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Sample records for aid administration module

  1. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 9: Award Packaging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    With the ninth module in a 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration, novice financial aid administrators are taught about financial aid award packaging. A fundamental understanding of management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education act is provided. After completing the…

  2. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  3. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000 based on results from the Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings indicate that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  4. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    The Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures gathered information on median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000. Among detailed findings, the survey concluded that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  5. Teacher Aide Individually Prescribed Instructional Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston Univ., AL. Coll. of Education.

    This document contains 59 individually prescribed instructional modules for use in teacher aide education programs. Each module has six sections: 1) Behavioral objectives, 2) purpose, 3) performance criteria, 4) experiences, 5) resources, and 6) taxonomy. The subjects covered include the use of instructional equipment such as language master,…

  6. Motor modules in robot-aided walking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that locomotion is achieved by means of rhythm generating networks (central pattern generators) and muscle activation generating networks. This modular organization can be partly identified from the analysis of the muscular activity by means of factorization algorithms. The activity of rhythm generating networks is described by activation signals whilst the muscle intervention generating network is represented by motor modules (muscle synergies). In this study, we extend the analysis of modular organization of walking to the case of robot-aided locomotion, at varying speed and body weight support level. Methods Non Negative Matrix Factorization was applied on surface electromyographic signals of 8 lower limb muscles of healthy subjects walking in gait robotic trainer at different walking velocities (1 to 3km/h) and levels of body weight support (0 to 30%). Results The muscular activity of volunteers could be described by low dimensionality (4 modules), as for overground walking. Moreover, the activation signals during robot-aided walking were bursts of activation timed at specific phases of the gait cycle, underlying an impulsive controller, as also observed in overground walking. This modular organization was consistent across the investigated speeds, body weight support level, and subjects. Conclusions These results indicate that walking in a Lokomat robotic trainer is achieved by similar motor modules and activation signals as overground walking and thus supports the use of robotic training for re-establishing natural walking patterns. PMID:23043818

  7. Factors Contributing to Financial Aid Administrators' Job Satisfaction: NASFAA 2008 Financial Aid Administrators' Job Satisfaction Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In what kind of job environment are financial aid administrators (FAA) currently working? How satisfied are they with their jobs? What motivates them and what factors are considered morale dampers? How are financial aid (FA) functions viewed by campus' top administrators? Does FA get similar respect and appreciation from their campus peer offices…

  8. Career Education. Administrators and Counselors Implementation Model. Module V--Implementation. (5.2) Curriculum Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John A.; Chock, Mona K.O.

    Part of a 13-volume series designed to be used as a group inservice or a self-learning system to train school administrators and counselors for their role in career education, this second section (5.2) of module 5 (implementation--for administrators) centers on aiding in the implementation of a career education curriculum. Module 5 is one of six…

  9. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  10. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. 224.39 Section... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.39 Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely... appeal such decision to the A.I.D. Administrator by filing a notice of appeal with the...

  11. Pilot-aided modulation for narrow-band satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of tone-aided modulation techniques which have been studied as part of the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) Program. In all instances tone(s) are inserted into data-free portions of the transmit spectrum and used by the receiver to sense the amplitude and frequency/phase distortions introduced by the channel. The receiver then uses this information in a feedforward manner to lessen the effect of the distortions on the data detection performance. Particular techniques discussed are the Tone Calibration Technique (TCT), the Dual Tone Calibrated Technique (DTCT), Transparent Tone-In-Band (TTIB), and Dual-Tone Single Sideband (DTSSB).

  12. Research Tools, Tips, and Resources for Financial Aid Administrators. Monograph, A NASFAA Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohning, David D.; Redd, Kenneth E.; Simmons, Barry W., Sr.

    This monograph provides research tools, tips, and resources to financial aid administrators who need to undertake research tasks. It answers: What is research? How can financial aid administrators get started on research projects? What resources are available to help answer research questions quickly and accurately? How can research efforts assist…

  13. Home administration of nutritional & medical therapies for persons with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Greif, J; Golden, B A

    1995-02-01

    With the increasing numbers of AIDS patients in home care settings, professional caregivers will be required to provide home infusion and to help informal caregivers in enteral and total parenteral nutrition. The first thing all caregivers--both professional and informal--need to understand is how the infusion devices work and what pointers will help keep the patients healthy.

  14. Electroacoustic Evaluation of Frequency-Modulated Receivers Interfaced with Personal Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Whalen, Holly S.; Overson, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electroacoustic outputs of frequency-modulated (FM) systems coupled to hearing aids. Method: Electroacoustic performance of FM systems coupled to hearing aids was determined for 3 FM receivers: body-worn with neck loop, ear-level nonprogrammable, and ear-level programmable. Systems were…

  15. Modulating Concentration Of Hydrazine Vapor To Aid Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1992-01-01

    Three techniques, flow modulation, filament modulation, and reactive-filter modulation developed to obtain selective response to hydrazine or to methyl hydrazines from photoionization detector. Implemented in portable selective hydrazine detectors, useful where continuous or rapid, repetitive quantitative measurements of concentrations of vapors of these toxic substances required. Measure concentration of gaseous hydrazines in presence of other gases like cyclohexane, chlorofluorocarbons, and ammonia. Produce modulated signal, amplitude and phase indicating amount of hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, or 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine present in mixture. Used with such other detectors as electrochemical cells.

  16. Task Force Report on HIV/AIDS and Health Services Administration Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Nancy Cross

    In November 1987, a task force met to review the major organizational, structural, and policy-related issues for health care administration professionals related to the growing impact of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) on the health care delivery system and to make recommendations on the training needs of persons within the health care…

  17. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  18. Modulation of vaccine response by concomitant probiotic administration

    PubMed Central

    Maidens, Catherine; Childs, Caroline; Przemska, Agnieszka; Dayel, Iman Bin; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria modulate both innate and adaptive immunity in the host, and in some situations can result in reduced severity of common illnesses, such as acute rotavirus infection and respiratory infections. Responses to vaccination are increasingly being used to provide high quality information on the immunomodulatory effects of dietary components in humans. The present review focuses on the effect of probiotic administration upon vaccination response. The majority of studies investigating the impact of probiotics on responses to vaccination have been conducted in healthy adults, and at best they show modest effects of probiotics on serum or salivary IgA titres. Studies in infants and in elderly subjects are very limited, and it is too early to draw any firm conclusions regarding the potential for probiotics to act as adjuvants in vaccination. Although some studies are comparable in terms of duration of the intervention, age and characteristics of the subjects, most differ in terms of the probiotic selected. Further well designed, randomized, placebo‐controlled studies are needed to understand fully the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics, whether the effects exerted are strain‐dependent and age‐dependent and their clinical relevance in enhancing immune protection following vaccination. PMID:22845346

  19. The Vital Role of Administrative Cost Allowances to Student Financial Aid Offices: Key Findings from NASFAA's Administrative Cost Allowance Survey, July 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) recently conducted a survey on the 2009-10 award year Administrative Cost Allowances (ACA), which are funds used by colleges and universities to support operations and professional development. Specifically, ACA is often used in essential areas that support the day-to-day…

  20. Indiana Health Occupations Education: Student Modules for Administration of Medications for Unlicensed Nursing Personnel. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilger, Phyllis; And Others

    These learning modules are designed to provide health care workers involved with medications with basic information about the nature and administration of medications. The 30 modules are organized into six units. An overview of preparation and administration of medicines, principles of medication therapy, and medication fundamentals are presented…

  1. Career Education. Administrators and Counselors Implementation Model. Module I: Career Education Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John A.; Chock, Mona K.O.

    Part of a 13-volume series designed to be used as a group inservice or a self-learning system to train school administrators and counselors for their role in career education, this module focuses on the factors which have led to the growth of the career education concepts. The module is one of six for administrators and four for counselors…

  2. DHEA administration modulates stress-induced analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Torres, Iraci L S; Oliveira, Carla; Zanini, Priscila; Niches, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques

    2016-04-01

    An important aspect of adaptive stress response is the pain response suppression that occurs during or following stress exposure, which is often referred to as acute stress-induced analgesia. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) participates in the modulation of adaptive stress response, changing the HPA axis activity. The effect of DHEA on the HPA axis activity is dependent on the state and uses the same systems that participate in the regulation of acute stress-induced analgesia. The impact of DHEA on nociception has been studied; however, the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia is not known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia and determine the best time for hormone administration in relation to exposure to stressor stimulus. The animals were stressed by restraint for 1h in a single exposure and received treatment with DHEA by a single injection before the stress or a single injection after the stress. Nociception was assessed with a tail-flick apparatus. Serum corticosterone levels were measured. DHEA administered before exposure to stress prolonged the acute stress-induced analgesia. This effect was not observed when the DHEA was administered after the stress. DHEA treatment in non-stressed rats did not alter the nociceptive threshold, suggesting that the DHEA effect on nociception is state-dependent. The injection of DHEA had the same effect as exposure to acute stress, with both increasing the levels of corticosterone. In conclusion, acute treatment with DHEA mimics the response to acute stress indexed by an increase in activity of the HPA axis. The treatment with DHEA before stress exposure may facilitate adaptive stress response, prolonging acute stress-induced analgesia, which may be a therapeutic strategy of interest to clinics.

  3. DHEA administration modulates stress-induced analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Torres, Iraci L S; Oliveira, Carla; Zanini, Priscila; Niches, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques

    2016-04-01

    An important aspect of adaptive stress response is the pain response suppression that occurs during or following stress exposure, which is often referred to as acute stress-induced analgesia. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) participates in the modulation of adaptive stress response, changing the HPA axis activity. The effect of DHEA on the HPA axis activity is dependent on the state and uses the same systems that participate in the regulation of acute stress-induced analgesia. The impact of DHEA on nociception has been studied; however, the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia is not known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DHEA on stress-induced analgesia and determine the best time for hormone administration in relation to exposure to stressor stimulus. The animals were stressed by restraint for 1h in a single exposure and received treatment with DHEA by a single injection before the stress or a single injection after the stress. Nociception was assessed with a tail-flick apparatus. Serum corticosterone levels were measured. DHEA administered before exposure to stress prolonged the acute stress-induced analgesia. This effect was not observed when the DHEA was administered after the stress. DHEA treatment in non-stressed rats did not alter the nociceptive threshold, suggesting that the DHEA effect on nociception is state-dependent. The injection of DHEA had the same effect as exposure to acute stress, with both increasing the levels of corticosterone. In conclusion, acute treatment with DHEA mimics the response to acute stress indexed by an increase in activity of the HPA axis. The treatment with DHEA before stress exposure may facilitate adaptive stress response, prolonging acute stress-induced analgesia, which may be a therapeutic strategy of interest to clinics. PMID:26852948

  4. A Module for the Administration of Homebound Instructional Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Lewis

    2008-01-01

    Special program and other school administrators regularly confront the issue of whether students under their charge are entitled to receive homebound instruction and if so, what procedures and criteria they should apply in coming to a proper decision. Where a student is entitled to such services the administrator must decide what subjects must be…

  5. Photonic aided bandpass sampling in coherent phase modulated radio-over-fiber links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minghua; Li, Jianqiang; Dai, Jian; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Kun

    2016-06-01

    We have experimentally presented a digital coherent receiver employing photonic aided bandpass sampling technology for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) links. An optical intensity modulator (IM) is utilized as the bandpass sampler which performs encoded on-off keyed pulse sequence on the optical local oscillator. Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulated data signal with 20 MHz bandwidth at 5.2 GHz, 10.2 GHz and 15.2 GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated to be successfully detected by using balanced photodiodes (BPDs) with only 800 MHz analog bandwidth. It demonstrates that the required analog bandwidth of BPDs and ADCs can be dramatically reduced in a direct sampled coherent RoF communications system.

  6. Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid.

    PubMed

    Beedie, Christopher J; Coleman, Damian A; Foad, Abigail J

    2007-06-01

    The article describes a study examining placebo effects associated with the administration of a hypothetical ergogenic aid in sport. Forty-two team-sport athletes were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All subjects completed 3 x 30-m baseline sprint trials after which they were administered what was described to them as an ergogenic aid but was in fact 200 mg of cornstarch in a gelatin capsule. Group 1 was provided with positive information about the likely effects on performance of the substance, whereas Group 2 was provided with negative information about the same substance. The sprint protocol was repeated 20 min later. Although for Group 1 mean speed did not differ significantly between baseline and experimental trials, a significant linear trend of greater speed with successive experimental trials suggested that positive belief exerted a positive effect on performance (P < 0.01). Group 2 ran 1.57% slower than at baseline (P < 0.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.32-2.82%), suggesting that negative belief exerted a negative effect on performance. Collectively, data suggest that subjects' belief in the efficacy or otherwise of a placebo treatment might significantly influence findings in experimental research. PMID:17693687

  7. Provide Systematic Guidance Services. Module LT-C-2 of Category C--Student Services. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Nancy F.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of student services. The purpose of the module is to help the administrator develop skill in defining the broad conceptualization of student services,…

  8. Identify Financial Resources for Vocational Education. Module LT-H-2 of Category H--Business and Financial Management. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Nancy F.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of business and financial management. The purpose of the module is to help administrators identify traditional and alternative funding opportunities for…

  9. Involve the Community in Vocational Education. Module LT-F-3 of Category F--School-Community Relations. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of school-community relations. The purpose of the module is to give administrators skills in involving the community in vocational education by providing…

  10. Manage the Development of Master Schedules. Module LT-B-3 of Category B--Instructional Management. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Carol J.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of instructional management. The purpose of the module is to provide administrators with information about the scheduling process by citing tools,…

  11. Use Information Resources to Help Improve Vocational Education Programs. Module LT-I-1 of Category I--Program Improvement. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowle, Carol P.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of program improvement. The purpose of the module is to help administrators to identify sources of information needed to make program improvement…

  12. Select School Personnel. Module LT-D-1 of Category D--Personnel Management. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Linda A.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of personnel management. The purpose of the module is to provide administrators with information and practice relating to each component of the personnel…

  13. Cooperate with Governmental and Community Agencies. Module LT-F-4 of Category F--School-Community Relations. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, David R.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of school-community relations. The purpose of the module is to teach administrators how to cooperate with governmental and community agencies, including…

  14. Maintain School Discipline. Module LT-C-3 of Category C--Student Services. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Lois G.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of student services. The purpose of the module is to help the administrator develop skill in creating a climate conducive to discipline and in instituting…

  15. Provide Buildings and Equipment for Vocational Education. Module LT-G-1 of Category G--Facilities and Equipment Management. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, David R.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of facilities and equipment management. The purpose of the module is to teach administrators the process of providing facilities, including assessing the…

  16. Plan for Your Professional Development. Module LT-E-3 of Category E--Professional and Staff Development. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Nancy F.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of professional and staff development. The purpose of the module is to help administrators to analyze their professional needs and to devise and implement…

  17. Manage School Personnel Affairs. Module LT-D-4 of Category D--Personnel Management. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, David R.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of personnel management. The purpose of the module is to help administrators develop skills for training staff about procedures, maintaining personnel…

  18. Stability of chronic medicines in dosage administration aids. How much have been done?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joyce Zhen Yin; Kwan, Yu Heng

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic diseases is increasing in Asia, therefore compliance to the medications is of utmost importance to slow disease progression and improve outcomes. Dosage administration aids (DAAs) serve as important tool to improve the compliance of patients. However, there is a dearth of data on the stability of chronic medications in DAAs. Furthermore, data presented by our Western counterparts may not be applicable to us because of our extreme humidity and temperature. In this study, we aim to summarize the data available in the literature on the stability of chronic medications in DAA. Methods We performed a literature search using electronic databases and related keywords. Results In total, 24,336 articles were retrieved and 21 articles were found to be relevant to our topic. This commentary stratified drugs according to their treatment categories and key stability conclusions, DAA and conditions used and recommendations were presented. Conclusion Due to the lack of specific data, pharmacists have to exercise their professional judgment with the help from professional guidelines when using DAA in repackaging medication. Manufacturers and regulators can play a greater role in filling the gap needed to provide pharmacists with necessary information to fulfill their function. PMID:26903764

  19. Transferable Skills: An Administrator's Guide. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational administrators assuming a facilitative and leadership role in the development and implementation of programs to help vocational students acquire and develop transferable skills. The guide is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides examples of the skills and discusses their importance in two broad…

  20. Scopolamine administration modulates muscarinic, nicotinic and NMDA receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Falsafi, Soheil Keihan; Deli, Alev; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration.C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis.Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups.The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

  1. Motivating Vocational Education Personnel to Their Optimum Growth Potential. Competency-Based Administrator Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscarson, David J.; Finch, Curtis R.

    One of a set of seven instructional materials designed for competency-based vocational education administrator education, this module is intended to acquaint the student with the basic underlying theories of motivation and to provide insight into various methods of applying these theories to motivate school personnel. Following introductory…

  2. Glucose administration does not modulate prolactin response to exercise, TRH or haloperidol injection.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Jezová, D

    1994-01-01

    Glucose was found to exert an In vitro regulatory effect on prolactin secretion. Its role in the modulation of stimulated secretion of prolactin in man is, however, not clear. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia on prolactin release, three stimulatory tests with different mechanisms of stimulation were employed. Healthy male subjects served as volunteers during submaximal exercise, TRH test (0.2 mg i.v.) and administration of haloperidol (2 mg i.v.). Glucose (100 g in 400 ml) or an equal volume of water was given 30 min before the tests. Blood for glucose and prolactin analysis was taken via an indwelling catheter. The plasma prolactin concentration increased in response to each of the stimuli applied. However, the prolactin increase during hyperglycaemia did not differ from values obtained in tests performed in normoglycaemia after water administration. These results indicate that prolactin release in healthy man is not modulated by hyperglycaemia. PMID:7711007

  3. A Student Records Manual. Guidelines for the Administration of College Admissions, Financial Aid, and Registration Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual has been prepared to provide operating guidelines for admissions officers, financial aid officers, and registrars. The systems described herein were designed specifically for the predominantly Negro colleges, but the procedures are applicable to other 4-year liberal arts colleges with the following general characteristics: (1) small to…

  4. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Administrator in accordance with this section. (b)(1) A notice of appeal may be filed at any time within 30 days....D. Administrator, and the time for filing motions for reconsideration under § 224.38 has expired... causing the failure to raise the objection. (i) If any party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the...

  5. DICOM-based computer-aided evaluation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Fion W. K.; Law, Maria Y. Y.

    2011-03-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has gained popularity in the treatment of cancers because of its excellent local control with decreased normal tissue complications. Yet, computer planning for the treatment relies heavily on human inspection of resultant radiation dose distribution within the irradiated region of the body. Even for experienced planners, comparison of IMRT plans is definitely cumbersome and not error-free. To solve this problem, a computer-aided decision-support system was built for automatic evaluation of IMRT plans based on the DICOM standard. A DICOM based IMRT plan with DICOM and DICOM-RT objects including CT images, RT Structure Set, RT Dose and RT Plan were retrieved from the Treatment Planning System for programming. Utilizing the MATLAB program language, the decoding-encoding software applications were developed on the basis of the DICOM information object definitions. After tracing the clinical workflow and understanding the needs and expectations from radiation oncologists, a set of routines were written to parse key data items such as isodose curves, region of interests, dose-volume histogram from the DICOM-RT objects. Then graphical user interfaces (GUIs) were created to allow planners to query for parameters such as overdose or underdose areas. A total of 30 IMRT plans were collected in a Department of Clinical Oncology for systematic testing of the DICOM-based decision-support system. Both structural and functional tests were implemented as a major step on the road to software maturity. With promising test results, this decision-support system could represent a major breakthrough in the routine IMRT planning workflow.

  6. Estrogen administration modulates hippocampal GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Valentina; Di Maria, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Lattanzi, Wanda; Biamonte, Filippo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48 h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48 h) upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, cadherin 2 and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy), parvalbumin, Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1 genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV) synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT-treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26594149

  7. The Use of Quantitative Methods as an Aid to Decision Making in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    Three quantitative methods are outlined, with suggestions for application to particular problem areas of educational administration: (1) The Leontief input-output analysis, incorporating a "transaction table" for displaying relationships between economic outputs and inputs, mainly applicable to budget analysis and planning; (2) linear programing,…

  8. RCRA, Superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Superfund administrative improvements/reforms (update February 1998); Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This module includes the following: Administrative Improvements (Round 1) (Enhance Enforcement Fairness and Reduce Transaction Costs; Enhance Cleanup Effectiveness and Consistency; Enhance Public Involvement; Enhance State Role; and On-going Initiatives); Administration Reforms (February 1995 Reforms (Round 2); and October 1995 Reforms (Round 3)); and Summary.

  9. Dawn of antioxidants and immune modulators to stop HIV-progression and boost the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients: An updated comprehensive and critical review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S

    2015-06-01

    In the last two decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Providing the optimum management of HIV/AIDS is a major challenge in the 21st century. Since, HIV-infected persons have an extended lifespan due to the development of effective antiretroviral therapies, malnutrition is becoming central factors of long-term survivors. The nutrition status of AIDS patients has a significant influence on the maintenance and optimal effectiveness of the immune system. Micronutrient therapy in combination with allopathic treatments can extend and improve the quality and quantity of life in individuals infected with HIV/AIDS. HIV infection is thought to lead to augmented oxidative stress which may in turn lead to faster development of HIV disease. Hence, antioxidants might have a significant role in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. An additional approach to treating HIV infection is fortifying the immune response of infected people. Immune modulators help to activate and boost the normal immune function. The present review first describes the boon of antioxidants (especially Vitamin A) and immune modulators (cytolin, resveratrol, murabutide, setarud, tucaresol, AVR118, Immunitin (HE2000), reticulose, and interleukin-7) in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Then, providing a comparatively succinct outline on updated patents study on antioxidants and immune modulators to treat HIV/AIDS will be discussed.

