problems encountered in the 4-H national evaluation. (CS)
Hertzano, Ronna; Teplitzky, Taylor B; Eisenman, David J
The clinical evaluation of patients with tinnitus differs based on whether the tinnitus is subjective or objective. Subjective tinnitus is usually associated with a hearing loss, and therefore, the clinical evaluation is focused on an otologic and audiologic evaluation with adjunct imaging/tests as necessary. Objective tinnitus is divided into perception of an abnormal somatosound or abnormal perception of a normal somatosound. The distinction between these categories is usually possible based on a history, physical examination, and audiogram, leading to directed imaging to identify the underlying abnormality.
Grant, Joan; Perelmuter, Susan
Vendor selection can mean success or failure of an approval plan; this study evaluates three book vendors by comparing their plans on the bases of speed, bibliographic accuracy, and discounts. (Author/CWM)
POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.
If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101
Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...
Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)
The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.
Suggests using Kirkpatrick's four-point framework to design evaluation of training programs. The points are (1) trainee reaction to the course, (2) trainee learning, (3) trainee behavior on the job, and (4) organizational results. (CH)
Lechnyr, Ronald J.
The use of the Truax scales of accurate empathy, nonpossessive warmth, and genuineness provides a useful, concrete and objective way to evaluate and train students in clinical field settings. (Author)
The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.
Zadeh, M H; Selesnick, S H
Hearing impairment is among the most common medical condition presenting to health care professionals. Ear anatomy, physiology, and pathology resulting in hearing loss are discussed. A systematic approach to evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is presented.
Two questionnaires (169 items for the 94 users of the aid, 88 for the 21 trainers) were employed to evaluate the ultrasonic binaural sensory aid for the blind, a mobility and orientation device. (Author)
Poradek, J. C.
A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.
Russell, Cynthia L
As a novice reviewer, it is often difficult to trust your evaluation of a research report. You may feel uncertain in your interpretations. These are common concerns and can be remedied by reading and discussing research reports on research listservs, through journal clubs, or with other nephrology nurses. Practice using the criteria for research report evaluation and you too can perfect critiquing a research report!
by a decisionmaker. The full-scale evaluation of a complex model can be an expensive, time- consuming effort requiring diverse talents and skills...relative to PIES, were documented in a report to the Congress. 2/ An important side- effect of that document was that a foundation was laid for model...while for model evaluation there are no generally accepted standards or methods. Hence, GAO perceives the need to expand upon the lessons learned in
Clough, A. J.
The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.
This paper presents a method for evaluating the performance level of steam traps by preparing an economic analysis of several types to determine the equivalent uniform annual cost. A series of tests on steam traps supplied by six manufacturers provided data for determining the relative efficiencies of each unit. The comparison was made using a program developed for the Texas Instruments T1-59 programmable calculator to evaluate overall steam trap economics.
Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.
This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.
Rubinstein, Robert L.; de Medeiros, Kate
This article is a critique of the successful aging (SA) paradigm as described in the Rowe and Kahn book, Successful Aging (1998). The major point of this article is that two key ideas in the book may be understood as consonant with neoliberalism, a social perspective that came into international prominence at the same time the SA paradigm was initially promoted. These two key ideas are (a) the emphasis on individual social action applied to the nature of the aging experience and (b) the failure to provide a detailed policy agenda for the social and cultural change being promoted and, particularly, for older adults who may be left behind by the approach to change the book suggests. The article provides no evidence for a direct connection between SA and neoliberalism, but rather shows how similarities in their approaches to social change characterize both of them. In sum, the article shows (a) how the implicit social theory developed in the book, in a manner similar to neoliberalism, elevates the individual as the main source of any changes that must accompany the SA paradigm and (b) the focus on SA as individual action does not provide for those older adults who do not or will not age “successfully.” This, we conclude, implicitly sets up a two-class system of older adults, which may not be an optimal means of addressing the needs of all older adults. The article also reviews a number of studies about SA and shows how these, too, may emphasize its similarities to neoliberalism and other issues that the SA paradigm does not adequately address. PMID:25161262
Horowitz, Beverly P.; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen
Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional…
McCleary, Lynn; McGilton, Katherine; Boscart, Veronique; Oudshoorn, Abram
Across practice settings, most nursing care is provided to older adults. Yet most nurses receive limited education to care for older adults, especially those with complex needs. A Knowledge Exchange Institute for Geriatric Nursing Education brought together 31 Canadian nursing faculty members and nursing doctoral students and provided them with tools and resources to enhance teaching and curriculum in baccalaureate nursing programs. Guided by the Knowledge-to-Action Process model, participants received usable summaries of the best research evidence about care for older adults and tools to increase the likelihood of successful integration of these resources in their teaching and curriculum. Feedback from participants indicates that their personal goals and the goals of the Knowledge Exchange were met. Through a public interactive wiki, participants and others will continue the process of knowledge exchange to improve nursing education and nursing care for older persons.