  10. The development and evaluation of a music mnemonic-enhanced multimedia computer-aided science instructional module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Karl Joseph

    "CellSong" is a computer aided instructional (CAI) science module designed to help students recall information about cellular physiology. The program is designed to teach middle school learners the music mnemonic "Cell's Organelles" ((c)1995 Karl Kimmel) in order to facilitate the recall of the targeted biological information. In addition to music, a computer animation is synched to the five minute music file to provide visual reinforcement for the song's lyrics. Two male teachers, from two different rural southern schools ( mTeacher and sTeacher) implemented the "CellSong" module in their classes. Students in mTeacher's class consisted of 12 fifth grade biology students. The other group was initially composed of all of sTeacher's sixth grade science classes ( n = 38). This group was divided into the regular three classes on its second exposure to the program. The students filled out attitude surveys after five exposures to the program. All the sixth grade students took an aided recall tests immediately after the fifth exposure to the program. Thirteen of the sixth graders took the same test (retest) after seven days. Although the test scores were generally low, students who took the retest tended to be able recall the same items that they had recalled the week before. The fifth grade class took one recall test four days after their last exposure to the program and scored higher than the sixth grade from the other school. These students were more favorable in their responses on the attitudinal survey. Students in the fifth grade class (and female students in the sixth grade classes) tended to enjoy the module and music mnemonic strategy. The sixth grade boys reported not enjoying it.

  11. Develop Applications and Proposals for Funding Vocational Education. Module LT-H-3 of Category H--Business and Financial Management. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Nancy F.; And Others

    This module, one in a series of competency-based administrator instructional packages, focuses on a specific competency that vocational education administrators need to be successful in the area of business and financial management. The purpose of the module is to help administrators develop skills in the two most common procedures to obtain state…

  12. Testosterone administration in females modulates moral judgment and patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean; Huang, Pin-Chia; Chen, Chin-Yau; Cheng, Yawei

    2016-10-01

    Morality is defined as prescriptive norms regarding how people should treat one another, and includes concepts of fairness, justice, and rights. One recent study with moral dilemmas suggested that testosterone administration increases utilitarian judgments, which depends on second-to-fourth (2D: 4D) digit ratio, as a proxy of prenatal priming. However, the neural mechanism by which acute testosterone modulates moral reasoning remains to be determined. Using a placebo-controlled within-subject design, the current study examined the neuromodulatory effect of testosterone in young females by combining moral dilemmas, 2D: 4D, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and subjective ratings of morally laden scenarios. Results showed that testosterone administration elicited more utilitarian responses to evitable dilemmas. The high 2D: 4D group scored more punishments for moral evaluation, whereas the low 2D: 4D group did the opposite. The activity in the amygdala, anterior insular cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) was increased when participants evaluated morally unorthodox actions (intentional harm). The activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporoparietal junction (pSTS/TPJ) to accidental harm was decreased, specific to the high 2D: 4D group. The functional connectivity between the amygdala and dlPFC was reduced. The activity in the pSTS/TPJ to perceived agency predicted utilitarian responses to evitable dilemmas. The findings demonstrate the acute effect of testosterone on neural responses associated with moral judgment, and provide evidence to support that prenatal sex-hormones priming could be important for early neurodevelopment, which plays a crucial role in the neural and behavioral manifestations of testosterone on adult moral reasoning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3417-3430, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Testosterone administration in females modulates moral judgment and patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean; Huang, Pin-Chia; Chen, Chin-Yau; Cheng, Yawei

    2016-10-01

    Morality is defined as prescriptive norms regarding how people should treat one another, and includes concepts of fairness, justice, and rights. One recent study with moral dilemmas suggested that testosterone administration increases utilitarian judgments, which depends on second-to-fourth (2D: 4D) digit ratio, as a proxy of prenatal priming. However, the neural mechanism by which acute testosterone modulates moral reasoning remains to be determined. Using a placebo-controlled within-subject design, the current study examined the neuromodulatory effect of testosterone in young females by combining moral dilemmas, 2D: 4D, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and subjective ratings of morally laden scenarios. Results showed that testosterone administration elicited more utilitarian responses to evitable dilemmas. The high 2D: 4D group scored more punishments for moral evaluation, whereas the low 2D: 4D group did the opposite. The activity in the amygdala, anterior insular cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) was increased when participants evaluated morally unorthodox actions (intentional harm). The activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporoparietal junction (pSTS/TPJ) to accidental harm was decreased, specific to the high 2D: 4D group. The functional connectivity between the amygdala and dlPFC was reduced. The activity in the pSTS/TPJ to perceived agency predicted utilitarian responses to evitable dilemmas. The findings demonstrate the acute effect of testosterone on neural responses associated with moral judgment, and provide evidence to support that prenatal sex-hormones priming could be important for early neurodevelopment, which plays a crucial role in the neural and behavioral manifestations of testosterone on adult moral reasoning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3417-3430, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145084

  14. Modulation transfer functions of low-vision AIDS: comparison with spatial-frequency requirements in low vision.

    PubMed

    Leat, S J; Rumney, N J

    1992-07-01

    Modulation transfer functions (MTF's) of 26 low-vision aids (LVA's) were measured by using the EROS solid-state system. The object and image distances of the LVA's were as in normal usage by a patient. The contrast thresholds of patients who use LVA's were also measured. All LVA's measured have more than adequate contrast transmission at the low frequencies that are important for these subjects, but many have wasted transmission at medium and high frequencies. LVA's with poorer high-frequency MTF can be used successfully by low-vision patients. It is suggested that in future design high resolution should be sacrificed for a greater lens diameter while maintaining a high MTF at low spatial frequencies.

  15. Optimizing the rotating point spread function by SLM aided spiral phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baránek, M.; Bouchal, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the vortex point spread function (PSF) whose shape and the rotation sensitivity to defocusing can be controlled by a phase-only modulation implemented in the spatial or frequency domains. Rotational effects are studied in detail as a result of the spiral modulation carried out in discrete radial and azimuthal sections with different topological charges. As the main result, a direct connection between properties of the PSF and the parameters of the spiral mask is found and subsequently used for an optimal shaping of the PSF and control of its defocusing rotation rate. Experiments on the PSF rotation verify a good agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrate potential of the method for applications in microscopy, tracking of particles and 3D imaging.

  16. Central administration of GPR55 receptor agonist and antagonist modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Abbasali; Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Akbar; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2015-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been proposed as an atypical cannabinoid receptor, which is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some synthetic or endogenous cannabinoid molecules. The exact role of GPR55 receptors in the central nervous system especially in anxiety needs to be evaluated. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of agonist and antagonist of GPR55 receptor on anxiety-related behaviors in rats were investigated. Here, O-1602 (GPR55 agonist) at the doses of 0.2, 1, and 5 μg/rat increased %OAT and %OAE but not the locomotor activity, showing an anxiolytic response, whereas i.c.v. injection of ML193 (GPR55 antagonist) at the doses of 0.1 and 1 μg/rat increased anxiety-like behaviors while causing locomotor impairment. The antagonistic effect of ML193 on the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602 was also evaluated. The results showed that ML193 decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602. Based on these results, it may be concluded that central GPR55 may have a role in modulation of anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of these receptors in anxiety.

  17. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Full-Duplex Airborne Ultrasonic Data Communication Using a Pilot-Aided QAM-OFDM Modulation Scheme.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wentao; Wright, William M D

    2016-08-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been extensively used in a variety of broadband digital wireless communications applications because of its high bandwidth utilization efficiency and effective immunity to multipath distortion. This paper has investigated quadrature amplitude modulation and OFDM methods in air-coupled ultrasonic communication, using broadband capacitive ultrasonic transducers with high- k dielectric layers. OFDM phase noise was discussed and corrected using a pilot-aided estimation algorithm. The overall system data rate achieved was up to 400 kb/s with a spectral efficiency of 2 b/s/Hz. An ultrasonic propagation model for signal prediction considered atmospheric absorption of sound in air, beam divergence, and transducer frequency response. The simulations were compared with the experimental results, and good agreement was found between the two. Two-way communication through air was also implemented successfully by applying three-way handshaking initialization and an adaptive modulation scheme with variable data rates depending on the transmission distance, estimated using received signal strength indication measurement. It was shown that the error-free transmission range could be extended up to 2.5 m using different system transfer rates from 400 kb/s down to 100 kb/s. In full-duplex transmission mode, the overall error-free system data rate achieved was 0.8 Mb/s up to 1.5 m.

  19. New Structural-Dynamics Module for Offshore Multimember Substructures within the Wind Turbine Computer-Aided Engineering Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-08-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of land-based and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent upgrades made to FAST to enable loads simulations of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multimember support structures (e.g., jackets and tripods, which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters). The main theory and strategies for the implementation of the multimember substructure dynamics module (SubDyn) within the new FAST modularization framework are introduced. SubDyn relies on two main engineering schematizations: 1) a linear frame finite-element beam (LFEB) model and 2) a dynamics system reduction via Craig-Bampton's method. A jacket support structure and an offshore system consisting of a turbine atop a jacket substructure were simulated to test the SubDyn module and to preliminarily assess results against results from a commercial finite-element code.

  20. Full-Duplex Airborne Ultrasonic Data Communication Using a Pilot-Aided QAM-OFDM Modulation Scheme.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wentao; Wright, William M D

    2016-08-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been extensively used in a variety of broadband digital wireless communications applications because of its high bandwidth utilization efficiency and effective immunity to multipath distortion. This paper has investigated quadrature amplitude modulation and OFDM methods in air-coupled ultrasonic communication, using broadband capacitive ultrasonic transducers with high- k dielectric layers. OFDM phase noise was discussed and corrected using a pilot-aided estimation algorithm. The overall system data rate achieved was up to 400 kb/s with a spectral efficiency of 2 b/s/Hz. An ultrasonic propagation model for signal prediction considered atmospheric absorption of sound in air, beam divergence, and transducer frequency response. The simulations were compared with the experimental results, and good agreement was found between the two. Two-way communication through air was also implemented successfully by applying three-way handshaking initialization and an adaptive modulation scheme with variable data rates depending on the transmission distance, estimated using received signal strength indication measurement. It was shown that the error-free transmission range could be extended up to 2.5 m using different system transfer rates from 400 kb/s down to 100 kb/s. In full-duplex transmission mode, the overall error-free system data rate achieved was 0.8 Mb/s up to 1.5 m. PMID:27214897

  1. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  2. Differential Modulation of Thresholds for Intracranial Self-Stimulation by mGlu5 Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulators: Implications for Effects on Drug Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, Richard M.; Watterson, Lucas R.; Johnson, Meagan A.; Olive, M. Foster

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5) receptor alters various addiction related behaviors such as drug self-administration and the extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the effects of pharmacological modulation of mGlu5 receptors on brain reward function have not been widely investigated. We examined the effects of acute administration of positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) on brain reward function by assessing thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). In addition, when acute effects were observed, we examined changes in ICSS thresholds following repeated administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and trained to respond for ICSS, followed by assessment of effects of mGlu5 ligands on ICSS thresholds using a discrete trials current–intensity threshold determination procedure. Acute administration of the selective mGlu5 NAMs MTEP (0, 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) and fenobam (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased ICSS thresholds (∼70% at the highest dose tested), suggesting a deficit in brain reward function. Acute administration of the mGlu5 PAMs CDPPB (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or ADX47273 (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was without effect at any dose tested. When administered once daily for five consecutive days, the development of tolerance to the ability of threshold-elevating doses of MTEP and fenobam to increase ICSS thresholds was observed. We conclude that mGlu5 PAMs and NAMs differentially affect brain reward function, and that tolerance to the ability of mGlu5 NAMs to reduce brain reward function develops with repeated administration. These brain reward deficits should be taken into consideration when interpreting acute effects of mGlu5 NAMs on drug self-administration, and repeated administration of these ligands may be an effective method to reduce these deficits. PMID

  3. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Veterans' Administration. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Hospitals and Health Care of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    This document presents witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the role of the Veterans' Administration (VA) in combating AIDS. Opening statements are included from Representatives G. V. Montgomery, J. Roy Rowland, Joseph P. Kennedy, II,…

  4. Activities of biotransformation enzymes in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and their modulation by in vivo administration of mebendazole and flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Savlík, M; Polácková, L; Szotáková, B; Lamka, J; Velík, J; Skálová, L

    2007-08-01

    Basal activities of certain pheasant hepatic and intestinal biotransformation enzymes and modulation of their activities by anthelmintics flubendazole (FLBZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) were investigated in subcellular fractions that were prepared from liver and small intestine of control and FLBZ or MBZ treated birds. Several oxidation, reduction and conjugation enzyme activities were assessed. In the liver, treatment of pheasants by FLBZ or MBZ caused very slight or no changes in monooxygenase activities and conjugation enzymes. More significative changes were detected in small intestine. Metyrapone and daunorubicin reductase activities were increased by both substances in the liver. This is the first evidence that certain benzimidazoles modulate reductases of carbonyl group. With respect to the relatively slight extent of the changes caused by FLBZ or MBZ we can assume that repeated administration of therapeutic doses of both FLBZ and MBZ has probably no serious influence on pheasant biotransformation enzyme system.

  5. Reliability of telephone administration of the PedsQL Generic Quality of Life Inventory and Neuromuscular Module in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

    PubMed

    Dunaway, Sally; Montes, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Megan; Battista, Vanessa; Koo, Benjamin; Marra, Jonathan; De Vivo, Darryl C; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T; Kaufmann, Petra

    2010-03-01

    Clinical research visits are challenging for people with SMA because of limited mobility and intercurrent illnesses. Missing data threaten the validity of research results. Obtaining outcomes remotely would represent a solution. To evaluate reliability of telephone administration of the PedsQL Pediatric Generic Core Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (Generic) and Neuromuscular Module 3.0 (NM) in SMA, we recruited 21 participants of a Natural History Study for telephone administration of both modules no more than 7 days before or after an in-person study visit. We found excellent reliability between telephone and in-person administration of both modules with the NM slightly better than the Generic. Reliability of the child and parent forms was similar. We concluded that both modules can be administered reliably over the telephone to SMA patients and caregivers, expanding the utility of these tools in clinical trials. Notably, telephone administration is reliable in children as young as 8 years.

  6. Post-training, but not post-reactivation, administration of amphetamine and anisomycin modulates Pavlovian conditioned approach.

    PubMed

    Blaiss, Cory A; Janak, Patricia H

    2007-05-01

    The psychostimulant, amphetamine (AMPH), and the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI), have been shown to modulate the consolidation and reconsolidation of several types of learning. To determine whether Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) is modulated in a similar manner, we examined the effects of post-training and post-reactivation administration of both AMPH and ANI on memory for PCA. Male Long-Evans rats received PCA training sessions during which presentations of a CS+ were followed by sucrose delivery. AMPH (1 mg/kg, s.c.) injected immediately but not 6h after the first training session enhanced PCA behavior. ANI (150 mg/kg, s.c.) injected immediately but not 3h after the first training session impaired PCA behavior. This impairment was not due to the development of a conditioned taste aversion. To examine whether PCA can also be modulated by post-reactivation administration of AMPH and ANI, rats were given an injection of AMPH, ANI, or vehicle immediately after a memory reactivation session. Upon testing, the behavior of both the AMPH- and the ANI-treated rats was unaffected. This result remained consistent when the experiment was repeated with changes to various behavioral parameters (i.e., amount of training, length of memory reactivation). These findings indicate that AMPH and ANI act during the post-training but not the post-reactivation period to enhance and impair, respectively, the learning of PCA. This suggests that the consolidation of PCA can be modulated in a manner comparable to other types of learned associations, but once learned, the memory appears to be relatively robust and stable.

  7. Post-training, but not Post-reactivation, Administration of Amphetamine and Anisomycin Modulates Pavlovian Conditioned Approach

    PubMed Central

    Blaiss, Cory A.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2007-01-01

    The psychostimulant, amphetamine (AMPH), and the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI), have been shown to modulate the consolidation and reconsolidation of several types of learning. To determine whether Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) is modulated in a similar manner, we examined the effects of post-training and post-reactivation administration of both AMPH and ANI on memory for PCA. Male Long-Evans rats received PCA training sessions during which presentations of a CS+ were followed by sucrose delivery. AMPH (1 mg/kg, s.c.) injected immediately but not 6 hrs after the first training session enhanced PCA behavior. ANI (150 mg/kg, s.c.) injected immediately but not 3 hrs after the first training session impaired PCA behavior. This impairment was not due to the development of a conditioned taste aversion. To examine whether PCA can also be modulated by post-reactivation administration of AMPH and ANI, rats were given an injection of AMPH, ANI, or vehicle immediately after a memory reactivation session. Upon testing, the behavior of both the AMPH- and the ANI-treated rats was unaffected. This result remained consistent when the experiment was repeated with changes to various behavioral parameters (i.e. amount of training, length of memory reactivation). These findings indicate that AMPH and ANI act during the post-training but not the post-reactivation period to enhance and impair, respectively, the learning of PCA. This suggests that the consolidation of PCA can be modulated in a manner comparable to other types of learned associations, but once learned, the memory appears to be relatively robust and stable. PMID:17258476

  8. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis defines a conserved energetic hotspot in the CaVα1 AID-CaVβ interaction site that is critical for channel modulation

    PubMed Central

    Van Petegem, Filip; Duderstadt, Karl E.; Clark, Kimberly A.; Wang, Michelle; Minor, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) are large, multisubunit complexes that control cellular calcium entry. CaV pore-forming (CaVα1) and cytoplasmic (CaVβ) subunits associate through a high-affinity interaction between the CaVα1 α-interaction domain (AID) and CaVβ α-binding pocket (ABP). Here, we analyze AID-ABP interaction thermodynamics using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). We find that commensurate with their strong sequence similarity, all CaV1 and CaV2 AID peptides bind CaVβ with similar nanomolar affinities. Although the AID-ABP interface encompasses twenty-four sidechains, alanine-scanning mutagenesis reveals that the binding energy is focused in two complementary hotspots comprising four deeply-conserved residues. Electrophysiological experiments show that hotspot interaction disruption prevents trafficking and functional modulation of CaV1.2 by CaVβ. Together, the data support the primacy of the AID-ABP interface for CaVα1-CaVβ association, underscore the idea that hotspots dominate protein-protein interaction affinities, and uncover a target for strategies to control cellular excitability by blocking CaVα1-CaVβ complex formation. PMID:18275819

  9. Development of a teaching module for parenteral drug administration and objective structured practical examination stations in pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Vasudha; Upadhye, Prachitee; Ram, Pradhum; Menezes, Ritesh G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Safe parenteral drug administration includes preparation of safe medication for administration. Training medical students is crucial to minimize medication administration errors. The study aims to develop a module to teach drug preparation skills and to develop objective structured practical examination (OSPE) stations to assess these skills. Students’ perceptions regarding the module were also assessed. Materials and Methods: A module was developed to teach following skills to 2nd year medical students: Aspiration of a drug from the ampule, aspiration of the drug from the vial, aspiration of the drug in powdered form from vial (reconstitution), and setting up an intravenous (IV) infusion. A randomized case control study design was used to establish the validity of OSPE stations. Student volunteers were grouped into case (n = 20) and control groups (n = 20) by simple randomization. The test group watched videos of skills and received demonstration of skills and a practice session before OSPE, whereas the control group watched videos before the OSPE and received demonstration and a practice session only after the OSPE. Each student was assessed by two faculty members during OSPE using a validated checklist. Mean OSPE scores of control and test groups were compared using independent samples t-test. Interrater reliability and concurrent validity of stations were analyzed using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson correlation, respectively. Students’ responses were expressed as median and interquartile range. Results: The response rate in the questionnaire was 100%. Significant difference between mean scores (P < 0.05) of test and control groups revealed fulfillment of construct validity of OSPE stations. Interrater reliability (ICC > 0.7) and concurrent validity (r value > 7) of all the stations was high. Perceptions revealed acceptability of module and OSPE stations by students (median 4, scale 1-5). Conclusions: A module to teach drug

  10. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  11. Modulation of methamphetamine's locomotor stimulation and self-administration by JHW 007, an atypical dopamine reuptake blocker.

    PubMed

    Ferragud, A; Velázquez-Sánchez, C; Canales, J J

    2014-05-15

    JHW 007 [N-(n-butil)-3α-[bis(4'-fluorophenil)methoxi]-tropane] belongs to the family of N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs, atypical dopamine transporter (DAT) blockers that are able to strongly modulate cocaine- and amphetamine-related behavior. In the present study, we tested in rats the ability of JHW 007 to alter the stimulant and reinforcing properties of methamphetamine (METH) using locomotor activity, fixed ratio and progressive ratio (PR) self-administration tests. The results showed that JHW 007 attenuated METH-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and had no stimulant effects when administered alone. The BZT analog, given as a pre-treatment, attenuated METH self-administration without affecting responding for sucrose. In the PR tests JHW 007 produced an increase of the breaking point achieved for both METH- and sucrose self-administration, suggesting that the ability of the BZT analog to reduce self-administration may be linked to its ability to enhance the reinforcing properties of METH. Taken together, these data suggest that DAT inhibition with a high affinity blocker such as JHW 007 can exert differential effects on METH-associated behaviors, reducing METH-induced motor stimulation but augmenting METH׳s reinforcing effects.

  12. Teaching Modules to Build HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Safer Sex Skills among African-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken a tremendous toll on the population of the United States. College students, including African-Americans aged 13-24 years, across the nation are susceptible to contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS as they participate in unsafe sex practices. The purpose of this article is to provide teaching…

  13. Modulation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence by co-administration of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaee, Amirhossein; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Naghizadeh, Bahareh

    2015-10-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are widely used in the management of different diseases beyond their primary indication for lowering cholesterol. Previous studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of simvastatin in different animal models. In the present study, we examined the effects of simvastatin (30, 60, 100 and 300mg/kg, p.o.) on the development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice. For the induction of morphine tolerance and dependence, mice were twice daily treated with morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 consecutive days. Tolerance was evaluated by the hot-plate test and physical dependence by naloxone challenge, on the sixth day. The results showed that oral administration of simvastatin produced antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent way. Co-administration of simvastatin with morphine did not affect the acute morphine-induced analgesia (10mg/kg, s.c.). However, repeated co-administration of simvastatin with morphine significantly attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine and inhibited the naloxone (5mg/kg, s.c.)-precipitated withdrawal signs (jumping and body weight loss). Also, simvastatin at doses of 100 and 300mg/kg attenuated the expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence. These data indicated that, while simvastatin can alleviate both development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance, it cannot enhance morphine-induced antinociception. Taken together, simvastatin may be used as an adjutant therapeutic agent in combination with morphine and or other opioids in patients with severe chronic pain.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of R 82913 in AIDS patients: a phase I dose-finding study of oral administration compared with intravenous infusion.

    PubMed Central

    De Wit, S; Hermans, P; Sommereijns, B; O'Doherty, E; Westenborghs, R; van de Velde, V; Cauwenbergh, G F; Clumeck, N

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oral administration of R 82913, or tetrahydroimidazol [4,5,1-jk]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one or -thione (TIBO), was compared with those of intravenous administration in five AIDS patients. TIBO was administered as a single daily 1-h infusion of 100 mg for 29 days and orally as a single daily dose for 14 days with three consecutive regimens of 100, 200, and 100 mg with probenecid (1 g) daily. Each cycle was followed by a wash-out period. Oral bioavailability of TIBO appears to be low and is not improved by the adjunction of probenecid. Trough levels obtained with oral administration systematically remained far below the 90% inhibitory concentration of TIBO against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Tolerance of TIBO was excellent. No clinical efficacy could be demonstrated. p24 antigenemia decreased significantly in one patient under intravenous therapy. TIBO derivatives are promising anti-HIV-1 agents in vitro, but improvement of oral bioavailability is needed before implementation of long-term efficacy and tolerability studies. Moreover, rapid emergence of resistance, which has been recently documented, constitutes a major problem with most nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PMID:1482134

  15. Modulation of rodent spinal cord radiation tolerance by administration of platelet-derived growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Andratschke, Nicolaus H.; Nieder, Carsten M.D. . E-mail: cnied@hotmail.com; Price, Roger E.; Rivera, Belinda; Tucker, Susan L.; Ang, K.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) for ameliorating radiation myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord in a rodent model. Methods and materials: After developing the technique for cannulation of the basal cistern, initial animal experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of intrathecal continuous infusion of PDGF in a model of cervical spinal cord irradiation in adult Fisher F-344 rats and to determine the most effective dose level of PDGF. Subsequently, the dose-modification factor was determined in a larger group of rats. Irradiation was given in 2 fractions (16 Gy followed by 14-24 Gy) and animals were examined for the development of paresis. Results: The initial dose-finding experiment revealed significant differences in the incidence of radiation myelopathy (100% in saline-treated control rats, 25% with the most effective dose of PDGF, up to 100% with less effective doses). The most effective dose of PDGF was 0.014 {mu}g per day. Subsequent experiments revealed a median effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of 35.6 Gy (95% confidence interval, 34.7-36.5 Gy) for animals receiving this dose of PDGF in contrast to 33.8 Gy (33.4-34.3 Gy) for the control group (p = 0.003). The dose-modification factor obtained with this dose of PDGF was 1.05. Conclusions: Intrathecal administration of PDGF concomitant to irradiation of the cervical spinal cord in rats was feasible. Treatment with PDGF significantly increased the tolerance of the spinal cord. The PDGF experiments should be viewed as a proof of principle that brief therapeutic intervention in the earliest phase of damage induction can reduce late effects in the spinal cord. They form the basis for further studies of growth factor administration in this particular model.

  16. Intratracheal Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulates Tachykinin System, Suppresses Airway Remodeling and Reduces Airway Hyperresponsiveness in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Spaziano, Giuseppe; Piegari, Elena; Matteis, Maria; Cappetta, Donato; Esposito, Grazia; Russo, Rosa; Tartaglione, Gioia; De Palma, Raffaele; Rossi, Francesco; D’Agostino, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for new options for chronic lung diseases promotes the research on stem cells for lung repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate lung inflammation, but the data on cellular processes involved in early airway remodeling and the potential involvement of neuropeptides are scarce. Objectives To elucidate the mechanisms by which local administration of MSCs interferes with pathophysiological features of airway hyperresponsiveness in an animal model. Methods GFP-tagged mouse MSCs were intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin mouse model with subsequent functional tests, the analysis of cytokine levels, neuropeptide expression and histological evaluation of MSCs fate and airway pathology. Additionally, MSCs were exposed to pro-inflammatory factors in vitro. Results Functional improvement was observed after MSC administration. Although MSCs did not adopt lung cell phenotypes, cell therapy positively affected airway remodeling reducing the hyperplastic phase of the gain in bronchial smooth muscle mass, decreasing the proliferation of epithelium in which mucus metaplasia was also lowered. Decrease of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and increase of interleukin-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage was also observed. Exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines, MSCs upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Moreover, asthma-related in vivo upregulation of pro-inflammatory neurokinin 1 and neurokinin 2 receptors was counteracted by MSCs that also determined a partial restoration of VIP, a neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion Intratracheally administered MSCs positively modulate airway remodeling, reduce inflammation and improve function, demonstrating their ability to promote tissue homeostasis in the course of experimental allergic asthma. Because of a limited tissue retention, the functional impact of MSCs may be attributed to their immunomodulatory response combined with the interference of neuropeptide

  17. Heme biosynthesis modulation via δ-aminolevulinic acid administration attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Alhawaj, Raed; Patel, Dhara; Kelly, Melissa R.; Sun, Dong

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how heme biosynthesis modulation with δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) potentially functions to prevent 21-day hypoxia (10% oxygen)-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice and the effects of 24-h organoid culture with bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) with the hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension mediator endothelin-1 (ET-1), with a focus on changes in superoxide and regulation of micro-RNA 204 (miR204) expression by src kinase phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). The treatment of mice with ALA attenuated pulmonary hypertension (assessed through echo Doppler flow of the pulmonary valve, and direct measurements of right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy), increases in pulmonary arterial superoxide (detected by lucigenin), and decreases in lung miR204 and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression. ALA treatment of BPA attenuated ET-1-induced increases in mitochondrial superoxide (detected by MitoSox), STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreases in miR204 and SOD2 expression. Because ALA increases BPA protoporphyrin IX (a stimulator of guanylate cyclase) and cGMP-mediated protein kinase G (PKG) activity, the effects of the PKG activator 8-bromo-cGMP were examined and found to also attenuate the ET-1-induced increase in superoxide. ET-1 increased superoxide production and the detection of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, suggesting oxidant conditions might impair heme biosynthesis by ferrochelatase. However, chronic hypoxia actually increased ferrochelatase activity in mouse pulmonary arteries. Thus, a reversal of factors increasing mitochondrial superoxide and oxidant effects that potentially influence remodeling signaling related to miR204 expression and perhaps iron availability needed for the biosynthesis of heme by the ferrochelatase reaction could be factors in the beneficial actions of ALA in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25659899

  18. Investigation of photodynamic therapy optimization for port wine stain using modulation of photosensitizer administration methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zuo, Zhaohui; Liao, Xiaohua; Gu, Ying; Qiu, Haixia; Zeng, Jing

    2013-12-01

    To raise photosensitizer concentration level during the photodynamic therapy process, two new methods of photosensitizer administration were investigated. The first method involves the slow intravenous injection of photosensitizer throughout the first 15 min of irradiation, and the second method involves 30 min fomentation before photosensitizer injection and irradiation. The fluorescence spectra of port wine stain skin were monitored and the therapeutic effect correlated index was calculated with a previously published spectral algorithm. Thirty cases were divided into group A (slow injection of photosensitizer during the first 15 min), group B (fomentation), and group C (control group, traditional injection method), with 10 cases in each group. To analyze the effect of these two new methods, the change of therapeutic effect correlated index values of two photodynamic therapy sessions for each patient were calculated, and the photodynamic therapy outcome was compared. The results showed that the change of therapeutic effect correlated index in group A was slightly more remarkable than that in the control group. The change of therapeutic effect correlated index in group B was similar to that in the control group. Slow injection of photosensitizer during photodynamic therapy has a potential to increase photosensitizer concentration level during photodynamic therapy. However, fomentation before photodynamic therapy has no such potential. There is a need for new methods to be attempted.

  19. The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration

    PubMed Central

    Akmal, Muslim; Siregar, Tongku Nizwan; Wahyuni, Sri; Hamny; Nasution, Mustafa Kamal; Indriati, Wiwik; Panjaitan, Budianto; Aliza, Dwinna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of seminal vesicle extract on cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM) expression in rat Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: This study examined the expression of CREM on 20 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) at 4 months of age, weighing 250-300 g. The rats were divided into four groups: K0, KP1, KP2, and KP3. K0 group was injected with 0.2 ml normal saline; KP1 was injected with 25 mg cloprostenol (Prostavet C, Virbac S. A); KP2 and KP3 were injected with 0.2 and 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract, respectively. The treatments were conducted 5 times within 12-day interval. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; then, the testicles were necropsied and processed for histology observation using immunohistochemistry staining. Results: CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells was not altered by the administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract. Conclusion: The administration of seminal vesicle extract is unable to increase CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells. PMID:27733803

  20. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

    2002-07-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.

  1. A Web-Based Computer-Aided Learning Module for an Anatomy Course Using Open Source Image Mapping Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Renee E.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided learning (CAL) is used increasingly to teach anatomy in post-secondary programs. Studies show that augmentation of traditional cadaver dissection and model examination by CAL can be associated with positive student learning outcomes. In order to reduce costs associated with the purchase of skeletons and models and to encourage study…

  2. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS.

  3. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25086143

  4. Differential modulation of antipredator defensive behavior in Swiss-Webster mice following acute or chronic administration of imipramine and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Griebel, G; Blanchard, D C; Agnes, R S; Blanchard, R J

    1995-07-01

    The Mouse Defense Test Battery (MDTB) has been designed to assess defensive reactions in Swiss-Webster mice to situations associated with a natural predator, the rat. Primary measures taken before, during and after predator confrontation comprise escape attempts, predator assessment, defensive attack and flight. Previous reports from this laboratory have shown that the panic-promoting drug yohimbine potentiated flight behavior, while long-term treatment with the panicolytic agent alprazolam reduced this response. In order to evaluate further the possibility that the MDTB may represent an effective animal model of panic attacks, the present study investigated the behavioral effect of imipramine and fluoxetine, two serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) known to alleviate panic symptoms when given on a repeated basis. Both drugs were administered acutely and chronically (one daily IP injection for 21 days) at 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg. Our results showed that a single dose of imipramine or fluoxetine strongly potentiated flight reactions in response to an approaching predator and increased defensive attack toward the rat. This was in contrast to chronic treatment with each drug which dramatically decreased flight responses and defensive attack behaviors. In addition, long-term administration with both SRIs produced a reliable attenuation of predator assessment activities. Taken together, these findings suggest an acute anxiogenic-like effect of imipramine and fluoxetine followed by a fear/anxiety reducing effect after repeated administrations. These results support clinical observations revealing an acute anxiogenic effect of SRIs followed by an anxiolytic and/or panicolytic effect after chronic use, and support previous results suggesting that the MDTB may be useful for the investigation of panic-modulating agents.

  5. Intramuscular administration of a synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide modulates functional responses of neutrophils of neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noah D; Bourquin, Jessica R; Bordin, Angela I; Kuskie, Kyle R; Brake, Courtney N; Weaver, Kaytee B; Liu, Mei; Felippe, M Julia B; Kogut, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in protecting against infection. Foals have age-dependent deficiencies in neutrophil function that may contribute to their predisposition to infection. Thus, we investigated the ability of a CpG-ODN formulated with Emulsigen to modulate functional responses of neutrophils in neonatal foals. Eighteen foals were randomly assigned to receive either a CpG-ODN with Emulsigen (N = 9) or saline intramuscularly at ages 1 and 7 days. At ages 1, 3, 9, 14, and 28, blood was collected and neutrophils were isolated from each foal. Neutrophils were assessed for basal and Rhodococcus equi-stimulated mRNA expression of the cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-8 using real-time PCR, degranulation by quantifying the amount of β-D glucuronidase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using flow cytometry. In vivo administration of the CpG-ODN formulation on days 1 and 7 resulted in significantly (P<0.05) increased IFN-γ mRNA expression by foal neutrophils on days 3, 9, and 14. Degranulation was significantly (P<0.05) lower for foals in the CpG-ODN-treated group than the control group at days 3 and 14, but not at other days. No effect of treatment on ROS generation was detected. These results indicate that CpG-ODN administration to foals might improve innate and adaptive immune responses that could protect foals against infectious diseases and possibly improve responses to vaccination. PMID:25333660

  6. Intramuscular Administration of a Synthetic CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotide Modulates Functional Responses of Neutrophils of Neonatal Foals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Noah D.; Bourquin, Jessica R.; Bordin, Angela I.; Kuskie, Kyle R.; Brake, Courtney N.; Weaver, Kaytee B.; Liu, Mei; Felippe, M. Julia B.; Kogut, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in protecting against infection. Foals have age-dependent deficiencies in neutrophil function that may contribute to their predisposition to infection. Thus, we investigated the ability of a CpG-ODN formulated with Emulsigen to modulate functional responses of neutrophils in neonatal foals. Eighteen foals were randomly assigned to receive either a CpG-ODN with Emulsigen (N = 9) or saline intramuscularly at ages 1 and 7 days. At ages 1, 3, 9, 14, and 28, blood was collected and neutrophils were isolated from each foal. Neutrophils were assessed for basal and Rhodococcus equi-stimulated mRNA expression of the cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-8 using real-time PCR, degranulation by quantifying the amount of β-D glucuronidase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using flow cytometry. In vivo administration of the CpG-ODN formulation on days 1 and 7 resulted in significantly (P<0.05) increased IFN-γ mRNA expression by foal neutrophils on days 3, 9, and 14. Degranulation was significantly (P<0.05) lower for foals in the CpG-ODN-treated group than the control group at days 3 and 14, but not at other days. No effect of treatment on ROS generation was detected. These results indicate that CpG-ODN administration to foals might improve innate and adaptive immune responses that could protect foals against infectious diseases and possibly improve responses to vaccination. PMID:25333660

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitors upregulate B cell microRNAs that silence AID and Blimp-1 expression for epigenetic modulation of antibody and autoantibody responses.

    PubMed

    White, Clayton A; Pone, Egest J; Lam, Tonika; Tat, Connie; Hayama, Ken L; Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2014-12-15

    Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), which require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), and plasma cell differentiation, which requires B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), are critical for the generation of class-switched and hypermutated (mature) Ab and autoantibody responses. We show that histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and butyrate dampened AICDA/Aicda (AID) and PRDM1/Prdm1 (Blimp-1) mRNAs by upregulating miR-155, miR-181b, and miR-361 to silence AICDA/Aicda, and miR-23b, miR-30a, and miR-125b to silence PRDM1/Prdm1, in human and mouse B cells. This led to downregulation of AID, Blimp-1, and X-box binding protein 1, thereby inhibiting CSR, SHM, and plasma cell differentiation without altering B cell viability or proliferation. The selectivity of histone deacetylase inhibitor-mediated silencing of AICDA/Aicda and PRDM1/Prdm1 was emphasized by unchanged expression of HoxC4 and Irf4 (important inducers/modulators of AICDA/Aicda), Rev1 and Ung (central elements for CSR/SHM), and Bcl6, Bach2, or Pax5 (repressors of PRDM1/Prdm1 expression), as well as unchanged expression of miR-19a/b, miR-20a, and miR-25, which are not known to regulate AICDA/Aicda or PRDM1/Prdm1. Through these B cell-intrinsic epigenetic mechanisms, valproic acid blunted class-switched and hypermutated T-dependent and T-independent Ab responses in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, it decreased class-switched and hypermutated autoantibodies, ameliorated disease, and extended survival in lupus MRL/Fas(lpr/lpr) mice. Our findings outline epigenetic mechanisms that modulate expression of an enzyme (AID) and transcription factors (Blimp-1 and X-box binding protein 1) that are critical to the B cell differentiation processes that underpin Ab and autoantibody responses. They also provide therapeutic proof-of-principle in autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity.

  8. Manage the Purchase of Equipment, Supplies, and Insurance. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series. Leadership and Training Series No. 58B-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, David R.; And Others

    Designed to provide pre- and inservice vocational education administrators with the skills necessary to manage purchase of equipment, supplies, and insurance, this competency-based learning module consists of an introduction and four sequential learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an overview with objectives and required and…

  9. Oral administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum for modulating microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Gui; Xu, Hai-Bo; Wei, Hua; Zeng, Zhe-Ling; Xu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Bifidobacteria are generally acknowledged as major gut microflora used as probiotics, which promote human health. In this study, the effects of the administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum on modulating gastrointestinal (GI) tract microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in BALB/c mice were investigated. Results showed that B. bifidum can significantly improve the ecosystem of the GI tract by increasing the amount of probiotics and reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria, as measured by plate count and real-time PCR. After exposure to simulated GI tract conditions, the growth of gut microflora in the B. bifidum group was higher than that in the control group when incubated for 12 h in MRS or nutrient broth adjusted to pH 2.0 or 3.0 or in the presence of a concentration of bile salt (0.45% m/v). The blood biochemical index was examined, and the physiological effect of the cell-free extract of gut microflora was evaluated by measuring the activity of various enzymes, including α-glucosidases, esterase, and lactate dehydrogenase. This study suggested that a B. bifidum strain can stabilize blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels in serum, and improve metabolic activity. Moreover, B. bifidum was a promising enhancer of microbial diversity in mouse intestine and played a vital role in human physiological processes, which can benefit the health of a host. PMID:25630400

  10. Oral administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum for modulating microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Gui; Xu, Hai-Bo; Wei, Hua; Zeng, Zhe-Ling; Xu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Bifidobacteria are generally acknowledged as major gut microflora used as probiotics, which promote human health. In this study, the effects of the administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum on modulating gastrointestinal (GI) tract microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in BALB/c mice were investigated. Results showed that B. bifidum can significantly improve the ecosystem of the GI tract by increasing the amount of probiotics and reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria, as measured by plate count and real-time PCR. After exposure to simulated GI tract conditions, the growth of gut microflora in the B. bifidum group was higher than that in the control group when incubated for 12 h in MRS or nutrient broth adjusted to pH 2.0 or 3.0 or in the presence of a concentration of bile salt (0.45% m/v). The blood biochemical index was examined, and the physiological effect of the cell-free extract of gut microflora was evaluated by measuring the activity of various enzymes, including α-glucosidases, esterase, and lactate dehydrogenase. This study suggested that a B. bifidum strain can stabilize blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels in serum, and improve metabolic activity. Moreover, B. bifidum was a promising enhancer of microbial diversity in mouse intestine and played a vital role in human physiological processes, which can benefit the health of a host.

  11. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  12. Modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 hepatic enzymes after oral administration of Chios mastic gum to male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Katsanou, Efrosini S; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG), a resin derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, is known since ancient times for its pharmacological activities. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes are among the most involved in the biotransformation of chemicals and the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Previous studies referring to the modulation of these enzymes by CMG have revealed findings of unclear biological and toxicological significance. For this purpose, the modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes in the liver of male Wistar rats following oral administration of CMG extract (CMGE), at the levels of mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity, was compared to respective enzyme modulation following oral administration of a well-known bioactive natural product, caffeine, as control compound known to involve hepatic enzymes in its metabolism. mRNA levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and their relative quantification was calculated. CYP1A1 enzyme induction was measured through the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The results indicated that administration of CMGE at the recommended pharmaceutical dose does not induce significant transcriptional modulation of Cyp1a1/2 and subsequent enzyme activity induction of CYP1A1 while effects of the same order of magnitude were observed in the same test system following the administration of caffeine at the mean daily consumed levels. The outcome of this study further confirms the lack of any toxicological or biological significance of the specific findings on liver following the administration of CMGE. PMID:24950217

  13. HSP90 inhibitors decrease AID levels and activity in mice and in human cells.

    PubMed

    Montamat-Sicotte, Damien; Litzler, Ludivine C; Abreu, Cecilia; Safavi, Shiva; Zahn, Astrid; Orthwein, Alexandre; Müschen, Markus; Oppezzo, Pablo; Muñoz, Denise P; Di Noia, Javier M

    2015-08-01

    Activation induced deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the Ig genes in antigen-activated B cells, underpinning antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching. AID can also be pathogenic by contributing to autoimmune diseases and oncogenic mutations. Moreover, AID can exert noncanonical functions when aberrantly expressed in epithelial cells. The lack of specific inhibitors prevents therapeutic applications to modulate AID functions. Here, we have exploited our previous finding that the HSP90 molecular chaperoning pathway stabilizes AID in B cells, to test whether HSP90 inhibitors could target AID in vivo. We demonstrate that chronic administration of HSP90 inhibitors decreases AID protein levels and isotype switching in immunized mice. HSP90 inhibitors also reduce disease severity in a mouse model of acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia in which AID accelerates disease progression. We further show that human AID protein levels are sensitive to HSP90 inhibition in normal and leukemic B cells, and that HSP90 inhibition prevents AID-dependent epithelial to mesenchymal transition in a human breast cancer cell line in vitro. Thus, we provide proof-of-concept that HSP90 inhibitors indirectly target AID in vivo and that endogenous human AID is widely sensitive to them, which could have therapeutic applications.