Luborsky, M R
Life narratives have wide appeal because they promote the modern ideal of freeing people to reflect on their life and to share personal meanings and experience in public. Constructing a life story may aid adult development and well-being. This article explores how to enhance these benefits, but criticizes the idealization of stories and their benefits. Using life stories from 16 randomly selected clinically depressed and nondepressed elderly persons, this article examines the narrative structures and how these relate to mood and to ideal images for the self. Findings show that some normative styles for self-representation (i.e., personal themes) serve to express distress instead of positive well-being. The discussion points to cultural and historical forces shaping our ideas about themes in stories. Life stories do privilege personal meanings, but the settings and form constrain their value as research data and their effectiveness as vehicles for enhancing well-being.
Gerasimenko, E N; Meshchaninov, V N; Zvezdina, E M; Katyreva, Iu E; Tkachenko, E L; Gavrilov, I V
The research was executed on 320 male patients aged 35-92 years with various polyorgan pathology in a compensation stage. The treatment by gases was used: hyperbaric oxygenation, dry carbonic acid baths, ozon therapy, hypo oxygen therapy and their combinations. On indicators of biological age various age-dependent geroprophylactics effect of gas therapy was established. On indicators of resistance of erythrocytes various safety of used modes was found.
Elgin Community Coll., IL.
These modules are intended as a guide for developing short-term training workshops for paraprofessional service providers in aging. They are for use by trainers with some basic familiarity with the topic; use of teams of educators and practitioners as trainers is suggested to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. A section on "Training…
Toner, John A.; Ferguson, K. Della; Sokal, Regina Davis
There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a…
Beall, George Thomas; Mulak, Susan
In planning for the National Information and Resource Clearinghouse on Aging, scant attention has been paid to improving access to and utilization of foreign-language and foreign-source informational materials. This paper substantiates the fact that cross-national documentary exchange is a particularly weak link in the information transfer chain…
Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest
This learning module, which is part of a three-block series intended to help human service workers develop the skills necessary to solve the problems encountered in their daily contact with elderly clients of different cultural backgrounds, deals with the cultural heritage of Native Canadians. The module begins with a brief introduction and…
In their "aging and society" paradigm Riley and collaborators conceptualize the ideal type of an age-integrated society in which the social segregation of different age groups is removed. They claim that in the future the life-world areas of education, work and leisure will no longer exclusively follow the triple division of the life course but will be visited repeatedly in different phases of life. Therefore, they argue, age barriers would be dissolved in many areas, which would lead to more contact and cooperation and to a greater solidarity between the generations. This conception shall be rejected as an utopia because it contradicts central functional mechanisms of modern societies; at best it might be imagined as a "reflexive modernization" of age-segregated structures. A certain distance and alienation between the generations remains a direct, though unintended product of the modernization process and cannot be reversed without welfare losses. A dialogue of generations as a societal project, therefore, implies that the functional differentiation into age groups and life stages will be accepted without referring to pre-modern idealizations of generational relationships.