  14. HSP90 inhibitors decrease AID levels and activity in mice and in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Montamat-Sicotte, Damien; Liztler, Ludivine C; Abreu, Cecilia; Safavi, Shiva; Zahn, Astrid; Orthwein, Alexandre; Muschen, Markus; Oppezzo, Pablo; Muñoz, Denise P; Di Noia, Javier M

    2015-01-01

    Activation induced deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the Ig genes in antigen-activated B cells, underpinning antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching. AID can also be pathogenic by contributing to autoimmune diseases and oncogenic mutations. Moreover, AID can exert non-canonical functions when aberrantly expressed in epithelial cells. The lack of specific inhibitors prevents therapeutic applications to modulate AID functions. Here, we have exploited our previous finding that the HSP90 molecular chaperoning pathway stabilizes AID in B cells, to test whether HSP90 inhibitors could target AID in vivo. We demonstrate that chronic administration of HSP90 inhibitors decreases AID protein levels and isotype switching in immunized mice. HSP90 inhibitors also reduce disease severity in a mouse model of acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia in which AID accelerates disease progression. We further show that human AID protein levels are sensitive to HSP90 inhibition in normal and leukemic B cells, and that HSP90 inhibition prevents AID-dependent epithelial to mesenchymal transition in a human breast cancer cell line in vitro. Thus, we provide proof-of-concept that HSP90 inhibitors indirectly target AID in vivo and that endogenous human AID is widely sensitive to them, which could have therapeutic applications. PMID:25912253

  15. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  16. The novel metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 positive allosteric modulator, AZD8529, decreases nicotine self-administration and relapse in squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Schindler, Charles W.; Cross, Alan J.; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Medd, Amy; Shaham, Yavin; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Based on rodent studies, Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 & 3) were suggested as targets for addiction treatment. However, LY379268 and other Group II agonists do not discriminate between the mainly presynaptic inhibitory mGluR2 (the proposed treatment target) and mGluR3. These agonists also produce tolerance over repeated administration and are no longer considered for addiction treatment. Here, we determined the effects of AZD8529, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGluR2, on abuse-related effects of nicotine in squirrel monkeys and rats. Methods We first assessed modulation of mGluR2 function by AZD8529 using functional in-vitro assays in both membranes prepared from a cell line expressing human mGluR2 and in primate brain slices. We then determined AZD8529 (0.03-10 mg/kg, i.m.) effects on intravenous nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking induced by nicotine priming or nicotine-associated cues. We also determined AZD8529 effects on food self-administration in monkeys and nicotine-induced dopamine release in accumbens shell in rats. Results AZD8529 potentiated agonist-induced activation of mGluR2 in both the membrane-binding assay and in primate cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. In monkeys, AZD8529 decreased nicotine self-administration at doses (0.3-3 mg/kg) that did not affect food self-administration. AZD8529 also reduced nicotine priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking after extinction of the drug-reinforced responding. In rats, AZD8529 decreased nicotine-induced accumbens dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for efficacy of PAMs of mGluR2 in non-human primate models of nicotine reinforcement and relapse. We propose that this drug class should be considered for nicotine addiction treatment. PMID:25802079

  17. Intraperitoneal Administration of a Novel TAT-BDNF Peptide Ameliorates Cognitive Impairments via Modulating Multiple Pathways in Two Alzheimer’s Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Xiaobin; Liu, Xinhua; Liu, Deyi; Wang, Xiong; Guo, Ziyuan; Zhu, Lingqiang; Tian, Qing; Yang, Xifei; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been reported for more than 100 years, there is still a lack of effective cures for this devastating disorder. Among the various obstacles that hold back drug development, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of them. Here, we constructed a novel fusion peptide by linking the active domain of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with an HIV-encoded transactivator of transcription (TAT) that has a strong membrane-penetrating property. After intraperitoneal injection, the eGFP-TAT could be robustly detected in different brain regions. By using scopolamine-induced rats and APPswe mice representing AD-like cholinergic deficits and amyloidosis, respectively, we found that intraperitoneal administration of the peptide significantly improved spatial memory with activation of the TrkB/ERK1/2/Akt pathway and restoration of several memory-associated proteins in both models. Administration of the peptide also modulated β-amyloid and tau pathologies in APPswe mice, and it increased the amount of M receptor with modulation of acetylcholinesterase in scopolamine-induced rats. We conclude that intraperitoneal administration of our TAT-BDNF peptide could efficiently target multiple molecular pathways in the brain and improve the cognitive functions in AD-like rodent models. PMID:26463268

  18. Intramuscular administration of a synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide modulates functional responses of neutrophils of neonatal foals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neutrophils play an important role in protecting against infection. Foals have age-dependent deficiencies in neutrophil function that may contribute to their predisposition to infection. Thus, we investigated the ability of a CpG-ODN formulated with Emulsigen® to modulate functional responses of ne...

  19. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  20. Protracted withdrawal from cocaine self-administration flips the switch on 5-HT1B receptor modulation of cocaine-abuse related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Cheung, Tim H.C.; Toy, William A.; Adams, Matthew D.; Neumaier, John F.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of serotonin-1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) in modulating cocaine abuse-related behaviors has been controversial due to discrepancies between pharmacological and gene knockout approaches, and opposite influences on cocaine selfadministration versus cocaine-seeking behavior. We hypothesized that modulation of these behaviors via 5-HT1BRs in the mesolimbic pathway may vary depending on the stage of the addiction cycle. Methods To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of increasing 5-HT1BR production by microinfusing a viral vector expressing either green fluorescent protein (GFP) and 5-HT1BR or GFP alone into the medial nucleus accumbens shell of rats either during maintenance of cocaine self-administration (i.e. active drug use) or during protracted withdrawal. Results 5-HT1BR-gene transfer during maintenance shifted the dose–response curve for cocaine self-administration upward and to the left and increased break points and cocaine intake on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, consistent with enhanced reinforcing effects of cocaine. In contrast, following 21 days of forced abstinence 5-HT1BR-gene transfer attenuated break points and cocaine intake on a PR schedule of reinforcement, as well as cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaineseeking behavior. Conclusions This unique pattern of effects suggests that mesolimbic 5-HT1BRs differentially modulate cocaine abuse-related behaviors, with a facilitative influence during periods of active drug use in striking contrast to an inhibitory influence during protracted withdrawal. These findings suggest that targeting 5-HT1BRs may lead to a novel treatment for cocaine dependence and that the therapeutic efficacy of these treatments may vary depending on the stage of the addiction cycle. PMID:22541946

  1. The effect of selective estrogen receptor modulator administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in men with idiopathic oligozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Tsourdi, Elena; Kourtis, Anargyros; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Katsikis, Ilias; Salmas, Marios; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluates, compares, and contrasts the effects of three selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), namely, tamoxifen, toremifene, and raloxifene, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in 284 consecutive subfertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia using three therapeutic protocols: [1] tamoxifen, 20 mg, once daily (n = 94); [2] toremifene, 60 mg, once daily (n = 99); and [3] raloxifene, 60 mg, once daily (n = 91). The antiestrogenic effects of SERMs at the hypothalamic level result in a statistically significant increase of gonadotropin levels, which is more marked for tamoxifen and toremifene compared with raloxifene.

  2. Strain differences between Lewis and Fischer 344 rats in the modulation of dopaminergic receptors after morphine self-administration and during extinction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cardoso, Pilar; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Martín, Sonsoles; Miguéns, Miguel; Del Olmo, Nuria; García-Lecumberri, Carmen; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2009-07-01

    The Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains have been used as a model to study genetic vulnerability to drug addiction and they differ in their dopaminergic systems. We have studied the variation in the D1-like and D2-like receptors in distinct brain regions of LEW and F344 rats that self-administered morphine (1 mg/kg) for 15 days and also after different extinction periods (3, 7 and 15 days). Under basal conditions, binding to D1-like receptors in the olfactory tubercle and substantia nigra, and to D2-like receptors in the Pyriform cortex and hippocampal-CA1 was lower in LEW rats than in F344 rats. Conversely, the LEW rats exhibited stronger D2-like binding in the caudate-putamen. In most brain regions there was a decrease in D1-like binding in LEW rats after self-administration while the F344 animals displayed an increment. Additionally, D2 receptors of LEW rats were down-regulated after self-administration in the caudate-putamen and in the nucleus accumbens (shell and core divisions). Binding to D1-like receptors increased in both strains in the early phases of extinction, while in the later stages a differential regulation was observed between both strains. During the early phases of extinction only F344 rats showed alterations in D2-like receptor binding, however in the latter phases a specific modulation occurred in both strains. These differences in basal D1-like and D2-like receptor binding, and their differential modulation after self-administration and during extinction, may be reflected in the greater vulnerability to opiate addiction shown by LEW strain.

  3. Modulation of Gut-Specific Mechanisms by Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: A Systems Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Angela M.; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter J.; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; McGoey, Robin R.; Auten, Matthew W.; LaMotte, Lynn; Chandra, Lawrance C.; Birke, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our studies have demonstrated that chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration results in a generalized attenuation of viral load and tissue inflammation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue is an important site for HIV replication and inflammation that can impact disease progression. We used a systems approach to examine the duodenal immune environment in 4- to 6-year-old male rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVMAC251 after 17 months of chronic THC administration (0.18–0.32 mg/kg, intramuscularly, twice daily). Duodenal tissue samples excised from chronic THC- (N=4) and vehicle (VEH)-treated (N=4) subjects at ∼5 months postinoculation showed lower viral load, increased duodenal integrin beta 7+(β7) CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cells, and a significant preferential increase in Th2 cytokine expression. Gene array analysis identified six genes that were differentially expressed in intestinal samples of the THC/SIV animals when compared to those differentially expressed between VEH/SIV and uninfected controls. These genes were identified as having significant participation in (1) apoptosis, (2) cell survival, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and (3) energy and substrate metabolic processes. Additional analysis comparing the duodenal gene expression in THC/SIV vs. VEH/SIV animals identified 93 differentially expressed genes that participate in processes involved in muscle contraction, protein folding, cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion, and cell signaling. Immunohistochemical staining showed attenuated apoptosis in epithelial crypt cells of THC/SIV subjects. Our results indicate that chronic THC administration modulated duodenal T cell populations, favored a pro-Th2 cytokine balance, and decreased intestinal apoptosis. These findings reveal novel mechanisms that may potentially contribute to cannabinoid-mediated disease modulation. PMID:24400995

  4. 76 FR 76025 - World AIDS Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... States of America A Proclamation On World AIDS Day, 30 years after the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported, we stand with the individuals and communities affected by HIV and recommit to progress toward an AIDS-free generation. My Administration is taking action to turn the corner on the HIV/AIDS pandemic...

  5. A key role for the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system in modulating nicotine taking in a model of nicotine and alcohol co-administration

    PubMed Central

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Schoch, Jennifer; Debevec, Ginamarie; Brunori, Gloria; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Toll, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused. Although the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system is considered a potential target for development of drug abuse pharmacotherapies, especially for alcoholism, little is known about the role of this system in nicotine dependence. Furthermore, the effect of prior history of nicotine dependence on subsequent nicotine and alcohol taking is understudied. Using an operant co-administration paradigm, in which rats concurrently self-administer nicotine and alcohol, we found that nicotine dependent rats increased nicotine self-administration over time as compared to non-dependent animals, while patterns of alcohol lever pressing did not change between groups. Pretreatment with the potent NOP receptor agonist AT-202 (0.3–3 mg/kg) increased nicotine lever pressing of both dependent and non-dependent groups, whereas the selective antagonist SB612111 (1–10 mg/kg) elicited a clear reduction of nicotine responses, in both dependent and non-dependent rats. In parallel, AT-202 only produced minor changes on alcohol responses and SB612111 reduced alcohol taking at a dose that also reduced locomotor behavior. Results indicate that a history of nicotine dependence affects subsequent nicotine- but not alcohol-maintained responding, and that NOP receptor antagonism, rather than agonism, blocks nicotine self-administration, which strongly suggests a critical role for the endogenous N/OFQ in the modulation of nicotine reinforcement processes. PMID:27199205

  6. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction to... Administrator is “first assistant” for purposes of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 (5 U.S.C. 3345-3349d)....

  7. Glial activation and midkine and pleiotrophin transcription in the ventral tegmental area are modulated by morphine administration.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Daniel; Luisa Laorden, M; Núñez, Cristina; Victoria Milanés, M

    2014-09-15

    Opiates cause persistent restructuring in the mesolimbic reward system. Although a possible role for midkine and pleiotrophin cytokines in the field of synaptic plasticity has been proposed, it has not been assessed whether morphine administration regulates astrogliosis and midkine and pleiotrophin transcription. We observed that single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Interestingly, single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased VTA midkine and pleiotrophin mRNA expression. Given these results, we hypothesize a role for these cytokines in mediating, at least in part, acute neuroprotective effects and chronic neurotrophic adaptations that contribute to drug dependence.

  8. Positive Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Accelerates Extinction Learning but Not Relearning Following Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Hood, Lauren E.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Barabas, Piroska; Halstengard, Casey; Villa, Angel; Moore, Elisabeth; Watterson, Lucas R.; Olive, M. Foster

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated glutamate neurotransmission as an important substrate for the extinction of conditioned behaviors, including responding for drug reinforcement. Positive allosteric modulation of the type-5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) in particular has emerged as a treatment strategy for the enhancement of extinction of drug-motivated behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB, a compound known for its cognitive enhancing effects in rodents, on extinction learning in rats with different histories of methamphetamine (METH) training. Rats were trained to self-administer METH under two conditions: 16 daily sessions of short access (90 min/day, ShA), or eight daily sessions of short access followed by eight sessions of long access (6 h/day, LgA). Control rats self-administered sucrose pellets in daily 30 min sessions. Next, rats were administered vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB prior to seven consecutive daily extinction sessions, subjected to additional extinction sessions to re-establish a post-treatment baseline, and then tested for reinstatement of behavior in the presence of METH- or sucrose-paired cues. Rats were then subjected to a second series of extinction sessions, preceded by vehicle or 30 mg/kg CDPPB, and an additional test for cue-triggered reinstatement. CDPPB treatment resulted in a more rapid extinction of responding on the active lever, especially in the early sessions of the first extinction sequence. However, treatment effects were minimal during subsequent cue reinstatement tests and non-existent during the second series of extinction sessions. Rats with histories of ShA, LgA, and sucrose training expressed similar behavioral sensitivities to CDPPB, with LgA rats demonstrating a modestly higher treatment effect. Positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 may therefore have some beneficial effects on efforts to facilitate extinction learning and reduce methamphetamine

  9. Red and Infrared Low-Level Laser Therapy Prior to Injury with or without Administration after Injury Modulate Oxidative Stress during the Muscle Repair Process

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Muscle injury is common among athletes and amateur practitioners of sports. Following an injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs, which can harm healthy muscle fibers (secondary damage) and delay the repair process. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) administered prior to or following an injury has demonstrated positive and protective effects on muscle repair, but the combination of both administration times together has not been clarified. Aim To evaluate the effect of LLLT (660 nm and 780 nm, 10 J/cm², 40 mW, 3.2 J) prior to injury with or without the administration after injury on oxidative stress during the muscle repair process. Methods Wistar rats were divided into following groups: control; muscle injury alone; LLLT 660 nm + injury; LLLT 780 nm + injury; LLLT 660 nm before and after injury; and LLLT 780 nm before and after injury. The rats were euthanized on days 1, 3 and 7 following cryoinjury of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, which was then removed for analysis. Results Lipid peroxidation decreased in the 660+injury group after one day. Moreover, red and infrared LLLT employed at both administration times induced a decrease in lipid peroxidation after seven days. CAT activity was altered by LLLT in all periods evaluated, with a decrease after one day in the 780+injury+780 group and after seven days in the 780+injury group as well as an increase in the 780+injury and 780+injury+780 groups after three days. Furthermore, increases in GPx and SOD activity were found after seven days in the 780+injury+780 group. Conclusion The administration of red and infrared laser therapy at different times positively modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduces stress markers during the muscle repair process. PMID:27082964

  10. Pharmacological Evidence for an Abstinence-Induced Switch in 5-HT1B Receptor Modulation of Cocaine Self-Administration and Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining serotonin-1B (5-HT1B) receptor manipulations on cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior initially seemed discrepant. However, we recently suggested based on viral-mediated 5-HT1B-receptor gene transfer that the discrepancies are likely due to differences in the length of abstinence from cocaine prior to testing. To further validate our findings pharmacologically, we examined the effects of the selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94,253 (5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) on cocaine self-administration during maintenance and after a period of protracted abstinence with or without daily extinction training. We also examined agonist effects on cocaine-seeking behavior at different time points during abstinence. During maintenance, CP 94,253 shifted the cocaine self-administration dose–effect function on an FR5 schedule of reinforcement to the left, whereas following 21 days of abstinence CP 94,253 downshifted the function and also decreased responding on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement regardless of extinction history. CP 94,253 also attenuated cue-elicited and cocaine-primed drug-seeking behavior following 5 days, but not 1 day, of forced abstinence. The attenuating effects of CP 94,253 on the descending limb of the cocaine dose–effect function were blocked by the selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB 224289 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at both time points, indicating 5-HT1B receptor mediation. The results support a switch in 5-HT1B receptor modulation of cocaine reinforcement from facilitatory during self-administration maintenance to inhibitory during protracted abstinence. These findings suggest that the 5-HT1B receptor may be a novel target for developing medication for treating cocaine dependence. PMID:24369697

  11. The pre-synaptic Munc13-1 binds alcohol and modulates alcohol self-administration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydip; Xu, Shiyu; Pany, Satyabrata; Guillory, Ashley; Shah, Vrutant; Roman, Gregg W

    2013-09-01

    Munc13-1 is a pre-synaptic active-zone protein essential for neurotransmitter release and involved in pre-synaptic plasticity in brain. Ethanol, butanol, and octanol quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of the C1 domain of Munc13-1 with EC₅₀ s of 52 mM, 26 mM, and 0.7 mM, respectively. Photoactive azialcohols photolabeled Munc13-1 C1 exclusively at Glu-582, which was identified by mass spectrometry. Mutation of Glu-582 to alanine, leucine, and histidine reduced the alcohol binding two- to five-fold. Circular dichroism studies suggested that binding of alcohol increased the stability of the wild-type Munc13-1 compared with the mutants. If Munc13-1 plays some role in the neural effects of alcohol in vivo, changes in the activity of this protein should produce differences in the behavioral responses to ethanol. We tested this prediction with a loss-of-function mutation in the conserved Dunc-13 in Drosophila melanogaster. The Dunc-13(P84200) /+ heterozygotes have 50% wild-type levels of Dunc-13 mRNA and display a very robust increase in ethanol self-administration. This phenotype is reversed by the expression of the rat Munc13-1 protein within the Drosophila nervous system. The present studies indicate that Munc13-1 C1 has binding site(s) for alcohols and Munc13-1 activity is sufficient to restore normal self-administration to Drosophila mutants deficient in Dunc-13 activity. The pre-synaptic Mun13-1 protein is a critical regulator of synaptic vesicle fusion and may be involved in processes that lead to ethanol abuse and addiction. We studied its interaction with alcohol and identified Glu-582 as a critical residue for ethanol binding. Munc13-1 can functionally complement the Dunc13 haploinsufficient ethanol self-administration phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster, indicating that this protein participates in alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

  12. Modulation of NMDA receptors by intrathecal administration of the sensory neuron-specific receptor agonist BAM8-22.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingjun; Hu, Zhijing; Quirion, Rémi; Hong, Yanguo

    2008-04-01

    The sensory neuron-specific receptor (SNSR) is exclusively distributed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. We have demonstrated that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of SNSR agonists inhibits formalin-evoked responses and the development of morphine tolerance [Chen, T., Cai, Q., Hong, Y., 2006. Intrathecal sensory neuron-specific receptor agonists bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 and (tyr(6))-gamma2-msh-6-12 inhibit formalin-evoked nociception and neuronal fos-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat. Neuroscience 141, 965-975]. The present study was undertaken to examine the possible impact of the activation of SNSR on NMDA receptors. I.t. administration of NMDA (6.8 nmol) induced nociceptive behaviors, including scratching, biting and lifting, followed by thermal hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia. These responses were associated with the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) throughout the spinal dorsal horn with highest effect seen in laminae I-II. I.t. NMDA also induced an increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in superficial layers of the dorsal horn, but not around the central canal, as revealed by NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. Pretreatment with the SNSR agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (3, 10 and 30 nmol) dose-dependently diminished NMDA-evoked nocifensive behaviors and hyperalgesia. This agonist also reduced NMDA-evoked expression of FLI and NADPH reactivity in the spinal dorsal horn. Taken together, these data suggest that the activation of SNSR induces spinal analgesia by suppressing NMDA receptor-mediated activation of spinal dorsal horn neurons and an increase in NOS activity.

  13. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  14. Modulation of Synovial Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Platelet Rich Plasma Administration

    PubMed Central

    Muiños-López, Emma; Sánchez, Pello; Anitua, Eduardo; Fiz, Nicolás; Aizpurua, Beatriz; Guadilla, Jorge; Padilla, Sabino; Prósper, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular (IA) or a combination of intra-articular and intraosseous (IO) infiltration of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) on the cellular content of synovial fluid (SF) of osteoarthritic patients. Thirty-one patients received a single infiltration of PRP either in the IA space (n = 14) or in the IA space together with two IO infiltrations, one in the medial femoral condyle and one in the tibial plateau (n = 17). SF was collected before and after one week of the infiltration. The presence in the SF of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), monocytes, and lymphocytes was determined and quantified by flow cytometry. The number and identity of the MSCs were further confirmed by colony-forming and differentiation assays. PRP infiltration into the subchondral bone (SB) and the IA space induced a reduction in the population of MSCs in the SF. This reduction in MSCs was further confirmed by colony-forming (CFU-F) assay. On the contrary, IA infiltration alone did not cause variations in any of the cellular populations by flow cytometry or CFU-F assay. The SF of osteoarthritic patients contains a population of MSCs that can be modulated by PRP infiltration of the SB compartment.

  15. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  17. Early repeated administration of progesterone improves the recovery of neuropathic pain and modulates spinal 18kDa-translocator protein (TSPO) expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Weiyan; Dai, Lihua; Zhang, Tingting; Xia, Weiliang; Liu, Hongjun; Ma, Ke; Xu, Jianguo; Jin, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Although progesterone was reported to be a neuroprotective agent against injuries to the nervous system, including the peripheral neuropathy, the mechanisms of its dose or timing-related effects remain unclear. Translocator protein (TSPO) is predominantly located in the mitochondrial outer membrane and has been recently implicated in modulation of several brain injuries and nociception. This experiment was conducted using a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) to observe the effects of progesterone against allodynia development in an 84-day period and to explore the spinal TSPO expression after treatment. Our results demonstrated that a 10-day progesterone treatment started right after injury at a dose of 15 mg/kg/d or more could significantly increase the mechanical thresholds within the 84-day observation period. Moreover, increased TSPO expression was observed in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after SNL surgery and reached its peak on Day 14. A treatment regimen of pharmacological progesterone augmented this spinal TSPO activation and expression before Day 28 and after Day 56. Both the anti-nociception and TSPO activation augment effect of progesterone were completely abolished by 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride but not progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone. These results indicate that early repeated administration of progesterone could improve the recovery of neuropathic pain and modulate spinal TSPO activation which were dependent on its 5α-reductase metabolites.

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  19. 3-alkoxy-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazolines as selective androgen receptor modulators with ideal physicochemical properties for transdermal administration.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Thomas; Sasmal, Sanjita; Boorgu, Venkatesham; Pasagadi, Srinivasu; Cheera, Srisailam; Rajagopalan, Sujatha; Bhumireddy, Archana; Shashikumar, Dhanya; Chelur, Shekar; Belliappa, Charamanna; Pandit, Chetan; Krishnamurthy, Narasimharao; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Ramanathan, Anuradha; Ghadiyaram, Chakshusmathi; Ramachandra, Murali; Santos, Paulo G; Lagu, Bharat; Bock, Mark G; Perrone, Mark H; Weiler, Sven; Keller, Hansjoerg

    2014-09-11

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of 3-alkoxy-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazolines as novel selective androgen receptor (AR) modulators that possess excellent physicochemical properties for transdermal administration. Compound 26 bound to human AR with an IC50 of 0.7 nM with great selectivity over other nuclear hormone receptors and potently activated AR in a C2C12 muscle cell reporter gene assay with an EC50 of 0.5 nM. It showed high aqueous solubility of 1.3 g/L at pH 7.4, and an in silico model as well as a customized parallel artificial membrane permeability assay indicated good skin permeation. Indeed, when measuring skin permeation through excised human skin, an excellent flux of 2 μg/(cm(2)·h) was determined without any permeation enhancers. In a 2 week Hershberger model using castrated rats, the compound showed dose-dependent effects fully restoring skeletal muscle weight at 0.3 mg/kg/day after subcutaneous administration with high selectivity over prostate stimulation.

  20. Time course for the modulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 after administration of ethylbenzene and its correlation with toluene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Sequeira, D J; Cawley, G F; Eyer, C S; Backes, W L

    1997-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the time course for changes in P450 expression and hydrocarbon metabolism after acute treatment with the simple aromatic hydrocarbon ethylbenzene (EB) and to correlate these alterations with the changes observed in alkylbenzene metabolism. Male Holtzman rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of EB, and the effects on specific P450-dependent activities, immunoreactive P450 isozyme levels, and RNA levels were measured at various times after injection. Toluene was used as the test alkylbenzene for examination of the EB-mediated changes on in vitro hydrocarbon metabolism. In untreated rats, toluene was metabolized almost entirely by aliphatic hydroxylation (to benzyl alcohol); however, in EB-treated rats, significant quantities of benzyl alcohol, o-cresol, and p-cresol were produced. Interestingly, 5-10 h after EB treatment, there was a 40% decrease in benzyl alcohol production. By 24 h, rates of benzyl alcohol formation returned to control levels, whereas there was a 7-fold increase in o-cresol and a greater that 50-fold increase in p-cresol production. The changes in the disposition of toluene were then correlated with changes in particular P450 isozymes. Several P450 isozymes were induced after EB administration. P450 2B1/2-dependent testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylation and P450 2B1/2-immunoreactive protein were elevated 30-fold after EB administration, reaching maxima by 24 h and remaining elevated 48 h after exposure. Changes in P450 2B1 and 2B2 RNA preceded those of the proteins. Similar results were observed with P450 1A1. P450 2E1 RNA levels were elevated after a single EB injection. However, the elevation in P450 2E1-dependent activities and immunoreactive protein levels preceded the changes in RNA, suggesting that multiple steps are affected by EB exposure. In contrast to the increases in some isozymes, P450 2C11 protein was rapidly suppressed (within the first 2-10 h) after hydrocarbon exposure

  1. Dietary sodium intake modulates renal excretory responses to intrarenal angiotensin (1-7) administration in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Julie; Corbett, Alan; Johns, Edward J

    2013-02-01

    Angiotensin II at the kidney regulates renal hemodynamic and excretory function, but the actions of an alternative metabolite, angiotensin (1-7), are less clear. This study investigated how manipulation of dietary sodium intake influenced the renal hemodynamic and excretory responses to intrarenal administration of angiotensin (1-7). Renal interstitial infusion of angiotensin (1-7) in anesthetized rats fed a normal salt intake had minimal effects on glomerular filtration rate but caused dose-related increases in urine flow and absolute and fractional sodium excretions ranging from 150 to 200%. In rats maintained for 2 wk on a low-sodium diet angiotensin (1-7) increased glomerular filtration rate by some 45%, but the diuretic and natriuretic responses were enhanced compared with those in rats on a normal sodium intake. By contrast, renal interstitial infusion of angiotensin (1-7) in rats maintained on a high-sodium intake had no effect on glomerular filtration rate, whereas the diuresis and natriuresis was markedly attenuated compared with those in rats fed either a normal or low-sodium diet. Plasma renin and angiotensin (1-7) were highest in the rats on the low-sodium diet and depressed in the rats on a high-sodium diet. These findings demonstrate that the renal hemodynamic and excretory responses to locally administered angiotensin (1-7) is dependent on the level of sodium intake and indirectly on the degree of activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The exact way in which angiotensin (1-7) exerts its effects may be dependent on the prevailing levels of angiotensin II and its receptor expression.

  2. Pharmacological modulation of lateral habenular dopamine D2 receptors alters the anxiogenic response to cocaine in a runway model of drug self-administration.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Kerisa; Bogyo, Kelsie; Schick, Tinisha; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine has long been known to produce an initial "high" followed by an aversive/anxiogenic "crash". While much is known about the neurobiology of cocaine's positive/rewarding effects, the mechanisms that give rise to the drug's negative/anxiogenic actions remain unclear. Recent research has implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in the encoding of aversive events including the anxiogenic response to cocaine. Of particular interest in this regard are the reciprocal connections between the LHb and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA-DA neurons innervate different subsets of LHb cells that in turn feedback upon and modulate VTA neuronal activity. Here we examined the impact of D2 receptor activation and inhibition on the anxiogenic response to cocaine using a runway model of self-administration that is sensitive to the dual and opposing effects of the drug. Male rats ran a straight alley for IV cocaine (1.0mg/kg) following bilateral intra-LHb infusions of the D2 receptor antagonist, cis-flupenthixol (0, 7.5 or 15μg/side) or the D2 agonist, sumanirole (0, 5 or 10μg/side). Vehicle-pretreated controls developed approach-avoidance conflict behaviors about goal-box entry reflective of the dual positive and negative effects of cocaine. These behaviors were significantly diminished during LHb-D2 receptor antagonism and increased by the LHb D2 receptor agonist. These results demonstrate that activity at the D2 receptor in the lateral habenula serves to modulate the anxiogenic response to cocaine. PMID:27155504

  3. Characterization of in vitro generated metabolites of the selective androgen receptor modulators S-22 and S-23 and in vivo comparison to post-administration canine urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Gerace, Enrico; Thomas, Andreas; Beuck, Simon; Geyer, Hans; Schlörer, Nils; Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Dalton, James T; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have great therapeutic potential in various diseases including cancer cachexia, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis, and the number of drug candidates has been growing over the last decade. The SARM drug candidates S-22 and S-23 belong to one of the most advanced groups of androgen receptor modulators and are based on an arylpropionamide-derived core structure. Due to their anabolic effects, SARMs have been prohibited in elite sports and have been a subject of sports drug testing programmes since January 2008. Consequently, the structure of analytically useful urinary metabolites should be elucidated to provide targets for sensitive and retrospective analysis. In the present study, the phase-I and -II metabolism of S-22 and S-23 was simulated using hepatic human enzymes, and resulting metabolites were characterized by means of state-of-the-art mass spectrometric approaches employing high resolution/high accuracy Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Subsequently, the newly defined target compounds including the glucuronic acid conjugates of S-22 and S-23, their corresponding monohydroxylated and bishydroxylated analogs, as well as their B-ring depleted counterparts were implemented into an existing routine doping control procedure, which was examined for its specificity for the added substances. In order to obtain proof-of-concept data for authentic urine specimens, canine urine samples collected up to 72 h after oral administration of S-22 to dogs were analyzed using the established approach outlining the capability of the presented assay to detect the glucuronide of S-22 as well as the B-ring-depleted metabolite (M3) in all samples following therapeutic (31.4 µg/kg) dosing. Finally, M3 was chemically synthesized, characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry, and chosen as primary target for future doping control analyses.

  4. Enhancement of social novelty discrimination by positive allosteric modulators at metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors: adolescent administration prevents adult-onset deficits induced by neonatal treatment with phencyclidine.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Nicholas E; Morisot, Nadège; Girardon, Sylvie; Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.

  5. Modulation of immunity and gut microbiota after dietary administration of alginate encapsulated Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 to gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Guardiola, Francisco A; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Balebona, M Carmen; Moriñigo, M Ángel; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The potential benefits of probiotics when administering to fish could improve aquaculture production. The objective of this study was to examine the modulation of immune status and gut microbiota of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens by a probiotic when administered encapsulated. Commercial diet was enriched with Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 (SpPdp11, at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1)) before being encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. Fish were fed non-supplemented (control) or supplemented diet for 4 weeks. After 1, 2 and 4 weeks the main humoral and cellular immune parameters were determined. Furthermore, gene expression profile of five immune relevant genes (il1β, bd, mhcIIα, ighm and tcrβ) was studied by qPCR in head kidney. On the other hand, intestinal microbiota of fish was analysed at 7 and 30 days by DGGE. Results demonstrated that administration of alginate encapsulated SpPdp11 has immunostimulant properties on humoral parameters (IgM level and serum peroxidase activity). Although no immunostimulant effects were detected on leucocyte activities, significant increases were detected in the level of mRNA of head-kidney leucocytes for mhcIIα and tcrβ after 4 weeks of feeding the encapsulated-probiotic diet. The administration of SpPdp11 encapsulated in alginate beads produced important changes in the DGGE patterns corresponding to the intestinal microbiota. Predominant bands related to lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactococcus and Lactobacillus strains, were sequenced from the DGGE patterns of fish fed the probiotic diet, whereas they were not sequenced from fish receiving the control diet. The convenience or not of probiotic encapsulation is discussed.

  6. Modulation of immunity and gut microbiota after dietary administration of alginate encapsulated Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 to gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Guardiola, Francisco A; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Balebona, M Carmen; Moriñigo, M Ángel; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The potential benefits of probiotics when administering to fish could improve aquaculture production. The objective of this study was to examine the modulation of immune status and gut microbiota of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens by a probiotic when administered encapsulated. Commercial diet was enriched with Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 (SpPdp11, at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1)) before being encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. Fish were fed non-supplemented (control) or supplemented diet for 4 weeks. After 1, 2 and 4 weeks the main humoral and cellular immune parameters were determined. Furthermore, gene expression profile of five immune relevant genes (il1β, bd, mhcIIα, ighm and tcrβ) was studied by qPCR in head kidney. On the other hand, intestinal microbiota of fish was analysed at 7 and 30 days by DGGE. Results demonstrated that administration of alginate encapsulated SpPdp11 has immunostimulant properties on humoral parameters (IgM level and serum peroxidase activity). Although no immunostimulant effects were detected on leucocyte activities, significant increases were detected in the level of mRNA of head-kidney leucocytes for mhcIIα and tcrβ after 4 weeks of feeding the encapsulated-probiotic diet. The administration of SpPdp11 encapsulated in alginate beads produced important changes in the DGGE patterns corresponding to the intestinal microbiota. Predominant bands related to lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactococcus and Lactobacillus strains, were sequenced from the DGGE patterns of fish fed the probiotic diet, whereas they were not sequenced from fish receiving the control diet. The convenience or not of probiotic encapsulation is discussed. PMID:26003737

  7. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  8. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  9. The modulation of BDNF expression and signalling dissects the antidepressant from the reinforcing properties of ketamine: Effects of single infusion vs. chronic self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Caffino, Lucia; Di Chio, Marzia; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Venniro, Marco; Mutti, Anna; Padovani, Laura; Cheung, David; Fumagalli, Guido F; Yew, David T; Fumagalli, Fabio; Chiamulera, Cristiano

    2016-02-01

    Ketamine is a drug of abuse with a unique profile, which besides its inherent mechanism of action as a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor, displays both antidepressant and reinforcing properties. The major aim of our study was to find a molecular signature of ketamine that may help in discriminating between its reinforcing and antidepressant effects. To this end, we focused our attention on BDNF, a neurotrophin that has been shown to play a role in both antidepressant and reinforcing properties of several drugs. Rats were exposed to self-administer intravenous (IV) ketamine (S/A) for 43 days or to receive a single IV ketamine 0.5mg/kg, or vehicle infusion. Although the dose we employed is lower than that reported by the literature, it however yields Cmax values that correspond to those achieved in humans after antidepressant treatment. Our results show that while the single infusion of ketamine increased the neurotrophin expression in the hippocampus while reducing it in the ventral striatum, a feature shared with other antidepressants, the repeated self-administration reduced mBDNF expression and its downstream signalling in both ventral striatum and hippocampus. Further, we here show that phosphorylation of Akt is oppositely regulated by ketamine, pointing to this pathway as central to the different actions of the drug. Taken together, we here point to BDNF and its downstream signalling pathway as a finely tuned mechanism whose modulation might subserve the different features of ketamine. PMID:26706783

  10. Engineering Aid 1 & C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual is written primarily to aid in the training of personnel to meet the professional qualifications of the engineering aid, first class and chief. In chapter one, the trainee becomes familiar with the rewards and responsibilities of an engineering aid. Chapter two deals with principles of SEABEE administration, the organization and…

  11. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  12. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  13. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  14. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  15. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  16. Computer-aided design of negative allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5): Comparative molecular field analysis of aryl ether derivatives.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Chelliah; Thilagavathi, Ramasamy; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Pradeep; Jordan, Brian C; Ranganna, Kasturi

    2016-02-15

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) have emerged as attractive targets for number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Recently, mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have gained considerable attention in pharmacological research. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was performed on 73 analogs of aryl ether which were reported as mGluR5 NAMs. The study produced a statistically significant model with high correlation coefficient and good predictive abilities.

  17. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  18. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  19. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal aid program. 543.15 Section 543.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded or...

  20. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General...

  1. Teacher Aides in Comprehensive Career Education. An In-service Training Program for the Teacher Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    This study guide for teacher aides is one of a 4-volume series to be used in an in-service program designed to create an awareness in teacher aides, teachers, and administrators of the potential contribution of teacher aides to career education. (The other three volumes are a coordinator's manual and the separate programs for teachers and for…

  2. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  3. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal aid program. 543.15 Section 543.15... Inmate Legal Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded or approved... Warden shall give those students or legal assistants working in legal aid programs the same status...

  4. [2010-2011 Federal Student Aid Handbook with Active Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is intended for financial aid administrators and counselors who help students begin the aid process--filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), verifying information, and making corrections and other changes to the information reported on the FAFSA. The Federal Student Aid Handbook consists of the Application and…

  5. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  6. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  7. Rehabilitation and the Veterans' Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, F.

    1974-01-01

    The Veteran's Administration health care system provides prosthetic and sensory aids for the rehabilitation of neurologically handicapped veterans. Research and development centers include prosthetic clinic teams, orthopedic shops, restoration clinics, bioengineering services, orthotics, etc.

  8. Investigation of the radical step in the chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide in the presence of hydrogen peroxide with the aid of magnetic modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tribel', M.M.; Morozov, A.K.; Frankevich, E.L.

    1987-11-01

    A method employing magnetic modulation of the rate of the chemical reaction was previously applied with success to the establishment of the chemiluminescent reaction involving the oxidation of luminol (LH/sub 2/) by potassium ferricyanide K/sub 3/Fe-(CN)/sub 6/ in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (0.1 M NaOH). The purpose of the present work was to experimentally investigate the radical steps of the more complex chemiluminescent reaction involving the oxidation of LH/sub 2/ in the presence of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The action of the magnetic field on the reaction causes an increase in the intensity of the chemiluminescence. The dependence of the intensity of the chemiluminescence on the magnetic field strength has the form of a saturation curve. The hyperfine interaction of the electronic and nuclear spins of the recombining radicals create a possibility for the mixing of the singlet and triplet states of the radical pairs, which results in relative alteration of the populations of these states with the rate constant K/sub st/(H). An external magnetic field reduces this constant, causing an increase in the concentration of the LOH/sup 2 -/ radicals and, consequently, an increase in the output of light.

  9. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  10. Nursing home employee attitudes towards AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sarvela, P D; Moore, J R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines nursing home employee attitudes toward issues related to AIDS and is based on data collected from 343 employees from 13 nursing homes in rural, small towns in sourthern Illinois during the spring of 1988. Results suggested that a large majority of the employees had negative attitudes toward people with AIDS. For example, 67% of the sample indicated that it was more important to limit the spread of AIDS rather than to protect the rights of people with AIDS. Furthermore, 42% suggested that AIDS patients should be sent to sanitariums to protect others from AIDS. Greater than half of the sample (56%) responded that they would feel uncomfortable around people with AIDS. About one third (32%) felt that being around someone with AIDS would put their health in danger, and 21% would be afraid to even take care of a family member with AIDS. With regard to job-specific AIDS attitudes, 51% indicated that health-care workers should be able to refuse to work with AIDS patients, and another 46% felt that hospitals and nursing homes should be able to refuse to admit people with AIDS. In addition to these and other results, this article presents a brief discussion concerning possible educational strategies which might be implemented in this setting to reduce the negative attitudes of these employees. Considerations are also presented for nursing home administrators, who face the problem of developing effective policies for dealing with the rising number of AIDS patients who will be admitted to their facilities.

  11. Does Pre-Survey Training Impact Knowledge of Survey Administrators and Survey Outcomes in Developing Countries? Evaluation Findings of a Training of Trainers Workshop for National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Kolawole Solomon; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Ogboi, Johnbull Sonny; Bashorun, Adebobola Toluwalashe; Issa, Kawu Bolakale; Amida, Perpetua; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Onoriode, Ezire

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although, Nigeria had conducted various national surveys followed by central and state level trainings for survey administrators, prior pre-survey trainings have not been systematically evaluated to assess their impact on knowledge gain and final outcome of the survey. A central training of trainers’ session was organized for master trainers on the conduct of the 2012 National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of training on the quality of conduct of a national research survey in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Method: A total of 185 participants consisting of State AIDS Program Coordinators, Reproductive Health Coordinators, State Laboratory Scientists, Lead Supervisors and Counselor Testers were invited from the 36 states in Nigeria and the FCT for the central training of trainers in Abuja. The training lasted 5 days and the trainees were grouped into two on the basis of behavioral epidemiology and laboratory components. Training tools such as the developed protocol, training power point slides, practical sessions such as role plays, and usage of HIV rapid test kits were utilized during the training. The facilitators were drawn from Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH), universities and research Institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The facilitators prepared and administered 25 structured questions for the behavioral group and 28 questions for the laboratory group at the beginning of the training to assess the participants’ knowledge of HIV and the survey. The same questions answered by Trainees responded to the same questions prior to the commencement and at the end of the trainings. Scores were aggregated to 100 for each test. We conducted paired t-test to determine statistically significant differences between pre-test and post-test results at 0.05 significance level and ANOVA to determine if there were differences in knowledge level among different groups

  12. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  13. Treatments for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS HIV medicines are giving women longer, healthier futures and new strength. While there's no cure for HIV, the treatments today allow women to live longer, fuller lives. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved many drugs for treating HIV. ...