Professional practice with older adults is performed in a variety of settings and across a broad range of areas. Planning for care throughout the end of life represents an increasingly important aspect of work with older adults as a result of the nation's aging demographic and concomitant health care needs. Community-based geriatric case managers…
... palliative care, and performance and oversight of the VA Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Centers... Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, update on VA's geriatric workforce (to...
... dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of the VA Geriatric... Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, update on VA's employee staff working in...
... advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of VA Geriatric Research, Education, and... capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical, psychological, and social needs of... Centers. The meeting will feature presentations and discussions on VA's geriatrics and extended...
... dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of VA Geriatric Research.... The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, updates on VA's employee staff working in...
... dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of VA Geriatric Research.... The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, updates on VA's employee staff working in...
Martinez, Iveris L.; Mora, Jorge Camilo
Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences.…
Van Ness, Peter H.; Fried, Terri R.; Gill, Thomas M.
This article’s main objective is to demonstrate that data analysis, including quantitative data analysis, is a process of interpretation involving basic hermeneutic principles that philosophers have identified in the interpretive process as applied to other, mainly literary, creations. Such principles include a version of the hermeneutic circle, an insistence on interpretive presuppositions, and a resistance to reducing the discovery of truth to the application of inductive methods. The importance of interpretation becomes especially evident when qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single clinical research project and when the data being analyzed are longitudinal. Study objectives will be accomplished by showing that three major hermeneutic principles make practical methodological contributions to an insightful, illustrative mixed methods analysis of a qualitative study of changes in functional disability over time embedded in the Precipitating Events Project—a major longitudinal, quantitative study of functional disability among older persons. Mixed methods, especially as shaped by hermeneutic insights such as the importance of empathetic understanding, are potentially valuable resources for scientific investigations of the experience of aging: a practical aim of this article is to articulate and demonstrate this contention. PMID:22582035
Spoelstra, Sandra; Given, Barbara; von Eye, Alexander; Given, Charles
The aim of this predictive study was to test a structural model to establish predictors of fall risk. An aging and nursing model of care was synthesized and used to examine 6912 older adult participants who are low income, using the Minimum Data Set in a community setting in the Midwest. Data analysis established relationships among age, race, a history of a previous fall, depression, pain, and ADLs, IADLs, incontinence, vision, and cognitive status. Factors leading to fall risk can direct nursing activities that have the potential to prevent falls, improving quality of life. PMID:20128528
McMullen, Tara L.; Brown, Candace S.; Canham, Sarah L.; De Medeiros, Kate
Although doctorally trained gerontologists have unique types of expertise as a result of their interdisciplinary training, research exploring perceptions of their hirability in faculty positions is lacking. This exploratory study examined the perceptions of administrators and faculty at institutions identified as having a doctoral program in…
Across the United States, there is a need for professionals who have expertise caring for aging men and women. Doctors and nurses are among the most sought after. But it is not just clinicians who are needed; a variety of professionals, from housing specialists to social workers and service administrators, also are in high demand. Many of the…
Thiesemann, R; Kruse, W H; Meier-Baumgartner, H P
Geriatric institutions enforce clinical documentation in order to assure quality of care. Different means include basic information of the clinical course, data gathering by administration and extractions from research projects. The use of electronic data bases and common data processing shall provide a base for the development of a cooperation network, academic progress, quality assurance programs and models of utilization review. In this article, clinical data bases are defined and described with reference to their organization. Data elements collected depend on the focus and function of a data base which must be considered in developing a quality assurance program. Usually there is a focus on 1) therapy, device or procedures or 2) diseases or populations. However, the measurement of variables concerning health aspects of older patients crosses more than one dimension. Geriatric teams may have an advantage in developing a successful data base because of the fact that this requires a multidisciplinary team. It is necessary to follow principles of quality assurance and well-defined data base design in order to succeed in enforcing the objectives mentioned above.