  14. Space Technology for Medical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A line of biomedical devices based on aerospace expertise leads a sampling of spinoffs in the field of medicine. These include a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-developed computer program used by the Centers for Disease Control, medical products research, crawling aid, portable medical system, and human tissue stimulator.…

  15. Assessing Current Status. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Phyllis

    This staff development module is part of one of three groups of career guidance modules developed, field-tested and revised by a six-state consortium coordinated by the American Institutes for Research. This module is the fourth in a series on developing a comprehensive career guidance program at the high school level, designed to aid guidance…

  16. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious.

  17. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  20. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  1. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  2. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  3. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs Surface and Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An...

  4. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing...

  5. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs Surface and Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An...

  6. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing...

  7. Health Care: Infection Control, Medication Administration, and Seizure Management. A Series for Caregivers of Infants and Toddlers. Model for Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps: MITCH Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe County School District, Key West, FL.

    Intended for use in Florida training programs for caregivers of infants and toddlers with disabilities, this guide presents an overview of the Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps (MITCH); offers a user's guide to the series; and provides specific information for presenting Module 8, which focuses on health care…

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  10. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  11. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  12. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  13. AIDS Orphanages in China: Reality and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Liying

    2009-01-01

    Abstract With the increasing number of AIDS orphans in China, the government has been building AIDS orphanages since 2004 to accommodate some of those children who have lost both parents to AIDS. However, no data are available regarding the quality of this model of institutional care of AIDS orphans in China. This study, based on qualitative data from children and workers in AIDS orphanages, examines the daily lives, needs, and feelings of orphans and explores the advantages and disadvantages of institutionalized care of AIDS orphans in China. The current study was conducted in 2006–2007 in two rural counties of central China. Data in the current study included individual in-depth interviews with 23 children who lost both of their parents to HIV/AIDS (ages 8 to 17 years) living in AIDS orphanages and 5 AIDS orphanage workers. Findings in this study reveal that children living in orphanages mostly felt that the living conditions were better than the families they lived with after the death of their parents. However, according to the children and orphanage workers, the institutional care has some disadvantages, such as administrative restraints, limited psychological guidance, stigma, lack of education on AIDS, and financial burdens of the operation. Implications for intervention programs include continuing support from the government and nongovernmental organizations, improvements in administrative styles, and the need of incorporating psychological support within the institutions. PMID:19281431

  14. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  15. Orientation to Health Aide Careers Mini-Course & Home Health Aide Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy; And Others

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for home health aides, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines are presented on eight topics: your career as a health aide; maintaining health; recognizing illness; positioning and…

  16. Short communication: Modulation of the small intestinal microbial community composition over short-term or long-term administration with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiong; Pan, Mingfang; Huang, Renhui; Tian, Ximei; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Wan, Cuixiang

    2016-09-01

    The small intestinal (SI) microbiota has an essential role in the maintenance of human health. However, data about the indigenous bacteria in SI as affected by probiotics are limited. In our study, the short-term and long-term effects of a probiotic candidate, Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013, on the SI microbiota of C57BL/6J mice were investigated by the Illumina HiSeq (Novogene Bioinformatics Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China) platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. A total of 858,011 sequences in 15 samples were read. The α diversity analysis revealed that oral administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk led to a significant increase in the richness and diversity of the SI bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis showed a clear alteration in the SI microbiota composition after 3 wk of L. plantarum ZDY2013 treatment, although these changes were not found 6 wk after ceasing L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Species annotation showed that the dominant phyla in SI microbiota were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Interestingly, operational taxonomic unit cluster analysis showed that administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased that of Bacteroidetes. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 18 bacterial taxa (e.g., Ruminococcus spp. and Clostridium spp.) that overgrew in the SI microbiota of the mice administered with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk, and most of them belonged to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. However, only one bacterial taxon (e.g., Nocardioides spp.) was over-represented in the SI microbiota of mice 6 wk after L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Overall, this study shows that oral administration with probiotic results in an important but transient alteration in the microbiota of SI. PMID:27320669

  17. Short communication: Modulation of the small intestinal microbial community composition over short-term or long-term administration with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiong; Pan, Mingfang; Huang, Renhui; Tian, Ximei; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Wan, Cuixiang

    2016-09-01

    The small intestinal (SI) microbiota has an essential role in the maintenance of human health. However, data about the indigenous bacteria in SI as affected by probiotics are limited. In our study, the short-term and long-term effects of a probiotic candidate, Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013, on the SI microbiota of C57BL/6J mice were investigated by the Illumina HiSeq (Novogene Bioinformatics Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China) platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. A total of 858,011 sequences in 15 samples were read. The α diversity analysis revealed that oral administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk led to a significant increase in the richness and diversity of the SI bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis showed a clear alteration in the SI microbiota composition after 3 wk of L. plantarum ZDY2013 treatment, although these changes were not found 6 wk after ceasing L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Species annotation showed that the dominant phyla in SI microbiota were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Interestingly, operational taxonomic unit cluster analysis showed that administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased that of Bacteroidetes. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 18 bacterial taxa (e.g., Ruminococcus spp. and Clostridium spp.) that overgrew in the SI microbiota of the mice administered with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk, and most of them belonged to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. However, only one bacterial taxon (e.g., Nocardioides spp.) was over-represented in the SI microbiota of mice 6 wk after L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Overall, this study shows that oral administration with probiotic results in an important but transient alteration in the microbiota of SI.

  18. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  19. Co-administration strategy to enhance brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediated efflux with m-TOR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Qin, Bin; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-09-15

    The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the interaction of vandetanib with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1) in vitro and in vivo (ii) to study the modulation of P-gp and BCRP mediated efflux of vandetanib with specific transport inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors, everolimus and temsirolimus. Cellular accumulation and bi-directional transport studies in MDCKII cell monolayers were conducted to delineate the role of efflux transporters on disposition of vandetanib. Brain distribution studies were conducted in male FVB wild-type mice with vandetanib administered intravenously either alone or in the presence of specific inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors. In vitro studies suggested that vandetanib is a high affinity substrate of Bcrp1 but is not transported by P-gp. Interestingly, in vivo brain distribution studies in FVB wild type mice indicated that vandetanib penetration into the brain is restricted by both Bcrp1 and P-gp mediated active efflux at the blood brain barrier (BBB). Co-administration of elacridar, a dual P-gp/BCRP inhibitor increased the brain to plasma concentration ratio of vandetanib upto 5 fold. Of the two m-TOR pathway inhibitors examined; everolimus showed potent effect on modulating vandetanib brain penetration whereas no significant affect on vandetanib brain uptake was observed following temsirolimus co-administration. This finding could be clinically relevant as everolimus can provide synergistic pharmacological effect in addition to primary role of vandetanib efflux modulation at BBB for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:22633931

  20. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  1. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  2. New Mexico Migrant Project Aides: Perceptions of Their Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Alma Maria Acevedo

    The doctoral dissertation focused on: the perceptions of school administrators, teachers, and aides on teacher aide functions in the New Mexico Migrant Project; comparing the results with student needs; functions not ascribed to aides within the State Department of Education and the National Migrant Project's guidelines; and making recommendations…

  3. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  4. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  5. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  6. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  7. 28 CFR 36.303 - Auxiliary aids and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary aids and services. 36.303... BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.303 Auxiliary aids... differently than other individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless the...

  8. Reimagining Financial Aid to Improve Student Access and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…

  9. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  10. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  11. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  12. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  15. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  16. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  17. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  18. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  19. Modulation of heroin and cocaine self-administration by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rowlett, James K; Platt, Donna M; Yao, Wei-Dong; Spealman, Roger D

    2007-06-01

    Cocaine-heroin combinations ("speedballs") are commonly self-administered by polydrug abusers. Speedball self-administration may reflect in part an enhancement of the reinforcing effects of the drug combination compared with either drug alone. The present study investigated the degree to which the dopamine receptor system plays a role in cocaine-induced enhancement of heroin self-administration. In rhesus monkeys trained under a progressive ratio schedule of i.v. drug injection, combining heroin with cocaine shifted the heroin dose-response function leftward, and isobolographic analysis indicated that the combined effects were dose-additive. Likewise, combining heroin with the D1-like receptor agonists 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine HCl (SKF 81297) and 6-chloro-N-allyl-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-[1H]-3-benzazepine (SKF 82958) resulted in a leftward shift in the heroin dose-response function that was dose-additive. In contrast, combining heroin with the D2-like agonists R-(-)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) and quinpirole shifted the heroin dose-response function to the right. Isobolographic analysis of the combined effects of heroin with NPA and quinpirole revealed infra-additive interactions in both cases. When combined with cocaine instead of heroin, both the D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297 and the D2-like receptor agonist NPA enhanced cocaine self-administration. The combinations of SKF 81297 with cocaine were dose additive; however, the NPA-cocaine interaction was infra-additive. Together, the results suggest that D1- and D2-like receptor mechanisms may play qualitatively different roles in the combined self-administration of heroin and cocaine. In particular, stimulation of D1-like receptors enhances self-administration of heroin or cocaine individually, similar to the effects of combining cocaine with heroin, whereas stimulation of D2-like receptors seems to play primarily an inhibitory role. PMID:17351103

  20. Administration of the glial cell modulator, minocycline, in the nucleus accumbens attenuated the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Relapse to drug use is one of the most difficult clinical problems in treating addiction. Glial activation has been linked with the drug abuse, and the glia modulators such as minocycline can modulate the drug abuse effects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether minocycline could attenuate the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine (5 mg/kg) for 3 days. Following the acquisition of the CPP, the rats were given daily bilateral intra-NAc injections of either minocycline (1, 5, and 10 μg/0.5 μL) or saline (0.5 μL). The animals were tested for conditioning score 60 min after each injection. To induce the reinstatement, a priming dose of morphine (1 mg/kg) was injected 1 day after the final extinction day. The morphine-induced CPP lasted for 7 days after cessation of morphine treatment. Our data revealed that a priming dose of morphine could reinstate the extinguished morphine-induced CPP. Daily intra-accumbal injection of minocycline during the extinction period blocked the maintenance of morphine CPP and also attenuated the priming-induced reinstatement. Our findings indicated that minocycline could facilitate the extinction and attenuate the reinstatement of morphine. These results provided new evidence that minocycline might be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of several symptoms associated with morphine abuse. PMID:26745749

  1. 78 FR 63990 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... disease. This includes those who know their HIV status and are not in care as well as those individuals... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or RWHAP), requires...

  2. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  3. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  4. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  5. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  6. U.S. to begin minority AIDS initiative.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    President Clinton has announced a $156 million program dedicated to raising awareness of HIV and improving access to treatment programs in minority communities. The program is part of a larger $865 million increase in government spending on anti-AIDS programs. Despite the overall decline in AIDS deaths, the rate of new AIDS cases among minorities is increasing. Recently, the Black Congressional Caucus asked the administration to declare a "state of emergency" with regard to AIDS in African-American communities.

  7. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  8. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  9. Modulation of GLUT4 expression by oral administration of Mg(2+) to control sugar levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Haniah; Soltani, Nepton; MaleKzadeh, Kianoosh; Sohrabipour, Shahla; Zhang, Nina; Nasri, Sema; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-06-01

    It has been previously shown that oral magnesium administration decreases the levels of glucose in the plasma. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of GLUT4 on plasma glucose levels by orally administering magnesium sulfate to diabetic rats. Animals were distributed among 4 groups (n = 10 rats per group): one group served as the non-diabetic control, while the other groups had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection). The diabetic rats were either given insulin by i.p. injection (2.5 U·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)), or magnesium sulfate in their drinking water (10 g·L(-1)). After 8 weeks of treatment, we conducted an i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), measured blood glucose and plasma magnesium levels, and performed in-vitro and in-vivo insulin level measurements by radioimmunoassay. Gastrocnemius (leg) muscles were isolated for the measurement of GLU4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Administration of magnesium sulfate improved IPGTT and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. However, the insulin levels were not changed in either of the in-vitro or in-vivo studies. The expression of GLU4 mRNA increased 23% and 10% in diabetic magnesium-treated and insulin-treated groups, respectively. Our findings suggest that magnesium lowers blood glucose levels via increased GLU4 mRNA expression, independent to insulin secretion.

  10. Modulation of GLUT4 expression by oral administration of Mg(2+) to control sugar levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Haniah; Soltani, Nepton; MaleKzadeh, Kianoosh; Sohrabipour, Shahla; Zhang, Nina; Nasri, Sema; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-06-01

    It has been previously shown that oral magnesium administration decreases the levels of glucose in the plasma. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of GLUT4 on plasma glucose levels by orally administering magnesium sulfate to diabetic rats. Animals were distributed among 4 groups (n = 10 rats per group): one group served as the non-diabetic control, while the other groups had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection). The diabetic rats were either given insulin by i.p. injection (2.5 U·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)), or magnesium sulfate in their drinking water (10 g·L(-1)). After 8 weeks of treatment, we conducted an i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), measured blood glucose and plasma magnesium levels, and performed in-vitro and in-vivo insulin level measurements by radioimmunoassay. Gastrocnemius (leg) muscles were isolated for the measurement of GLU4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Administration of magnesium sulfate improved IPGTT and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. However, the insulin levels were not changed in either of the in-vitro or in-vivo studies. The expression of GLU4 mRNA increased 23% and 10% in diabetic magnesium-treated and insulin-treated groups, respectively. Our findings suggest that magnesium lowers blood glucose levels via increased GLU4 mRNA expression, independent to insulin secretion. PMID:24821133

  11. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujie; Luo, Chunxia; Zhao, Mingyue; Li, Qiang; Hu, Rong; Zhang, John H; Liu, Zhi; Feng, Hua

    2015-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor dipotassium bisperoxo(pyridine-2-carboxyl) oxovanadate (BPV(pic)) attenuates early brain injury by modulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxa-zolep-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard intravascular perforation model was used to produce the experimental SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. BPV(pic) treatment (0.2mg/kg) was evaluated for effects on neurological score, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, hippocampal neuronal death and AMPA receptor subunits alterations after SAH. We found that BPV(pic) is effective in attenuating BBB disruption, lowering edema, reducing hippocampal neural death and improving neurological outcomes. In addition, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 protein expression at cytomembrane was downregulated, whereas the expression of GluR2 and GluR3 was upregulated after BPV(pic) treatment. Our results suggest that PTEN inhibited by BPV(pic) plays a neuroprotective role in SAH pathophysiology, possibly by alterations in glutamate AMPA receptor subunits.

  12. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-10-01

    Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa

  13. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of SMT C1100, a 2-Arylbenzoxazole Utrophin Modulator, following Single- and Multiple-Dose Administration to Pediatric Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ricotti, Valeria; Spinty, Stefan; Roper, Helen; Hughes, Imelda; Tejura, Bina; Robinson, Neil; Layton, Gary; Davies, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose SMT C1100 is a utrophin modulator being evaluated as a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This study, the first in pediatric DMD patients, reports the safety, tolerability and PK parameters of single and multiple doses of SMT C1100, as well as analyze potential biomarkers of muscle damage. Methods This multicenter, Phase 1 study enrolled 12 patients, divided equally into three groups (A–C). Group A were given 50 mg/kg on Days 1 and 11, and 50 mg/kg bid on Days 2 to 10. Group B and C received 100 mg/kg on Days 1 and 11; Group B and Group C were given 100 mg/kg bid and 100 mg/kg tid, respectively, on Days 2 to 10. A safety review was performed on all patients following the single dose and there was at least 2 weeks between each dose escalation, for safety and PK review. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. Results Most patients experienced mild AEs and there were no serious AEs. Two patients required analgesia for pain (headache, ear pain and toothache). One patient experienced moderate psychiatric AEs (abnormal behaviour and mood swings). Plasma concentrations of SMT C1100 at Days 1 and 11 indicated a high degree of patient variability regardless of dose. Unexpectedly the SMT C1100 levels were significantly lower than similar doses administered to healthy volunteers in an earlier clinical study. In general, individual baseline changes of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase levels fell with SMT C1100 dosing. Conclusions SMT C1100 was well tolerated in pediatric DMD patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02383511 PMID:27055247

  14. Targeted modulation of cell differentiation in distinct regions of the gastrointestinal tract via oral administration of differently PEG-PEI functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Diti; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Mamaeva, Veronika; Karaman, Didem Şen; Lähdeniemi, Iris AK; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs is required to efficiently treat intestinal diseases such as colon cancer and inflammation. Nanoparticles could overcome challenges in oral administration caused by drug degradation at low pH and poor permeability through mucus layers, and offer targeted delivery to diseased cells in order to avoid adverse effects. Here, we demonstrate that functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) by polymeric surface grafts facilitates transport through the mucosal barrier and enhances cellular internalization. MSNs functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), and the targeting ligand folic acid in different combinations are internalized by epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo after oral gavage. Functionalized MSNs loaded with γ-secretase inhibitors of the Notch pathway, a key regulator of intestinal progenitor cells, colon cancer, and inflammation, demonstrated enhanced intestinal goblet cell differentiation as compared to free drug. Drug-loaded MSNs thus remained intact in vivo, further confirmed by exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro. Drug targeting and efficacy in different parts of the intestine could be tuned by MSN surface modifications, with PEI coating exhibiting higher affinity for the small intestine and PEI–PEG coating for the colon. The data highlight the potential of nanomedicines for targeted delivery to distinct regions of the tissue for strict therapeutic control. PMID:26855569

  15. Long-term alcohol self-administration and alcohol withdrawal differentially modulate microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) gene expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Putzke, J; De Beun, R; Schreiber, R; De Vry, J; Tölle, T R; Zieglgänsberger, W; Spanagel, R

    1998-11-20

    Chronic alcohol intoxication is known to produce neuronal degeneration in the central and peripheral nervous system of experimental animals and of humans. It is suggested that various components of the cytoskeleton undergo profound changes following chronic alcohol use and misuse. Here we studied the expression of the neuronal cytoskeletal microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) following long-term alcohol consumption and subsequent alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alkohol) rats with a high voluntary alcohol consumption for a period of 16 months were compared with age-matched control rats without prior experience with alcohol. For comparison, in a second experiment, heterogeneous Wistar rats that also had voluntary access to alcohol for 8 months were examined following alcohol consumption and withdrawal. In situ hybridization and subsequent dot blot and Northern blot analysis for further quantification revealed that chronically alcoholized animals exhibit markedly decreased MAP2 mRNA levels in several parts of the extrapyramidal system (mainly in the caudate putamen, the substantia nigra pars compacta and the globus pallidus), the mesolimbic system, in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the nucleus inferior colliculus. Other areas such as the hippocampus, frontoparietal cortex and cerebellum were less affected by chronic alcohol intake, however, in these regions the MAP2 mRNA levels were increased during alcohol withdrawal. These results suggest that long-term alcohol self-administration affects central neurons involved in motor control via the influence on the integrity of the cytoskeleton and may thus induce motor dysfunction.

  16. Long-term ethanol administration enhances age-dependent modulation of redox state in central and peripheral organs of rat: protection by metadoxine.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, V; Randazzo, G; Ragusa, N; Rizza, V

    1998-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that intermediates of oxygen reduction may be associated with the development of alcoholic disease. In addition, free radical-induced perturbation of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in cells is widely recognized as the main causative factor of age-related disorders. In the present work, we investigated the effects of 25 months of ethanol consumption on the antioxidant defense system in different organs of rat in comparison with normal aging, in the absence and presence of treatment with metadoxine, an ion pair composed of pirrolidone carboxylate and pyridoxine. We demonstrate that aged rats underwent a significant perturbation of the antioxidant defense system, as indicated by depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and increases in oxidized GSH and free radical-induced luminescence associated with a decrease of GSH reductase and an increase of GSH transferase activities. These modifications, observed particularly in the liver and brain with respect to other organs, were enhanced by long-term alcohol exposure, and interestingly, significantly reduced after metadoxine supplementation. Our results indicate that increased GSH transferase activity and decreased GSH reductase activity, followed by thiol depletion, are important factors sustaining a pathogenic role for oxidative stress in aging and in all situations where age-correlated changes occur. Administration of metadoxine greatly reduces these metabolic abnormalities. This evidence supports the pharmacological potential of metadoxine in the management of alcoholic disturbances. PMID:9675549

  17. Diagnosis And Prescription: Reinforcement Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, George W.

    This learning module has been designed to aid the teacher trainee in identifying ways in which he influences student behavior in the classroom and also explores means of selecting more meaningful reinforcers and their application. Terminal objectives of the module are the ability to (1) define the terms "reinforcement,""positive…

  18. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2001-2002. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This volume discusses the eligibility requirements for student and parent borrowers from federal financial aid programs. It reviews the factors an aid administrator must consider when reviewing a student's application for a loan and outlines the administrator's responsibilities in checking to make sure that recipients qualify for their aid awards.…

  19. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  20. 3 CFR 8762 - Proclamation 8762 of November 30, 2011. World AIDS Day, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... World AIDS Day, 30 years after the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported, we stand with the individuals and communities affected by HIV and recommit to progress toward an AIDS-free generation. My Administration is taking action to turn the corner on the HIV/AIDS pandemic by investing in research...

  1. 77 FR 26020 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Solicitation of Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Solicitation of... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program. Comments are solicited to inform the 2013 reauthorization of the... amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  2. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. 214... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each advisory committee used by A.I.D., the Administrator designates an A.I.D., employee to serve as the...

  3. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  4. The mGluR2 Positive Allosteric Modulator BINA Decreases Cocaine Self-Administration and Cue-Induced Cocaine-Seeking and Counteracts Cocaine-Induced Enhancement of Brain Reward Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xinchun; Semenova, Svetlana; Yang, Li; Ardecky, Robert; Sheffler, Douglas J; Dahl, Russell; Conn, P Jeffrey; Cosford, Nicholas DP; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists were shown previously to nonselectively decrease both cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rats. mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may represent improved therapeutic compounds because of their modulatory properties and higher selectivity for mGluR2. We analyzed the effects of the selective, brain penetrant, and systemically active mGluR2 PAM potassium 3′-([(2-cyclopentyl-6-7-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]methyl)biphenyl l-4-carboxylate (BINA) and the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 on intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats that had short (1 h, ShA) or long (6 h, LgA) access to cocaine. The effects of BINA on food responding and food-seeking behavior were also analyzed. Finally, we examined the effects of BINA on brain reward function and cocaine-induced reward enhancement using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. BINA decreased cocaine self-administration in both ShA and LgA rats, with no effect on food self-administration. Alternatively, LY379268 nonselectively decreased both cocaine and food self-administration. BINA decreased cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking with no effect on food seeking. The cocaine-induced enhancement of brain reward function was blocked by BINA, although the highest doses of BINA decreased brain reward function when administered alone, suggesting additive, rather than interactive, effects of BINA and cocaine. In conclusion, BINA attenuated the reinforcing and counteracted the reward-enhancing effects of cocaine and decreased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior, without affecting behaviors motivated by food reinforcement. The higher selectivity of BINA compared with an mGluR2/3 agonist for drug- vs food-motivated behaviors suggests a therapeutic role for mGluR2 PAMs for the treatment of cocaine addiction and possibly other drugs of abuse. PMID:20555310

  5. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  6. Selecting the Administrative Team. The Administrative Team Career Development Series, Book 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    As an aid for school district and building administrators, this handbook recommends ways to recruit, select, and employ new administrative personnel. Its information was gathered from members of the American Association of School Administrators, professional associations' leaders, and a literature survey. Following a brief introduction, the first…

  7. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  8. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  9. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  10. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  11. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  12. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  13. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  14. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  15. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  16. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  17. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  18. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  19. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  20. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  1. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  2. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  3. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  4. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  5. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  6. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  7. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  8. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  9. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  10. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  11. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  12. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  13. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  14. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  15. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  16. AIDS on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohm, Leslie Chambers, Ed.

    During the 1980s, AIDS emerged as a leading cause of death among young adults. Subsequently, no college or university can expect to escape from this problem. These collected articles were targeted for university, and health-science-center administrators. The information contained here is grouped under eight headings. Section 1, the medical…

  17. Taking Care of Young Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federlein, Anne Cairns

    This booklet provides an overview of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and guidelines for child care administrators and caregivers. It is argued that reason must overcome fear about the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in early childhood centers. Discussion addresses such questions as: (1) Can child caregivers get AIDS…

  18. Initial Aid is Puzzle to Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    States and federal agencies are off to a slow and uneven start in allowing the public to track the first allotments from up to $100 billion in new education funding under the federal economic-stimulus package, despite strong pledges of transparency for the program from the Obama administration. Although about $145 million in aid has been sent from…

  19. HIGHWAY ENGINEERING AIDE, A SUGGESTED TRAINING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARNOLD, WALTER M.; AND OTHERS

    TO AID ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, TEACHER TRAINEES, AND TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF A POSTSECONDARY COURSE, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED PURSUANT TO A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION (USOE) CONTRACT BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. THE CONTENT COVERS -- (1) ORIENTATION AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS, (2) TECHNICAL MATHEMATICS, (3)…

  20. Nutrition Aide. Curriculum. Competency-Based Vocational Education Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Margaret; Dillon, Nancy

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course to prepare students for the occupation of nutrition aide. Fifteen modules are provided. They are self-contained and require little effort on the instructor's part aside from scoring posttests and providing equipment. Each module consists of a cover sheet that details job skills, performance…

  1. 50 CFR 253.54 - Administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administrative requirements. 253.54 Section 253.54 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...

  2. Administrative Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six papers on the theme, "Administrative Libraries in a Technological World: Past, Present, and Future--A General Stocktaking and a State of the Art Report" focus on West German telecommunications and information technology and the use of data processing and other technological aids in West German administrative libraries. These papers, which were…

  3. Championing Intellectual Freedom: A School Administrator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    School administrators want to believe that they are champions for the rights of the students they serve. They strive to provide students with a secure, enriching environment to aid in their intellectual and social development. Through their leadership, administrators have the responsibility to guide and redirect students to help them achieve at…

  4. 21 CFR 344.10 - Earwax removal aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earwax removal aid active ingredient. 344.10 Section 344.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 344.10 Earwax removal aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  5. Federal Student Aid Program. Bulletin, 1935, No. 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Fred J.; McNeely, John H.

    1935-01-01

    The Federal student aid program is the first instance in American history in which the National Government has assisted needy youth to work their way through college. Inaugurated by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (F.E.R.A.) the plan provides financial aid to qualified young men and women who lack sufficient funds to attend college.…

  6. Dental Aide: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newport News Public Schools, VA.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the dental aide program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for dental aide. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives, criterion-referenced…

  7. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  8. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  16. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  17. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  18. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  19. How People Think About: College Prices, Quality, and Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Robert; Baum, Sandy; Steele, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, the authors have discussed college prices, college quality, and student financial aid with elected officials and staff from several state legislatures, financial aid administrators from a variety of campuses, and policy analysts from Washington DC advocacy organizations. They have also been able to informally gain insights at…

  20. AIDS Awareness of High School Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.; Calvin, Richmond E.

    The Surgeon General's information material on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which was mailed to every household in the United States, was used to develop an AIDS Awareness Inventory. The inventory was designed for administration to 182 high school students enrolled in schools in three districts, which have adopted an AIDS…

  1. 29 CFR 1917.26 - First aid and lifesaving facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. 1917.26 Section 1917.26 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.26 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (a) Employers shall...

  2. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15001 First-aid materials. Adequate...

  3. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15001 First-aid materials. Adequate...

  4. Teacher Aide Handbook for Early Childhood Education for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield State Coll., PA. Dept. of Special Education.

    The handbook, prepared by teachers in a summer workshop, is to be used by teacher aides at the nursery through grade 3 levels as well as by administrators and teachers. Teacher aides are said to be the candy stripers of education who help teachers in ways such as supervising art and music activities and making home visits. Notes from the…

  5. Financial Aid Policies and Practices at Medical and Dental Schools: Current Trends and Future Concerns. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators sponsored the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP), which asked aid administrators at graduate and professional programs to provide information on the types and sources of financial assistance they distributed to their students during the…

  6. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01...: Final Notice. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funds authorized under...

  7. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  8. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  9. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  10. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  11. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  12. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  13. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  14. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  15. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  16. ODIN system technology module library, 1972 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Watson, D. A.; Glatt, C. R.; Jones, R. T.; Galipeau, J.; Phoa, Y. T.; White, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    ODIN/RLV is a digital computing system for the synthesis and optimization of reusable launch vehicle preliminary designs. The system consists of a library of technology modules in the form of independent computer programs and an executive program, ODINEX, which operates on the technology modules. The technology module library contains programs for estimating all major military flight vehicle system characteristics, for example, geometry, aerodynamics, economics, propulsion, inertia and volumetric properties, trajectories and missions, steady state aeroelasticity and flutter, and stability and control. A general system optimization module, a computer graphics module, and a program precompiler are available as user aids in the ODIN/RLV program technology module library.

  17. Funding bill sets $105m increase for AIDS care.

    PubMed

    Miller, F

    1996-01-01

    The passage of the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 1996 (H.R. 3019) funds numerous AIDS programs whose fiscal year 1996 funding was caught in limbo during 6 months of budget debates between the Republican congressional leadership and the Clinton administration. AIDS care programs received a significant funding increase, the AIDS Education & Training Centers (AETC) program has been reestablished, and a provision mandating the discharge from active duty of HIV-positive troops was repealed. There was a $105.5 million funding increase for the Ryan White CARE program. However, for the second consecutive fiscal year, Congress has not increased funding for the Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) program.

  18. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  19. 14 CFR 151.15 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.15 Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking. No project...

  20. 78 FR 31563 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical... percent of Ryan White HIV/AIDS program funds be spent on core medical services. Background Title XXVI of...; including consumers and the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program-funded core medical services providers, related...

  1. Policies, Practices, and Procedures in Graduate Student Aid: A Report on the 1998 NASFAA SOGAPPP Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP) of the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA). Finds that professional programs at private institutions have highest tuitions; most students in professional programs receive financial aid; loans are the overwhelming type of aid…

  2. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early..., Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV/AIDS care and...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County,...

  3. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  4. Reimagining Financial Aid to Improve Student Access and Outcomes. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…

  5. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  6. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  7. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  8. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  9. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  10. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  11. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  12. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  13. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  14. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  15. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  16. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  17. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  18. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  19. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  20. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  1. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  2. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  3. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  4. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  5. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  6. Community responses to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1994-01-01

    Some examples of care in the community for people with HIV/AIDS are reported from Africa. Members of communities committed to fighting the AIDS epidemic cannot do so alone and should be given every possible help. Inadequate care favours the spread of HIV, as does the stigmatization of people with HIV infection and their families.

  7. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  8. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  9. AIDS funding: competing needs and the politics of priorities.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1988-01-01

    Despite the Department of Health and Human Service's 1983 claim that AIDS is the nation's "number one health priority," funding for AIDS research, prevention, and treatment remains inadequate. Worse, it is often marshaled from or juxtaposed against other necessary health allocations. Consequent AIDS-related resource crises include diverting funds for research on other diseases to AIDS investigations, propping up AIDS prevention efforts at the expense of traditional sexually transmitted disease control programs, and pitting the health needs of AIDS patients against the needs of those seeking other urgent health services, e.g., prenatal care. While this forced competition typically is blamed on fiscal constraints, examination of federal spending priorities suggests that it results principally from Reagan Administration policies. This Administration has consistently boosted military spending at the expense of social and health services, and has deliberately undermined efforts to obtain sufficient and new allocations for AIDS. In order to avert political divisions spurred by competition for currently scarce resources, AIDS and other health activists together must argue that excessive military allocations must be shifted to health research and services, and that a national health program must be implemented, if AIDS programs are to be funded appropriately without jeopardizing other necessary health initiatives. PMID:3235241

  10. Measuring PV module delamination

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.B.

    1980-09-22

    Delamination of the encapsulating pottant from both substrate and silicon cells in solar photovoltaic modules has been a common occurrence. While the extent of delamination is in some cases minor, there are other cases where appreciably large areas have been affected. At this time, most delaminated areas do not appear to cause electrical degradation of modules; however, keeping track of delamination growth and rate of growth is important and has been difficult. More accurate measurement of delamination has been achieved by using an acoustic digitizer to record the pattern of delamination. With the aid of a computer, software can be generated that shows the exact areas of delamination. By periodic measrement of those types of modules prone to delamination, growth rates can be documented.

  11. 34 CFR 222.156 - How is an administrative hearing conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is an administrative hearing conducted? 222.156... AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid Administrative Hearings and Judicial Review Under Section 8011 of the Act § 222.156 How is an administrative...

  12. The Board's Role in Selecting the Administrative Team. The Administrative Team Career Development Series, Book 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    As an aid for school board members, this handbook offers advice on selecting central-office and building administrators. The introduction discusses the board's role in administrator selection, lists 16 areas in which board policies are needed, and suggests criteria and information needed for board policies. Chapter 1 reviews recent changes in the…

  13. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic criticism"…

  14. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  15. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  16. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  17. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  18. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  19. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  20. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  1. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  2. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  3. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  4. Latina women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worth, D; Rodriguez, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in Latina women is over 11 times that of white women. Women account for 13% of all Latino AIDS deaths since 1980. This examination of the impact of AIDS on Latino women concentrates on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The AIDS deaths among Puerto Rican women in this neighborhood are predominantly intravenous drug abuse related. Latina women accounted for more than 1/2 of all female AIDS deaths on the Lower East Side during the 1980-1985 period. The age range is parallel with that in the rest of New York City, with the exception of a higher number of deaths on the Lower East Side in the age ranges of 15-19 and over 40. Serious obstacles exist to providing AIDS risk reduction information to Puerto Rican women and their partners. Latinos account for 11% of all US AIDS cases among gay and bisexual men. The cultural proscription against these sexual practices in the Puerto Rican community makes AIDS education related to such practices extremely difficult. Many of the female sex partners of these men are unaware of their bisexuality, and, therefore not aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. The Latina women most at risk are young, poor, and have low educational levels. Latina women seriously underutilize ongoing primary health care, family planning, prenatal or pediatric care. Attempts to reach Latina women with AIDS risk reduction education must also contend with issues such as cultural gender roles. Females tend to be dependent on males and defer to male decision making related to sexual practices. In formulating policy regarding services and education, it is essential to involve the leadership of the Latino community. PMID:12268416

  5. 49 CFR 1.84 - The Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Federal Highway Administration. 1.84 Section 1... DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.84 The Federal Highway Administration. Is responsible for: (a... grants), roads on the Federal-aid primary, secondary, and interstate highway systems and urban...

  6. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  7. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  8. AIDS and public health.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1988-01-01

    After briefly stating the significance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for public health, this paper considers programs or proposals to control the spread of AIDS in the following eight general areas: (a) education; (b) distribution of sterile needles; (c) screening and treatment of blood, blood products, and other tissues; (d) voluntary and mandatory screening of persons for evidence of infection; (e) reporting; (f) contact tracing; (g) isolation and other restrictions on freedom of movement or association; and (h) physical marking of persons with AIDS. Significant moral issues within each of these areas are discussed, and the overall justifiability of various proposals is examined.

  9. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  10. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... October 15th observance calls attention to the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on the Latinx community. The ...

  11. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  12. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  13. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  14. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  15. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  16. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  17. Construction computer-aided engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Atkins, D.; Astleford, R.

    1987-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. and Bechtel Power Corporation are presently designing nuclear power plants for Japanese utilities exclusively on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems. To make these three-dimensional CADD models more effective for construction activities, Hitachi and Bechtel are jointly developing a software package that allows construction engineers and planners to effectively empty an area of the three-dimensional CADD model and rebuild it electronically to simulate, animate, and optimize the construction sequence and methodology. The components in the three-dimensional CADD model are placed as they would be for actual construction (i.e., piping spool pieces, skid-mounted systems, piping, and equipment modules, etc.). The construction engineer and planners can then select the components along with appropriate handling equipment and simulate/animate the actual construction sequence. After the construction sequence has been optimized, it is captured on videotape for use in the field. The results of the simulated activities are then passed on to computer program module (CPM) scheduling and work breakdown structure programs for accurate bottom-up construction activity planning and commodity tracking. This entire process can be iterated to an optimum solution before the actual construction begins. Once construction is in progress, the program can compare the actual status and allow resimulations for workarounds.

  18. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  19. [AIDS and society].

    PubMed

    Koupernik, C

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of information gathered from media the writer delineates the following aspects of the impact of AIDS upon social life: advertising the danger, sex education of the youth, purposeful contamination by AIDS-patients, legal repressive measures, the doctors and the right to test, Anglican Church and acceptance of homosexuality among ministers, antagonistic incentives epidemiologic research and the right to confidentiality. Finally, he endorses the recent declaration of the America Psychiatric Association determined to fight discrimination and refusal of care.

  20. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  1. AIDS and haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Carr, R

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all AIDS cases are haemophiliacs. LAV/HTLV-III is transmitted by blood and in factor VIII concentrates. Since 1981, increasing numbers of haemophiliacs have been infected, as indicated by detection of antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III. Up to 90% of haemophiliacs in some populations are now seropositive, but to date less than 1% have progressed to clinical AIDS. Immunological abnormalities, in particular reduced T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor ratios, are common in haemophiliacs treated with factor VIII. Such abnormalities do not necessarily indicate past infection by the AIDS virus, but they may predispose to infection following exposure to the virus. Blood Transfusion agencies are introducing screening tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III to help prevent the spread of AIDS by blood products. Heat treated factor VIII concentrate is now available and appears not to transmit AIDS. Factor IX concentrate may also transmit LAV/HTLV-III, but less frequently. A few cases of AIDS have occurred in Haemophilia B (Christmas Disease) patients.

  2. Three Modules for Electronics Mathematics. (Remedial/Developmental).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkman, Clarice

    Written for remedial/developmental students without algebraic skills, these three arithmetic modules for electronics cover measure, formulas, and pythagorean theorem. The self-paced modules incorporate use of calculators. With this aid the level of difficulty of comprehension is approximately seventh grade. Module 1, Measure, covers nine topics:…

  3. Put Teachers on Your Administrative Cabinet, and Restore Labor Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Bill D.

    1982-01-01

    In Whithall (Michigan) schools, a teacher representative is included on the superintendent's administrative cabinet. Teacher participation has improved internal communication, aided in a campaign for a tax millage increase, and helped solve problems with teacher transfers. (MLF)

  4. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1992-02-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services.

  5. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  6. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  7. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  8. Dental Aide. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, Karen; Noirfalise, Patricia F.

    This module is designed to assist instructors of prospective health services assistants to facilitate learning in health careers other than nursing. It may be used to provide classroom instruction, assist staff in providing on-the-job instruction, or provide selected units for independent study. The module is divided into seven units comprised of…

  9. Radiology Aide. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hronek, Dennis

    This module was designed to assist educators in facilitating learning in health careers outside nursing. It may be used for classroom, on-the-job, or independent study. The module is oranized in 13 units. Each unit includes one or more lessons that contain the following components: scope of unit, unit objectives; student's information assignment,…

  10. Gay youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.

  11. Recapture training aid.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, James Edward

    2004-08-01

    The breacher's training aid described in this report was designed to simulate features of magazine and steel-plate doors. The training aid enables breachers to practice using their breaching tools on components that they may encounter when attempting to enter a facility. Two types of fixtures were designed and built: (1) a large fixture incorporates simulated hinges, hasps, lock shrouds, and pins, and (2) a small fixture simulates the cross section of magazine and steel-plate doors. The small fixture consists of steel plates on either side of a structural member, such as an I-beam. The report contains detailed descriptions and photographs of the training aids, assembly instructions, and drawings.

  12. The Administrative Grid: A Leader Style Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Donald G.; Heun, Richard E.

    The Administrative Grid was developed to aid in rapid interpretation of orthogonal data on management style. The grid is a simple device for illustrating Z-score values from any instrument with orthogonality determined and scores normalized. The two dimensions, "people" and "task,"are divided into standard deviations and, by plotting perpendicular…

  13. 23 CFR 230.405 - Administrative responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS... Transportation (DOT), the Director, DOT Departmental Office of Civil Rights (OCR) or the Director, Office of... of the following actions (see appendix A to 23 CFR part 630, subpart C “Federal-aid project...

  14. 23 CFR 230.405 - Administrative responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS... Transportation (DOT), the Director, DOT Departmental Office of Civil Rights (OCR) or the Director, Office of... of the following actions (see appendix A to 23 CFR part 630, subpart C “Federal-aid project...

  15. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  16. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  17. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs.

  18. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  19. Battling AIDS in America: an evaluation of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh; Frank, Ian

    2011-09-01

    Thirty years ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported the first cases of AIDS in the United States. Since then, more than half a million Americans have died of AIDS, and 1.1 million people are currently living with HIV in the United States. In an attempt to reinvigorate the domestic response to the HIV epidemic, the Obama administration developed and released the National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States (NHAS). The NHAS has 3 focus areas: reducing new infections, improving access to care and health outcomes, and reducing HIV-related disparities. With ambitious five-year targets set for each goal, the NHAS requires significant fiscal investment to achieve its desired impact on the domestic HIV epidemic. PMID:21778507

  20. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  1. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  2. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  3. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  4. First Aid Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete…

  5. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  6. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  7. Child Care Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the child care aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with child care center personnel, the course was prepared by teacher and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and…

  8. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  9. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  10. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  11. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  12. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  13. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  14. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  15. Instructional Aide Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Henry

    The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…

  16. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  17. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  18. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  19. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  20. Map-based decision aids for fire support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarosh, Victor

    1996-06-01

    The Fire Control Division at ARDEC is developing prototype decision aid tools to enable fire support echelons to rapidly respond to requests for fire support. Decision aids on fire support platforms can assist in route planning, site selection, and develop mobility overlays to enable the shooter to rapidly move into position and prepare for the fire mission. The Decision Aid system utilizes an integrated design approach which has each module interacting with the others by sharing data bases and common algorithms to provide recommended courses of action for route planning and generation, position selection, self defense, logistics estimates, situational awareness and fire mission planning aids such as tactical assessment, tactical planning, sustainment, etc. The Decision Aid system will use expert system artificial intelligence which will be developed from knowledge bases utilizing object oriented design. The modules currently reason on Defense Mapping Agency Interim Terrain Data and Digital Terrain Elevation Data and collect mission, intelligence, and sensor data from the digitized battlefield information distribution system to provide the crew or mission planners with intelligent recommendations. The system can provide a trade off analysis of time vs. safety, enable commanders to rapidly respond to fire support request, automatically generate OpOrders, and create overlays which depict mobility corridors, NBC areas, friendly units, overhead concealment, communications, and threat areas. The Decision Aids system can provide a vastly improved mobility, situational awareness, and decision cycle capabilities which can be utilized to increase the tempo of battle.