Brückner, R; Batschelet, E; Hugenschmidt, F
In the prospective Basel longitudinal study on aging (1955-1978) 123 men (age at entry from 6-61 years) were investigated in 2 year (average) intervals. Complete case histories are available on 67 subjects over the entire period (19.6 +/- 0.85 years). Part I of the study was to confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus, according to which life expectancy can be estimated from the speed of development of presbyopia. Parallel to the measurement of accommodation range (after preliminary determination of refraction and visual acuity), the development of height, body weight, vital capacity, expiratory volume, chest circumference, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, ECG and pulse wave velocity were measured. Invasive investigations were not undertaken. Only when hypertension was combined with obesity was the diminution of accommodation range striking (Fig. 10c; however there were only 3 subjects in this risk group). Taking everything into consideration there was a concomitance between decrease of accommodation range and changes of medical parameters (Table 6). Intercurrent illness did not influence the accommodation range. Longitudinal measurements and cross-sectional comparisons (data averaged to the same point as of the same age) were carried out. The results did not always coincide. We could not confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus. In Part II the results of the objective measurements are given. Apparently growth of the skull does not stop entirely. The increase of interpupillary distance can be complete at 17 years of age, but also can continue to the 30th year. The palpebral fissure increases an average of 3 mm more horizontally between the 6th and the 20th year of life. The corneal diameter remains constant in all age classes, that is, the growth of the cornea should be complete before the 6th year of life. Early arcus senilis changes are found already in the 20-year-old. The increase in the course of time of arcus senilis is obvious, it is most pronounced in obese hypertensives. Still there are persons who at 65 years of age show no arcus senilis. In the 20th year degenerative deposits in the conjunctiva begin. They increase in number and above the 60th year all subjects showed degenerative deposits. Aqueous veins are less visible in younger subjects. With increasing age--as a result of degenerative thinning of the conjunctiva--they are recognizable in ever greater numbers. The depth of the anterior chamber attains its greatest extent between the 20th and the 30th year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Rejeski, W. Jack
Derived from Buddhism, mindfulness is a unique approach for understanding human suffering and happiness that has attracted rapidly growing interest among health care professionals. In this article I describe current thinking about the concept of mindfulness and elaborate on why and how mindfulness-based interventions have potential within the…
Olson, Mark D.
The present study examined the linkages among perceptions of self-efficacy, curriculum, and field experience on students' attitudes and interest in working with older adults. Graduate level social work students were surveyed regarding perceived self-efficacy to intervene with older adult clients, the amount of aging content in the master of social…
Maiden, Robert J.; Horowitz, Beverly P.; Howe, Judith L.
This article summarizes data from the 2008 Symposium Charting the Future for New York State Workforce Training and Education in Aging: The Stakeholder Perspective and the 2009 report "Workforce Training and Education: The Challenge for Academic Institutions". This research is the outcome of a collaborative State Society on Aging of New…
Kropf, Nancy P.; Idler, Ellen; Flacker, Jonathan; Clevenger, Carolyn; Rothschild, Elizabeth
Effective health care with older adults requires that clinicians and practitioners are knowledgeable about aging issues and have the skills to work within an interdisciplinary team context. This article describes a Senior Mentoring Program that paired clinical students in medicine, nursing, and a physician assistant program with community-dwelling…
Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Ladd, Elissa
The purpose of this study was to gain understanding about nurse practitioners' (NPs') prescriptive decision making for geriatric patients with attention to pharmaceutical marketing influences. Prior research has focused on physician prescribers and identified suboptimal practices. Because the majority of medications are prescribed to older adults, NPs in geriatric practice were targeted as an information-rich group to interview about prescribing issues. Given the exploratory nature of this research, qualitative focus group methods were employed using content analysis. Fifteen NPs were recruited at an annual national geriatric NP conference. They worked in all regions of the United States, had an average of 9 years prescribing experience, and participated in 1 of the 2 focus groups. The key theme that emerged was that they were more than a prescriber. Findings revealed overwhelming consistency among the NP participants that their nursing background instilled a holistic approach that encompassed both nondrug and therapeutic drug options and skepticism about drug marketing, as well as offered a positive difference by tailoring to their patients' biophysical, psychological, and economic needs with an involvement in the interplay of geriatric care issues not typically addressed by physicians. The participants' reported approaches were in alignment with geriatric prescribing recommendations.