  1. 75 FR 28263 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS... with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental... providing services after March 31, 2010. HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau identified the Rural Health Group as...

  2. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  3. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  4. "I Can Sort of Slot into Many Different Roles": Examining Teacher Aide Roles and Their Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lois Ruth; Aprile, Kerry Therese

    2015-01-01

    This study utilised role theory to investigate teacher aide roles within regional schools in Queensland, Australia. Twenty primary schoolteacher aides were interviewed; data were triangulated with 27 teacher aides' responses to a follow-up questionnaire and interviews with 6 administrative staff. Data suggest that classroom instructional support…

  5. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  11. Screening for AIDS.

    PubMed

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  12. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  13. Training in testing: a pragmatic approach to recruitment and retention of homemaker-home health aides.

    PubMed

    Young, A

    1990-04-01

    In response to concerns regarding the negative effect that competency-evaluation testing might have on the attrition and recruitment of homemaker-home health aides, the home health industry of New Jersey offers an inservice education module--training supervisors to prepare homemaker-home health aides for testing.

  14. The couple approach to HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R O

    1995-01-01

    In 1995, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration reported that there were 360,000 documented contract workers deployed to various international destinations, 33.1% of whom were sea-based contract workers. It is accepted in Philippine society that seamen stationed abroad for several months remain sexually active. They often have unprotected sexual intercourse with several male and female sex partners, exposing themselves and their partners to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections. The Department of Health has therefore given some priority to involve overseas workers in AIDS education efforts. Seamen, in particular, have been found to engage in high-risk behaviors based upon the recognized routes of HIV transmission. The ISSA developed and implemented a project to address the HIV/AIDS education needs of this group of men and their partners. ISSA's HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention project used the couple approach in its activities, noting that couples and partners must work together to practice safer sex measures. The project involved 60 seamen and 60 women who were either wives or girlfriends of the seamen; more than half of the participants were husband-wife couples. The project functioned upon the premise that both partners have to be well-informed about HIV/AIDS in order to practice effective prevention measures.

  15. AIDS czar says Manhattan Project is underway. Interview by Cesar Chavez.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P

    1995-01-01

    National AIDS Policy Director, Patricia Fleming, was recently interviewed by "Positively Aware". During the interview she stated that she believes the Clinton Administration will deliver on the HIV/AIDS community's call for a Manhattan Project for AIDS. She credited Dr. William Paul (National Institutes for Health) with focusing HIV research on basic science, and stated that her priorities include working on and lobbying for the best possible HIV/AIDS budget, completing a report on AIDS incidence among adolescents, and salvaging the HOPWA program.

  16. 34 CFR 222.153 - How must a local educational agency request an administrative hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aid Administrative Hearings and Judicial Review Under Section 8011 of the Act § 222.153 How must a... it hand-delivers the hearing request, deliver it to the Director, Impact Aid Program, Portals... administrative hearing? 222.153 Section 222.153 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  17. 34 CFR 222.155 - When and where is an administrative hearing held?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When and where is an administrative hearing held? 222... ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid Administrative Hearings and Judicial Review Under Section 8011 of the Act § 222.155 When and where is an...

  18. 34 CFR 222.151 - When is an administrative hearing provided to a local educational agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid Administrative Hearings and Judicial Review Under Section 8011 of the Act § 222.151 When is an... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is an administrative hearing provided to a...

  19. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  20. 22 CFR 214.51 - Administrative review of denial for public access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative review in accordance with § 212.36(c) of A.I.D. Regulation 12, 22 CFR 212.36(c). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative review of denial for public... COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Administrative Remedies § 214.51 Administrative review of denial for public access...

  1. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  2. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  3. Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Lawrence L.

    1985-01-01

    A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of CAI development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of CAI. CAI modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews of medicine. Modules help the lecturer efficiently cover fundamentals and provide the student with a self-directed learning alternative. A structured approach to CAI has helped build a CAI program which supports other traditional modes of instruction at MCW.

  4. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  5. Country living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kletecka, C

    1998-12-01

    The number of people with HIV in rural areas is small, but it is growing. In rural areas, AIDS organizations must deal with a fragmented client base that is spread out over a large geographic area. The logistics and costs of maintaining these services are higher per person than in urban areas. A description of what it is like to live with HIV in rural Vermont is provided. Although most people in rural Vermont seem to accept the concept of AIDS, few have known someone with the disease. Specialized medical care is difficult to obtain because only one specialty clinic and three part-time sites exist in the state of Vermont. Many who require more complex care, with better treatment options, go out of state to receive it.

  6. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  7. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  8. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  9. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal…

  10. 50 CFR 253.25 - Other administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other administrative requirements. 253.25 Section 253.25 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance...

  11. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable administrative costs. 409.46 Section 409... MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.46... supervising home health aides as required at § 484.36(d) of this chapter are allowable administrative...

  12. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable administrative costs. 409.46 Section 409... MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.46... supervising home health aides as required at § 484.36(d) of this chapter are allowable administrative...

  13. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable administrative costs. 409.46 Section 409... MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.46... supervising home health aides as required at § 484.36(d) of this chapter are allowable administrative...

  14. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  15. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  16. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  17. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Seghal, P N

    1991-04-01

    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  18. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  19. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  20. Managing AIDS in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M D; Myers, J E

    1993-01-01

    Because of the AIDS epidemic and the protections afforded individuals with AIDS under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are well advised to ensure compliance under applicable law to reduce exposure to employee claims of discrimination and to efficiently manage workplace issues associated with AIDS. Employers should implement AIDS policies and programs designed to educate their workforce to reduce the spread of AIDS and to clear up any misunderstandings about the disease which could wreak havoc in the workplace. This article summarizes suggested action steps for employers and outside resources to consult for guidance.

  1. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  2. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  3. 29 CFR 1926.50 - Medical services and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.50 - Medical services and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.50 - Medical services and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.50 - Medical services and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.50 - Medical services and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the...

  8. Facilitating Support Groups for Professionals Working with People with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Silverstein, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Describes support groups for health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and who are experiencing burnout from excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Discusses group administration, effective intervention techniques, and issues of health…

  9. Reference Guide. Meeting the Challenge of Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This is a resource list designed to alert administrators of student financial aid services at institutions of higher education to resources that can assist in responding to the challenges and strategies described in a companion report. It is organized alphabetically by topic. Listings include short bibliographic data and descriptions of each…

  10. A Validation Study of the AIDS Health Belief Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandell, Donald J.; Wlazelek, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Examined the discriminant, convergent, and criterion- related validity of the AIDS Health Belief Scale (AHBS). College students assigned to either interview or self-administration conditions completed the AHBS, a sexual behavior questionnaire, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, and the Condom Attitude Scale-Adolescent Version. There…

  11. Confronting AIDS. Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This book is addressed to anyone involved with or affected by the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, including legislators, researchers, health care personnel, insurance providers, educators, health officials, executives in the pharmaceutical industry, blood bank administrators, and other concerned individuals. The following…

  12. Dueling Visions in Congress on K-12 Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on House and Senate bills that take different stances toward funding formula-grant programs and Obama administration initiatives. Key education programs, including Title I grants for disadvantaged students and aid for special education, would get flat funding for the 2012 fiscal year under a measure approved Sept. 21 by the…

  13. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First...

  14. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First...

  15. 21 CFR 344.10 - Earwax removal aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Earwax removal aid active ingredient. 344.10 Section 344.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  16. 21 CFR 344.10 - Earwax removal aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earwax removal aid active ingredient. 344.10 Section 344.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  17. 21 CFR 344.10 - Earwax removal aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Earwax removal aid active ingredient. 344.10 Section 344.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  18. 21 CFR 344.10 - Earwax removal aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Earwax removal aid active ingredient. 344.10 Section 344.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  19. Physicians' Attitudes toward Children with AIDS: Issues of Group Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, M. Christine; Jessee, Peggy O.; Gresham, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    Examined experiences with and opinions on dealing with pediatric AIDS patients among Pediatric and Family Medicine senior residents. Found that residents were willing to certify children to attend group care activities, but differences were observed by physician specialty and child age. Most felt that program administrators should be made aware,…

  20. New Careers: The Community/Home Health Aide Trainee's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Florence

    Intended for trainee use, the manual is in notebook format with a curriculum corresponding to the trainers' manual (VT 007 909), a related document. Part I, Basic Health Curriculum, deals with (1) the roles of health service aides, (2) Biological Potential and Equilibrium, (3) Professionals in the Health Field, (4) Public Health Administration,…

  1. Funding bill sets $105m increase for AIDS care.

    PubMed

    Miller, F

    1996-01-01

    The passage of the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 1996 (H.R. 3019) funds numerous AIDS programs whose fiscal year 1996 funding was caught in limbo during 6 months of budget debates between the Republican congressional leadership and the Clinton administration. AIDS care programs received a significant funding increase, the AIDS Education & Training Centers (AETC) program has been reestablished, and a provision mandating the discharge from active duty of HIV-positive troops was repealed. There was a $105.5 million funding increase for the Ryan White CARE program. However, for the second consecutive fiscal year, Congress has not increased funding for the Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) program. PMID:11367418

  2. 77 FR 48507 - Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Foreign School Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Foreign School Supplemental Application System ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Foreign School Supplemental Application System (FS SAS) is designed as a bridge system that will allow foreign school administrators to enter information directly...

  3. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  4. Can Computer-Based Visual-Spatial Aids Lead to Increased Student Performance in Anatomy & Physiology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Michael H.; Linzey, Alicia V.

    2005-01-01

    InterActive Physiology (IAP) is one of a new generation of anatomy and physiology learning aids with a broader range of sensory inputs than is possible from a static textbook or moderately dynamic lecture. This best-selling software has modules covering the muscular, respiratory, urinary, cardiovascular, and nervous systems plus a module on fluids…

  5. 75 FR 6672 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... family to gain or maintain access and compliance with HIV-related medical care and treatment. Necessity... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02... Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02...

  6. 78 FR 66940 - Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... implemented to promote the prompt diagnosis of treatable medical conditions causing hearing loss. To ensure... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal... Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products.'' This draft guidance clarifies...

  7. 3 CFR 9064 - Proclamation 9064 of November 27, 2013. World AIDS Day, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HIV/AIDS, and renew our commitment to preventing the spread of this virus at home and abroad. If we.... My Administration released the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy in 2010. Since then, we have made significant progress in strengthening scientific investments, expanding effective...

  8. College Level Financial Aid Opportunities for Migrant Students Within The State University of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Barbara; And Others

    Divided into three parts, this booklet is designed to assist guidance counselors and administrators in identifying financial programs which aid migrant students in obtaining a higher education within the State University of New York (SUNY) system. Part I lists 18 common student financial aid programs available within SUNY. These include grants,…

  9. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2000-2001. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This handbook helps financial aid administrators determine students' eligibility for aid from the U.S. Department of Education's Student Financial Assistance (SFA) programs. An introduction describes information sources, conflicting information, fraud case referral, status change, electronic requirements, the application system, and recent…

  10. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 214.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... committee to the satisfaction of the A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer, the A.I.D. Administrator, and the OMB Secretariat. (2) Prepares, clears with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and...

  11. Government and Higher Education in Florida. Part One: State Supported Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Joe H.

    Trends in student financial aid in the State of Florida since 1968 and the changing relationships between higher education and government in Florida are examined. The administration of student financial aid programs was centralized in 1969, and in 1970 the old incentive programs such as teacher and nursing scholarship were phased out, the Regents…

  12. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 214.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... committee to the satisfaction of the A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer, the A.I.D. Administrator, and the OMB Secretariat. (2) Prepares, clears with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and...

  13. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 214.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... committee to the satisfaction of the A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer, the A.I.D. Administrator, and the OMB Secretariat. (2) Prepares, clears with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1713 - Emergency medical assistance; first-aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. 75.1713 Section 75.1713 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713 Emergency medical assistance; first-aid....

  15. 30 CFR 75.1713-6 - First-aid training program; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-aid training program; minimum requirements. 75.1713-6 Section 75.1713-6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-6 First-aid training program;...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1713-6 - First-aid training program; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-aid training program; minimum requirements. 75.1713-6 Section 75.1713-6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-6 First-aid training program;...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1713-3 - First-Aid training; supervisory employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-Aid training; supervisory employees. 75.1713-3 Section 75.1713-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-3 First-Aid training; supervisory...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1713 - Emergency medical assistance; first-aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. 75.1713 Section 75.1713 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713 Emergency medical assistance; first-aid....

  19. 30 CFR 75.1713-3 - First-Aid training; supervisory employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-Aid training; supervisory employees. 75.1713-3 Section 75.1713-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-3 First-Aid training; supervisory...

  20. Content Management System for Developing a Virtual Platform for Association of Women's Aid with Lack of Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Flores García, Alberto; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    In this paper we show a Virtual Platform for an Association of Women's Aid called Centro Integral de Ayuda a la Mujer (CIAM). After analyzing different Content Management Systems (CMS) and the benefits that its use would contribute to the development of the Virtual Platform, taking into account the needs and requirements set by CIAM, we have opted for the use of Joomla!. This free CMS, for its characteristics, is the most benefits provided us. The virtual platform design has been developed following customer specifications, to have understood the simplicity and easy handling of the resulting platform. This platform will be integrated into the Web portal that has the Amarex Association and it will be able to be administrates from the CIAM without specific knowledge of programming languages. If new services were necessary, they would be easily implemented, adding new modules and components to perform these services.

  1. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  2. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  3. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  4. HIV/AIDS eradication

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents. PMID:23735743

  5. Revitalizing AIDS activism.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M

    1998-12-01

    Maxine Wolf, an activist with ACT UP New York, suggests ways to motivate others in her organization and revitalize AIDS activism. Reach out to the gay and lesbian community, get them involved in grassroots efforts, and gain their input. Participate in discussions on larger issues such as research, funding, and treatment options. Wolf also suggests becoming educated, acting in a more public way, and finding more creative ways to act. Lastly, strive for goals with high expectations that can effect change instead of merely gathering and dispensing information.

  6. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  7. Refocusing disaster aid.

    PubMed

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  8. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  9. [Intravitreal ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS].

    PubMed

    Olea, J L; Salvat, M; Mateos, J M; Vila, J; Villalonga, C; Riera, M

    1996-04-01

    A retrospective study was made of 26 patients with AIDS who initially presented with retinitis as the only clinical manifestation of cytomegalovirus infection (39 eyes). Sixty-five induction or re-induction therapeutic courses were administered with intravitreal ganciclovir. The efficiency rate of therapy was 93.8%. Thirty-eight maintenance therapeutic courses (200 micrograms/week) were evaluated. The non-compliance rate was 23%. Bilateral retinitis occurred in 44.4% of cases. The systemic administration of therapy had to be substituted for the intravitreal administration in 32% of patients during the clinical course of their conditions. The mean survival rate was 9.5 months. Both retinal detachment and vitreal hemorrhage occurred in 5% of patients. When retinitis is the first clinical manifestation of cytomegalovirus infection, therapy with intravitreal ganciclovir is efficacious to inactivate lesions. Although bilateral retinitis and extraocular dissemination are common, the mean survival rate is high.

  10. Systemic immune modulation induced by alcoholic beverage intake in obese-diabetes (db/db) mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Junsoo; Kim, Seol-Hee; Baek, So-Young; Go, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol over-consumption is generally immunosuppressive. In this study, the effects of single or repetitive alcohol administration on the systemic immunity of db/db mice were observed to clarify the possible mechanisms for the increased susceptibility of obese individuals to alcohol-related immunological health problems. Alcohol (as a form of commercially available 20% distilled-alcoholic beverage) was orally administered one-time or seven times over 2 weeks to db/db mice and normal C57BL/6J mice. Immunologic alterations were analyzed by observation of body weight and animal activity, along with proportional changes of splenocytes for natural killer cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Modulation of plasma cytokine level and immune-related genes were also ascertained by micro-bead assay and a microarray method, respectively. The immune micro-environment of db/db mice was an inflammatory state and adaptive cellular immunity was significantly suppressed. Low-dose alcohol administration reversed the immune response, decreasing inflammatory responses and the increment of adaptive immunity mainly related to CD4(+) T cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, to normal background levels. Systemic immune modulation due to alcohol administration in the obese-diabetic mouse model may be useful in the understanding of the induction mechanism, which will aid the development of therapeutics for related secondary diseases. PMID:23261674

  11. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  12. Department of Defense AIDS research funding.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is dismantling its U.S. HIV clinical research program in favor of preventive vaccine work in Thailand. The rationale for this decision is that HIV-infected personnel are considered casualties and, therefore, of limited use to the force. Closure of the clinical portion of the DoD program will have several serious effects on the nation's overall AIDS research effort. For example, the military AIDS research program has developed the only surveillance system for transmission of drug-resistant strains of HIV and, due to a study population with known dates of seroconversion, continues to do the bulk of work in that area. The closure of DoD domestic clinical HIV research will also leave at least 11,000 HIV-infected service people with limited, if not nonexistent, access to clinical trials. The Administration's budget also seeks a 23 percent funding reduction in the DoD research program, a proposal that Congress may not altogether reject. It appears the military's intent is to funnel the entire programmed budget for FY '96 into preventive vaccine development. Project Inform rejects any reduction or closure actions by the military of their AIDS research program. To join the effort, call the PI hotline at 1-800-822-7422. PMID:11362423

  13. Department of Defense AIDS research funding.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is dismantling its U.S. HIV clinical research program in favor of preventive vaccine work in Thailand. The rationale for this decision is that HIV-infected personnel are considered casualties and, therefore, of limited use to the force. Closure of the clinical portion of the DoD program will have several serious effects on the nation's overall AIDS research effort. For example, the military AIDS research program has developed the only surveillance system for transmission of drug-resistant strains of HIV and, due to a study population with known dates of seroconversion, continues to do the bulk of work in that area. The closure of DoD domestic clinical HIV research will also leave at least 11,000 HIV-infected service people with limited, if not nonexistent, access to clinical trials. The Administration's budget also seeks a 23 percent funding reduction in the DoD research program, a proposal that Congress may not altogether reject. It appears the military's intent is to funnel the entire programmed budget for FY '96 into preventive vaccine development. Project Inform rejects any reduction or closure actions by the military of their AIDS research program. To join the effort, call the PI hotline at 1-800-822-7422.

  14. Fuel dispenser aid

    SciTech Connect

    Bobst, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

  15. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  16. Arizona Business Occupations Common-Core Competency Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    These 12 modules of instruction are designed to aid business teachers by providing the common core, minimum skill-level competencies identified as basic to all business careers. Materials are adaptable to individualized, small group, or traditional classroom instruction. The modules are divided into five categories of basic skills: business…

  17. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  18. The Bush Administration's record on nursing issues.

    PubMed

    Conway-Welch, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    The article addresses a number of initiatives taken in 2005 by the Bush Administration to address nursing issues. Summaries are provided of the investments in the Nurse Reinvestment Act, Financial Aid, access issues (including expanded community health centers), costs (including medical liability reform), information technology and the revised fair labor standards. Finally, the author concludes with rationale for complete workforce and workplace system redesign and the need for advanced practice nurses to engage in full scope practice without artificially imposed boundaries.

  19. Oral Administration of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and Honey Improves the Host Body Composition and Modulates Proteolysis Through Reduction of Tumor Progression and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; de Andrade, Rafael Siqueira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has a dual role in cancer; it is linked with tumorigenic events and host wasting, as well as senescence and apoptosis. Researchers have demonstrated the importance of coadjuvant therapies in cancer treatment, and Aloe vera and honey have immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. The preventive and therapeutic effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and honey in tumor progression and host wasting were analyzed in Walker 256 carcinoma-bearing rats. The animals were distributed into the following groups: C=control-untreated, W=tumor-untreated, WA=treated after tumor induction, A=control-treated, AW=treated before tumor induction, and AWA=treated before and after tumor induction. Proteolysis and oxidative stress were analyzed in the tumor, liver, muscle, and myocardial tissues. The results suggest that the Aloe vera and honey treatment affect the tumor and host by different mechanisms; the treatment-modulated host wasting and cachexia, whereas it promoted oxidative stress and damage in tumor tissues, particularly in a therapeutic context (WA).

  20. [Case report: swallowed hearing aid].

    PubMed

    Walther, E K

    1995-11-01

    An 86-year-old man presented ambulatory with acute dysphagia. Radiologic examination and endoscopy revealed a swallowed postauricular hearing aid. The earmold of the hearing aid became visible in the hypopharynx after mucus and saliva were removed. It could be extracted without effort once the connecting tube was disconnected from the coupling device lodged in the upper esophageal sphincter. The hearing aid itself was impacted in the proximal esophagus and was extracted without any problems. The postoperative phase was uneventful with normal swallowing and discharge. Technical inspection revealed that the hearing aid no longer worked. Diffusion of toxic substances (zinc, mercury) from the impacted batteries is not to be expected.